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Experiment 3 Aditya Anand Gupta

14EE01032

Power System Laboratory


Experiment 3
Objective
Steady State analysis of given Power System using Gauss-Siedelmethod of Load Flow
study.

System Data:

(For 3-bus system)

(For 7-bus system)

Line Data:
Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 5
(From bus) (To bus) (Line impedance) Line charging admittance tap ratio
(R + jX) (b_l)/2
1 1 2 0.0000+0.1000j 0.000j 1.06
2 6 2 0.0175+0.0628j 0.030j 1+0j
3 6 5 0.0777+0.2013j 0.025j 1+0j
4 2 5 0.0573+0.158j 0.020j 1+0j
5 2 4 0.0607+0.171j 0.020j 1+0j
6 2 3 0.0431+0.14j 0.015j 1+0j
7 5 4 0.011+0.028j 0.010j 1+0j
8 4 3 0.0810+0.2065j 0.025j 1+0j
9 6 7 0.0000+0.1000j 0.010j 1.04
Experiment 3 Aditya Anand Gupta
14EE01032

Bus Data

Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E
1 1 0 1.06 1.00 0.0 0+0j 0.0+0.0j 1.05 -10.0 0.0 1 0 0 0.3
2 2 2 1.00 1.00 0.0 0+0j 0.0+0.0j 0.00 0.00 0.0 1 0 0 0.4
3 3 2 1.00 1.00 0.0 0+0j 0.2+0.1j 0.00 0.00 0.0 1 0 0 0.3
4 4 2 1.00 1.00 0.0 0+0j 0.4+0.05j 0.00 0.00 0.0 1 0 0 0.0
5 5 2 1.00 1.00 0.0 0+0j 0.45+0.1j 0.00 0.00 0.0 1 0 0 0.0
6 6 2 1.00 1.00 0.0 0+0j 0.6+0.1j 0.00 0.00 0.01 1 0 0 0.0
7 7 1 1.00 1.00 0.0 0.4+0j 0.0+0.0j 10.0 -10.0 0.0 1 0 0 0.0
*The column wise description is as follows:
1 -- Bus Number.
2 -- Type of Bus, 0 == slack, 1 == PV, 2 == PQ.
3 -- Initial Choice for Voltage(V)
4 -- Nominal Bus Voltage(V_n)
5 -- Initial Choice for Angle(A)
6 -- Generation Specification(P_g + jQ_g)
7 -- Nominal Load Specification(P_dn + jQ_dn)
8 -- Reactive Generation Maximum(Q_g^max)
9 -- Reactive Generation Minimum(Q_g^min)
A -- Bus Shunt Susceptance(b_sh)
B -- Constant Power Load Coefficient(C_p)
C -- Constant Current Load Coefficient(C_c)
D -- Constant Impedance Load Coefficient(C_i)
E -- Generator participation factor(alp)

Theory:
Load flow studies are one of the most important aspects of power system planning and
operation. The load flow gives us the sinusoidal steady state of the entire system - voltages, real
and reactive power generated and absorbed and line losses. Through the load flow studies we can
obtain the voltage magnitudes and angles at each bus in the steady state. Also based on the
difference between power flow in the sending and receiving ends, the losses in a particular line
can also be computed. Furthermore, from the line flow we can also determine the over and under
load conditions.The steady state power and reactive power supplied by a bus in a power network
are expressed in terms of nonlinear algebraic equations. We therefore would require iterative
methods for solving these equations. The real and reactive power at bus i is given as,
n
Pi   | YikViVk | cos( ik   k   i ) (1)
k 1
Experiment 3 Aditya Anand Gupta
14EE01032
n
Qi   | YikViVk | sin( ik   k   i ) (2)
k 1

Load flow by Gauss-Siedel method


In the Gauss-Seidel load flow we denote the initial voltage of the i th bus by Vi(0) , i = 2, ...
, n . Similarly this voltage after the first iteration will be denoted by Vi(1) . In this Gauss-Seidel
load flow the load buses and voltage controlled buses are treated differently. Knowing the real
and reactive power injected at any bus
n
Pi ,inj  Qi ,inj  Vi*  YikVk  Vi* [Yi1V1  Yi 2V2  ...  YiiVi  ...  YinVn ] (3)
k 1

1  Pi.inj  jQi.inj 
Vi   *
 Yi1V1  Yi 2V2  ...  YinVn  (4)
Yii  Vi 

Algorithm
Step1:Read the data such as line data, specified power, specified voltages, Q limits at the
generator buses and tolerance for convergences

Step2:Compute Y-bus matrix.

Step3:Initialize all the bus voltages.

Step4:Iter=1

Step5: Consider i=2, where i’ is the bus number.

Step6: Check whether this is PV bus or PQ bus. If it is PQ bus goto step 8 otherwise go to next
step.

Step7: Compute Qi, check for q limit violation. Qgi=Qi+Qli.

7).a).If Qgi>Qimax ,equateQgi = Qimax. Then convert it into PQ bus.

7).b).If Qgi<Qimin ,equateQgi = Qimin.Then convert it into PQ bus.

Step8: Calculate the new value of the bus voltage using gauss seidel formula.

𝑖−1 𝑁
1 𝑃𝑖,𝑖𝑛𝑗 − 𝑗𝑄𝑖,𝑖𝑛𝑗 (𝑘−1)
𝑉𝑖 = [ (𝑘−1)∗
− ∑ 𝑌𝑖𝑗 𝑉𝑗𝑘 − ∑ 𝑌𝑖𝑗 𝑉𝑗 ]
𝑌𝑖𝑖 𝑉 𝑖 𝑗=1 𝑗=𝑖+1
Experiment 3 Aditya Anand Gupta
14EE01032

Adjust voltage magnitude of the bus to specify magnitude if Q limits are not violated.

Step9: If all buses are considered go to step 10 otherwise increment the bus no. i=i+1 and Go to
step6.

Step10: Check for convergence. If there is no convergence goes to step 11 otherwise go to


step12.

Step11: Update the bus voltage using the formula. Vinew= Viold+ α(vinew-Viold) (i=1,2,…..n) i≠
slackbus ,α is the acceleration factor=1.4

Step12: Calculate the slack bus power, Q at P-V buses, real and reactive power flows, real and
reactance, line losses and print all the results including all the bus voltages and all the bus angles.

Step13: Stop

For the 7 bus system, perform one iteration for GS Load flow. The one iteration
involvesupdating of bus voltages and angles for that iteration.Compare the results with those
with the program executions.
Experiment 3 Aditya Anand Gupta
14EE01032

MATLAB codes

clc;
clear all; close all;
Y=[20-50*1i -10+20*1i -10+30*1i;-10+20*1i 26-52*1i -16+32*1i;-10+30*1i -
16+32*1i 26-62*1i];
P3=2;
P2=-4;
Q2=-2.5;
Q3=1;
d1=0;
D2=0;
c=1;
D3=0;
v3=1.04;
v1=1.05;
v2=1;
A2=(P2-Q2*1i)/Y(2,2);
B31=Y(3,1)/Y(3,3);
B32=Y(3,2)/Y(3,3);
B21=Y(2,1)/Y(2,2);
B23=Y(2,3)/Y(2,2);
l=0;
for o=1:100
x(o)=0;
y(o)=0;
f(o)=0;
g(o)=0;
end
for r=1:100
[x(r),y(r)]=pol2cart(D3,v3);
[f(r),g(r)]=pol2cart(D2,c);

M(r)=(x(r)+y(r)*1i);
U(r)=(f(r)+g(r)*1i);

Q3(r)=-
1*imag((conj(M(r))*Y(3,1)*(v1))+(conj(M(r))*Y(3,2)*U(r))+(conj(M(r))*Y(3,3)*M
(r)));
A3(r)=(P3-Q3(r)*1i)/Y(3,3);
d3(r)=angle((A3(r)/conj(M(r)))-(B31*(v1))-(B32*U(r)));
D3=d3(r);

[x(r),y(r)]=pol2cart(D3,v3);
[f(r),g(r)]=pol2cart(D2,c);
Experiment 3 Aditya Anand Gupta
14EE01032
M1(r)=(x(r)+y(r)*1i);
U1(r)=(f(r)+g(r)*1i);

v2(r)=((A2/conj(U1(r)))-B21*(v1)-B23*M1(r));
c=abs(v2(r));
D2=angle(v2(r));

c=abs(v2(r));
t5=0.00001

end
Q3

%%

clc;
clear all;
close all;

% y is the admittance matrix in which the diagonal elements are shunt


% admittances and off-diagonal elements are the series admittances
y=[0 1/(0.0125+1i*0.025) 1/(0.02+1i*0.04);
1/(0.0125+1i*0.025) 0 1/(0.0125+1i*0.025);
1/(0.02+1i*0.04) 1/(0.0125+1i*0.025) 0];

% ybus the Ybus matrix


ybus=create_ybus(y);

% p is the active power matrix


%q is the reactive power matrix
% -ve time show that correct values have to be found out
p=[-10 200 -400];
q=[-10 0 -250];
%since 100MVA is the base power perunit values of power are below
p1=p/100;
q1=q/100;

% v is the bus voltage matrix in pu


%d is the voltage angle matrix
v=[1.05 1.04 1];
d=[0 0 0];
% V is the initial value for the updated pq bus voltage
V=0;
Q=0;
count=0;
for j=1:length(v)
Vv(j)=v(j)*cos(d(j))+1i*v(j)*sin(d(j));
end
while (abs(q1(2)-Q)>0.00001 || abs(v(3)-V)>0.00001)
% for a=1:8
V=abs(Vv(3));
Q=q1(2);
q1(2)=-
imag(conj(Vv(2))*(ybus(2,1)*Vv(1)+ybus(2,2)*Vv(2)+ybus(2,3)*Vv(3)));
Experiment 3 Aditya Anand Gupta
14EE01032

a2=(p1(2)-1i*q1(2))/ybus(2,2);
d(2)=angle((a2/conj(Vv(2)))-(ybus(2,1)/ybus(2,2))*Vv(1)-
(ybus(2,3)/ybus(2,2))*Vv(3));

Vv(2)=v(2)*cos(d(2))+v(2)*1i*sin(d(2));

Vv(3)=(1/ybus(3,3))*(((p1(3)-1i*q1(3))/conj(Vv(3)))-
(ybus(3,1)*Vv(1)+ybus(3,2)*Vv(2)));
for k=1:length(v)
v(k)=abs(Vv(k));
d(k)=angle(Vv(k));
end

count=count+1;
end

% count shows the number of iterations


display('The no of iterations are:');
display(count);

% s1 is the slack bus power


s1=conj(Vv(1))*(ybus(1,1)*Vv(1)+ybus(1,2)*Vv(2)+ybus(1,3)*Vv(3));
p1(1)=real(s1);
q1(1)=-imag(s1);

% now computing power flows


S12=Vv(1)*conj((Vv(1)-Vv(2))*(-ybus(1,2)));
S21=Vv(2)*conj((Vv(2)-Vv(1))*(-ybus(2,1)));
S13=Vv(1)*conj((Vv(1)-Vv(3))*(-ybus(1,3)));
S31=Vv(3)*conj((Vv(3)-Vv(1))*(-ybus(3,1)));
S23=Vv(2)*conj((Vv(2)-Vv(3))*(-ybus(2,3)));
S32=Vv(3)*conj((Vv(3)-Vv(2))*(-ybus(3,2)));

Sloss12=S12+S21;
Sloss13=S13+S31;
Sloss23=S23+S32;
Sloss=Sloss12+Sloss13+Sloss23

loss=((v(1)-v(2))^2)*(10-20i)+((v(2)-v(3))^2)*(20-40i)+((v(3)-v(1))^2)*(5-
15i);

disp('active power of buses are:')


disp(p1*100);

display('reactive power of buses are:')


disp(q1*100);

disp('Voltage magnitude of buses are:')


disp(v);

disp('Voltage angle of buses are:');


disp(d);
Experiment 3 Aditya Anand Gupta
14EE01032

Results

CASE 1 :- Without Q limit violation

Bus 1(Slack bus) Bus 2(PV bus) Bus 3 (PQ bus)

Active Power injected 218.4356 200.00 -400.00


( kW)
Reactive power 141.1689 145.7416 -250.00
injected (kVAR)
Voltage 1.05 1.04 0.9717
magnitude(pu)
Voltage 0 -0.4011 -2.6356
angle(degrees)

Power flow between ACTIVE POWER (KW) REACTIVE POWER(KVAR)


1&2 41.27 21.47

2&1 -41.03 -20.98


2&3 241.06 166.74
3&2 -231.13 -146.89
1&3 177.16 119.70
3&1 -168.87 -103.11

Total active power loss = 18.47 kW

Total reactive power loss= 36.93 kVAR

CASE 2 :- Q-limit at PV bus=1.42 pu.

Bus 1(Slack bus) Bus 2(PV bus) Bus 3 (PQ bus)

Active Power injected 218.0498 200.00 -400.00

Reactive power 144.7035 142.00 -250.00


injected
Voltage 1.05 1.0394 0.9713
magnitude(pu)
Experiment 3 Aditya Anand Gupta
14EE01032

Voltage 0 -0.3782 -2.6241


angle(degrees)

Power flow between ACTIVE POWER (KW) REACTIVE POWER(KVAR)


1&2 40.94 24.03
2&1 -40.68 -23.52
2&3 241.10 165.74
3&2 -231.20 -145.93
1&3 177.11 120.67
3&1 -168.78 -104.01

Total active power loss = 18.49 kW

Total reactive power loss= 36.98 kVAR

CASE 3 :- Load changes at PQ & PV bus

Bus 1(Slack bus) Bus 2(PV bus) Bus 3 (PQ bus)

Active Power injected 224.7128 250 -450.00

Reactive power 172.9091 176.5598 -300.00


injected
Voltage 1.05 1.04 0.9585
magnitude(pu)
Voltage 0 -0.2177 -2.7788
angle(degrees)

Power flow between ACTIVE POWER (KW) REACTIVE POWER(KVAR)


1&2 29.94 27.06
2&1 -29.75 -26.69
2&3 279.79 203.28
3&2 -265.97 -175.63
1&3 194.78 145.85
3&1 -184.04 -124.36

Total active power loss = 24.75 kW

Total reactive power loss= 49.50 kVAR


Experiment 3 Aditya Anand Gupta
14EE01032

CASE 3 :- PV bus voltage = 1.05 pu

Bus 1(Slack bus) Bus 2(PV bus) Bus 3 (PQ bus)

Active Power injected 218.1902 200 -400.00

Reactive power 82.3796 204.0478 -250.00


injected
Voltage 1.05 1.05 0.9783
magnitude(pu)
Voltage 0 -0.6818 -2.7788
angle(degrees)

Power flow between ACTIVE POWER (KW) REACTIVE POWER(KVAR)


1&2 42.09 -20.73
2&1 -41.84 21.23
2&3 241.87 182.84
3&2 -231.45 -162.00
1&3 176.10 103.11
3&1 -168.55 -88.00

Total active power loss = 18.23 kW

Total reactive power loss= 36.46 kVAR