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22 Ansichten13 SeitenProbe inclinometer measurements are employed to monitor rock slope movements. The interference by errors in interpreting inclinometer results may be reduced by several filtering techniques applied in processing data from the probe. Plotting resulting vectors of displacement in a three dimensional system facilitates the determination of major characteristics of the slope movement and their association with the geologic findings from the borehole.

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Probe inclinometer measurements are employed to monitor rock slope movements. The interference by errors in interpreting inclinometer results may be reduced by several filtering techniques applied in processing data from the probe. Plotting resulting vectors of displacement in a three dimensional system facilitates the determination of major characteristics of the slope movement and their association with the geologic findings from the borehole.

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22 Ansichten13 SeitenProbe inclinometer measurements are employed to monitor rock slope movements. The interference by errors in interpreting inclinometer results may be reduced by several filtering techniques applied in processing data from the probe. Plotting resulting vectors of displacement in a three dimensional system facilitates the determination of major characteristics of the slope movement and their association with the geologic findings from the borehole.

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Felsmechanik

M4canique des Roches

by Springer-Verlag 1980

of Slope Movement

By

E. C. Kalkani

With 7 Figures

(Received December 18, 1979)

ment. Probe inclinometer measurements are employed to monitor rock slope move-

ments. The interference by errors in interpreting inclinometer results may be reduced

by several filtering techniques applied in processing data from the probe. Plotting

resulting vectors of displacement in a three dimensional system facilitates the deter-

mination of major characteristics of the slope movement and their association with

the geologic findings from the borehole.

Filtrierung von Sonden-Inklinometerdaten zur Identi[izierung von Charahteristika

von B6schungsbewegungen. Sonden-Inklinometer-Messungen werden dazu verwen-

det, Felsb6schungsbewegungen zu ~iberwachen. Die Fehlerinterferenz bei der Inter-

pretation von Inklinometerresultaten kann dadurch verringert werden, daf~ verschie-

dene Filtrierungstechniken w~ihrend der Verarbeitung der Met~ergebnisse angewen-

det werden. Durch die Aufzeichnung der resultierenden Bewegungsvektoren in einem

dreidimensionalen System wird die Bestimmung der Hauptcharakteristika der B6-

schungsbewegung und ihrer Beziehung zu den geologischen Daten des Bohrlochs

erleichtert.

Filtrage des donndes d'un inclinomStre de sonde pour identifier les caract&isti-

ques d'un mouvement de pente. Les mesures d'inclinom6tre de sonde sont utilis4es

pour contr61er les mouvements des pentes rocheuses. L'influence des erreurs dans

l'interpr&ation des r~sultats de l'inclinom&re peut &re r6duite par diff~rentes tech-

niques de filtrage employdes lors du traitement des donndes de la sonde. La repr&

sentation des vecteurs de d6placement rdsultants dans un rep~re tri-dimensionnel

permet la d6termination aisde des caract4ristiques essentielles du mouvement de la

pente et son association avec la g6ologie du terrain ddduite de l'examen des carottes.

Introduction

holes and making measurements with a probe inclinometer at constant time

intervals. Recommendations on the use of the probe inclinometer are pub-

5 Rock Mechanics, Vol. 13/2

0035-7448/80/0013/0057/$ 02.60

58 E.C. Kalkani:

(1977) 2. These instructions should be followed along with the care and

maintenance instructions of the manufacturer of the instrument.

Quite often measurements involve systematic and random errors which

cannot be handled in the field. Mathematical treatment and filtering of the

errors is then necessary before evaluating the displacements at each depth

of the borehole (Kalkani, 1978)1. Conventional plots of angle and dis-

placement against depth in the borehole are clearer and easier to interpret

after the data have been filtered. A plot presenting the trajectory of the

measured displacements at each depth allows visualizing the movement in

three dimensional space and associating its characteristics with the geologic

findings of the boring.

two fixed and two spring mounted guide wheels parallel to the axis of the

instrument. The cylinder contains a uniaxial tilt sensor to measure the angle

between the probe axis and the vertical in the plane of the guide wheels.

The sensing device, which is a rotary potentiometer in the Slope Indicator

Co. Series 200-B used in this study* (bonded resistance strain gauges, vibrat-

ing wires, closed loop servo accelerometers are also used), is connected by

an electric cable to a readout box which usually includes a manual null-

balance bridge circuit (direct reading or digital voltmeter). The probe is

lowered in a casing grouted in a borehole and readings are taken at constant

intervals of depth. The casing has two pairs of diametrically opposite grooves

in which the guide wheels of the probe travel. One pair of grooves is usually

oriented along the north-south axis, so the other pair is on the east-west

faces of the casing.

The probe when operating at the site should display accuracy of 0.01

degrees or better. This accuracy should be maintained regardless of handling,

presence of water or corrosive environments encountered during its use.

The cable length should be clearly and correctly marked to an accuracy

better than 5 millimeters or +0.05% of the depth at which the probe is to

operate. At least two sets of initial readings for each bore should be aver-

aged to provide a basis for future observations. Time intervals between sets

of readings are specified according to the recorded rates of rock movement,

and should become more frequent for accelerating movements.

The measuring starts at the bottom of the borehole and the probe is

stopped at constant intervals of depth while readings are recorded. The bore

is traversed four times for each set of readings. By subtracting readings made

with the fixed wheels against the north face of the casing from those made

with the fixed wheels to the south, any error in the zero setting of the

probe is cancelled. The east and west measurements likewise require a pair

of traverses.

Filtering Probe Inclinometer Data 59

conditions. Regular maintenance should take place, however, to keep the

instrument in an acceptable condition. This means that the instrument should

be kept clean all the time and regular lubrication of the mechanical parts

should take place. No water should enter the cylinder, or the calibration of

the instrument can change. Careful handling of the instrument is required

to avoid striking the cylinder and damaging mechanical parts.

The casing in which the inclinometer travels should be cleared of debris

before use and should be capped during the intervals between runs. Each

day the inclinometer should be carefully checked, and ideally the calibration

should be verified with the probe mounted on a frame whose tilt can be

accurately set.

Error Intrusion and Filtering Technique

The readings made against the opposite faces of the casing should sum

to the same number, twice the zero inclination reading, at all dephts. This

sum should be checked in the field to detect incorrect readings and erroneous

measurements must be repeated until they are acceptable. Any sum of mea-

surements which differs from the mean by 5 times the probable error of a

single observation (which is 1 dial unit or 0.0290 in our case), as determined

from the scatter of the whole set of observations, should be repeated. Any

exceeding 31/2 times the probable error should be critically examined.

Systematic errors are those that appear with the same sign and usually

with similar magnitude in a set of consecutive or otherwise related obser-

vations. Repetition of measurements does nothing to reduce the adverse effect

of systematic errors. Hence, this type of error is most undesirable and much

care must be taken to avoid or eliminate systematic errors by frequent

electrical adjustment of the slope indicator.

Random errors vary from reading to reading, are both positive and

negative, and their effects can be reduced, albeit slowly, by averaging a

number of readings. The error of the mean of n observations is l / l / n - o f

the average error of an individual reading, so it will take 100 readings to

reduce random errors to a tenth of their single value. Random errors are

inevitable in nonuniformities of the casing, dirt, finite resolution of the

circuit balance and the like.

Probe inclinometer readings taken at a borehole located in a rock slope

along the banks of a reservoir in Greece indicated interference by both

systematic and random errors. In this study, 12 consecutive measurements

performed at 15-day intervals are examined.

Differences between the north and south readings and between east

and west readings are plotted versus depth in Fig. i for original data with

consecutive measurements displaced 10 dial units from each other. Each of

these differences minus the initial reading differences in the north-south and

east-west directions are plotted in Fig. 2 with original data at the same

spacing. Unconformity of data and deviations in the y direction are obvious

in Fig. 1. Deviations in the x direction are due to differences in inclination

60 E.C. Kalkani:

of 10 feet (3.05 m) long parts of borehole casing. The borehole depth reference

is in feet here and in the drawings, since the measurements were made at

the 2 foot (0.61 m) intervals marked on the probe cable.

Filtering techniques were applied to reduce the data. Differences of

filtered data for the north-south and east-west directions are plotted versus

depth in Fig. 3. Differences as defined previously minus the initial differences

of readings in the two directions as before are plotted versus depth in

260

140

b_ i 0 0

O

W

~Z 60 NORTH-SOUTH

0 -20

-100

DEPTH ( FEET )

Z

H

i 140

100

60

!=

-Gll EAST-WEST

-3.00

'=J 4J '6J ~J '1oJ '1~J 14J '~J '1~J =J =J 24J '=d 26J '~oJ ~2J

DEPTH ( FEET )

Fig. 1. Perspective diagrams of probe inclinometer readings differences (north minus south

and east minus west), for 12 consecutive measurements, before filtering was applied

Fig. 4. The plots for each set of readings have a 10 dial unit spacing to

permit comparisons. The diagrams of filtered data reveal smoothness and

conformity in the y axis, which supports the reliability of the new set of data.

Filtering Probe Inclinometer Data 61

at each depth were calculated and compared. Although that average should

be the same for each of the 12 consecutive measurements, it was found to

~.40

I20

1D0

oa s0

z 40

~"v'~"~VNORTH_SOUT H

-20

-40 l ~ 141 161 IB~ l oj '12J ~14JI IBI ':BJ tr~O~ 122J I241 I26J I~8d 13oJ l~2J

DEPTH ( FEET )

140

120

4o

M

2o

D EAST-WEST

-2

DEPTH ( FEET )

minus initial difference), before filtering was applied (11 measurements present)

of the instrument each day a set of measurements was taken. Correction of

this error required multiplication of all readings with a correction factor so

that the averages of the sums of readings for all 12 runs should be equal.

Thus correction of systematic errors was performed between sets of mea-

surements.

62 E.C. K a l k a n i :

matical theory including least squares and a moving average technique.

R a n d o m errors were due to imprecise circuit balance or improper probe

position at each specific measurement. When plotting the data in an x-y

system (y corresponding to north-south and x corresponding to east-west)

it was obvious that the variation of readings did not represent the expected

2BO

180

Z

i40

100

NORTH-SOUTH

:o

~l -20

-EO

-lO0

'2d '4d '6d '~d '1od '~2J '14J '1~d '1~d '2od '22d '2,J '2~d '2~d '~od '32d

DEPTH (FEET)

26O

22O

IBO

Z

i 140

100

sD

EAST-WEST

-5O

DEPTH ( FEET )

Fig. 3. Perspective diagrams of probe inclinometer readings differences (north minus south

and east minus west), for 12 consecutive measurements, after filtering was applied

tion. T h e theory used to filter out the r a n d o m errors is explained below.

Probe inclinometer data have the form of t w o pairs of observations on

the x-y plane at each depth of measurement. Let us call Rn, Rs, Re, Rw,

Filtering Probe Inclinometer Data 63

the readings in the north, south, east, and west directions respectively, and

assume that north corresponds to + y and east to + x .

Assuming that the movement of the casing at any depth will follow a

straight line or a slightly curved one, it is expected that the pairs of observa-

160

14g

120

100

8o

5o

Z 40

NORTH-SOUTH

-20

-411

DEPTH (FEET)

120

Z

100

80

so

Z 4O

EAST-WEST

DEPTH FEET )

minus initial difference), after filtering was applied (11 measurements present)

tions (Re~, Rnd, (Rw~, Rsd for time intervals i = 1, 2, o.., n will be near a

straight line. Hence, the random variable Rm in terms of Re~ may be written

where a and b are constants determining the regression line intercept on the

Rn axis and the slope to the Re axis respectively, and e~ is the error which

64 E.C. Kalkani:

has mean zero. The estimates of a and b, so that the sum of squares of

the e~'s is minimum are

n ~ (Re~Rn~) - ( X R e i ) ( X Rm)

b ~

~_. i=1 i=1 i=1

(2)

n ~ (Re~) - ( ~ ~ei)~

i=1 i=1

/I

X Rni b ,~ Rei

i=1 i=1

a u ~ (3)

Similar calculations are performed for the pair (Rwi, Rsi). For each set of

observations (Rei, Rni) and (Rwi, Rsi), i = 1 , 2 . . . . , n, the regression line is

computed on the x-y plane (Re and Rw are located on the x axis and Rn

and Rs are located on the y axis). The x-y system is transformed to a new

one x'-y', for each regression line, having its origin at the intersection of the

regression line and the y axis, while the x' axis coincides with the regression

line previously defined and the y' axis is perpendicular to the x' axis.

New coordinates are calculated (Re& Rm'), (Rw(, Rs() and the moving

average technique is applied on them to produce data variation along the

regression line in a smooth curve, which does not necessarily coincide with

the regression line. The new points are projected on the original x-y system

as filtered R2v, RE, Rs, Rw values, which undergo further smoothing along

each direction of measurement for the i = 1, 2 . . . . , n observations with the

moving average technique. This technique requires each reading at time i to

be substituted by the average of three consecutive readings at times i - 1 , i,

and i+1. End readings are replaced by their average with the adjacent

reading. The process is repeated until each reading replacing the previous

one does not differ from it more than 1 dial unit.

The final values as they have been filtered with the least squares and

moving average techniques are ready to be processed for the calculation of

the dial changes and displacements and graphical presentation of the results.

The filtered data are used to produce graphs of dial changes versus depth

and displacement versus depth. Also, graphs of displacements versus time

and displacements in the four compass directions for characteristic displace-

ment planes may be produced.

Calculations on the filtered data are made for the determination of the

incremental changes in angle or displacement. Angle changes 3 vq degrees

are converted into displacements S using the equation

S = s sin zl ~, (4)

where s is the distance between successive readings, and

sin A v~ = ( (Rat - Rs) initial - (RN -- Rs) present x

(instrument calibration factor). (5)

Filtering Probe Inclinometer Data 65

Summing displacements from the bottom to the top of the guide tube, a

graphical presentation of total displacement versus depth is produced.

The probe inclinometer measures displacements in directions perpen-

dicular to the borehole axis, so that the lateral ground movement of the

casing can be localized. Readings taken over a period of time for the same

borehole are used to determine the magnitude, direction and rate of move-

ment of the rock slope. The two most frequently prepared plots are the

5D

45

} 3s

g

2S

tD

B

I ME ( DAY~ )

Fig. 5. Diagram of displacement vector versus time for measurements taken by precision

surveying in the field, and regression line representation

angle changes or dial changes versus depth and the displacements versus

depth. These plots are drawn for north-south and east-west pairs separately,

considering north and east directions of movement positive, while south and

west measurements are negative.

Calculation of the resultant of the two vectors of dial changes in the

two major compass directions gives the measure of deviation from the bore-

hole axis of the total dial change. It has been noted that the original data

with inherent systematic and random errors indicate considerable noise in

the resultant vector dial change plot, while this noise is absent in the filtered

data plot. The peak of dial changes at depth 285 feet (86.78 m) in Fig. 4

indicates a major sliding plane with dial change values gradually increasing.

Indication of sliding planes at depths 19, 189, 241, and 299 feet (5.79, 57.61,

73.46, 91.14 m) in Fig. 2 constitute only minor movement events in the dia-

gram of filtered readings of Fig. 4.

High precision surveying performed using a benchmark near the posi-

tion of the slope indicator borehole gave measurements of displacements

plotted versus time in Fig. 5. These measurements taken over a period of

250 days, which included the period of slope indicator measurements, display

a variation due to random errors in the measurements. Regression analysis

applied to these measurements gives the dotted line of the diagram in Fig. 5.

66 E.C. Kalkani:

-g

a8

ca

"~,.=

,-~ o

>

S~3~3WI77I~ ~ N3W3OVT~SIO

g~

Filtering Probe Inclinometer Data 67

Points on this line represent the best estimates of the displacement values

with respect to time. Considering that the period of the 12 consecutive mea-

surements with the slope indicator is approximately 165 days, it is easily

calculated that the corresponding displacement shown by the regression line

of Fig. 5 is 26.4 millimeters (displacement = regression line solpe time =

0.16 x 165 = 26.4 mm). This value of displacement is not far from the value

of 27 mm displacement indicated by the slope indicator. Vectors of dis-

placements along the north-south and east-west axes plotted for every 2 feet

(60.96 cm) of depth give the diagram of Fig. 6 for filtered data. Magnitudes

of the resulting displacement vector for original data are up to 72 and 75 mm

at the top of the borehole. The maximum resulting displacement for filtered

data near the top of the borehole is approximately 27 mm. This value

gradually decreases to a depth of 243 feet (74.07 m), and remains almost

constant down to 285 feet (86.87 m) at a magnitude of 16 ram. At that

depth the sliding plane is found. Only minor displacements exist from below

the slide to the bottom of the borehole.

The vectors of the displacement of the borehole in three dimensions are

shown in Fig. 6. A mechanical model constructed from Fig. 6 and from the

core taken from the bore is shown in Fig. 7. A column whose north-eastern

corner coincides with the borehole is considered in the model. The position

of the displaced column is shown along with the vectors of displacement

at various characteristic levels.

The displacement vector at zero depth has a magnitude of 27 mm and

is directed 35 degrees south-west, as shown in Fig. 6. This direction cor-

responds to the general motion of sliding detected by extended precision

surveying on the surface of the rock mass. From the top of the borehole to

a depth of 133 feet (40.54 m) the direction of the displacement vector changes

slightly, while no substantial change to its magnitude is observed. This zone

of 133 feet (40.54 m) consists of weathered boitite gneiss which moves with

a rather constant velocity in a fairly stable direction.

At the depth of 133 feet (40.54 m) the direction of movement begins to

change. The displacement vector shifts towards the south, while its magni-

tude varies from 25 millimeters at a depth of 133 feet (40.54 m) to 19 mm

at a depth of 231 feet (70.41 m). This zone consists of biotite gneiss with

aplitic veins or muscovite gneiss layers. The rock is tectonized and weathered

with occurrence of joints every 10 to 20 feet (3.05 to 6.10 m).

From 231 feet (70.41 m) to 285 feet (86.87 m) considerable deviation in

the direction of movement is occurring from south to 20 degrees south-east,

with a change of the vector magnitude form 19 mm to 16 ram. This part

of the borehole is in a zone of tectonized biotite gneiss with frequent occur-

rence of aplitic veins. At the depth of 285 feet (86.87 m) there is a shear plane

consisting of a seam of my]onite 2 cm in thickness. This creates the dis-

continuity of the displacement vector representation in the diagram in Fig. 6

at 285 feet (86.87 m). From this depth to the bottom of the borehole at

68 E.C. Kalkani:

317 feet (96.62 m) the displacement vectors are almost 90 degrees south-west,

their magnitude is small, and they are decreasing to zero at the bottom of

the borehole. In this last zone, the rock consists of good quality biotite gneiss.

0J[

10

20

30

-40

2

50

60 o

-70

.80

90

Fig. 7. Mechanical model of a column of the rock slope indicating the displaced planes at

characteristic depths and the displacement vectors

borehole indicate the variation of the direction of movement as well as the

magnitude of movement which we have correlated to the geologic findings

of the borehole. This complicated movement is expected in metamorphic

rocks, where rock differentiation in the gneissic mass results in a viscous

behaviour of the rock slope.

Conclusions

Original probe inclinometer measurements were corrected for systematic

errors and mathematically filtered to reduce effects of random errors. The

reduced magnitudes of displacement compared favourably with precisely

surveyed movements. Similarly, comparison of displacement directions and

magnitudes to the geology of the rock slope indicated a viscous behaviour

of the movement of the solpe fairly common in metamorphic formations.

Filtering Probe Inclinometer Data 69

Acknowledgements

suggestions.

References

1 K alk ani, E. C. (1978) : Probe Inclinometer Data Filtering to Ascertain Slope

"Stability, Proc. Measurement and Control Int. Symp., June 1978, Athens, Greece.

2 The Commission on Standardization of Laboratory and Field Tests, 1977,

"Suggested Methods for Monitoring Rock Movements Using Inclinometers and

Tiltmeters", Rock Mechanics, Vol. 10/1-2, 81--106.

ford University, Stanford, CA 94305, U. S. A.

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