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Manojavitva Siddhi

(abstract) -A.K. Upadhyay


Manojavitva Siddhi has been indicated in Pātañjala yoga-sūtra (3/47-48) and is based
on Ṛgveda (10/71/7-8) whose devatā is Bṛhaspati and aim is to acquire knowledge. Literal
meaning of Manojavitva is to improve the speed of mind. Hanumān is called Manojava-
meant to have speed of mind. But it is explained as coordination between organs of action
and knowledge in Taittirīya upaniṣad, śīkśā vallī. Thus, Maojavitva means improving speed
of mind which will help in acquiring, retaining and processing of knowledge. To understand
the meaning and methods, it is necessary to understand the definition of ‘mana’ at different
levels and its link with buddhi, ahankāra and Chiita. Then we can discuss the techniques and
their basis. This is the subject of current article.
1.Definition of Mana-This is translated as mind in English but it has no clear cut definition in
1.Definition
modern science. A summary of meanings and theories is given from website-
http://www.wordiq.com/definition/Mind
The mind is the term most commonly used to describe the higher functions of the human
brain, particularly those of which humans are subjectively conscious, such as personality,
thought, reason, memory, intelligence and emotion. Although other species of animals share
some of these mental capacities, the term is usually used only in relation to humans. It is
also used in relation to postulated supernatural beings to which human-like qualities are
ascribed, as in the expression "the mind of God."
There are many theories of what the mind is and how it works, dating back to Plato,
Aristotle and other Ancient Greek philosophers. Pre-scientific theories, which were rooted in
theology, concentrated on the relationship between the mind and the soul, the supposed
supernatural or divine essence of the human person. Modern theories, based on a scientific
understanding of the brain, see the mind as a phenomenon of psychology, and the term is
often used more or less synonymously with consciousness.
The question of which human attributes make up the mind is also much debated. Some
argue that only the "higher" intellectual functions constitute mind: particularly reason and
memory. In this view the emotions - love, hate, fear, joy - are more "primitive" or subjective in
nature and should be seen as different in nature or origin to the mind. Others argue that the
rational and the emotional sides of the human person cannot be separated, that they are of
the same nature and origin, and that they should all be considered as part of the individual
mind.
In popular usage mind is frequently synonymous with thought: it is that private
conversation with ourselves that we carry on "inside our heads" during every waking
moment of our lives. Thus we "make up our minds," "change our minds" or are "of two
minds" about something. One of the key attributes of the mind in this sense is that is a
private sphere. No-one else can read our thoughts or "know our mind."
Modern quantum interpretation started with David Bohm who is an authority on modern
Quantum Mechanics. The summary under 7 headings is on website-
http://www.quantum-mind.co.uk/david-bohm-c56.html
1. Introduction-David Bohm & the Implicate Order
2. Information, quantum theory & the brain - Basil Hiley
3. Brain & Mathematics - Karl Pribram
4. Mind, Matter & Active Information - Paavo Pylkkanen
5. Consciousness in Bohm's Ontology - Paavo Pylkkanen
6. Are our spaces made of words? - Jonathan Edwards - Ideas related to David Bohm's and
active information
7. Can quantum analogies help us to understand the process of thought - Paavo Pylkkänen
Essence is that Mind is a quantum fluctuation which is cause of all processes of world. State
or order of fluctuations indicate information content but only a part is active which can be
used. Usable information is linked by a logical chain.
2. Vedic concept of mana-In vedic literature, Mana is not only defined, its 4 stages and 4
parts are classified and even its atom has been sated. The stages are-
(1) Śvo-
vo-vas
vasīīyasa mana-This is the original root of world. Original source of world was
uniform called Rasa. There was none other-He wanted to become multi-fold. From that
desire, chain of creation started. That desire is the root ‘mana’. It lived in vacuum (śvah), so
it is called Śvo-vasīyasa mana.
तैि रीय उपिनषद्-अस ा इदम आसीत्। ततो वै सदजायत।तदा मानँ वयमकु त। त मात् तत् सुकॄतमु यत इित।
य ै तत् सुकृतं रसो वै सः। (२/७)
अस ेव स भवित। असद् ेित वेद चेत्। अि त ेित चे द
े ।....... सोऽकामयत्। ब यां जायेयेित। स तपोऽत यत।
स तप त वा इदं सवमसृजत य ददं क च। तत् सृ वा तदेवानु ािवशत्। तदनु िव य स य ाभवत्। िन ं
चािन ं च। िनलयनं चािनलयनं च। िव ानं चािव ानं च। स यं चानृतं च स यमभवत्। (२/६)
स यं ानमन तं । यो वेद िनिहतं गुहायां परमे ोमन्। सोऽ ुते सवा कामान् सह णा िवपि तेित। त मा ा
एत मादा मन् आकाशः स भूतः।आकाशाद् वायुः। वायोरि ः। अ ेरापः। अ ः पृिथवी। पृिथ ा ओषधयः।
ओषधी योऽ म्। अ ात् पु षः। स वा एष पु षोऽ रसमयः। (२/१)
First there was duality-called variously-Puruṣa-Prakṛti, Agni-soma etc. Here, distinction starts
with-(1) Nirukta (distinct, separate) and Anirukta (no separation from surroundings), (2)
Nilayana (with space) and Anilayan (without distinct boundary, (3) Vijñāna (usable
information, logical link) avijñāna-not perceived logically. (4) Satya (within perception be
senses), Anṛta (beyond ṛta or perception).
Agni--jihva mana-Each distinct body (agni) has 7 fluctuations called jihvā (tongue). 7
(2) Agni
fluctuations are outgoing (archi) and 7 receiving (lelāyate). Manavah also means 14 as total
fluctuations of mana are 14
अि िज वा मनवः सूरच सो िव ेनो देवा अवसा गमि ह। (ऋ वेद १/९८/७, यजुवद २५/२०)
काली कराली च मनोजवा च सुलोिहता या च सुधू वणा।
फु िलि गनी िव ची च देवी लेलायमाना इित स िज वाः॥ (मु डकोपिनषद् १/२/४)
स ाणा भवि त त मात्, स ा चषः सिमधः स होमाः।
स इमे लोका येषु चरि त ाणा गुहाशया िनिहताः स स । (मु डकोपिनषद् २/१/८)
प ोतोऽ बुं प यो यु व ां, प ाणो म प बु या दमूलाम्।
प ावता प दुःखौघवेगां, प ाशद् भेदां प पवामधीमः॥ ( त
े ा तर उपिनषद् १/५)
नव ारे पुरे देही हंसो लेलायते बिहः। वशी सव य लोक य थावर य चर य च। ( ेता तर उपिनषद् ३/१८)
These 7 archis (flames) have given rise to 7 lokas, homa, samidha etc and 7 prāṇas. But at
other places, 5 parvas and 5 prāṇas have been stated. Out of 7 stages (parva), first 2 are
abstract and beyond perception-Primordial mana and division into different pairs. Distinct 5
parvas are-Svāyambhuva (universe), Parameṣṭhī (galaxy), Saura (solar system), Chāndra
(sphere containing moon’s orbit) and Bhū (earth). Correspondingly, there are 7 prāṇas out of
which first 2 are beyond perception-Parorajā (beyond lokas, Ṛṣi prāṇa) and Pitara prāṇa .
Other 5 are visible prāṇas - prāṇa, aprāṇa, samāṇa, vyāṇa, udāṇa.
(3) Atoms of mana-Continuos spread of mana is Sarasvatī (rasa-vatī = with rasa or fluid
which cannot be counted). Countable parts are Gaṇeśa (gaṇana = to count). There are 1011
particles of that mana at each level, so Gaṇeśa has been called Kharva (1011, short height).
Śatapatha brāhmaṇa gives division of 1 muhūrtta (15 parts of day of 12 hours = 48 minutes)
by 15 at each level. After 8 divisions by 15, we get svedāyana which is about 11,20,000
parts of 1 second. 15 such units is lomagartta = about 75000 parts of 1 second. Then it tells
that number of lomagarttas in 1 years (samvatsara) is same as number of lomagarttas (cells)
in human body, which is same as number of nakṣatras (stars within galaxy, or galaxy within
universe). Fluctuation of each cell of mind is its atom. Thus-
1011 = cells in brain = stars in galaxy = galaxies in universe.
ए यो लोमग य ऊ वािन योत यान्। त ािन योत िषः एतािन तािन न ािण। याव येतािनन ािण ताव तो
लोमग ाः। (शतपथ ा ण- १०/४/४/२)
पु षो वै स व सरः। ।१॥ ..दश वै सह ा या ौ च शतािन स व सर य मु ाः। याव तो मु ा तावि त प दशकृ वः
ि ािण। यावि त ि ािण, तावि त प दशकृ वः एतह िण। याब येतह िण, तावि त प दशकृ व इदानीिन।
याव तीदानीिन ताव तः प दशकृ वः ाणाः। याव तः ाणाः, ताव तोऽनाः। याव तोऽनाः ताव तो िनमेषाः। याव तो
िनमेषाः ताव तो लोमग ाः। याव तो लोमग ाः तावि त वेदायनािन। यावि त वेदायनािन, ताव त एते तोका
वषि त। (शतपथ ा ण १२/३/२/१-५)
Vaiṣeśika sūtras of Kaṇāda start with 6 padārthas born of viśeṣa Dharmas - Dravya, Guṇa,
Karma, Sāmānya, Viśeṣa, Samavāya. Among them, Dravya are of 9 types-Pṛthivī, Āpah,
Teja, Vāyu, Ākāśa, Kāla, Dik, Ātmā, Mana. Ātmā and mana are not visible and inferred by
their links with body and objects as in case of Vāyu. Each is formed of numerous indivisible
paramāṇus.
वैशेिषक सू -धमिवशेष सूताद् -गुण-कम-सामा य-िवशेष-समवायानां पदाथानां साध य-वैध या यां त व ानात्
िनः ेयसम्। (१/१/४)
पृिथ ाप तेजो वायुराकाशं कालो दगा मा मन इित ािण(१/१/५)
सदकारणवि यम्। त य (परमाणोः) काय (घटा द) िल गम्। ात् य िन पि ः य ामा यात्।
अवयवावयिव स ग तावदनुभूयते स य द िनरविधः यात् तदा मे - सषपयोः प रमाणभेदो न यात्,
अन तावयवार ध वादिवशेषात्। त माि रवयवं मविध सएव परमाणुः। िन यम् प रम डलम्। (४/१/१-५)
त ा मा मन ा य े। (८/१/२)
आ म या मनसोः संयोगिवशेषादा म य म्। तथा ा तरे षु य म्। असमािहता तःकरणा
उपसं तसमाधय तेषा । तत् समवायात् कमगुणेषु। आ म समवायादा मगुणेषु। (९/१/११-१५)
आ मेि याथ सि कष ान य भावोऽभाव मनसो िल गम्।(३/२/१)
त य व िन य वे वायुना ा याते।(३/२/२) य ायौगप ाज् ानायौगप ा ैकम्।(३/२/३)
तदभावादणु मनः।(७/१/२३)
Vyakti--mana-Each individual has an internal control of the system which includes mana.
(4) Vyakti
The relation between body and its controller are explained in Gitā and Kaṭhopaniṣad.
कठोपिनषद्-आ मानं रिथनं िवि शरीरं रथमेव तु। बु तु सार थ िवि मनः हमेव च॥(१/३/३)
इि यािण हयाना वषयाँ तेषु गोचरान्। आ मेि यमनोयु ं भो े या मनीिषणः॥४॥
इि ये यः परं मनो मनसः स वमु मम्। स वादिप महाना मा महतोऽ मु मम्॥(२/३/७)
गीता-इि यािण मनो बुि र यािध ानमु यते। एतै वमोहय येष ानमावृ य देिहनम्॥(३/४०)
इि यािण परा या रि ये यः परं मनः। मनस तु परा बुिधय बु ःे परत तु सः॥(३/४२)
Indriyas (organs of sense and action) are horses which move in their subjects. Mana is the
rope which binds or controls the horses. Buddhi is the sārathi (driver), and ātmā is owner of
chariot in form of body. Gītā also tells the Indriyas are base for mana and buddhi. Indriyas
are beyond or above (their subjects), mana is above them, buddhi is above mana and above
buddhi also is That (ātmā).
All 5 types of senses are received through mana, without mana, they will be inactive. Then
mana directs the 5 organs of action to work. Thus it is above Indriyas or link among them.
बृहदार यक उपिनषद्- ी या मनेऽकु तेित मनो वाचं ाणं ता या मनेऽकु ता य मना अभूवं नादशम य मना अभूवं
ना ौषिमित मनसा ेव प यित मनसा शृणोित । कामः स क पो िविच क सा ाऽ ा धृितऽधृित ह ध भ रित
एतत् सव मन एव त मादिप पृ त उप पृ ो मनसा िवजानाित सः क श दो वागेव सैषा तमा ैषािह न
ाणोऽपानो ान उदानः समानोऽन इ येत सव ाण एवैत मयो वा अयमा मा वा यो मनोमयः ाणमयः॥ (१/५/३)
Śabda (sound) --- karṇa (ears) Hasta (hands)
Sparśa (touch, heat)---tvachā (skin) Pāda (feet)
Rūpa (form) ----- Netra (eyes) Mana Vāk (mouth)
Rasa (taste) ---- Jihvā (tongue) Upastha (Reproduction)
Gandha (smell) --- nāsā (nose) Gudā (discharge of mala)
Ātmā Buddhi Mana Indriya Viṣaya
links addition to above 5 pairs of input-output of mana, there are 2 more
2 unseen pair of links-In
pairs-making a total of 14 tongues of agni which make the mana.
(1)Light link-Our mind (prajñāna mana) and buddhi (vijñāna mana) are having continuous
link with sun and moon. Link with sun is by light rays, link of moon is by gravitation-both at
speed of light. These are two-way links till time of death. After death, link from man goes, but
does not return. Moon has two roles
roles-it modifies effect of star back-ground
ground whose image is
mahāna-ātmā-that
that way moon has been born from grand mana. Then, its gravitational
influence creates ripples in brain fluid, whose effect goes and returns in about 1.7 second-
second
almost 1 nimeṣa (twinkling of eye)
eye)-affecting prajñāna mana. That link is called śraddhā-
sūtra. Buddhi is controller of mana and resides in heart, place of vijñāna-ātmā
ā . From heart till
crown of head, it goes by su
suṣumnā till ājñā-chakra behind eyebrow centre and then by
Brahma-randhra to sahasrāra
ra. For each man, these are separate, called aṇu-patha (bye-
sunrays-that is mahā-patha (highway).
lanes). From that, it goes till sun by sunrays

सूय आ मा जगत तथुष (वाजसने


वाजसनेयी यजुवद ७/४२)
तदेते ोका भवि त-अणु
अणुः प था िवततः पुराणो मां पृ ोऽनुिव ो मयैव। तेन धीरा अिपयि त िवदः वग लोकिमव
ऊ व िवमु ाः।८।
ति म छु लमुत नीलमा ः िप गलं ह रतं लोिहतं च। एष प था णा ानुिव तेनैित िव पु यकृ ैजस ॥
(बृहदार यक उपिनषद् ४/४/८,९)
अथ या एता दय य ना ताः िप गलािण ि त ि त शु ल य नील य पीत य लोिहत ये यसौ वा आ द यः
िप गल एष शु ल एष नील एष लोिहतः॥ लोिहतः॥१॥॥ त था महापथ आतत उभौ ामौ ग छ तीमं चामुं
चामु मा द या ताय ते ता आसु नाडीषु सृ ा आ यो नाडी यः ताय ते तेऽमुि म ा द ये सृ ाः॥२॥
ाः॥ ..... अथ
य ैतद मा छरीरादु ामित अथैतरै े व रि मिभ ववमा ामते स ओिमित वा हो ामीयते स
यावि ये मन तावदा द यं ग छ यत ै खलु लोक ारं िवदुषा पदनं िनरोधोऽवदुषाम् ॥५
५॥ (छा दो य उपिनषद्
८/६/१,२,५)
सू (४/२/१७-२०)-१-तदोकोऽ
तदोकोऽ वलनं त कािशत ारो िव ासाम या छे षग यनु मृितयोगा
तयो हादानुगृहीतः
शतािधकया।
२. र यनुसारी। ३. िनिश नेित चेन स ब ध य याव ेहभािव वा शयित च। ४. अत ायनेऽिप दि णे।
पं पं मघवाबोभवीित मायाः कृ वान त वं प र वाम्।
ि य वः प रमु मागात् वैम ैरनृतुपा ऋतावा॥
ऋतावा॥(ऋ वेद ३/५३/८)
ि ह वा एष (मघवा=इ ः, आ द यः = सौर ाणः) एत या मु येमां पृिथव सम तः प यित। (जैिमनीय ा ण
उपिनषद् १/४४/९)
This is with speed of Mind or mana, called Manojava.
(2) Mind link-This
The first link maintains body functions, second link is link of ātmā-paramātmā. Its center is
sun. The link of sun till earth-moon has been called Suşumnā. That is modified by influence
of other planets whose names and nature is given in Yajurveda (15/15-19, 17/58, 18/40) and
also explained in Kūrma purāṇa, part 1, 41/2-8), Matsya purāṇa (128/29-33), Vāyu purāṇa
(53/44-50), Vişņu, Brahmāṇḍa (1/2/2465-72) etc. The links with planets are-
Planet Mercury Venus Earth-moon Mars Jupiter Saturn Nakśatra
Nāɖī Viśvakarmā Viśvavyachā Suşumnā, Sanyadvasu Arvāgvasu Svara Harikeśa
(Viśvaśravā)
Directions-South West ---- North Up ------ East
वाजसनेयी यजुवद, अ याय १५-अयं पुरो ह रके शः सूयरि म त य रथगृ स रथौजा सेनानी ाम यौ।
पुि क थला च तु थला चा सरसौ दृ णवः पशवो हेितः पौ षेयो वधः हेित ते यो नमो अ तु ते नोऽव तु ते नो
मृडय तु ते यं ि मो य नो िे तमेषां ज भे द मः॥१५॥ अयं दि णा िव कमा त य रथ वन रथेिच सेनानी
ाम यौ। मेनका च सहज या चा सरसौ यातुधाना हेती र ांिस हेित ते यो नमो अ तु ते नोऽव तु ते नो मृडय तु ते
यं ि मो य नो िे तमेषां ज भे द मः॥१६॥ अयं प ाि चा त य रथ ोत ासमरथ सेनानी ाम यौ।
लोच ती चानु लोच ती चा सरसौ ा ा हेितः सपाः हेित ते यो नमो अ तु ते नोऽव तु ते नो मृडय तु ते यं
ि मो य नो िे तमेषां ज भे द मः॥१७॥ अयमु रात् संय सु त य ता य ा र नेिम सेनानी ाम यौ।
िव ाची च घृताची चा सरसावापो हेितवातः हेित ते यो नमो अ तु ते नोऽव तु ते नो मृडय तु ते यं ि मो य नो
िे तमेषां ज भे द मः॥१८॥ अयमुपयवा वसु त य सेनिज सुषेण सेनानी ाम यौ। उवशी च
पूविचि ा सरसावव फू जन् हेित व ुत् हेित ते यो नमो अ तु ते नोऽव तु ते नो मृडय तु ते यं ि मो य नो िे
तमेषां ज भे द मः॥१९॥
अ याय १७-सूयरि मह रके शः पुर तात् सिवता योित दयाँ अज म्। त य पूषा सवे याित िव ा स प यि व ा
भुवनािन गोपाः॥५८॥
अ याय १८-सुषु णः सूयरि म मा ग धव त य न ा य सरसो भेकुरयो नाम। स न इदं ं पातु त मै
वाहा वाट् ता यः वाहा॥४०॥
कू म पुराण, पूविवभाग, अ याय ४१-
त य ये र मयो िव ाः सवलोक दीपकाः। तेषां े ाः पुनः स र मयो हयोनयः॥२॥
सुषु ो ह रके श िव कमा तथैव च। िव चाः पुन ा यः संय सुरतः परः॥३॥
अवावसु रित यातः वराड यः क ततः। सुषु ः सूयरि म तु पु णाित िशिशर ुितम्॥४॥
ितयगू व चारोऽसौ सुषु ः प रप ते। ह रके श तु यः ो ो रि मन पोषकः॥५॥
िव कमा तथा रि मबुधं पु णाित सवदा। िव चा तु यो रि मः शु ं पु णाित िन यदा॥६॥
संय सु रित यातः स पु णाित च लोिहतम्। बृह प त पु णाित रि मरवावसुः भोः।
शनै रं पु णाित स म तु सुराट् तथा॥७॥
एवं सूय भावेण सवा न तारकाः। वध ते व धता िन यं िन यमा याययि त च॥८॥
म य पुराण, अ याय १२८-सुषु ा सूयरि मया ीणम् शिशनमेधते। ह रके शः पुर ता ु यो वै न योिनकृ त्॥२९॥
दि णे िव कमा तु रि मरा याययद् बुधम्। िव ावसु यः प ा छु योिन स मृतः॥३०॥
संवधन तु यो रि मः स योिनल िहत य च। ष तु भू रि मय िनः सा िह बृह पतेः॥३१॥
शनै रं पुन ािप रि मरा यायते सुराट् । न ीय ते यत तािन त मा ता मृता॥३२॥
े ा येतािन वै सूयमातपि त गभि तिभः। े ािण तेषामाद े सूय न ता ततः॥३३॥
ा ड पुराण, पूवभाग, अ याय २४-
रवे रि मसह ं य ा या समुदा तम्। तेषां े ाः पुनः स र मयो हयोनयः॥६५॥
सुषु णो ह रके श िव कमा तथैव च। िव वाः पुन ा यः संप सुरतः परः॥६६॥
अवावसुः पुन ा यः वराड यः क तः। सुषु णः सूयरि म तु ीण शिशनमेधयेत्॥६७॥
ितयगू व चारोऽसौ सुषु णः प रक तः। ह रके शः पुर ता ऋ योिनः स क यते॥६८॥
दि णे िव कमा तु रि म व यते बुधम्। िव वा तु यः प ा छु योिनः मृतो बुधैः॥६९॥
स प सु तु यो रि मः स योिनल िहत य तु। ष व वावसू रि मय िन तु स बृह पतेः॥७०॥
शनै रं पुन ािप रि मरा यायते वराट् । एवं सूय भावेण हन तारकाः॥७१॥
व ते दिव ताः सवा िव ं चेदं पुनजगत्। न ीय ते यत तािन त मा संि ताः॥७२॥
े ा येतािन वै पूवमातपि त गभि तिभः। तेषां े ा यथाद े सूय न कारकाः॥७३॥
Seven pairs of links of mana and consequent stages of Jñāna-ajñāna are explained in
Mahopaniṣad, chapter 5. That causes 7 Bhūmis of jñāna and 7 of ajñāna. These correspond
to modes of input and 7 of output for mana. The chapter further explains these traits. Person
with all 7 senses is called Avadhūta, whose qualities have been told by Dattātreya in
Avadhūtopaniṣad.
त य स धा ा तभूिमः ा। (योग सू २/२७)
महोपिनषद्, अ याय ५-अ ानभूः स पदा भूः स पदैव िह॥१॥ व पावि थितमुि तद् श
ं ोऽह व वेदनम्॥२॥
शु स मा संिव ेः व पा चलि त ये। राग ष े ादयो भावा तेषां ना व संभवः॥३॥
यः व पप र ंश े याथ िचित म नम्। एत मादपरो मोहो न भूतो न भिव यित॥४॥
अथादथा तरं िच े याित म ये तु या ि थितः। सा व तमननाकारा व पि थित यते॥५॥
सशा तसवस क पा या िशलावदवि थितः।जा ि ािविनमु ा सा व पि थितः परा॥६॥
अह तांशे ते शा ते भेदिन प दिच ता। अजडा या चलित तत् व पिममी रतम्॥७॥
बीज जा था जा महाजा थैव च। जा त् व तथा व ः व जा त् सुषुि कम्॥८॥
इित स िवधो मोहः पुनरे ष पर परम्। ि ोभव यनेका यं ृणु ल णम य तु॥९॥
थमं चेतनं य यादना यं िनमलं िचतः। भिव यि जीवा दनामश दाथ भाजनम्॥१०॥
बीज पि थतं जा ीजजा दु यते। एषा ेनवाव था वं जा त् संि थ त ण
ृ ु॥११॥
नव सूत य परादयं चाहिमदं मम। इित यः ययः व थ त ा त् ागभावनात्॥१२॥
अयं सोऽहिमदं त म इित ज मा तरो दतः। पीवरः ययः ो ो महाजा दित फु टम्॥१३॥
अ ढमथवा ढं सवथा त मया मकम्। य ा तो मनोरा यं य ा त् व उ यते॥१४॥
ि च शुि का य मृगतृ णा द भेदतः। अ यासं ा य जा त् व ो नानािवधो भवेत्॥१५॥
अ पकालं मया दृ मेत ोदेित य िह। परामशः बु य स व इित क यते॥१६॥
िचरं संदशनाभावाद फु लं बृह चः।िचरकालानुवृि तु व ो जा दवो दतः॥१७॥
व जा दित ो ं जा यिप प र फु रत्। षडव था प र यागो जडा जीव य या ि थितः॥१८॥
भिव यदुःखबोधा ा सौषुि ः सो यते गितः। जग यामव थायाम त तमिस लीयते॥१९॥
स ाव था इमाः ो ा मया ान य वै ि ज। एकै का शतसं याऽ नानािवभव िपणी॥२०॥
इमां स पदां ानभूिममाकणयानघ। नानया ातया भूयो मोहप के िनम ित॥२१॥
वदि त ब भेदेन वा दनो योगभूिमकाः। मम विभमता नूनिममा एव शुभ दाः॥२२॥
अवबोधं िवदु ानं त ददं स भूिमकम्। मुि तु ेयिम यु ा भूिमका स कात् परम्॥२३॥
ानभूिमः शुभे छा या थमा समुदा ता। िवचारणा ि तीया तु तृतीया तनुमानसी॥२४॥
स वापि तुथ या तोऽसंसि नािमका। पदाथभावना ष ी स मी तुयगा मृता॥२५॥
Antahkaraṇ
3. Antahkaraṇa-There are 4 inner controls of the body called -Antahkaraṇa (inner
instrument). These are-mana, buddhi, ahankāra, chitta.
मनोबुि रह कारि िम य तःकरणचतु यम्। (शारीरकोपिनषद् २)
मनोबुि रह कारि चेित चतु यम्। (वराहोपिनषद् १/४)
मनोबु योि ाह कारौ चा तभूतौ। (ि िशख ा णोपिनषद् १/४)
Mana is random fluctuations which are infinite. Buddhi is ordered sequence. Mana is Parā-
vāk, buddhi is visible thought called paśyantī. After that it is translated into words as per
store of language system in mind-called madhyamā-vāk. Final spoken or written words are
vaikharī-vāk. Buddhi results in formation of Vākya (sentence) which describes an event
(vākayā in Arabic). When we generalize, it becomes Kāvya (poem, creation). Buddhi
analyses various alternatives, then it decides a course of action. Till analysis, it is
avyavasāyī. After decision, it is vyavasāyātmikā.
मनः स प ते लोलं कलनाऽऽकलनो मुखम्।कलय ती मनःशि रादौ भावयित णात्॥ (महोपिनषद्, ५/१४६)
बु यो वै िधय ता योऽ माकं चोदया द या मनीिषणः। (मै ायणी उपिनषद् ६/७)
बुि कमि य ाणप कै मनसािधया। शरीरं स दशिभः सुसू मं िल गमु यते। (शारीरकोपिनषद् ११)
वसायाि मका बुि रे केह कु न दन। ब शाखा न ता बु योऽ वसाियनाम्॥ (गीता, २/४१)
अप रिमततरिमव िह मनः प रिमततरमेव िह वाक् । (शतपथ ा ण १/४/४/७)
च वा र वाक् प रिमता पदािन तािन िवदु ा णा ये मनीिषणः।
गुहा ीिण िनिहता ने गयि त तुरीयं वाचो मनु या वदि त॥ (ऋ वेद १/१६४/४५)
परायाम कु रीभूय प य यां ि दलीकृ ता ॥१८॥
म यमायां मुकुिलता वैखया िवकसीकृ ता॥ (योगकु डली उपिनषद् ३/१८, १९)
अ रं परमो नादः श द ेित क यते। मूलाधारगता शि ः वाधारा िब दु िपणी॥२॥
त यामु प ते नादः सू मबीजा दवा कु रः। तां प य त िवदु व ं यया प यि त योिगनः॥३॥
दये यते घोषो गज पज यसंिनभः। त ि थता सुरेशान म यमे यिभधीयते॥४॥
ाणेन च वरा येन िथता वैखरी पुनः। शाखाप लव पेण ता वा द थानघ नात्॥५॥ (योगिशखोपिनषद् ३/२-५)
Buddhi is organization of random thoughts of mind. It is related to vāk and vākya which is
organization of words (śabda). Words have 4 sources-nāma (name), ākhyāta (definition),
upasarga (pre-fix), nipāta (usage) as per nirukta. Its meanings change as per 7 sansthā (set-
up) which can be called script, language, geography, tradition/history, science of physical
(ādhibhautika) and 2 parallels in cosmic (ādhidaivika) and inner (ādhyātmika) systems. Thus,
word has 4x7 = 28 forms of meanings. Parallel to that, buddhi also has 28 weaknesses or
strength in sānkhya philosophy.
इतीमािन च वा र पदजाता यनु ा तािन। नामा याते चोपसग-िनपाता (िन १/१२)
सवषां तु स नामािन कमािण च पृथक् पृथक् । वेद श दे य एवादौ पृथक् सं था िनममे॥(मनु मृित १/२१)
या स सं था या एवैता स हो ाः ाचीवषट् कु वि त ता एव ताः। (जैिमनीय ा ण उपिनषद् १/२१/४)
छ दांिस वाऽअ य स धाम ि यािण । स योनी रित िचितरे तदाह । (शतपथ ा ण ९/२/३/४४, यजु १७/७९)
अ या ममिधभूतमिधदैवं च (त व समास ७)
क तद् कम या मं क कम पु षो म। अिधभूतं च क ो मिधदैवं कमु यते॥१॥
अ रं परमं वभावोऽ या म उ यते। भूतभावो व करो िवसगः कम संि तः॥३॥
अिधभूतं रो भावः पु ष यािधदैवतम्। (गीता, अ याय ८)
अ ा वशितधा अशि ः (त व-समास, १३) अशि र ा वशितधा (सां य सू ३/२८)
एकादशेि यवधाः सह बु े वपयया ुि िस ीनाम् (सां य का रका ४९)
Thus, yoga has 28 obstacles to sādhanā (practice)-5 viṣaya (subject) + 5 vṛttis (traits) of
buddhi + 5 kleṣa (complications)+ 13 citta-vikṣepa (diversions).
ो ं च ुः पशनं च रसनं ाणमेव च। अिध ाय मन ायं िवषयानुपसेवते (गीता १५/९)
वृ यः प त यः ि ल ाि ल ाः। (योग सू , १/५, सां य सू २/३३)
माण िवपयय िवक प िन ा मृतयः। (योग सू , १/६)
अिव ाऽि मता राग ष
े ािभिनवेशाः प लेषाः। (योग सू , २/३)
ािध- यान संशय मादाऽल यािवरित ाि तदशनाऽल ध भूिमक वानवि थतत वािन िच -िव ेपा तेऽ तरायाः।
(योगसू २/३०)
दुःखदौमन याऽ गमेजय व ास ासाः िव ेपसहभुवः। (योगसू २/३१)
Ahankāra is feeling of individuality. That is reason of creation of a single body of man or any
being called Puryaṣṭaka (structure of 8 parts). Each cell of our body knows that it is part of
this body only and rejects foreign cells/viruses or blood of different blood-group. However,
when this feeling ignores our link with outside world, it becomes pride and is obstruction to
our existence and rise.
अह कार कलायु ं बुि बीजसमि वतम्। त पुय किम यु ं भूत प ष पदम् ॥(महोपिनषद्, ५/१५३)
कृ तेः यमाणािन गुणैः कमािण सवशः। अह कारिवमूढा मा कताहिमित म यते॥ (गीता ३/२७)
Chitta word has several forms linked to each other. Chit is point space-almost of zero
volume, chin-mātra = negligible. Their arrangement is called chiti (design). The agency
which causes this arrangement is called chetanā (consciousness). No order or design can
be created by inanimate object. By natural reasons a house cannot be created, it can decay
or be destroyed. But bricks can be joined in a design only by a conscious being having
chetanā. Joint of components (bricks) is called Iṣṭakā-chiti (brick design). The whole world
itself is biggest design which is a form of Devī. Designer is Brahma. The ordering cause is
chain of Mana-buddhi-ahankāra and their place is chitta. Yoga is control of natural actions
(vṛttis) of chitta. Chitta can move out of body also. A part of chitta can enter another body to
control it. Mover or controller of chitta is ātmā. Each chit (point) of world has something
which can be sensed-that is sat. It also contains ānanda which is original creator of world as
rasa. Brahma is collection of each such chit, so it is called Sat-chit- ānanda.
य ेतयमाना अप यं त माि तयः। (शतपथ ा ण ६/२/२/९)
त त् प िचतीि नो येतािभरे वैनं त नूिभि नोित यि नोित त माि तयः। (शतपथ ा ण ६/१/२/१७)
चेत ो ासी माि यः। (शतपथ ा ण ६/१/२/१६)
बु या बु यित, िच ेन चेतय यह कारे णाह करोित (नारद प र ाजक उपिनषद् ६/४)
दुगा-स शती, अ याय ५-इि याणामिध ा ी भूतानां चािखलेषु या। भूतेषु सततं त यै ाि दे ै नमो नमः॥७७॥
िचित पेण याकृ मेतद् ा य ि थता जगत्। नम त यै ॥७८॥ नम त यै ॥७९॥ नम त यै नमो नमः॥८०॥
जापितव िच पितः। (शतपथ ा ण ३/१/३/२२) चेत ो ासी माि यः।(शतपथ ा ण ६/१/२/१६)
इ क ारम वर य चेतसिमित। अ वरो वै य ः। क पियतारं य य चेतसिम येतत्।(शतपथ ा ण ७/३/१/३३)
त द ात् समभवं त माद् इ काः। (शतपथ ा ण ६/१/२/२२)
योगि वृि िनरोधः। (योग सू १/२) देशब धि य धारणा। (योगसू ३/१)
दये िच संिवत् । (योग सू ३/३४)
यय य परिच ानम्। (योग सू ३/१९)
ब ध कारणशैिथ यात् चार संवेदना िच य परकाया वेशः। (योग सू ३/३८)
यदा िविनयतं िच मा म येवावित ते। (गीता ६/१८) योिगनो यतिच य यु तो योगमा मन (गीता ६/१९)
य ोपरमते िच ं िन ं योगसेवया। (गीता ६/२०) अथ िचतं समाधातुं न श ोिष मिय ि थरम्। (गीता १२/९)
Out of 7 bhūmis of mind, only 5 vṛttis of chitta are linked to senses which are controlled by
yoga practice.
वृ यः प त यः ि ल ाऽि ल ाः। (योग सू १/५) माण िवपयय िवक प िन ा मृतयः। (योग सू १/६)
Yoga--sūtra-In Yoga-sūtra, Patañjali has stated these steps-
4. Methods of Manojava- (1) Yoga
(a) We should progress from 5 outer methods –yama, niyama, āsana, prāṇāyāma and
pratyāhāra to 3 inner methods-dhāraṇā, dhyāna, samādhi.
यम तर ग पूव यः। (योगसू ३/७)
Yama = stopping harmful practices.
Niyama = following correct conduct. First was negative, this is positive.
Āsana = physical postures
Prāṇāyāma =control of breath.
Pratyāhāra = withdrawing mind from unnecessary thought/acts.
(b) Inner methods-After
methods sufficient practice of outer methods, we are ready or inner ones.
First is dhāraṇā which means joining chitta with an object of consideration or on a particular
chakra of body. Continuation of dhāraṇā is called dhyāna. When we forget the self as almost
zero and think only about artha (meaning) of subject, it becomes samādhi. Joining all these
3 is called samyama. By conquering that samyama, we get light of prajñā (intuition). That
samyama can be applied to different bhūmi (objects, targets).
देशब धि य धारणा। (योगसू ३/१), त यैकतानता यानम्। (योगसू ३/२)
तदेवाथमा िनभासं व पशू यिमव समािधः। (योगसू ३/३), यमेक संयमः। (योगसू ३/४)
त यात् ालोकः। (योगसू ३/५), त य भूिमषु िविनयोगः। (योगसू ३/६)
We have indriya-jaya (control of senses/organs) by samyama on grahaṇa (tendency to
acquire viṣayas), svarūpa (nature of indriyas), asmitā (feeling of self), anvaya (3 guṇas-
sattva, raja, tama-which affect by brightness, action, existence) and arthavattva (actually
getting objects).
हण व पाि मता वयाथव व संयमा दि य जयः। (योगसू ३/४७)
By control of indriyas, body gets speed of mind, action without organs (karaṇa = instrument)
and control of pradhāna (root nature). This is called manojavitva. Alternate meaning is that
mind becomes very fast and its speed is stated to be far more than speed of light.
ततो मनोजिव वं िवकरणभावः धानजय । (योगसू ३/४८)
Kriyā
(2) Kriyā-yoga
yoga-Yoga sūtra has defined kriyā-yoga as combination of 3-tapa (hard work),
svādhyāya (study) and Īśvara-praṇidhāna (surrender to God).
तप वा याये र िणधानािन यायोग। (योग सू २/१)
However, its methods are based on tāntrika structure of body. We have 5 chakras in spinal
cord of body which is parallel to 5 levels of cosmic creation and 5 elements-space, air
(motion), teja (radiation), ap (soma, dispersed gas etc) and pṛthvī (compact body as earth).
There are 2 higher levels in mind-ājñā-chakra at centre of brain is start of duality (mind/body)
as duality of matter/ energy in space. Sahasrāra at crown of head is image of abstract
source which has thousands alternate paths of creation. We feel each chakra and move our
chitta from lowest chakra to highest. The details can be understood and practiced only under
a Guru. It is summarized by Śankarāchārya in Saundarya-laharī-
मह मूलाधारे कमिप मिणपूरे तवहम्, ि थतं वािध ाने द म तमाकाशमुप र।
मनोऽिप ूम ये सकलमिप िभ वा कु लपथम्, सह ारे प े सह रहिस प या िवहरिस (िवहरसे)-सौ दय-लहरी, ९
(3) Vedic method-The
method same method is explained in Vedas under name Manojava.
अ व तः कणव तः सखायो मनोजवे वसमा बभूवुः।
आद ास उपक ास उ वे दा इव ा वा उ वे ददृशे॥ (ऋ वेद १०/७१/७)
दा त ष
े ु मनसो जवेषु यद् ा णाः संयज ते सखायः।
अ ाह वं िव ज व ािभरो ह ाणो िव चर तु वे॥(ऋ वेद १०/७१/८)
These verses mean that man cannot be like manojava even with subjects felt through eyes,
ears etc. Only by placing these moving friends within heart we have manojavitva. The friends
are-indriya (organs), viśaya (objects) and their bandha (knot).
The methods are summarized in Gajendra-mokṣa stotra of Bhāgavata purāṇa (8/3).
Gajendra was proud of his power, but he was caught firmly in water (ocean of world) by
Grāha (crocodile), i.e subjects of organs. By vyavasita (single pointed) buddhi, he placed
mana in heart and as per remains of past life teachings, he did japa (mental recitation) of
supreme mantra ( ॐ नमो भगवते वासुदेवाय)-
ी शुक उवाच-एवं विसतो बु या समाधाय मनो द। जजाप परमं जा यं ा ज म यनुिशि तम्।१।
गजे उवाच-ॐ नमो भगवते त मै यत एति दा मकम्।
पु षाया दबीजाय परे शायािभधीमिह।२। (भागवत पुराण ८/३)
Step-by step rise is symbolized by offer of dūrvā (grass) which grows from each knot.
Similarly, man grows afresh from each step of his rise.
का डा का डात् रोहि त प षः प ष प र। एवा नो दूव तनु सह ेण शतेन च। (वाजसनेयी यजुवद १३/२०)
अयं ( ाणः) वाव माधूव दित यद वीद् अधूव न् मेित त माद् धूवा, धूवा ह वै तां दूव याच ते परोऽ म् (शतपथ
ा ण ७/४/२/१२)
The rise is from gross body formed by food to the highest abstract level-
उतामृत व येशानो यद ेनाितरोहित। (पु ष सू २)