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Structure of §gveda

-Arun Kumar Upadhyay, M.Sc, AIFC


B-9, CB-9, Cantonment Road, Cuttack-753001
0671-2304172/2304433, (M) 9437034172
Email <arunupadhyay30 @yahoo.in>
(summary)
Veda is of 2 forms-the real world itself is Veda. its representation in word form is Veda in
words-called ¹abda-veda or ¹abda. Creation of world was frm uniform abstract source called
Rasa. Its concentration in 5 stages are 5 levels of Agni-which is enclosed in boundary. Spread
material is soma. Original rasa or Soma is Atharva-veda, giving rise to 3 Agni-vedas. Forms of
each object is §k, motions is Yajur and field of inflence is S¢ma. First verse of Atharva tells 3x7
Viºvas, which is equal to number of branches of §g-veda. §gveda is collection of realization of
different §¾is, who are named after the subject they perceived. As collecion of mantras of
many §¾is over large period, it has no human bias and is called Apauru¾eya. Mantras relating
to motion or yaj®a (craetion of useful objects in cycle) from §gveda and some extra mantras
constitute Yajurveda. Similarly, mantras about s¢ma (field, music) constitute S¢ma-veda. Ex-
planatory literature is called Br¢hma´a in 3 parts-Br¢hma´a is topicwise explantion, ¡ra´yaka
is application and Upani¾ad is settled principles. Subjects of science and language needed to
read them are 6 anga of vedas. There are other supplementay literature like Itih¢sa (sequence
of events), Pur¢´a (science of change), v¢ko-v¢kya (dialogue) etc.
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(1) Word to World-First sentence of Bible tells-In beginning there was word. Then, it gives
sequence of creation of world. First chapter of Koran is F¢tih¢-its last sentence tells that there
are 3 secret words-Aleph, L¢m, M¤m. is letter A which is original abstract source present
everywhere (1) . L¢m is letter L¨ of sanskrit which means Agni, visible objects of world de-
scribed by §gveda. It is last 5th stage of creation of world indicated by 5th letter of M¢heºvara-
s¦tra, source code of P¢´ini grammar-A,I, U´. §,µk. L¨k as visble world is seen as sequence
of 7 Lokas. In particular, earth is Laor L¨ (2) . Lam is real world, its perception is 3 types of
Linga explained later. Nandikeºvara-k¢ºik¢ explains that first 5 letters of M¢heºvara-s¦tra are
svara (basic vowels) indicating 5 levels in svar (space). Ma as last letter of consonants (sparºa
type) indicating completion of individuals. M¤m is half letter m called Anusv¢ra. It is individual
invisible form of Brahma present everywhere (3) . This is also the third part of Om =A+u+m.
(2) World as Veda-This is called M¦la or root veda. It has 6 levels-
(1) Rasa Veda-It is abstract homogeneous sorce of world, which is beyond perception (4).
Every cosmology theory in modern astrophysics (about 22 versions) starts with this assumption
that original source of universe is homogenous, isotropic and steady, i.e. same in all places, all
directions and all times. This is called PCP = Perfect Cosmological Principle. In Bh¢gavata
pur¢´a, this has been called Trisatya=3 truths or existences (5). It may be noted that there are
7 more satyas indicated in that verse stated by Brahm¢ in praise of K¨¾´a. This is startof Veda,
i.e. first verse of Atharva (6), which tells that 3 sevens envelop the world. It is also saptabhang¤-
ny¢ya (7 fold truth) of Jaina philsophy which is combination of 3 basic words in language-asti
(yes), n¢sti (no), sy¢t (may be). As foundation of Veda, this has been called ¹¦nya-veda (zero
veda=abstract) by Mah¢puru¾a Achyut¢nanda, 16th century saint of Orissa. This is beyond
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perception and is un-knowable, because it is not seen as any action or result (7).
(2) ¹iºu-veda (child veda)-This is first visible form of world resulting from zero veda
(Achyut¢nanda). This has been called Brahma-vana (forest). It has many chains of creation
called trees. One of the trees is called-Aºvattha. ¹va=tomorrow. What will exist tomorrow is
¹vattha. But no object in world remains for ever, so it is Aºvattha. However, the chain of
creation-dissolution remains for ever and is called Eternal (Avin¢º¤) Aºvattha. Its 3 stages have
been called ¹ukra (seed), Brahma (visible form of world), Am¨ta (eternal), called Kºara,
Akºara, Avyaya puru¾a in G¤t¢ (8). Puru¾a-s¦kta (2,3, 5) tells that created world is ony one part
which decays, 3 parts are eternal in space. Perceptible world of 1 part is Puru¾a, complete 4
parts are indicated by long vowel-P¦ru¾a.
(3) Triple Veda-Veda becmes knowable after it is divided into 3 aspects (9). There are 3
manot¢ (mental concepts) of Svayambh¦ (self created Universe)-Veda, s¦tra, niyati. Here,
veda is perception of each object. S¦tra is link between any two-by forces of gravitation,
electro-magnetism etc. Niyati is resultant change in system which is in two opposit ways called
sa®chara-pratisa®chara (S¢nkhya-s¦tra-forward and backward actions), sambh¦ti-asambh¦ti
(£º¢v¢syaopanisad, 14-creation and destruction). Two opposit forms of creation have been
called Puru¾a-prak¨ti (male is source, female is place and matter), Agni-Soma (Agni is dense
form in a boundary, soma is dispersed) etc. So, world is called Dvi-niyati (duniy¢ in hindi) and
Brahma itself is called Dvi-svabh¢va (10). Root Veda is Atharva, its 3 branches are §k, Yajur,
S¢ma (11). The 3 branches did not remove root veda, so Tray¤ (triple) means 4 vedas-1 root +
3 branches. This is represented by a twig of Pal¢sa tree which has 3 leaves at its end. that is
symbolically used in yaj®opav¤ta (start of vedic studies). Root and 3 branches correspond to 4
meanings of root verb Vid, from which word Veda has been derived (12). All these are Vidy¢
(perception of world by man). Mah¢vidy¢ is perception by mahar (surroundings) of actions by
man. It is use of vidy¢ for any work, also caled Tantra.
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Vidy¢ 1234567
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Form
motion
Mah¢vidy¢
Puru¾a Puru¾a Knowledge

Mahar or Atharva
Vidy¢-Mah¢vidy¢ 3 steps of ¹ruti (hearing or perception)=Veda
Element Veda Meaning of root verb Vid
Form §k Existance
Motion Yajur Gain,
Knowledge S¢ma Knowledge
Reference Atharva Consideration, place of consciousness
These partitions of elements are infinite as explained by Indra to Bharadv¢ja (13).
(4) S¢vitr¤-Veda-S¢vitr¤ and G¢yatr¤-both have been called mother of Vedas. There is a
separate Veda-m¢t¢ s¦kta in Atharva-veda (19/71)-this praises veda-m¢t¢. But Mahar¾i Daivar¢ta
of Gokar´a considers §k (10/14/4) as Veda-m¢t¢ s¦kta-it explains how s¢vitr¤ or g¢yatr¤ are
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veda-m¢t¢ (14) . This process of creation is explained in Aitareya ¢ra´yaka (3/1/1-6). S¢vitr¤
also has been called Veda-m¢t¢ (15) . There is a great book S¢vitr¤ by Aurobindo. The difference
between S¢vitr¤ and G¢yatr¤ is -(1) S¢vitr¤ is creator, G¢yatr¤ is created. (2) Creation starts with
formation of galaxy. At its center is sun which radiates light, creating life forms. So, sun is
called Savit¢ (creator) and ts zone is S¢vitr¤. Place of creation is earth, it is G¢yatr¤. (3) S¢vitr¤
is radiation from sun, G¢yatr¤ is the part received on earth. (4) G¢yatr¤ is a meter of 24 letters
(syllables). Starting from man as unit, earth is 224, so earth is G¢yatr¤. In units of earth, solar
system is again 224, which is S¢vitr¤. Again, field of galaxy is 224 times bigger, it is Sarasvat¤.
This is also called Pr¢j¢patya veda as the creator form of Brahma is Praj¢pati. Process of
creation is called Yaj®a and its Veda is Yajuh-formed of 2 syllables-Yat=motion (y¢ti=goes),
and J¦ =space (completely vacant). Partly vacant antarikºa is place for creation. Creation needs
a control center called H¨daya (heart) which has 3 aspects (16)-H¨ = to receive, Da = to give ,
ya = motion in a cycle (yama = to regulate). Cycle of creation and dissolution is called breath
of Brahma and the Veda is Brahma-nihºvasita. Inflow of matter/energy is called Bh¨gu
(attaraction) and outflow is Angir¢ (flames, Archi (17). This is in galaxy or for each sun.
There are many representations of §k and other Vedas in this system-(1) Compact body
(earth) is §k and its ield is S¢ma(18) . (2) Body of sun is mahaduktha (great source)-that is loka
of §k. Space covered by its radiation is S¢ma. The Puru¾a (Chetan¢-causing chiti =order) is
yajur (19). (3) Agni is §k upto 9 aharga´a (26 x earth size), v¢yu is yajur upto 15 aharga´a (212x
earth) and Ravi (¡ditya) upto 21 aharga´a (218x earth) is s¢ma (20).
(5) G¢yatr¤-Veda-This is creation on earth . This is basically classification of created objects
on earth into 3 or 8 types, correspning to 3 p¢da of G¢yatri and 8 letters in each p¢da(21).
Detailed classification of Chhandas gives 12 B¨hat¤-sahasra (36 x 1000)=4,32,000 as letters of
§k, 8 units of Yajur and 4 of S¢ma (22). There are 432000 words in §kveda, this is number of
verses in Pur¢´as and number of years in Kali-yuga, 10th part of 1 yuga.
(6) ¡dhy¢tmika Veda-Man is image of world and complete Vedas are within that. Pra´ava
(Omk¢ra) in 3 1/2 parts is symbol of Vedas (23).
3. ¹abda-Veda- This is representation of world in words. Both are forms of Brahma. By
knowing ¹abda-Brahma one reaches Para-Brahma (24). World is called Puru¾a and its word
form is Dev¤ (25) as feminine. There were 7 Brahm¢s in human form as indicated in Mah¢bh¢rata,
¹¢nti Parva, chapters 348-349. Thereafter, Sv¢yambhuva Manu was the first Vy¢sa who com-
piled Vedas 26,000 years before Kali starting in 3102 BC (Brahm¢´²a pur¢´a, part 1, 2/9
and 29/19). Prior to that, science and technology had developed in Ma´ij¢ era and the devas
called S¢dhya were worshipping yaj®a through yaj®a only (26). Yaj®a is science of production
and chain of yaj®as at different levels are inter-linked. There were 10 v¢das (thoughts about
origin of world), indicated in N¢sad¤ya-s¦kta(27). These were consolidated into six v¢das-called
darºana and 6 darºa-v¢k called lipi (scripts). Mantras of Vedas are visions of §¾is who interlink
the knowledge of 3 world-space, earth and man. Vedas are in 4 stages corresponding to levels
in space-(1) Mantra-It is by Mana (mind and the processis called manana (thought). Mind of
man has 100 billion nurons and is image of 100 bllion galaxies, or same number of stars in our
galaxy. Collection of mantras is called samhit¢. (2) Br¢hma´²a part is explanation of random
collection of mantras by different §¾is. Its first part is called br¢hma´a itself. That is like
Brahm¢´da (galaxy), which is first level having a shape. (2) ¡ra´yaka-This is image of solar
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system whose ar¢ (edge) are measure of time (28). This explains action. (4) Upani¾ad-This is
settled principle. Its literal meaning is to sit (upa=near, ni¾ad=to sit).
Charaka-samhit¢ explains process of creation of mantras. There was a meeting of §¾is-or it
was a meeting of views only. Names of §¾is are similar to the topic explained-K¢pya explained
kapha, Mar¤chi (=sun) pitta which is created in solar plexus (navel) of man. V¢yorvid explained
v¢yu-do¾a (gas troubles). Devas were supreme for 3600 years (V¢yu pur¢´a 98/51). It started
from Vaivasvata Manu (13902 BC). After that, satya, tret¢, dv¢para of 10,000 years ended in
3102 BC. 14 Indras were main who ruled for about 100 years each (¹atakratu =¹akra). There
lists are given in N¢rada pur¢na etc. Most of verses are of Vaiku´°ha Indra, so Pt. Madhusudan
Ojha assumes that many verses were written in his period. Prior to that, Vedas must have been
in different form-Indra is 7th Vy¢sa from 12460-11740 BC. Vedas were one in beginning-it
was called Atharva(11). Later on, it was divided into Par¢ and Apar¢-which became 4 vedas and
6 angas. Vedas had many more parts (29), now even names of these are not clear .
4. Agni-Veda-Atharva as source is Soma, form of original rasa after creation. It has 2
preambles (starts)-¹aunaka branch starts with creation of 3 sevens. These are 3 gu´as or 3
types of agni or Bh¦, Bhuvar, svar. 7 is succession of agni transformations, or 7 lokas. This is
eaqual to number of branches (3x7=21) of §gveda. This is also indicated in Puru¾a-s¦kta.
Pippal¢da branch of Atharva(30) starts with Dev¤ (expanse of space) which gives ¹am (peace,
stability). Agni vedas start with and describe 3 types of Agni-§k is about static agni (block of
matter or energy), Yajur is about agni in motion which cancreate necessary things (yaj®a),
S¢ma is about spread of agni in space which is source of all energy. First letters of 3 Agni-
vedas combine to form B¤ja-mantra (Aim) of Sarasvat¤-goddess of learning-A+(A+I)=A+E=Ai.
5. Meanings of §k pre-amble- Ap½Z‘rio nwamo{hV§ ¶kñ¶ Xod‘¥pËdO‘²& hmoVma§ aËZYmV‘‘² &1&
This is in G¢yatr¤ chhanda which is measure of worlds. Like G¢yatr¤ mantra itself, it is in 3
p¢das for meaning-i.e. a sentence with 3 clauses. Its literal maning is- We worship that Agni
which is before us and doing good. That is deva of Yaj®a and does it on time (§tu=season,
Ij=doing). That is store of Ratnas (valuables) for worshippers. We may note that it is about
static Agni which is in front of us. But its next p¢das indicate extension for yaj®a (yajur) and
store in space (S¢ma). Thus, §k is basic collection of mantras and most of Yajur and S¢ma are
based on that only.
Thus, meaning of first verse is of 3x7 types as per 3 agnis (in body-§k, in motion-Yajur, and
in space-S¢ma). These are called G¢rhapatya (in g¨ha=house, any pot), dakºi´¢gni (¹amita
=calmed for work or yaj®a), and ¡havan¤ya (Deva-agni-stored in space). Each Agni has 7
stages of transformation (31) called sapi´da (similar matter) relation. In family, for marriage or
last rites, relations upto 7 generatios are counted. Each of 3 Agnis have 7 tongues also and
many oter 7 fold forms derived from that (32). Meanings of agni are not classified in these 3x7
categories, but there are many meanings of Agni, I², and purohita. Their combinations will give
21 meanings. These are gven as per some meanings of agni-
(1) Agra´i-This is from word Agri (first) indicated in note 31, para 2/1. This is prayer to the
leader to take us ahead for ur good and thus he is store of our wealth. This is indicated in
£ºav¢sya upani¾ad also (33).
(2) Bharata Agni (34)-Agni or leader of India was caled Bharata as he fed the whole world. So
this country was called Bh¢rata, engaged in yaj®a for production of food etc. We have to
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worship that Agni for good of country (purohitam= good of pura). He is store of jewels.
(3) Wife (35)-Wife is the central figure in managing house, and is called Puardhr¤ (holder of pura
=house or town). Chh¢ndogya upani¾ad calls woman as Agni, who gives birth to men. There is
a complete chapter 14 in Atharva veda with 139 verses about marriage. These tell about
managing house and family by wife. Woman is woshipped at marriage time for welfare of
family. As outside manager, husband also is agni in other fom.
(4) Vaiºv¢nara-This is agni within each being (note 31, para, 7). Its worship is internal yaj®a at
various levels-digestion of food, yoga of 8 parts. Here, pura is human body in which individual
puru¾a lives. By praying that agni in fom of ¢tm¢-all systems of body remain in order.
(5) All Devas-33 devas are pr¢na (energy) of 33 zones of solar system (36). Zones start at center
of earth-called Agni itself. First 8 names are different forms of Agni called Vasu. Then, there
are 11 Rudras and 12 ¡dityas. At 2 junctions (Vasu-Rudra-¡ditya), there are 2 Aºvins. Thus,
Agni is first from down (earth) and last from outer bounday, where 12th ¡ditya Vi¾´u is
located. They are worshipped for various effects. All these have physical and internal forms.
(6) Praj¢pati-Creator form of Brahma.
world-These are called 5 parvas and 5 agnis (37).
(7) 5 levels of world
6. Available text-As elements of universe, Veda is apauru¾eya (super-human). In text form,
mantras have been visualized by human §¾is only, but it is non-personal in many ways-(1) §¾is
are in tune with 3 forms of world and realize their unity. (2) By averaging of views of large
number of §¾is over a long period, all individual bias is removed. (3) Differences in terms are
unified by Brahmas¦tra which explains Brahma names n diffrent contexts.
Brahma samprad¢ya lists 21 ¹¢kh¢, but in teaching system only 5 branches are named-1.
¹¢kala, 2. V¢¾kala, 3. ¡ºval¢yana, 4. ¹¢nkh¢yana, 5. M¢´²¦keya. ¹¢kalya has 10,381 and
Va¾kala has 10, 622 mantras. Only ¹¢kalya samhit¢ is completely available which has 2
arrangemens. In one system, there are 10 ma´²ala, 85 anuv¢k and 2008 vargas. There are
1028 s¦ktas including 11 B¢lakhilyas. Oter system has 8 a¾°aka (octets), 64 adhy¢ya (chap-
ters) and 1028 s¦ktas. Mantras are same. 10 ma´²alas are for 10 dimensions -3 of space and
7 paridhis (lokas, boundaries). 8-fold division is due to 8 vasus.
3 Br¢hmanas are available-(1) Aitareya has 40 chapters (8 pa®chik¢=quintets) ans 285 ka´²ik¢.
(2) ¹¢nkh¢yana has 30 chapters and 226 kha´das. (3) Kau¾¤taki.
3 ¡ra´yakas also are available-(1) Aitareya has 5 ¢ra´yakas (parts). (2) ¹¢nkh¢yana has 30
chapters. (3) Kau¾¤taki has 3 parts and 15 chapters. Chapters 3-6 are Kau¾¤taki upanisad.

References
(1) AjamUm‘H$mamo@{‘ (JrVm 10/33)=I am A-k¢ra among akºara (syllables)-told by K¨¾´a.
A B{V ~«÷ (EoVao¶ Cn{ZfX² 3/8/6)=A is Brahma.
AH$mamo d¡ gdm© dmH²$ (EoVao¶ Cn{ZfX² 3/6/7)=A-k¢ra is all word.
(2) ‘mhoída gyÌ-ABCU²& F$b¥H²$&...These are basis of forming groups of letters for grammar of P¢´ini.
bH$ma§ n¥{Wdrê$n§ ì¶mZ§ ~ÝYyH$gpÝZ^‘²& (ܶmZ{dÝXþ Cn{ZfX² 96)
=La-k¢ra is form of earth, vy¢na air merges from it like flowering of bandh¦ka.
‘H$ma: eVmd¶dmonoV: (ZmaX n[a~«mOH$ Cn{ZfX² 8/2)=Ma-k¢ra has 100 components.
(3) ‘H$ma: ghòmd¶dmpÝdV: (Vwar¶mon{ZfX² 1)=Ma-k¢ra has 1000 components.
‘H$maíM nwZ: àmk§ (AmJ‘ ahñ¶ Cn{ZfX² 23)=Ma-k¢ra is mind.
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‘H$mao ì¶ÄOZ{‘˶mhþ: (àUdmon{ZfX² 12)=Ma-k¢ra is stated Vya®jana (consonant, which gives form).
(4) AgÛm BX‘J« AmgrV²& VXmË‘mZ§ ñd¶‘Hw$éV& ¶Û¡ VËgwH¥$V§ agmo d¡g: ag§ øodm¶ bãÜdm@@ZÝXr ^d{V& (V¡{Îmar¶
CZ{ZfX²> 2/7/1,2)
=In beginning, there was Asat (beyond perception, very small). From that, He created Himself.
He is rasa only which started creation. On getting rasa, one feels ¡nanda (happiness).
(5) g˶d«V§ g˶na§ {Ìg˶§ g˶ñ¶ ¶moqZ {Z{hV§ M g˶o&
g˶ñ¶g˶§ F$Vg˶Zo̧ g˶mË‘H§$ Ëdm§ eaU§ ànÚo& (lr‘X² ^mJdV nwamU 10/2/26)
=God (K¨¾´a) is Satya-vrata (source of all actions), satya-param (adhering to truth or its
ultimate), three satyas, originator of satya and merged in satya. He is satya (foundation) of
satya. He has two eyes of Satya (pointed tuth) and §ta (relevant or connected matters). He is
very essence of satya.
(6) ¶o {ÌfßVm: n[a¶pÝV {dídm: (AWd© doX 1/1/1)=These 3 sevens envelop the worlds.
(7) ¶ñ‘mV² na§ Zmna‘pñV {H$pÄMÚñ‘mÝZmUr¶mo Z Á¶m¶mo@pñV H$píMV²&
d¥j Bd ñVãYmo {X{d {VîR>˶oH$ñVoZoX§ nyUª nwéfoU gd©‘²& (ídoVmídVamon{ZfX² 5/3/5)
=There is nothing greater or smaller than Him. He is unmoving in space like a tree and all this
world is complted by that Puru¾a.
(8) ~«÷dZ§ ~«÷ g d¥j Amg ¶Vmo Úmdmn¥{Wdr {ZîQ>Vjw:& ‘Zr{fUmo ‘Zgm {d~«dr{‘ dmo ~«÷mܶ{VîR>X² ^wdZm{Z Yma¶Z²&
(V¡{Îmar¶ ~«m÷U 2/8/9, V¡{Îmar¶ g§{hVm 5/6/1)
=Brahma was that forest and that tree out of whose cutting this sky and earth were formed.
Thinkers have reasoned it in their minds that Brahma itself was the foundation also.
D$Üd©‘ybmo@dmH²$ emI Efmo@ídËW: gZmVZ:& VXod ewH«§$ VX² ~«÷ VXodm‘¥V‘wÀ¶Vo&&
Vpñ‘>>±ëbmoH$m: {lVm: gd} VXþ Zm˶o{V H$íMZ& EVÛ¡ VV² (H$R>mon{ZfX² 6/1)
=Root source is called up and branches of creation are down-that is the eternal tree. That is
ºukra (seed), Brahma (visible world) and called Am¨ta (eternal).
D$Üd©‘yb‘Y: emI‘ídËW§ àmhþa춶‘²& N>ÝXm§{g ¶ñ¶ nUm©{Z ¶ñV§ doX g doX{dV²&& (JrVm 15/1)
=Roots are up and branches own-that is called eternal Aºvattha tree. Chhandas (boundary,
shapes) are its leaves (transient). Only that man knows Veda who understands this tree.
¶ñ‘mV² ja‘VrVmo@h‘jamX{n MmoÎm‘:& AVmo@pñ‘ bmoHo$ doXo M à{WV: nwéfmoÎm‘:& (JrVm 15/17)
=As I (God) am beyond Kºara (decaying forms) and higher than Akºara (functional identity), I
am the first (prathita-prathama, first) as Puru¾ottama in loka (literature) and Veda (science)
AXmo ¶Ô>mé ßbdVo {gÝYmo: nmao Anyéf§& VXma^ñd Xþh©Umo VoZ JÀN> nañVa‘²& (F$H²$ 10/155/3)
The wood that floats there in ocean is beyond P¦ru¾a. Take shelter of that (Jagann¢tha= D¢ru-
Brahma in 6 ways) if you wish to cross the difficult ocean of world.
nwéf EdoX§ gdª ¶X²^yV§ ¶ÀM ^m춑²& CVm‘¥VËdñ¶oemZmo ¶XÝZoZm{Vamoh{V&2&
Puru¾a is all This (created word), its past, present and future. He is lord of Immortality and
grows from grains (reached step by step from physical objects).
EVmdmZñ¶ ‘{h‘mVmo Á¶m¶m±íM nyéf: f:& nmXmo@ñ¶ {dídm§ ^yVm{Z {ÌnmXñ¶‘¥V§ {X{d&3&
All this (the world of past, presnt, future) is his mahim¢ (influence zone). P¦ru¾a is still bigger
than this (mahim¢). All this world and beings (of all times) are only his one part. 3 parts are
constant in space.
VVmo {damS>Om¶V {damOmo A{Ynyéf: f:& g OmVmo A˶[aÀ¶VníMmX² ^y{‘‘Wmo nwa:&5& (¶Ow, A. 31)
Then Vir¢° appeared, from Vir¢°, its presiding P¦ru¾a. That P¦ru¾a further created. Then
Bh¦mi (earth) and Pura (structures) were created.
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(9) Ì¡Jwʶ {df¶m doXm: (JrVm 2/45)=Vedas are subjects of 3 gu´as (qualities).
ÌrZ² JwUmZ{VdV©Vo (JrVm 14/21)=Vedas exist beyond 3 gu´as.
̶§ ¶Xm {dÝXVo ~«÷‘oVV² (ídoVmídVa Cn{ZfX² 1/9)
=When you know the 3 (gu´as or vedas), you know that Brahma.
(10) EH$mo@¶§ {Ûñd^mdpñÌU¶Zb{bVñgÀMVwd©J©XmVm, {Z˶moÚËnÄMH¥$˶îfS>a‘{YdgZ² gßVho˶m¶wYmoJ«:&
AîQ>àmoÔm‘~mhþZ©d{‘ha{Z^: H¥$îUho˶J«UrZ©:, à˶mbrT>oZ {VîR>Z² XeeVJw{UVm§ gånX§ gm¡Vw {Z˶‘²&(gwXe©ZmîQ>H$ ì¶m»¶m)
That is one with 2 svabh¢va, decorated with 3 eyes, giver of 4 vargas (dharma, artha, k¢ma,
mokºa). He has 5 fold works and resides in 6 edges (lokas, seasons). He has 7 weapons of Heti
etc, 8 strong arms and shines like new or 9 suns. Sitting on left knee, he may give 1000 wealth.
(11) ~«÷m XodmZm§ àW‘§ gå~^yd {dídñ¶ H$Îmm© ^wdZñ¶ JmoßVm&
g ~«÷{dÚm gd©{dÚm à{VîR>m‘Wdm©¶ Á¶oîR> nwÌm¶ àmh&1&
Brahm¢ was the first among Devas. He was founder of world order and its protector. He taught
Brahma-vidy¢ to his eldest son Atharv¢ which is foundation of all knowledge.
Ûo {dÚo do{XVì¶o, B{V h ñ‘ ¶X² ~«÷{dXmo dXpÝV nam M¡d Anam M& (4) VÌmnam F$½doXmo ¶Owd}X:, gm‘doXmo, AWd©doX:,
{ejm, H$ënmo, ì¶mH$aU§, {Z麧$, N>ÝXmo, Á¶mo{Vf{‘{V& AW nam VXja‘{YJå¶Vo& (5)-‘wÊS>H$ Cn{ZfX² (1/1)>
Two Vidy¢s are to be learnt-Par¢ and Apar¢-This is told by knowers of Brahma. Thereafter,
come §gveda, Yajurveda, S¢maveda, Atharva-veda, ¹ikº¢ (Instruction), Kalpa (practical work),
Vy¢kara´a (grammar), Nirukta (Definition), Chhanda (measure), Jyoti¾a (cosmology).
(12) F$½ä¶mo OmVm§ gd©emo ‘y{Îm©‘mhþ:, gdm© J{V¶m©Owfr h¡d eídV²&
gdª VoO§ gm‘ê$߶§ h eídV², gdª hoX§ ~«÷Um h¡d g¥îQ>‘²&& (V¡{Îmar¶ ~«m÷U 3/12/8/1)
All the forms have come from §k, all motion is from Yajur, all radiance is from S¢ma.
Everything is created from Brahma (Atharva) only.
{dX² gÎmm¶m‘² (nm{U{Z YmVw nmR> 4/60)=Verb Vid=to exist. {dXb¥ bm^o (6/141)=Vid=to gain,
{dX² kmZo (2/57)=Vid=to know, {dX² {dMmaUo (7/13)=Vid=to consider.
{dX² MoVZm»¶mZ {Zdmgofw (10/177)=Vid =location of consciousness and talks.
(13) $^aÛmOmo h d¡ {Ì{^am¶w{^©~«©÷M¶©‘wdmg& V§ h Or{U©, ñW{da§, e¶mZ§-BÝÐ Cnd«Á¶ CdmM& ^aÛmO! ¶Îmo MVwW©‘m¶wX©Úm§,
{H$‘oZZo Hw$¶m© B{V? ~«÷M¶©‘do Z¡ Zo Mao¶{‘{V hmodmM& V§ h ÌrZ² {J[aê$nmZ{dkmVm{Zd Xe©¶mÄMH$ma& Vofm§ h¡H$¡ H$ñ‘mÝ‘wpîQ>‘mXXo&
g hmodmM, ^aÛmOo˶m‘ÝͶ& doXm dm EVo& AZÝVm d¡ doXm:& EVÛm EVopñÌ{^am¶w{^©aÝddmoMWm:& AW V BVaXZyº$‘od&
(V¡{Îmar¶ ~«m÷U 3/10/11)
Bharadv¢ja observed brahmacharya for 3 lives (300 years). Indra approached him in old,
infirm and sleeping state and asked-Bharadv¢ja! if I give you fourth life, what would you do
with that? He replied-I will spend the life in brahmacharya only. Then Indra showed him 3
mountains indicating the unknown. He took a fistful from each, called Bharadv¢ja and stated-
These are the 3 Vedas. Actually, Vedas are infinite. Whatever you have studied in 3 lives, it is
3 fistful only. Most of Veda will ever remain unknown.
(14) ñVwVm ‘¶m daXm doX‘mVm à MmoX¶ÝVm§ nmd‘mZr {ÛOmZm‘²&
Am¶w: àmU§ àOm§ new§ H$s{Îmª Ð{dU§ ~«÷dM©g‘²& ‘ht XÎdm ~«OV ~«÷bmoH$‘²& (AWd© 19/71)
I pray mother of Vedas who is giver of boons, inspires and purifies twice born (second birth
is education). She may give us long life, energy, off-springs, vehicle, fame, wealth, and knowl-
edge of Brahma with its brightness. After giving earth (by detachment), one goes to Brahmaloka.
EH$: gwnU©: g g‘wБm{ddoe, g BX§ ^wdZ§ {d MîQ>o&
V§ nmHo$Z ‘Zgmní¶‘pÝVVñV§, ‘mVm aopùh g C aopùh ‘mVa‘²& (F$H²$ 10/114/4)
One bird entered the sea, he created the worlds and its beings. He saw the whole with clear
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mind and nurtured the earth like mother. Earth also loved him as mother.
(15) gm{dÌr àdoenyd©H$‘ßgw ... doX‘mVa§ H«$‘mX² ì¶mö{Vfw {Ìfw (na‘h§gmon{ZfX² 5)
S¢vitr¤ entered Ap (water like uniform matter). It was mother of Vedas, created 3 Vy¢h¨ti
(lokas)-Bh¦, Bhuvar, Svar.
gmo@nhVnmß‘mZÝVm§ {l¶‘íZwVo ¶ Ed§ doX ¶íM¡d§ {dkmZod‘oVm§ doXmZm§ ‘mVa§ gm{dÌt gånX‘wn{ZfX‘wnmñVo& (JmonW ~«m÷U,
nyd© 1/39)=That gives fame to those whose sins are destroyed. Those who know S¢vitr¤ as
mother of Vedas get wealth-that is the principle (upani¾ad).
Jm¶Í¶m: gm{dͶ^dV²& gm{dͶm: gañd˶^dV²& gañd˶m: gd} doXm A^dZ²& (Jm¶Ìr ahñ¶mon{ZfX 1)
From G¢yatr¤ was born S¢vitr¤, from S¢vitr¤ was born Sarasvat¤, and from Sarasvat¤-all vedas.
(16) VXoVV² Ͷja§ öX¶{‘{V ö B˶oH$‘j‘{^haÝ˶ñ‘¡ ñdmíMmݶo M ¶ Ed§ doX, X B˶oH$‘ja§ XXÝ˶ñ‘¡ ñdmíMmݶo M ¶
Ed§ doX, ¶{‘˶oH$‘ja‘o{V ñdJª bmoH§$ ¶ Ed§ doX& (eVnW ~«m÷U 14/8/4/1, ~¥hXmaʶH$ Cn{ZfX² 5/3/1)
H¨daya has 3 syllables-H¨ =to receive, da=to give and Ya= yama=control in a cycle.
dm¶waod ¶Ow:& A¶‘odmH$memo Oy:& ¶{XX‘ÝV[aj‘oV§ ømH$me‘w OdVo VÚoVÚOwdm©¶wíOmÝV[aj§ M ¶íM OyíM Vñ‘mÚOw:
(eVnW ~«m÷U 10/3/5/2)=This v¢yu (air, motion) itself is Yajuh. This space is J¦. After ¢k¢ºa
(space) antarikºa (intermediate space) is created-that is Yajur-both v¢yu and antarikºa. It is
Yat (motion) and J¦ (space)-so it is Yajuh.
(17) Amnmo ^¥½d{“amo ê$n‘mnmo ^¥½d{“amo‘¶‘²& gd©‘mnmo ‘¶§ ^yV§ gdª ^¥½d{“amo‘¶‘²&
AÝVa¡Vo ̶mo doXm ^¥JwZ{“agmoZwJm: (JmonW ~«m÷U, nyd© 2/39)
Ap of Parame¾°h¤ (galaxy) is Bh¨gu as attractor and Angir¢ as radiation. As all beings are
formed fom Ap, they are all in form of Bh¨gu-Angir¢. Within Ap exist 3 vedas resulting from
Bh¨gu-Angir¢-§k as Agni, Yaju as motion (v¢yu) and S¢ma as field (¡ditya).
(18) gm‘mh‘pñ‘ F$H²$ Ëd§ Ûm¡ah§ n¥{Wdr Ëd‘²& Vm{dh gå^dm¶ àOm‘m OZ¶mdh¡&(AWd© 14/2/71)
I am S¢ma, you are §k. I am dyau, you are P¨thiv¤. Both may pair to create Praj¢.
(19) ¶XoVÝ‘ÊS>b§ Vn{V -VÝ‘hXþ³W§, Vm F$M:, g F$Mm§ bmoH$:& AW ¶XoVX{M©Xu߶Vo-VÝ‘hmd«V§, Vm{Z gm‘m{Z, g gmåZm§
bmoH$:& AW ¶ Ed EVpñ‘Z² ‘ÊS>bo nwéf:-gmo@p½Z:, Vm{Z ¶Oy§{f, g ¶Owfm§ bmoH$:& g¡fm Ìæ¶od {dÚm Vn{V& (eVnW
~«m÷U 10/5/2/1-2)
The Ma´²ala (sphere) which is burning is mahaduktha. These are §ks and it is loka of §k. The
zone bright by flames is Mah¢-vrata-that is S¢ma and the place is loka of s¢ma. The Puru¾a in
this ma´²ala is Agni (pointed) those are yajur, that is loka of Yajur. It is stated that in sun, 3
Vidy¢ (vedas) are burning.
(20) Ap½Z dm¶w a{dä¶ñVw ̶§ ~«÷ gZmVZ‘²& XþXmoh ¶k [gÕçWª F$½¶Ow: gm‘bjU‘²& (‘Zwñ‘¥{V 1/23)
The eternal Brahma (Atharva=not shaking) extracted forms of §k, Yajur, S¢ma for Yaj®a
(creation) from the 3 zones-Agni, V¢yu, Ravi.
(21) G¢yatr¤ is this earth, whatever emerged was akºara, that became g¢yatr¤ of 8 akºaras-
Jm`Ìr dm B`§ n¥{Wdr (eVnW 4/3/4/9) VX² `X² Ag¥Á`V AjaV² VV², `X² AjaV² Vñ_mXja_², `Xï>H¥$Ëd… AjaV² g¡d
Aï>mjam Jm`Ìr A^dV² (17)
Agni is G¢yatr¤ (8x3 letters), Indra is Tri¾°up (11x4) an ¡ditya is Jagat¤ (12x4)-
A{¾d¡© Jm`Ìr (eV. 3/4/1/19, 6/6/2/7)Ÿ& BÝÐ{óïw>n² (eV 6/6/2/7) Am{XË`m OJVr g_^aZ² (O¡. Cn.
1/18/6)
G¢yatr¤ is Br¢hma´a,Tri¾°up is Kºatriya and Jagat¤ is Vaiºya-
Jm`Ìmo d¡ ~«m÷U…, Ì¡îQw>^mo d¡ amOÝ`…, OmJVmo d¡ d¡í`… (EoVao` ~«m. 1/28)
Creators (Kavi =poet) made 3 chhandas in form of Pura (world structures). Three matters of
these are-¡p (water), V¢ta (air) and Osadhi (plants)-Ìr{U N>ÝXm§{g H$d`mo {d`o{Vao, nwéê$n§ Xe©Z§ {dídMjU_² Ÿ&
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Amnmo dmVm AmofY`ñVmÝ`oH$pñ_Z² ^wdZ A{n©Vm{Z (AWd© g§. 18/1/17)
There are 8 sons of Aditi who surround us as Devas in space-last is M¢rta´²a-
Aï>m¡ nwÌmgmo A{XVo`} OmVmñVÝd§ n[a Xodm Cn à¡V² gá{^… nam _mVm©ÊS> _mñ`V² (F$H²$ 10/2/8)
Four pairs of ¡dityas are-Mitra-Varu´a, Dh¢t¢-Aryam¢, Amºa-Bhaga, Vivasv¢n-¡ditya-
VmZZwH«${_î`m_mo {_ÌíM déUíM, YmVmMm`©_m M, A§eíM ^JíM, {ddñdmZm{XË`íM (V¡{Îmar` Am. 1/13/3)
8 forms of ¹iva are called 8 Vasus-Agni, P¨thiv¤, V¢yu, Antarikºa, ¡ditya, space, moon, stars-
A{¾íM n¥{Wdr M dm`wíMmÝV{aj§ Mm{XË`míM, Úm¡íM MÝÐ_míM ZjÌm{U M¡Vo dgd…(eVnW 11/6/3/6)
Mah¢bh¢rata, Bh¤¾ma parva, chapter 4 gives various forms of Loka-g¢yatr¤-
{Û{dYmZrh ^yVm{Z Mam{U ñWmdam{U M Ÿ& MamUm§ {Ì{dYm `mo{Z… AÊS> ñdoX Oam`wOm… Ÿ&&10&&
Oam`wOmZm§ àdam _mZdm… nedíM `o Ÿ&&11Ÿ&& ZmZmê$n Yam amO±ñVofm§ ^oXmíMVwX©e Ÿ&
doXmoº$m… n¥{Wdrnmb `ofw `km… à{V{ð>Vm… Ÿ&&12Ÿ&& C{Ø‚mm… ñWmdam… àmoº$m… Vofm§ n#m¡d OmV`… Ÿ&&14Ÿ&&
Vofm§ qde{VaoH$moZm _hm^yVofw n#mH$ Ÿ& MVw{dªe{Vé{Ôï>m Jm`Ìr bmoH$ gå_Vm Ÿ&&15Ÿ&&
g§dËga Jm`Ìr-MVw{dªe{V Jm`Í`m Ajam{U, MVw{dªe{V… g§dËgañ`mY©_mgm…..(H$mR>H$ g§. 10/7)
(22) He (Praj¢pati) structured §ks in 12 B¨hat¤ (meter of 9x4=36 letters) thousands. Then
other Vedas were formed-8 B¨hat¤-thousands and S¢ma in 4- g F$Mmo ì¶m¡hV²-ÛmXe ~¥hVr ghòm{U&...
AW¡Vamo doXm¡ ì¶m¡hV²-ÛmXe¡d ~¥hVr ghòmʶîQ>m¡ ¶Owfm§, MÎdm[a gmåZm‘² (eVnW ~«m÷U 10/4/2/22-23)
(23) AWmܶmË‘§-dmJod F$H²$, àmU: gm‘:& VXoVXoVñ¶m‘¥MܶyT>§ gm‘& Vñ‘mÑMܶyT>§ gm‘ Jr¶Vo& dmJod gm-àmUmo A‘:, VV²
gm‘&(2) Mjwaod F$H²$, AmË‘m gm‘ (2) lmoÌ‘od F$H²$, ‘Z: gm‘ (3) AW ¶XoVXúU: ew³b§ ^m: g¡d F$H²$& AW ¶ÝZrb§
na: H¥$îU§, VV² gm‘& (N>mÝXmo½¶ Cn{ZfX² 1/9)
This is Adhy¢tma-V¢k is §k, Pr¢na is S¢ma. Thus, S¢ma as Pr¢na is hidden in §k as words. So,
s¢ma is sung with §k mantras. V¢k is S¢, Pr¢na is Am-both combine as S¢ma(1) Eye is §k
(visible matter), ¢tm¢ is S¢ma (knowledge). (2) Ear is §k (perception), mind is s¢ma (3). White
cover of eye is §k, black center is S¢ma.
àOmn{Vbm}H$mZä¶VnV²& Voä¶mo@{^VßVoä¶ñ̶r {dÚm gåàmòdV²& Vñ¶m A{^VßVm¶m EËݶjam{U gåàmòdÝV-^y^w©d: ñd[a{V&
Vmݶä¶VnV²& Voä¶@{^VßVoä¶ AmoL²>H$ma: gåàmòdV²(N>mÝXmo½¶ Cn{ZfX² 2/23/1-2)
Praj¢pati heated 3 lokas. From the heated lokas, triple vedas (tray¤) oozed. Tray¤ also was
further heated which extracted 3 syllables-Bh¦, Bhuvar, Svar. By heating these, Onk¢ra
(A+U+M+point) emerged.
(24) Ûo dmd ~«÷Umo ê$no eãX-~«÷ na§ M ¶V²& emãXo ~«÷{U {ZîUmV: na§ ~«÷m{YJÀN>{V&
(‘¡Ìm¶Ur AmaʶH$ 6/22, {ÌnwamVm{nZr Cn{ZfX² 4/17, ~«÷{dÝXþ Cn{ZfX² 17)
There are two forms of Brahma-¹abda-Brahma and Para-Brabhma. By studying ¹abda-Brahma,
one attains Parama (ultimate)Brahma.
{Okmgwa{n ¶moJñ¶ eãX~«÷m{VdV©Vo& (JrVm 6/44) Knower of Yoga also attains ¹abda-Brahma.
(25) doXnwéf B{V ¶‘dmoMm‘ ¶oZ doXmÝdoX (EoVao¶ Cn{ZfX² 2/3/1)
=We call That as Veda-Puru¾a who is known by Vedas (in words) only.
doXmZm§ gm‘doXmo@pñ‘ (JrVm 10/22)=I (K¨¾´a) am S¢ma-veda among Vedas.
nwéf EdoX§ gdª (nwéf gyº$, ¶Ow 31/2)=Puru¾a is all This (created world).
eãXmpË‘H$m§ gw{d‘b½¶©Owfm§ {ZYmZ‘wX²JrWaå¶ nX nmR>dVm§ M gmåZm‘²&
Xodr ̶r ^JdVr ^d^mdZm¶ dmVm© M gd©OJVm§ na‘m{V©hÝÌr& (XþJm© gßVeVr 4/10)
=Dev¤ is Tray¤ in form of words-pure §gveda, Yajur and S¢ma with musical chant of Udg¤tha.
She is Bhagavat¤ (with 6 fold supremacy) and V¢rt¢ (=talk, means of livelhood) for removing
sorrow of world.
(26) nwéf gyº$-¶koZ ¶k‘¶OÝV XodmñVm{Z Y‘m©{U àW‘mݶmgZ²&
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Voh ZmH§$ ‘{h‘mZ: gMÝV ¶Ì nyd} gmܶm: gpÝV Xodm:& (¶Ow 31/16)
Devas worshipped yaj®a through yaj®a only. Those were the first dharmas. Those great men
reached the top (n¢ka =pole of the sphere of solar system). In n¢ka of earth (north of India),
the S¢dhyas lived, who were devas in earlier period.
(27) ZmgXmgrÝZmo gXm
gXmgrV² VXmZt ZmgrX² aOmo Zmo ì¶mo‘m namo ¶V²&
‘madrd
‘madrd: Hw$h H$ñ¶ e‘©ÝZå^
{H$‘madrd Zå^: {H$‘mgrX² JhZ§ J^ra‘²&&1&& (F$H²$ 10/129)
Z ‘¥Ë¶wamgrX‘¥V§ Z V{h© Z amͶm A• AmgrV² àHo$V:& AmZrXdmV§ ñdY¶m VXoH§$ Vñ‘mÕmݶÝZ na: qH$ MZmg&&2&&
V‘ AmgrV² V‘gm Jyùh‘J«o@àHo$V§ g{bb§ gd© ‘m BX‘²& VwÀN>çoZmäd {n{hV§ ¶XmgrV² VngñVÝ‘{hZm Om¶V¡H$‘²&&3&&
H$m‘ñVXJ«o g‘dV©Vm{Y ‘Zgmo aoV: àW‘§ ¶XmgrV²& gVmo ~ÝYw‘g{V {Za{dÝXZ² ö{X àVrî¶m H$d¶mo ‘Zrfm&&4&&
{VaíMrZmo {dVVmo apí‘aofm‘Y: pñdXmgr3Xþn[a pñdXmgr3V²& aoVmoYm AmgZ² ‘{h‘mZ AmgZ² ËñdYm AdñVmV² à¶{V: nañVmV²&5&
H$mo AÕm doX H$ Bh à dmoMV² Hw$V AOmVm Hw$V B¶§ {dg¥pîQ>:& Adm©½Xodm Añ¶ {dgO©ZoZm@Wm H$mo doX ¶V Am~^yd&6&
B¶§ {dg¥pîQ>¶©V Am~^yd ¶{X dm XYo ¶{X dm Z& H$mo Añ¶mܶj: na‘o ì¶mo‘Z² Ëgmo A“ ¶{X dm Z doX&7&
These words indicate 10 branches of thought-(1) Sat-asat (existence and nothing), (2) Raja
(motion), (3) Vyoma (space), (4) Apara-Para=¢tm¢, apara or other=Prak¨ti, (5) ¡vara´a (cover,
boundary), (6) Ambha(fluctuations in uniform rasa, condensation in drops), (7) Am¨ta-m¨tyu
(rasa is eternal, forms evolved from that are transient), (8) Aho-r¢tra-Process of creation from
abstract is Ahar=day of Brahm¢, its merging back is night. (9) Deva-Dispersed pr¢na (energy)
is Asura. Graded zones of energy are Devas which start creation. (10) Samºaya-Ultimate
source is always uncertain. Pa´²it Madhus¦dana Ojha explained all these in his Daºav¢da-
Rahasya and in separate books for each. In addition he exlained scientific evolution (Vij®¢na-
Itiv¨tta-v¢da) and their unificationin Brahma-siddh¢nta.
(28) nÄMnmX§ {nVa§ ÛmXemH¥$qV {Xd Amhþ: nao AY} nwar{fU‘²&
AWo‘o Aݶ C nao {dMjU§ gßVMH«o$ fS>a Amhþa{n©V‘² (F$H²$ 1/164/12)
Samvatsara (of sun) has 5 legs (seasons), 12 shapes (months). Its outer boundary (of galaxy) is
half of 1017 yojanas (97,000 light years diameter) is zone of water (Varu´a). Others call it of
7 wheels (chhanda, yuga, yojana, lokas, planets) and 6 Ar¢ (edges=seasons).
(29) Ed§ dm Aao@ñ¶ ‘hVmo^yVñ¶ {Z:íd{gV‘oVÚX²-F$½doXmo, ¶Owd}X:, g‘mdoXmo AWdm©{“ag:, B[Vhmg:, nwamU§, {dÚm:,
Cn{ZfX², íbmoH$m:, gyÌm{U, AZwì¶m»¶mZm{Z, ì¶m»¶mZm{Z& Añ¶¡d¡Vm{Z {Z:íd{gVm{Z& (~¥hXmaʶH$ Cn{ZfX² 2/4/10)
Ed{‘‘o gd} doXm {Z{‘©Vm:-gH$ënm:, gahñ¶m:, g~«m÷Um:, gmon{ZfË‘m:, go{Vhmgm:, gmÝdm»¶mZm:, gnwamUm:, gñdam:,
gg§ñH$mam:, gmZwemgZm:, gmZw‘mO©Zm:, gdmH$modm³¶m:(JmonW ~«m÷U, nyd© 2/9)
F$½doX§ ^Jdmo@ܶo{‘ ¶Owd}X§ gm‘doX‘mWd©U§ MVwW©{‘{VhmgnwamU§ nÄM‘§ doXmZm§ doX§ {nͶ§ amqe, X¡d§ {ZqY dmH$modm³¶‘oH$m¶Z§
Xod{dÚm§ ~«÷{dÚm§ jÌ{dÚm§, ZjÌ{dÚm§, gn©XodOZ{dÚm‘oVX² ^Jdmo@ܶo{‘& (N>mÝXmo½¶ Cn{ZfX² 7/1/2)
Names of Veda parts above are-§k, Yajur, S¢ma, Atharva, (with ¡ngirasa), Itih¢sa (chronol-
ogy of events), pur¢´a (science of change), vidy¢ (specific methods or techniques), upani¾ad
(principles), ºloka (famous sayings in verses), s¦tras (short rules), vy¢khy¢na (lectures on a
topic), anuvy¢kh¢na (supplemnts to lectures-exercise, explanations), kalpa (practical meth-
ods), rahasya (essence or rationale of a method) , br¢hma´a (explanation), anv¢khy¢na (fa-
mous story-its supplement), svara (methods of pronuciation), sansk¢ra (change in man or
material for improving), anuº¢sana (training, practice), anum¢rjana (corrective steps), pitrya
(science of souls), r¢ºi (zodiac signs, collection or a system), daiva (science of space), nidhi
(dictionary ?), ek¢yana (P¢®cha-r¢tra-source of Vedas), devavidy¢ (methods of devas-yoga?),
Brahma-vidy¢ (methods of Brahma´as), kºatra-vidy¢ (science of war, weapons), nakºatra-
vidy¢ (astronomy, calendar), Sarpa-deva-jana-vidy¢ (techniques for snakes, devas and men ?).
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(30) ¶o {ÌfßVm: n[a¶pÝV {dídm ê$nm{U {~^«V:& dmMñn{V~©bm Vofm§ VÝdmo AÚ XYmVw ‘o&1& (AWd©, em¡ZH$ g§{hVm)
These 3 sevens cover the world and take all forms. V¢chaspati (lord of V¢k-field of sun or of
galaxy) may fix their balas (energy) in me.
e§ Zmo Xodra{^îQ>¶ Amnmo ^dÝVw nrV¶o& e§ ¶moa{^ òdÝVw Z:&(AWd©-{nßnbmX g§{hVm 1/1/1, em¡ZH$ g§{hVm 1/6/1)
This is Jala-s¦kta, i.e. description of water like expanse which is called Ap. Previous verse is
¡po-hi¾°h¢ etc-famous Aghamar¾a´a-s¦kta (purification by water). Dev¤ (lord of space or
water in it) may give us peace and all Ap may be for our drink (use). She may become source
of peace, well being.
gßVmñ¶mgZ² n[aY¶pñÌ: gßV g{‘Y: H¥$Vm:& Xodm ¶Úk§ VÝdmZm A~ÜZZ² nwéf§ new‘²& (nwéf gyº$, ¶Owd}X 31/15)
Devas tied the great Puru¾a as paºu in extending the yaj®a with 7 paridhi (circumference) and
3x7 samidh¢ (fuel).
Ap½Z‘rio nwamo{hV§ ¶kñ¶ Xod‘¥pËdO‘²& hmoVma§ aËZYmV‘‘²&1& (F$H²$ 1/1/1)
We worship that Agni which is before us and doing good. That is deva of Yaj®a and does it on
time (§tu=season, Ij=doing). That is store of Ratnas (valuables) for worshippers.
Bfo ËdmoO} Ëdm dm¶d ñW& Xodmo d: g{dVm àmn©¶Vw loîR>V‘m¶ H$‘©U Am߶m¶Üd ‘¿Ý¶m BÝÐm¶ ^mJ§ àOmdVraZ‘rdm A¶ú‘m
‘m d ñVoZ B©eV ‘mKe§gmo Y«wdm Apñ‘Z² JmonVm¡ ñ¶mV² ~ˆr¶©O‘mZñ¶ neyZ² nm{h&&1&& (¶Owd}X)
You are I¾¢ (medium of transfer of energy-e.g. flow of radation, rod, electric wire, beam
conecting plough with bull) and energy in motion. That Deva is creator of all and he may
engage us in best work (creative act-yaj®a). We may continue it so that Go (cow, yajnÁa) are not
finished. For its continuance, we may keep a portion for Indra (king, organs, radiant energy),
so that we have praj¢ (off-springs), free of Amiv¢ (amoeba) i.e. desease, free of decay (kºaya
=TB, or any other decay, friction). We may not be controlled by thief, sinner. We may be
always with protector of Go, so that our number and wealth increases.
A½Z Am ¶m{h drV¶o J¥UmZmo hì¶ XmV¶o& {Z hmoVm gpËg ~{h©{f& (gm‘doX)
Agni may come for cnsumption and giving it to Devas for whom it is meant. Always remain on
your seat or space.
stages-(sapi´da) of Agni-
(31) Seven stages
1.Brahm¢gni- ~«÷mp½Z: (ñdm¶å^wd g˶mp½Z:)-{nVm-Brahm¢gni is father as He expands from Rasa by
3 Vidy¢s-1. ¶‘odm‘w§ Ì涡 {dÚm¶¡ VoOmoag§ àm~¥hV², VoZ ~«÷m ~«÷m ^d{V& (H$m¡frV{H$ ~«m÷U 6/11),
2. Ap½Zd£ ~«÷m (fS²>qde ~«m÷U 1/1), 3. Ap½Z~«©÷m, Ap½Z¶©k:& (eVnW ~«m÷U 3/2/2/7)
2. Dev¢gni-Xodmp½Z: (Zmam¶Ump½Z:-gm¡a)-nwÌ-Devas are created by bright zones of sun. They enter
the Ap (water or spread matter) of galaxy. That water has come from Nara (Puru¾a-Universal
being), so it is N¢ra. Nara has entered it, so he has become N¢r¢ya´a. He is the first created -
Agri, so he is called Agni (similar sound)-
1.-g ¶Xñ¶ gd©ñ¶mJ«‘g¥Á¶V, Vñ‘mX&p½Z:& A{J«h© d¡ V‘p½Z[a˶mMjVo namoj‘²& (eVnW ~«m÷U 6/1/1/11),
2- VÛm@EZ‘oVXJ«o XodmZm‘Om¶V, Vñ‘mXp½Z:&(eVnW ~«m÷U 2/2/4/2)
3-g Ap½Z‘~«drV², Ëd§ d¡ ‘o Á¶oîR>: nwÌmUm‘{g, Ëd§ àW‘mo d¥Urîd B{V& (O¡{‘Zr¶ Cn{ZfX² ~«m÷U 1/51)
4-nwéf§ h d¡ Zmam¶U: gdm©{U ^yVm{Z, BX§ gd©‘^dV² (eVnW ~«m÷U 13/6/1/1)
5-¶mo@¶‘oVøp½Z:, g ^rfm {Z{bë¶o& gmo@n: à{ddoe&(eVnW ~«m÷U 1/2/3/1)
3. Ann¢d¢gni-AÝZmX Ap½Z (dm‘mp½Z-nm{W©d)-nm¡Ì-As fire from sun, it consumes matter spread in
galaxy-called soma. Creation by sun-rays is on earth, so earth also is called Ann¢da-agni.
Creator or source is dakºina (right hand, dxterity). Created matter is V¢ma (left). This is
digested soma, so it is Palita (ripe, or old)-
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1-àOmnVo¶m©-AÝZmXm VZy: VXp½Z:(EoVao¶ ~«m÷U 7/25)
2-Ap½Zd£ XodmZm‘ÝZmX: (V¡{Îmar¶ ~«m÷U 3/1/4/1)
3-B¶§ (n¥{Wdr) dm AÝZmXr (H$m¡frV{H$ ~«m÷U 27/5)
4-Añ¶ dm‘ñ¶ n{bVñ¶ hmoVw: (F$H²$ 1/164/1)
4. Samvatsar¢gni-. -.gådËgamp½Z: (¶kmp½Z, 33 XodVm‘¶:) ànm¡Ì-Samvatsara is earth orbit or the time
taken by earth in that. It is also zone of sun where light reaches in 1 samvatsara (year), i.e. a
sphere of 1 light year around sun. Yaj®a is done in this zone only. On earth, most production
e.g. farming is done in cycle of year-so Samvatsara is Yaj®a-
1-gådËgamo d¡ ¶k: àOmn{V:& (eVnW ~«m÷U 1/2/5/12)
2-gådËgamo d¡ XodmZm§ OÝ‘& (eVnW ~«m÷U 8/7/3/21)
3-Ap½Z: (gådËga:) gdm© XodVm: (EoVao¶ AmaʶH$ 1/1)
5. Kum¢r¢gni-Hw$‘mamp½Z: (nm{W©dmp½Z-gådËga aoV:)-d¥Õ ànm¡Ì-Process of creation by samvatsara is its
son or Kum¢ra. Its sound or waste energy is called weeping, so it is also called Rudra (weeper)-
1-VmZr‘m{Z ^yVm{Z M, ^yVmZm M n{V:-gådËgao@Cf{g aoVmo@gÄMV²& gådËgao Hw$‘mamo@Om¶V& gmo@amoXrV²& ¶XamoXrV²,
Vñ‘mV² éÐ:& (eVnW ~«m÷U 6/1/3/8-10)
6. Chitr¢gni-{MÌmp½Z: (nm{W©dmp½Z:-Hw$‘mamp½Z {ddÎm© ^md)-A{Vd¥Õ ànm¡Ì-There are many varieties of
created objects, called Chitra (design, picture). 3 types of agni have 8 combinations-so it is
divided into 8 Vasus. Rudra as agni has 8 forms (A¾°a-m¦rtti). As v¢yu (motion), there are11
Rudra. As ¡ditya (radiation), it is of 12 types for 12 grades of light of sun in 12 months-
1-Ap½Zd£ éÐ:(1), Amnmod¡ gd©:(2) AmofY¶m d¡ newn{V: (3), dm¶wdm© CJ«: (4) {dÚwÛm Ae{Z: (5) nO©Ý¶mo d¡ ^d: (6),
àOmn{Vd£ ‘hmZ² Xod: (7), Am{X˶mo dm B©emZ: (8)& VmݶoVmݶîQ>mdp½Zê$nm{U& Hw$‘mamo Zd‘:& g¡dm½Zo pñÌd¥Îmm& EVm{Z
{h ê$nmʶZwàmZdm@p½Z¨ Hw$‘ma{‘d ní¶pÝV& EVmݶodmñ¶ ê$nm{U, gmo@¶§ Hw$‘mamo ê$nmʶZwàm{deV& Vñ¶ {MÎmñ¶ Zm‘ H$amo{V&
nmß‘mZ‘odmñ¶ VXnhpÝV& {MÌ Zm‘mZ§ H$amo{V, {MÌmo@gr{V& gdm©{U {h {MÌmʶp½Z: &(eVnW ~«m÷U 6/1/3/1 )
7. P¢ºuk¢gni-nmewH$mp½Z: (nm{W©dmp½Z:-{MÌm½Zo¶m£{JH$ ^mdm:-new{dYm:-d¥Õm{Vd¥Õànm¡Ì-These are individual
objects divided into 5 categories called Paºu (animal)-Puru¾a (man), Aºva (horse), Gau (Cow),
Avi (Ram), Aja (goat). All are called vaiºv¢nara (world as man) which means goat also-
àOmn{V: (gådËga:) Ap½Zê$nmʶä¶Ü¶m¶V²& g ¶mo@¶§ Hw$‘mamo ê$nmʶZwà{dîQ> AmgrV², V‘Ýd¡ÀN>V& gmo@p½ZadoV²-AZw d¡ ‘m
{nVm àOmn{V[aÀN>{V& hÝV VX² ê$n-‘gm{Z, ¶Ý‘ Ef Z doX, B{V& g EVmZ² nÄMneyZní¶V²-nwéf§, Aíd§, Jm§, Aqd, AO‘²&
¶Xní¶V², Vñ‘mXoVo ned:& g EVmZ² nÄM neyZ² àm{deV²& g EojV-B‘o dm Ap½Z:&(eVnW ~«m÷U 6/1/4/1-4)
Ah§ d¡ídmZamo ^yËdm àm[UZm§ Xoh‘m{lV:& àmUmnmZg‘m¶wº$: nMmå¶ÝZ§ MVw{d©Y‘²& (JrVm 15/14)
(32) H$mbr H$ambr M ‘ZmoOdm M gwbmo{hVm ¶m M gwYy‘«dUm©&
ñ’w${b{“Zr {dídéMr M Xodr bobm¶‘mZm B{V gßV {Oˆm:&&(‘wÊS>H$ Cn{ZfX² 1/2/4)
gßVàmUm: à^dpÝV Vñ‘mV² gßVm{M©f: g{‘Y: gßV hmo‘m:&
gßV B‘o bmoH$m ¶ofw MapÝV àmUm, Jwhme¶m {Z{hVm gßV gßV&&8&&
AV: g‘wÐm {Ja¶íM gd}@ñ‘mËñ¶ÝXÝVo {gÝYd: gd©ê$nm:&
AVíM gdm© AmofY¶mo agíM ¶oZ¡f ^yV¡pñVîR>Vo øÝVamË‘m&&9&& (‘wÊS>H$ 2/1)
7 tongues of agni are listed-which give rise to 7 pr¢na, archi (flame), samidha (fuel), homa
(offer), loka, caves of body, oceans, mountains, rivers, medicines, rasa (taste) etc.
(33) A½Zo Z¶ gwnWm am¶o Añ‘mZ² {dídm{Z Xod d¶wZm{Z {dÛmZ²& ¶w¶moܶñ‘ÁOwhþamU‘oZmo ^y{¶îR>m§ Vo Z‘ Cqº$ {dYo‘&
(F$H²$ 1/18/1, dmOgZo¶r ¶Ow 3/36, 7/43, 40/16, V¡{Îmar¶ g§{hVm 1/1/14/3, 4/4/3/1, V¡{Îmar¶
~«m÷U 2/8/2/3, V¡{Îmar¶ AmaʶH$ 1/8/8, eVnW ~«m÷U 14/8/3/1, B©emdmñ¶mon{ZfX² 16)
Agni may lead us by good path which gives us wealth, as he is knower of intricacies (vayuna
=weaving). He can engage warring people in yaj®a (creative work), we woship that great.
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(34) ^aUmV² àOZmV² M¡f ‘Zw^©aV CÀ¶Vo& EVpÝZéº$ dMZmX² dfª VX² ^maV§ ñ‘¥V‘²&
¶ñËd¶§ ‘mZdmo ÛrnpñV涩½¶m‘: àH$s{V©V:& ¶ EZ§ O¶Vo H¥$ËñZ§ g g‘«m{S>{V H$s{V©V:&&
(‘Ëñ¶ nwamU 114/5,6,15, dm¶w nwamU 45/76, 86)
Manu (lord of Bh¢rata) is called Bharata due to feeding and looking after people of world. This
is saying of Nirukta, this country is called Bh¢rata. This is famous land of Manu oblique in
south. The ruler conquering it is called samr¢° (emperor).
Vñ‘m Ap½Z^m©aV: e‘© ¶§ gÁÁ¶moH²$ ní¶mV² gy涩‘wÀMaÝV‘²&
¶ BÝÐm¶ gwZdm‘o˶mh Zao Zæ¶m©¶ Z¥V‘m¶ Z¥Um‘²& (F$H²$ 4/25/4)
Indra does welfare of people, leads them and is the best among leaders. The provider (Bh¢rata)
Agni may give comfort to him and people may see sunrise for long.
(35) ¶mofm dmd OmoV‘mp½Z: &Vñ¶m CnñW Ed g{‘V²& ¶V² Cn‘ÝÌVo g Yy‘:& ¶O² AÝV: H$amo{V V A“mam:& A{^ZÝXm:
{dñ’w${b“§ Vpñ‘Z² EVpñ‘Z² Z½Zmo Xodmo Owˆ{V& Vñ¶ AmhþVo: J^© gånÚVo& (N>mÝXmo½¶ Cn{ZfX² 4/8)
Female is Agni, her yoni (reproductive organ) is samidh¢, mutual love is fume, sex is fire, joy
is flame and semen is offer-by which womb gives birth.
àOZZ§ dm Ap½Z: (d¡VmZ gyÌ 1/3/1/4)=Reproduction is Agni.
(36) Ap½Z: gdm© XodVm: (EoVao¶ ~«m÷U 2/3, V¡{Îmar¶ ~«m÷U 1/4/4/10)
Agni is all Devas.
XodVm dmd ̶pñ̨emo-AîQ>m¡ dgd, EH$mXe éÐm, ÛmXem{X˶m:, àOmn{VíM dfQ²>H$maíM& (VmÊS>ç ‘hm~«m÷U 6/2/5)
Devas are 33-8 Vasus, 11 Rudras, 12 ¡dityas, Praj¢pati and Va¾a°k¢ra.
Ap½Zd£ XodmZm‘d‘mo {dîUw: na‘ñVXÝVaoU gdm© Aݶm XodVm: (EoVao¶ ~«m÷U 1/1)
Agni is lowest among Devas, Vi¾´u is highest-between them are all devas.
(37) F$V§ {n~ÝVm¡ gwH¥$Vñ¶ bmoHo$, Jwhm§ à{dîQ>m¡ na‘o namY}&
N>m¶mVnm¡ ~«÷{dXmo dXpÝV, nÄMm½Z¶mo ¶o M {ÌUm{MHo$Vm: (H$R> Cn{ZfX² 1/3/1)
Persons doing good work drink §ta and finally (after death) enter the largest cave (galaxy) of
par¢rdha size (half of 1017 yojana circumference, diameter = 97000 light years). Knowers of
Brahma call the path as light and shadow. These are 5 agnis (universe, galaxy, solar system,
moon orbit and earth) of which last 3 are mixed in effect.

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