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Organizing the Literature

Review based on the


Theoretical Framework
Where Are You?

Conjecture Theory Research Technology Application


Thesis
 Thesis: a dissertation based on
original research, especially as work
towards an academic degree
 Dissertation = a lengthy and formal
written treatment of a subject, a
formal spoken or written discourse
 Discourse = serious piece of writing
 So what is a thesis?
Dissertation
 Chapter 1: Introduction
 Problem Statement
 Main Purpose: Research Questions
 Chapter 2: Literature Review
 Chapter 3: Research Methodology
 Chapter 4: Results / Data Analysis
 Chapter 5: Discussion & Conclusions

 Question: Where should the


hypotheses be placed?
Dissertation
 Chapter 1: Introduction
 Problem Statement
 Main Purpose: Research Questions
 Chapter 2: Literature Review
 Conclusion of Ch 2 = hypotheses
 Main purpose = support all H for Ch 5
 Elaborate from Research Questions
 Title suggests RQ and H
Writing the Title
 Items in the title
 Independent Variable (IV)
 Dependent Variable (DV)
 Moderator Variable (MV)
 Write clearly: Cause & Effect Structure
 The effects of an IV on a DV among
students with MV
 E.g.
 The effects of note-taking on recall among
students with poor reading skills
Expected Logical Expansion
The effects of note-taking on recall among
students with poor reading skills
 Note-taking & learning =strategies
 Note-taking & recall = taxonomy
 Note-taking & reading = schema
 Recall & poor reading skills = literacy
 Paradigm: Knowledge is cumulative
More Variables: > Depth
 The effects of note-taking on recall in
English among students with poor reading
skills in Malaysian schools
 Strategies of Note-taking & learning by
race
 Literacy levels by race
 Interference of 1st language
 Influences of age, gender, SES…..
 All possible combinations of IV,DV,MV
For Elegance, sophistication

 Start with a theoretical framework


 Solid cause and effect structure
 Goal: support or refute paradigms
theories, or models.
Research Paths
Deductive Reasoning Inductive Reasoning
(Quantitative Research) (Qualitative Research)

Identify a structure
to guide research: Create a structure
Theoretical to guide research:
Framework Conceptual Piece together bits
Framework & pieces of data to
Grand theory address a research
Midrange theory question
Micro-range theory

Conceptual Definitions
of Study Variables,
Research Questions, Operational Definitions to
Hypotheses measure the study variables Liehr & Smith (2000)
Structure Paradigm
P
of R
Academic E D
thinking S E
C S
R Theory C
I R
P I
T P
I T
V Model I
E V
E
Res.
Res.

Practice
Tech. Acceptance Model
Tech. Acceptance Model
Tech. Acceptance Model
Tech. Acceptance Model
Theoretical Frameworks In action
Structures identified/chosen to guide
discourse and research
Piaget’s Stage Theory

Piaget: learning with understanding involves:


managing equilibrium/disequilibrium

Assimilation that occurs when a new experience is incorporated


into an existing knowledge structure.

Accommodation that occurs when the new knowledge alters the


knowledge structure or schema.

Cognitive Conflicts that occurs when a learner encounters


something that contradicts his or her current understanding.
Cognitive Conflicts

• Cognitive conflict results in disequilibrium.

• The learner reequilibrates his or her thinking through


assimilation or/and accommodation.

• Have to find closure / new equilibrium.


Schemes Learning
(Prior knowledge) Situation
New Knowledge
Equilibrium

Cognitive
Conflicts
(Disequilibrium)

Accommodation Assimilation

Reequilibrium

Learning with
Understanding
Schemes Learning
(Prior knowledge) Situation New Knowledge
Equilibrium

Cognitive
Conflicts
(Disequilibrium)

Coop. Learning Metacognitive Strategies Scaffolding

Accommodation Assimilation

Reequilibrium

Learning
Learning with with
Mathematics
Understanding
Understanding
Mathematical Reasoning
Structure of Scientific
Revolution (Kuhn, 1970)
Master programs

Paradigm Normal Science

New
Anomalies New Paradigm
Normal Science

Another new
More Anomalies
Paradigm

Doctoral Programs
Structure Paradigm
P
of R
Academic E D
thinking S E
C S
R Theory C
I R
P I
T P
I T
V Model I
E V
E
Res.
Res.

Practice
Summary: How do we do it?
 Expand from the Title
 Expand concepts to content outline
 Use cause and effect structure

 Expand from the Research Questions


 Expand from the Problem Statement
 Hypotheses are summaries for Lit. Review.
 E.g. MA pg 105,
 Ibrahim’s Content
How do you know you’ve done a
good job?
 Does the review support every hypothesis?
 Does the review support Chapter 5?
 Up-to-date, thorough, exhaustive, original?
 Can be turned into a book / a monograph?
Tuckman’s (1999) criteria
 Context
 Magnitude (number of references)
 How empirical & up-to-date
 Connectedness to the problem
 Well-organized?
 Establish significance?
 Convincing argument?
Let’s try an example
 Paradigm
 Variables
 Research Questions
 Title
 Literature Review Outline
How to improve learning?
Thank you