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ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH PLAN OF THE FEDERAL MINISTER FOR THE ENVIRONMENT, NATURE CONSERVATION AND NUCLEAR SAFETY

Funding code 210 45 109

- Pollutant and noise emissions of motorboats –

- Basis for updating the EU Directive 94/25/EC for limiting the emissions of motorboats -

94/25/EC for limiting the emissions of motorboats - RWTÜV Fahrzeug GmbH Institut für Fahrzeugtechnik Bereich

RWTÜV Fahrzeug GmbH Institut für Fahrzeugtechnik Bereich Motoren / Nutzfahrzeuge

Dipl.-Ing. Michael Horn

Dipl.-Ing. Heinz Steven

Ulrich Haberkorn

Dipl.-Ing. Leif-Erik Schulte

- Final Report -

Commissioned by the

Federal Environment Ministry

July 2005

- 2 -

Berichts - Kennblatt

1.

Berichtsnummer

2.

Abschlußbericht

3.

4.

Titel des Berichts „Schadstoff- und Lärmemissionen von Motorbooten – Grundlage für die Fortschreibung der EU- Richtlinie zur Begrenzung der Emissionen von Motorbooten“

5.

Autor(en), Name(n), Vorname(n)

 

8. Datum des Berichts

Horn, Michael; Haberkorn, Ulrich;

Steven, Heinz Schulte, Leif-Erik

30.06.2005

6.

Durchführende Institution (Name, Anschrift)

9. Veröffentlichungsdatum

RWTÜV Fahrzeug GmbH Institut für Fahrzeugtechnik Adlerstr. 7, 45307 Essen

   

10. UFOPLAN - Nr. 210 45 109

 

11. Seitenzahl

122

7.

Fördernde Institution (Name, Anschrift)

12. Literaturangaben

 

26

 

Umweltbundesamt, Bismarckplatz 1, 14193 Berlin

 

15.

Zusätzliche Angaben

13. Tabellen und Diagramme

 

56

14. Abbildungen

62

16.

Kurzfassung Ermittlung der Geräusch- und Schadstoffemissionen für eine möglichst repräsentative Auswahl von Motoren für Sportboote nach EN ISO 14509 und EN ISO 8178. Die „Sportbootrichtlinie“ 94/25/EG, fortgeschrieben durch die Richtlinie 2003/44/EC wurde als Referenz für das Vorhaben betrachtet. Die Motoren wurden anhand der Verkaufszahlen für Deutschland aus den Jahren 1998 bis 2001 ausgewählt. Ermittelt wurden die spezifischen Emissionen CO, HC und NO x , für ausgewählte Ottomotoren zusätzlich die Partikelemissionen. Von fünf Außenbordmotoren wurden nach dem Betrieb Wasserproben entnommen und auf Schadstoffe analysiert. Hinsichtlich der Einhaltung der angestrebten Emissionsgrenzwerte der Richtlinie 94/25/EG (2003/44/EC) zeigten sich die Dieselmotoren und Innenbord-Ottomotoren als wenig kritisch. Die Viertakt-Außenbordmotoren überschritten je nach Abstimmung den CO-Grenzwert. Bei den Zweitakt-Außenbordmotoren unterschreiten nur Motoren mit moderner Kraftstoff- Direkteinspritzung die Grenzwerte. Die Wasserproben weisen einen unterschiedlichen Schadstoffeintrag von Zweitakt- und Viertakt-Ottomotoren auf. Eine Bewertung erweist sich als schwierig. Bis auf einen Prüfling erfüllen alle Motoren die künftigen Geräuschgrenzwerte.

17.

Schlagwörter Sportboote, Abgasemissionen, Geräuschemissionen, 94/25/EG, 2003/44/EC, Wasseranalyse, EN ISO 8178, EN ISO 14509

18.

Preis

19.

20.

 

- 3 -

1.

Report-No.

2.

Final Report

3.

4.

Report Title “Exhaust gas and noise emissions of motorboats – Basis for the update of the European Union directive for the limitation of the emissions of motorboats”

5.

Author(s), Family Name(s), First Name(s)

8. Report Date

Horn, Michael:

Haberkorn, Ulrich:

Steven, Heinz Schulte, Leif-Erik

30.06.2005

6.

Performing Organisation (Name, Address)

9. Publication Date

RWTÜV Fahrzeug GmbH Institut für Fahrzeugtechnik Adlerstr. 7, 45307 Essen

   

10. UFOPLAN – Ref. No. 210 45 109

 

11. No. of Pages

122

7.

Sponsoring Agency (Name, Address)

12. No. of References

 

26

 

Umweltbundesamt, Bismarckplatz 1, 14193 Berlin

 

15.

Supplementary Notes

13. No. of Tables, Diagrams

 

56

14. No. of Figures

62

16.

Abstract The scope of the project was to enlarge the existing data basis of noise and exhaust emissions for recreational craft engines according to EN ISO 14509 and EN ISO 8178. Therefore a representative selection of recreational craft engines was tested. The "recreational craft directive" 94/25/EC as last amended by the directive 2003/44/EC was considered as the reference for the entire programme. The engines to be tested had been chosen according to sales figures for the years 1998 to 2001 for the Federal Republic of Germany. The specific emissions of CO, HC and NO x were determined and for a selected range of spark-ignition engines the PM emissions were also measured. On five engines the exhaust gas components emitted into the water of the engine operating tank were determined using special chemical analysis. With reference to the limits given in directive 94/25/EC (2003/44/EC), diesel as well as inboard four-stroke petrol-engines can be seen as uncritical. Depending on their adjustment some four-stroke outboard engines exceeded the CO-limit. With respect to two-stroke engines only state of the art concepts with modern direct-injection meet the given emission limits. The water analysis results display different water pollutants between two-stroke and four-stroke spark-ignition engines. The interpretation of the results proves to be difficult. Looking at all engines only one exceeded the future noise limits.

17.

Keywords Recreational craft, exhaust emissions, noise emissions, 94/25/EC, 2003/44/EC, water analyses, EN ISO 8178, EN ISO 14509

18.

Price

19.

20.

Contents

- 4 -

Page

0 Symbols and abbreviations

7

1 Introduction

9

2 Project objectives

10

2.1 Working with the industry

11

2.2 A vote of thanks

11

2.3 Project structure

12

3 Prior art

13

3.1 Exhaust gas and noise emission regulations for recreational craft engines

13

3.1.1 Bodensee-Schifffahrts-Ordnung (BSO) (Regulation covering recreational craft on the

 

Bodensee/Lake Constance)

13

3.1.2 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

15

3.1.3 Directive 94/25/EC

17

3.2 Comparison of limit values

20

3.2.1 Directive 2003/44/EC – BSO Stage I + II (petrol engines)

20

3.2.2 Directive 2003/44/EC – BSO Stage I + II (diesel engines)

22

3.2.3 Directive 2003/44/EC – EPA regulation 40 CFR Part 91 (petrol engines)

24

3.2.4 Directive 2003/44/EC – EPA regulation 40 CFR Part 89 and 94 (diesel engines)

25

4 Measuring programme

26

4.1 Engine selection

26

4.2 Exhaust gas test cycles as per EN ISO 8178

30

4.3 Noise measurements according to EN ISO 14509

33

4.4 Measuring equipment

34

4.4.1

Exhaust gas

34

4.4.1.1 Test tank

35

4.4.1.2 Engine test stand and torque dynamometer

36

4.4.1.3 Exhaust gas analysis system

37

4.4.1.4 Particulate measuring equipment

38

4.4.1.5 Fuel measuring equipment

39

4.5 Carrying out the exhaust gas measurements on the engine test stand

39

4.5.1

Special features of the measuring process

40

- 5 -

4.6

Carrying out the noise measurement

42

5 Results

 

45

5.1 Pollutant emissions (exhaust gas)

45

 

5.1.1

Inboard engines

45

5.1.1.1 Petrol engines

45

5.1.1.2 Diesel engines

48

5.1.2

Outboard engines

50

5.1.2.1 Two-stroke engines

50

5.1.2.2 Four-stroke engines

52

5.1.3 Air ratio Lambda (λ)

54

5.1.4 Comparison of exhaust gas emissions of all engines

56

5.1.4.1 RWTÜV data

56

5.1.4.2 Manufacturers’ data

58

5.1.5

Particulates

60

5.2 Noise emissions

62

 

5.2.1 Results of pass-by measurements

62

5.2.2 Comments

68

6 Determination/deduction of the potential for reducing pollutant and noise emissions

69

6.1 Reduction potential

69

 

6.1.1 Noise

69

6.1.2 Exhaust gas

70

6.1.3 Discharge into the water

73

6.1.3.1

Water analysis

73

 

6.1.3.1.1

Experimental data

73

 

6.1.3.1.1.1

Determination of PAHs

73

6.1.3.1.1.2

Determining the hydrocarbon index

73

 

6.1.3.1.1.3

Determination of volatile aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene and derivatives)

 

74

 

6.1.3.1.2

Results

74

6.1.3.1.2.1 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the water samples examined 74

6.1.3.1.2.2 Hydrocarbon index in the water samples investigated

80

6.1.3.1.2.3 Volatile aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene and derivatives) in the water samples examined

81

6.2 Reduction scenario

84

6.2.1 Initial situation

84

6.2.2 Exhaust gas emissions

85

- 6 -

 

6.2.2.1

Discharge of pollutants into the water

88

7 Comments on the EC Directive

92

7.1 Exhaust gas measurement

92

7.2 Noise measurement

93

8 Summary

 

94

9 Bibliography

100

10

Annex

104

10.1 Water analysis

104

10.2 Emission data of the manufacturers

107

10.3 Emission data RWTÜV

111

10.4 Individual results of pass-by measurements

113

- 7 -

0 Symbols and abbreviations

Abbreviation

Unit

Meaning

A

[-]

Constant

OB

[-]

Outboard

ABT

[-]

Averaging, Banking, & Trading

AU

[-]

Exhaust emission analysis

B

[-]

Constant

FRG

[-]

Federal Republic of Germany

BSO

[-]

Bodensee-Schifffahrts-Ordnung

BSZ

[-]

BOSCH smoke number

BTEX

[-]

Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene

BWVS

[-]

Bundesverband Wassersportwirtschaft e.V. (Federal Association of the Water Sports Industry)

CFR

[-]

Code of Federal Regulations

CO

[g/kWh]

Specific carbon monoxide emission

CO 2

[g/kWh]

Specific carbon dioxide emission

DIN

[-]

Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V. (German Standards Institute)

EC

[-]

European Community

EN

[-]

European standard

EPA

[-]

Environmental Protection Agency

EU

[-]

European Union

UEA

[-]

Unified Economic Area

FhG

[-]

Fraunhofer Gesellschaft

FIGE

[-]

Forschungsinstitut Geräusche und

FKZ

[-]

Erschütterungen Funding code

F n

[-]

Froude number

G

[m/s 2 ]

Gravitational constant

GFS

[-]

Insignificance threshold values

GLP

[-]

Good Laboratory Practice

HC

[g/kWh]

Specific hydrocarbon emission

IB

[-]

Inboard

ICOMIA

[-]

International Council of Marine Industry Associations

ICP

[-]

Induced Coupled Plasma

IFT

[-]

Institute for Vehicle Technology

IMEC

[-]

ICOMIA Marine Environment Committee

ISO

[-]

International Organization for Standardization

LAWA

[-]

Länderarbeitsgemeinschaft Wasser

- 8 -

Abbreviation

Unit

Meaning

LpASmax

[dB]

Sound pressure level (A assessed using time

Lwl

[m]

base Slow) maximum Length at waterline

m

[-]

Constant

NO x

[g/kWh]

Specific nitrogen oxide emission

O 2

[%, ppm]

Oxygen

PAH / PAK

[-]

polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

PM

[g/kWh]

Specific particulate emissions

P n

[kW]

Rated power

RWTÜV

[-]

Rheinisch-Westfälischer Technischer Überwachungsverein e.V.

SAV

[-]

Ordinance relating to the exhaust gas emissions of ships’ engines in Swiss waters

SI

[-]

Spark Ignition

SOF

[-]

Soluble Organic Fraction

TREMOD

[-]

Transport Emission Estimation Model

UBA

[-]

Federal Environment Agency

V

[m/s]

Velocity

λ

[-]

Air ratio Lambda

1

Introduction

- 9 -

In the research project, a representative selection of boat engines was to be tested in respect of their noise and exhaust gas emissions. On the basis of this it would be possible to formulate potential measures for reducing the air, water and noise pollution. This is to take place inter alia with the aid of the TREMOD estimation model for calculating global or local noise and pollutant emissions.

According to rough estimates there are around 300,000 (recreational) motorboats in the FRG that contribute considerably, especially in the case of those with two-stroke propulsion, to current and future air quality problems (ozone formation). The particulate emissions of two-stroke petrol engines are also of interest. Two- or four-stroke outboard engines with an output of up to 40 kW account for the greatest percentage of motorized capacity. The use of these engines is concentrated in the summer months and here in particular at weekends. Increased usage on certain days and in areas that usually also have a high recreational and leisure value results in substantial noise pollution and significant environmental pollution caused by exhaust emissions in these areas. Insufficient data exist at present regarding the pollutant and noise emissions from motorboats and these data are to be collected with the aid of the project.

According to information from ICOMIA (International Council of Marine Industry Associations), the total numbers of recreational craft in the countries of the EU und the UEA, including Switzerland, in 1998 were as follows:

Sailing boats:

821,506

Motorboats:

3,628,000

Inflatables:

170,000 (if not already covered by motorboats)

Personal watercraft:

10,700

ICOMIA has produced the following data for the motorization of these units (sales figures for engines in Europe, 1998 (in units)):

Outboard engines:

196,700

Inboard diesel engines:

26,000

Inboard petrol engines:

4,916

Personal watercraft:

10,700

- 10 -

It is evident from this that far more outboard engines are sold than inboard diesel engines and inboard petrol engines. These figures provided the basis for the selection of engines to be tested.

The amendment currently under discussion at European level of the “Recreational Craft Directive” 94/25/EC, extended by Directive 2003/44/EC, deals with the problem of emissions from recreational craft and was regarded as the “reference guideline” for the project.

2 Project objectives

No comprehensive data have so far been available regarding exhaust gas and noise emissions from recreational craft drives. The research project is intended to create a reliable, corroborated database with the aid of which the current prior art for recreational craft drives can be documented. To this end, particulate emissions of petrol engines and the discharge of pollutants into water and their detectability in water are to be looked at in addition to a study of noise and gaseous emissions. The information required for the project was to be compiled by taking measurements of selected boat engines and with the aid of data from the engine manufacturers. Furthermore, it should be possible to estimate the technical outlay for optimizing the current situation. As well as deducing and formulating an emission reduction potential (exhaust gas and noise) this also includes formulating any proposals that may be required for changing Directive 94/25/EC

(2003/44/EC).

With reference to a heavily used stretch of water it was to be ascertained using a model what environmental effects are produced. It was to be calculated how possible reduction measures and the exhaust and noise limits for recreational craft that are currently under preparation in the EU could affect the environmental pollution.

- 11 -

2.1 Working with the industry

An effort was made at an early stage to involve the industry and water sports associations in the project. To this end, a first meeting took place in April 2002 in Cologne, in which representatives of the UBA, the BWVS, IMEC and RWTÜV participated. The aim of the meeting was to inform the associations about the project and examine the possibility of collaboration between the partners. The meeting was successful, with various agreements on joint working being reached, and the associations expressed their willingness to make data relevant to the project available. These data included the sales figures for boats and boat engines as well as a large amount of emission data for engines of various manufacturers. Likewise, various manufacturers also declared their readiness to supply engines for the exhaust and noise emission measurements. These engines were selected by RWTÜV and discussed with the UBA and the associations. The first engines were delivered by the manufacturers to RWTÜV in April 2003. Informative meetings took place in the interim with various representatives of the industry and associations in Essen and in Heerenlaak near Maaseik, Belgium. The industry’s help was also enlisted here for the purpose of technical support and various discussions.

2.2 A vote of thanks

We would like to thank all parties involved in the research project for a good and successful working relationship and for their support. Our thanks are extended in particular to ICOMIA. The industry representatives were always on hand to assist us in solving technical problems and to participate in stimulating discussions.

- 12 -

2.3 Project structure

The measurements of exhaust gas and noise emissions were carried out by RWTÜV Fahrzeug GmbH. The measurements of exhaust gas emissions were undertaken in Essen at the Institute for Vehicle Technology (IFT) on the engine test stands of the Engines/Utility Vehicles Division, where the applicability and practicability of the test cycles in accordance with EN ISO 8178 were to be investigated. Directive 94/25/EC, extended by Directive 2003/44/EC, served as the reference for the measurements. Due to the engine design, exhaust gas measurements on outboard engines are difficult for various technical reasons. One problem with outboard engines is the defined loading of the engine in the water tank required for cooling purposes. The Institute for Vehicle Technology has access to a test tank developed especially for this purpose, which allows the engine to be operated on the engine test stand under conditions that approximate reality. The engine is subjected to defined loading with the aid of a loading unit and an analysis system permits the exhaust gas emissions to be evaluated. The gear output of the engine is connected for this purpose by means of two cardan shafts via the shaft passage opening on the test tank to the loading unit. Furthermore, the test tank, which has a closed water circuit, also offers the opportunity to determine the pollutants discharged into the water in the tank. To this end, water samples from five engines were taken from the test tank and sent for analysis to the Fraunhofer Institut für Toxikologie und Experimentelle Medizin (Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine) in Hannover. The particulate mass emissions of two-stroke petrol engines were also to be examined more closely. In Directive 94/25/EC (2003/44/EC) suitable attention has only been given to these hitherto in relation to diesel engines.

The noise emission measurements and derivation of the pollutant and noise reduction potential were handled by the RWTÜV’s Division for Noise, Metrology and Modelling. The noise measurements were carried out as required by Directive 94/25/EC (2003/44/EC) in accordance with EN ISO 14509. The noise measurements were carried out using the required “standard boats” off Heerenlaak harbour near Maaseik in Belgium (excavation pit with dead water).

- 13 -

3

Prior art

3.1

Exhaust gas and noise emission regulations for recreational craft engines

3.1.1

Bodensee-Schifffahrts-Ordnung (BSO) (Regulation covering recreational craft on the Bodensee/Lake Constance)

The frequently invoked limiting of exhaust gas emissions for recreational craft in accordance with the

“Bodensee-Schifffahrts-Ordnung” (BSO) applies in the first instance to shipping on the Bodensee.

Germany, Austria and Switzerland deal with all questions relating to the Bodensee jointly on a

trilateral basis.

Drawing up of the regulations for exhaust gas and noise emissions for recreational craft on the

Bodensee commenced at the end of the 1980s. The work was completed in 1992 and the regulations

came into force in a first phase in 1993 (Phase 2: 1996) and were the first such regulations in the world

for boat engines.

The limit values for the specific exhaust emissions CO, HC and NO x depend on the maximum power

of an engine (Table 3.1.1 – 1). Smaller engines emit specifically (power-related) more pollutants. For

this reason a higher limit value was set here. The calculation in g/kWh is worked out with the aid of

the following formula:

Limitvalue

=

A

m

P

N

P N = max. power at rated speed A, m = constants (see Table 3.1.1 – 1)

Specific limit values Stage I (Petrol and-diesel engines) in g/kWh Power in kW Carbon monoxide
Specific limit values Stage I (Petrol and-diesel engines) in g/kWh
Power in kW
Carbon monoxide CO =
Hydrocarbons HC =
Nitrogen oxide NOx
A A
m m
A A
m m
A A
m m
< <
4
4
600 600
0,5
0,5
60 60
0,7747
0,7747
15 15
0 0
4 4
– 100
– 100
600 600
0,5
0,5
39,39
39,39
0,4711
0,4711
15 15
0 0
> >
100
100
60 60
0 0
10,13
10,13
0,1761
0,1761
15 15
0 0
Specific limit values Stage II (petrol
and [ diesel engines]) in g/kWh
Power in kW
Carbon monoxide CO =
Hydrocarbons HC =
Nitrogen oxide NO =
x
=
x
A A
m
m
A
A
m
m
A
A
m
m
< <
4
4
400 400
0,6505
0,6505
30 30
0,6505
0,6505
10 10
0,1505 [0]
0,1505
[0]
4 4
– 100
– 100
400 400
0,6505
0,6505
30 30
0,6505
0,6505
10 10
0,1505 [0]
0,1505
[0]
> >
100
100
20 20
0 0
3,375
3,375
0,1761
0,1761
5 5
[10]
[10]
0 0
Mass emissions in g/h
Carbon monoxide CO
Hydrocarbons HC
Nitr.oxide NO x
x
Stage I
4500 4500
290 290
1100 1100
Stage II
1500 1500
95 95
360 360
Bosch smoke number (BSZ) Bosch Stage 1 Stage 2 Aspirated engines 4,0 4.0 3,5 3,5
Bosch smoke number (BSZ)
Bosch
Stage 1
Stage 2
Aspirated engines
4,0 4.0
3,5
3,5
Engines with exhaust turbocharger
3,0 3.0
2,5
2,5

Table 3.1.1 – 1: Pollutant emission limit values of the BSO

- 14 -

One special feature of the BSO is the additional limiting of the pollutants CO, HC und NO x relative to the emitted mass in grammes per hour. If a boat has two engines, the following must be guaranteed:

the sum of the pollutant mass of two engines may not be greater than the limit value of the mass emission that applies to a single engine. The limit values of the mass emission are not dependent on the power of an engine. For this reason engines with a large exhaust mass flow, as a rule large-volume combustion engines, have more problems in adhering to these limit values.

In the BSO the specific particulate mass is not limited for compression ignition engines, as is otherwise normally the case. Here a diesel engine only has to adhere to the limited BOSCH smoke number (BSZ). The BSZ is a measure of the “intensity” of the exhaust smoke and is determined at full load and rated speed.

As with periodic exhaust emission analysis (AU) on cars, certified craft and boats should be re-tested at specific intervals (repeat testing). The intervals for repeat testing are 2 years for passenger vessels and 3 years for other craft.

- 15 -

3.1.2 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

In the USA, the “Environmental Protection Agency” (EPA) regulates exhaust emissions from marine

engines. The sum of emitted hydrocarbons (HC) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) for petrol outboard

engines has been limited since 1998 in EPA regulation 40 CFR Part 91. No account is taken here of

the carbon monoxide (CO) emitted. The limit values for pollutant emissions for engines with a rated

power of greater than or equal to 4.3 kW depend on the engine power and are calculated with the aid

of a formula. Engines with an output of less than 4.3 kW must adhere to a fixed limit value.

The EPA requires proof from the engine manufacturers that the engines adhere to the values applicable

to them (Table 3.1.2 – 1) over a set period (operating hours or calendar years). The exhaust emissions

are determined with the help of the E4 cycle described in EN ISO 8178-4. /10/

 

HC + NO x (g/kW-hr) P < 4,3 a

HC + NO x (g/kW-hr) P 4,3 a

   
 

Year

Useful Life

Warranty Period

     

(0,917 x (151 + 557/P 0,9 ))

   

1998

278

(ABT)

+

2,44 (ABT)

   

(0,833 x (151 + 557/P 0,9 ))

1 year for all emission-related components

1999

253

(ABT)

+

2,89 (ABT)

   

(0,750 x (151 + 557/P 0,9 ))

 

2000

228

(ABT)

+

3,33 (ABT)

 

350 hours/10 years

Personal watercraft:

 
   

(0,667 x (151 + 557/P 0,9 ))

350 hours/5 years

 

Federal b

2001

204

(ABT)

+

3,78 (ABT)

Outboard:

1 year for all emission-related

   

(0,583 x (151 + 557/P 0,9 ))

components; 3 years or 200 hours

2002

179

(ABT)

+

4,22 (ABT)

for specified major emission control components

   

(0,500 x (151 + 557/P 0,9 ))

 

2003

155

(ABT)

+

4,67 (ABT)

   
   

(0,417 x (151 + 557/P 0,9 ))

   

2 year or 200 hours for all emission-related components; 3

years or 200 hours for specified major emission control components

2004

130

(ABT)

+

5,11 (ABT)

 

2005

105

(ABT)

(0,333 x (151 + 557/P 0,9 ))

+

5,56 (ABT)

   

(0,250 x (151 + 557/P 0,9 ))

2006+

81 (ABT)

+

6,00 (ABT)

The test procedures for current federal standards use the ISO 8178 E4 5-Mode Steady-State Test Cycle.

a P stands for the rated power of the engine family in kilowatt.

b These standards apply to marine SI outboard/personal watercraft and jet boat engines only. The

standards are expressed in g/kW-hr in the Code of Federal Regulations. There are currently no federal standards for marine SI sterndrive/inboard engines; previously proposed federal standards were not finalized. Marine CI engines under 50 hp are covered under the proposed nonroad CI standards. Federal standards are currently in development for marine CI engines over 50 hp. There are no California or European Union standards for marine SI or CI engines. The standard for personal watercraft does not go into effect until 1999, although the standard into effect for outboard engines in 1998. (ABT) - Averaging, Banking, & Trading

Table 3.1.2 – 1: EPA, Spark Ignition (SI) Marine Engines

- 16 -

For marine diesel engines under 37 kW (50 HP) the limit values for “non-road CI engines” apply in accordance with EPA regulation 40 CFR Part 89 (Table 3.1.2 – 2), while for marine diesel engines with a greater power the values according to EPA regulation 40 CFR Part 94 (Table 3.1.2 – 3) apply. Unlike the situation in relation to petrol engines, the carbon monoxide emissions of diesel engines are limited too. The limits apply both to the leisure sphere and to commercial use /11/ und /19/.

Nonroad Exhaust Emission Standards

Rated Power

Tier

Model Year

NMHC + NOx [g/kW-hr]

CO

PM

[kW]

\1\

[g/kW-hr]

[g/kW-hr]

kW < 8

Tier 1

2000

10,5

8,0

1,00

Tier 2

2005

7,5

8,0

0,80

8 = < kW < 19

Tier 1

2000

9,5

6,0

0,80

Tier 2

2005

7,5

6,0

0,80

19 = < kW < 37

Tier 1

1999

9,5

5,5

0,80

Tier 2

2004

7,5

5,5

0,60

\1\ The model years listed indicate the model years for which the specified standards start

Table 3.1.2 – 2:

Limit values according to EPA regulation 40 CFR Part 89, nonroad CI engines under 37 kW (50 HP)

Primary Tier 2 Exhaust Emission Standards

Engine size liters/cylinder, rated power

Category

Model year

THC+NO x

CO

PM

\1\

[g/kW-hr]

[g/kW-hr]

[g/kW-hr]

disp. < 0.9 and power [ge] 37 kW

Category 1

2005

7,5

5,0

0,40

0.9

[le] disp. < 1.2, all power levels

Category 1

2004

7,2

5,0

0,30

1.2

[le] disp. < 2.5, all power levels

Category 1

2004

7,2

5,0

0,20

2.5

[le] disp. < 5.0, all power levels

Category 1

2007

7,2

5,0

0,20

5.0

[le] disp. < 15.0, all power levels

Category 2

2007

7,8

5,0

0,27

15.0

[le] disp. < 20.0 power, < 3300 kW

Category 2

2007

8,7

5,0

0,50

15.0

[le] disp. < 20.0, power [ge] 3300 kW

Category 2

2007

9,8

5,0

0,50

20.0

[le] disp. < 25.0, all power levels

Category 2

2007

9,8

5,0

0,50

25.0

[le] disp. < 30.0, all power levels

Category 2

2007

11,0

5,0

0,50

disp. [ge] 30.0, all power levels

Category 3

2007

See paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section

\1\ The model years listed indicate the model years for which the specified standards start (ii) EPA has not finalized Tier 2 standards for Category 3 engines. EPA will promulgate final Tier 2 standards for Category 3 engines on or before April 27, 2007. Category 1 means relating to a marine engine with a rated power greater than or equal to 37 kilowatts and a specific engine displacement less than 5.0 liters per cylinder. Category 2 means relating to a marine engine with a specific engine displacement greater than or equal to 5.0 liters per cylinder but less than 30 liters per cylinder. Category 3 means relating to a marine engine with a specific engine displacement greater than or equal to 30 liters per cylinder.

Table 3.1.2 – 3:

Limit values according to EPA regulation 40 CFR Part 94, marine engines above 37 kW (50 HP)

- 17 -

3.1.3 Directive 94/25/EC

“Directive 94/25/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 June 1994 on the

approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the Member States relating to

recreational craft” created a regulation for the European area. Since coming into force in 1998 the

Directive has dealt with the design and construction of recreational craft. Its aim was to create

“harmonized provisions regarding exhaust and noise emissions by recreational craft.”

On 16 June 2003 Directive 2003/44/EC amending Directive 94/25/EC came into effect. This sets limit

values for exhaust and noise emissions by recreational craft within the Member States for the first time

(Table 3.1.3 – 1 and Table 3.1.3 – 2). These apply to the introduction of auto-ignition and four-stroke

spark ignition engines after 01.01.2006 and to two-stroke spark ignition engines after 01.01.2007. The

specific limit values in g/kWh for the exhaust emissions carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC)

and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) are calculated using the following formula:

Limitvalue = A +

B

n

N

P

P N = rated engine power A, B, n = constants

The specific exhaust emissions of small engines are proportionately higher than those of larger

engines. In the formula shown, term A denotes a base level in the case of high engine outputs and term

B / P N n a supplement for engines with a lower output. The different engine concepts are also taken into

account when calculating the limit values, a distinction being drawn between two- and four-stroke

petrol engines and compression ignition engines /9/.

   

Carbon monoxide

Hydrocarbons

 

Nitr.

 

Type

CO = A + B / P N g/kWh

n

HC = A + B / P N g/kWh

n

oxide

Particles

           

NO X

g/kWh

A

B

 

n

A

B

 

n

g/kWh

2-stroke-

             

Not

Petrol engines

150.0

600.0

 

1.0

30.0

100.0

 

0.75

10.0

applicable

4-stroke

             

Not

Petrol engines

150.0

600.0

 

1.0

6.0

50

 

0.75

15.0

applicable

Compression

               

ignition

5.0

0

 

0

1.5

2.0

 

0.5

9.8

1.0

engines

   

Table 3.1.3 – 1: Exhaust gas emission limits of Directive 2003/44/EC

- 18 -

Recreational craft with inboard engines or engines with Z-drive without an integral exhaust system,

personal watercraft engines and outboard engines and engines with Z-drive and integrated exhaust

system also have to conform to the requirements in respect of noise emissions.

The noise emissions measured with the aid of the test method stipulated in EN ISO 14509

(cf. Chapter 4.3) may not exceed the limit values given in Table 3.1.3 – 2.

Power of individual engine in kW

Maximum sound pressure level = LpASmax in dB

P N 10

67

10 < P N 40

72

P N > 40

75

Table 3.1.2 – 2: Noise emission limits of Directive 2003/44/EC

Here P N equates to the rated power of the engine in kW (at rated speed) and LpASmax to the

maximum sound pressure level in dB. For two or multi-engine units of all engine types the limit may

be increased by 3 dB.

As an alternative to noise measurements, these noise regulations are considered to have been met in

the case of recreational craft with inboard engines or engines with a Z-drive and no integrated exhaust

system if they have a Froude number 1.1 and a ratio of power to displacement 40 and the engine

plus exhaust system are installed according to the specifications of the engine manufacturer.

The “Froude number” is calculated by dividing the maximum velocity of the boat V (m/s) by the

product of the square root of the length at waterline Lwl (m) and a given gravitational constant (g =

9.8 m/s 2 )

F n

=

V . (g Lwl) ⋅
V
.
(g Lwl)

The “power/displacement ratio” is calculated by dividing the engine power P (kW) by the boat’s

displacement D (t) = P/D.

- 19 -

As a further alternative to noise measurements, these noise regulations are considered to have been satisfied by recreational craft with inboard engines or engines with a Z-drive and no integrated exhaust system if their key design features are the same as for a reference boat that has already been certified taking the tolerance specifications of EN ISO 14509 into account.

A “certified reference boat” is a specific combination of boat hull and inboard engine or engine with

Z-drive without integrated exhaust system which has been found to meet the requirements in respect

of noise emissions following measurements in accordance with EN ISO 14509, and of which all the

relevant key design features and the results of the noise emission measurements have been included in the published list of certified reference boats. /9/

- 20 -

3.2

Comparison of limit values

3.2.1

Directive 2003/44/EC – BSO Stage I + II (petrol engines)

Figs. 3.2.1 – 1 to 3.2.1 – 3 show a comparison of the existing BSO petrol engine limit values with the target petrol engine limit values in Directive 2003/44/EC. The BSO does not distinguish here between two-stroke and four-stroke engines. If the limits in Directive 2003/44/EC for CO and HC emissions are looked at, these are markedly above the limits that apply to BSO Stage I/II (Figs. 3.2.1 – 1 and 3.2.1 – 2). The NO x limit values in BSO Stage I correspond to the values in 2003/44/EC for four- stroke engines, while the BSO Stage II values are well below these (Fig. 3.2.1 – 3). The limits in 2003/44/EC for two-stroke engines are below those of BSO Stage I, but are much higher than those of BSO Stage II (Fig. 3.2.1 – 3).

Limit values CO (petrol)

750,00 CO 2003/44/EC four-stroke petrol CO 2003/44/EC two-stroke petrol CO BSO Stage I petrol CO
750,00
CO 2003/44/EC four-stroke petrol
CO 2003/44/EC two-stroke petrol
CO BSO Stage I petrol
CO BSO Stage II petrol
0,00
1
90
200
CO [g/kWh]

Power [kW]

Fig. 3.2.1 – 1: CO limit values 2003/44/EC and BSO

- 21 -

Limit values HC (petrol)

130,00 HC 2003/44/EC four stroke petrol HC 2003/44/EC two stroke petrol HC BSO Stage I
130,00
HC 2003/44/EC four stroke petrol
HC 2003/44/EC two stroke petrol
HC BSO Stage I petrol
HC BSO Stage II petrol
0,00
1
90
200
HC [g/kWh]

Power [kW]

Fig. 3.2.1 – 2: HC limit values 2003/44/EC and BSO

Limit values NO x (Petrol engines)

15,00 NOx 2003/44/EC 4-stroke petrol NOx 2003/44/EC 2-stroke petrol NOx BSO Stage I petrol NOx
15,00
NOx 2003/44/EC
4-stroke petrol
NOx 2003/44/EC
2-stroke petrol
NOx BSO Stage I petrol
NOx BSO Stage II petrol
x
0,00
1
90
200
NO
[g/kWh]

Power [kW]

Fig. 3.2.1 – 3: HC limit values 2003/44/EC und BSO

- 22 -

3.2.2 Directive 2003/44/EC – BSO Stage I + II (diesel engines)

Figs. 3.2.2 – 1 to 3.2.2 – 3 show a comparison between the existing limit values of the BSO and the limit values of 2003/44/EC for diesel engines. The limits to be invoked for diesel engines in Directive 2003/44/EC are well below those of BSO Stage I/II (Figs. 3.2.2 – 1 to 3.2.2 – 3).

Limit values CO (Diesel engines)

[logarithmic] CO 2003/44/EC Diesel CO BSO Stage I Diesel CO BSO Stage II Diesel 1
[logarithmic]
CO 2003/44/EC Diesel
CO BSO Stage I Diesel
CO BSO Stage II Diesel
1
90
200
CO [g/kWh]

Power [kW]

Fig. 3.2.2 – 1: CO limit values 2003/44/EC and BSO

- 23 -

Limit values HC (Diesel engines)

60,00 HC 2003/44/EC Diesel HC BSO Stage I Diesel HC BSO Stage II Diesel 0,00
60,00
HC 2003/44/EC Diesel
HC BSO Stage I Diesel
HC BSO Stage II Diesel
0,00
1
90
200
HC [g/kWh]

Power [kW]

Fig. 3.2.2 – 2: HC limit values 2003/44/EC and BSO

Limit values NO x (Diesel engines)

15 x NOx 2003/44/EC Diesel NOx BSO Stage I Diesel NOx BSO Stage II Diesel
15
x
NOx 2003/44/EC
Diesel
NOx BSO
Stage I Diesel
NOx BSO
Stage II
Diesel
0
1
90
200
NO
[g/kWh]

Power [kW]

Fig. 3.2.2 – 3: NO x limit values 2003/44/EC and BSO

- 24 -

3.2.3 Directive 2003/44/EC – EPA regulation 40 CFR Part 91 (petrol engines)

The EPA (40 CFR Part 91) limits the total of HC and NO x emissions. To be able to compare the target limits of 2003/44/EC for HC and NO x with the EPA values, these are reproduced added together in Fig. 3.2.3 – 1. The EPA values valid after 2004 are shown, supplemented by the limits valid in the future. The EPA does not differentiate between two-stroke and four-stroke engines. The total of the limit values in Directive 2003/44/EC for HC and NO x emissions is markedly higher for two-stroke engines than the sum of emissions for four-stroke engines. However, above an output of approx. 5 kW even the higher value for two-stroke engines is below the 2006 limit values of the EPA (Fig. 3.2.3 – 1).

Limit values total HC + NO x (petrol engines)

150 HC + NOx EPA 40 CFR Part 91 2004 HC + NOx EPA 40
150
HC + NOx EPA 40 CFR Part 91 2004
HC + NOx EPA 40 CFR Part 91 2005
HC + NOx EPA 40 CFR Part 91 2006+
HC + NOx 2003/44/EG (total) 2-stroke
HC + NOx 2003/44/EG (total) 4-stroke
x
0
Power [kW]
1
200
HC + NO
[g/kWh]

Fig. 3.2.3 – 1: Total of HC + NOx limit values (petrol engines)

- 25 -

3.2.4 Directive 2003/44/EC – EPA regulation 40 CFR Part 89 and 94 (diesel engines)

By analogy with the petrol engines, the total of HC and NO x emissions is limited for diesel engines (40 CFR Part 89 and Part 94). To be able to compare the target limit values of Directive 2003/44/EC for HC and NO x emissions with the EPA values, these are shown again added together in Fig. 3.2.4 – 2. The stated EPA limit values are valid with effect from 2005.

Limit value total HC + NO

x (Diesel engines)

10 HC + NOx EPA 40 CFR Part 89 and 94 2004+ HC + NOx
10
HC + NOx EPA 40 CFR Part 89 and 94 2004+
HC + NOx 2003/44/EC (summarised)
x
0
Power [kW]
1
200
HC + NO
[g/kWh]

Fig. 3.2.4 – 2: Total of HC + NO x limit values (diesel engines)

- 26 -

4

Measuring programme

4.1

Engine selection

To select the engines, it was first necessary to differentiate the various hull geometries. Boats can be divided into 3 main groups with regard to their hull shape:

Displacers:

Semi-planers:

Planers:

sailing yachts, most motorized cabin cruisers

mostly motorized cabin cruisers

power boats, day cruisers

Displacers have a “theoretical hull velocity” (v=2.43 x length at waterline), and they reach this velocity with relatively little engine power. Even at higher power they are scarcely faster, then only causing stronger waves. They are operated very economically (ratio of consumption to range and velocity) at somewhat below their hull velocity.

Due to their hull shape, planers lift out of the water above a certain velocity (transition from displacement to planing motion). The water resistance is thereby reduced and the boat becomes faster with the same engine power.

To achieve this transition, a defined minimum power is required (depending on size, weight, hull shape). Planers achieve the best ratio of consumption to range and velocity in planing mode.

Semi-planers are an intermediate form between displacers and planers. They can likewise exceed their theoretical hull velocity, but are not designed for such high velocities as planers. They lift less sharply out of the water and therefore need more power than planers for the same velocities.

- 27 -

The correct choice of propeller for the boat/engine combination depends on the hull shape, weight and usage profile of the boat. Engine manufacturers indicate a full-load range that for the most part comprises a range of 1000 rpm.

A 50 HP engine fitted to a boat holding one person can easily reach the upper range limit of e.g. 5500 rpm at full throttle. With an identical propeller but 3 or 4 people on board and towing a water-skier, the travel resistance may be so great that the engine only attains 3500 rpm. Thus the boat no longer attains planing mode. For such operation a propeller with a smaller pitch would have to be chosen, with which the engine would overspeed in purely solo operation.

Outboard engines are mostly used to drive power boats. Inboard engines are used more frequently as auxiliary engines for sailing yachts or on powerful boats in coastal regions. The mass-related exhaust emissions produced in this case depend chiefly on the engine types and their rated power. These engine types can be divided into the following three groups, which can have very different emission profiles and, depending on usage, can also have different operating profiles:

Two-stroke petrol engines

Four-stroke petrol engines

Compression ignition engines

Two-stroke petrol engines are normally used as outboard engines with a rated power of between 1.5 and 200 kW. Four-stroke petrol engines are used both as outboard and inboard engines. In the case of four-stroke outboard engines the power range is roughly between 1 and 200 kW, while for four-stroke inboard engines the range is up to 400 kW. Compression ignition engines are normally used as inboard engines and have a power range of 5 to 500 kW.

- 28 -

The engines on which measurements were to be carried out were selected with reference to the manufacturers’ sales figures available. The data were provided by IMEC (ICOMIA (International Council of Marine Industry Associations) Marine Environment Committee) and include the sales figures for the years 1998, 1999, 2000 and 2001. The engines were grouped together in “classes” and differentiated for this purpose according to the following criteria: inboard or outboard engine, petrol or diesel engine, two-stroke or four-stroke engine and engine power. Examination of the data revealed that the majority of engines sold in the FRG are in the range up to approx. 18 kW (20 HP). This was taken into account percentage-wise in the selection of engines. The final selection was limited to the 15 most representative engines (Table 4.1 – 1).

   

2-stroke /

Diesel /

Outboard (OB) / Inboard (IB)

 

No.

 

Power

4-stroke

petrol

Comments

 

<

3

kW /

       

1

approx. 4 HP

2

Petrol

OB

 

<

3

kW /

       

2

approx. 4 HP

4

Petrol

OB

3

< 3.68 kW /

4

Petrol

OB

 
 

5

HP

4

< 3.68 kW /

2

Petrol

OB

incl.

 

5

HP

water sample

 

3.69-7.35 kW / 5.1-10 HP

     

incl.

5

4

Petrol

OB

water sample

6

7.5-11 kW / 10.1-15 HP

4

Petrol

OB

 
 

11.1-18.38 kW / 15.1-25 HP

     

incl.

7

2

Petrol

OB

water sample

 

18.5-29.41 kW / 25.1-40 HP

     

incl.

8

2

Petrol

OB

water sample

9

29.5-44.12 kW / 40.1-60 HP

4

Petrol

OB

 
 

73.5-106.6 kW / 100-145 HP

     

incl.

10

2

Petrol

OB

water sample

11

15.1-50 kW / 20.5-68 HP

4

Diesel

IB

Manufacturer A

12

15.1-50 kW / 20.5-68 HP

4

Diesel

IB

Manufacturer B

13

100.1-200 kW / 136.1-272 HP

4

Diesel

IB

Manufacturer A

14

100.1-200 kW / 136.1-272 HP

4

Diesel

IB

Manufacturer B

15

150.1-200 kW / 204.1-272 HP

4

Petrol

IB

 

Table 4.1 – 1: RWTÜV engine selection

- 29 -

Due to short-term delivery problems of one manufacturer, two of the desired outboard engines had to be replaced.

The four-stroke petrol engine listed under No. 5 should originally have been a two-stroke engine of the same power and in the power class between 73.5-106.6 kW / 100-145 HP a four-stroke engine was originally scheduled that was then replaced by a direct-injection two-stroke engine (engine no. 10).

The detailed measuring results are listed in the annex in Tables 10.3 – 1 and 10.3 – 2.

- 30 -

4.2 Exhaust gas test cycles as per EN ISO 8178

Directive 94/25/EC (2003/44/EC) uses the specifications given in EN ISO 8178 as its test method. The exhaust gas emissions are determined here for petrol engines with the aid of the E4 cycle described in Part 4 of EN ISO 8178. For diesel engines the E5 cycle likewise described is used. Alternatively, the E3 cycle can also be chosen above an output of 130 kW. Cycles E4 and E5 each consist of 5 differently weighted stages on the propeller curve. The four-stage cycle E3 differs only due to the number of test stages. An engine operating point characterized by engine speed and torque is designated a test stage. Reference fuels as specified in Directive 98/68/EC are to be used for the emission measurements. The following Tables 4.2 – 1 to 4.2 – 3 and Figs. 4.2 – 1 to 4.2 – 4 provide an overview of the connections between speed, power and torque as well as the weighting factor of a test stage in the respective test cycles. The circular area of a test stage in the figures corresponds in each case to the weighting factor of the corresponding stage /4/.

Test cycle – EN ISO 8178 - 4 cycle E3 (diesel engines)

 

Test stage

1

2

3

4

Speed in %

100

91

80

63

Power in %

100

75

50

25

Weighting factor

0.20

0.50

0.15

0.15

Table 4.2 – 1: EN ISO 8178-4 E3 cycle

ISO 8178-4 E3

120 100 80 60 40 20 ISO 8178-4 E3 0 0 20 40 60 80
120
100
80
60
40
20
ISO 8178-4 E3
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
-20
Speed %

Torque / power %

Fig. 4.2 – 1: EN ISO 8178-4 E3 cycle

- 31 -

Test cycle – EN ISO 8178 - 4 cycle E4 (petrol engines)

 

Test stage

1

2

3

4

5

Speed in %

100

80

60

40

Low idle

Torque in %

100

71.6

46.5

25.3

0

Weighting factor

0.06

0.14

0.15

0.25

0.40

Table 4.2 – 2: EN ISO 8178-4 E4 cycle

ISO 8178-4 E4

120 100 80 60 40 20 ISO 8178-4 E4 0 0 20 40 60 80
120
100
80
60
40
20
ISO 8178-4 E4
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
-20
Speed %

Torque / power %

Fig. 4.2 – 2: EN ISO 8178-4 E4 cycle

Test cycle – EN ISO 8178 - 4 cycle E5 (diesel engines)

 

Test stage

1

2

3

4

5

Speed in %

100

91

80

63

Low idle

Power in %

100

75

50

25

0

Weighting factor

0.08

0.13

0.17

0.32

0.30

Table 4.2 – 3: EN ISO 8178-4 E5 cycle

- 32 -

ISO 8178-4 E5

120 100 80 60 40 20 ISO 8178-4 E5 0 0 20 40 60 80
120
100
80
60
40
20
ISO 8178-4 E5
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
-20
Speed %

Torque / power %

Fig. 4.2 – 3: EN ISO 8178-4 E5 cycle

ISO 8178-4 E3 / E4 / E5 cycles

120 ISO 8178-4 E3 100 ISO 8178-4 E4 80 ISO 8178-4 E5 60 40 20
120
ISO 8178-4 E3
100
ISO 8178-4 E4
80
ISO 8178-4 E5
60
40
20
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
-20
Speed %

Torque / power %

Fig. 4.2 – 4: EN ISO 8178-4 A direct comparison of the E3, E4 and E5 cycle

- 33 -

4.3 Noise measurements according to EN ISO 14509

The noise measurements were carried out according to EN ISO 14509. To do this, the boat travels past

the microphone at a distance of 25 metres perpendicular to the microphone axis at full-load speed of

the engine. The maximum A-assessed sound pressure level in the time setting “slow” is measured. A

schematic representation of the measuring set-up is shown in Fig. 4.3 - 1. 20m 20m
schematic representation of the measuring set-up is shown in Fig. 4.3 - 1.
20m
20m
+2
- 0
25m
+2
3,5m+-0,5
- 0
25m

Fig. 4.3 - 1: Measuring set-up as per EN ISO 14509:2000

EN ISO 14509 divides boat engines into groups. The power of the engines is the only deciding factor

in this regard. Each group has its own specified “standard boat” with defined dimensions. Table 4.3 -

1 lists the required specifications for standard boats. With the general condition – V-shaped hull – this

standard permits all conceivable construction materials and many common hull shapes of power boats

in principle.

 

Dimensions of standard boats as per EN ISO 14509 :

from

 

to

from

 

to

from

 

to

Length in m

3.60

4.00

4.40

3.96

4.40

4.84

4.50

5.00

5.50

Beam in m

1.44

1.60

1.76

1.58

1.75

1.93

1.71

1.90

2.09

Mass in kg

108

135

162

176

220

264

320

400

480

for

     

engine power

 

P < 6 kW Up to 8.1 HP

6 kW < P < 25 kW

25 kW < P < 55 kW

8.2 HP to 33.9 HP

34 HP to 74 HP

Table 4.3 - 1:

EN ISO requirements for boats for noise measurements

(incl. tolerances of 10% or 20%)

- 34 -

4.4 Measuring equipment

The measuring equipment conformed to the standards required in EN ISO 8178.

4.4.1 Exhaust gas

to the standards required in EN ISO 8178. 4.4.1 Exhaust gas Engine test stand and torque
Engine test stand and torque dynamometer Siemens Exhaust gas
Engine test stand and
torque dynamometer
Siemens
Exhaust gas
Test tank
Test tank

analysis system

Sampling box

Fig. 4.4.1– 1: Schematic representation of the test stand

- 35 -

4.4.1.1 Test tank

The exhaust gas measurements on the outboard engines were carried out in a water tank developed especially for the purpose (Fig. 4.4.1.1 – 1). The water tank facilitates series-state operation of the engine. The water temperature in the test tank is kept at a constant value by an external heat exchanger plus circulation pump. The connection between the loading unit and the propeller shaft of the engine is realized by a cardan shaft and suitable adapter, each of which has to be manufactured individually. An exhaust gas suction facility just above the surface of the water guarantees that the engine can always aspirate fresh air during measuring.

the engine can always aspirate fresh air during measuring. Fig. 4.4.1.1 – 1: Test tank for

Fig. 4.4.1.1 – 1:

Test tank for outboard engines with exhaust gas suction facility and heat exchanger

- 36 -

4.4.1.2 Engine test stand and torque dynamometer

Technical data:

- Manufacturer:

- Type:

- Torque measuring method:

Siemens AG

1 SR9 404 (asynchronous machine, digitally controlled for dynamic measurements)

Torque dynamometer

The torque measuring accuracy is 0.1% of the scale end value. Calibration in Nm is carried out using a

horizontal lever arm 1019.4 mm in length and weights calibrated in kg.

lever arm 1019.4 mm in lengt h and weights calibrated in kg. Fig. 4.4.1.1 – 1:

Fig. 4.4.1.1 – 1: Dynamometric brake with torque dynamometer

- 37 -

4.4.1.3 Exhaust gas analysis system

- Manufacturer:

- Type:

Siemens AG

SIGAS 500, computer-controlled system

CO:

Siemens Ultramat 5E-2R (NDIR)

CO 2 :

Siemens Ultramat 5E (NDIR)

HC:

Testa 2000 MP (FID)

NOx:

Pierburg PM-2000 (CLD)

O2:

Siemens Oxymat 5 (paramagnetic)

PM-2000 (CLD) O2: Siemens Oxymat 5 (paramagnetic) Fig. 4.4.1.2 – 1: Exhaust gas analysis system Fig.

Fig. 4.4.1.2 – 1: Exhaust gas analysis system

Fig. 4.4.1.2 – 1: Exhaust gas analysis system Fig. 4.4.1.2 – 2: Sampling box (foreground) with

Fig. 4.4.1.2 – 2: Sampling box (foreground) with heated pipe

- 38 -

4.4.1.4 Particulate measuring equipment

- Manufacturer:

- Type:

- Method:

- Collection filter:

- Comment:

AVL

Smart Sampler SPC 472

Partial flow dilution with micro-tunnel

1 filter holder for filters of 70 mm

The system is computer-controlled.

for filters of 70 mm ∅ The system is computer-controlled. Fig. 4.4.1.3 – 1: Partial flow

Fig. 4.4.1.3 – 1:

Partial flow dilution tunnel of the particulate measuring equipment

AVL Smart Sampler SPC 472

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4.4.1.5 Fuel measuring equipment

The fuel consumption was determined volumetrically via a balance. Together with the measured time in which a certain volume of fuel is consumed, the fuel mass flow rate can be determined if the fuel density is known.

4.5 Carrying out the exhaust gas measurements on the engine test stand

The exhaust gas measurements were carried out according to EN ISO 8178 as required in Directive

94/25/EC.

Prior to measuring the exhaust gas emission, the rated power of the engines was verified. For the most part the engine manufacturers do not specify the rated power at a fixed speed, but rather speed ranges

are normally given. In the case of the engines measured here, these ranges extended from ± 250 rpm

to ± 500 rpm. In operation the speed to be attained by the engine depends on the choice of propeller

fitted. The choice of propeller in turn is determined by the size, hull shape and weight of the respective boat. All engine outputs were in the tolerance range of the ± 5% indicated in EN ISO 8178. This output was reached mostly in the mid-range of the speed ranges specified by the manufacturers. The power loss of the connecting shaft rotating in the water was also added in each case to the measured power emitted by the engine. Like the engine power, this power loss was determined for each engine and taken into account when carrying out the test cycle in each test stage. The test stages of the individual tests and measurements were run over at least 10 minutes. The concentration values of the gaseous emissions were averaged in each case over the last 3 minutes of each test stage.

All the parameters required for calculating the specific emissions, such as power, torque, speed, pressures and temperatures, intake air mass and fuel mass were registered by the test stand system and processed with the aid of an evaluation program. Calculation was carried out as described in EN ISO 8178 and the results were expressed in g/kWh. To verify the data obtained, every engine had to go through the test cycle twice, then the arithmetic mean was formed from the results of the two measurements.

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4.5.1 Special features of the measuring process

Due to the design of the outboard engines, the exhaust gas measurements had some special features. To keep the exhaust gas temperatures as low as possible, water is added to the exhaust gas flow of most outboard engines shortly after it emerges from the cylinder. This exhaust gas / water mixture is not suitable for introduction into exhaust gas analysers. Any sampling probes to be fitted therefore have to be positioned such that only dry raw exhaust gas enters the exhaust gas analysis system. Not all engines are equipped by the manufacturer with the requisite connections in the factory for taking up the exhaust gas sampling probes. Parts of the engine periphery and/or parts of the engine enclosure often make it extremely difficult and labour-intensive to attach a sampling probe, and in some cases dismantling an engine for this purpose was unavoidable.

On two engines, although the receiver for the probe could be fitted the engine part to be modified for this purpose then had to be exchanged for a new part. The fitted probe receivers were mostly closed using suitable blind plugs and were thus available for further use.

The measurement of the gaseous exhaust emissions could be carried out easily in the main on the engines thus prepared. The high precipitation of condensates in some petrol engines is to be seen as a problem with regard to the functioning of the analysis systems. This applied to all petrol engines that exhibited a particularly high CO and HC content in the exhaust gas. Engines in which the fuel/air mix was coordinated to an air ratio around λ = 1.0 were by no means to be rated so critically here.

The discharge of uncombusted oil in the two-stroke petrol engines should be mentioned in addition to the condensates occurring. Two-stroke petrol engines without modern mix preparation should be mentioned here in particular. Depending on the metering of the fuel-oil mixture, a very high proportion of uncombusted engine oil is discharged.

The condensate and oil pollution in the sample flow made it necessary to clean components of the analysis system several times during the measurements, this being the only way of guaranteeing the proper functioning of the analysers. The attachment of a special sampling probe (probe opening opposite to the direction of flow of the exhaust gas) required for determining the particulate emission could only be realized on 6 engines.

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Connecting the outboard engines to the loading unit on the engine test stand also proved difficult and in some cases extremely laborious. The gear output shaft of the engine had to be connected here to the asynchronous machine with the aid of an adapter and a cardan shaft. Since virtually every manufacturer does his own thing with regard to the manufacture of the gear output shafts, the required adapters had to be fabricated individually in nearly all cases. The form closure for connecting the propeller to the gear output shaft is guaranteed by a shearing pin or by gear teeth.

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4.6 Carrying out the noise measurement

The measurements were carried out off Heerenlaak harbour near Maaseik in Belgium, an excavation pit with dead water (Fig. 4.6 - 1). The microphone was positioned on a landing stage roughly 30 m from the bank. The prescribed course was marked by two buoys, with measuring passes being carried out in both directions. In addition, a third-octave analysis was produced of the maximum level. The engine speed and the velocity of the boat on passing were also recorded. The measuring signals were collected in a measuring vehicle and stored on a computer. The engine speed and velocity were transmitted via radio, the microphone signals and wind data via cable.

via radio, the microphone signals and wind data via cable. Fig. 4.6 – 1: View of

Fig. 4.6 – 1: View of the measuring location

The search for suitable boats proved relatively difficult, with the prescribed weight causing problems in particular. It is thus relatively difficult to find an inflatable that will meet the standard for engines < 6 kW, although these engines are frequently operated on them. At the correct length and width these boats are often too light, and mostly too wide at the correct length and weight. As it was foreseen that a fairly long period would be required for the tests, GRP boats were obtained on the used boat market. The boats procured were in a technically perfect state. On boat 1 the transom height was designed for normal shaft engines, while on boats 2 and 3 it was designed for long-shaft engines. Table 4.6 – 1 lists the dimensions of the measuring boats.

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Boat 1

Boat 2

Boat 3

Length in m

4.20

4.40

4.55

Width in m

1.68

1.75

1.78

Mass in kg

150

250

330

Max. permitted

     

engine power

22

37

66

in kW

Table 4.6 - 1: Dimensions of the boats used

The engines < 6 kW were generally designed to be operated with an engine tiller, boat 2 had to be

retrofitted with remote steering for two of the engines supplied. The other boats were likewise

operated with an engine tiller. The larger engines for boat 3 were all equipped with remote steering.

The key engine characteristics and the dimensions of the propellers used can be found in Table 4.6 - 2.

The propeller dimensions signify diameter times pitch (in inches). In the case of engine nos. 18 and

19, 4-blade propellers were used, while all the others had 3 blades. To make it easier to distinguish

them, the fields for two-stroke engines are shaded in grey. Sixteen engines in all were measured, in

some cases with different propellers. Each engine/propeller combination is listed with its own number

below.

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No.

Power

Rec. full load speed

No.

Str.

 

Weight

Shaft

 

Propeller

from

to

of

cyl.

Fuel preparation

kg

length

in inches

kW

rpm

rpm

 

1

3.68

4000

5000