Sie sind auf Seite 1von 36

Laser Applications R&D at Fraunhofer

Institute for Laser Technology


Jens Gottmann, Claudia Hartmann, Alexander Horn,
Leonid Moiseev, Lena Trippe

Fraunhofer Institut fr Lasertechnik &


Lehrstuhl fr Lasertechnik
der RWTH-Aachen
Steinbachstrasse 15
52074 Aachen
Germany
alexander.horn@ilt.fraunhofer.de
U:\PC_WNDWS\VORLAGEN\LLT_1.pot

RHE INISCHWESTFLISCHE
TECHNISCHE
HOCHSCHULE
AACHEN

Outline

The Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology


Related Results & Planned Experiments at JLAB FEL
Micro-ablation with tailored pulse trains
Drilling with s-laser radiation
PLD
Conclusion

RHEINISCHWESTFLISCHE
TECHNISCHE
HOCHSCHULE
AACHEN

P:/A33/Geraete/Anschaffung/Umzug_fs_Anwendung.ppt

LEHRSTUHL FR LASERTECHNIK

Tailored Optical Energy

Lasers

Application
z Manufacturing
- Processes
- System technology

z Power/ Energy
z Quality
- space (focusability)
- time (pulse duration
and formation)
- spectral (wavelength,
Laser types)

z Microelectronics (EUV)

1m

z Life science
- Biophotonics
- Biocompatible
Materials
z Atomic and molecular
150 nm

20 cm

RHEINISCHWESTFLISCHE
TECHNISCHE
HOCHSCHULE
AACHEN

P:/A33/Geraete/Anschaffung/Umzug_fs_Anwendung.ppt

LEHRSTUHL FR LASERTECHNIK

Vertical Structure: Car body welding with a high power DPSSL

High-power
diode-laser chips and
packaging Lifetime

Welding
process and
materials
science

Systems design:
high efficiency and
beam quality
Dr.Ing. H.c. F.Porsche AG

RHEINISCHWESTFLISCHE
TECHNISCHE
HOCHSCHULE
AACHEN

P:/A33/Geraete/Anschaffung/Umzug_fs_Anwendung.ppt

LEHRSTUHL FR LASERTECHNIK

Organisation of Fraunhofer-ILT and of LLT RWTH Aachen University


LLT
Dr. E. W. Kreutz
Dr. J. Gottmann
IT-Management
Dr. B. Weikl

Prof. Dr. R. Poprawe


Vice Director
Administration
Marketing and
Communication
A. Bauer

Beam Sources

ILT
Dr. P. Loosen
B. Grossmann
Quality Management
Dr. A. Drenker
M. Talkenberg

Laser Applications

Integrated Optics

Laser Components
Dr. K. Boucke

Joining and Cutting


Dr. D. Petring

Beam Sources

Solid State/Diode Lasers


D. Hoffmann

Surface Technology
Dr. K. Wissenbach

Surface Technology

Metrology and
Surface Analysis

Metrology
Dr. R. Noll

CLT Plymouth
Dr. S. Heinemann

Micro Technology
Dr. A. Gillner

Micro Structuring
Thin Film Technology

Plasma and X-Ray

Plasma Technology
Dr. W. Neff

CLFA Paris
Dr. W. Knapp

System Integration
Dr. S. Kaierle

System Integration

Modelling and Simulation

Dr. W. Schulz

RHEINISCHWESTFLISCHE
TECHNISCHE
HOCHSCHULE
AACHEN

P:/A33/Geraete/Anschaffung/Umzug_fs_Anwendung.ppt

LEHRSTUHL FR LASERTECHNIK

Planned Experiments at
JLAB FEL

RHE INISCHWESTFLISCHE
TECHNISCHE
HOCHSCHULE
AACHEN
U:\PC_WNDWS\VORLAGEN\LLT_1.pot

Motivation

Industry needs e.g. drillings and microstructures


more reproducible
faster production
Solution

higher quality (e.g. melt-free)

new laser system

high-power
high repetition rate
ultra-short pulse duration

Development
of an
applicationadapted laser
system

Use a FEL
Variation of

Challenge
plasma formation
interaction of laser radiation with plasma

9 repetition rate
9 wave length
9 pulse duration
RHEINISCHWESTFLISCHE
TECHNISCHE
HOCHSCHULE
AACHEN

P:/A33/Geraete/Anschaffung/Umzug_fs_Anwendung.ppt

LEHRSTUHL FR LASERTECHNIK

Related Results & planned Experiments

Micro-ablation with tailored pulse trains


Drilling with s-laser radiation
PLD

RHEINISCHWESTFLISCHE
TECHNISCHE
HOCHSCHULE
AACHEN

P:/A33/Geraete/Anschaffung/Umzug_fs_Anwendung.ppt

LEHRSTUHL FR LASERTECHNIK

Micro-ablation with tailored pulse trains


Claudia Hartmann

RHE INISCHWESTFLISCHE
TECHNISCHE
HOCHSCHULE
AACHEN
U:\PC_WNDWS\VORLAGEN\LLT_1.pot

Micro-ablation with laser radiation

10

state of the art


micro-ablation with femtosecond microsecond pulses

aim
expansion of process limits during microablation of metal (1064 nm)

y materials: metals and ceramics


y 2.5 dimensional structures
y 355 nm - 1064 nm (depending on
material)

y less melt on the surface


y high ablation rates
use of tailored pulse trains
interdepartmental cooperation of core
competence teams of ILT/LLT

Used Laser for Project at ILT/LLT


y
y
y
y

y process know-how
y laser techniques
y system technology
y modelling and simulation

pulse duration 15 ns to 50 ns
burst energy 2 mJ
pulses per burst 4
pulse distance 0,1 s to 3 s

a)

b)

c)

Ablated structures in:


a) Al2O3
b) sapphire
c) steel
RHEINISCHWESTFLISCHE
TECHNISCHE
HOCHSCHULE
AACHEN

P:/A33/Geraete/Anschaffung/Umzug_fs_Anwendung.ppt

LEHRSTUHL FR LASERTECHNIK

Process know-how / laser techniques

11

variation of parameters
y burst and pulse energy
y number of pulses per burst
y pulse duration
y pulse distance
y repetition rate

purpose
y high ablation rate
y high ablation quality
(melt reduction,
small Ra, ...)
ideal ablation parameters

Parameter:

l = 10 Hz

EB = 2 mJ
l = 14 ns to 50 ns
t = 0,1 s to 2s

RHEINISCHWESTFLISCHE
TECHNISCHE
HOCHSCHULE
AACHEN

P:/A33/Geraete/Anschaffung/Umzug_fs_Anwendung.ppt

LEHRSTUHL FR LASERTECHNIK

Process analysis by high speed photography


t del =250ns

t del =5s

12

t del =15s

single pulse
E = 2 mJ

Pulse bursts:
1 mm

double pulse
EB = 2 x 1 mJ
t = 2 s
triple pulse
EB = 3 x 0,66 mJ
t 1 = t 2 = 2 s

Results
y Plasma of pulse bursts strips of the surface
y Magnification factor of the plasma volume:
10 for double pulse, 15 for triple pulse
y Plasma emission of pulse bursts have larger
emission times
RHEINISCHWESTFLISCHE
TECHNISCHE
HOCHSCHULE
AACHEN

P:/A33/Geraete/Anschaffung/Umzug_fs_Anwendung.ppt

LEHRSTUHL FR LASERTECHNIK

High-speed Microstructuring of Copper, Aluminum and Steel


Average Power at the Sample Surface, Pt
Maximum Average Pulse Peak Intensity, IP
M2 - Value (focused beam)
Repetition Rate, f
Wavelength at Workpiece
Pulse Duration, p
Oscillator

13

26 W
2
92 MW/cm
1.6
4.1 MHz
532 nm
13 ps

Amplifier

Frequency
Conversion

Beam
Dump

Focusing Optics
and Scanners

Sample
RHEINISCHWESTFLISCHE
TECHNISCHE
HOCHSCHULE
AACHEN

P:/A33/Geraete/Anschaffung/Umzug_fs_Anwendung.ppt

LEHRSTUHL FR LASERTECHNIK

Results

14

Top view

Top view

Cross-section view

Copper

Steel

Aluminium

RHEINISCHWESTFLISCHE
TECHNISCHE
HOCHSCHULE
AACHEN

P:/A33/Geraete/Anschaffung/Umzug_fs_Anwendung.ppt

LEHRSTUHL FR LASERTECHNIK

Ablation Experiments at FEL


A:

15

ablation experiments in steel 1.4301 (=304) and C70

A1: single pulse ablation


y different pulse delays (=rep. Rate.)
y variation of:
- pulse energy
- pulse overlap
- wavelength
A2: ablation with pulse bursts
y different delays:
y variation of:

pulse delay during one burst


burst delay
- number of pulses per burst (1,2,5, )
- burst energy
- pulse overlap
- wavelength

High-speed-photography of plasma dynamics


metallography, SEM and optical microscopy
RHEINISCHWESTFLISCHE
TECHNISCHE
HOCHSCHULE
AACHEN

P:/A33/Geraete/Anschaffung/Umzug_fs_Anwendung.ppt

LEHRSTUHL FR LASERTECHNIK

Drilling with s-laser radiation


Lena Trippe

RHE INISCHWESTFLISCHE
TECHNISCHE
HOCHSCHULE
AACHEN
U:\PC_WNDWS\VORLAGEN\LLT_1.pot

Drilling at LLT / ILT with laser radiation

17

state of the art: single pulse and


trepan drilling with s-laser-radiation

aim: expansion of process limits during


percussion drilling (high speed drilling)

y stainless steel, nickel-based


superalloy
y cylindrical hole geometry
y resolidified melt layers 15m
y aspect ratio 20 : 1
y time / hole < 20s (trepan drilling)

y metals and ceramics


y material thickness 5mm
y aspect ratio > 100 : 1
y time / hole h 1s

Nd:YAG Slab Laser


pulse duration: 100-500s
max. pulse power: 2kW
focal diameter: 40m
M < 2

y process know-how
ylaser techniques
y system technology
y modelling and
simulation
=60, 200m
4mm

process
monitoring

process
control

60m

understanding
of processes
modelling,
analysis

1mm

interdepartmental
cooperation of core
competence teams:

process limits

simulation,
numerical
approximation

process diagnostic

single pulse drilling


(X5CrNi18-10)

trepan drilling
(CMSX-4)
RHEINISCHWESTFLISCHE
TECHNISCHE
HOCHSCHULE
AACHEN

P:/A33/Geraete/Anschaffung/Umzug_fs_Anwendung.ppt

LEHRSTUHL FR LASERTECHNIK

Adaptation of processing parameters

< 500nm
< 3mJ
< 1.5mm
quality
y complete
removal
of material
y geometry

18

ablation depth/pulse < 1-5mm


pulse energy
< 0.1-50J
material thickness < 10mm

vapourisation
helical
drilling

melting
percussion
drilling

y ...
100ns

10s

productivity
y ablation rate
y ...

pulse
duration

RHEINISCHWESTFLISCHE
TECHNISCHE
HOCHSCHULE
AACHEN

P:/A33/Geraete/Anschaffung/Umzug_fs_Anwendung.ppt

LEHRSTUHL FR LASERTECHNIK

Process know-how / laser techniques


variation of parameters:
y pulse energy
y pulse duration
y temporal pulse shape
y focal position
y repetition rate
y ...
purposes:
y reduction of recast layers and
closures
y cylindrical geometry of hole
=> parameters for percussion
drilling

19

development of hole geometry


during one pulse

single pulse drilling


Nd:YAG-Slablaser
pulse energy: 180mJ
pulse duration: 200s
material: X5CrNi18-10
cross-section of single pulse drillings
RHEINISCHWESTFLISCHE
TECHNISCHE
HOCHSCHULE
AACHEN

P:/A33/Geraete/Anschaffung/Umzug_fs_Anwendung.ppt

LEHRSTUHL FR LASERTECHNIK

Process analysis by high speed photography


plasma
(spikes) hole diameter

20

single pulse 500s, 500mJ, dt=20s


0,6

intensity [a.u.]

0,5
0,4
0,3
0,2
0,1
0,0
-200

200

400

600

800

time [s]

200m

pulse shape

melt / closure at
the hole entrance
decreasing intensity of
laser radiation
RHEINISCHWESTFLISCHE
TECHNISCHE
HOCHSCHULE
AACHEN

P:/A33/Geraete/Anschaffung/Umzug_fs_Anwendung.ppt

LEHRSTUHL FR LASERTECHNIK

Modeling and simulation

21

9
8
7

intensity [a.u.]

time scales of physical processes:


y beginning of melting
and vapourisation
y time until meltflow
becomes stationary

6
5
4
3
2
1
0
-1
-30

30

60

90

120

150

180

210

240

150

180

210

240

time [s]
900

experiment
simulation

800
700

hole depth [m]

geometrical scales:
y hole depth
y depth where
resolidification occurs
y hole diameter

600
500
400
300
200
100
0
-30

30

60

90

120

time [s]

RHEINISCHWESTFLISCHE
TECHNISCHE
HOCHSCHULE
AACHEN

P:/A33/Geraete/Anschaffung/Umzug_fs_Anwendung.ppt

LEHRSTUHL FR LASERTECHNIK

Drilling experiments at FEL

Analysis of physical processes


y absorption of laser radiation (vapour,
plasma) at different wavelengths
y plasma formation and absorption of laser
radiation at different pulse numbers and
delays
y development of hole geometry
depending on pulse numbers

22

laser
radiation
vapour
plasma

absorption

melt

find timescales and geometrical scales in


comparison to drilling with s-pulses
material

RHEINISCHWESTFLISCHE
TECHNISCHE
HOCHSCHULE
AACHEN

P:/A33/Geraete/Anschaffung/Umzug_fs_Anwendung.ppt

LEHRSTUHL FR LASERTECHNIK

Drilling experiments at FEL

23

B: drilling experiments (metals (X5CrNi18 10, CMSX-4, Al, Cu),


ceramics (Si3N4, AlN))
B1: single burst drilling
y variation of:

B2: multi-burst drilling


y variation of:

- number of pulses (1,2,5,10,20,50,100)


- different pulse delays
- pulse energy
- wavelength
- number of burst (1,2,5,10,20,50,100)
- number of pulses/burst (1,2,5,10)
- different pulse and/or burst delays
- pulse energy
- wavelength

High-speed-photography of plasma dynamics


metallography, SEM and optical microscopy
RHEINISCHWESTFLISCHE
TECHNISCHE
HOCHSCHULE
AACHEN

P:/A33/Geraete/Anschaffung/Umzug_fs_Anwendung.ppt

LEHRSTUHL FR LASERTECHNIK

Pulsed Laser Deposition


Leonid Moiseev

RHE INISCHWESTFLISCHE
TECHNISCHE
HOCHSCHULE
AACHEN
U:\PC_WNDWS\VORLAGEN\LLT_1.pot

Pulsed Laser Deposition

25

Anti reflective coating (ZrO2, Al2O3) on


arrays of cylindrical lenses of PMMA

Ferroelectric thin films (BaTiO3, PZT)

BaTiO3

Pt
Si

Q-switch waveguide laser by PLD


and microstructuring

electro-optic
Q-switch
Er:BaTiO3
cladding

laser medium
Er:BaTiO3

BaTiO3 thin films on Si/Pt

substrate
RHEINISCHWESTFLISCHE
TECHNISCHE
HOCHSCHULE
AACHEN

P:/A33/Geraete/Anschaffung/Umzug_fs_Anwendung.ppt

LEHRSTUHL FR LASERTECHNIK

Pulsed Laser Deposition

26

Laser radiation

plasma/
vapour

substrate

target
processing gas

Plasma expansion during PLD


RHEINISCHWESTFLISCHE
TECHNISCHE
HOCHSCHULE
AACHEN

P:/A33/Geraete/Anschaffung/Umzug_fs_Anwendung.ppt

LEHRSTUHL FR LASERTECHNIK

Spectroscopy on laser-induced plasmas

27

RHEINISCHWESTFLISCHE
TECHNISCHE
HOCHSCHULE
AACHEN

P:/A33/Geraete/Anschaffung/Umzug_fs_Anwendung.ppt

LEHRSTUHL FR LASERTECHNIK

Time-resolved plasma emission spectroscopy


High speed photography with imaging spectrometer
Al lines at 395 nm during ablation of Al2O3 in O2

28

High speed photography after Abel inversion


material: Al2O3, gas: O2
0.5
1
2
5
td/s=
p=
100 Pa

20 Pa

10 Pa

Relative intensity IA, /Im [a.u.]


:
1 nm

2 Pa
d=5 mm
Distance
RHEINISCHWESTFLISCHE
TECHNISCHE
HOCHSCHULE
AACHEN

P:/A33/Geraete/Anschaffung/Umzug_fs_Anwendung.ppt

LEHRSTUHL FR LASERTECHNIK

Heat conduction in the target and absorption by the plasma

29

Partitioning of optical energy P [%]

100
BaTiO3
80
60
Heat conduction in target
absorption by plasma

40
20
0

2
2
Fluence L [J/cm ]

4
RHEINISCHWESTFLISCHE
TECHNISCHE
HOCHSCHULE
AACHEN

P:/A33/Geraete/Anschaffung/Umzug_fs_Anwendung.ppt

LEHRSTUHL FR LASERTECHNIK

Kinetic energy of the particles


Comparison with plume dynamics by iCCD:

elastic collisions
mi
Ekin i = c1
pr 3 , [1]
1 + c2
LT
inelastic collisions (macroscopic)
mi
Ekin i = c1
2

pr 3
1 + c2

LT

material
Al2O3
ZrO2
BaTiO3

elastic
c1 [eV/u]
2,3 0,4
1,2 0,2
0,9 0,2

inelastic c2 /MPg
c1 [eV/u]
4,1 0,8 6,0 0,5
1,7 0,3 5,0 0,5
1,5 0,3 2,5 0,3

[1] Gottmann et. al.: (E-MRS 1997)


Surf. Coat. Technol. 100-101, (1998) p. 415

10

Collision kinetic models c2=16 x 10 K/m


elastic, v0=15 km/s
inelastic, v0=18 km/s

20

Mean velocity <v> [km/s]

Model:

30

2 Pa
7 Pa
10 Pa
20 Pa
100 Pa

15

10

ZrO2
O2, m=32

L=3 J/cm

T=20 C

2
3
Distance from target R [cm]

RHEINISCHWESTFLISCHE
TECHNISCHE
HOCHSCHULE
AACHEN

P:/A33/Geraete/Anschaffung/Umzug_fs_Anwendung.ppt

LEHRSTUHL FR LASERTECHNIK

Ellipsometry: Refractive index of ZrO2 films

31

0.10

2.2

0.08
Zone 1

2.0

Zone 2

Zone 3

0.06
k

1.8

d S =3,5cm; L=3,5J/cm

d S =2,7cm; L=3,5J/cm

1.6

d S =2,7cm; L=5,0J/cm

0.04

0.02

1.4
1.2
5
TS=20 C
L=3.5 J/cm2

10
30
Calculated kinetic energy <E kin> Zr [eV]

Absorption index k (=633 nm)

Refractive index n (=633 nm)

2.4

0.00
100
The bulk values n=2.2 and k=0
are achieved at <Ekin>=20 - 50 eV
RHEINISCHWESTFLISCHE
TECHNISCHE
HOCHSCHULE
AACHEN

P:/A33/Geraete/Anschaffung/Umzug_fs_Anwendung.ppt

LEHRSTUHL FR LASERTECHNIK

Deposition Experiments at FEL


C:

32

deposition experiments of oxides and fluorides

C1: ablation for plasma diagnostics


y optical emission and absorption spectroscopy
y variation of:

- different pulse delays


- pulse energy
- wavelength

C2: pulsed laser deposition with pulse bursts


y measurement of deposition rate, optical and structural film
properties and correlation with plasma parameters
y variation of:

- number of pulses per burst


- burst energy
- wavelength

RHEINISCHWESTFLISCHE
TECHNISCHE
HOCHSCHULE
AACHEN

P:/A33/Geraete/Anschaffung/Umzug_fs_Anwendung.ppt

LEHRSTUHL FR LASERTECHNIK

Aim of all planned Experiments & Conclusion

33

Analysis of physical processes ablation


y process efficiency: absorption of laser radiation in vapour/ plasma
at different wavelengths and pulse energies,
y kinetic energy of particles: plasma expansion and absorption of
laser radiation using different pulse numbers, delays and energy
y correlation of the physical processes with the resulting
deposition/ablation rate and film properties
y modelling of the processes using the FEL-parameters

Find out parameters for


the deposition of high quality films at high deposition rates (>1 m/s/cm2)
the ablation/drilling with tailored pulse trains to precondition the surrounding
getting melt-free structures

RHEINISCHWESTFLISCHE
TECHNISCHE
HOCHSCHULE
AACHEN

P:/A33/Geraete/Anschaffung/Umzug_fs_Anwendung.ppt

LEHRSTUHL FR LASERTECHNIK

Aachen and ILT

34

Carl der Grosse

Rathaus

Dom

ILT&LLT

Marktplatz
P:/A33/Geraete/Anschaffung/Umzug_fs_Anwendung.ppt

RHEINISCHWESTFLISCHE
TECHNISCHE
HOCHSCHULE
AACHEN

LEHRSTUHL FR LASERTECHNIK

Adaptation of processing parameters

35

ms-pulses:

fs-pulses:

y high ablation rate


y lower quality

y lower ablation rate


y high quality

tpt-project:
y high ablation rate
y high quality

RHEINISCHWESTFLISCHE
TECHNISCHE
HOCHSCHULE
AACHEN

P:/A33/Geraete/Anschaffung/Umzug_fs_Anwendung.ppt

LEHRSTUHL FR LASERTECHNIK

Modeling and simulation

36

Model for ablation process:


y Following pulses again
interact with the surface
y VPB >> VSP, mPB >> mSP
y drSP/dt < 0, drPB/dt > 0
y single pulse: spheric
discoid
y pulse burst: discoid
spheric
consequence of the
precondition due to the previous
pulses

RHEINISCHWESTFLISCHE
TECHNISCHE
HOCHSCHULE
AACHEN

P:/A33/Geraete/Anschaffung/Umzug_fs_Anwendung.ppt

LEHRSTUHL FR LASERTECHNIK