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AN INTRODUCTION TO THE THEORY

OF

MULTIPLY PERIODIC

FUNCTIONS

F.

BY

BAKER, Sc.D., F.R.S.,

FELLOW OF ST JOHN'S COLLEGE AND LECTURER IN MATHEMATICS

IN THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE

CAMBRIDGE :

at the University Press

1907

"Sie erinnern Sich aber auch vielleicht zn gleicher Zeit meiner Klagen, iiber einen

Satz, dcr thoils schon an sich sehr interessant ist, theils einem sehr betrachtlichen

Theilo jener Untersuchungen als Gruiidlage oder als Schlussstein dient, den ich darnals schon tiber 2 Jahr kannte, und der alle meiue Bemiihuugeu, einen geniigenden Beweis

zu finden, vereitelt hatte, dieser Satz ist schon in meiner Theorie der Zahlen angedeutet,

und betrifft die Bestimmung eines Wurzelzeichens, sie hat mich inimer gequalt.

Dieser Mangel hat mir alles Uebrige, was ich fand, verleidet und seit 4 Jahrcn

wird selten eine Woche

hingegangen sein, wo ich nicht einen

oder den anderen

vergeblichen Versuch, diesen Knoten zu losen, gemacht hatte besonders lebhaft nun

auch wieder in der letzten Zeit. Aber alles Briiten, alles Suchen ist umsonst geweseu,

traurig habe ich jedesmal die Feder wieder niederlegen miisseu.

"

Endlich vor ein Paar Tagen ist's gelungen

GAUSS an OLBEKS, September 1805 (Sobering, Festrede).

34-5

PREFACE.

rilHE present volume consists of two parts; the first of these

deals with the theory of hyperelliptic functions of two

variables, the second with the reduction of the theory of general

multiply-periodic functions to the theory of algebraic functions ;

taken together they furnish what is intended to be an elementary

and self-contained introduction to many of the leading ideas of

the theory of multiply-periodic functions, with the incidental aim

of aiding the comprehension of the importance of this theory in

analytical geometry.

The first part is centred round some remarkable differential

equations satisfied by the functions, which appear to be equally

illuminative both of the analytical and geometrical aspects of the

theory ; it was in fact to explain this that the book was originally

entered upon. The account has no pretensions to completeness:

being anxious to explain the properties of the functions from

the beginning, I have been debarred from following Humbert's

brilliant monograph, which assumes from the first Poincare's

theorem as to the number of zeros common to two theta functions ;

this theorem is reached in this volume, certainly in a generalised form, only in the last chapter of Part n. : being anxious to render

the geometrical portions of the volume quite elementary, I have not been able to utilise the theory of quadratic complexes, which

vi

Preface.

has proved so powerful in this connexion in the hands of Kummer

and Klein ; and, for both these reasons, the account given here,

and that given in the remarkable book from the pen of II. W. H. T.

Hudson, will, I believe, only be regarded by readers as comple-

mentary.

The theory of Rummer's surface, and of the theta

functions, has been much studied since the year (1847 or before) in

which Gopel first obtained the biquadratic relation connecting

Unter-

suchungen iiber Thetafunctionen, which has helped me in several

ways in the second part of this volume, that the theory is capable

four theta functions ;

and Wirtinger has shewn, in his

of generalisation, in

dimensions ; but even

certain inducement, not to come to too close quarters with

the details, in the fact of the existence of sixteen theta functions

many of its

in the case

results,

to space of

2 p

l

of two variables

there is a

connected together by many relations, at least in

the minds

of beginners.

I hope therefore that the treatment here followed,

which reduces the theory,

in a very practical way, to that of

one theta function and three periodic functions connected by

an algebraic equation, may recommend

itself to

others, and,

in a humble way, serve the purpose of the earlier books on

elliptic functions, of encouraging a wider use of the functions

The slightest examination

in other branches of mathematics.

will shew that, even for the functions of two

of the problems entered upon demand further study ;

variables,

many

while,

for the hyperelliptic functions of p variables, for which the forms

of the corresponding differential equations are known, there

p (p + 1 ) dimen-

exist constructs, of p dimensions, in space of

sions, which await similar investigation.

The problem studied in the second part of the volume was

one of the life problems of Weierstrass, but, so far as I know,

he did not himself publish during his lifetime anything more

than several brief indications of the lines to be followed to effect

a solution.

The account given here is based upon a memoir in

the third volume of the Gcsammelte Werke, published in 1903 ;

notwithstanding other publications dealing with the matter, as

Preface.

vii

for example

by

Poincare and

Picard, and

particularly

by

Wirtinger, it appears

to me

that Weierstrass's paper is of

fundamental importance, for its precision and

clearness

in

regard

to the problem in hand, and for the insight it allows

into what is peculiarly Weierstrass's own point of view in the

general Theory of Functions ;

at the

same time, perhaps for

this reason,

some points in

the course of the argument,

and

particularly the conclusion of it, seem, to me at least, to admit

of further analysis, or to be capable of greater definiteness.

In

making this exposition I have therefore ventured to add such

things as the explanation in

53, the limitation to a monogenic

portion of the construct and the argument of 60, an examination

of simple cases of curves possessing defective integrals and the argument of Chapter ix. These are doubtless capable

of much improvement.

But the whole matter is of singular

fascination, both because of the great generality and breadth of view of the results achieved and because of the promise of

development which it offers ; I hope that the very obvious need

for further investigation, suggested constantly throughout this

part of the volume, may encourage a wider cultivation of the

more thorough study of the original papers

referred to in the text, of which I have in no case attempted

to give a complete reproduction, though I have endeavoured in

all cases to acknowledge my obligations.

I may not conclude without expressing my gratitude, amply

subject,

and a

called

for in

the

case

of any

intricate piece

of mathematical

printing,

for the carefulness and courtesy

of the staff of the

University Press.

H. F. BAKER.

CAMBRIDGE, 19 August 1907.   PART I.

HYPERELLIPTIC FUNCTIONS OF TWO VARIABLES.

CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTORY.

1. The Riemann surface representing the fundamental algebraic equation

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

The parameter at any place of the surface

Algebraic integrals of the first, second and third kinds

The periods of the integrals

The sum of the logarithmic coefficients for an algebraic integral is zero .

Algebraic forms of the integrals of the first and third kind

Certain fundamental theorems obtained by contour integration

The normal integrals of the first kind, properties of their periods

The normal integrals of the third kind, their periods

The interchange of argument and parameter for the normal elementary

.

.

integral of the third kind

The elementary integral of the second kind ; the normal elementary inte-

gral of the second kind, obtained by differentiation from the normal

elementary integral of the third kind

A fundamental identity furnishing an elementary integral of the third

kind which allows interchange of argument and parameter

.

.

.

7. Introductory description of the matrix notation

8.

9.

The

relations connecting the periods second kind

of the integrals of the first and

Integral functions of two variables, elementary properties .

.

.

.

PAGE

1

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

7

8

9

10, 11

12

13

16

17, 18

Quasi-periodic integral functions of two variables, their expression by a

finite number

Particular quasi-periodic integral functions of two variables ; the theta functions .

19

21

2226

x

Contents.

10. The zeros of Riemann's theta function

Jacobi's inversion problem has definite solutions

Half-periods defined by integration between branch places Necessary and sufficient form of the arguments of a vanishing theta

.

.

function ; identical vanishing of a theta function

26

PAGE

28

29, 30

.31, 32

33, 34

11. The cross-ratio identity between theta functions and integrals of the

third kind The algebraic expression of the zeta functions

35

36, 37

The algebraic expression of the j? functions, and the identity connecting

them

38

The identities connecting the squares of the differential coefficients of the

jf> functions with the |j> functions thenisfhvs

39

The geometric interpretation of the parametric expressions for the Rummer

and Weddle surfaces

40

CHAPTER II.

THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS FOR THE SIGMA FUNCTIONS.

12. The Rummer Surface, an associated hyperelliptic surface and the finite

 integrals of total differentials 41 45 Deduction of the zeta and sigma functions 46 And of the differential equations satisfied by the sigma functions . . 47

Converse integration of these equations

48

13. The covariantive form and transformation of the differential equations . 46 54

CHAPTER III.

ANALYTICAL RESULTS RELATING TO THE ASSOCIATED QUARTIC SURFACES.

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

 Illustration to explain a method 55 The four fundamental quadrics ; the Rummer matrix in covariantive form ; the linear transformations in space 56 69 Employment of the transformation to obtain the nodes and singular planes of the Rummer surface^ 60 64 Reversion of the Rummer matrix to obtain the Weddle matrix ; element- ary properties of the Weddle surface 65 67 A construction for the tangent plane of the surface 68 Projection of the Weddle surface from a particular node . . . . 69, 70 The generalisation to any node by means of the transformation ; the six skew symmetrical matrices 71 74 The bitangents of a Rummer surface 75, 76 Satellite points ; a parametric expression of the WoddK- surface ; the forms of the surface integrals 77, 78 The 32 birational transformations of the Rummer surface expressed by the six skew symmetrical matrices 79 82

Contents.

xi

CHAPTER IV.

THE EXPANSION OF THE SIGMA FUNCTIONS.

19. The first terms, for an even function and for an odd function

.

.

20. Proof that the differential equations determine the terms of fourth and

higher dimensions in an even function, when the quadratic terms are

given

21. Similarly for an odd function, when the linear terms are given ; deter-

mination of terms to the ninth dimension for the fundamental odd

PAQE

83, 84

85, 86

22. The same put in connexion with the invariants of a

xii

Contents.

41.

42.

43.

44.

45.

PAGE

These expressions deduced from converse of Abel's Theorem ; geometrical

construction for argument 2 in connexion with Weddle's surface

Expressions for j?22(2), etc., symmetrical in regard to a point and its

. 121

123

satellite

The asymptotic lines of the Weddle surface

The Kummer surface and the Weddle surfnce are so related that

asymptotic directions on either correspond to conjugate directions on

the other

124

125, 126

127, 128

The expressions for j?22(2w), etc., determined from the formula for

<r(u+v)^(u-v)/a 3 (u)a 3 (v)

The 32

transformations of the Weddle surface and the invariants

129

ft(2), f> 21 (2tt)

The formulae for

> 22 (u + v), etc

The same deduced from Abel's Theorem ; geometrical interpretation

130, 131

132

135

. 133

A Kummer surface with nodes on the original, with singular planes

tangent of the original, and having a singular conic common with this ; geometrical interpretation of the associated Weddle surface.

46. 47.

Comparison with known case

Cubic surface with four nodes reciprocal to Steiner's Roman surface,

in connexion with the determinantal form of Rummer's equation ;

the asymptotic lines

48. Examples, references

Degenerations of the cubic surface with four nodes

Kummer surface referred to a Eosenhain tetrahedron and to a Gopel

136

138

139149

150, 151

152

153, 154

 A hyperelliptic surface whose plane section possesses defective integrals 155 Another case of the cubic surface with four nodes 156 The tetrahedroid 157

Plucker's complex surface as a case of Kummer's surface when two roots

of the fundamental sextic are equal

The principal asymptotic curves of the Kummer surface

.

.

158

.

161

162

NOTE I.

APPENDIX TO PART I.

Some algebraical results in connexion with the theory of linear complexes

Representation of a straight 'ine by a single matrix ; the condition for

intersection Fundamental algebraic theorem for invariant factors

Three lines in one plane or through one point

Representation of a linear complex by a single matrix

1G3, 164

165

106

167

Six linear complexes in involution ; the identities connecting the matrices 168, 169

170 173

174, 175

Reduction of the matrices to a standard form

Deduction of a general orthogonal matrix

Contents.

xiii

PART II.

THE REDUCTION OF THE THEORY OF MULTIPLY-PERIODIC

FUNCTIONS TO THE THEORY OF ALGEBRAIC FUNCTIONS.

CHAPTER VI.

GENERAL INTRODUCTORY THEOREMS.

49.

50.

51.

52.

53.

Power series in two variables

An inequality of importance ; zero points of the series Weierstrass's implicit function theorem

Monogenic portion of an algebraic construct near the origin .

.

.

PAGE

183, 184

185

189

186

190, 191

A simultaneous system of power-series equations near the origin ; they

define a set of irreducible, independent, constructs

192 198

CHAPTER VII.

ON THE REDUCTION OF THE THEORY OF A MULTIPLY-PERIODIC

FUNCTION TO THE THEORY OF ALGEBRAIC FUNCTIONS.

54.

55.

56.

57.

58.

59.

 Definition of a meromorphic function of several variables . 199 . . Analysis of the definition ; zero and infinity construct 200, 201 Comparison with meromorphic functions of one variable . . . 202 Limitation to periodic functions ; exclusion of infinitesimal periods , 203, 204 Limitation to arguments that are functions of one complex variable . 205 207 The resulting construct of two dimensions, defined as an open aggregate ; its limiting points 208 Analytic expression of the construct, near an ordinary point and near a limiting point ; the limiting points are isolated 209 212 Analytical continuation ; definition of a monogenic construct 213 215

60.

Limitation to a monogenic portion of the construct

Proof that a periodic function takes every complex value upon this portion 217

216

219

61. Proof that the function takes every value the same finite number of times

62. Introduction of an algebraic construct in correspondence with the analytic construct

63. Period relations ; defective integrals on the algebraic construct

220

221, 222

226

.

. 223

xiv

Contents.

64.

65.

66.

67.

CHAPTER VIII.

DEFECTIVE INTEGRALS.

PAGE

General considerations in the light of the preceding chapter .

De6nition of the index and of the multiplicity

The theta function of n variables has nr zeros on the Riemaun surface 233, 234

232

. 229231

.

The sum of the vanishing arguments

The theta function of n variables is a factor

235

of a transformed theta

function of p variables belonging to the Riemann surface .

.

. 236

239

Existence of a complementary system of defective integrals, also of

68.

69.

70.

71.

72.

73.

74.

75.

76.

index r

240

The transformed theta function of the Riemann surface has rp zeros,

and is expressible as a polynomial of the rth degree

Existence of a complex multiplication for the Riemaun surface The multiplicity ; determination of its value

.

.

The case of one integral reducing to an elliptic integral ;

proof of the

244

245

246250

241

 Weierstrass-Picard Theorem 251 255 Kowalevski's example of a qtiartic curve with four concurrent bitangents 256

The Legendre-Jacobi example

A particular case of Kowalevski's example ; verification of the index

and multiplicity

Canonical and normal

systems of periods

The

quartic curve of 168

collineations ; proof that its integrals are

defective

References ; further problems

A plane section of a hyperelliptic surface

CHAPTER IX.

257, 258

259262

263, 264

265

269

270, 271

272

PROPOSITIONS FOR RATIONAL FUNCTIONS. EXPRESSIONS OF A GENERAL PERIODIC FUNCTION BY THETA FUNCTIONS.

77. Kronecker's reduction of a system of rational equations

Examples ; caution

273 275

-1~,(\

78. Association of systems of n places on a Riemann surface with points

79.

80.

81.

of a surface in space of n dimensions

277, 278

Expression of the functions of a corpus in terms of a limited number

of functions

Proof of the theorem : the most general single-valued multiply- periodic meromorphic function is expressible by theta functions

Two alternative

.

.

.

methods of argument

279281

282, 283

284, 285

Contents.

xv

CHAPTER X.

THE ZEROS OF JACOBIAN FUNCTIONS.

PAGE

 82. Jacobian functions ; definition ; necessary period relations . . . 286 289 83. Number of simultaneous zeros of a set of Jacobian functions ; sum of these zeros 290297 84. Expression of the Jacobiau function by means of theta functions . . 298 301 85. The derivatives of the Jacobiau function on the Riemaun surface . 302 APPENDIX TO PART II. NOTE I. The reduction of a matrix to one having only principal diagonal elements 303 306

NOTE II.

The cogredient reduction of a skew symmetric matrix

NOTE III. Two methods for the expansion of a determinant

NOTE IV.

Some curves lying upon the Rummer surface, in connexion with the

theory of defective integrals

The factorial integrals of a Riemann surface

Reduction of the integrals of a Kummer surface to the factorial integrals

of a plane section of the surface

The Kummer surface through an arbitrary plane quartic curve Algebraic curves on a Kummer surface for which the integrals of the

.

.

surface are integrals of the first kind

The curve of contact of a Weddle surface with the tangent cone drawn

from a node (Principal Asymptotic curve of a Kummer surface) ; lies on five cones of the third order ; is of deficiency 5 and has 5 elliptic

integrals of the first kind

307313

314316

317, 318

319

320

321

322326

 ADDITIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES . 327 330 INDEX OP AUTHORS 331 GENERAL INDEX . . 332335

CORRIGENDA.

p. 121, 1. 4, for fr'.m(2M>) read fm (u>).

p.

121, 1. 9, for jfWt"), etc., read jf.^^),

), etc.

p. 152, Ex. 6, 1. 13 and 1. 21, for 6P-*P*

p. 164, 1. 18, for m-fa' read m,'n,.

PAET I.

THE HYPERELLIPTIC FUNCTIONS OF TWO VARIABLES AND THE ASSOCIATED GEOMETRY.

1.

CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTORY.

LET x be a complex variable represented upon an infinite plane,

regarded in the ordinary way as closed at infinity, and let