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gale licence 581

G
gagate > jet(t)
gagatite [Coalified woody mineral, resembling jet(t)] ●
Gagatit m
gage (US) > gauge
gage (US) . . . > gauge . . .
gaging (US) > discharge measurement
gabbro ● Gabbro m, Paulitfels, Schillerfels m gaging dam (US) > measurement weir
[Fehlbenennungen: (schwedischer) schwarzer Granit m, (gaging) weir (US) > measurement weir
schwarzer schwedischer Granit Kristallines Tiefengestein gahnite, idocrase, vesuvianite ● Vesuvianit m
mit den Hauptbestandteilen Kalknatronfeldspat und gahnite, zinc spinel [A dark-green to yellowish, gray, or
Diallag, dazu meist reichlich Eisenerz, öfters Olivin, black mineral of the spinel series; ZnAl2O4. It often
auch wohl Augit oder Hornblende, selten Quarz. In contains some magnesium] ● Gahnit m, Zinkspinell m,
Schlesien „Zobtenfels’’ und volkstümlich „Krötenstein’’ Gannospinell G
genannt] to gain [Context: Access to the mine is gained via a 10
gabbro [obsolete in the USA] > euphotide m main decline] ● erfolgen [Kontext: Der Zugang zur
gabbro clan ● Gabbrofamilie f Mine erfolgt über. . .]
gabbro diorite ● Gabbrodiorit m gain (⚒) > rock drift
gabbroic ● gabbroartig, gabbroid gain ● Gewinn m
gabbroic layer > sima gain [A notch, mortise, or groove (as in a timber or wall)
gabbroid > ophitic for a beam or joist] ● Einschnitt m
gabbro porphyrite ● Gabbroporphyrit m gain > (signal) gain
gabbro porphyry ● Gabbroporphyr m gain control, volume control [In a seismic amplifier,
gabbro syenite, ortho(cla)se gabbro ● a device to change the amplification with time. It may be
Gabbrosyenit m automatic by individual channel, gauged for all channels
gabion ● Gabione f [Die Gabione ist ein mit together, programmed prior to the shot, or otherwise
unterschiedlichen Steinen gefüllter Drahtkorb. Sie prearranged] ● Amplitudensteuerung f
kommt im Straßen- und Wegebau in Form von gaining stream, effluent stream [It abstracts ground-
Gabionenwänden zum Einsatz. Sie dienen zur water] ● grundwasseraufnehmender Fluss m
Abstützung von Hängen oder als Lärmschutz] gaize [A porous fine-grained micaceous glauconitic
gabion (cage), pannier [A rectangular wire box (or sandstone, containing much soluble silica, occurring
basket) filled with relatively small-size stones or earth] among the Cretaceous rocks of France and Belgium] ●
● Drahtbehälter m, Drahtkorb m, Drahtkasten m, Gaize f, feinklastisches Gestein n
Drahtkoffer m gal [Cornwall. A hard rusty gossan] ● eisenschüssiger
gabion wall, stone gabion wall ● Steingabione f, ochriger Letten m, ochriger eisenschüssiger Letten
Gabionenwand f [Gabione(nwand), die mit Steinen galactite [obsolete]; novaculite, razor stone, Turkey
verfüllt wird] stone, Turkey slate [A fine-quality whetstone or abrasive
gable of (a/the) house ● Hausgiebel m used for sharpening] ● Novakulit m
gable wall ● Giebelwand f gale [The land granted] (⚒) ● Mutungsland n
gad, picker; gedn [Cornwall] ● Bergeisen n gale (⚒) > gale (right)
gad, withe, binder ● Bind(e)weide f, Wiede, Weede, gale(age), galiage [The royalty paid in English law for
Bind(e)gerte f [Weidengerte zum Binden von the right to work a mine] ● Mutungsgebühr f,
Reisbündeln, Faschinen, Anbinden der Bäume usw.] Mutungsabgabe f
gadder, gadding car, gadding machine [In quarrying, Gale alidade, explorer’s alidade [Named for Hoyt S.
a small car or platform carrying a drilling machine, so as Gale 1876 - 1952, American geologist] ● Gale-Alhidade f
to make a straight line of holes along its course in getting gale application, gale request ● Mutung f [Antrag
out dimension stone] ● Quader(stein)bohrwagen m beim Bergamt auf Verleihung des Bergwerkseigentums
gadding [In quarrying, the drilling for taking out an einem Grubenfeld]
dimension stone] ● Quader(stein)bohren n galee, gale holder (⚒) ● Muter m
gaffer (⚒) > governor gale licence (⚒) ● Mutungslizenz f

H. Herrmann, H. Bucksch, Dictionary Geotechnical Engineering/Wörterbuch GeoTechnik,


DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-41714-6, # Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014
582 galena

galena, galenite, lead glance, lead sulphuret, sulphuret gallery break point ● Stollenknickpunkt m
of lead ● Bleisulfuret n, Bleiglanz m, Galenit m, gallery building, gallery construction ● Stollenbau m
Töpfererz n, PbS, Glanzerz n gallery building engineering, gallery construction
galenite, galena, lead glance, lead sulphuret, sulphuret engineering ● Stollenbautechnik f
of lead ● Bleisulfuret n, Bleiglanz m, Galenit m, gallery bulkhead ● Stollenschott n
Töpfererz n, PbS, Glanzerz n gallery canal ● Stollenkanal m
galenobismutite [A lead-gray or tin-white mineral gallery cave-in, gallery collapse ● Stolleneinbruch m,
consisting of bismuth sulfid(e), specific gravity is 6.9] ● Stolleneinsturz m
Galenobismutit m, PbS·Bi2S3 gallery cavity ● Stollenhohlraum m
gale request, gale application ● Mutung f [Antrag gallery chamber ● Stollenkammer f
beim Bergamt auf Verleihung des Bergwerkseigentums gallery cheek, gallery side(wall), gallery wall ●
an einem Grubenfeld] Stollenulme f
G gale (right) (⚒) ● Mutungsrecht n gallery circumference ● Stollenumfang m
Galerkin variational procedure, variational gallery clearance ● Stollenlicht(raum)profil n
procedure ● Variationsverhalten n [z. B. das von gallery collapse, gallery cave-in ● Stolleneinbruch m,
Galerkin] Stolleneinsturz m
galiage, gale(age) [The royalty paid in English law for gallery concrete ● Stollenbeton m
the right to work a mine] ● Mutungsgebühr f, gallery construction, gallery building ● Stollenbau m
Mutungsabgabe f gallery construction engineering, gallery building
Galician (drilling) system, Russian (drilling) system, engineering ● Stollenbautechnik f
Canadian (drilling) system, Austrian (drilling) gallery conveyor, heading conveyor, level conveyor,
system, pole-tool (drilling) system [It originated in drift conveyor, drive conveyor, road(way) conveyor,
Canada and was introduced from there into Galicia] ● driving conveyor, stage loader, mine road con-
kanadisches Bohren n [Bohren mit hölzernem (Ober-) veyor (⚒) ● Streckenförderer m; Laufförderer
Gestänge] [Österreich]
gall > clay concretion gallery cross section(al area) ● Stollenquerschnitt(-)
gall > sand pipe (fläche) m, (f)
gallate ● gallussaures Salz n gallery designer ● Stollenkonstrukteur m
gallery, pressure tunnel ● Druckstollen m [Tunnelbau] gallery drainage ● Wasserlösung f (durch Stollen),
gallery; tunnel (US) ● Stollen m [Im Bergbau wird ein Stollenentwässerung
unter Tage hergestellter gestreckter Hohlraum nur dann gallery drilling ● Stollenbohren n
„Stollen’’ genannt, wenn er mindestens an einem Ende zu gallery drive > gallery advance
Tage tritt; sonst heißt er „Strecke’’] gallery driver ● Stollenbauer m
gallery access shaft ● Stollenzugangschacht m gallery driving > gallery advance
gallery advance, gallery advancing, gallery driving, gallery end > gallery head
gallery heading, gallery holing through, gallery attack, gallery engineer ● Stollen(bau)ingenieur
gallery excavation, gallery drive ● Stollenvortrieb m, gallery engineering ● Stollentechnik f
Stollenausbruch m, Stollenvortreiben n, Stollenan- gallery enlargement, gallery widening ● Stollener-
griff m, Stollenauffahren, Stollenabbau m weiterung f, Stollenvergrößerung
gallery aqueduct ● Stollenaquädukt m gallery entrance > gallery mouth
gallery bench, gallery step [Part of a gallery section gallery entry (⚒) > level entry
with the approximately horizontal upper surface tempo- gallery excavation > gallery advance
rarily left unexcavated] ● Stollenbankett n, gallery excavation material ● Stollenausbruch-
Stollenabsatz m, Stollenstufe f material n
gallery blasting, coyote (hole) blasting ● Sprengen n gallery exploration ● Stollenaufschließung f,
mit Stollen, Sprengung f mit Stollen Stollenaufschluss m
gallery bolt ● Stollen(ausbau)anker m gallery fire ● Stollenbrand m, Stollenfeuer n
gallery bottom, gallery floor, gallery invert ● gallery floor, gallery bottom, gallery invert ●
Stollensohle f Stollensohle f
gallery branch ● Stollenabzweig m, Stollenarm m gallery forcing > gallery jacking
gallery timbering 583

gallery forming ● Stollenschalen n gallery pit, gallery shaft ● Stollenschacht m [Der auf
gallery form(s), gallery formwork, gallery shuttering ● einem Stollen niedergebrachte Schacht]
Stollenschalung f gallery plug ● Stollenpfropfen m
gallery for rock test, tested gallery length, sealed off gallery portal ● Stollenportal n
section ● Druckkammer f, abgeschlossenes gallery portal transition ● Stollenübergang m
Stollenstück n [Druckkammerversuch] gallery pump ● Stollenpumpe f
gallery frame ● Stollengerüst n, Stollenrahmen m gallery pushing, gallery jacking, gallery thrusting, gal-
gallery frame shoring; tunnel frame shoring (US) ● lery forcing [Pipe jacking methods have been developed
Stollenbaurüstung f and elaborated to gallery jacking. No precise borderline is
gallery freezing ● Stollenvereisung f, definable, but when a man can operate in the pipe,
Stollengefrierung somewhere above 1 m diameter, it may be considered as
gallery (ground) (support(ing)) system [‘‘Tunnel’’ is a form of gallery construction] ● Stollenvorpressen n,
synonymously used for ‘‘gallery’’ in the USA] ● Stollenvordrücken, Stollendurchdrücken, Stollen- G
Stollenverbau m, Stolleneinbauten f [Der Verbau durchstoßen
kann ein Ausbau (¼ endgültige Sicherung) oder eine gallery rail ● Stollenschiene f
Sicherung (¼ vorläufiger Ausbau) eines Untertagebaues gallery rehab(ilitation) ● Stollensanierung f
sein] gallery round; tunnel round (US) ● Stollenspreng-
gallery head, gallery end; forehead [Yorkshire]; (ungs)abschlag m
forefield end [Derbyshire]; dean [Cornwall]; workings gallery route ● Stollentrasse f
face; forefield [Newcastle] ● Stollenende n gallery run ● Stollenstrecke f
gallery heading > gallery advance gallery sample taking, gallery sampling ● Stollenbe-
gallery headrace, headrace gallery; headrace tunnel, musterung f, Stollenprobe(n)nahme f
tunnel headrace (US) [A free-flow gallery conveying gallery sea(ling) ● Stollen(ab)dichtung f
water to the upper end of a penstock] ● Ober(Trieb)- gallery section, gallery stretch ● Stollenabschnitt m
wasserstollen m, Oberstollen, Zubringerstollen, gallery shaft, gallery pit ● Stollenschacht m [Der auf
Zuleitungsstollen einem Stollen niedergebrachte Schacht]
gallery holing through > gallery advance gallery shuttering > gallery form(s)
gallery invert > gallery floor gallery side(wall), gallery cheek, gallery wall ●
gallery jacking, gallery pushing, gallery thrusting, gal- Stollenulme f
lery forcing [Pipe jacking methods have been developed gallery site ● Stollenbaustelle f
and elaborated to gallery jacking. No precise borderline is gallery slipforming ● Stollen-Gleitschalungsbau m
definable, but when a man can operate in the pipe, gallery spherical cap ● Stollenkalotte f
somewhere above 1 m diameter, it may be considered as gallery steel ribs ● Stahlstollenverbau m,
a form of gallery construction] ● Stollenvorpressen n, Stollenstahlverbau, Stahlstolleneinbauten f,
Stollenvordrücken, Stollendurchdrücken, Stollen- Stollenstahleinbauten [Der Verbau kann ein Ausbau
durchstoßen (endgültige Sicherung) oder eine Sicherung
gallery lining ● Stollenauskleidung f, (¼ vorläufiger Ausbau) eines Untertagebaues sein]
Stollenbekleidung, Stollenverkleidung gallery step > gallery bench
gallery link ● Stollenverbindung f gallery stretch, gallery section ● Stollenabschnitt m
gallery masonry (work) ● Stollenmauerwerk n, Stol- gallery (support(ing)) system > permanent gallery
len(aus)mauerung f (support(ing)) system
gallery miner ● Stollen(bau)arbeiter m gallery system ● Stollensystem n, Stollenanlage f
gallery mining ● Stollenbergbau m [Die Lagerstätte gallery tanker drill carriage ● Firstanker-Bohrwagen
wird durch Stollen zugänglich gemacht] [Mit diesem Bohrwagen werden im Kalibergbau
gallery mouth, gallery opening, gallery entrance ● lange Gewindestangen in die Decken von
Stollenmund(loch) m, (n) Kaligrubenbaue gesetzt, um die Salzschichten
gallery muck ● Stollenschutter m miteinander zu verbinden und ihnen dadurch mehr
gallery operation(s) ● Stollenbetrieb m Festigkeit zu geben]
gallery pay lines ● vergütetes Stollenprofil n gallery thrusting > gallery jacking
gallery penstock > pressure gallery gallery timbering ● Stollenzimmerung f
584 gallery trench

gallery trench ● Stollengraben m fluids. It is porosity log of the wall-contact type,


gallery(-type) discharge carrier ● indicating formation density by recording the back scatter
Hochwasserstollen m, Überlaufstollen of gamma rays] ● Gamma-Gamma-Dichtelog n
gallery unit ● Stollenstück n [Fertigteil] gamma particles ● Gammateilchen n
gallery wall, gallery side(wall), gallery cheek ● gamma radiation ● Gammastrahlung f
Stollenulme f gamma ray ● Gammastrahl m
gallery widening, gallery enlargement ● Stollener- gamma-ray attenuation ● Gammastrahl-
weiterung f, Stollenvergrößerung schwächung f
gallery with anchorage by (pre)stressing the gamma-ray log > gamma (well(bore)) log
ground with steel anchors ● vorgespannter Stollen m gamma-ray probe [A gamma-ray counting device built
gallery work ● Stollen(bau)arbeiten f into a watertight case to be lowered into a borehole] ●
galliard, calliard [A hard, smooth, close-grained, Gammastrahlensonde f
G siliceous sandstone; a ganister] ● glatter gamma-ray scattering, Compton scattering,
Hartsandstein m Compton process [The elastic scattering of photons by
galling, seizing [Developing a condition on the rubbing electron] ● Compton-Streuung f
surface of one or both mating parts where excessive gamma-ray (single) probe ● Gamma-Einstichsonde f
friction between high spots results in localized welding gamma-ray spectrometer ● Gamma(strahlen)-
with subsequent spoiling and a further roughening of the spektrometer n
surface] ● Fressen n gamma-ray spectrometry [Determination of
galloping glacier [popular term]; surging glacier ● gamma-ray energies and states of polarization, and also
plötzlich ausbrechender Gletscher m studies of the correlations between gamma rays emitted in
gallows [North of England]; timber(ing) set(t) sequence from a nucleus] ● Gammastrahlenspek-
[A frame propping the roof of a mine consisting of two trometrie f
uprights and a crosspiece] ● Türstock m gamma-ray spectroscopy [The observation of
gallows frame > (mine) headframe a gamma-ray spectrum and all processes of recording
galvanisation (Brit.); galvanization (US) ● and measuring that go with it] ●
Verzinkung f Gammastrahlenspektroskopie f
galvanised fire protection mat ● verzinkte gamma-ray (well(bore)) logging, GRL [A method of
Brandschutzmatte f logging boreholes by observing the natural radioactivity
galvanised secondary reinforcement bar (Brit.), of the rocks through which the hole passes. It was
galvanized secondary reinforcement bar (US) ● developed for logging holes which cannot be logged
verzinkter Verteilerstab m [Bewehrung] electrically because they are cased] ●
game reserve ● Wildreservat n Bohrloch-Gammastrahlungsmessung f, Gamma-
gamma (bore)hole log, gamma (well(bore)) log, Bohrlochstrahlungsmessung
gamma drill hole log, gamma-ray log [It is for gamma sulphur; gamma-sulfur (US); rosickyite ●
lithologic(al) interpretation and enhances the Rosickyt m
interpretation of electrical logs] ● Gamma(bohrloch)- gamma (well(bore)) log, gamma (bore)hole log,
log n gamma drill hole log, gamma-ray log [It is for litho-
gamma decay [De-exitation of an atomic nucleus with- logic(al) interpretation and enhances the interpretation
out a change in atomic number or mass number by of electrical logs] ● Gamma(bohrloch)log n
emission of gamma radiation] ● Gammazerfall m gang, work gang [A set of miners] ● Kolonne f,
gamma drill hole log > gamma (well(bore)) log Trupp m, Mannschaft f, Kameradschaft
gamma-gamma (density) logging [Measuring the gang [A train or set of mine cars or trams] (⚒) ●
bulk density of rock materials; the profile curve opposite Wagenzug m
coal layers is very low] ● Gamma-Gamma- gang boss (⚒) ● Ortsältester m
Dichtemessung f ganged auto(matic) gain control ● gesteuerte
gamma-gamma (well(bore)) log, gamma-gamma automatische Gangkernkontrolle f, automatische
(bore)hole log, (bulk) density log, gamma-gamma gesteuerte Gangkernkontrolle [Seismik]
density log [The well log curve of induced radioactivity ganger, gangsman [Midland coalfield, England. One
showing the bulk density of rocks and their contained who is employed at conveying minerals along the
garbage dump (US) 585

gangways in or about a mine; the employment of which is gan(n)ister [A fine, hard quartzose sandstone; used to
known as ganging] ● Schlepper m make refractory silica bricks to line certain furnaces for
ganger, work gang foreman ● Kolonnenführer m, metallurgical processes] ● Ganister m, eingekieselter
Truppführer, Mannschaftsführer, Kameradschafts- Feinsandstein m [Aus unverrundeten Körnern]
führer ganomalite, Ca2Pb3Si3O11 ● Ganomalit m,
ganggestein [In German mining terminology, the Gänsekötigerz n
detached pieces of more or less altered country rock gantry crane, portal crane ● Portalkran m
enclosed in ore veins. Not to be confused with the gantry crane pillar ● Kranbahnstütze f [eines
petrographic term „Ganggestein’’] ● Ganggestein n Portalkrans]
ganging [Midland coalfield, England], hauling, gap ● Klaffung f [In entzerrten Luftbildplänen]
haulage (⚒) ● Förderung f, Transport m, gap > dead ground
Streckenförderung, Streckentransport gap, interval, distance, reach, spacing [A space between
gang mineral ● Mineralbeimengung f [z.B. im two things] ● Lücke f, Zwischenraum m, Abstand m G
Chromiterz] gap, slack contact [In the disc model of Jenkin] ●
gang of trams (⚒) > ginney Lücke f [Felsmechanik]
gang of tubs (⚒) > ginney gap [A break in levee through which a stream distribu-
gang of wells ● Brunnengallerie f tary may flow] ● Durchbruch m
gang pusher ● Förderaufseher m [Tiefbohrtechnik] gap [photogrammetry] ● Aufnahmelücke f
gang sawyer, mill sawyer, stone sawyer, gang saw gap [seismogram] ● Kennmarke f
operator, power saw operator, stone saw operator ● to gape ● klaffen
Steinsäger m, Steinsägearbeiter gap freezing ● Lückenvereisung f, Lückengefrierung,
gangsman, ganger [Midland coalfield, England. One Fenstervereisung, Fenstergefrierung [(Baugrund-)
who is employed at conveying minerals along the gang- Vereisung; Gebirgsvereisung (⚒)]
ways in or about a mine; the employment of which is gap grading ● Ausfallkörnung f
known as ganging] ● Schlepper m gaping ● klaffend
gang-trench, furrow, channel, hol(e)ing (⚒) ● gaping ● Schichtenablösung f
Schräm m, Schrot m, Ritz n, Rinne [Erzabbau durch gap in the geologic(al) record, geologic(al) record
Sprengen. Eine schmale Vertiefung neben dem gap, (strat(igraph)ic) gap ● stratigrafische
Sprengloch, damit das Gestein durch den Schuss besser Unterbrechung f
gehoben wird] gap (in the unconsolidated goaf) ● Weitung f (im
gangue > lodestuff Alten Mann)
gangue > veinstuff gap sensitivity, gap sensitiveness [It is determined by
Ganguillet-Kutter-formula, G. K. formula [In 1869, the comparative length of air gap or discontinuity
two Swiss engineers, Ganguillet and Kutter, published between two cartridges in a single charge] ● Detonations-
a formula expressing the value of C in terms of the slope übertragungsempfindlichkeit f
S, hydraulic radius R, and the coefficient of roughness n. gap test, sympathetic detonation, sympathetic reac-
In English units, the formula is tion shock [The initiation of an explosive charge without
ignition device by the detonation of another charge in the
41; 65 þ 0:00281 þ 1:811 neighbourhood] ● Übertragexplosion f 2. Ordnung,
C¼  s npffiffinffi
1 þ 41; 65 þ s 0:00281
R
Übertragdetonation
gap test(ing) ● Prüfung f der Übertragungsweite,
The coefficient n in this formula is specifically known as Detonationsübertragungsprüfung f [Sprengpatrone]
Kutter’s n] ● Ganguillet-Kutter-Formel f, G.K-Formel garbage [Waste parts of food, as from a market or
gangway [In anthracite mines in the USA] (prelimi- kitchen] ● Nahrungsabfälle f
nary) development opening garbage dump (US), disposal site, depository, trash
gangway [A wood(en) bridge in the Newcastle coalfield] disposal site (US), landfill, refuse dump ●
● Holzbrücke f Abfalldeponie f [Zur Endlagerung von Abfallstoffen
gangway (US); panel entry, drift, drive [Drives divide oder von Industrieprodukten als Kippe, Halde oder in
the deposit into longitudinal regions which can be mined Restlöchern], Müllkippe f, Deponie f, Mülldeponie f,
out systematically one after the other] ● Abbaustrecke f Kippe f, Abfallkippe f
586 garbage dump operator

garbage dump operator, trash disposal operator, gas anchor [Petroleum engineering. A down-hole
refuse dump operator ● Mülldeponiebetreiber, gas separator used to reduce gas-in-oil froth before
Müllkippenbetreiber m, Kippenbetreiber, Deponie- the pump to increase pump efficiency] ●
betreiber Bohrlochgasabscheider m
garbage pit ● Aasgrube f gas application engineering ● Gasanwendungs-
garbage press, waste press, waste compactor ● technik f
Abfallpresse f gas barrier shaft ● Entgasungsschacht m
garbenschiefer [A type of spotted slate characterized by [Mülldeponie]
concretionary spots whose shape resembles that of gas barrier (system) ● Entgasungssystem n
a caraway seed] ● Garbenschiefer m [Mülldeponie]
garden soil, hortisol, garden earth ● Hortisol m, gas barrier trench ● Gasgraben m [Mit körnigem
Gartenboden m, Gartenerde f Material gefüllter Graben zur Unterbrechung der
G garden wall ● Gartenmauer f Deponiewanderung]
garland > (stone) garland gas blower (⚒) [A stream of gas from a coal seam] ●
garland, water ring (⚒) ● Schachtstoß-Wasserrinne f, Gasbläser m
Wasserrinne am Schachtstoß, Sammelrinne am gas (bore)hole, gas well(bore) ● Gasbohrung f,
Schachtstoß, Schachtstoß-Sammelrinne Gasbohrloch n, Gassonde f
garnet, grenate ● Granat m (M/G) gas bubble ● Gasblase f
garnetiferous, containing garnets, garnet-bearing, gas bulkhead (⚒) ● Gasschott n
garnet-based ● granathaltig, granatführend, gas cap [An accumulation of natural gas overlying
granatenthaltend an oil pool in a dome or anticline or other trap] ●
garnetiferous, producing garnets ● granatbildend, Gaskappe f
granatformend gas(-cap) drive, cap drive ● Gaskappenauftrieb m,
garnetite [A metamophic rock consisting chiefly of an Auftrieb durch Gaskappe [Erdölförderung]
aggregate of interlocking garnet grains] ● Granatfels m, gas(-cap) drive reservoir > cap drive reservoir
Granatgestein n (gas-)cap gas ● (Gas)Kappengas n
garnetization [Introduction of, or replacement by, (gas-)cap injection > external (gas) injection
garnet. It is commonly associated with contact gas (casing) string > gas (production) casing string
metamorphism] ● Granatisierung f gas cavity > vesicle
garnet-mica schist ● Granatglimmerschiefer m gas channel ● Gaskanal m
garnet peridotite ● Peridotitgranat m gas chromatography, G. C. ● Gas-Chromatografie,
garnet pyroxenite, griquaite [A coarse-grained garnet Gas-Chromatographie f
and clinopyroxene rock that may or may not contain gas coal, coal rich in gas; bottle coal [Scotland] ●
olivine or phlogopite. It occurs as nodular xenoliths in Gaskohle f, gasreiche Kohle [Nicht verwechseln mit
kimberlite pipes and dikes. Named by Beck in 1907 for „Gasflammkohle’’]
Griqualand, South West Africa. Not recommended gas constant ● Gaskonstante f
usage] ● Griquait m, eruptive Eklogitfazies f gas coring ● Gaskernen n
garnierite, noumeite, nepouite [An apple-green or pale gas-cut (drilling) mud ● (Rotary)Spülung f mit
green mineral, probably (Ni, Mg)3Si2O5(OH)4. The ratio Erdgas durchsetzt, (erd)gasdurchsetzte (Rotary-)
Ni/Mg is highly variable. This mineral has been Spülung, (erd)gashaltige (Rotary)Spülung, vergaste
regarded as having no crystal structure, but it may be (Rotary)Spülung, Bohr(spül)schlamm m mit Erdgas
monoclinic; it is sometimes considered to be a nickel-rich durchsetzt, vergaster Bohrspülschlamm
antigorite. It is an important ore of nickel and is used as gas depletion drive > inner gas drive
a gemstone. A variety of go(e)thite] ● Garnierit m, gas detection equipment ● Gasspürgerät(e) n (pl)
Numeit gas detector, gas sniffer ● Gasspürer m,
gas adsorption chromatography ● Gas-Adsorptions- Gasspürgerät n
Chromatografie f gas deviation factor ● Realgasfaktor m
gas alarm (system) [A signal system which warns mine gas distribution chromatography ●
workers of dangerous concentration of firedamp] (⚒) ● Gas-Verteilungs-Chromatografie f, Gas-Flüssigkeits-
Gasalarmanlage f Chromatografie
gas pit 587

gas drain (⚒) ● Entgasungsstrecke f joints in limestone] ● auskeilender Gang m nach der
gas drainage (⚒) ● Entgasung f Teufe hin
gas drillhole ● Gasbohrloch n [Bohrloch zum Entgasen gas ignition [The setting on fire of an accumulation of
oder Gasabsaugen] firedamp in a coal mine] (⚒) ● Gasentzündung f
gas drilling ● Bohren n mit Gasspülung, Gas- gas inclusion ● Gaseinschluss m
(spülungs)bohren gas indication ● Gasanzeige f
gas emission ● Ausgasung f gas industry ● Gaswirtschaft f
gaseous coal mine, gassy mine ● Schlagwetterzeche f, gas inflow ● Gaszufluss m
Schlagwettergrube f gas injection, gas input, gas intake ● Gaseinpressung f
gaseous combustion ● Gas-Luft-Gemisch- gas injection bore(hole), gas injection well(bore), gas
Verbrennung f injection drill hole, gas input well(bore), gas input
gaseous constituents ● gasförmige Bestandteile m (pl) bore(hole), gas input drill hole, gas intake well(bore),
[im Boden] gas intake bore(hole), gas intake drill hole ● G
gaseous drilling fluid ● gasförmige (Bohr)Spülung f Gaseinpressbohrung f, Gaseinpressbohrloch n,
gaseous emanations from solidifying magma ● Gaseinpresssonde f
Restlösungen f des erstarrenden Magmas gas in place, in(-)place gas, in(-)situ gas, gas in situ ●
gaseous mineral water ● kohlensäurehaltiges ursprüngliches Gas n, Gasvorrat m
Mineralwasser n gas lift > dissolved gas drive
gaseous phase, gaseous stage ● gasförmige Phase f gas line gallery; gas line tunnel (US) ●
gaseous transfer differentiation, pneumatolytic Gasleitungsstollen m
differentiation [Magmatic differentiation by the process gas main ● Gashauptleitung f, Hauptgasleitung
of gaseous transfer] ● pneumatolytische Aufspaltung f, gas migration ● Gaswanderung f
pneumatolytische Differentiation f gas monitoring, gas surveillance, gas supervision ●
gas equation ● Gasgleichung f Gasüberwachung f
gas eruption, gas outburst, blower ● Gasausbruch m, gas mound, mud volcano; macaluba, hervidero
Gaseruption f [Spanish] [Cone-shaped mound with maximum height
gas escape > gas show of about 250 feet built around a spring by mud brought to
gas exploration well(bore), gas exploratory well(bore), the surface by slowly escaping natural gas] ● Makkaluba,
gas exploration borehole, gas exploratory borehole, Schlammsprudel m, Maccaluba m; Schlammvulkan m
gas exploration drill hole, gas exploratory drill hole ● [Fehlbenennung]
Gasaufschlussbohrloch n, Gasaufschließungsbohrloch gas mud cutting, cutting of mud by gas ●
gas factor ● Gas-Öl-Verhältnis n Gasdurchsetzung f der Spülung ● [Tiefbohrtechnik]
gas field, gas pool ● Gasfeld n gasoclastic sediment [A sediment resulting from
gas find ● Gasfund m sedimentary volcanism, such as mud ejected by
gas flame coal [Coal containing 35 to 40 per cent enormous volumes of gas] ● gaszerbrochenes
volatiles (dry, ashless basis)] ● Gasflammkohle f [Nicht Sediment n
verwechseln mit „Gaskohle’’] gasohol ● Benzin-Ethylalkohol-Gemisch n, Benzin-
gas-free ● entgast Ethylalkohol-Mischung f
gas gun ● Gaskanone f [seismische Anregung] gas/oil contact, gas/oil interface [The surface between
gash > saw-cut valley an oil pool and an overlying accumulation of natural gas]
gash fracture, open gash fracture [A small-scale ● Gas-Öl-Grenzfläche f, Gas-Öl-Kontaktfläche,
tension fracture that occurs at an angle to a fault and Gas-Öl-Berührungsfläche
tends to remain open] ● Fiederspalt(e) m, (f) gas/oil ratio, GOR ● Gas-Öl-Verhältnis n
gash joint [Short tension fracture sometimes locally gas outburst, gas eruption, blower (⚒) ●
developed in a weak bed between two thick strong beds] Gasausbruch m, Gaseruption f
● Fiederkluft f gas pay string (of casing) > gas (production) casing
gash vein [A nonpersistent vein that is wide string
above and narrow below, and that terminates gas peak ● stark bodengasführender Bereich m
within the formation of traverses. The term was gas-pervious ● gasdurchlässig
originally applied to vein fillings of solution gas pit > gas show
588 gas pitch

gas pitch, mineral pitch ● Steinkohlenteerpech n is an exploitable concentration of gas] ● Gas-Wasser-


gas pocket [in the pore space] ● Gastasche f [im Grenze f
Porenraum. Gastaschen entstehen z. B. bei rascher gas well(bore), gas (bore)hole ● Gasbohrung f,
Be- od. Entwässerung] Gasbohrloch n, Gassonde f
gas pool, gas field ● Gasfeld n gat > gat(t)
gas pressure potential, pneumatic potential ● gat > kat
pneumatisches Potential n, Gaspotential [Bodenwasser] gatch ● Zinnabfall m, Abfallzinn n [Aufbereitung]
gas production string (of casing), gas (production) gat(e) ● Gatt n, Seegatt
casing string, gas pay string (of casing), gas (casing) gate ● (Sicherheits)Schieber m [Tiefbohrtechnik]
string ● Gasproduktions(rohr)fahrt f, Gasförder(rohr)- gate > (sluice) gate
fahrt, Gasproduktions(rohr)tour f, Gasförder(rohr)- gate, chute [The apparatus at the bottom of an ore chute
tour for filling cars] (⚒) ● Trichter m
G gas ratio > (explosive) gas ratio gate, gate-road, stall, heading [British longwall system]
gas release ● Gasabgabe f ● Abbaustrecke f
gas repressurizing [misnomer] > inner injection gate, (mountain-)pass, gateway [An entrance into
gas reservoir rock > (natural) gas reservoir rock a country through a mountain or mountains] ● Tor n,
gas rich in oil vapo(u)rs > combination gas Gebirgspass m, Pass, Forte f
gas sand(stone) [A sand or sandstone containing gatte chamber ● Wendehöhle f [Wasserbautor]
a large quantity of natural gas] ● Gassand(stein) m gate-controlled spillway, gate(d) spillway, controlled
gas show, gas seep(age), gas spurt, gas escape, gas pit crest spillway ● verschlossener Überlauf m,
[Escape of natural gas at the ground surface, sometimes verschlossener Überfall m
an indicator of oil beneath] ● Gasaustritt m, gate(d) dyke opening, dyke opening with gate, dike
Gasausströmung f, Erdgasaustritt, Erdgasausströmung opening with gate, gate(d) dike opening ●
gassi [A term used in the Saharan region for a sandfree Deichscharte f [Verschließbare Deichöffnung zum
passage, in some cases traversing an entire erg from end Durchführen eines Verkehrsweges]
to end] ● sandfreie Dünenpassage f gate(d) spillway, gate-controlled spillway, controlled
gas sniffer, gas detector ● Gasspürer m, Gasspürgerät n crest spillway ● verschlossener Überlauf m,
gas space ● Gaszwischenraum m [Fortpflanzung der verschlossener Überfall m
Detonation bei pulverförmigen Sprengstoffen] gate flap [automatic flap gate] ● Stauschild m, Klappe f
gas storage ● Gasspeicherung f, Gaseinlagerung gate gallery; gate tunnel (US) ● Betriebsstollen m,
gas streak ● gasführende Zwischenlage f Schieberstollen [Talsperre]
gas string > gas (production) string (of casing) gate pipe ● Schlauch m mit regulierbarem Auslass
gas supply engineering ● Gasversorgungstechnik f [Gummi- oder Kunststoffschlauch anstelle eines
gas surveillance, gas monitoring, gas supervision ● Feldzuleiters am Oberhang bei der Rillenbewässerung]
Gasüberwachung f gate pit > equalizing chamber
gassy (⚒) ● schlagwettergefährlich gate pivot ● Klappenachse f [Obergwicht(s)klappe]
gassy mine, gaseous coal mine ● Schlagwetterzeche f, gate pivot anchor bolt ● Klappenachsen-
Schlagwettergrube f Verankerungsschraube f [Obergewicht(s)klappe]
gas thermometer ● Gasthermometer n gate preventer ● Sicherheitsschieber m [Am
gas tightness ● Gasdichtigkeit f Bohrlochmund]
gas trap ● Gasfalle f gate recess (US) > equalizing chamber
gas volume, volume of gas ● Schwadenvolumen n gate-road, stall, heading, gate [British longwall system]
[Unter dem Begriff wird das Volumen der Schwaden ● Abbaustrecke f
von 1 kg detonierten Sprengstoffs unter Normalbe- gateside pack, roadside pack (⚒) ● Streckendamm m
dingungen verstanden; *1] gate skin > disc
gas-water contact, gas-water interface ● Gas-Wasser- gate tunnel (US); gate gallery ● Betriebsstollen m,
Grenzfläche f Schieberstollen [Talsperre]
gas-water level [The surface below which the rock pores gateway, gate (road), main brow, trail road, principal
are virtually saturated with water and above which there brow, gate roadway [A road through the worked-out
geest 589

area (goaf) for haulage in longwall working of coal] (⚒) measuring post [US spelling is ‘‘gage’’] ● (Durchfluss-)
● Förderstrecke f, Grundstrecke Messstelle f, Pegel(mess)stelle, Pegel(mess)station f
gateway > gate [An einem Wasserlauf für Beobachtungen der
gate weir > (sluice) gate weir Geschwindigkeit und der Querschnittsfläche im Hinblick
gate well > equalizing chamber auf die Zustimmung der Abflussmenge]
gather ● Spurengruppe f [Seismik] gauging weir (Brit.) > measurement weir
gathering, ore mixing ● Gattierung f, Erzgattierung gau(l)t ● Ga(u)lt m [Ein blauer oder grüner Kalkmergel,
gathering ground, feeding ground, drainage basin, der in der Kreideformation den oberen Grünsand vom
catchment (basin), (hydrographic) basin, tributary unteren trennt]
area, collecting area, watershed area, catchment Gaussian co-ordinate, transverse Mercator coordi-
area, drainage area, drainage system [The area nate ● transversale Mercatorkoordinate f, Gauß’sche
drained by a stream or river or by their systems] ● Koordinate, Gauß-Krüger-Koordinate
Einzugsgebiet n Gaussian distribution, normal distribution ● G
gathering zone [The area between the land surface and Gaußverteilung f
the water table] ● Sammelbecken n Gauss’ theorem ● Integralsatz m von Gauß,
gat(t) ● Gatt n Gauß-Integralsatz
gauge, stage indicator, staff (gauge), rod gauge, gayet > ca(n)nel (coal)
indicator gauge, water level gauge, stick gauge G. C, gas chromatography ● Gas-Chromatografie f,
[A staff graduated to indicate the elevation of a water Gas-Chromatographie f
surface. American spelling is gage] ● (Mal)Peil m, GCC, sand column encased by geotextiles, geotextile
(Skalen)Pegel m, Lattenpegel, Pegellatte f, Flutmesser m coated (sand) column ● geokunststoffummantelte
gauge block; gage block (US) ● Messklotz m Sandsäule f [Sie kommen in den Fällen zur Anwendung,
gauge box ● Abmesskasten m [Betonherstellung] wo der Boden zu weich ist, um Schottersäulen effektiv
gauged river; gauged stream (Brit.); gaged river, gaged einzusetzen]
stream (US) ● Strom m mit Pegelmessungen, Fluss m GDOP, geometric dilution of precision ● Maß n für die
mit Pegelmessungen Geometrie der Empfänger-Satelliten-Konfiguration
(gauge) elevation, (gauge) stage, (gauge) level, gauge GDOS, glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy ●
height (Brit.); stage; gage stage, gage elevation, gage Glimmentladungsspektroskopie f
level, gage height (US) ● Pegel(stand) m, Pegelhöhe f, geanticlinal, geocanticlinal [Pertaining to
gepegelte Wasserspiegelhöhe f, Wasserstand, Stand a geanticline] ● geantiklinal
gauge line; gage line (US) ● Pegellinie f geanticline, geoanticline, regional anticline;
gauge reading; gage reading (US) ● Pegelablesung, geanticlinal [obsolete] [A broad uplift, generally
Wasserstandsbeobachtung f referring to the land mass from which sediments in
gauge regulation; gage regulation (US) ● a geosyncline are derived] ● Geoantiklinale f,
Pegelvorschrift f Erdaufwölbung f
gauge sheet; gage sheet (US) ● (Schreib-) GEC foundation system ● GEC-Tragsystem n
Pegelbogen m [Es besteht aus gleichmäßig angeordneten Säulen aus
gauge site; gage site (US) ● Pegelstelle f nichtbindigem Material, mit dem die Bauwerkslasten
gauge station > discharge site auf den tragfähigen Untergrund abgesetzt werden.
gauge tube; gage tube (US) ● Pegelröhre f Quelle: Fa. Möbius AG:]
gauge well, float well, recorder well; gage well (US) GEC®, Geotextile Encased Column ● Säule f
[‘‘Shaft’’ may be used synonymously for ‘‘well’’] ● mit Geokunststoffummantelung, GEC® [Fa. Möbius
Pegelschacht m, Pegelbrunnen m AG]
gauge zero (point), gage zero (point) (US) [‘‘Mark’’ gedanite, friable amber, mellow amber [See remark
may be used synonymously for ‘‘point’’] ● Pegelnull- under ‘‘Baltic amber’’] ● Gedanit m
(punkt), PNP, Skalennull(punkt) n, (m) gedn [Cornwall] > gad
gauging > discharge measurement geest [Alluvial material that is not of recent origin lying
gauging site, discharge site, (velocity area) gauging on the surface. An example is the sandy region of the
station, gauge station, flow measuring post, runoff North Sea coast in Germany] ● Geest f
590 gegenschein

gegenschein, (zodiacal) counterglow [A round, or gelling agent ● Gelbildner m


elongated, faint, ill-defined spot of light in the sky at gel magnesite ● Gelmagnesit m, dichter Magnesit,
a point 180 from the sun] ● Gegenschein m amorpher Magnesit
gehlenite, velardenite [A mineral of the mel(l)ilite gel mineral, mineraloid [A naturally occurring,
group, Ca2AlSiO7. It is isomorphous with akermanite] inorganic material that is amorphous and is therefore
● Gehlenit m, Velardenit not considered to be a mineral] ● Mineraloid n
Geiger(-Müller) counter, G-M counter ● gélosic coal > boghead coal
Geiger-Müller-Zähler m gel sphalerite ● Schalenblende f
Geiger(-Müller) tube, G-M tube ● Geiger-Müller- geminate crystal > twin(ned) crystal
Röhre f genealogical tree ● Stammbaum m
to gel ● gelatinieren general bearing, general strike ● Generalstreichen n,
Gelamon ● Gelamon n [ein Standardsprengstoff] Hauptstreichen [Das durchschnittliche
G gelatine, gelatinous ● gelatinös Hauptstreichen eines Ganges im Gegensatz zum
gelatin(e) cartridge, cartridge of gelatin(e), gelatinous Spezialstreichen]
cartridge ● Gelatinepatrone f general collapse (⚒) ● Grubengebäudeeinsturz m,
gelatin(e) donarite 1 ● Gelatinedonarit 1 n; Grubengebäudezusammenbruch m
Ammongelatine 1f [frühere Benennung] general engineering geology, general geologic(al)
gelatin(e) dynamite, gelatinous dynamite, straight engineering ● allgemeine Ingenieurgeologie f
gelatin(e) dynamite; gelignite (Brit.) [The explosive general formula ● Allgemeinformel f
base is a jelly made by dissolving nitrocotton in nitroglyc- general geophysics ● allgemeine Geophysik f
erin(e). Some of the nitrocotton and glycerin(e) may be general geotechnical engineering ● (allgemeine)
replaced by ammonia nitrate. The first is known as Bau(grund)geologie f, allgemeine Ingenieurgeologie
‘‘straight gelatin(e) dynamite’’ and the second as im Bauwesen, Ingenieurgeologie des Baugrundes,
‘‘ammonia gelatin(e) dynamite’’] ● Gelatinedynamit n Baugrunderkennung f [Untersuchung der Eigenschaften
[veraltete Benennung]; Dynamit 1 und des Verhaltens geologischer Körper als Baugrund,
gelatin(e) method, gelatinous method, Mac-George’s Ursachen und Wirkungen geodynamischer Vorgänge im
method [borehole surveying] ● Gelatineverfahren n, Baugrund]
Gelatinemethode f general hydrology ● allgemeine Hydrologie f [Sie
gelatin(e) silica, gelatinous silica ● befasst sich mit den Erkenntnissen der Grundlagen-
Kieselsäuregallerte f forschung, die in der angewandten Hydrologie in die
gelatinous, gelatine ● gelatinös Praxis umgesetzt werden]
gelatinous dynamite > gelatin(e) dynamite generalised strains ● verallgemeinerte Dehnun-
gelantinous gel, gelantin(e) gel ● Gelatinegel n gen f (pl)
gelantinous silica, gelantin(e) silica ● Kieselsäure- generalised stress ● verallgemeinerter
gallerte f Spannungszustand m
gelation, congelation, freezing [The change from general(ized) geologic(al) map, geologic(al) general
a fluid to a solid state] ● Gefrieren n (ized) map ● geologische Übersichtskarte f
gelation, congelation [The product of the change from general(ized) map ● Übersichtskarte f
a fluid to a solid state] ● Gefrorenes n general(ized) reciprocal method, GRM, Palmer
gelation [The formation of a gel from a sol, as by method [A method of interpreting seismic refraction pro-
coagulation or by precipitation with an electrolyte] ● files over irregular layers, using forward and reverse
Gelatinierung f shooting to obtain matched time-distance graphs. It is
gelifraction > (con)gelifraction comparable to the plus-minus method, but less restricted
gelignite (Brit.) > gelatin(e) dynamite in its application] ● Palmerverfahren n,
gelisolifluction > (con)gelifluction Palmermethode f
gelivation > (con)gelifraction general map, reconnaissance map ● Übersichtskarte f
gelivity [The sensitivity of rock to congelifraction, the [Fotogrammetrie]
property of being readily split by frost] ● Gesteinsfrost- general mapping, reconnaissance mapping ●
empfindlichkeit f Übersichtskartierung f [Fotogrammetrie]
geobuilding 591

general mineralogy ● Kristallkunde f, allgemeine gentle slope > glacis


Mineralogie f gently rippled sea ● gekräuselte See f, Kräuselsee
general rules [Eurocode] ● Allgemeine Regeln gently undulating hill-type landscape ● flach-
general state-of-the-art ● allgemein anerkannte wellighügelige Landschaft f
Regeln f (pl) (der Technik, Baukunst usw.) genuine, fast, solid ● anstehend [Gestein; Erz; Kohle]
general strata inclination > mean dip(ping) genus ● Gattung f
general strike, general bearing ● Generalstreichen n, geo, goe, gia, gja [Terms used in northern
Hauptstreichen [Das durchschnittliche Scotland for a long deep narrow coastal inlet or
Hauptstreichen eines Ganges im Gegensatz zum cove, walled in by steep, rocky cliffs, and formed
Spezialstreichen] by marine erosion of the cliffs, along a line of
generating area > fetch weakness, especially in a well-jointed rock, as in the
generating celestial body ● fluterzeugendes Old Red Sandstone of Caithness and Orkney] ●
Gestirn n, fluterzeugender Himmelskörper m Kliffnische f G
generating globe ● Hilfskugel f [Verkleinerte geoacoustics [The study of the sounds of the Earth, e.g.
Erdkugel zur Verdeutlichung der kartografischen those of a volcanic eruption] ● Geoakustik f
Abbildung des geografischen Gradnetzes in die geoanticlinal, geanticlinal [Pertaining to a geanticline]
Kartenebene] ● geantiklinal
generating line; generator (US); generatrix (Brit.) ● geoanticline, geanticline, regional anticline;
Erzeugende f, erzeugende Linie f [Pfeiler(stau)mauer] geanticlinal [obsolete] [A broad uplift, generally
generation of electricity ● Elektrizitätsgewinnung f referring to the land mass from which sediments in
genesis ● Genese f, Entstehung f a geosyncline are derived] ● Geoantiklinale f,
genesis of metallic mineral deposits ● Erdaufwölbung f
Metallogenese f geoarchaeologist ● Geoarchäologe m
genesis of nonmetallic mineral deposits ● Genese f geoastronomy > astrogeology
nichtmetallischer Lagerstätten, Entstehung f geoastronomy, geocosmology ● Geokosmologie f
nichtmetallischer Lagerstätten geobarometer [A mineral pair the composition of
genesis of rocks, rock genesis ● Felsentstehung f, which is pressure-dependent] ● Geobarometer n
Felsgenese f geobasin [A structure of geosynclinal type but without
genetically related, cognate [In structural geology, folding of its sedimentary filling] ● ungefaltetes
said of fractures and joints in a system that have the Sedimentbecken n
same deformational type and time of origin] ● genetisch geobiology [Not to be confused with ‘‘biogeology’’] ●
verwandt Geobiologie f
genetic geomorphological map [In this method of geobomb ● Geobombe f [Eine mit Sprengstoff
geomorphological mapping, landforms are shown und Zeitzünder versehene Kugel die schwebend
according to their presumed origin; past and durch masseerfüllte Karsthohlräume driftet.
present processes, together with the ‘‘age’’ of the land- Die durch die Explosion ausgelösten
form, are also given] ● genetische geomorphologische Schallwellen werden an der Oberfläche mit Geofonketten
Karte f registriert]
genetic physiography, geomorphogeny [The part of geobotanical exploration ● geobotanische
gemorphology that deals with the origin, development Aufschließung f, geobotanischer Aufschluss m
and changes of the Earth’s surface features or landforms] geobotanical prospecting, geobotanical prospection,
● Geomorphogenie f geobotanical search(ing) ● geobotanische
gentle breeze [Beaufort Code Number 3. Speed is from Prospektion f, geobotanische Aufsuchung f,
7 to 10 knots (8 to 12 mph)] ● schwache Brise f geobotanische Suche f; geobotanische Bodenforschung
gentle dip(ping), low dip(ping) ● flaches (Ein-) [Fehlbenennung]
Fallen n, geringes (Ein)Fallen, schwaches (Ein)Fallen geobotany [The study of vegetation to define geologic
gentle highlands ● sanfte Berglandschaft f, sanfte (al) differences of the landscape] ● Geobotanik f
Höhenlandschaft geobuilding, geoconstruction ● Geo(Ingenieur)-
gentle rain(fall) ● Nieselregen m Bau m [Er umfasst bohrtechnische Leistungen,
592 geocell

Sanierungserkundungen, Deponievorbereitungen, geochemical sample taking, geochemical sampling ●


Rekultivierung und Überwachung, Pegeldienst, Pegelbeo- geochemische Probe(n)nahme f, geochemisches Pro-
bachtung, Pegelsanierung, Brunnensanierung und be(n)nehmen n, geochemische Bemusterung,
Sanierung von Wasserbauwerken] geochemische Beprobung
geocell ● Geozelle f [flexible, dreidimensionale geochemical soil sample taking, geochemical soil
Wabeneinheit aus polymeren Kunststoffen zur sampling ● geochemisches Bodenprobe(n)nehmen n,
Bodenstabiliserung z. B. an Hängen] geochemische Bodenprobe(n)nahme f,
geocentric horizon [The plane passing through the geochemische Bodenbemusterung, geochemische
center of the Earth, parallel to the apparent horizon] ● Bodenbeprobung
geozentrischer Horizont m geochemical survey [The mapping of geochemical
geocentric longitude geographic(al) longitude facies] ● geochemische Fazieskartierung f
geochemical ● geochemisch geochemist ● Geochemiker m
G geochemical abundance ● geochemische Häufigkeit f geochemistry ● Geochemie f
[Element] geochemistry in mineral prospection, geochemistry
geochemical activity ● geochemische Tätigkeit f in mineral search(ing), (mineral) prospection geo-
geochemical analysis [The application of chemistry, (mineral) search(ing) geochemistry ●
chemical analysis to geological problems] ● Prospektionsgeochemie f
geochemische Analyse f geochemistry of clay, clay geochemistry ●
geochemical anomaly [A concentration of one or more Tongeochemie f
elements in rock, soil, sediment, vegetation, or water that geochemistry of earthwork, earthwork geochemistry
is markedly higher than background. The term may also ● Erdbaugeochemie f
be applied to hydrocarbon concentrations on soil] ● geochemistry of solids, solids geochemistry ●
geochemische Anomalie f Feststoffgeochemie f
geochemical assessment ● geochemischer Befund m geochronography, geologic(al) chronography ●
geochemical cycle ● geochemischer Zyklus m Geochronographie f, Erdzeitbeschreibung f,
geochemical engineering ● geochemische Technik f, geologische Zeitbeschreibung
Geochemietechnik geochronological; geochronical [obsolete] ●
geochemical environment ● geochemische Umwelt f geochronologisch
geochemical exploration ● geochemischer geochronology, geologic(al) chronology; geochrony
Aufschluss m, geochemische Aufschließung f [obsolete] [A branch of isotope geology concerned
geochemical exploration method ● geochemisches with the analytical measurement of time] ●
Aufschlussverfahren n, geochemische Aufschluss- Geochronologie f, Erdzeitlehre f, geologische
methode f, geochemisches Aufschließungsverfahren, Zeitgliederung f
geochemische Aufschließungsmethode geochronometer [A physical feature, material, or ele-
geochemical facies ● geochemische Fazies f ment whose formation, alteration or destruction can be
geochemical heritage ● geochemische Vererbung f calibrated or related to a known time interval] ●
geochemical history ● geochemische Vergangenheit f Erdzeitmesser m
geo-chemical interactions ● geochemische geochronometry, measurement of geologic(al) time,
Wechselwirkungen f (pl) geologic(al) time measurement ● Geochronometrie f,
geochemical map ● geochemische Karte f Erdzeitmessung f
geochemical mapping ● geochemische Kartierung f geo-coded processing ● Geokodierung f
geochemical prospection, geochemical search(ing), geocomposite ● Geoverbundstoff m
geochemical prospecting ● geochemische geoconstruction, geobuilding ● Geo(ingenieur)-
Prospektion f, geochemische Suche f, geochemische bau m [Er umfasst bohrtechnische Leistungen,
Aufsuchung f, geochemische Bodenforschung Sanierungserkundungen, Deponievorbereitungen,
[Fehlbenennung] Rekultivierung und Überwachung, Pegeldienst,
geochemical reconnaissance ● geochemische Pegelbeobachtung, Pegelsanierung, Brunnensanierung
Erkundung f und Sanierung von Wasserbauwerken]
geochemical sample ● geochemische Probe f geocosmology, geoastronomy ● Geokosmologie f
geodetic-statistical interpretation 593

geocratic [Term applied by Stefanini in 1917 to land geodetic engineering, geodetic surveying, geodesic
areas, the sum of whose movements has been upward] ● engineering, geodesic surveying ● geodätisches
geokratisch Vermessen n, geodätisches Aufnehmen
geocronite, Pb5SbAsS8 [A mineral composed of lead- geodetic equator, geodesic equator ● geodätischer
gray lead antimony arsenic sulfid(e)] ● Geokronit m Äquator m
geocryology ● Geogefrierlehre f, Geokryologie f, geodetic height, geodesic height ● geodätische
Geokältlehre, Geofrostlehre, Geoeiskunde f Höhe f [Lotrechter Abstand eines Punktes innerhalb
Geodata Office ● Geodatenamt n einer Strömung von einem Bezugshorizont. Zeichen:
geode, potato stone ● Geode f [Sekretionsform, bei der z. Einheit: m]
der Gesteinshohlraum beinahe oder ganz durch geodetic interpretation, geodesic interpretation ●
Mineralien (z. B. Quarz, Chalzedon, Kalkspat) ausgefüllt geodätische Interpretation f
ist. Eine kleine Geode heißt Mandel] geodetic leveling, geodesic leveling (US); geodetic
geode-based, geodiferous, containing geodes ● levelling, geodesic levelling (Brit.) ● geodätisches G
geodenreich, geodenhaltig, geodenenthaltend Nivellieren n
geodepression [Haarmann’s term for a long, narrow geodetic line, geodesic line ● geodätische Linie f,
depression on the scale of a geosyncline, but not Geodätische f [Die kürzeste Linie zwischen zwei Punkten
necessarily filled with sediments] ● Geodepression f, auf einer mathematisch definierten Fläche (auf einer
negative Oszillation f, Abschwellung f Kugel Großkreise)]
geodesic analysis, geodetic analysis ● geodätische geodetic measurement, geodesic measurement ●
Analyse f geodätische Messung f
geodesic camera, geodetic camera ● geodätische geodetic meridian, geodesic meridian, geographic(al)
Kamera f meridian [A line (ellipse) on the spheriod having the
geodesic interpretation, geodetic interpretation ● same geodetic longitude at every point] ● geodätischer
geodätische Interpretation f Meridian m
geodesic measurement, geodetic measurement ● geodetic method, geodesic method ● geodätische
geodätische Messung f Methode f
geodesic method, geodetic method ● geodätische geodetic monitoring, geodesic monitoring ●
Methode f geodätische Überwachung f
geodesic monitoring network, geodetic monitoring geodetic monitoring network, geodesic monitoring
network ● geodätisches Überwachungsnetz n network ● geodätisches Überwachungsnetz n
geodesic task, geodetic task ● geodätische Aufgabe f geodetic movement, geodesic movement ●
geodesist ● Geodät m Punktverschiebung f [bei geodätischen Messungen]
geodesy ● Geodäsie f geodetic net(work), geodesic net(work) ●
geodetic analysis, geodesic analysis ● geodätische geodätisches Netz(werk) n
Analyse f geodetic fixed point field (or: geodesic) ●
geodetic azimuth, geodesic azimuth [The angle geodätisches Festpunktfeld n
between the tangent to the meridian at a given geodetic position, geodesic position [The latitude and
point and the tangent to the geodesic line from longitude of a point on the earth’s surface referred to an
the given point to the azimuth point] ● geodätischer adopted spheriod of reference. Geodetic positions are
Azimut m determined by triangulation from an initial station
geodetic camera, geodesic camera ● geodätische whose position has been arbitrarily adopted after
Kamera f a consideration of astronomical data] ● geodätische
geodetic control, geodesic control ● geodätische Lage f
Grundlage f geodetic research institute (or: geodesic) ●
geodetic direction angle, geodesic direction angle ● geodätisches Forschungsinstitut n
geodätischer Richtungswinkel m geodetic sea level > mean sea level
geodetic displacement measurement (or: geodesic) geodetic-statistical interpretation, geodesic-
● geodätische Verschiebungsmessung f, geodesic dis- statistical interpretation ● geodätischstatische Inter-
placement measurement pretation f
594 Geodetic Survey

Geodetic Survey, less frequent: Geodesic Survey ● [The distant line along which earth and sky appear to
Geodätisches Amt n, Amt für Geodäsie meet. In both popular usage and weather observing, this
geodetic survey; less frequent: geodesic survey [A sur- is the usual conception of horizon] ● geografischer
vey of a large area accomplished by geodetic surveying Horizont m, örtlicher Horizont, sichtbarer Horizont,
and used for the precise location of basic points for natürlicher Horizont, Kimm(linie) f, Seehorizont
controlling other surveys] ● geodätische (Ver)Mes- geographic(al) latitude [A general term, applying alike
sung f, geodätische Aufnahme f to astronomic latitude and geodetic latitude] ●
geodetic surveying, geodetic engineering geodesic geografische Breite f
surveying, geodesic engineering ● geodätisches geographic(al) magnitude order, order of
Vermessen n, geodätisches Aufnehmen geographic(al) magnitude ● geografische
geodetic task, geodesic task ● geodätische Aufgabe f Größenordnung f
geodic [Of or pertaining to a geode; resembling a geode] geographic(al) meridian, geodetic meridian [A line
G ● geodisch (ellipse) on the spheriod having the same geodetic
geodiferous > geode-based longitude at every point] ● geodätischer Meridian m
geodynamic process ● geodynamischer Prozess f geographic(al) north, true north ● geografischer
geodynamics [It deals with the forces and processes of Norden m, Geografischnord n
the interior of the Earth] ● Geodynamik f geographic(al) pole, terrestrial pole ● Erdpol m
geoecology, environmental geology ● geographic(al) reconnaissance ● geografische
Umweltgeologie f, Geoökologie Erkundung f
geoeconomic map ● Geowirtschaftskarte f geographic cycle > erosion cycle
geoelectrical method ● geoelektrisches Verfahren n geographic information system, GIS ● geografisches
geoelectric direct current method, geoelectric d.c. Informationssystem n, GIS
method ● geoelektrisches Gleichstromverfahren n, geography of spatial types, space geography, spatial
geoelektrische Gleichstrommethode f geography ● typologische Geografie f
geoelectricity, terrestrial electricity [Electric geogrid ● Geogitter n
phenomena and properties of the earth; used in a broad geogrid-reinforced ● geogitterbewehrt
sense to include atmospheric electricity] ● Geoelektrizität f, geogrid-reinforced bearing layer ●
Erdelektrizität geogitterbewehrte Tragschicht f
geoelectrics ● Geoelektrik f geogrid reinforcement ● Geogitterbewehrung f
geoelectronics ● Geoelektronik f geogrid sheet, geotextile mat ● Geogittermatte n
geoenviroment, geologic(al) environment ● geo-hazard ● Georisiko n, geologische Naturgefahr f
Geoumwelt f, geologische Umwelt geo-hazard research ● Georisikoforschung f
geofabric ● Geovliesstoff m, Geovlies n geohistory, geologic(al) history, Earth history ●
geo-fabric reinforcement ● Bewehrungslage f aus geologische Geschichte f, Erdgeschichte
Geokunstoffen geohydraulics ● Geohydraulik f
geogeny, geogony ● Geogenese f, Geogenie f, geohydrodynamics ● Geohydrodynamik f
Geogonie [Wissenschaft von der Entstehung der Erde] geohydrologic method ● geohydrologisches
geognosis, geognosy [The science dealing with the solid Verfahren n, geohydrologische Methode f [Durch
body of the Earth as a whole, occurrences of minerals Erfassen der geohydrologischen Verhältnisse in einem
and rocks, and the origin of these and their relations. definierten Gebiet werden die Grundwasserströmungen
Often used as nearly equivalent to ‘‘geology’’] ● mengenmäßig ermittelt. Dazu werden für mehrere Zeiten
Geognosie f [Von A.G. Werner (1780)], geognostische nach Grundwasserstand(s)messungen Grundwasser-
Wissenschaft f gleichenpläne aufgestellt. Dadurch können die Bereiche,
geographer ● Geograf m, Geografin f, Geograph m, aus denen das Wasser den Fassungen (Brunnen)
Geographin f zuströmt, insbesondere Uferfiltratanteil, abgegrenzt
geographic(al) distribution ● geografische werden]
Verbreitung f geohydrology [Proposed by O.C. Meinzner
geographic(al) geology ● geografische Geologie f (1942) as a branch of hydrology dealing with subterra-
geographic(al) horizon, apparent horizon, local hori- nean waters. See remark under ‘‘hydrology’’] ●
zon, visible horizon, natural horizon, sensible horizon Geohydrologie f
geologic(al) features 595

geoid [The figure of the earth considered as a mean geologic(al) elastic limit, geologic(al) yield point ●
sea-level surface extended continuously through the geologische Fließgrenze f
continents] ● Geoid n geologic(al) engineer > engineer(ing) geologist
geoid undulation ● Geoidundulation f geologic(al) engineering, engineering geology
geo-information ● Geoinformation f [The application of geological facts and principles to
geoisotherm(al line), isogeotherm(al line) ● Linie f engineering operations, particularly mining and civil] ●
gleicher Erdtemperatur, Geoisotherme f, Isogeotherme Ingenieurgeologie f, technische Geologie [„Ingenieur-
[Sie verbindet Orte gleicher Temperatur unter der geologie’’ wird sehr eng interpretiert, als Ausarbeitung
Erdoberfläche] einer ingenieurgeologischen Begründung für Bauten, für
geologic(al) age ● geologisches Alter n das Studium von Rutschungen, Muren, Erdstürzen, der
geologic(al) aggregate resources > geologic(al) Karstungen usw.; „technische Geologie’’, hat einen
total resources weitergefassten Sinn einschließlich der geologischen
geologic(al) boundary ● geologische Grenze f Rolle des Menschen] G
geologic(al) cataloguing ● geologische geologic(al) engineering evaluation ●
Katalogisierung f ingenieurgeologische Beurteilung
geologic(al) chronography, geochronography ● geologic(al) engineering field work, engineering
Geochronografie f, Geochronographie f, Erdzeit- geology field work ● ingenieurgeologische
beschreibung f, geologische Zeitbeschreibung Feldarbeiten f
geologic(al) chronology > geochronology geologic(al) engineering investigation ●
geologic(al) climate, pal(a)eoclimate ● Paläoklima n, ingenieurgeologische Untersuchung f
geologisches Klima geologic(al) engineering map, engineering geology
geologic(al) climatology, pal(a)eoclimatology ● map ● ingenieurgeologische Karte f
Paläoklimatologie f geologic(al) environment, geoenvironment ●
geologic(al) compass, geologist’s compass ● Geoumwelt f, geologische Umwelt
Geologenkompass m, Handkompass, Gefügekompass, geologic(al) erosion, normal erosion [Erosion of rocks
Bergnadel f, geologischer Kompass and soils under natural conditions and undisturbed by
geologic(al) conditions, geological features, geologi- human activity] ● geologische Erosion f
cal surroundings, (foundation) ground conditions, geologic(al) evolution ● geologischer Werdegang m
natural foundation conditions, site conditions ● geologic(al) examination > geologic(al) survey
Baugrundbeschaffenheit f, Baugrundverhältnisse geologic(al)expedition ● geologische Exkursion f,
f (pl), Untergrundverhältnisse f (pl), geologische geologischer Streifzug m
Verhältnisse f, geologische Gegebenheiten f (pl) geologic(al)explanation, geologic(al) legend [The
geologic(al) conductor ● geologischer Leiter m first term is preferred by the U.S. Geological Survey.
[Geoelektrik] Attached to geologic(al) maps is a legend which shows
geologic(al) correlation ● geologische Zuordnung f, the correct sequence of formations. The oldest formation
geologische Korrelation f [Korrelation gleichaltriger is shown at the bottom, the youngest at the top. This
Schichten verschiedener Bohrungen oder Ausstriche] constitutes a geologic(al) column] ● geologische Tabelle f
geologic(al) cross-section [A diagram showing the geologic(al) factor analysis ● geologische
arrangement of rocks in a vertical plane] ● geologischer Faktorenanalyse f
Querschnitt m, geologisches Querprofil n geologic(al) fault ● Verwerfung f
geologic(al) cycle, tectonic cycle, orogen(et)ic cycle, geologic(al) fault zone, geological disturbance zone ●
geotectonic cycle, geosynclinal cycle [A time interval geologische Störzone f
during which a mobile belt evolved into an orogenic geologic(al) feature, geologic(al) structure, ‘‘grain’’ of
belt, passing through preorogenic, orogenic, and the country, structural grain [The total structual fea-
postorogenic stages] ● gebirgsbildender Zyklus m, tures in an area] ● geologische Struktur f, geologischer
gebirgsformender Zyklus, orogene(tische)r Zyklus (Auf)Bau m
geological data ● geologische Grundlagen f (pl) geologic(al) features, geological conditions, geologi-
(erforderliche Daten für IT-Programme) cal surroundings, (foundation) ground conditions,
geological disturbance zone, geological fault zone ● natural foundation conditions, site conditions ●
geologische Störzone f Baugrundbeschaffenheit f, Baugrundverhältnisse
596 geologic(al) field work

f (pl), Untergrundverhältnisse f (pl), geologische geologic(al) mining engineer, geotechnical engineer


Gegebenheiten f (pl) in mining, mining geotechnical engineer ●
geologic(al) field work ● geologische Feldarbeit f Ingenieurgeologe m im Bergbau, Bergbaugeologe
geologic(al) forcecast(ing) ● geologische geologic(al) mining engineering > geotechnical
Vorhersage f engineering in mining
geologic(al) formation, formation [As used in geology, geologic(al) oceanography > sea geology
any assemblage of rocks which have some character in geological orbital photography, geologic(al) satellite
common, whether of origin, age, or composition] ● photography ● geologische Satellitenfotografie f
(geologische) Formation f, lithologische Einheit f geologic(al) ore > possible ore
geologic(al) fracture trace, geologic(al) rupture geologic(al) overall resources, geologic(al) total
trace, geologic(al) linear ● geologisches Linear n, resources, geological aggregate resources ● geologische
geologische Gefügespur f, geologische Lineation f Gesamtvorräte f
G geologic(al) general(ized) map, general(ized) geologic(al) period ● geologischer Zeitraum m
geologic(al) map ● geologische Übersichtskarte f geologic(al) petrology ● geologische Petrologie f
geological hammer, geologist’s hammer, rock geologic(al) process ● geologischer Vorgang m
hammer; less frequent: geologic hammer ● geologic(al) profile suvey(ing), geologic(al) profiling
Geologenhammer m, geologischer Hammer ● Schichtenprofilaufnahme f, Schichtenprofil(ver)-
geologic(al) history, geohistory, Earth history ● messung f, geologische Profilaufnahme, geologische
geologische Geschichte f, Erdgeschichte Profil(ver)messung
(geologic(al)) horizon [A stratigraphic(al) level or geologic(al) province ● geologische Provinz f
plane; it has no thickness. The term is not a synonym of geologic(al) reconnaissance ● geologische
stratum or bed] ● (geologischer) Horizont m Erkundung f
geologic(al) imponderables ● geologische geologic(al) reconnaissance map, reconnaissance
Unwägbarkeiten f (pl) geologic(al) map ● geologische Erkundungskarte f
geologic(al) law ● geologisches Gesetz n geologic(al) record [The history based on inferences
geologic(al) legend, geologic(al) explanation [The from the study of the succession of stratified rocks] ●
first term is preferred by the U.S. Geological Survey. statigrafische Aufzeichnung f
Attached to geologic(al) maps is a legend which shows geologic(al) record gap, gap in the geologic(al)
the correct sequence of formations. The oldest formation record ● stratigrafische Unterbrechung f
is shown at the bottom, the youngest at the top. This geologic(al) rupture trace, geologic(al) fracture trace,
constitutes a geologic(al) column] ● geologische Tabelle f geologic(al) linear ● geologisches Linear n, geologische
geologic(al) linear > geologic(al) fracture trace Gefügespur f, geologische Lineation f
geologic(al) location criterium ● geologisches geologic(al) sample taking, geologic(al) sampling ●
Standortkriterium n geologische Probe(n)nahme f, geologische
geologically and mechanically difficult soil Bemusterung f, geologische Beprobung, geologisches
environment ● geologischbaugrundmechanisch Probe(n)nehmen n
schwieriges Gebiet n geologic(al) satellite photography, geological orbital
geologically disposed nuclear waste(s) ● geologisch photography ● geologische Satellitenfotografie f,
entsorgter Atommüll m geologische Satellitenphotographie f
geologic(al) map ● geologische Karte f geologic(al) science, geoscience ● geologische Wis-
geologic(al) mapping ● geologische Kartierung f senschaft f, Geowissenschaft [Die geologischen
geologic(al) mapping, geological survey ● Wissenschaften sind auf die Lithosphäre räumlich und
geologische Aufnahme f [Darunter wird das räumliche zeitlich beschränkt. Ihre Aufgabe ist die Klärung der
Erfassen geologischer Gegebenheiten eines zu Bildungs- und Entwicklungsgeschichte der oberen festen
untersuchenden Gebietes verstanden (*1)] Erdhüllen, d.h. der Erdkruste und des oberen Mantels bis
geologic(al) map sheet ● geologisches Kartenblatt n in eine Tiefe von ungefähr 400 km. Geologische
geologic(al) marker ● Leithorizont m Wissenschaften sind Geophysik, Geochemie, Mineralogie,
geological mass movement ● geologische Petrografie, Paläontologie und Geologie]
Massenbewegung f geologic(al) section, (stratigraphic) section
geological material ● geologischer Baustoff m [A graphic representation, made from actual observations
geology in civil engineering 597

or inferred from other evidence, of underground geologic geologic(al) total resources, gelogic(al) overall
(al) conditions along a given line or plane of the earth’s resources, geologic(al) aggregate resources ●
crust] ● geologischer Schnitt m, statigrafischer Schnitt, geologische Gesamtvorräte f
geologisches Profil n, stratigrafisches Profil geologic(al) underwater mapping, underwater geo-
geologic(al) shelf ● Schelfstruktur f, geologisches logic(al) mapping, subaqueous geologic(al) mapping,
Schelf, ehemaliges Schelf n, geologischer Schelf m, geologic(al) subaqueous mapping ● geologische
ehemaliger Schelf [Ein Schichttafelgebiet eines heutigen Unterwasserkartierung f
Kontinents, im Gegensatz zu den heute meerbedeckten geologic(al) (waste) repository ● geologisches
Schelfen] (Abfall)Endlager n
geologic(al) site ● geologische Lokalität f geologic(al) yield point, geologic(al) elastic limit ●
geologic(al) stratum, rock mass, stratum [Plural: geologische Fließgrenze f
strata] ● Gebirge n [geologischer Terminus] geologician [obsolete]; geologist; rock hound [collo-
geological strength index, GSI [by Hoek] ● quially] [One versed in geology] ● Geologe m G
geologischer Festigkeitsindex m, GSI geologist’s compass, geologic(al) compass ●
geologic(al) structure, geologic(al) feature, ‘‘grain’’ of Geologenkompass m, Handkompass, Gefügekompass,
the country, structural grain [The total structual fea- Bergnadel f, geologischer Kompass
tures in an area] ● geologische Struktur f, geologischer geologist’s hammer; rock hammer, geological ham-
(Auf)Bau m mer; less frequent: geologic hammer ●
geologic(al) study > geologic(al) survey Geologenhammer m, geologischer Hammer
geologic(al) subaqueous mapping > geologic(al) geologist’s hammer, rock hammer ●
underwater mapping Geologenhammer m, geologischer Hammer
geologic(al) succession ● Gesteinsabfolge f geologist’s pick, rock pick ● Geo(logen)hacke f
geologic(al) surface mapping ● geologische geologist’s tool, rock tool ● Geo(logen)werkzeug n
Übertagekartierung f, geologische Oberflächen- to geologize (US); to geologise (Brit.); to discourse as
kartierung a geologist, to practice geology ● Geologenberuf
Geologic(al) Survey ● Geologisches Amt n, ausüben
Bodenforschungsamt, Amt für Bodenforschung to geologize (US); to geologise (Brit.); to make geo-
geologic(al) survey, geologic(al) examination, logical investigations ● geologisch untersuchen
geologic(al) study ● geologische Untersuchung f to geologize (US); to geologise (Brit.); to study geol-
geologic(al) survey, geologic(al) mapping ● ogy ● Geologie betreiben
geologische Aufnahme f [Darunter wird das räumliche geology ● Geologie f; Geognosie f [veraltete
Erfassen geologischer Gegebenheiten eines zu Benennung] [Die Geologie besitzt unter den geologischen
untersuchenden Gebietes verstanden (*1)] Wissenschaften (neben der Paläontologie) den stärksten
geologic(al) surveying ● geologische historisch-genetischen Akzent. Es ist nicht richtig, sie mit
Landesaufnahme f der „Erd(krusten)geschichte’’ vollkommen zu
geologic(al) testing [Context: The property identifizieren, denn einer ihrer Hauptzweige, die
developer said the building underwent geological Allgemeine Geologie, beschäftigt sich zu einem
testing when it was built about five years ago, showing bestimmten Teil mit den unter gegenwärtigen
the ground to be stable] ● geologische Untersuchung Bedingungen wirkenden Wechselbeziehungen
(en) physikalischer, chemischer und biologischer Kräfte in
geologic(al) theory ● geologische Theorie f [Die und auf der Erde unter dem Aspekt: Gegenwart gleich
genaue, widerspruchsfreie Wiedergabe des Wesens der Schlüssel zur Vergangenheit. Hier liegen die
geologischen Erscheinungen] Berührungspunkte mit der Geografie. Das, was als
geologic(al) thermometer, geothermometer ● Gliederungsprinzip für die Geowissenschaften gilt, das
Geothermometer n, Erdwärmemesser m Verhältnis struktursystematische/historisch-genetische
geologic(al)time ● geologische Zeit f Komponente, ist unmittelbares Kennzeichen für die
geologic(al) time measurement > geochronometry innere Systematik der Einzelwissenschaft Geologie]
geologic(al) time scale, time scale [The time relation- geology [misnomer] > earth science
ships established for the geologic(al) column] ● geology in civil engineering > geotechnical engi-
geologische Zeitskala f, geologische Zeittabelle f neering in building
598 geology in dambuilding

geology in dambuilding, geology in dam construc- geometrischer Pol m, erdmagnetischer Pol [Nicht
tion, dambuilding geology, dam construction geology verwechseln mit „magnetischer Pol’’ bei dem das
● (Tal)Sperrenbaugeologie f erdmagnetische Feld unmittelbar senkrecht gerichtet ist]
geology in mining (engineering) > geotechnical geomagnetics, terrestrial magnetics ● Geomagnetik f,
engineering in mining Erdungsmagnetik
geology manual > manual of geology (geomagnetic) secular variation, terrestrial magnetic
geology of clay, clay geology ● Tongeologie f secular variation [A relatively large, slow change in part
geology of lakes > limnogeology of the Earth’s magnetic field caused by the internal state
geology of mineral deposits, economic(al) geology, of the planet and having a form roughly to be expected
mineral economics ● ökonomische Geologie f, from a simple but not quite uniformly polarized sphere] ●
Wirtschaftsgeologie, Lagerstättengeologie f [Das säkulare Variation f, Säkularvariation
Verhältnis der Erkundungswissenschaft zur geomagnetic survey, terrestrial magnetic survey ●
G ökonomischen Geologie ist nicht ausreichend geklärt. erdmagnetische (Ver)Messung f, erdmagnetische
Das liegt vor allem daran, dass der ökonomischen Aufnahme f, geomagnetische (Ver)Messung,
Geologie in verschiedenen Ländern keineswegs geomagnetische Aufnahme
übereinstimmende Inhalte zugeteilt werden. Am Anfang geomagnetic variation, terrestrial magnetic variation
des 20. Jahrhunderts definierten die amerikanischen ● erdmagnetische Änderung f, geomagnetische
Geologen als Wissenschaftsgegenstand der ökonomischen Änderung
Geologie den Komplex der wirtschaftlich genutzten geomagnetism, Earth’s magnetism, terrestrial magne-
mineralischen Rohstoffe] tism [The magnetism of the Earth] ● Erdmagnetismus m,
geology of surficial deposits, cenology [The branch Geomagnetismus, irdischer Magnetismus
of geology treating of the terrestrial, fluviatile and lacus- geomaterial ● Geomaterial n, Geostoff m
trine deposits] ● oberirdische Lagerstättengeologie f geomathematics ● geologische Forschung f mit
geomagnetic, terrestrial magnetic, earth-magnetic ● mathematischen Methoden
erdmagnetisch, geomagnetisch geomatician ● Geomatiker m
geomagnetic disturbance, terrestrial magnetic dis- geomechanical classification, geomechanics classifi-
turbance ● erdmagnetische Störung f, geomagnetische cation ● geomechanische Klassifizierung f
Störung geomechanical engineering, geomechanics ●
geomagnetic equator, terrestrial magnetic equator ● Geomechanik f [1928 von H. Cloos geprägte Benennung
erdmagnetischer Äquator m, geomagnetischer Äquator die die an der Geotechnik beteiligten verschiedenen
geomagnetic field, terrestrial magnetic field, Earth’s naturwissenschaftlichen und ingenieurwissenschaftlichen
magnetic field ● Erdmagnetfeld n, erdmagnetisches Disziplinen, wie z.B. Geologie, Geophysik und
Feld, geomagnetisches Feld Mineralogie, Mathematik und Physik sowie
geomagnetic field reversal > geomagnetic (polarity) Bergbauwesen und Bauwesen, mit ihren geotechnisch
reversal relevanten Erkenntnissen, methodischen Ansätzen und
geomagnetic investigation, terrestrial magnetic Verfahren zusammenfasst. Dabei bezeichnet
investigation ● erdmagnetische Untersuchung f, Geomechanik die Wissenschaft vom thermome-
geomagnetische Untersuchung chanischen Verhalten der Erdkruste und tektonisch
geomagnetic (polarity) epoch, polarity epoch ● bedingten Einwirkungen. Sie hat zwei Teilbereiche:
Polaritätsepoche f [Sie gründet auf paläomagnetischen Tektonik/Gefügekunde und Gebirgsmechanik. In der
und auf k/Ar-Altersanalysen vulkanischer Gesteine] Tektonik werden die Lagerungsformen (Bau) der
geomagnetic (polarity) reversal, geomagnetic field Erdkruste, ihre Ursachen und ihre Mechanik erforscht,
reversal, polarity reversal, field reversal, reversal [A in der Gebirgsmechanik die Erfassung, Analyse und
change in the Earth’s magnetic field between normal Prognose der Vorgänge, die durch bergbauliche und
polarity and reversed polarity] ● geomagnetische ingenieurbauliche Tätigkeiten bewirkt wurden,
Polarumkehr(ung) f behandelt]
geomagnetic pole; magnetic pole [approximate syno- geomechanics classification, geomechanical
nym] [A point of emergency at the Earth’s surface of the classification ● geomechanische Klassifizierung f
axis of the geocentric magnetic dipole that most closely geomedicine; medicinal geography [rare]; medical
approximates the Earth’s magnetic field] ● geography ● Geomedizin f
geo-physical advance exploration 599

geomembrane ● Geomembran(e) f used as a synonym of ‘‘physiography’’] ●


geometer > surveyor Geomorphologie f
geometric(al) adjustment ● geometrische geomorphist ● Geomorphologe m
Angleichung f geomorphochronology ● Geomorphochronologie f
geometrical data ● geometrische Grundlagen f (pl) geomorphogeny, genetic physiography [The part of
(erforderliche Daten für IT-Programme) gemorphology that deals with the origin, development
geometrical deformation [of a structure] ● and changes of the Earth’s surface features or landforms]
geometrische Veränderung f [am Bauwerk] ● Geomorphogenie f
geometric(al) levelling (Brit.); geometric(al) leveling geomorphography ● Geomorphografie f,
(US) ● (geometrisches) Nivellieren n, (geometrisches) Geomorphographie
Nivellement n, geometrische Höhenvermessung, geomorphologic, geomorphic [Pertaining to geomor-
geometrisches Einwägen, Abwägen, phology] ● geomorphologisch
Höhenbestimmung f durch Nivellieren; Einwiegen, geomorphological activity ● Landformung f G
Abwiegen [Fehlbenennungen] [Beim Nivellieren werden geomorphological mapping ● geomorphologische
die Höhenunterschiede gegen eine waagerechte Kartierung f
Bezugsgrade mit einem Maßstab (Nivellierlatte) geomorphologic situation ● geomorphologische
gemessen. Die wichtigsten Instrumente zum Nivellieren Lage f
sind die Setzlatte und das Nivellier(instrument) - mit geomorphologist ● Geomorphologe m
Libelle oder Kompensator - nebst Nivellierlatte] geomorphology > geomorphic geology
geometric(al) optics ● geometrische Optik f, geomorphometry ● Geomorphometrie f
Strahlenoptik geomorphy > geomorphology
geometric(al) resolution ● geometrische Auflösung f geomorphy > lay of (the) land
geometric(al) rock analysis ● geometrische geonet ● Geonetz n
Gesteinsanalyse f geonomy [A term variously recommended as
geometric(al) seismics ● geometrische Seismik f a synonym for geology, as the science of the dynamic
geometric dilution of precision > GDOP Earth, as the science concerned exclusively with the phys-
geometric distortion [of an image] ● geometrische ical forces relating to the Earth, and to denote the study of
Verzerrung f [eines Bildes] the Earth’s upper mantle. The word has not been given
geometric modeling (US), geometric modelling broad recognition or acceptance, and the variety of
(Brit.) [of rock] ● geometrische Modellierung f proposed definitions suggests that it should be used with
[von Fels] care, if at all] ● Geonomie f
geometry of faults, fault geometry ● Verwerfungs- geop, geopotential surface ● geopotentielle
geometrie f Oberfläche f
geometry of pores in soil ● Porengeometrie f des geophone, bug, detector, pot, seismometer, jug,
Bodens geotector, tortuga, receiving sensor, pick-up
geometry of (the) voids ● Hohlraumgeometrie f (element), seismic detector, seismic geophone; seis
geomicrobiologic(al) ● geomikrobiologisch [colloquial term] [Detecting device which receives
geomineralogy ● Geomineralogie f [Als seismic impulses] ● Gefon n, Geophon n,
Geomineralogie werden Teile der Gesteins- und Aufnehmer m, Seismometer n, Tauchspulenempfänger,
Lagerstättenkunde sowie die Mineral-Topografie und Erschütterungsmesser
Mineral-Paragenesen-Lehre zusammengefasst] geophone array ● Geofonbündel, Geophonbündel n
geomorphic, geomorphologic [Pertaining to geomor- geophone pattern ● Geofonkonfiguration f,
phology] ● geomorphologisch Geophonkonfiguration
geomorphic [Pertaining to the form of the Earth or of geophone spread [In seismic work, the layout of detec-
its surface features, e.g. a geomorphic province] ● tors to obtain information by shooting] ● Geofonanlage f,
geomorph Geophonanlage f
geomorphic cycle > erosion cycle geophone string ● Geofonkette f, Geophonkette f
geomorphic geology, geomorphology, physiographic geophysical, indirect ● geophysikalisch, indirekt
(al) geology, geomorphy, morphology (of the Earth) geo-physical advance exploration ● geophysi-
[The term ‘‘physiographic(al) geology’’ was previously kalische Vorauserkundung f
600 geophysical borehole measurement

geophysical borehole measurement ● geophysi- geophysical research ● geophysikalische Forschung f


kalische Bohrlochmessung f geophysical science, geophysics ● Geophysik f,
geophysical electrical method, electrical Physik der Erde, geophysikalische Wissenschaft f,
(geophysical) method ● Elektroverfahren n, physiographische Geologie f [Die Wissenschaft von den
Elektromethode f physikalischen Eigenschaften des Erdballes und von den
geophysical engineering method ● physikalischen Vorgängen, die sich im Innern, an seiner
ingenieurgeophysikalische Methode f Oberfläche und in seiner Umgebung abspielen:
geophysical electromagnetic method, Gravimetrie, Seismik, Magnetik, Elektrik usw.]
electromagnetic (geophysical) method ● geophysical search(ing) > geophysical prospection
elektromagnetisches Verfahren n, elektromagnetische geophysical surveying [The making and
Methode f interpretation of certain physical measurements with
geophysical engineering, engineering geophysics the object of furthering the study of subsurface
G [A branch of applied geophysics that applies scientific geological conditions of structure or material. Such
methods for locating mineral deposits] ● surveying is used in the mapping of ore
geophysikalische Technik f, Geophysiktechnik, deposits and oil-bearing structures and also in the
Ingenieurgeophysik f research in pure geology] ● geophysikalisches
geophysical exploration, applied geophysics [The use Untersuchen n
of geophysical techniques, e.g. electric, gravity, magnetic, geophysical technique ● geophysikalische Technik f
seismic and thermal, in the search for economically valu- [Als Anwendungsform, nicht als Wissenschaft]
able hydrocarbons, mineral deposits, or water supplies, or geophysical time series, stationary time series ●
to gather informations for engineering projects] ● geophysikalische Zeitreihe f
angewandte Geophysik f, physikalischer Aufschluss m, geophysical well(bore) logging, geophysical bore
physikalische Aufschließung f, geophysikalischer (hole) logging, geophysical coring [Most geophysical
Aufschluss m, geophysikalische Aufschließung well-logging techniques were originally developed for
geophysical exploration; less frequent: geophysical use in petroleum and mining exploration. However,
reconnaissance ● geophysikalische Erkundung f they are very applicable to geotechnical investigations
geophysical in situ test(ing) ● geophysikalischer for shafts because they provide a considerable amount of
Feldversuch m mechanical information at a relatively low cost. In
geophysical interpretation ● geophysikalische (Aus-) addition, certain geophysical survey methods have now
Deutung f, geophysikalische Auswertung, been developed specifically to obtain engineering charac-
geophysikalische Interpretation teristics of rock masses. There are several types of geo-
geophysical investigation ● geophysikalische physical well-logging techniques, including 3-D velocity,
Untersuchung f resistivity, self-potential, gamma-ray, neutron, caliper,
geophysical investigation method ● geophysi- density, temperature, and seisviewer. Each of these
kalische Untersuchungsmethode f investigate a specific property of the rock mass from
geophysical lab(oratory) furnace ● geophysi- which estimates of numerous mechanical and
kalischer Labor(atoriums)ofen m engineering rock properties can be made. All of the
geophysical log > (bore)hole log geophysical well-logging data can be correlated with
geophysical measurement ● geophysikalische laboratory test results so fewer expensive laboratory tests
Messung f are required.] ● geophysikale Formationsmessung f,
geophysical method, indirect method ● geophysikalisches Kernen n, gewerbliche Geophysik f,
geophysikalische Methode f, geophysikalisches industrielle Geophysik
Verfahren n geophysicist ● Geophysiker m
geophysical offshore work ● geophysikalische geophysics, geophysical science ● Geophysik f, Physik
Untersuchungstätigkeit f im Küstenbereich der Erde, geophysikalische Wissenschaft f,
geophysical property ● geopysikalische Eigenschaft f physiographische Geologie f [Die Wissenschaft von den
geophysical prospection, geophysical prospecting, physikalischen Eigenschaften des Erdballes und von den
geophysical search(ing) ● geophysikalische Suche f, physikalischen Vorgängen, die sich im Innern, an seiner
geophysikalische Prospektierung f, geophysikalische Oberfläche und in seiner Umgebung abspielen:
Aufsuchung, geophysikalisches Aufsuchen n Gravimetrie, Seismik, Magnetik, Elektrik usw.]
geosyncline 601

geophysics in mineral prospection > (mineral) geoscientific ● erdwissenschaftlich


prospecting geophysics geoscientist ● Geowissenschaftler m
geophysics in mineral search(ing) > (mineral) geoscientist, earth scientist ● Erdwissenschaftler m
prospecting geophysics geoselenic [Relating to the Earth and the Moon] ●
geopolymeric chemistry ● Geopolymerchemie f bezüglich Erde und Mond
geopolymeric concrete ● Geopolymerbeton m geosphere, lithosphere, solid earth ● Gesteinsrinde f,
geopotential [The potential energy of a unit mass Lithosphäre f [Erdkruste plus Erdmantel]
relative to sea level, numerically equal to the work that geosphere [Any of the spheres or layers of the Earth] ●
would be done in lifting the unit mass from sea level to Geosphäre f
the height at which the mass is located; commonly geosphere [The lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmo-
expressed in terms of dynamic height or geopotential sphere combined] ● Geosphäre f
height] ● Geopotential n geostatic [1. Pertaining to earth in a quiescent condition
geopotential surface > geop due to a balance of forces or pressures. 2. Having the G
geopotential topography > (absolute) geopotential quality of maintaining earth in equilibrium] ●
topography geostatisch
geopressure, overpressure ● überhydrostatischer geostatic equilibrium ● geostatisches Gleichgewicht n
Druck m geostatic pressure, lithostatic pressure, overburden
geopressurized aquifer, overpressurized aquifer pressure, rock pressure, stereostatic pressure [The ver-
[In this aquifer, the groundwater pressure exceeds tical pressure at a point in the Earth’s crust, equal to the
normal hydrostatic pressure of 0.465 pound per pressure caused by the weight of a column of the overlying
square inch per foot of depth] ● überhydrostatischer rock or soil] ● geostatischer Druck m
Grundwasserleiter m geostatics ● Geostatik f [Die Lehre vom Gleichgewicht
geordie (⚒) ● Grubenmann m der Kräfte vor, während und nach der Herstellung eines
to geo-reference ● georeferenzieren Hohlraumbauwerkes, z.B. eines Tunnels]
georeferenced, geo-referenced ● georeferenziert geostatic stress state [of the soil] ● geostatischer
Georgian [North America] > Lower Cambrian Spannungszustand m [des Bodens]
geoscience, earth science [All embracing terms, for geostratigraphic [Pertaining to worldwide
sciences related to the Earth (analogous, in educational stratigraphy; e.g. ‘‘geostraticgraphic standards’’ or
parlance, to ‘‘life science’’). The term earth science is ‘‘geostratigraphic stage’’] ● geostratigrafisch
occasionally used as a synonym for ‘‘geology’’ or ‘‘geo- geostationary ● geostationär
logic(al) science(s)’’, but this usage is misleading because geostatistically regionalised properties of soil ●
in its wider sense earth science may be considered to geostatistisch regionalisierte Bodeneigenschaften f (pl)
include such subjects as meteorology, physical oceanogra- geostrophic force > Ferrel’s law
phy, soil chemistry, agronomy, hydrology, geodesy, and geosynclinal [obsolete]; geosyncline ● Geosynklin(al)e f,
geography] ● Erdwissenschaft f Erdgroßmulde f, Erdtrog m, Senkungstrog,
geoscience, geologic(al) science ● geologische Senkungswanne f, Synklinalbecken n, geologische
Wissenschaft f, Geowissenschaft [Die geologischen Großmulde, Erdeinbiegung f [Ein säkular sinkender
Wissenschaften sind auf die Lithosphäre räumlich und Sedimentationsraum]
zeitlich beschränkt. Ihre Aufgabe ist die Klärung der geosynclinal [Pertaining to a geosyncline] ●
Bildungs- und Entwicklungsgeschichte der oberen festen geosynklinal
Erdhüllen, d.h. der Erdkruste und des oberen Mantels bis geosynclinal couple > orthogeosyncline
in eine Tiefe von ungefähr 400 km. Geologische geosynclinal cycle > tectonic cycle
Wissenschaften sind Geophysik, Geochemie, Mineralogie, geosynclinal range ● Geosynklinalkette f
Petrografie, Paläontologie und Geologie] geosynclinal sediment ● Geosynklinalsediment n,
geoscience geology, planetary geology [A science that Präflysch m
applies geologic(al) principles and techniques to the study geosynclinal sulphid(e) deposit; geosynclinal sulfide
of planets and their natural satellites. The term deposit (US) ● geosynklinale Sulfidlagerstätte f
‘‘planetary geology’’ is frequently used as a synonym of geosyncline; geosynclinal [obsolete] ● Geosynkli-
astrology] ● Planetengeologie f n(al)e f, Erdgroßmulde f, Erdtrog m, Senkungstrog,
geoscientific ● geowissenschaftlich Senkungswanne f, Synklinalbecken n, geologische
602 geosynthetic

Großmulde, Erdeinbiegung f, krustaler geotechnical design [see also Eurocode 7] ●


Senkungsgraben m [Ein säkular sinkender geotechnische Bemessung
Sedimentationsraum] geotechnical design parameters, geotechnical
geosynthetic ● Geokunststoff m [Geokunststoffe sind parameters ● geotechnische Kennwerte m (pl),
Bauzusatzstoffe. Darunter fallen: Geotextilien, Geogitter, geotechnische Kenngrößen [Die Eigenschaften von
Geomembranen (Folien), Geonetze, Geocomposites] Boden, Fels und Gebirge werden durch geotechnische
geosynthetic barrier [to impede or block the flow of Kennwerte quantifiziert]
water or oil from reaching drainage structures or water- geotechnical design report, GDR [see EN 1997-1] ●
ways] ● geosynthetische Dichtungsbahn (DIN EN geotechnischer Entwurfsbericht m
13491) geotechnical engineer in building, construction
geosynthetic clay liner ● geosynthetische geotechnical engineer, building geotechnical
Tondichtungsbahn f engineer ● Ingenieurgeologe m im Bauwesen,
G geosynthetic mat ● Geokunststoff-Matte f Baugeologe
geosynthetics ● Geokunststoffe f(pl) [Oberbegriff für geotechnical engineering ● geotechnisches
Produkte bei denen zumindest ein Bestandteil aus Ingenieurwesen n
synthetischem oder natürlichem Polymerwerkstoff geotechnical engineering [That part of civil engineer-
hergestellt ist. Es kann ein Flächengebilde, ein Streifen ing involving the interrelationship between the geological
sein oder eine dreidimensionale Struktur aufweisen, das environment and the works of man] ● Geotechnik f [Alle
bei geotechnischen Anwendungen im Bau im Kontakt mit technischen Maßnahmen im Bereich der Erdkruste mit
dem Boden oder auch anderen Baustoffen zur Entwurf, Planung und Ausführung dieser Maßnahmen
Anwendung kommt. Dazu gehören Geotextilien, im Rahmen der Disziplinen Bergbau und Ingenieurbau
Geogitter, Geonetze, Geomembranen.] (Praxis) sowie Bereitstellung der dazu benötigten
geosynthetics-reinforced, geotextile-reinforced; less wissenschaftlichen Grundlagen (Theorie). Zur
frequent: geoplastic-reinforced ● geokunststoffbewehrt Geotechnik gehören beispielsweise im Bereich
geotechnical action(s), action(s) [EN 1997-1 lists 20 Ingenieurbau der Erd- und Grundbau, der Tunnel-, Stol-
different types of action which should be taken into len-, Kavernen- und Schachtbau, der Talsperrenbau
account in geotechnical design] ● geotechnische sowie im Bereich Bergbau der Tage- und Tiefbau auf
Einwirkungen Rohstoffe. Die dazu unmittelbar erforderlichen
geotechnical analysis ● erd- und grundbau- wissenschaftlichen Grundlagen werden im Rahmen der
technische Berechnung f Geomechanik mit den Teilgebieten Tektonik/
geotechnical boundary conditions ● geotechnische Gefügekunde und Gebirgsmechanik erarbeitet]
Randbedingungen f (pl) geotechnical engineering expert, geotechnical
geotechnical category [see EN Code 1997-1 for fur- engineer ● Geotechniker(in) m; seltener:
ther information] ● geotechnische Kategorie f Geomechaniker(in)
geotechnical characterisation (Brit.) [US-spelling: geotechnical engineering in building, civil
characterization] ● geotechnische Charakterisierung f engineering geology, geology in civil engineering,
[von Gesteinen, Sedimenten] engineering geology of construction, geotechnical
geotechnical characteristic parameters, soil- engineering in construction [That part of civil engineer-
mechanical parameters ● bodenmechanische ing involving the interrelationship between the geological
Kennwerte m (pl) environment and the works of man. It signifies studies
geotechnical characteristics (of the soil), soil- and designs for civil engineering works such as structure
mechanical (or: soil mechanics) properties, soil- foundations, retaining structures, slope stabilization,
mechanics parameters ● bodenmechanische tunnels, galleries, shafts, erosion control, airfield and
Eigenschaften f (pl) highway pavement support, earth and rock fill dams
geotechnical classification [of rocks] ● geotechnische and embankments whether constructed in soil or rock]
Klassifizierung f [der Gesteine] ● Ingenieurgeologie f im Bauwesen, Geologie für
geo-technical consultant ● geotechnischer Gutach- Bauingenieure, Baugeologie, Geotechnik f für
ter m, geotechnischer Sachverständiger Bauingenieure
geo-technical data ● geotechnische Grundlagen f (pl) geotechnical engineering in mining, mining (engi-
(erforderliche Daten für IT-Programme) neering) geology, book geology, geology in mining
geotextile 603

(engineering), engineering geology of mining ● geotechnical reconnaissance ● geotechnische


Ingenieurgeologie f im Bergbau, Bergbaugeologie, Erkundung f
Geologie für Bergbauingenieure, Montangeologie, geotechnical report ● geotechnische Stellungnahme
Grubengeologie, Geotechnik f im Bergbau [z.B. eines Ingenieurbüros]
geotechnical engineer in mining, mining (geotechnical) risk assessment, landslide hazard
geotechnical engineer ● Ingenieurgeologe m im assessment [where landslides are involved] ●
Bergbau, Bergbaugeologe Risikoabschätzung f [bei geologischen
geotechnical field investigation ● Massenbewegungen]
Baugrunduntersuchung f im Feld (geotechnical) risk management ●
geotechnical field review, field work, field checking Risikomanagement n [Einsatz bei geologischen
● Geländebegehung f Massenbewegungen]
geotechnical field test ● geotechnischer (geotechnical) site investigation > geotechnical
Feldversuch m investigation G
geotechnical hazard ● geotechnisches Risiko n geotechnical testing ● geotechnisches
geotechnical investigation, (foundation) ground Versuchswesen n
reconnaissance, ground investigation, natural geotechnical verification ● geotechnischer
foundation reconnaissance, subsoil exploration, soil Nachweis m
investigation, ground investigation, site reconnais- geotechnical works ● Erd- und Grundbau-
sance, field reconnaissance, soil reconnaissance, maßnahmen f (pl)
subsurface exploration, subsurface reconnaissance, geotechnics (US) [This term was developed by the
(geotechnical) site investigation ● America Society of Civil Engineers in 1974 as
Baugrunderkundung f, Baugrunduntersuchung f, a replacement for ‘‘soil mechanics and foundation engi-
Untergrunderkundung f, Baugrundaufschluss m, neering’’ to give a broader connotation to the discipline
Erkundung f des Untergrunds f, geotechnische and particularly to encompass the subject of rock
Untersuchung f mechanics] ● Bodenmechanik f und Grundbau m
Geotechnical investigations for civil engineering geotechnique ● Geotechnik f [Als betriebliche
purposes (DIN 4020) ● Geotechnische Anwendung, nicht als wissenschaftliche Darstellung]
Untersuchungen für bautechnische Zwecke (DIN geotechnology [The application of scientific methods
4020) and engineering techniques to the exploitation and use of
geotechnical lab(oratory) test ● geotechnischer natural resources] ● Geotechnologie f
Laborversuch m geotectonic cycle > tectonic cycle
geotechnical(ly)-related influences ● geotechnische geotectonician, tectonician ● Tektoniker m
Einflüsse m (pl) geotectonic lake > tectonic lake
geotechnical measurement ● geotechnische (geo)tectonics [A branch of geology dealing with the
Messung f broad architecture of the outer part of the Earth, that
geotechnical observation of the behaviour of means, the regional assembling of structural or
a structure ● geotechnisch bedingte Überwachung f deformational features, a study of their mutual relations,
eines Bauwerks origins, and evolution. It is closely related to structural
geotechnical parameters, geotechnical design geology, with which the distinctions are blurred, but (geo)
parameters, ground parameters, soil parameters, foun- tectonics generally deals with larger features] ● Tektonik f,
dation soil parameters, subsoil parameters ● Schicht(en)bau m
Baugrundparameter m, Baugrund-Kennwerte, geotector > geophone
geotechnische Kennwerte m (pl), geotechnische geotextile ● Geotextilie f [Aus synthetischen Fasern
Kenngrößen, geotechnische Parameter m (pl) [die hergestellte, wasserdurchlässige Vliesstoffe, Gewebe und
Eigenschaften von Boden, Fels und Gebirge werden Verbundstoffe für den Erd- und Wasserbau. Vliesstoffe
durch geotechnische Kennwerte quantifiziert] entstehen durch die Verfestigung von Matten aus regellos
geotechnical parameter value ● Wert des angeordneten Endllosfäden oder 3 bis 15 cm langen
geotechnischen Parameters Spinnfasern. Gewebe bestehen aus zwei sich rechtwinklig
geotechnical properties ● geotechnische kreuzenden Fadensystemen. Flächenhaft verbundene
Eigenschaften f (pl) Vliesstoffe und Gewebe heißen Verbundstoffe]
604 geotextile casing

geotextile casing ● Geokunststoffummantelung f geothermal flux meter > heat flux meter
geotextile coated (sand) column, GCC, sand geothermal (geophysical) method ● geothermisches
column encased by geotextiles ● geokunststoffum- Verfahren n, geothermische Methode f, geothermales
mantelte Sandsäule f [Sie kommen in den Fällen zur Verfahren, geothermale Methode
Anwendung, wo der Boden zu weich ist, um geothermal heat probe ● Erdwärmesonde f
Schottersäulen effektiv einzusetzen] geothermal map ● Erdwärmekarte f, Geowärmekarte,
Geotextile Encased Column, GEC® ● Säule f mit geothermische Karte, geothermale Karte
Geokunststoffummantelung, GEC® [Fa. Möbius AG] geothermal mapping ● Erdwärmekartierung f,
geotextile fabric, geotextile fabric ● Dränmatte f Geowärmekartierung, geothermische Kartierung,
geotextile filter ● Geotextilienfilter m, n, geothermale Kartierung
Geotextilfilter geothermal measurement ● Erdwärmemessung f,
geotextile liner ● Geotextilschlauch m, Geokunst- Geowärmemessung
G stoffschlauch m geothermal pool ● Heißwasserquellbecken n
geotextile mat, geogrid sheet ● Geotextilmatte f geothermal potential [This term indicates in the broad
geotextile-enclosed sand drain [see EN 15237] ● sense the thermal energy of the earth, when there is no need to
geotextilumschlossener Sanddrän m specify the different categories into which it can be subdivided
geotextile-reinforced, geosynthetics-reinforced; less and one is referring to the resource assessment in general
frequent: geoplastic-reinforced ● geokunststoffbewehrt terms] ● geothermisches Potential n, geothermales
geotextile reinforcement ● Geotextilienverstärkung f Potential, Erdwärmepotential, Geowärmepotential
geotextile-related products ● geotextilverwandte geothermal preliminary boring, geothermal prelim-
Produkte inary drilling ● geothermische Vorbohrung f,
geotextile sheath ● Geotextilummantelung f geothermale Vorbohrung
geotextile wall ● Geotextilwall m, Geotextilwand f geothermal prospection, geothermal search, geo-
geothermal, geothermic [Pertaining to heat within the thermal prospecting, thermal prospection, thermal
earth] ● geothermisch, geothermal search, thermal prospecting ● geothermische
geothermal (bore)hole, geothermal well(bore) ● Prospektion f, geothermische Aufsuchung f,
Geothermikbohrloch n, Geothermikbohrung f geothermische Suche f [„Geothermal’’ kann synonym
geothermal brine, hot brine ● geothermische Sole f, für „geothermische’’ verwendet werden]
geothermale Sole geothermal reconnaissance boring, geothermal
geothermal brine (bore)hole, geothermal brine well reconnaissance drilling ● geothermische
(bore) ● geothermische Laugenbohrung f, Erkundungsbohrung f, geothermale
geothermales Laugenbohrloch n, geothermale Erkundungsbohrung
Laugenbohrung, geothermisches Laugenbohrloch geothermal resource exploration ● Aufschließen n
geothermy ● Geothermie f eines geothermischen Außerbilanzvorrates,
geothermal energy, geothermal (electric) power, Aufschließung f eines geothermischen
electric geothermal power [Concentration of natural Außerbilanzvorrates
heat of the earth occurs in five recognized geological geothermal search > geothermal prospection
environments: (1) hydro-thermal convection, geothermal steam, natural steam ● Erddampf m,
(2) magma, (3) hot dry rock, (4) supernormal thermal Naturdampf
gradient, and (5) geopressured zones] ● geothermische geothermal water > thermal water
Energie, Erdwämeenergie f, geothermale Energie, geothermal well ● Geothermalbrunnen m
Geothermik f, Geothermalenergie f geothermal well(bore), geothermal (bore)hole ●
geothermal field ● geothermisches Feld n, Geothermikbohrloch n, Geothermikbohrung f
geothermisches Vorkommen n, Geothermiefeld, geothermal well logging [Measurement of the change
Geothermievorkommen, Erdwärmefeld, geothermales in temperature of the earth by means of well logging] ●
Feld, geothermales Vorkommen, Erdwärme- geothermische Bohrlochmessung f, geothermale
vorkommen, Geowärmevorkommen Bohrlochmessung
geothermal flux, heat flux [Geothermal heat flow per geothermic, geothermal [Pertaining to heat within the
unit time] ● Erdwärmefluss m pro Zeiteinheit earth] ● geothermisch, geothermal
geyserite 605

geothermics ● Geothermik f German silver, argentan, nickel silver, Argentine plate,


geothermic water > thermal water copper-nickel-zinc ● Argentan n, Kupfer-Nickel-Zink n,
geothermometer, geologic(al) thermometer ● Neusilber n
Geothermometer n, Erdwärmemesser m German tinder > amadou
geothermometry ● Erdwärmemessung f German (type) drilling, free-fall(ing) tool drilling ●
geotope ● Örtlichkeit f (Meißel)Bohren n mit Freifall, Freifall(meißel)bohren,
geotraverse ● Geotraverse f deutsches Bohren [1. Schwengelfreifallbohren,
geotropism [Tropism resulting from gravitational 2. Seilfreifallbohren]
attraction] ● Geotropismus m German Urban Search and Rescue Association [in
geotumor [An uplift of regional extent (Haarmann Germany] ● Technisches Hilfswerk
1930)] ● Geotumor m; positive Oszillation f, gersdorffite, nickel glance ● Arsennickelglanz [frühere
Aufschwellung f Benennung], Graunickelkies m, Gersdorffit m,
German Civil Code, Code of Civil Law ● BGB Nickelglanz m, NiAsS G
Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch n [in Germany] Gerstner wave, trochoidal wave ● Gerstner-Welle f,
German Compressed Air Regulations, Regulations Trochoidenwelle, trochoidale Dünung f [Zylindrische
governing operations under compressed air ● Dünung, bei der das Profil der freien Oberfläche die
Druckluftverordnung f, Verordnung f über Arbeiten Form einer Trochoide annimmt]
in Druckluft [in Deutschland] to get (⚒) > to produce
German Continental Deep Drilling Programme ● to get a sample of ore, to break a sample of ore ●
kontinentales Tiefbohrprogramm n der abstufen, abbauen einer Erzstufe
Bundesrepublik Deutschland to get barren, to impoverish, to get poor ● verarmen,
German cut pyramid cut vertauben, verunedeln
German diamond [misnomer]; rock crystal ● to get coal > to work out coal
deutscher Diamant m [Handelsbenennung], to get completely (⚒) > to mine (out) completely
Bergkristall m (Quarzgruppe) to get productive ● anlegen [Wenn eine Lagerstätte
German Federal mining act, federal mining law ● allmählich in einem Teil ihrer Mächtigkeit führend wird]
Bundesberggesetz n, BBergG n to get selectively (⚒) > to mine (out) selectively
German gallows (⚒) ● deutscher Türstock m [Siehe to get straight(ly) again ● wieder frei werden
Anmerkung unter „Türstock’’. Stempel und Kappe sind [eingeklemmter Bohrer]
verblattet] to (get) stuck, to freeze, to burn ● steckenbleiben, fest
German lapis [misnomer]; blue dyed jasper ● werden, anbacken [Bohrer im Bohrloch]
deutscher Lapis m (Handelsbenennung), blaugefärbter gettable > extractable
Jaspis (Quarzgruppe) getter > (coal) digger
German National Research Centre for Earth getter, cutter loader (⚒) ● Schrämlader m, Schräm-
Sciences ● Geoforschungszentrum n, GFZ (Potsdam) lademaschine f
German Ocean, North Sea ● Nordsee f getting > extraction
German onyx, agate onyx ● Achatonyx m getting, hewing (⚒) ● Hauerarbeit f, Häuerarbeit,
germanotype tectonics, paratectonics ● Abkohlen, Abhauen n, Hauen
germanotype Tektonik f, Paratektonik [1. Blockgebirge; getting barren, impoverishment, getting poor ●
2. Bruchfaltengebirge] Verarmung f, Vertaubung, Verunedelung
germanous iodide ● GeJ2 n getting out (of the pit) (⚒) ● Ausfahren n
German recommendations for geosynthetic getting well > (water) getting well
reinforcements ● EBGEO, Empfehlungen für GEWI pile [a composite pile] ● GEWI-Pfahl m [ein
Bewehrungen aus Geokunststoffen Verbundpfahl]
German Road Research Society regulations ● TPBF geyser, gusher, pulsating spring, spouter, ebbing and
[Technische Prüfvorschriften für Boden und Feld der flowing spring, gush(ing) spring ● Geysir m, Geisir,
Forschungsgesellschaft für das Straßenwesen] Geiser, Springquelle f, pulsende Quelle, pulsierende
German Society for Geotechnical Engineering ● Quelle, Siedequelle, Springer m
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Geotechnik f geyserite > siliceous sinter
606 ghost picture

ghost picture, ghost image ● Geisterbild n, Nebenbild, tubs, set of trams, train of tubs, train of trams (⚒) ●
Reflexbild, Phantombild Rollhundzug m, (Förder)Wagenzug
gia > goe ginney attendant, jinny attendant, jinny tender,
giant granite, pegmatite ● Pegmatit m ginney tender, jinnier (⚒) ● Rollhundzugbediener m,
giant granite vein, pegmatite vein [As called by geol- (Förder)Wagenzugbediener
ogists]; giant granite lode, pegmatite lode [As called by ginney (road), jinny (road), (inclined) plane, run,
miners] ● Pegmatitgang m raise heading, self-acting incline, brake incline,
giant halo ● Riesenhof m gravity plane, godevil plane, underground
giant joint ● Riesenkluft f gravity plane, (braking) incline, clook, flat inclined
giant river ● Riesenstrom m plane, gradient, gravity incline, haul(age) plane,
giant rock fabric > mega(petro)fabric inclined roadway, sloping plane [Loaded wagons come
giant sand wave, transverse bar, plateau-like down and empty wagons go up] (⚒) ● Berg m, (ein-)
G sandbar [A slightly submerged sand ridge that fallende (Orts-)Strecke f, Bremsberg m, einfallender
extends more or less at right angles to the shoreline] ● Stollen m
Querbarre f ginney shaft, jinny shaft (⚒) ● Bremsschacht m,
giant’s cauldron, giant’s kettle, (glacial) pothole, saigerer Bremsberg m, seigerer Bremsberg
moulin pothole [The terms ‘‘(glacial) pothole’’ are GIN value, Grouting Intensity Number ● GIN-
misleading because the feature is not produced by the Wert m
scouring action of a glacier ice, but by a stream of water giobertite, magnesite, MgCO3 ● Magnesit m,
falling through a moulin, by lateral or subglacial Bitterspat m, Giobertit
meltwater, or perhaps by a viscous mix(ture) of water, girder grid, supporting grid ● Trägerrost m
ice, and rock fragments] ● Gletschertopf m, Gletscher- girder lagging ● Trägerverzug m
trichter m, Riesenkessel m, Riesentopf girder pile ● Trägerpfahl m
giant wave ● Riesenwelle f girder set in a drill(ed) hole, girder inserted in
Giaque-Debye method > adiabatic demagnetization a (bore)hole ● Bohrträger m
gibber [aboriginal Australian] > bowlder girder slab formwork ● Träger-Deckenschalung f
Gibraltar stone [A light colo(u)red onyx marble found girder (support(ing)) system, rolled section (support
at Gibraltar and elsewhere] ● Gibraltaronyx m (ing)) system ● Trägerverbau m, Trägerwand f,
Gibson method ● Gibson-Messverfahren n, Walzprofilverbau, Walzprofilwand
Mengenmessung f mit Hilfe des Druckanstieges, girder wall formwork ● Träger-Wandschalung f
Druckanstiegmengenmessung, Gibson-Messmethode f girdle ● Rundiste m [Diamant]
[Messung von Flüssigkeitsströmungen] girt (⚒) ● Läufer m [Rahmenzimmerung]
Gibson modulus ● Gibson-Modul m GIS, geographic information system ● geografisches
Gibsonville emerald [misnomer]; greenish quartz ● Informationssystem n, GIS
grünlicher Quarz m to give batter, to slope ● (ab)böschen
Gigagrid ® ● Gigagrid ® [Der Verbundstoff besteht given up (⚒) > laid in
aus einem hochfesten, dehnungsarmen Bewehrungsgitter Givetian [European stage: Middle Devonian (above
mit einer extrem großen Maschenweite u. einem Eifelian, below Frasnian)] ● Givet n
dehnweichen Vliesstoff, der mit der Oberseite to give up (a mine) > to lay in
verbunden ist] to give way ● nachgeben [z. B. eine Wand]
Gilbreth pile [A corrugated reinforced concrete pile giving off, bleeding, exudation [1. Oil or gas from pore
designed by Gilbreth] ● Gilbrethpfahl m; Gilbreth- spaces of fractures, it can be observed in drill cores. 2. Of
pilot m [Österreich] small amounts of water from coal or rock] ●
gilded > inaurate Ausschwitzen n, Schwitzen
gilpinite, johannite [A green secondary mineral; giving up (⚒) > abandoning
Cu(UO2)2(SO4)2(OH)2.6H2O] ● Johannit m, Gilpinit gja > goe
gilsonite, uinta(h)ite ● Gilsonit m, Uinta(h)it G. K. formula, Ganguillet-Kutter-formula [In 1869,
ginney, jinny, journey of trams, rake of trams, gang of two Swiss engineers, Ganguillet and Kutter, published
trams, journey of tubs, gang of tubs, set of tubs, rake of a formula expressing the value of C in terms of the slope
glacial eustasy 607

S, hydraulic radius R, and the coefficient of roughness n. glacial break-off ● Gletscherabbruch m


In English units, the formula is glacial clay, (glacial) till, glacial marl, alluvial marl,
boulder clay ● Geschiebemergel m
41; 65 þ 0:00281 þ 1:811 glacial coast [A coast whose features were modelled by
C¼  s npffiffinffi
1 þ 41; 65 þ 0:00281
s R continental glaciers of the Pleistocene (Epoch), or a coast
covered by glaciers at the present time] ● vergletscherte
The coefficient n in this formula is specifically
Küste f
known as Kutter’s n] ● Ganguillet-Kutter- Formel f,
glacial delta(ic) plain ● Glazialdeltaebene f
G.K-Formel
glacial denudation, exaration, erosion by glacial ice ●
glacial ● kaltzeitlich, gletscherzeitlich, glazial,
Exaration f, Gletscherauspflügung, Schubwirkung f des
eiszeitlich [Das Wort ‚glazial’ ist in der geologischen
Eises, herauspflügende Glazialerosion,
Literatur doppeldeutig geworden. Seitdem man mehr
Eisschubwirkung, Ausschürfung [Im Lockermaterial
und mehr eiszeitliche Erscheinungen kennengelernt hat,
die nicht von Gletschern herrühren, wurde das Wort
vor der Gletscherstirn] G
glacial deposit, glacial drift, glacial debris [Terms for
glazial sowohl im Sinne von „durch Gletscher verursacht’’
drift transported by glaciers or icebergs, and
als auch mit der bloßen Bedeutung von „eiszeitlich’’ bzw.
deposited directly on land or in the sea. When deposited
„gletscherzeitlich’’ verwendet. R. Grahmann (1932) hat
on land, it is sometimes loosely called ‘‘moraine’’.
mit den Worten glazigen ¼ „unmittelbar durch Gletscher
See remark under ‘‘moraine’’] ● Glazialschutt m,
verursacht’’ und glaziär ¼ „in weiterem Sinne mit
Glazialablagerung f
Gletschern zusammenhängend’’ Ausdrücke
glacial deposition coast [A coast with partly sub-
vorgeschlagen, die eine unmissverständliche
merged moraines, drumlins, and other glacial deposits]
Unterscheidung von glazial ¼ „eiszeitlich’’ ermöglichen
● Glazialablagerungsküste f
sollen. In der Geomorphologie sind nun freilich Begriffe
glacial drainage [The system of meltwater streams
wie Glazialform und Glazialerosion so geläufig geworden
flowing from a glacier or ice sheet] ● Glazialent-
und auch so mit den internationalen Ausdrücken in
wässerung f
Übereinstimmung, dass es untunlich erscheint,
glacial epoch, drift epoch, glacial period, ice age [Any
Neuprägungen wie „Glaziärform’’ oder „Glaziärerosion’’
part of geologic(al) time, from Precambrian onward, in
einzubürgern. Soweit die Doppelbedeutung des
which the climate was notably cold in both the northern
Wortes „glazial’’ Anlass zum Missverstehen geben
and southern hemispheres, and widespread glaciers
sollte, wird es immer möglich sein, durch
moved toward the equator and covered a much larger
Umschreibungen wie „vom Gletscher geschaffen’’
total area than those of the present day, specifically the
einerseits oder „kaltzeitlich’’andererseits die Eindeutigkeit
latest of the glacial epochs, known as the Pleistocene
der Ausage zu sichern]
(Epoch). ‘‘Glacial period’’ as a synonym of ‘‘glacial
glacial > glacial (age)
epoch’’, specifically the Pleistocene (Epoch), is not strictly
glacial abrasion ● Gletscherabrasion f
correct as glacial intervals during Earth history were not
glacial action, glacial activity [All processes due to the
of the period rank, but of shorter duration] ● Eiszeit f,
agency of glacier ice, such as erosion, transportation and
Glazialzeit, Kaltzeit
deposition. The term sometimes includes the action of
glacial erosion, glacier erosion, ice erosion [Movement
meltwater streams derived from the ice] ● Gletscher-
of soil or rock from one point to another by the action of
tätigkeit f
the moving ice of a glacier] ● Gletschererosion f,
glacial advance, glacier advance, advance [The
Gletschermassentransport m, Glazialerosion,
forward and downslope movement of a glacier front] ●
Glazialmassentransport, Gletscherausnagung f,
(Gletscher)Vorrücken n, (Gletscher)Vorstoß m,
Glazialausnagung, Detersion, Erosion durch Gletscher,
(Gletscher)Vorschub m, Vorwärtsschreiten eines
Glazialerosion f
Gletschers
glacial erratic > erratic (block)
glacial (age) [A subdivision of glacial epoch, especially
glacial eustasy, glacioeustasy, glacioeustatism ●
of the Pleistocene (Epoch)] ● Eiszeitalter n
Glazialeustasie f [Meeresspiegelschwankungen durch
glacial boulder, glacial bowlder, ice boulder, ice bowl-
Bindung von Wasser in den Festlandeismassen während
der [It has been transported by a glacier] ● erratischer
der Eiszeiten]
Block m, Erratiker m
608 glacial excavation

glacial excavation > glacier excavation (glacial) quarrying, (glacial) plucking [The acquisition
glacial geology > glaciogeology of parts of the bedrock by a glacier when water enters
glacial (geo)tectonics ● Glazialtektonik f cracks in the rock and subsequently freezes with resulting
glacial gravel, till [till: glacial drift consisting of detachment of rock fragments as the ice moves forward] ●
a mixture of clay, sand, gravel, and boulders] ● splitternde Gletschererosion f, Detraktion [Früher auch
Glazialkies m „Exaration’’ genannt. Heute wird „Exaration’’ in einem
glacial ice ● Glazialeis n anderen Sinne verwandt und nicht mehr der
glacialism > glacial theory Glazialerosion zugerechnet]
glacialist, glacierist, glaciologist [A student of glaciol- glacial retreat, glacier retreat, glacial recession, glacier
ogy] ● Glaziologe m recession [A condition occurring when backward melting
glacialist [A believer in the glacial theory] ● at the front of a glacier takes place at a rate exceeding
Glazialtheorieanhänger m, Eiszeithypothesenanhänger forward motion] ● Gletscherrückgang m,
G glacial lake, glacier lake, marginal lake, ice-ponded Gletscherrückzug m
lake, ide-dam(med) lake [A lake held in place by the glacial sands ● glaziale Sande m (pl)
damming of natural drainage by the edge or front of glacial scratch, glacial stria, glacial striation, drift
a glacier or ice-sheet, as a lake ponded by glacier ice scratch [One of a series of long, delicate, finely cut,
advancing across a valley, or a lake occurring along the commonly straight and parallel furrows or lines inscribed
margin of a continental ice sheet] ● Eisstausee m, on a bedrock surface by the rasping and rubbing of rock
Gletschersee m fragments embedded at the base of a moving glacier, and
glacial lake outburst flood ● Gletscherseeausbruch m usually oriented in the direction of ice movement; also
glacial landscape, glacier landscape ● formed on the rock fragments transported by the ice] ●
Gletscherlandschaft f Gletscherkratzer m, Gletscherritz m,
glacial lobe, glacier lobe ● Gletscherzunge f Gletscherschramme f
glacial mapping, glacier mapping ● glacial sheet ● Festlandeisdecke f
Gletscherkartierung f glacial soil > iceborne soil
glacial marl, alluvial marl, boulder clay, glacial clay, glacial stream, glacier stream ● Gletscherbach m [Das
(glacial) till ● Geschiebemergel m aus dem Gletscher austretende Schmelzwasser]
glacial maximum > glaciation limit glacial stria, glacial scratch, glacial striation, drift
glacial meltwater, glacier meltwater ● Gletscher- scratch [One of a series of long, delicate, finely cut,
schmelzwasser n commonly straight and parallel furrows or lines inscribed
glacial milk, glacier milk ● Gletschermilch f, on a bedrock surface by the rasping and rubbing of rock
Gletschertrübe f fragments embedded at the base of a moving glacier, and
glacial mill, glacier mill, glacier pothole, glacial pot- usually oriented in the direction of ice movement; also
hole, glacial well, glacier well, pothole; moulin [French] formed on the rock fragments transported by the ice] ●
● Gletschermühle f Gletscherkratzer m, Gletscherritz m, Gletscher-
glacial minimum [The time or position of the greatest schramme f
retreat of a glacier] ● Gletscherrückzuggrenze f glacial tectonics > glacier tectonics
glacial morphology ● Glazialmorphologie f glacial terrace, glacier terrace ● Glazialterrasse f
glacial mountainous area ● glaziales Gebirgsgebiet n glacial terrain ● eiszeitlich geformtes Gelände n,
glacial (out)wash > (out)wash eiszeitlich gebildetes Gelände
glacial (over)burden ● glazialer Abraum m glacial theory, glacier theory, glacialism [In theory,
glacial over-deepening ● glaziale Übertiefung f first proposed about 1840 and now universally accepted,
glacial period > glacial epoch that the drift was deposited through the agency of glaciers
glacial plain [It is formed by the action of the glacier ice] and ice sheets moving slowly from higher to lower lati-
● Glazialebene f tudes during the Pleistocene (Epoch)] ● Eiszeithypothese f,
(glacial) plucking > (glacial) quarrying Glazialtheorie f
glacial polish [A smoothed surface produced on bedrock glacial threshold, glacier threshold ● Riegel m
by glacial abrasion] ● Gletscherschliff m glacial till, till, glacial marl, alluvial marl, boulder clay,
glacial pothole > glacial mill glacial clay ● Geschiebemergel m, Moränenschutt m
glacierist 609

glacial valley; combe [This term is used in England glacier-covered [Said of a land surface overlain by
and Southern Scotland. A U-shaped, steep sided glacier ice at the present time] ● gletscherbedeckt
valley showing signs of glacial erosion; a glaciated glacier debris, glacier drift, glacier deposit ●
valley, or one that has been modified by a glacier] ● Gletscherschutt m
Gletschertal n glacier deposit ● Gletscherablagerung f
to glaciate ● vergletschern glacier drainage [The flow system of glacier ice] ●
glaciated ● vergletschert Gletscherentwässerung f
glaciated area, glacier area ● Gletschergebiet n glacière [French]; ice glen, ice cave, freezing cavern, ice
glaciated knob > sheep(back) rock grotto [Cave in which ice forms and persists through
glaciation [Meteorology. The transformation of cloud most of the year] ● Eishöhle f
particles from waterdrops to ice crystals, as in the upper glacier erosion, glacial erosion, ice erosion [Movement
portion of a cumulonimbus cloud] ● Vereisung f of soil or rock from one point to another by the action of
glaciation [The action of a glacier or ice-sheet on the the moving ice of a glacier] ● Gletschererosion f, G
rocks over which it has passed or still passes] ● Gletschermassentransport m, Glazialerosion,
Eiswirkung f Glazialmassentransport, Gletscherausnagung f,
glaciation [The alteration of any part of the Earth’s Glazialausnagung, Detersion, Erosion durch Gletscher
surface in consequence of glacier ice passing over it] ● glacier excavation, glacial excavation ●
Gletscherwirkung f Gletscheraushub m
glaciation limit, glacial maximum [The time or posi- glacier fall, glacier breakage ● Gletscherbruch m
tion of the greatest advance of a glacier or of glaciers (such glacier(-filled) valley ● Gletschertal n
as the greatest extent of Pleistocene glaciation)] ● glacier flood, glacier outburst flood, outburst, glacier
(Gletscher)Vorschubgrenze f, (Gletscher-) burst; jökulhlaup [Icelandic term] ● Gletscherflut f
Vorstoßgrenze glacier flow, glacier movement, gravitation(al) flow,
glacier [colloquial in Alaska] > flood icing [Movement of glacier ice as a result of the inclination of
glacier; ice stream [popular term] ● Gletscher m; the slope on which the glacier rests] ● Gletscherfließen n,
Ferner m [Tirol]; Kees m [Salzburg und Kärnten] Gletscherbewegung f
glacier advance, glacial advance, advance [A time glacier fluctuation ● Gletscherschwankung f
interval marked by an advance or general expansion of glacier funnel [A superficial hollow in a glacier arising
a glacier] ● (Gletscher)Vorschubzeitspanne f from the subsidence of the ice above a glacier cavern] ●
glacier advance, advance, glacial advance [The for- Gletschertrichter m
ward and downslope movement of a glacier front] ● glacier gallery; glacier tunnel (US) ●
(Gletscher)Vorrücken n, (Gletscher)Vorstoß m, Gletscherstollen m
(Gletscher)Vorschub m, Vorwärtsschreiten n eines glacier garden ● Gletschergarten m
Gletschers glacier gathering zone ● Gletschersammelbecken n
glacier area, glaciated area ● Gletschergebiet n glacier gauge, glacier totalizer; glacier gage (US) ●
glacier bed [The surface under a glacier] ● Gletscher- Gletschertotalisator m
unterlage f glacier gorge ● Gletscherschlucht f
glacier berg > (ice)berg glacier ice ● Gletschereis n
glacier breakage, glacier fall ● Gletscherbruch m glacier (ice)berg [A greenish, irregularly shaped
glacier bulb > expanded foot (ice)berg consisting of ice detached from a
glacier burst > glacier flood coastal glacier, typically found in the Arctic] ●
glacier cap [nonpreferred synonym] > ice cap Gletschereisberg m
glacier cave; ice cave [nonrecommanded usage] ● glacier ice cover [The extent of glacier ice on a land
Gletscherhöhle f surface at the present time, with special reference to its
glacier cone, débris cone, debris mound, glacier thickness] ● Gletschereisdecke f
mound [A cone or mound of ice or snow on a glacier, (glacier) ice pedestal, ice pillar, pedestal, ice column,
covered with a veneer of débris thick enough to protect the serac; sérac [French] ● (Gletscher)Eisstiel m
underlying material from the ablation that has lowered glacierist, glacialist, glaciologist [A student of
the surrounding] ● Gletscherkegel m glaciology] ● Glaziologe m
610 glacierization

glacierization, conversion into glacier ● glacier surge, surge, catastrophic advance [The period
Vergletscherung f of very rapid flow of a surging glacier; also, the
glacierization energy, activity index, energy of displacement or advance of ice resulting from the very
glacierization, glacierization index, index of rapid flow] ● Gletscherwoge f, katastrophaler
glacierization ● Vergletscherungsindex m Gletschervorstoß m
glacierized > ice covered glacier table [A block of stone supported on a pedestal of
glacier lake, glacial lake, marginal lake, ice-ponded ice on the surface of a glacier, the stone serving to protect
lake, ice-dam(med) lake [A lake held in place by the the pedestal from melting] ● Gletschertisch m
damming of natural drainage by the edge or front of glacier tectonics, glacial tectonics ● Glazialtektonik f,
a glacier or ice-sheet, as a lake ponded by glacier ice Eistektonik, glaziale Tektonik
advancing across a valley, or a lake occurring along the glacier terminus, glacier’s terminus, glacier snout,
margin of a continental ice sheet] ● Eisstausee m glacier’s snout ● Gletscherende n
G glacier landscape, glacial landscape ● Gletscher- glacier theory > glacial theory
landschaft f glacier threshold, glacial threshold ● Riegel m
glacier mapping, glacial mapping ● Gletscher- glacier tongue, tongue; ice tongue [nonpreferred syn-
kartierung f onym] ● (Gletscher)Zunge f
glacier meltwater > (out)wash glacier totalizer, glacier gauge; glacier gage (US) ●
glacier milk, glacial milk ● Gletschermilch f, Gletschertotalisator m
Gletschertrübe f glacier treatment plant ● gletschergespeistes
glacier mill, glacial mill, glacier pothole, glacial pot- Wasserwerk n
hole, glacial well, glacier well, pothole; moulin [French] glacier tunnel (US); glacier gallery ●
● Gletschermühle f Gletscherstollen m
glacier mound > glacier cone glacier variation ● Gletscherveränderung f
glacier mouth ● Gletschertor n glacier wastage > ablation
glacier movement, glacier flow ● glacier well > glacier mill
Gletscherbewegung f glacification [Covering of an area by ice in the form of
glacier outburst flood, glacier flood, outburst, glacier glaciers, ice-sheets, or floating ice] ● Eisbedeckung f
burst; jökulhlaup [Icelandic term] ● Gletscherflut f glacification [The action of converting into ice] ●
glacier path ● Gletscherlauf m, Gletscherweg m Eisumbildung f
glacier physics ● Gletscherphysik f glacioaqueous, aqueoglacial, glaciofluvial,
glacier pothole > glacier mill fluvioglacial [Pertaining to or resulting from the com-
glacier retreat, glacial retreat, glacial recession, glacier bined action of ice and water. The term ‘‘glaciofluvial’’ is
recession [A condition occurring when backward melting preferred in the U.S., since logically the glac- precedes the
at the front of a glacier takes place at a rate exceeding ‘‘fluv-’’] ● fluvioglazial, glaziofluvial, aqueoglazial
forward motion] ● Gletscherrückgang m, glacioeustasy, glacial eustasy, glacioeustatism ●
Gletscherrückzug m Glazialeustasie f [Meeresspiegelschwankungen durch
glacier sand plain ● Gletschersandebene f Bindung von Wasser in den Festlandeismassen während
glacier shrinkage ● Gletscherschwund m der Eiszeiten]
glacier sliding, glacier slide, glacier slip(page) ● glaciogen(et)ic ● eiszeitlich
Gletscher(ab)gleiten n, Gletscher(ab)gleitung f, glaciogeology, glacial geology [1. The study of the
Gletscherschlipf m geologic(al) features and effects resulting from the erosion
glacier snout, glacier’s snout, snout, glacier terminus, and deposition caused by glaciers and ice sheets. 2. The
glacier’s terminus, terminus, terminal face, ice front ● features of a region that has undergone glaciation] ●
Gletscherende n, (Gletscher)Schnauze Glazialgeologie f
glacier snow ● Gletscherschnee m glaciokarst alpine karst
glacier spring ● Gletscherquelle f glaciolimaic ● glaziolimaisch
glacier‘s snout > glacier snout glaciologist > glacialist
glacier stream, glacial stream ● Gletscherbach m [Das glaciology [The study of ice and ice action in all their
aus dem Gletscher austretende Schmelzwasser] forms] ● Eiskunde f
glaucophane 611

glaciometer [An instrument for the measurement of in unaltered acid volcanic rocks] ● Sanidin m, glasiger
glacial motion] ● Gletscheruhr f Feldspat, empyrodoxer Feldspat m, KAlSi3O8
glacionival ● glazial-nival glassy lava > vitreous lava
glaciotectonic, cryotectonic [Said of complicated and glassy porphyry > vitrophyre
deranged features and deposits found at glacier borders, glassy rock, vitreous rock [Glassy rocks are the most
of and consisting material that has been overturned, evident results of cooling from fusion. They are almost
inverted, folded, and transported by the shoving action always acidic and are represented by the rhyolites and
of glaciers] ● kryotektonisch dacites. More basic varieties are known, but are less
glacis, flat slope, mild slope, gentle slope, gently frequent. Commonest glasses are the obsidans, black,
inclined slope ● Rücken m, Flachböschung f, mäßig red and brown, with 0.5 to 1% water. They may be
geneigte Böschung assumed to be quickly-chilled rhyolites or dacites. Pumice
glance [A term used to describe various minerals with is an excessively cellular obsidian. A rarer glass, which
a resplendent luster, such as silver glance and lead glance] chills into an aggregate of shot-like spheroids, is pe(a)rlite G
● Glanz m or pearlstone, usually containing 2 to 4% water. The last
glance pitch [A black asphaltite with a black streak glass deserving mention is the rare, resinous variety called
and brilliant conchoidal fracture; appears to be pitchstone, having 5 to 10% water and is more easily
intermediate between the native asphalts and grahamite] fusible with blowpipe than the others] ● glasiges Gestein n,
● Glanzpech n glasiger Fels m
glancing angle [Angle under which monochromatic x- glassy stone ● Stein m mit grauen und dunklen
rays are reflected by a crystal] ● Glanzwinkel m Kanten [Edelsteinhandel]
gland ● Brillenwand f [Beim Pilotrohrverfahren bei glassy texture ● glasige Struktur f
hohem Grundwasserstand] glauberite, Na2Ca(SO4)2 [A brittle, gray-yellow mono-
glare ● Überstrahlung f [In einem optischen System] clinic mineral having vitreous luster and saline taste] ●
glaserite > arkanite Glauberit m, Brongniartin m
glass [An amorphous product of the rapid cooling of Glauber(’s) salt, mirabilite ● Glaubersalz n
magma. It may constitute the whole rock (e.g. obsidian) glaucochroite [A bluish-green mineral that is related to
or only part of a groundmass] ● Glas n monticellite, is composed of calcium manganese silicate,
glass-bead-silica determination ● Kieselsäuregehalt- and occurs in prismatic crystals] ● Glaukochroit m,
bestimmung f durch Glaskügelchen [Diese Kügelchen CaMnSiO4
werden aus dem Untersuchungsmaterial hergestellt] glauconite [A green mineral closely related to the micas
glass container, bottle bank ● Glascontainer m and essentially a hydrous silicate of iron and potassium.
(glass) culture tube > acid(-dip) bottle Commonly occurs in sedimentary rocks of marine origin.
glass schorl, axinite, after schorl, vitreous obsidian ● Also used as a name for a rock of high glauconite content]
Axinit m, Afterschörl m, violetter Schörl, blätt(e)riger ● Glaukonit m
Schörl, glasiger Schörl, Thum(er)stein m, Thumit m, glauconite clay ● Glaukonitton m
Thum(er)schiefer m, Glasschörl, Glasstein glauconite shale ● Glaukonitschiefer m
glass tube, bubble (tube) [The circular or slightly glauconitic sandstone [A sandstone consisting of green
curved glass tube containing the liquid and bubble in sand that is often little or not at all cemented, having
a spirit level and mounted with the bend convex upward] a greenish colo(u)r when unweathered but an orange or
● Glasröhre f, Libelle f, Röhrenlibelle yellow colo(u)r when weathered, and forming prominent
glassy, hyaline, vitreous [Said of the texture of certain deposits in Cretaceous and Eocene beds] ● Glaukonit-
extrusive igneous rocks which is similar to that of broken sandstein m
glass or quartz and developed as a result of rapid cooling glauconi(ti)zation [The submarine metamorphic
of the lava, without distinct crystallization. Also, said of process, taking place under anaerobic or
any of the other properties of a volcanic rock that resemble reducing conditions whereby various minerals are
those of glass, such as hardness, lustre, or composition] ● altered to glauconite] ● Glaukonitisierung f,
glasig, gläsern Glaukonitbildung
glassy fel(d)spar, sanidine, rhyacolite [An alkali fel(d) glaucophane [Essentially Na(Al,Fe)(SiO3)2 with
spar mineral occurring in clear glassy crystals embedded (Mg, Fe)SiO3 in varying proportions. A grayish
612 glaucophane rock

blue prismatic or fibrous mineral occurring only in glistening; medium luster, (bright) diffuse luster
metamorphic rocks] ● Glaukophan m (US); medium lustre, (bright) diffuse lustre ●
glaucophane rock ● Glaukophangestein n Mittelglanz m
glaucophane schist ● Glaukophanschiefer m glitter > scree
glaze, glaze ice, glazed frost, freezing rain; verglas gloap [Scottish] > blow(hole)
[French] ● Glatteis n global approach ● übergreifende Betrachtungsweise f
glazed back; leip, lipe, lype [Scotland] (⚒) ● global change ● globale Umweltkrise f
Schmierkluft f, glatte Ablösung f global climate ● Erdklima n, Weltklima
glazier ● Glaser(in) global climate change ● globaler Klimawechsel m
glazing, enamel ● Glasur f global climate change, greenhouse(warming) effect
GLCF, Global Land Cover Facility ● GLCF f [die Global ● Treibhauswirkung f
Land Cover Facility der Universität Maryland, U.S.A. global database, blackboard ● globale Datenbasis f
G hält Daten von NOAA, MODIS; Landsat, ASTER, global foundation ● Gesamtgründung f
SRTM und weitere bereit] global heat flow map, world heat flow map ● globale
gley (horizon), glei (horizon) ● Gley(horizont) m Wärmestromkarte f
gleyic vertisol, gleiic vertisol ● Vertisolgley m Global Land Cover Facility, GLCF ● GLCF f [die
gley-podsolic soil, gley-podzolic soil, glei-podzolic Global Land Cover Facility der Universität Maryland,
soil, glei-podsolic soil ● Gleypodsol m, Gleipodsol U.S.A. hält Daten von NOAA, MODIS; Landsat,
[Frosterus 1912], gley-podsoliger Boden m, glei- ASTER, SRTM und weitere bereit]
podsoliger Boden [J. Wityn 1911], Pakitiboden [Rigg global positioning system, GPS ● satellitengestütztes
1919], podsoliger Gleyboden, podsoliger Gleiboden Navigationsverfahren n
gley (soil), glei (soil) [Soil developed under conditions of global radiation ● Globalstrahlung f
poor drainage, resulting in reduction of iron and other [Sonnenstrahlung plus diffuse Himmelsstrahlung]
elements and in grey colours and mottle] ● Gley m, global safety margin ● globales Sicherheitsniveau n
Bruchboden m, Wiesenboden, mineralischer global warming ● Erderwärmung f, globale
Nassboden, Grundwasserboden, Glei Erwärmung
gleyzation, gleization, gleying ● Vergleiung f, globe cartography, globe making ● Globuskar-
Vergleyung [Die Ausfällung von Stoffen im Bodenprofil tografie f, Globuskartographie f
durch das Grundwasser] globe lightning, ball lightning ● Kugelblitz m
glide > slip globigerina marl ● Globigerinenmergel m
glide fold > slip fold globigerina ooze ● Globigerinenschlick m
to glide off, to slip, to glide down (⚒) ● abrutschen, globular, spherulitic, sphaerolitic [Relating to the tex-
absitzen ture of a rock composed of numerous spherulites] ●
glide reflection, glide plane, glide reflexion, gliding globular, sphärolitisch, kugelförmig, kugelig
plane, slip plane, translation(al) plane [A symmetry globular jointing, ball jointing, spherical jointing ●
element in a crystal that relates parts on opposite sides kugelige Kluftbildung f, kugelige Klüftung
by reflection plus translation parallel to the plane] ● globular pe(a)rlite, granular pe(a)rlite ● körniger
Gleitspiegelebene f, Gleitspiegelung f Perlit m
glide twin > strain twin globular plate bearing, calotte shell ● Kugelkalotte f
glide velocity ● Gleitgeschwindigkeit f [z. B. in der [für Verankerungen]
Schneedecke] globular projection > transverse azimuthal
gliding > slip projection
gliding tectonics, gravity tectonics, gravitation(al) globular structure, spherulitic structure, sphaerolitic
tectonics ● Schweretektonik f, Schwerkrafttektonik, structure [Quartz and feldspar crystals forming minute
Gravitationstektonik, gravitative Tektonik globules of crystallization and radiating from a central
glimmer [German term] > mica point, sometimes displayed by rhyolite] ●
glist [Cornwall]; lepidomelane, iron mica [A black Sphärolittextur f, radialstrahlige Textur
variety of biotite that is characterized by the presence of globulite [A spherical crystallite commonly found in
large amounts of ferric iron] ● Lepidomelan m, volcanic glass] ● Globulit m
Eisenglimmer m glockerite > pittizite
goaf(f) scour(ing) (for face development) 613

Gloetzl pressure cell [It consits of a flatjack connected which may also be rich in hornblende or mica.] ●
to a pneumatic or hydraulic transducer which in turn is Gneis m
connected by twin flexible plastic tubes to a terminal gneiss dome ● Gneisskuppel f
panel or gauge house] ● Druck(mess)dose f nach gneissic granite ● Gneisgranit m
Gloetzl, Gloetzl-Druck(mess)dose gneissic granulite ● Gneisgranulit m
GLONASS [Global Navigation Satellite System: gneiss(ic rock) ● Gneis(gestein) m, (n)
A satellite system for positioning and navigation, devel- gneissification ● Vergneisung f
oped by Russia] ● GLONASS [ein Satellitensystem für gneisso-clastic texture ● Mylonit-Gneis-Struktur f
die Positionsbestimmung und Navigation; eine russische gneissoid, gneisslike [A structure or texture that is the
Entwicklung] result of non-metamorphic processes, e.g. viscous mag-
gloomy weather ● trübes Wetter n matic flow forming a gneissoid granite] ● gneisähnlich,
glory hole, mill (hole), funnel(-shape(d)) excavation gneisig
● Trichter(schurre) m, (f), Sturzrolle f gneissoid granite, gneisslike granite ● gneisähnlicher G
glory hole mining, milling (system), chute system, Granit, gneissiger Granit
mill (hole) mining, glory hole system, mill(hole) sys- gneissose [Said of a rock, or of its structure, that resem-
tem [American method of open-cut mining of thick bles gneiss but that is not the result of metamorphic
deposits in which the broken ore is removed by dropping processes] ● gneisähnlich
it into a shaft (¼glory hole or mill hole). ‘‘Working’’ may gneissose [Said of a rock whose structure is composite,
synonymously be used for ‘‘mining’’] ● Trichterbau m having alternating schistose and granulöse bands and
über Tage, übertägiger Trichterbau, Übertagetrich- lenses which differ in mineral composition and texture]
terbau ● gneisig
glory hole spillway (US) > circular drop inlet spillway gneissosity, gneissose structure, gneissic structure,
glossy sandstone ● Glanzsandstein m gneissic lineation, gneissic banding [In a metamorphic
gloup [Scottish] > blow(hole) rock, commonly gneiss, the coarse lineation or banding of
glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy, the constituent minerals into alternating silicic and mafic
GDOS ● Glimmentladungsspektroskopie f layers] ● Gneisbänderung f
glowing, incandescent [Of an ash flow, nuée ardente, or gnomonic projection, central projection, great-circle
any pyroclastic matter] ● glühend projection [A perspective azimuthal map projection
glowing avalanche > ash flow (of a part of a hemisphere) on a plane tangent to the
glowing avalanche deposit ● Glutwolkenabsatz m, surface of the sphere, having the point of projection at the
Glutwolkenablagerung f centre of the sphere. All straight lines on the tangent plane
glowing cloud, Peléean Cloud, fiery cloud; nuée represent arcs of great circles on the Earth’s surface; all
ardente [French] ● Glutwolke f great circles appear as straight lines. The point of tan-
gluing cartridge ● Kleb(e)patrone f gency may be at a pole, on the equator, or at any point in
glut [A short piece of timber placed between bracing and between (oblique gnomonic projection). It is used in
a pile as a filler] ● Holzfüller m, Holzfüllstück n conjunction with the Mercator projection, to plot
glycol, dihydric alcohol ● Glykol n great-circle courses in navigation] ● gnomonische
glyptics ● Glyptik f, (Edel)Steinschneidekunst f, (Edel-) Projektion f, Zentralprojektion, zentrale Projektion
steingravur f gnomonic projection [A projection used in optical
glyptolith, ventifact, wind-cut stone, wind-worn mineralogy to plot data obtained by measurements of
stone, wind-polished stone, wind-grooved stone, crystals with a two-circle goniometer, characterized by
wind-scoured stone, wind-shaped stone, windkanter, a plane of projection that is tangent to the north pole of
(wind-)facet(ted) pebble, (wind-)facet(ted) stone ● the sphere, with the pole of the faces parallel to the
Windschliff m, Windkanter m vertical axis of the sphere lying at infinity] ●
G-M counter, Geiger(-Müller) counter ● Geiger- gnomonische Projektion f
Müller-Zähler m to go (⚒) ● fallen
G-M tube, Geiger(-Müller) tube ● Geiger-Müller- goaf > gob
Röhre f goaf(f )ing > goaf
gneiss [a laminated or foliated metamorphic rock, gen- goaf(f) scour(ing) (for face development), goaf(f)
erally made up of feldspar, quartz and mica, some of heading, goaf(f) road (⚒) ● Strecke f durch den Alten
614 goaf(f) side

Mann, Basisstrecke im Alten Mann, Versatzstrecke, goe, geo, gia, gja [Terms used in northern Scotland for
Strecke im Versatz a long deep narrow coastal inlet or cove, walled in by
goaf(f) side (⚒) ● Steinseite f, Versatzseite [Dem steep, rocky cliffs, and formed by marine erosion of the
Versatz zugekehrte Seite] cliffs, along a line of weakness, especially in a well-jointed
goal-driven strategy, backward chaining ● deduktive rock, as in the Old Red Sandstone of Caithness and
Strategie f [Geoinformationssystem; Landinforma- Orkney] ● Kliffnische f
tionssystem. Künstliche Intelligenz. Diese Strategie goethite, göthite, allcharite, xantosiderite ● Göthit m
kommt durch Zerlegung von Problemen in Teilprobleme goffan, goffen, coffin [A pit made by working down
zum Ziel] into a gozzan. The loose material was dug out and
gob, ancient working, old working, mined-out work- either shovel(l)ed up step-by-step to the
ing, waste material, collapsed roof material, mined-out surface (shamelling), or hoisted out of the pit by
room, mined-out area, goaf, guag; condie, cundy [Scot- a bucket and windlass, or of the side of a hill or cliff,
G land]; leavies [Cornwall]; waste area [literary]; gob area wheel-barrowed out] ● Strossenbau m von Tage
(⚒) ● Alte m, Alter Mann, Alter Bau [Verlassener, niedergehend, alter strossenförmiger Tagebau,
abgesperrter, versetzter oder zu Bruch geworfener Tagesstrossenbau
Grubenbau oder -raum] goffering ● Fältelung f, Runzelung
gob area > gob goggles ● Schutzbrille f
gobbin ● Kohlengrus m gold ● Gold n
gobbing (up) > stowing gold amalgam ● Goldamalgam n
to go below, to go down, to go underground (⚒) ● gold assay balance ● Goldwaage f
anfahren, hinabfahren; einfahren [Kontext: 129 Kumpel gold-bearing, auriferous, aurigerous, containing gold
sind um 14 Uhr mit dem Förderkorb in den Schacht ● goldführend, goldenthaltend, goldhaltig, Gold. . .
eingefahren] gold(-bearing) float, gold(-bearing) pieces; gold
to go beyond one’s ground (⚒) ● forttragen [Feld] (-bearing) shoads [Cornish] ● Goldbruchstücke f
gob fire, breeding fire [South Staffordshire, England] [Von einem Ausbiss oder von Ausbissen]
(⚒) ● Brand m im Alten Mann, Feuer n im Alten gold(-bearing) placer > placer gold
Mann, Brand im Alten Bau, Feuer im Alten Bau gold(-bearing) vein [As called by geologists] ●
gob road (⚒) ● Versatzstrecke f Goldgang m
(gob) stink; gob odour (Brit.); gob odor (US) ● gold belt ● Goldgürtel m
brenzliger Geruch m; brenzlicher Geruch [Österreich] (gold) colour (Brit.); minute gold particle; (gold) color
gobstuff getting place (⚒) ● Berg(e)mühle f [Ein zur (US) ● Goldteilchen n [Prospektieren durch
Gewinnung von Bergen zu Bergeversatz so vorgerichteter Trogwaschen]
unterirdischer Raum, dass das ungestützte Gestein gold(-containing) silver, doré silver ● Goldsilber n
von selbst hereinbricht und nur weggefördert werden gold content ● Goldgehalt m
muss] gold-covered, inaurate, gilded ● vergoldet,
go-devil, pig, bullet ● Rohr(leitungs)molch m, Molch, goldüberzogen
Leitungsmolch gold deposit ● Goldlagerstätte f
go-devil ● Fallgewicht n [Zylinderförmiges gold desorption from activated carbon with alka-
Eisengewicht bei der Torpedierung von line alcohol solution ● Heinenverfahren n,
Tiefbohrschächten] Heinenmethode f
godevil plane, underground gravity plane, (braking) gold digger, hatter ● Goldgräber m
incline, clook, flat inclined plane, gradient, gravity gold dredger (Brit.); gold dredge (US);
incline, haul(age) plane, inclined roadway, ginney boat ● Goldnassbagger m, Goldschwimmbagger,
(road), jinny (road), (inclined) plane, run, raise head- Goldbagger m
ing, self-acting incline, brake incline, gravity plane, gold dredging ● Goldnassbaggern n
sloping plane [Loaded wagons come down and empty gold dust > float gold
wagons go up] (⚒) ● Berg m, (ein)fallende (Orts-) golden beryl [A clear, golden-yellow or yellow-green
Strecke f, Bremsberg m, einfallender Stollen m gem variety of beryl. Not to be confused with ‘‘gold
to go down > to go below beryl’’] ● goldartiger Beryl m
gopher hole blasting 615

golden nugget > nuggety gold Prospektorenpfanne, Goldwaschtrog m,


golden quartz; gold topaz [misnomer] ● Goldtopas m Goldwäschertrog
[Handelsbenennung und Fehlbenennung], Zitrin m, golt ● Flammenmergel m
Citrin (Quarzgruppe), gebrannter Amethyst m gompholite, nagelfluh [A massive and variegated
(Quarzgruppe) Miocene conglomerate accompanying the Molasse of
golden sulphid(e) of antimony > pentasulphid(e) of the Alpine region in Switzerland. It contains pebbles
antimony that appear like flights or swarms of nailheads] ●
golden vein [commercial term] ● heller Kalkstein m Nagelfluh f
aus Israel Gondwana(land) [The Late Pal(a)eozoic continent of
gold field ● Goldfeld n the Southern Hemisphere. Gondwana is preferred as
gold film ● Goldhäutchen n it means ‘‘land of the Gonds’’ and Gondwanaland is
gold flour, flour(y) gold [The finest gold dust, tautological] ● Gondwanakontinent m, südlicher
much of which will float on water] ● Goldmehl n, Großkontinent G
Mehlgold n gone solid (⚒) ● festgefahren [Stempel]
gold litharge, red litharge ● rote Glätte f, rote Glötte, gone to water, drowned (out), inundated (⚒) ●
Goldglätte, Goldglötte ertrunken, verwässert, ersoffen [Eine Grube durch
gold mine ● Goldmine f, Goldgrube f, Goldbergwerk n Füllung mit Wasser unzugänglich gemacht]
gold-mining ● Goldbergbau m goniometer [An instrument used in optical crystallog-
gold occurrence ● Goldvorkommen n raphy for measuring the angles between crystal
gold opal [A fire opal that exhibits only an overall colo faces. Types are the contact goniometer, the reflection
(u)r of golden yellow] ● Goldopal m goniometer, and the two-circle goniometer] ● Goniome-
gold ore ● Golderz n ter n, Kristallwinkelmesser m, Winkelmesser für
gold ore mine ● Golderzbergwerk n Kristalle
gold pan > gold (wash(ing)) pan goniometer furnace ● Goniometeröfchen n,
gold placer > placer gold Kristallwinkelmesseröfchen
gold powder > float gold goniometry ● Goniometrie f, Kristallwinkelmessung f
gold quartz, auriferous quartz ● Goldquarz m good, fresh (⚒) ● frisch, gut, lebhaft [Wetter]
gold regulus, regulus of gold ● Goldkönig m good bottom (⚒) ● gutes Liegendes n
gold run, run of gold ● goldreiche Seifenlage f, goodness ● Bonität f
goldreiche Seifenschicht f good ore, rich ore ● Guterz n
gold rush, gold stampede ● Goldrausch m, good stained ● kaum gefleckt [Industriemineral]
„Goldfieber’’ n goose (⚒) ● Wassertonne f
goldschmidtine > brittle silver (ore) gooseberry stone > grossular(ite)
goldschmidtite > graphic ore goose dung ore, goose silver ore [An inferior grade of
Goldschmidt’s phase rule, mineralogic(al) phase rule iron sinter containing silver] ● Gänsekötig m,
● mineralogische Phasenregel f, Goldschmidt’sche Ganomatit m, gänsekötiges Erz n
Phasenregel to go out, to go to bank, to go up, to come out, to
gold silver > gold(-containing) silver come up, to ascend, to leave the mine (⚒) ● ausfahren
goldstone, a(d)venturine glass ● Aventuringlas n go-out, gow’t [A sluice built into a tidal embankment
gold topaz [misnomer]; golden quartz ● Goldtopas m for impounding tidal water] ● Gezeitendeichschleuse f,
[Handelsbenennung und Fehlbenennung], Zitrin m, Tide(n)deichschleuse, Gezeitendammschleuse, Tide(n)-
Citrin (Quarzgruppe), gebrannter Amethyst m dammschleuse
(Quarzgruppe) gopher (drift) [An irregular prospecting drift following
gold uranium ore ● uranhaltiges Golderz n or seeking the ore without regard to maintenance of
gold (wash(ing)) pan; dish [Australia]; vanning a regular grade or section] ● unregelmäßiger
shovel [Cornwall]; gold washing tray [A type of geo- Prospektionsstollen m, unregelmäßiger Suchstollen,
logic(al) tool] ● Gold(wasch)pfanne f, Waschpfanne, unregelmäßiger Aufsuchungsstollen
Gold(wasch)schüssel f, Goldwäscherpfanne, Gold- gopher hole > coyote hole
wäscherschüssel, Waschschüssel, Prospektorenschüssel, gopher hole blasting > coyote (hole) blasting
616 gophering

gophering [The haphazard working of the easiest and driven into the clay or silt which is then excavated within
richest portions of an ore deposit by miners with little or it until the clay or silt in the bottom begin to heave.
no capital] ● Raubbau m Another short cylinder of slightly smaller diameter is
gophering > open stoping with (random) pillars then driven inside the first and so on until the shaft
gophering > coyote (hole) blasting reaches firm ground. The shaft is then filled with concrete
GOR, gas/oil ratio ● Gas-Öl-Verhältnis n and the steel tubes withdrawn as the concrete rises to their
goslarite, white vitrol, white copperas, zinc vitriol, level. The excavation is belled out at the base] ● Gow-
ZnSO4.7HO ● Zinkvitriol, weißes Vitriol n, Senkbrunnen m, Boston-Senkbrunnen
Gerlitzenstein m, Goslarit m to go to water, to drown (out), to inundate (⚒) ●
to go solid (⚒) ● aufsitzen ertränken, ersaufen, austränken, verwässern [Eine
gossan hat > capping of gossan Grube durch Füllung mit Wasser unzugänglich machen]
gossaniferous, gossany [Pertaining to or comprising to go wild ● außer Kontrolle geraten [Erdölbohrung]
G gossan] ● hutbildend, ocker(halt)ige Letten führend to gowl (out) [Derbyshire] (⚒) ● einbrechen,
gossan (ore) > capping of gossan zusammenstürzen, zusammenfallen
got coal ● verritzte Kohle f gow’t, go-out [A sluice built into a tidal embankment
göthite, goethite, allcharite, xantosiderite ● Göthit m for impounding tidal water] ● Gezeitendeichschleuse f,
to go to bank, to go out, to go up, to come out, to Tide(n)deichschleuse, Gezeitendammschleuse, Tide(n)-
come up, to ascend, to leave the mine (⚒) ● ausfahren dammschleuse
go-to-hell wagon, soup wagon [US slang] ● Nitro- goyazite, hamlinite ● Hamlinit m
glycerin(transport)fahrzeug n gozzan (ore) > capping of gossan
to go to water (⚒) > to drown (out) GPS > global positioning system
gotten, won (⚒) ● abgebaut, (herein)gewonnen GPS [Global navigation satellite system for positioning
Gotthard Base Tunnel ● Gotthard-Basistunnel m and time measurement. It consists of three segments:
gouge, selvage, selvedge, fault gouge, pug [Ore deposit. space segment, control segment and user application seg-
A thin layer of soft, earthy fault-comminuted rock mate- ment] ● GPS, Global Positioning System [globales
rial along the wall of a lode or between the country rock Navigationssatellitensystem zur Positions- und
and the lode, so named because a miner is able to ‘‘gouge’’ Zeitbestimmung. Es besteht aus drei Segmenten:
it out and thereby facilitate the mining of the ore itself] ● Weltraumsegment, Kontrollsegment, Anwendersegment;
Besteg m, Lettenschicht f, Gangletten m, kommt auch bei der Fernerkundung zum Einsatz]
Zwischenmittel n, Lettenbesteg GPS receiver ● GPS-Empfänger m
gouge channel, channel cast, washout, channel fill GPS reference point ● GPS-Referenzpunkt m
(ing) [Cast of small groove-like channel or very large grab, clamshell, clam shell ● Greifer m [eines
groove, generally sand-filled and cut in shale] ● Füll- Greifbaggers]
(ungs)rinne f grab ● Bohrlochgreifer m
gouging, high-grading [The working of a mine without grabbed wall [The soil is removed from a trench using
plan or system, by which only the high-grade ore is a backhoe excavator] ● gegreiferte Wand f [Die
mined] ● systemloser Abbau m Bodenförderung erfolgt aus dem Schlitz mit Hilfe eines
to go underground (⚒) > to go below Tieflöffels]
to go up (⚒) > to go out grabbing, excavation by grab, grab excavation ●
governing standard ● maßgebende Norm f Greiferaushub m, Greiferbaggern n
governor, taker; gaffer [This term is a corruption of grab drilling ● Greiferbohrung f
‘governor’] (⚒) ● Gedingenehmer m grab drilling method ● Greiferbohrverfahren n
gowan, decomposed granite, decayed granite [A gran- graben [German]; trough [An elongate, relatively
ular soil consisting of quartz, fel(d)spar and mica depressed crustal unit or block that is bounded by faults
resulting from the decomposition of granite] ● zersetzter on its long sides. It is a structural form that may or may
Granit m, Gowan m, Granitboden m not be geomorphologically expressed as a rift valley] ●
Gow caisson, Boston caisson, caisson pile [A device for Graben m
sinking small shafts through soft clay or silt to prevent graben faulting ● Grabenverwerfung f
excessive loss of ground. A short cylinder of steel plate is grab excavation > grabbing
grade reaction coefficient 617

grab excavator, crab dredger ● Greifbagger m deposition from a single shortlived turbidity current] ●
grab for diaphragm walling, clamshell digger, clam- (ab)gestufte Schichtung f, gradierte Schichtung,
shell excavator, slurry wall grabber ● Gradierung, diadaktische Schichtung
Schlitzwandgreifer m graded bed sequence(s) ● gradierte Schichtung f,
grab sample, snap sample [A sample taken more or less gradierte Schichtungen f
indiscriminately at any place] ● Zufall(s)probe f graded-border irrigation ● Berieselung f
grab sampler, snapper, snap sampler ● Zufallspro- graded coal ● Nusskohle f [Deutschland 80–6 mm]
be(n)nehmer m graded deposit ● gradierte Ablagerung f
gradation > degradation graded discontinuity surface ● stufige Trennflä-
gradation; levelling (Brit.); leveling (US) [In geomor- chenwandung f [Oberflächenstruktur des Gesteins]
phology, the level(l)ing of the land, or the bringing of graded filter, composite filter, compound filter ● (ab-)
a land surface or area to a uniform or nearly uniform gestufter Filter m, Stufenfilter, zusammengesetzter Fil-
grade or slope through erosion, transportation, and depo- ter, (ab)gestuftes Filter n, zusammengesetztes Filter G
sition, specifically the bringing of a stream bed or river graded filter layer ● Stufenfilter(schicht) m, n, (f),
bed to a slope at which the water is just able to transport Mischfilter(schicht) [Besteht meistens aus drei, seltener
the material delivered to it] ● Einebnung f aus zwei oder vier Korngruppen, die maßgebenden
gradational transition ● allmählicher Übergang m Korngrößen wachsen von Stufe zu Stufe im Verhältnis
grade > (earthquake) grade nicht über 1:4,5 mm. Diese Schicht ist Teil einer
grade > ground surface Dränschicht und kann auch die Aufgabe einer
grade > (sub)grade Sickerschicht übernehmen]
grade > degree of coalification grade digging > cutting a grade
grade, class [Of things, constituted by having the same graded nonconformity > blended unconformity
quality or value] ● Klasse f graded terrace, dispersion terrace [It is constructed as
grade, regime(n), balance [The existence in a stream or a very shallow channel with a longitudinal gradient
river channel of a balance between erosion and deposition slightly oblique to the contour so that surplus run-off
over a period of years] ● natürliches Gleichgewicht n, flows away at nonerosive velocities to a place where it
Stabilität f, stabiler Zustand m, Ausgeglichenheit f can be safely discharged] ● Längsgefälleterrasse f,
grade, tenor [The relative quantity or the percentage of Terrasse mit Längsgefälle
ore content in an orebody] ● Erzgehalt m, Metallgehalt graded unconformity > blended unconformity
grade [A particular class of workman in a mine, namely grade excavation > cutting a grade
collier, engineman, timber-man, repairer, and labo(u) grade level > (sub)grade level
rer] ● Rang m grade (line) peg, grade (line) stake (US); (longitudi-
grade, slope rate, inclination degree, rate of slope, nal) profile peg, (longitudinal) profile stake, (longitu-
degree of inclination, percent(age) of inclination ● dinal) section peg, (longitudinal) section stake, hub
Neigungsgrad m, Neigungsprozentsatz m [A wood(en) stake, placed by surveyors along the line of
grade beam (US); foundation girder, ground beam the string, parallel to the road axis] ● Höhen(absteck)-
[A continuous footing reinforced to act as a beam] ● pflock m, Längsprofil(absteck)pflock, Längenprofil-
Fundamentbalken m, Gründungsbalken (absteck)pflock, Längsschnitt(absteck)pflock, Profil-
grade cill, grade sill ● Grundschwelle f (absteck)pflock
grade cutting > cutting a grade grade lowering > cutting a grade
graded ● (ab)gestuft, gradiert grade modulus > coefficient of (sub)grade reaction
graded, sorted ● sortiert grade of roundness > roundness class
graded > diadactic grade plane ● Talsims n
graded bedding, diadactic structure, diatactic struc- grade point ● Höhenplanpunkt m, Längsprofilpunkt,
ture [A type of bedding in which each layer displays Längenprofilpunkt, Längsschnittpunkt, Längen-
a gradual and progressive change in particle size, usually schnittpunkt
from coarse at the base of the bed to fine at the top. It may grade protection layer > (sub)grade protection layer
form under conditions in which the velocity of the grade reaction coefficient > (sub)grade reaction
prevailing current declines in a gradual manner, as by coefficient
618 grade resistance

grade resistance [The gravity force that resists the grading bedding [A type bedding in which each layer
movement of a vehicle up a slope] ● Steig(ungs)- displays a gradual and progressive change in particle size,
widerstand m usually from coarse at the base of the bed to fine at the
grader ● Grader m top. It may form under conditions in which the velocity of
grader ● Klassieranlage f the prevailing current declines in a gradual manner, as by
grader ● Erdhobel m deposition from a single shortlived turbidity current] ●
grader sloping, sloping with grader ● (ab)gestufte Schichtung f, gradierte Schichtung,
Böschungsziehen n mit Straßenhobel Gradierung
grade sill, grade cill ● Grundschwelle f grading boundary > grain(-size) limit
grade stake (US) > grade (line) peg grading category > grain(-size) grade
grade x thickness, GT ● Gehalt m mal Mächtigkeit f grading classification > grain(-size) classification
[Lagerstätte] grading curve, grain-size (distribution) curve, sieve
G gradient ● Steilheit f [Schwärzungskurve] curve, granulometric curve [A curve giving the grain size
gradient, gravity incline, haul(age) plane, inclined of a soil sample plotted to a logarithmic scale horizon-
roadway, ginney (road), jinny (road), (inclined) tally, with percentages plotted vertically to an arithmetic
plane, run, raise heading, self-acting incline, brake scale. Any point on the curve reveals percentage by weight
incline, gravity plane, godevil plane, underground of particles in the sample of a size smaller than the given
gravity plane, (braking) incline, clook, flat inclined point] ● Siebkurve f, Sieblinie f, Körnungskurve,
plane, sloping plane [Loaded wagons come down and Körnungslinie, Korngrößenkurve, Korngrößenlinie
empty wagons go up] ● Berg m, (ein)fallende (Orts-) grading fraction > grain(-size) grade
Strecke f, Bremsberg m, einfallender Stollen m grading frequency curve > grain(-size) frequency
gradient, slope [A part of a surface feature that slopes curve
upward or downward; a slope, as of a stream channel or grading limit > grain(-size) limit
of a land surface. The synonymous term grade is used in grading range > grain(-size) grade
engineering] ● Gefälle n grading scale > grain(-size) classification
gradient [The space rate of decrease of a function. The gradual inclination ● allmähliche Neigung f
gradient of a function in three-space dimensions is the gradually varied flow [The flow in a channel where the
vector normal to surfaces of constant value of the function velocity changes slowly along the channel and the flow is
and directed toward decreasing values, with magnitude assumed uniform for an increment of length] ●
equal to the rate of decrease of the function in this allmählich veränderliches Fließen n
direction. The ascendent is the negative of the gradient] graduated horizontal circle ● Horizontalkreis m
● Gradient m graduated (map) symbol ● (ab)gestuftes
gradient change ● Gefällewechsel m Kartenzeichen n
gradient of river > river gradient graduate thesis ● Dissertation f
gradient of stream > stream gradient graduation, curve fitting [statistics] ● Graduation f
gradient wind [Any horizontal wind tangent to the graduation [One of the equal divisions or dividing lines
contour line of a constant pressure surface (or to the on a graduated scale or one of the marks equally spaced
isobar of a geopotential surface) at the point in on a device or instrument] ● Einteilung f, Teilung
question. At such points where the wind is gradient, graduation [The method or system of placing degrees or
the Coriolis acceleration and the centripetal other equally spaced intermediate marks on an instru-
acceleration together exactly balance the horizontal ment or device (such as a tape or thermometer) to rep-
pressure force] ● Gradientenwind m, freier resent standard or conventional values] ● Einteilen n,
Atmosphärenwind Teilen
grading [In geomorphology, the reduction of the land to graduation in degrees, degree graduation ● Grad-
a level surface or equilibrium slope, such as erosion to (ein)teilung f
base level by streams or rivers] ● Einebnung f, graduation in percentages, percentage graduation ●
Verebnung Prozent(ein)teilung f
grading analysis, (grain-)size analysis, granulometric graduation of brine, brine graduation, refining of
analysis, size-frequency analysis, mechanical analysis ● brine, brine refining ● Gradierung f, Abdampfung
Korn(größen)analyse f [Salinenwesen]
(grain-)size analysis 619

grafting spade [A long narrow spade used in clay grain grade > grain(-size) grade
digging] ● Tonspaten m grain grade classification > grain(-size)

grahamite [A hydrocarbon resembling albertite in its classification


jet-black lustre; occurring in vein-like masses] ● grain grade scale > grain(-size) classification
Grahamit m grain growth ● Kornwachstum n
grail > grush grain index ● Kornindex m
grain ● Graupe f [Korn, Erzstückchen] graininess > (image) graininess
grain ● Korn n, Komponente f graining ● Körnen n [Kartografie]
grain, second direction of breakability, direction of graining ● Strukturmerkmale f [Diamant]
second easiest parting, run (of the rock), direction of grain limit > grain(-size) limit
secondary cleavage grain, direction of minor cleavage grain margin dissolution, pressure solution,
grain [quarrying] ● zweitbeste Teilbarkeit f pressolution ● Drucklösung f
grain assembly, assembly of grains ● Körnerkomplex m, grain marks [Lines on the facet surfaces, the result of G
Körnerkollektiv n imperfect polishing] ● Polierstreifen f
grain binding force, grain binding power ● grain mass distribution ● Kornmassenverteilung f
Kornbindungskraft f grain mount ● Dünnschliffpräparat n
grain binding strength ● Kornbindungsfestigkeit f ‘‘grain’’ of the country > geologic(al) structure
grain boundary, crystal boundary [In a polycrystalline grain of wheat, wheat grain ● getreidekornähnliche
solid, the boundary between two crystals] ● Blaste f, Frucht f [Fruchtschiefer]
Kristallgrenze f, Korngrenze grain orientation ● Körnerregelung f
grain boundary crack, crystal boundary crack ● grain percentage, percentage of grains ● Kornanteil m,
Korngrenzenriss m, interkristalliner Riss, Kornprozente f
Kristallgrenzenriss grain pier ● Getreidepier m
grain boundary engineering ● Korngrenzentechnik f grain pressure > effective pressure
grain boundary structure, crystal boundary structure grain pressure ● Korndruck m
● Korngrenzentextur f, Kristallgrenzentextur grain pressure dependent shear modulus ●
grain bridge ● Kornbrücke f korndruckabhängiger Schubmodul m
grain contact force ● Kornkontaktkraft f grain pressure field ● Korndruckfeld n
grain density, density of solid particles, particle den- grain pressure tensor ● Korndrucktensor m
sity, packing density [A measure of the extent to which grain property ● Korneigenschaft f
the grains of a sedimentary rock occupy the gross volume grain ranging [array seismology] ● Erweiterung f des
of the rock in contrast to spaces between the grains, equal AD-Wandlerbereiches durch vorgeschaltete Verstärker
to the cumulated grain-intercept length along a traverse grain rearrangment, grain redistribution ●
in a thin section] ● Korndichte f Kornumlagerung f
grain diameter ● Korndurchmesser m grain roughness ● Kornrauhigkeit f
grain diminution, micritization ● Kornverkleinerung f, grains [Great Britain < 6 mm] ● Feinkohle f [Deutsch-
Mikritisierung land < 6 mm]
grain disintegration ● Kornzerfall m grain sample ● Kornprobe f
grain distribution > grain(-size) distribution grain segregation ● Kornentmischung f
grain distribution curve, particle-size distribution grain shape ● Kornform f, Korngestalt f
curve ● Kornverteilungslinie, Kornverteilungskurve f grain shifting ● Kornverlagerung f
[die Kornverteilungskurve y(d) gibt den Gewichtsanteil (grain-)size, granularity [In petrology, the feature of
der Körner einer Bodenprobe mit d  d an], rock texture relating to the size of the constituent grains
grain elevator ● Getreideheber m or crystals. Expressed by such terms as fine-, medium-, or
grain flow ● pseudo-laminare Strömung f von coarse-grained, phanerocrystalline, microcrystalline, etc.]
körnigem Material ● Körnigkeit f
grain gliding [The movement between mineral grains] (grain-)size ● Korngröße f
● Korngleiten n (grain-)size analysis, grading analysis, granulometric
grain gold [It has become granular by heating] ● analysis, size-frequency analysis ● Korn(größen)ana-
Körnergold n lyse f
620 grain(-size) category

grain(-size) category > grain(-size) grade granulometric grade, granulometric range,


grain(-size) classification, grain(-size) scale, grain granulometric fraction, granulometric category, grad-
grade classification, grain grade scale, granulometric ing range, grading fraction, grading category ●
classification, granulometric scale, grading classifica- Korngrößenklasse f [eingeteilt in Feinstes, Schluffkorn,
tion, grading scale ● Korn(größen)einteilung f, Sandkorn, Kieskorn, Steine]; Korn(größen)bereich m,
Kornklasseneinteilung Korn(größen)fraktion f, Korngrößengruppe f,
grain(-size) composition, granulometric composition Korngruppe, Fraktion
● Korn(größen)zusammensetzung f, Korn(größen)- grain(-size) scale, grain(-size) classification, grain
aufbau m grade classification, grain grade scale, granulometric
grain(-size) determination ● Korngrößen- classification, granulometric scale, grading classifica-
bestimmung f tion, grading scale ● Korn(größen)einteilung f,
grain(-size) distribution, granulometric distribution, Kornklasseneinteilung
G size-frequency distribution ● Korn(größen)verteilung f grain skeleton behaviour (US: behavior) ●
[Sie gibt die Massenanteile der in einer Lockerge- Korngerüstverhalten n
steinsprobe enthaltenen Korngrößen an] grain skeleton pressure ● Korngerüstdruck m
grain-size (distribution) curve, grading curve, sieve (grain) skeleton stress field ● Kornspannungsfeld n
curve, granulometric curve [A curve giving the grain size grain skeleton tensor, grain stress tensor ●
of a soil sample plotted to a logarithmic scale horizon- Kornspannungstensor m
tally, with percentages plotted vertically to an arithmetic grainstone ● Karbonat-Sedimentit m aus sich
scale. Any point on the curve reveals percentage by weight gegenseitig abstützenden Teilchen
of particles in the sample of a size smaller than the given grain stress cycles ● Kornspannungszyklen m (pl)
point] ● Siebkurve f, Sieblinie f, Körnungskurve, grain stress rate [this is the chronological change of
Körnungslinie, Korngrößenkurve, Korngrößenlinie grain stress] ● Kornspannungsrate f [das ist die zeitliche
grain size distribution diagram ● Kornverteilungs- Veränderung der Kornspannung]
diagramm n grain stress tensor, grain skeleton tensor ● Kornspan-
grain(-size) distribution diagram, system of coordi- nungstensor m
nates for representation of grain(-size) distribution grain structure ● Korntextur f
curves ● Körnungsnetz n, RRS-Körnungsnetz, Rosin- grain support [A term used by Dunham (1962) to
Rammler-Sperling-(Körnungs)Netz [DIN 4190] describe a sedimentary carbonate rock with little or no
grain(-size) exchange ● Korngrößenaustausch m muddy matrix, whose sand-size particles are so abundant
grain(-size) fraction > grain(-size) grade that they are in three-dimensional context and able to
grain(-size) frequency curve, granulometric fre- support one another] ● geschlossenes Gefüge n
quency curve, grading frequency curve ● grain surface ● Kornoberfläche f
Korngrößenhäufigkeitskurve f, Korngrößenhäufig- grain system ● Kornsystem n
keitslinie f grain-texture > granular texture
grain(-size) grade, grain(-size) range, grain(-size) grain-tin ● Körnerzinn n
fraction, grain(-size) category, granulometric grade, grain(-to-grain) pressure > effective pressure
granulometric range, granulometric fraction, grain(-to-grain) skeleton ● Korngerüst n
granulometric category, grading range, grading frac- grammatite [This term is also used as a synonym for
tion, grading category ● Korn(größen)klasse f, Korn- tremolite, but this use is undesirable] ● Grammatit m
(größen)bereich m, Korn(größen)fraktion f, Korn- [Ein weißes Kontaktmineral]
(größen)gruppe f, Fraktion grammite ● Grammit m, Schriftjaspis m
grain size distribution ● Korngrößenverteilung f grandstand, stand [main seating area of a stadium] ●
grain size distribution index ● Tribüne f [eines Stadions]
Korngrößenverteilungsindex m, Kornkennzahl f granite [Commercial use of the term ‘‘granite’’ is con-
grain(-size) limit, granulometric limit, grain(-size) siderably broader than geologic use. In industry, the term
boundary, granulometric boundary, grading limit, refers to true granite and the intermediate members of the
grading boundary ● Korn(größen)grenze f granite-gabbro series. Gabbro, granite gneiss, diabase,
grain size range [classified into clay, silt, sand, gravel anorthosite, and pyroxenite are called ‘‘black granite’’
and cobble]; grain(-size) fraction, grain(-size) category, when used for polished dimension stone.
granosphaerite 621

Notwithstanding the broad use of the term, most of the granite structure, granite feature ● Granitstruktur f
granite of commerce has a composition in the range that [als Einheit]
includes true granite and granodiorite] ● Granit m granite wash > arkosic sandstone
granite [seismology] [In early seismologic work, any granite with schorl, granite with black tourmaline ●
rock in which velocity of the compressional wave is Schörlgranit m
about 5.5 to 6.2 km/sec] ● Granit m granitic [Characteristic of, composed of, pertaining to, or
granite aplite, granite haplite ● Granitaplit m resembling granite] ● granitisch
granite body, granite mass ● Granitkörper m, granitic [nonrecommended synonym] > granular
Granitmasse f granitic layer > sial
granite boulder ● Granitblock m granitic magma ● granitisches Magma n
granite clan ● Granitfamilie f granitic melt ● Granitschmelze f
granite-diorite, granodiorite [A visibly crystalline plu- granitic rock, granite rock ● Granitfelsen m
tonic rock composed chiefly of sodic plagioclase, alkali granitic rock [In the IUGS classification, a preliminary G
(fel(d))spar, quartz, and subordinate dark-colo(u)red term (for field use) for a plutonic rock with Q between 20
minerals] ● Granodiorit m and 60] ● Granit m, plutonisches Gestein n,
granite-diorite-gneiss rocks, central gneiss complex plutonischer Fels m
● Zentralgneise f granitic texture ● Granitstruktur f
granite dome ● Granitdom m granitite, biotite granite ● Biotitgranit m
granite feature, granite structure ● Granitstruktur f granitization, transformation, granitification [An
[als Einheit] essentially metamorphic process or group of processes by
granite (geo)tectonics ● Granittektonik f which a solid rock is converted or transformed into
granite gneiss [A gneiss derived from a sedimentary or a granite rock by the entry and exit of material, without
igneous rock and having the mineral composition of passing through a magmatic stage. Some authors include
a granite] ● Granitgneis m in these terms all granitic rocks formed from sediments by
granite haplite, granite aplite ● Granitaplit m any process, regardless of the amount of evidence of
granite layer > sial movement. The precise mechanism, frequency, and mag-
granite-like rock ● granitartiges Gestein n nitude of the processes are still in dispute] ●
granite magma ● granitisches Magma n, granitische Granitisierung f, Granitisation f
Schmelze f granitotrachytic [nonpreferred synonym] > ophitic
granite mass, granite body ● Granitkörper m, granoblastic > granulitic
Granitmasse f granoclastic texture ● richtungslose und körnige
granite outcrop ● Graniterhebung f Kataklasstruktur f
granite (out)crop(ping) ● Granitausbiss m granodiorite, granite-diorite [A visibly crystalline plu-
granite-pebble conglomerate, arkosic conglomerate tonic rock composed chiefly of sodic plagioclase, alkali
● Arkosekonglomerat n (fel(d))spar, quartz, and subordinate dark-colo(u)red
granite-porphyry, porphyroid granite ● minerals] ● Granodiorit m
Granitporphyr m, Granophyr granodiorite-porphyry ● Granodioritporphyr m
granite problem ● Granitbildungs-Theorie f granodolerite [A dolerite that contains interstitial
granite quarry ● Granitbruch m quartz and alkali feldspar, usually as granophyric inter-
granite quarrying ● Granitabbau m growths. Not recommended usage] ● Granodolerit m
granite rock, granitic rock ● Granitfelsen m granogabbro [A gabbro containing quartz and alkali
granite rock [A name generally applied to rocks resem- fel(d)spar, analogous to granodiorite but having plagio-
bling granite in appearance and composition, but also clase more calcic than An50. Proposed by Johannsen in
(non recommended) to mafic or even ultramafic rocks] ● 1917. Not recommended usage] ● Granogabbro m
granitisches Gestein n, granitischer Fels m granophyre; micropegmatite [less-preferred synonym]
granite sand, crumbled granite ● Ursand m, ● Granophyr m
Granitsand granophyric texture ● Implikationsstruktur f,
granite schist ● Granitschiefer m granophyrische Struktur
granite soil ● Granitboden m granosphaerite [A spherulite composed of radially or
granite stock ● Granitstock m concentrically arranged grains] ● Granosphärit m
622 granosyenite

granosyenite [A term for a plutonic igneous rock with granularity, (grain-)size [In petrology, the feature of
a composition intermediate between that of granite and rock texture relating to the size of the constituent grains
that of syenite] ● Granosyenit m or crystals. Expressed by such terms as fine-, medium-, or
granular [An element in compound adjectives, especially coarse-grained, phanerocrystalline, microcrystalline, etc.]
used to differentiate a texture (e.g. xenomorphic-granu- ● Körnigkeit f
lar) from the corresponding crystal shape (e.g. granular limestone, primitive limestone ● körniger
xenomorphic)] ● körnig Kalkstein m, Urkalkstein
granular [Said of the texture of a rock that consists of granular mass ● Kornhaufen m, Kornmasse f
mineral grains of approximately equal size. The term granular opaque matter, granular carbonaceous
may be applied to sedimentary rocks, e.g. sandstones, matter ● Mikrinitkörner f, (fein)körnige Opaksub-
but is especially used to describe holocrystalline stanz f, Feinmikrinit m
igneous rocks whose major-phase grain size ranges from granular ore ● Graupenerz n
G 2 to 10 mm. Nonrecommended synonym: granitic. The granular pe(a)rlite, globular pe(a)rlite ● körniger
synonym ‘‘granoblastic’’ is used for metamorphic rock] ● Perlit m
gekörnt, körnig granular phase diagram ● granulares
granular backfill(ing) ● körnige Hinterfüllung f Phasendiagramm n
granular bed(ding), granular blanket, bed(ding) of granular quartz, quartzite ● Quarzit m
granular material, blanket of granular material, granu- granular region ● Granularbereich m
lar carpet ● Bett(ung) aus körnigem Material, körnige granular snow, snow grains, corn snow, spring snow ●
Bettung f, körniges Bett n Körnerschnee m, Schneekörner f, Frühjahrsschnee m
granular bog iron ore ● Eisengraupe f granular soil ● granularer Boden m
granular-bound ● körnungsgebunden granular soil ● rolliger Boden m, Rollboden
granular carbonaceous matter, granular opaque granular soil, incohesive soil ● rolliger Boden m
matter ● Mikrinitkörner f, (fein)körnige Opaksub- granular structure [Exhibited by a mineral showing
stanz f, Feinmikrinit m crystalline grains, but not external crystal face; for exam-
granular carpet > granular bed(ding) ple, marble] ● körnige Textur f
granular cementation ● Kornzementierung f durch granular texture [A texture due to the aggregation of
Porenlösungen mineral grains of approximately equal size, whether in
granular chert, crystalline chert ● kristalliner clastic, igneous, or recrystallized rocks] ● körnige
Hornstein m, kristalliner Hornfels m Struktur, Kornstruktur f
granular content ● körniger Anteil [im Boden] m granular tonstein, graupen tonstein [This type of
granular-crystalline ● körnig-kristallin, gekörnt- tonstein consists predominantly of kaolinite grains of
kristallin lighter or darker shades, often surrounded by collinite.
granular disintegration > mineral disintegration These grains show a cryptocrystalline to finely crystalline
granular dynamic calculation ● granulardynamische structure; the cryptocrystalline material is isotropic] ●
Berechnung f Graupentonstein m
granular dynamics ● Granulardynamik f to granulate [To form into grains or small particles] ●
granular dynamite [A mix(ture) of NaNO3 and com- körnen
bustible dope in form of hard grains, with a small per- granulated blastfurnace slag ● künstlicher Sand m,
centage of nitro-glycerin(e)] ● körniges Dynamit n gekörnte Hochofenschlacke f
granular exfoliation > mineral disintegration granulated copper, bean-shot (copper), feathered-
granular fracture [A fracture showing grains or shot copper ● granuliertes Kupfer n, Kupfergranalien f
granules on its surface] ● körniger Bruch m granulated dynamite ● Körnerdynamit n
granular gravel ● unzementierter Kies m granulated slag ● Hüttensand m
granular gypsum ● körniger Gips m, Körnergips, (granulated) slag content [in cement] ●
Korngips Hüttensandanteil m [im Zement]
granular hardness, granulate hardness ● granulate hardness, granular hardness ●
Granulathärte f Granulathärte f
granular ice ● Korneis n, Körnereis, körniges Eis granule, little grain ● Körnchen n
graphic intergrowth 623

granule gravel, uncemented granules [Rounded rock granulometrically homogeneous regions ●


fragments larger than very coarse sand grains but smaller granulometrische Homogenbereiche m (pl)
than pebbles. Rounded pieces too small to be called peb- granulometric fine structure ● granulometrische
bles have still been too large to be called sand grains in the Feinstruktur f
practice of most geologists] ● Feinkies m granulometric grade, granulometric range,
granulite, granulyte [A sedimentary rock composed of granulometric fraction, granulometric category, grad-
sand-sized aggregates of constructional (nonclastic) ori- ing range, grading fraction, grading category,
gin, simulating in texture an arenite of clastic origin, e.g. grain(-size) fraction, grain(-size) category, grain size
a rock formed of lapilli or of oolitic grains] ● Granulit m range [classified into clay, silt, sand, gravel and cobble]
granulite [A fine-grained muscovite-bearing granite, ● Korngrößenklasse f [eingeteilt in Feinstes, Schluffkorn,
especially in the French literature] ● Granulit m, Sandkorn, Kieskorn, Steine]; Korn(größen)bereich m,
feinkörniger Muskovitgranit m Korn(größen)fraktion f, Korngrößengruppe f,
granulite [A metamorphic rock consisting of even- Korngruppe, Fraktion G
sized, interlocking mineral grains less than 10 % of granulometric permanence ● granulometrische
which have any obvious preferred orientation] ● Permanenz f
Granulit m granulometric range > granulometric grade
granulite [A relatively coarse, granular rock formed at granulometry ● Korn(größen)messung f
the high pressures and temperatures of the granulite granulose [Pertaining to the structure that is typical of
facies, which may exhibit a crude gneissic structure due granulite and that is due to the presence of granular
to the parallelism of flat lenses of quartz and/or fel(d) minerals, e.g. quartz, fel(d)spars, garnet, pyroxene, in
spar. The texture is typically granuloblasts] ● Granulit m alternating streaks and bands developed on
granulite facies ● Granulitfazies f a megascopic or microscopic scale. No typical foliation is
granulitic, microgranular, fine-granular; euritic, developed due to the absence of lamellar or prismatic
microgranitic, microgranitoid [nonrecommended syno- minerals] ● granulös
nyms] [Said of the texture of a microcrystalline, granulyte, granulite [A sedimentary rock composed of
xenomorphic igneous rock. Also said of a rock with such sand-sized aggregates of constructional (nonclastic) ori-
a texture] ● mikrokörnig, feinkörnig gin, simulating in texture an arenite of clastic origin, e.g.
granulitic [(a) Of, pertaining to, or composed of granu- a rock formed of lapilli or of oolitic grains] ● Granulit m
lite. All other usages are now discouraged, including the grape stone, grape formation, botryoid, clusterite,
following: (b) A syn. of granoblastic, (c) a syn. of botryoidal stalagtite [Clusters of smooth, nodular, cal-
granuloblastic, (d) a descriptive term for a fine-grained careous deposits on cavern walls] ● Traubenstein m
texture produced by crushing and cataclasis, (e) a syn. of grapevine drainage pattern, trellis(ed) drainage pat-
xenomorphic as used by Michel-Levy in 1874 and 1889, tern, espalier drainage pattern [It is characterized by
(f) a term applied by Judd in 1886 to the texture of parallel main streams intersected at or nearly right angles
basaltic or doleritic rocks (Johannsen, 1939) (preferred by their tributaries, which in turn are fed by elongated
syn: intergranular), (g) a syn. of microgranular] ● secondary tributaries parallel to the main streams,
granulitisch, intergranular resembling in plan the stems of a vine on a trellis] ●
granuloblastic, homogranular, even-grained; gitterförmige Gebietsentwässerung f
equigranular, granulitic [nonrecommended synonyms] graphic, runic ● schriftgranitisch
[Said of a metamorphic homogranular texture ‘‘in graph(ical representation), chart [The plot of the
which mineral grains largely lack rational faces but points in the plane which constitute the graph of a given
have straight or smoothly curving grain boundaries and real function or a pictorial diagram depicting
approximately polygonal shapes’’ (Harte, 1977). This interdependence of variables] ● grafische Darstellung f,
texture is typically fine-grained (< 2 mm). Graph m
Granuloblastic and coarser-grained granoblastic textures graphic construction ● zeichnerische Ermitt(e)lung f
are common in rocks of the granulite facies and in graphic granite, runite, graphic stone, Hebraic granite
monomineral rocks (Joplin, 1968)] ● granuloblastisch, ● Schriftgranit m, hebräischer Stein m
gleichkörnig, einkörnig graphic intergrowth [An intergrowth of crystals, com-
granulometric. . . > grain(-size). . . monly fel(d)spar and quartz, that produces a type of
624 graphic log

poikilitic texture in which the larger crystals have a fairly grass captain (⚒) ● Jungensteiger m [Aufseher über
regular geometric(al) outline and orientation] ● die bei der Scheide- und Klaubearbeit verwendeten
schriftgranitische Verwachsung f Jungen]
graphic log > sample log grass captain, surface foreman (⚒) ● Tagessteiger m
graphic (map) scale ● grafischer (Karten)Maßstab m grass cover ● Grasnarbe f
graphic method ● grafisches Verfahren n, grafische grass crop > daystone
Methode f grassed channel, grass swale ● Rasenrinne f
graphic ore, graphic tellurium, sylvanite, silvanite, [Hangsicherung]
white tellurium, yellow tellurium, goldschmidtite, grassfire algorism, medial axis transformation,
(Ag, Au)Te4 [Not to be confused with ‘‘sulvanite’’ or wavefront algorism ● Distanzskelettierung f [Aus der
‘‘sylvinite’’] ● Sylvanit m [L. A. Necker de Saussure binären Ausgangsmatrix B wird eine Rastermatrix B’
1835], gediegenes Sylvan n, Autotellurid m, Aurum erzeugt, in der jedem 1-Bildpunkt seine Distanz zum
G graphicum [I. von Bron 1790], Schrifterz n [H. M. Rand des jeweiligen Musters zugeordnet wird]
Esmark 1798, A. G. Warner 1800]. Aurum bismuticum, grasshopper beam ● endgelagerter Schwengel m
Tellursilberblende f, Sylvanerz, Schrifttellur m [Tiefbohrtechnik]
graphic pegmatite [A very coarse-grained variety of grass invasion ● Vergrasung f
graphic granite] ● Schriftpegmatit m grassland ● Grünland n
graphic radial triangulation, hand templet triangu- grassland savannah ● Grassavanne f
lation, manual templet triangulation ● zeichnerische grass(-lin)ed ● grasausgekleidet, grasbekleidet,
Radialtriangulation f grasverkleidet [Graben]
graphic rectification ● grafische Entzerrung, grass mattress ● Rasenmatte f
graphische Entzerrung f, zeichnerische Entzerrung grass revetment [See remark under ‘‘revetment’’] ●
graphic solution ● grafische Lösung, graphische Grasfutter n, Grasauskleidung f, Grasverkleidung,
Lösung f Grasbekleidung
graphic stone > graphic granite grass roots (⚒) > grass
graphic tellurium > graphic ore grass-roots coal, outcrop coal [Coal of inferior quality
graphic texture ● schriftgranitische Struktur f near the surface] ● minderwertige Kohle f, Graskohle,
graphic triangulation ● zeichnerische Triangulation f oxidierte Kohle in Ausbissnähe, Rasenkohle
graphic water stage register, recording float gauge; grass seeding ● Berasung f
recording float gage (US) ● Schwimmerschreibpegel m, grass swale, grassed channel ● Rasenrinne f
Schwimmerregistrierpegel [Hangsicherung]
graphitic [Resembling, containing, derived from, or grass table, ground table ● Bankett n, Latsche f
pertaining to graphite] ● graphitisch [Grundmauer]
graphitic clay ● Schieferkreide f grass turf ● Rasenplatz m
graphitic schist ● Graphitschiefer m, Griffelschiefer grassy steppe ● Grassteppe f
graphitization ● Graphitisierung f grate ● Rost m [Lawinenverbauung: Stützfläche, die aus
graphitoid(al), resembling graphite ● grafitähnlich, Balken, Rechenstäben oder Rostbalken besteht]
graphitähnlich grate bar > (fire) grate bar
graph of errors > error graph grating, wire grating ● Gitterrost m
graphometer ● Grafometer, Graphometer n, grating beam string-peace
Winkelmesser m [Vermessung] grating cross-beam > cross-beam of a grating
graptolitic ● graptolithenführend grating constant ● Konstante d100 f [Röntgenphysik]
graptolitic shale ● Graptolithschiefer m gratonite [A mineral composed of lead arsenic sulphide,
grass, surface, grass roots (⚒) ● Tag m, Rasen- occurring in rhombohedral crystals] ● Gratonit m,
(sohle) m, (f), Tagesoberfläche f [Die Erdoberfläche 9PbSAs2S3
und der ganze Raum über derselben, im Gegensatz zum graupel, snow pellets, soft hail, tapioca snow, pellet
Raum unter der Erdoberfläche, daher ‘‘am Tage’’, ‘‘über snow ● Graupel f
Tage’’, im Gegensatz zu ‘‘unter Tage’’, der Tag scheint graupen tonstein, granular tonstein [This type of
„herein’’ usw.] tonstein consists predominantly of kaolinite grains of
grass brick ● Grasziegel m lighter or darker shades, often surrounded by collinite.
graveling (US) 625

These grains show a cryptocrystalline to finely crystalline gravel cushion ● Kiespolster n [In Österreich: m]
structure; the cryptocrystalline material is isotropic] ● gravel deposit ● Kiesablagerung f
Graupentonstein m gravel depository, gravel disposal site ● Kiesdeponie f
grauwacke [German] > graywacke gravel desert, reg ● Kieswüste f
gravel; channer [Scotland] [An unconsolidated, natural gravel digging, gravel excavation ● Kiesaushub m
accumulation of rounded rock fragments resulting from gravel disposal site, gravel depository ● Kiesdeponie f
erosion, consisting predominantly of particles larger than gravel drain ● Kiesdrän m
sand (diameter greater than 2 mm, or 1/12 inch), and gravel dredging ● Nass-Kiesgewinnung, Nass-
combinations of these particles; the unconsolidated equiv- Kiesbaggerung f, Kies-Nassgewinnung, Kies-
alent of conglomerate] ● Kies m Nassbaggerung
gravel-and-sand foundation mat(tress) ● Kies- gravel embankment, gravel bank ● Kiesdamm m
Sand-Gründungsmatte f, Kies-Sand-Fundamentmatte, gravel envelope > gravel (well) pack(ing)
Kies-Sand-Fundamentmatratze f, Kies-Sand- gravel excavation, gravel digging ● Kiesaushub m G
Gründungsmatratze gravel extraction ● Kiesgewinnung f
gravel annulus ● Kiesraum m [Kiesschüttungs- gravel fan ● Kiesfächer m
brunnen] gravel-fill dam ● Kies(füll)(stau)damm m,
gravel aquifer ● Kiesgrundwasserleiter m Kiesschüttungs(stau)damm, Kiesschütt(stau)damm,
gravel backfill, granular fill, fill material ● Damm aus Kiesschüttung, Staudamm aus
Zugabematerial n [Bei der ! Rütteldruckverdichtung Kiesschüttung
wird durch die Vibrationen der Boden verdichtet und es gravel fill(ing) ● Kies(auf)füllung f, Kies(auf)-
bildet sich auf der Oberfläche um den Rüttler ein schüttung, Kiesauftrag m
Trichter. In diesen Trichter wird Zugabematerial gravel filter, gravel filter(ing) layer ● Kiesfilter-
eingefüllt damit das fehlende Volumen ausgeglichen (schicht) m, (f), Kiesfilterlage f
wird] gravel filter well [A large-diameter well in which
gravel (back)fill(ing) (⚒) ● Kiesversatz m graded pea gravel is used as filter material between two
gravel (back)fill(ing) ● Kieshinterfüllung f perforated tubes in the well. The outer tube is often
gravel bagwork ● Kiessackkolkschutz m withdrawn and the gravel allowed to spread into the
gravel bank ● Kiesbank f ground around the well. To prevent choking of the filters
gravel bank, gravel embankment ● Kiesdamm m by excessive pumping, a number of wells may be spread
gravel base layer ● Schottertragschicht f over the area to obtain the water volume required] ●
gravel beach ● Kiesstrand m Kiesschütt(ungs)brunnen m
gravel bed ● Kiessohle f [Fluss; Strom] gravel flat ● Kiesflach n [In einem Fluss oder Strom]
gravel bed(ding) ● Kiesbett n, Kiesunterbettung f gravel grade, gravel range, gravel category, gravel
gravel bed with interspersed sand and silt layers ● fraction ● Kieskorn(größen)bereich m, Kieskorn-
Kieslage f mit eingeschlossenen Sand- und Siltlinsen (größen)fraktion f, Kieskorn(größen)gruppe f,
gravel blanket ● Kiesplanum n Kieskorn(größen)klasse f
gravel blasting ● Kiessprengen n, Kiessprengung f gravel grain ● Kieskorn n
gravel blinding ● Kiesausgleichschicht f, gravel ground, gravel soil ● Kiesboden m,
Kiesausgleichlage f Kiesgrund m
gravel borrow pit ● Kiesentnahmestelle f gravel ground stabilization > gravel (soil)
gravel category > gravel grade stabilization
gravel channel ● Kiesbett n [Fluss; Strom] gravel hydraulic fill(ing), gravel sluicing [See remark
gravel-clay mixture ● Kies-Ton Gemisch n under ‘‘hydraulic fill(ing)’’] ● Kiesaufspülung f,
gravel-clay stabilized ● stabilisiert mit Kies und Ton Kiesspülauftrag m
gravel column, gravel pile [Gravel injection into poor graveling (US); gravelling (Brit.) ● Verkiesen,
bearing soil by jetting and vibro-displacement to improve Bekiesen, Kiesaufbringen n
carrying capacity] ● Kies(einpress)säule f, Kies- graveling (US); gravelling (Brit.) [The process of forcing
(einpress)pfahl m, Kies(einpress)schaft m, Kies- pea gravel into the tail void created by a tunnel shield to
(verdichtungs)pfahl prevent ground settlement. The process is always followed
gravel-covered > gravel-topped by cement grouting] ● Kieseinbau m [Tunnelschild]
626 gravel layer

gravel layer, layer of gravel ● Kiesschicht f, Kiesband (größen)fraktion f, Kieskorn(größen)gruppe f,


gravel lens ● Kieslinse f Kieskorn(größen)klasse f
gravel level ● Kieshorizont m gravel reef ● Kiesriff n
gravelly ● kiesig gravel resource ● Kiesvorrat m
gravel(ly) clay ● kiesiger Ton m, Kies-Ton gravel river bed, river gravel bed ● Kiesstromsohle f,
gravel(ly) loam ● kiesiger Lehm m, Kieslehm [Nicht Stromkiessohle
verwechseln mit „lehmiger Kies’’] gravel river channel, river gravel channel ●
gravel(ly) marl ● Kiesmergel m, kiesiger Mergel Kiesstrombett n, Stromkiesbett
gravel(ly) pit sand ● Grubenkiessand m gravel ‘sack’, pocket ● Schottersack m
gravel(ly) river sand, gravel(ly) stream sand ● [Unbeabsichtigte Sackung an einem Eisenbahndammz.
Stromkiessand m, Flusskiessand m B. durch zunehmende Verkehrsbelastung od.
gravel(ly) sand ● kiesiger Sand m, Kiessand unzureichende Dränage-Vorkehrungen]
G gravel(ly) silt ● kiesiger Schluff m, Kiesschluff gravel-sandy soil ● kiessandiger Boden m
gravel(ly) silty sand ● kiesiger schluffiger Sand m, gravel-silt mixture ● Kies-Schluff Gemisch n
schluffiger kiesiger Sand gravel sluicing, gravel hydraulic fill(ing) [See remark
gravelly soil ● kiesiger Boden m under ‘‘hydraulic fill(ing)’’] ● Kiesaufspülung f,
gravel(ly) spherical sand ● Rollkiessand m [kugeliges Kiesspülauftrag m
Korn] gravel soil, gravel ground ● Kiesboden m, Kiesgrund m
gravel(ly) stream sand ● Flusskiessand m gravel (soil) stabilization, gravel ground stabilization
gravel(ly) stream sand, gravel(ly) river sand ● ● (Boden)Stabilisierung f mit Kies, (Boden-)
Stromkiessand m, Flusskiessand m Verfestigung mit Kies
gravel occurrence ● Kiesvorkommen n gravel stratum ● Kiesschicht f, gewachsene
gravel operation(s) ● Kiesbetrieb m Kiesschicht, Kieslage f, gewachsene Kieslage
gravel packing > gravel (well) packing gravel stream bed, stream gravel bed, river gravel bed
gravel piedmont > waste plain ● Kiesflusssohle f, Flusskiessohle
gravel pile, gravel column [Gravel injection into poor gravel stream channel, stream gravel channel, river
bearing soil by jetting and vibro-displacement to improve gravel channel ● Kiesflussbett n, Flusskiesbett
carrying capacity] ● Kies(einpress)säule f, Kies- gravel stripping, stripping gravel ● Kiesabtrag(-)
(einpress)pfahl m, Kies(einpress)schaft m, Kies- (en) m, (n)
(verdichtungs)pfahl gravel terrace ● Kiesterrasse f
gravel pit, gravel workings, gravel quarry ● Kiesgrube f gravel tidal flat, tidal gravel flat ● Kieswatt n
gravel (pit) operator ● Kiesgrubenbetreiber m gravel-topped, gravel-covered ● bekiest, kiesbedeckt
gravel placer ● Kiesseife f gravel well ● Kiesbrunnen m
gravel plain ● Kiesebene f gravel (well) pack(ing), gravel (well) sleeve, gravel
gravel plant ● Kieswerk n (well) envelope [Between well screen and aquifer sand]
gravel precompaction, densification with gravel ● ● Kies(brunnen)packung f
Kiesvorverdichtung f gravel workings > gravel pit
gravel producer ● Kieserzeuger m grave-yard shift, dying shift, night shift (⚒) ●
gravel product ● Kieserzeugnis n, Kiesprodukt n Nachtschicht f
gravel pump ● Kiespumpe f gravimeter, gravity meter, gravitometer ●
gravel-pump mine, hydraulic gravel-pump mine ● Schweremesser m, Gravimeter n
Kiespumpenbetrieb m gravimeter measurement, gravimeter observation ●
gravel-pump tin mine, hydraulic gravel-pump tin Gravimetermessung f
mine ● Zinn-Kiespumpenbetrieb m gravimetric separation ● Schwimm-Sink-Verfahren n,
gravel-pump tin mining, hydraulic gravel-pump tin gravimetrische Trennung f
mining ● Kiespumpenzinnbergbau m gravimetry ● Gravimetrie f, Schweremesstechnik f
gravel rammed column ● Kiesstampfsäule f gravitation [The mutual attraction between two
gravel range, gravel grade, gravel category, gravel masses] ● Gravitation f
fraction ● Kieskorn(größen)bereich m, Kieskorn- gravitation(al) . . . > gravity. . .
gravity dam of triangular section 627

gravitation(al) deformation extending deep into Fallbeschleunigung, Schwerkraftbeschleunigung,


the mountain slopes, gravity deformation extending Erdbeschleunigung, Gravitationsbeschleunigung, gra-
deep into the mountain slopes, mountain splitting vitative Beschleunigung [Zeichen: g. Einheit: m/s2]
[‘Flowing’ and ‘Sliding’ are the generic terms for this gravity action, gravity effect, gravitation(al) effect,
type of mass movement according to the Multilingual gravitation(al) action ● Schwerewirkung f,
Landslide Glossary.] ● Bergzerreißung f [Unter Gravitationswirkung, Schwerkraftwirkung, gravitative
Bergzerreißung wird die Kinematik und die Geometrie Wirkung
von Kriech- und Gleitvorgängen von Felsmassen an gravity arch(ed) dam, arch(ed) gravity dam, mass(ive)
Hängen und Böschungen infolge Schwerkrafteinwirkung concrete arch(ed) dam ● Bogen(schwer)gewicht(s)(tal)-
verstanden (*1); gehört nach dem MLG* zum sperre f, Bogen(schwer)gewicht(s)(stau)mauer f,
Bewegungstyp ‚Fließen und Gleiten’.] (Schwer)Gewicht(s)bogen(tal)sperre, (Schwer)Gewicht-
gravitational field ● Schwerefeld n (s)bogen(stau)mauer [Die Gewichtskraftwirkung für die
gravitational mass movement ● gravitative ganze Mauer überwiegt; z.B. die Chastangsperrre in G
Massenbewegung f Südfrankreich]
gravitational process ● Sturzprozess m [Steinschlag, gravity astronomy > celestial mechanics
Fels- und Bergsturz, Blockschlag] gravity attraction, gravity pull, gravitation(al) attrac-
gravitation water, seepage water, percolation tion, gravitation(al) pull ● Schwereanziehung f,
water, infiltration water ● Sickerwasser n, Gravitationsanziehung, Schwerkraftanziehung, gravi-
Sickerungswasser tative Anziehung, Erdanziehung
gravitative mass movement [such as flowing, sliding, gravity calculation, Schwereberechnung f,
falling, toppling and spreading] ● gravitative Schwerkraftberechnung
Massenbewegung f [ein hangabwärts gerichteter gravity collapse structure, gravitation(al) collapse
Verlagerungsvorgang, der durch die Schwerkraft ausgelöst structure ● Gleitdeckenstruktur f
wird. Darunter fallen Fließen, Rutschen, Kippen, Fallen, gravity compaction, surcharge compaction, gravita-
Driften] tion(al) compaction, gravity densification, gravitation
gravitative transfer, mass-washing, bulk transfer of (al) densification, surcharging compaction [Compac-
masses, masses bulk transfer [Of rock debris down slopes tion of sediment resulting from overburden pressure] ●
under the direct influence of gravity] ● Schwerkraft- Auflastverdichtung f
Schutttransport m gravity concrete dam > gravity (mass) concrete ●
gravitometer > gravimeter dam
gravity [(a) The effect on any body in the universe of the gravity constant, gravitation(al) constant [The con-
inverse-square-law attraction between it and all other stant g in the law of universal gravitation: Its value is
bodies and of any centrifugal force that may act on the 6.670  0.005x10-11 newton m2/kg2] ●
body because of its motion in an orbit, (b) The resultant Schwerekonstante, Schwerkraftkonstante f,
force on any body of matter at or near the Earth’s surface Gravitationskonstante
due to the attraction by the Earth and to its rotation gravity coring device, gravitation(al) coring device ●
about its axis, (c) The force exerted by the Earth and by Schwerekerngerät, Schwerkraftkerngerät n,
its rotation on unit mass, or the acceleration imparted to Gravitationskerngerät, gravitatives Kerngerät
a freely falling body in the absence of frictional forces. gravity dam, heavy retaining wall [A dam constructed
„Schwerkraft’’ may also be translated by ‘‘gravity force’’, of mass concrete or stone masonry, or both, which relies
‘‘gravitation(al) force’’, ‘‘earth pull’’, ‘‘force of gravity’’ on its weight for stability. It is usually roughly triangular
and ‘‘pull of gravity’’] ● Schwere f, Schwerkraft f, in cross-section with its base width so related to its height
Gravitationskraft as to ensure stability against overturning, sliding or foun-
gravity [Petroleum. A general term for API gravity or dation crushing] ● (Schwer)Gewicht(s)(tal)sperre f,
Baumé gravity of crude oil] ● Baumédichte f (Schwer)Gewicht(s)(stau)mauer f, (Schwer)Gewicht-
gravity acceleration, acceleration of gravity, gravita- (s)sperrmauer
tion(al) acceleration, acceleration of free fall, apparent gravity dam of triangular section, triangular(-sec-
gravity, acceleration due to gravity ● Schwerebe- tion) gravity dam ● (Schwer)Gewichts(stau)mauer f
schleunigung f, Beschleunigung der Schwere, mit dreieckigem Querschnitt
628 gravity deformation extending deep into the mountain slopes

gravity deformation extending deep into the erosion, gravitative (Boden)Erosion, Gravitations-
mountain slopes, gravitation(al) deformation (boden)erosion
extending deep into the mountain slopes, mountain gravity fault, normal fault, normal slip fault, slump
splitting [‘Flowing’ and ‘Sliding’ are the generic terms for fault [A fault along which the hanging wall has moved
this type of mass movement according to the Multilingual down relative to the footwall. The angle of the fault is
Landslide Glossary.] ● Bergzerreißung f [Unter usually 45 -90 . There is dip separation but there may or
Bergzerreißung wird die Kinematik und die Geometrie may not be dip slip. ‘‘Faulting’’ may synonymously be
von Kriech- und Gleitvorgängen von Felsmassen an used for ‘‘fault’’] ● Abschiebung f
Hängen und Böschungen infolge Schwerkrafteinwirkung gravity field [A term used instead of ‘‘gravitation(al)
verstanden (*1); gehört nach dem MLG* zum field’’ when other influences are also involved, such as
Bewegungstyp ‚ Fließen und Gleiten’.] centrifugal force] ● Schwerefeld n, Schwerkraftfeld,
gravity densification > gravity compaction Gravitationsfeld
G gravity difference, gravitation(al) difference ● gravity flow, gravitation(al) flow, glacier flow
Gewichtsunterschied m, Masseunterschied [Movement of glacier ice as a result of the
[Gravimetrie] inclination of the slope on which the glacier rests] ●
gravity differentiation, gravitation(al) differentiation, Gletscherfließen n
crystal fractionation [Magmatic differentiation resulting gravity flow, unconfined flow, gravitation(al) flow ●
from the floating or settling under gravity, of mineral Schwerkraftfließen n, Schwerefließen, Gravitations-
crystals as they form] ● Schweredifferentiation f, fließen, gravitatives Fließen
Gravitationsdifferentiation, Schwerkraftdifferentiation gravity (flow) drainage, gravitation(al) flow drainage
gravity direction > direction of the plumb line [The removal of water by gravity flow from subsurface
gravity disturbance, gravitation(al) disturbance ● works, excavations and irrigation areas] ●
Schwerestörung f, Schwere(kraft)störung, Schweredränage, Schwerkraftdränage f, gravitative
Gravitationsstörung, gravitative Störung Dränage, Gravitationsdränage
gravity drainage, gravitation(al) drainage [reservoir gravity fold, gravitation(al) fold [It develops in
engineering] ● Schwereentölung, Schwerkraftent- a comparatively short space of time, and is due to the
ölung f, Gravitationsentölung sliding of rock masses down a slope under the influence of
gravity drainage, gravity groundwater lowering, gravity] ● Schwerefalte, Schwerkraftfalte, gravitative
groundwater lowering by gravity, drainage by gravity, Falte, Gravitationsfalte f
gravitation(al) drainage, free(-flow) drainage ● gravity force > gravity
Schwereentwässerung, Gravitationsentwässerung f, gravity formula ● Schwereformel f,
klassische Grundwasser(ab)senkung, Schwerkraftent- Schwerkraftformel, Gravitationsformel
wässerung, Grundwasser(ab)senkung nach dem gravity foundation ● Schwergewicht(s)gründung f,
Gravitationsverfahren, Gravitations(ab)senkung [Das Schwerkraftfundament n [Fundament für Offshore-
Wasser fließt dem Brunnen durch Schwerkraft zu, weil Windenergieanlage: Es besteht aus einem großen
durch die Grundwasserspiegel(ab)senkung ein Betonblock zur Aufnahme der O-Windenergieanlage.
hydraulisches Gefälle zum Brunnen hin entsteht] Auch im Brückenbau im Einsatz]
gravity effect, gravity action, gravitation(al) effect, gravity fountain, gravity spring ● Schwere-
gravitation(al) action ● Schwerewirkung f (schüttungs)quelle f, Schwerkraft(schüttungs)quelle,
Gravitationswirkung, Schwerkraftwirkung, gravitative Gravitations(schüttungs)quelle
Wirkung gravity (geophysical) method, gravitation(al) (geo-
(gravity) equipotential surface, gravitation(al) equi- physical) method ● Schwereverfahren, Schweremethode f,
potential surface, level surface, surface of equal gravi- Schwerkraftverfahren, Schwerkraftmethode, Gravi-
tation(al) potential [A surface, within a field of flow, tationsverfahren n, Gravitationsmethode
such that the total head is the same for all points on the gravity (geo)tectonics, gravitation(al) (geo)tectonics
surface, and therefore the direction of flow is perpendic- ● Schweretektonik f, Schwerkrafttektonik,
ular to the surface at all points] ● Äquipotential- Gravitationstektonik
oberfläche f, höhengleiche Oberfläche, Niveaufläche gravity gradient, gravitation(al) gradient ●
gravity erosion, mass erosion, gravitation(al) erosion Schwerkraftgradient m, Schweregradient, Gravitations-
● Schwere(boden)erosion f, Schwerkraft(boden)- gradient, gravitativer Gradient
gravity prospection 629

gravity gradiometer, gravitation(al) gradiometer ● gravity masonry (retaining) wall, gravity retaining
Drehwaage f von Shaw and Lancaster Jones masonry wall ● (Schwer)Gewichts(stütz)mauer f
gravity groundwater, gravitation(al) groundwater ● gravity (mass) concrete dam, mass concrete (gravity)
gewinnbares Wasser n dam, (concrete) gravity dam ● Beton(Schwer)Gewicht(s)-
gravity groundwater lowering, gravity drainage, (tal)sperre f, Beton(Schwer)Gewicht(s)(stau)mauer m,
groundwater lowering by gravity, drainage by gravity, Beton(Schwer)Gewicht(s)sperrmauer
gravitation(al) drainage ● Schwereentwässerung, gravity measurement ● Schwerkraftmessung f
Gravitationsentwässerung f, klassische Grundwasser- gravity measurement(s), gravity work, gravity survey
(ab)senkung, Schwerkraftentwässerung, Grundwasser- (ing) [‘‘Gravitation(al)’’ and ‘‘gravimetric(al)’’ may
(ab)senkung nach dem Gravitationsverfahren, Gravita- synonymously be used for ‘‘gravity’’] ● Schwermes-
tions(ab)senkung [Das Wasser fließt dem Brunnen sung(en) f, Gravitationsmessung(en), Schwerkraft-
durch Schwerkraft zu, weil durch die Grundwas- messung(en)
serspiegel(ab)senkung ein hydraulisches Gefälle zum gravity meter, gravimeter, gravitometer ● G
Brunnen hin entsteht] Schweremesser m, Gravimeter n, Schwerkraftmesser
gravity groundwater pressure, hydrostatic ground- gravity method, two-dimensional method of analysis
water pressure, gravitation(al) groundwater pressure ● (Schwer)Gewichtsverfahren n, zweidimensionales
[The pressure generally due to the weight of water at Aufgliederungsverfahren [Schwergewicht(s)talsperre]
higher levels in the same saturation zone] ● gravity (oil) depletion, gravitation(al) (oil) depletion
hydrostatischer Grundwasserdruck m ● Schwereentölung f, Schwerkraftentölung,
gravity grouting [see EN 12715 for additional terms Gravitationsentölung
and definition] ● drucklose Verfüllung f gravity pendulum, gravitation(al) pendulum ●
gravity head, gravitation(al) head [Groundwater flows Schwerkraftpendel n, Schwerependel,
under the action of the gravitational head toward the Gravitationspendel
wellpoints] ● Strömungsdruck m, Zugkraft f, Sog m gravity plane (⚒) > (braking) incline
gravity incline, haul(age) plane, inclined roadway, gravity plane, godevil plane, underground gravity
ginney (road), jinny (road), (inclined) plane, run, plane, (braking) incline, clook, flat inclined plane, gra-
raise heading, self-acting incline, brake incline, gravity dient, gravity incline, haul(age) plane, inclined road-
plane, godevil plane, underground gravity plane, way, ginney (road), jinny (road), (inclined) plane, run,
(braking) incline, clook, flat inclined plane, gradient, raise heading, self-acting incline, brake incline, sloping
sloping plane [Loaded wagons come down and empty plane [Loaded wagons come down and empty wagons go
wagons go up] (⚒) ● Berg m, (ein)fallende (Orts-) up] ● Berg m, (ein)fallende (Orts)Strecke f, Bremsberg
Strecke f, Bremsberg m, einfallender Stollen m m, einfallender Stollen m
gravity interpretation, gravitation(al) interpretation gravity potential, gravitation(al) potential ●
● Transformation f von Schwerekarten, Schwerepotential, Schwerkraftpotential, Gravitations-
Schweredeutung f potential n, gravitatives Potential [Bodenwasser]
gravity investigation, gravitation(al) investigation ● gravity pressure, gravitation(al) pressure ●
Schwereuntersuchung f, Schwerkraftuntersuchung, Schweredruck m, Schwerkraftdruck
Gravitationsuntersuchung gravity pressure head, hydrostatic (pressure) head,
gravity irrigation, irrigation by gravity ● Schwerebe- gravitation(al) pressure head ● hydrostatische
wässerung f, Schwerkraftbewässerung, gravimetrische Druckhöhe f [Zeichen: hst, Einheit: m, Gleichung: hst¼
Bewässerung, Gravitationsbewässerung, gravitative (pst/rg)]
Bewässerung gravity profile ● Schwereprofil n, Schwerkraftprofil,
gravity law > law of gravitation Gravitationsprofil
gravity main [A pipeline through which water from gravity prospection, gravity search(ing), gravitation
a reservoir flows downhill by gravity] ● (al) prospection, gravitation(al) search(ing) ●
Schwerkraftwasser(rohr)leitung f Schwereprospektion f, Schweresuche f,
gravity map, gravitation(al) map ● Schwerekarte f, Schwereaufsuchung f, Schwerkraftprospektion,
Schwerkraftkarte, gravitative Karte, Gravitationskarte Schwerkraftsuche, Schwerkraftaufsuchung, Gravita-
gravity masonry dam > (stone) masonry (gravity) tionsprospektion, Gravitationssuche, Gravitations-
dam aufsuchung
630 gravity pull

gravity pull, gravity attraction, gravitation(al) attrac- gravity station [The site of installation of gravimeters]
tion, gravitation(al) pull ● Schwereanziehung f, ● Gravimeterstation f, Schweremessstation,
Gravitationsanziehung, Schwerkraftanziehung, gravi- Schwerkraftmessstation, Gravitationsmessstation
tative Anziehung, Erdanziehung gravity stone masonry dam, (stone) masonry (grav-
gravity reservoir [A reservoir in which production is ity) dam [It relies on its weight for stability] ● (Stein-)
significantly affected by gas, oil and water Mauerwerk(tal)sperre f
separating under the influence of gravity while gravity stowing, drop stowing(⚒) ● Sturzversatz m
production takes place. Proper exploitation allows gravity-stratified [e.g. anorthosite] ● schwerege-
oil to be produced while liberated gas is retained bündelt, schwerkraftgebündelt
in the reservoir and helps to maintain pressure gravity stress, gravitation(al) stress ●
needed for oil production. Gravity segregation is Schwerespannung f, Gravitationsspannung,
most effective at low offtake rates] ● Lagerstätte f Schwerkraftspannung
G mit Schwerkraftförderung, Lagerstätte mit gravity structure ● Schwergewicht(s)bauwerk n
Schwereförderung (gravity-)surveyed borehole ● schweregemessenes
gravity (retaining) masonry wall > gravity masonry Bohrloch n
(retaining) wall gravity survey(ing) > gravity work
gravity (retaining) wall ● (Schwer)Gewichts- gravity system, gravitation(al) system ●
stützwand f Schweresystem n, Schwerkraftsystem,
gravity rise, gravitation(al) rise ● Schwereanstieg m, Gravitationssystem
Schwerezunahme f, Schwerkraftanstieg, gravity tectonics, gliding tectonics, gravitation(al)
Schwerkraftzunahme, Gravitationsanstieg, tectonics ● Schweretektonik f, Schwerkrafttektonik,
Gravitationszunahme Gravitationstektonik, gravitative Tektonik
gravity road [Any road on which cars will descend by gravity tide > equilibrium tide
gravity] (⚒) ● Schwerkraftstrecke f gravity value, gravitation(al) value ● Schwerewert m,
gravity screen ● Schwerkraftsieb n Schwerkraftwert, Gravitationswert, gravitativer Wert
gravity search(ing) > gravity prospection gravity-variometer > torsion(al) balance
gravity separation, gravitation(al) separation [The gravity wall > gravity (retaining) wall
separation of oil, gas and water in a reservoir rock in gravity water, gravitation(al) water ● Schwerewasser n,
accordance with their relative gravities] ● Schwerkraftwasser, Gravitationswasser
Schweretrennung, Schwerkrafttrennung f, gravity wave, gravitation (al) wave [A wave distur-
Gravitationstrennung bance in which buoyancy (or reduced gravity) acts as
gravity sewer ● Schwerkraft- Abwasserleitung f the restoring force on parcels displaced from hydrostatic
gravity shaft ● Sturzschacht m equilibrium. There is a direct oscillatory conversion
gravity slope [The upper, relatively steep slope of between potential and kinetic energy in the wave motion]
a hillside, commonly lying at the angle of repose of the ● Schwerwelle f, Schwerkraftwelle, Gravitationswelle
material eroded from it; it is steeper than the wash slope gravity well, gravitation(al) well ●
below. Name given by H. A. Meyerhoff] ● Steilwand f, Schwerkraftbrunnen m, Schwerebrunnen,
Bösche f Gravitationsbrunnen, gravitativer Brunnen
gravity sorting, gravitational sorting ● gravity wind, drainage wind, katabatic wind, moun-
Schweresortierung f, Gravitationssortierung, tain wind, canyon wind ● katabatischer Wind m,
Schwerkraftsortierung Fallwind
gravity spillway dam, spillway gravity dam ● gravity work, gravity measurement(s), gravity survey
Schwergewichtssperre f mit Überfall (ing) [‘‘Gravitation(al)’’ and ‘‘gravimetric(al)’’ may
gravity spring, gravity fountain ● Schwere(schütt- synonymously be used for ‘‘gravity’’] ● Schwermessung
(ungs))quelle f, Schwerkraft(schütt)quelle, Gravita- (en) f, Gravitationsmessung(en), Schwerkraft-
tions(schütt(ungs))quelle, Schwerkraftschüttungs- messung(en)
quelle gray antimony > antimonite
gravity stamp [Unit in stamp battery which directs gray antimony, jamesonite, grey antimony ●
a heavy falling weight on to a die on which rock is exposed haarförmiger Antimonglanz m, Jamesonit m,
for crushing] ● Pochmühle f Pb4FeSb6S14
green coal 631

grayband > flag(stone) temperate, subhumid to semiarid parts of Western Can-


gray bed, grey bed [North of England] ● sandiger ada and the USA. These soils are now classified under the
Schieferton m in der Kohlenkalksteinbildung Alfisols] ● grauer Podsolboden m
gray-black mud > grey-black mud gray zircon > zirconite
gray-brown podzol(ic soil) > grey-brown podzol(ic grazing trail ● Weidespur f [Eine der fünf Lebensspuren
soil) nach Seidacher]
gray chalk, grey chalk, chalk marl ● Kreidemergel m, grease ice, ice slush ● Eisbrei m
Graukalk m, mittlere Kreide f grease monkey, oiler [A workman who keeps
gray cobalt > cobalt glance machinery properly lubricated] ● Schmierer m,
gray copper ore, fahlore, grey copper ore, tennantite; Abschmierer
fahlerz [German]; (Cu,Fe)12As4S13 ● Tennantit m greaser [A workman who oils or greases the mine cars]
Gray Desert soil > Grey Desert soil (⚒) ● Wagen(ab)schmierer m
gray dune, grey dune ● Graudüne f [Alte Düne ohne greasiness ● Fettigkeit f G
nennenswerte Sandzufuhr, meist mit einer dichten greasy, unctuous ● schmierig
Pflanzendecke] greasy [Applied to the luster of minerals. Having the
gray earth > Grey Desert soil luster of oily glass, as nepheline] ● fettig
gray forest gley(ed) soil > grey forest gley(ed) soil great circle, zone circle [stereographic crystal projec-
gray forest soil, grey forest soil ● grauer Waldboden m tion] ● Zonenkreis m
gray hyacinth > zirconite great-circle chart > gnomonic projection
gray lead ore, gray pyromorphite, grey lead ore, grey great-circle projection > gnomonic projection
pyromorphite ● Graubleierz n, grauer Pyromorphit m great heave (⚒) ● Gewand n [Eine Gebirgsschicht,
gray level, grey level ● Graustufe f gangartige Bildung usw., welche die Flöze abschneidet
gray manganese ore > manganite oder verwirft]
gray marl, grey marl ● Graumergel m Great Ice Age > Ice Age
gray pyromorphite, gray lead ore, grey lead ore, Great pyramid of Cheops ● Cheopspyramide f
grey pyromorphite ● Graubleierz n, grauer great soil group > soil type
Pyromorphit m great spring ● Riesenquelle f [Besonders stark
gray scale, grey scale ● Graukeil m [Folge gleitend oder schüttende Quelle in Karstgebieten]
gestuft aneinandergereihter Grautöne von Weiß zu great-upon-little > rocking stone
Schwarz] Great Valley ● Kalifornische Längstal n
gray silver, carbonate of silver, selbite, grey silver ● green [concrete, mortar: freshly set but not yet
Weißgüldigerz n, Grausilber n completely hardened] ● jung [Beton, Mörtel]
graystone, greystone [A dense gray-green rock, resem- green a(d)venturine quartz, chrysoquartz ● grüner
bling basalt and composed of felspar and augite. Not Aventurinquarz m
recommended usage] ● Graustein m green belt, country belt, agricultural belt, rural belt
gray tint (US), grey tint (Brit.) ● Grauton m [A stretch of countryside around and between
[allgemein] towns, separating each from the others, and predomi-
graywacke, (grey)wacke, rubblestone, apogrit; nantly farmland and parkland, whether or not such
grauwacke [German] ● Grauwacke f land is in the ownership of a town authority] ●
graywacke group, (grey)wacke group ● Grüngürtel m
Übergangsgebirge n, Grauwackeformation f green belt, frostless zone, verdant zone, thermal belt,
(gray)wacke limestone > transition-limestone thermal zone [The warmest part of a slope above a valley
gray warp soil, grey warp soil ● grauer floor, lying between the layer of cold air which forms
Alluvialboden m over the valley floor on calm clear nights and the cold
graywether > greywether hill tops or plateaus; the air flowing down the slopes is
Gray Wooded soil, Gray Podzolic soil, Grey Wooded warmed by mixing with the air above ground level, and
soil, Grey Podzolic soil [A great soil group, introduced in to some extent also by adiabatic compression] ● frostfreie
1949, characterized by a thin 01 horizon and a thin A1 Zone f
horizon, a relatively thick, bleached A2 horizon, and green coal [In Australia, freshly mined coal] ● grüne
a brown clayey B horizon. They occur in cool to Kohle f
632 green concrete

green concrete, freshly-mixed concrete, fresh con- green moss peat ● Grünmoostorf m
crete [green concrete has set but not appreciably hard- greenockite, cadmium blende, cadmium yellow, cad-
ened] ● Frischbeton m mium ocher, xanthochroite, cadmium ochre, cadmium
green corundum, green diamond spar, green hard sulphid(e); cadmium sulfid(e) (US) ● Greenockit m,
spar [A greenish variety of corundum, sometimes used Schwefelkadmium n, Kadmiumblende f
as a gemstone or ornamental stone] ● grüner Schmirgel m, green ore [A mix(ture) of clay and atacamite] ●
grüner Korund m, grüner Hartspat m, grüner Grünerz n
Schmergel green pack (⚒) ● lockere Versatzrippe f
green earth > Verona earth green pyromorphite, green lead ore ● Grünbleierz n,
green earth; terre verte [French]; terra verde [Italian] grüner Pyromorphit m
[Any of various naturally occurring silicates (especially of green rock [Staffordshire] > basalt
iron) used chiefly as bases for green basic dyes and for green roof ● begrüntes Dach n
G green pigments; specifically glauconite and celadonite] ● green salt of Magnus ● grünes Magnussalz n
Grünerde f greensand of Peru > atacamite
green ebony ● Aspalath m green sandstone ● grüner Sandstein m,
green glass; Brighton emerald [misnomer] ● Quadersandstein
Grünglas n green sapphire; oriental emerald [misnomer] ●
green hard spar > green corundum orientalischer Smaragd m [Handelsbenennung], grüner
green hornblende ● grüne Hornblende f, Pargasit m, Saphir m
Edenit greenschist [A general term for those varieties of schists
greenhouse effect ● Treibhauseffekt m in which hornblende, chlorite, or epidote are abundant
greenhouse gas ● Treibhausgas n constituents] ● Grünschiefer m
greenhouse gas emissions ● Treibhausgas- green scum ● grüner Schwimmschlamm m, grüne
emissionen f Schwimmdecke f [Algen an der Wasseroberfläche]
greenhouse(-warming) effect, global climate change green spinel, chlorospinel ● grüner Spinell m
● Treibhauswirkung f Green’s strain tensor ● Greensche Verzerrungstensor m
greening method ● Begrünungsmethode f green starstone > chlorastrolite
greening of shotcrete slopes, shotcrete greening ● greenstone > nephrite
Spritzbetonbegrünung f greenstone, diorite [An intrusive rock] ● Grünstein m
green iron ore > dufrenite greenstone [A quarryman’s term for freshly cut stone,
greenish blue ● grünlichblau containing water] ● bergfeuchtes Gestein n,
greenish quartz; Gibsonville emerald [misnomer] ● bergfeuchter Fels m
grünlicher Quarz m greenstone; blue elvan [Cornwall] ● Grünstein m
greenish smithsonite > Aztec stone green t(o)urmaline; Brazilian emerald, African emer-
greenish-yellow apatite asparagus stone ald [misnomers] ● Brasilsmaragd m
green labor (US); green labour (Brit.) ● bergfremde [Handelsbenennung], grüner Turmalin m
Leute f green turquoise > Aztec stone
greenlandite > columbite green water [A large unbroken water] ● Sturzwelle f
Greenland spar, cryolite, ice stone, sodium-alumin(i)- green zircon, beccarite ● grüner Zirkon m
um fluorid(e), Na3AlF6 ● Kryolith m, Eisspat m [Ein greigite, melnikovite [A dark mineral with spinel-like
Aluminiummineral, das gelegentlich als feste Phase in structure. Fe3S4] ● Melnikovit m, Greigit m
Dreiphaseneinschlüssen im Topas auftritt] greisen [A pneumatolytically altered granitic rock com-
green lead ore, green pyromorphite ● Grünbleierz n, posed largely of quartz, mica and topaz. The mica is
grüner Pyromorphit m usually muscovite or lepidolite. Tourmaline, fluorite,
green microcline, amazonite, amazonstone; Amazon rutile, cassiterite, and wolframite are common accessory
stone [obsolete] ● Amazonasstein m, Amazonit m, minerals] ● Greisen m, feldspatloser Granit m
grüner Mikroklin m; Amazonasjade m greisening, greisenization, greisenisation ●
[Fehlbenennung] Greisenbildung f, Vergreis(en)ung [Eine bei Zinnstein-
green microcline fel(d)spar; Amazon jade [misno- vorkommen und anderen pneumatolytischen Erzen
mer] ● grüner Mikroklinfeldspat m auftretende Zersetzung von Granit, die durch
griddle 633

Topasbildung auf Kosten von Feldspäten, Lithiumglim- grey forest gley(ed) soil, gray forest gley(ed) soil ●
merbildung und andere Durchsetzungserscheinungen des grauer vergleyter Waldboden m, vergleyter grauer
Gesteins mit leichtflüchtigen Bestandteilen Waldboden, vergleiter grauer Waldboden, grauer
gekennzeichnet ist] vergleiter Waldboden
grena, uncleaned coal ● ungereinigte Kohle f grey forest soil, gray forest soil ● grauer Waldboden m
grena, uncleaned ore ● ungereinigtes Erz n grey hyacinth > zirconite
grenate, garnet ● Granat m grey lead ore > gray lead ore
grenatite > cross-stone grey level, gray level ● Graustufe f
grenatite, leucite, amphigene, vesuvian, Vesuvian gar- grey manganese ore > manganite
net [It is often called ‘‘white garnet’’, which it resembles] grey marl, gray marl ● Graumergel m
● Amphigenspat m, Leuzit m, KAlSi2O6 [frühere grey pyromorphite > gray lead ore
Benennung: weißer Granat m] grey scale, gray scale ● Graukeil m [Folge gleitend oder
greve ● flacher Sandstand m gestuft aneinandergereihter Grautöne von Weiß zu G
greve > ditch Schwarz]
grey antimony > antimonite grey silver > gray silver
grey antimony > jamesonite greystone, graystone [A dense gray-green rock, resem-
greyband > flag(stone) bling basalt and composed of fel(d)spar and augite. Not
grey bed, gray bed [North of England] ● sandiger recommended usage] ● Graustein m
Schieferton m in der Kohlenkalksteinbildung grey tint (Brit.); gray tint (US) ● Grauton m
grey-black mud, gray-black mud ● Mudd m, [allgemein]
grauschwarzer Schlick m, grauschwarzer Schlamm m (grey)wacke, graywacke, rubblestone, apogrit;
[Ein besonders für die Ostsee charakteristisches Sediment, grauwacke [German] ● Grauwacke f
relativ kalkarm, dafür reicher an organischen Stoffen und (grey)wacke group, graywacke group ●
dementsprechend grauschwarz gefärbt] Übergangsgebirge n, Grauwackeformation f
grey-brown podzol(ic soil), gray-brown podzol(ic (grey)wacke limestone, transition-limestone ●
soil), leached (grey-)brown earth, strongly leached Grauwacke(n)kalkstein m, Übergangskalkstein
earth, strongly leached soil ● podsolierter ((grau-) grey warp soil, gray warp soil ● grauer
brauner) Waldboden m, (grau)brauner podsolierter Alluvialboden m
Waldboden, (grau)brauner Podsol(boden) m, greywether, graywether, sarsen (stone), druid(ical)
degradierte Braunerde f, ausgelaugte Braunerde, stark stone, Saracen (stone) [Grey rounded blocks of sand-
ausgelaugter Boden, Grauerde, Grauboden, stone or quartzite remaining as residual boulders when
Parabraunerde, Parabraunboden, Heidepodsol less resistant material has been eroded away. So called
(boden), Heidepodsolerde, gebleichter Waldboden; from their resemblance, at a distance, to grazing sheep
Asche(n)boden, Asche(n)erde, Bleichboden, (wether)] ● Sarsenstein m, Druidenstein
Bleicherde, Bleichsand m [frühere Benennungen] Grey wooded soil > Gray wooded soil
grey chalk, gray chalk, chalk marl ● Kreidemergel m, grey zircon > zirconite
Graukalk m, mittlere Kreide f griblet [A map printed in a subdued monochrome, such
grey cobalt > cobalt glance as gray blue, which is used as a map for overprints. The
grey copper ore > fahlore term is an anglicized corruption of the French ‘‘grisbleu’’]
Grey Desert soil, Gray Desert soil, Sierosem, gray ● Graudruck m
earth, grey earth ● Sierosem m [Neustrujeff 1900], gric [west Balkans] > solution fissure
graue Wüstensteppenboden m, Sierosiom m grid ● Raster m
[Schreibweise nach russischer Aussprache], Grauerde f, grid > (map) grid
Serosem, grauer Boden der Halbwüste [Stebutt], grid arrangement ● gitterförmige Anordnung f,
Bielosem (¼ Weißerde) [Dokutschajeff 1893. Bezieht gitterartige Anordnung
sich auch auf Mergelrohboden] grid convergence; grid declination (US) ● Meridian-
grey dune, gray dune ● Graudüne f [Alte Düne ohne konvergenz f
nennenswerte Sandzufuhr, meist mit einer dichten gridding ● Koordinatennetz n, geografisches
Pflanzendecke] Koordinatennetz n [Der Bildgeometrie angepasst]
grey earth > Grey Desert soil griddle > ridar [Cornish term]
634 grid-like layout

grid-like layout (or: arrangement) ● rasterförmige grinding mineral liberation, mineral liberation by
Anordnung f grinding ● Mahlmineralaufschluss m, Mahlmineral-
gridlock, traffic jam ● Verkehrsstau m aufschließung f, Mahlmineralherauslösung
grid mat, wire mesh mat ● Gittermatte f grinding strength ● Schleiffestigkeit f
grid north [The northerly or zero direction indicated by grinding swart ● Schleifschlamm m
a meridional line of a rectangular map grid. It is grinding tool ● Schleifwerkzeug n
concident with true north only along the meridian of grip > catch(water) drain
origin] ● Gitter-Nord n grip length > fixed length
grid sheet [mechanical radial triangulation] ● gripper plate ● Gripperplatte f [einer Gripper-TBM]
Koordinatennetz n, Planunterlage f, Unterlage gripper TBM, gripper tunnel boring machine ●
grid sheet [mechanical radial triangulation] ● Gripper-Tunnelbohrmaschine f, Gripper TBM
Koordinatennetz n, Planunterlage f, Unterlage gripper tunnel boring machine, gripper TBM ●
G grid sheet system, sheeting and bracing system, Gripper-Tunnelbohrmaschine f, Gripper TBM
sheathing and bracing system [A method of bracing griquaite, garnet pyroxenite [A coarse-grained garnet
the lateral faces of a deep cut or excavation by installing and clinopyroxene rock that may or may not contain
soldier beams and horizontal sheeting to support the olivine or phlogopite. It occurs as nodular xenoliths in
earth banks. The soldier beams are in turn supported kimberlite pipes and dikes. Named by Beck in 1907 for
laterally by wales and horizontal or inclined braces] ● Griqualand, South West Africa. Not recommended
Verbau m [Graben; Baugrube] usage] ● Griquait m, eruptive Eklogitfazies f
grid-shift technique for Moiré-analysis of strain in Grisonides [former name] > lower Austride nappes
solid propellants ● Moiréverfahren n mit im grit, rock-bind, gritstone, coarse(-)grain(ed) sand-
Modellinneren angeordneten Gittern stone ● grob(körnig)er Sandstein m [besonders im
grid spacing ● Rasterabstand m [Der richtige R. für die Steinkohlengebirge]
Fallhöhen ist z. B. bei der dynamischen Intensivver- grit ● Splitt m [zum Streuen von schneebedeckten und
dichtung zu beachten] vereisten Straßen]
grief joint > kelly joint to grit [a road covered with ice] ● streuen
grief stem > kelly grit bin [contains a mixture of salt and grit during the
grike, solution fissure, cutter, gryke [One of a series of winter time] ● Streugutkasten m
vertical open cracks about 0.5 m wide, dislocated along grit channel ● Langsandfang m
joints separating limestone pavement into clints. The grivation ● Nadelabweichung f [Winkel zwischen
term ‘‘gric’’ is used in the west Balkan for same feature] Magnetisch-Nord und Gitter-Nord]
● Kluftkarre f grizzly ● Stabsieb n
grillage > (pile) grillage grizzly level, grizzly road, grizzly way, grizzly drift
grillage footing (foundation) ● Rosteinzelfundament n, (⚒)● Rostsohle f
Rosteinzelgründung f grizzly raise (⚒) ● Rosthochbruch m, Rostaufbruch
grillage (foundation) [It is suitable for sustaining GRL, gamma-ray (well(bore)) logging [A method of
heavy concentrated loads from columns, comprising two logging boreholes by observing the natural radioactivity
layers of rolled steel joists laid at right angles to one of the rocks through which the hole passes. It was devel-
another. The concentrated loads are thereby spread over oped for logging holes which cannot be logged electrically
a large area of base foundation] ● Rostgründung f, because they are cased] ● Bohrloch-
Rostfundament n Gammastrahlungsmessung f
grille [A cover(ing) over an inlet or outlet GRM, general(ized) reciprocal method, Palmer method
with openings through which fluid passes] ● Rost m, [A method of interpreting seismic refraction profiles
Gitter n over irregular layers, using forward and reverse
to grind away stumps ● wurzelstockfräsen [von shooting to obtain matched time-distance graphs. It is
Baumwurzelstöcken] comparable to the plus-minus method, but less
grinding fineness ● Mahlfeinheit f [z. B. von restricted in its application] ● Palmerverfahren n,
Bindemitteln] Palmermethode f
grinding gauge; grinding gage (US) ● Schleiflehre f groin > groyne
ground 635

groin head (US) > jetty head seepage losses, evaporation and transpiration losses in the
grommet [A ring of compressible material inserted system, and all waste] ● Gesamtwasserbedarf m
under a head and nut of a bolt connecting sections of gemessen am Verteiler
tunnel liners to seal the bolt hole] ● Tülle f gross error ● grober Fehler m
groom (⚒) ● Pferdeknecht m gross precipitation, total precipitation ● Gesamtnie-
groove ● Furche f [Fließgrenzenbestimmung nach derschlag m
Casagrande und ASTM] gross production, total production ●
gro(o)ve [in Derbyshire] ● Bergwerk n, Grube f Bruttoförderung f, Rohförderung [Gewinnung von
groove cast ● Rinnmarke f Bodenschätzen. Die in die Aufbereitung gelangende
groove cut in the rock (⚒) ● Brunnen m, Prame f Fördermenge]
[Eine in das Gestein eingehauene Furche] gross (rain)fall, total rain(fall) ● Bruttoregen m,
groove cutting, cutting (of) grooves ● Gesamtregen
Furchenziehung f [Fließgrenzenermitt(e)lung eines gross reserves ● Bruttovorräte f G
Bodens] gross sample, total sample ● Sammelprobe f
grooved > channel(l)ed gross settlement, total settlement [Total downward
groove(d) pile, plank-pile ● Aufpfahl, Spundpfahl m movement of a pile or pile group under applied load] ●
[20-30 cm dick, vieleckig zugespitzt, auf der einen Seite Bruttosetzung f
mit Spund, auf der entgegengesetzten Seite mit Nut] grossular(ite), grossularia, gooseberry stone; calcium-
[Spundwand; Grundbau] aluminum garnet (US); calcium aluminium garnet
grooved tube ● Rillenrohr n [z. B. für das (Brit.) ● Grossular m, Edelgrossular
Inklinometer] gross water power potential, total water power
groove (mark) ● Rille(nmarke) f potential ● Bruttowasserkraftpotential n, Gesamtwas-
groove (mark) cast ● Rillen(marken)ausfüllung f, serkraftpotential [Das theoretische Wasserkraftpotential
Rillen(marken)abdruck m, Rillen(marken)negativ- oder Gesamtpotential der einzelnen Fluss- und
form f, Rillen(marken)ausguss m [Siehe Anmerkung Stromsysteme von den Quellen bis zur Mündung]
unter „Abdruck’’. „Schleifmarken . . .’’ kann synonym grothite > sphene
für „Rillen(marken). . .’’ verwendet werden] grotto ● Grotte f
groover [Derbyshire] > miner ground ● gemahlen
groove sample > channel sample ground, earth [1. The voltage level of the ground. 2. The
groove sampling > channel sample taking reference voltage level of an electrical system or instru-
grooving tool ● Furchenspatel m, Furchenzieher m ment] ● Erde f
[Fließgrenzengerät nach Casagrande] ground, land, terrain ● Gelände n, Land n, Terrain n
grorudite [A hypabyssal rock composed of phenocrysts ground, support(ing) medium, foundation (material),
of microcline or microcline perthite, acmite and support(ing) ground, foundation ground, natural
less kataphorite in a tinguaitic groundmass of foundation, founding ground, founding material
microcline or microperthite, acmite and abundant [The soil or rock on which a structure or building
quartz; an acmite-rich sodic granite. Named by rests. The word ‘‘foundation’’ is also used as an
Brögger in 1894 for Grorund, Oslo district, Norway] ● equivalent to the word ‘‘substructure’’ and then
Grorudite m means ‘‘Unterbau’’ in German] ● Baugrund m
gross (available) fall, gross (available) head ● [Schicht, auf der gegründet wird. Der Bauingenieur
Rohfallhöhe f [Talsperre] bezeichnet alle im Untergrund auftretenden
gross bearing pressure, total bearing pressure ● Gesteine einschließlich der Verwitterungszone mit
Bruttoauflagerdruck m „Boden’’.]
gross discharge flow, total discharge flow ● ground, surrounding medium, country ● Gebirge n
Gesamtdurchfluss m [Untertagebau und Bergbau]
gross duty of water, head-gate duty of water, diver- ground [The surface or upper part of the Earth] ●
sion requirement, diversion duty of water, total duty of Grund m
water [The water requirement or duty measured at the ground, bottom (⚒) ● Blindholz n, Futterholz,
point of diversion. It includes all canal or conduit losses, Füllbrett n, Grund m
636 ground

ground, bottom [The surface or upper part of the Earth] ground collapse ● Gebirgseinsturz m [Untertagebau
● Grund m und Bergbau]
ground . . . > (foundation) ground . . . ground competence ● Gebirgsdruckfestigkeit f
ground acceleration > earthquake acceleration [Untertagebau und Bergbau]
ground anchor, anchor ● Anker m [Die im Bohrloch ground competence, compressive strength of the
eingebaute und am erd- oder felsseitigen Ende verankerte, rock material ● Gebirgsdruckfestigkeit f [Untertagebau
verklebte oder verpresste Ankerstange (¼ Stahlzugglied) und Bergbau]
wird am luftseitigen Ende (¼ Ankerkopf) mit einer Mut- ground compliance ● Bodennachgiebigkeit f
ter über eine an der freien Oberfläche des Gebirges oder ground conditions [Not in the sense of ‘‘soil’’] ●
einem betonierten Ankerkopf aufliegenden Ankerplatte Gebirgsverhältnisse f [Untertagebau und Bergbau]
befestigt und gespannt] ground conditions ● Bodenverhältnisse f (pl)
ground anchoring, ground bolting, ground anchor- ground configuration ● Bodenplastik f [Der aus der
G age ● Gebirgsverankerung f, Ankerausbau m Erde hervorgehende Gegensatz und Wechsel zwischen
[Untertagebau und Bergbau] konkaven und konvexen Oberflächenformen]
ground arch [The ground located immediately above ground consolidation, soil consolidation ●
a tunnel which transfers the overburden load onto ground Bodenkonsolidierung f
located on both sides of the tunnel] ● Grundbogen m ground control, ground survey control [The marking
ground area ● Geländefläche f [Fotogrammetrie] of survey, triangulation or other key points on the ground
ground avalanche [obsolete] > entire snowcover which may be recognized in aerial photographs] ●
avalanche Passpunktüberprüfung f
ground-bailiff (⚒) ● Bergwerk(s)inspektor m, ground control, strata control ● Gebirgsbeherrschung f
Bergwerk(s)verwalter [Untertagebau und Bergbau]
ground beam > grade beam (US) ground control point, ground survey control point ●
ground bolting, ground anchoring, ground anchor- Passpunkt m [Überprüfung der Luftbildmessung durch
age ● Gebirgsverankerung f, Ankerausbau m die Erdbildmessung]
[Untertagebau und Bergbau] ground control point work ● Passpunktbestimmung f
ground boundary, boundary of grounds ● [Fotogrammetrie]
Tagesgrenze f zweier Gebirge, Ausstrichgrenze zweier ground control practice > strata control practice
Gebirge [Untertagebau und Bergbau] ground co-ordinate ● Geländekoordinate f
ground break, base failure, ground failure, shear fail- [Fotogrammetrie]
ure [Rupture of soil or rock; the failure of rock or soil in ground core ● Gebirgskern m [Untertagebau und
shear resulting in loss of soil or rock bearing capacity] ● Tiefbohrtechnik]
Grundbruch m ground cover, soil cover [Any material, organic or
ground break ● (Gelände)Knickpunkt m inorganic, or plant life other than lawn used to cover an
[Fotogrammetrie] area] ● Bodenbedeckung f, Bodendeckung
ground camera station, ground exposure station ground cover [Any material, organic or inorganic, or
[The point on the ground occupied by the camera lens plant life other than lawn used to cover an area] ●
at the moment of exposure] ● Bodenaufnahmepunkt m Bodenbedeckung f
ground check(ing) ● Feldvergleich m bei ground coverage ● Flächenleistung f
Geländebegehung [Erfassung von Relieftypen mit Hilfe [Fotogrammetrie]
von Satellitenfotos] ground cover(ing) > plant cover(ing)
ground cill, ground sill [An underwater wall built ground crack ● Aufbrechen n des Gebirges, Aufreißen
across the bed of a water course in order to prevent des Gebirges
excessive scour of the bed or to increase the width of ground current > telluric current
water surface] ● Grundschwelle f, Stauschwelle ground current method, earth current method, tel-
ground cill, ground sill [A timber laid across the floor of luric (current) method [An electrical exploration
a heading or a trench] ● Grundspreize f, Bodenspreize, method in which the Earth’s natural field is measured
Sohl(en)spreize, Liegendholz n, Grundbalken m, at two or more stations simultaneously and
Grundschwelle f a quantitative estimate of the electric(al) properties of
ground improvement 637

the section is obtained thereby] ● Tellurik f, ground frost line [The line giving the depth of frost
Erdstrommethode f, Erdstromverfahren n, penetration into the ground] ● Untergrundfrostlinie f
Tellurstrommethode, Tellurstromverfahren ground gain hillside, deposition(al) hillside, accumu-
ground data; ground truth [deprecated] [Information lation (hill)slope, ground gain (hill) slope, deposition
collected on or near the surface of the Earth, in conjunc- (al) hill(slope), accumulation hillside, deposited (hill)
tion with an aerial or remote-sensing survey] ● slope, deposited hillside ● Aufschütt(ungs)(ab)hang m,
Bodenaufnahmedaten f Aufschütt(ungs)gehänge n, Ablagerungs(ab)hang,
ground defrosting, soil defrosting, earth defrosting ● Ablagerungsgehänge, Absetz(ab)hang, Absetzgehänge
Bodenentfrostung f, Erdentfrostung ground gas ● Bodengas n [Zwischen dem Grundwas-
ground depression, depression, basin, trough, natu- serspiegel und der Erdoberfläche vorkommendes Gas]
ral depression, hollow, sag; howe [Eastern Scottish] ● ground gas probe ● Bodengassonde f
(Gelände)Senke f, (Gelände)Vertiefung f (Gelände-) ground geophysics [As opposed to ‘‘airborne geophys-
Mulde f, Bodensenke, Bodenmulde, Bodenvertiefung ics’’] ● Bodengeophysik f G
ground destressing, destressing (of) ground ● (ground) grade > ground surface
Gebirgsentspannung f [Untertagebau und Bergbau] ground heat, terrestrial heat ● Erdwärme f, Geowärme
ground disruption, soil disruption, earth disruption ● ground heat flow, terrestrial heat flow, terrestrial
Erdaufbruch m, Bodenaufbruch thermal flow, ground thermal flow ● Erdwärmefluss m,
ground distance ● Geländestrecke f [Fotogrammetrie] Geowärmefluss
ground earth, ground soil ● Erdreich n ground heaving > lift
grounded, earthed ● geerdet ground height, ground level, ground elevation ●
ground electrode ● Bodenelektrode f Geländehöhe f, Geländeoberkante f, Flur f,
ground elevation > ground height Terrainhöhe, Terrainoberkante, Landhöhe,
ground enclosed by (means of) a dike (or dikes) ● Landoberkante
eingedeichtes Land n, Eindeichung f groundhog (⚒) > barney
ground expert, soil expert, soil mechanics expert ● groundhog, groundman [A labourer who digs in the
Baugrundsachverständiger m ground or who works under the ground. In contradistinc-
ground expert opinion > (foundation) ground tion to a sand-hog, who works under water in
expertise a pneumatic caisson] ● Erdarbeiter m
Ground – Exploration by excavation, boring and ground ice [deprecated] > anchor ice
sampling (DIN 4021) ● Baugrund - Aufschluss durch ground ice, fossil ice, underground ice, subsurface ice,
Schürfe und Bohrungen sowie Entnahme von Proben subsoil ice, subterraneous ice, ground frost [All ice, of
(DIN 4021) whatever origin or age, found below the surface of the
ground exposure station, ground camera station ground, especially a lens, sheet, wedge, seam, or irregular
[The point on the ground occupied by the camera lens mass, of clear nonglacial ice enclosed in perenially or
at the moment of exposure] ● Bodenaufnahmepunkt m seasonally frozen ground, often at considerable depth.
ground failure, shear failure, ground break, base fail- Used by many authors as synonymous with anchor ice]
ure [Rupture of soil or rock; the failure of rock or soil in ● fossiles Eis n, unterirdisches Eis, Bodeneis, Steineis
shear resulting in loss of soil or rock bearing capacity] ● ground ice [Ice formed on the ground by freezing of rain
Grundbruch m or snow, or by compaction of a snow layer] ● Glatteis n
ground floor (Brit.); first floor (US) ● Erdgeschoss n ground ice [Glacier ice, sea ice, or lake ice that has been
ground fluid, fluid in (the) rock pores ● covered with soil] ● überdecktes Bodeneis n,
Gesteinsporenfluid n überdecktes Steineis
ground fog, radiation fog ● Bodennebel m ground ice layer > ice layer
ground frost, soil frost, earth frost [An occurrence of ground ice wedge, ice wedge, ice vein ● Eiskeil m
below-freezing temperature on the surface of the ground, ground improvement, modifying the ground;
while the air temperature remains above the freezing Ground Modification [A servicemark of GKN Hayward
point] ● Bodenfrost m, (Boden)Gefrornis f Baker Inc., USA] ● Baugrundverbesserung f,
ground frost > ground ice Baugrundvergütung, Untergrundverbesserung,
ground frost limit ● Untergrundfrostgrenze f Untergrundvergütung
638 ground improvement technique

ground improvement technique ● Baugrundverbes- ground line, ground surface, (ground) grade, terrain
serungstechnik f surface, terrain line, terrain grade, topographic(al) sur-
ground inclination, slope of the ground surface, slope face ● Geländeoberfläche f, Flur f, Geländeoberkante f,
inclination, inclination of the slope ● Geländeneigung f Erdgleiche f, Terrainoberfläche, Terrainoberkante,
grounding [Context: to receive a comprehensive Terraingleiche, Geländegleiche, Bodenoberfläche,
grounding in mine safety] ● Grundwissen n Bodenoberkante, GOK
grounding [The temporary dropping and lodgement of groundlog > sample log
sedimentary particles carried in saltation, typically in ground loss, sloughing of soil, loss of ground [The
sandbars, natural levees, or gravel beds] ● volume of soft ground flowing into an excavation] ●
Hüpfablagerung f, Springablagerung, Bodennachfallmasse n, Bodennachfall m,
Sprungablagerung Nachfallboden(masse) m, (f)
grounding line ● Aufsetzlinie f [Inlandeisschichten] ground magnetometer [It is primarily suitable for
G ground investigation, natural foundation reconnais- making static observations of magnetic field intensity on
sance, subsoil exploration, soil investigation, site the surface of the Earth] ● Bodenmagnetometer n,
reconnaissance, field reconnaissance, soil reconnais- magnetisches Bodenmessinstrument n
sance, subsurface exploration, subsurface reconnais- groundman, groundhog [A labourer who digs in the
sance, (geotechnical) site investigation, geotechnical ground or who works under the ground. In contradistinc-
investigation, (foundation) ground reconnaissance ● tion to a sand-hog, who works under water in
Baugrunderkundung f, Baugrunduntersuchung f, a pneumatic caisson] ● Erdarbeiter m
Untergrunderkundung f, Baugrundaufschluss m, groundman, mucker ● Schutter(arbeit)er m
Erkundung f des Untergrunds f, geotechnische ground map ● Baugrundkarte f [Siehe Anmerkung
Untersuchung f unter „Baugrund’’]
ground investigation, terrain investigation ● ground mapping ● Baugrandkartierung f [Siehe
Geländeuntersuchung f Anmerkung unter „Baugrund’’]
ground investigation by penetration testing ● ground mark ● Bodenpunkt m, Fußpunkt
Baugrundaufschluss durch Sondierungen m [Fotogrammetrie]
ground investigation report, ground report, (foun- groundmass, rockmass ● Gebirgsverband m,
dation) ground expertise, ground expert opinion, nat- Gebirgsmasse f [Untertagebau und Bergbau,
ural foundation expertise, (foundation) ground expert Geotechnik]
testimony, natural foundation expert testimony, (foun- groundmass, matrix [The finer-grained material
dation) ground expert evidence, natural foundation enclosing, or filling the interstices between the larger
expert evidence ● Baugrundgutachten n, Untergrund- grains or particles of a sediment or sedimentary rock] ●
gutachten n Matrix f [Wenn im Gestein der Bindemittelanteil stark
ground investigation report, GIR [see EN 1997-1 hervortritt, verwendet man in der Regel die Benennung
and 2] ● geotechnischer Untersuchungsbericht m „Grundmasse’’]
ground layer > surface (boundary) layer ground mechanics ● Gebirgsmechanik f [Die Lehre
ground layering, stratigraphy, sequence of layers, von den Spannungen, Formänderungen oder
sequence of strata, soil layer sequence [The arrange- Bewegungen und Zerstörungen im Gebirge bzw. der
ment of strata, especially as to geographic position and Wiederverfestigung von Bruchmassen einschließlich der
chronologic order of sequence] ● Schichtenfolge f, Beherrschung dieser Vorgänge. Sie erforscht die
Aufeinanderfolge der Schichten Zusammenhänge zwischen bergmännischen Eingriffen
ground level (⚒) > day surface in das Gebirge und den Reaktionen des Gebirges. Dabei
ground level ● GOK f, Geländeoberkante f werden vor allem Spannungen und Bruchvorgänge im
ground level, ground height, ground elevation ● Nahbereich bergmännischer Hohlräume erfasst]
Geländehöhe f, Geländeoberkante f, Flur f, ground mica ● gemahlener Glimmer m
Terrainhöhe, Terrainoberkante, Landhöhe, Ground Modification [A servicemark of GKN Hay-
Landoberkante ward Baker Inc., USA] > ground improvement
ground level difference, (height) difference in ground ground moisture ● Anhängewasser n,
surface elevation ● Geländesprung m [allgemein] Anhängselwasser, Anlagewasser, Bergfeuchtigkeit f,
ground levelling ● Geländenivellement n Bergschweiß m; Haftwaser [Fehlbenennung]
ground shaking 639

ground motion, seismic ground motion [A general ground pressure (⚒) > rock pressure
term for all seismic motion, including ground ground pressure, bottom pressure, foundation
acceleration, velocity, displacement, and strain] ● pressure, base pressure, bearing pressure ●
Erdbewegung f Sohldruck m
ground movement ● Abbaudynamik f, ground(-probing) radar ● Georadar n,
Gebirgsdynamik [Untertagebau und Bergbau] Untergrundradar, Geofunkmesssystem, Untergrund-
ground movement ● Bodenbewegung f funkmesssystem n
ground nadir (point), nadir plumb point ● (Gelände) ground profile, terrain profile ● Geländeprofil n,
Nadir(punkt) m [Zum Aufnahmezeitpunkt lotrecht Terrainprofil [Der Verlauf des ursprünglichen Geländes
unter dem Objektivzentrum der Aufnahmekammer im Längsprofil und den Querprofilen]
befindlicher Geländepunkt. Symbol: N] ground range [On SLAR images, the distance from the
ground noise [In exploration seismology, ground noise flight path to an object] ● Bodenentfernung f
that is not caused by the shot] ● seismischer Störpegel m ground range image, ground range picture ● G
ground opening(-up), opening(-up) of ground (⚒) ● Aufsichtaufnahme f, Aufsichtbild n
Aufschließen n, Aufschließung f, Aufschluss m ground range representation ● Bodenentfernungs-
[Herstellen des Zugangs zur Lagerstätte durch darstellung f [Fernerkundung]
Grubenbaue der Ausrichtung] ground receiving station ● Bodenempfang(s)station f
ground parameter, soil characteristic, soil parameter [Satellitenerkundung]
● Bodenkennwert m, Bodenkenngröße f ground refrigeration brine > refrigerating brine
ground parameter, soil parameters, foundation soil ground refrigeration system > freezing plant
parameters, subsoil parameter, geotechnical parameter ground relief ● (Gelände)Höhenunterschied m
● Baugrundparameter m, Baugrund-Kennwert [Fotogrammetrie]
ground penetrating radar system ● bodenein- ground report, (foundation) ground expertise,
dringendes Radarsystem n, bodeneindringendes ground expert opinion, natural foundation expertise,
Funkmesssystem (foundation) ground expert testimony, natural foun-
ground permeability, formation permeability ● dation expert testimony, (foundation) ground expert
Formationsdurchlässigkeit f, Gebirgsdurchlässigkeit evidence, natural foundation expert evidence, ground
ground photogrammetry > terrestrial investigation report ● Baugrundgutachten n,
photogrammetry Untergrundgutachten n
ground photo(graph) ● terrestrische Aufnahme f ground resistance ● Baugrundwiderstand m
[Fotogrammetrie] ground (resistivity) factor ● Gebirgsfaktor m
(ground-)plan, site plan, plan view [Two-dimensional ground resolution ● Bodenauflösung f
graphic representation of the design, location and dimen- ground resonance, soil resonance, earth resonance ●
sions of the project, or parts thereof, seen in a horizontal Bodenresonanz f
plane viewed from above] ● Grundriss m ground rock salt, broad salt ● gemahlenes Steinsalz n
ground-plan area, plan area ● Grundrissfläche f ground roll ● störende Oberflächenwelle f
(ground-)plan dimension ● Grundrissabmessung f, [Reflektionsseismik]
Grundrissmaß n ground roller ● Grundwalze f [See]
ground plane ● Geländeebene f [Fotogrammetrie] ground roughness ● Bodenrauhigkeit f
(ground-)plan mapping ● Grundrisskartierung f grounds > sediment
(ground-)plan pegging (out), (ground-)plan setting ground sample [Rock or soil sample] ● Geländeprobe f,
(out) ● Grundrissabsteckung f Bodenprobe [Fels- oder Erd(reich)- probe]
ground plumb bearing ● Azimut m bezogen auf die ground sampler, ground sample taker ●
Hauptvertikalebene der Aufnahme Gebirgsproben(n)ehmer m, Schicht(en)proben-
ground point ● Geländepunkt m [Fotogrammetrie] (n)ehmer
ground point of control, fixed point ● Festpunkt m ground sea ● Grundsee f
[Fotogrammetrie] ground settlement, soil settlement ● Bodensetzung f,
ground preparation for seeding and sodding ● Setzung des Bodens
Bodenbehandlung f für Einsaat und (Rasen-) ground shaking ● Bodenerschütterung f,
Sodenandeckung Bodenunruhe f
640 ground sill

ground sill, ground cill [An underwater wall ground stress ● Gebirgsspannung f, Formations-
built across the bed of a water course in order to spannung [Untertagebau und Bergbau]
prevent excessive scour of the bed or to increase ground stress release ● Baugrundentspannung f,
the width of water surface] ● Grundschwelle f, Entspannung f des Baugrunds
Stauschwelle ground strip, strip of ground ● Landstreifen,
ground sill, ground cill [A timber laid across the floor of Geländestreifen, Terrainstreifen m
a heading or a trench] ● Grundspreize f, Bodenspreize, ground-structure interaction, structure-ground
Sohl(en)spreize, Liegendholz n, Grundbalken m, interaction ● Bauwerk-Baugrund-Wechselwirkung f,
Grundschwelle f Wechselwirkung zwischen Bauwerk und Baugrund,
ground slab (system), spread foundation, raft foun- Baugrund-Bauwerk-Wechselwirkung, Wechselwirkung
dation (system), (single) slab (foundation) (system), Bauwerk-Baugrund
mat (foundation) (system), raft foundation (system) ● ground subsidence, surface subsidence, areal subsi-
G Flächengründung f, Plattengründung [Eine Gründung, dence ● Geländesenkung f, Oberflächensenkung f
die in der Sohlfläche senkrechte, geneigte, mittige und ground suitable for mechanical excavation ●
ausmittige Kräfte abträgt, und zwar sowohl bei Flach- baggerfähiges Material n
als auch bei Tiefgründungen] (ground) support element, (ground) support prod-
ground slack, sag of the tank bottom [tank founda- uct ● Verbauelement n, Einbauelement [Untertagebau
tion] ● Bodendurchhang m [Tankgründung] und Bergbau]
ground slope, valley-side slope [A measure, generally (ground) support (system) > (permanent) (ground)
expressed in degrees of the steepest inclination of the side support (system)
of a valley in stream-eroded topography. Maximum slope (ground) support (system) > (temporary) (ground)
is measured at intervals along the valley walls on the support system
steepest parts of the contour orthogonals running from (ground) support yield curve ● Verbaukennlinie f,
divides to adjacent stream channels. Symbol: y] ● Einbaukennlinie [Untertagebau und Bergbau]
Talflankenneigung f ground surface (⚒) > day surface
ground-slope angle ● Geländeanstiegswinkel m ground surface ● geschliffene Oberfläche f
ground sluice [A channel or trough in the ground ground surface, ground line, (ground) grade, terrain
through which earth containing valuable mineral is surface, terrain line, terrain grade, topographic(al) sur-
sluiced for placer mining] ● Grund(ge)rinne f (n), face ● Geländeoberfläche f, Flur f, Geländeoberkante f,
Abflussgraben m [hydraulische Seifengewinnung] Erdgleiche f, Terrainoberfläche, Terrainoberkante,
ground sluicing [Stripping ground downslope by means Terraingleiche, Geländegleiche, Bodenoberfläche,
of a directed stream of water to excavate placer material Bodenoberkante, GOK
and transport it to a riffled trough in which the valuable ground survey [Asurvey made by ground methods, as
mineral is recovered] ● hydraulische Seifengewinnung f, distinguished from an aerial survey] ● Erdvermessung f
Wasserstrahl-Seifengewinnung, Schwemmen n [Die Aufnahmestandorte werden vom Gelände
alluvialer Seifen bestimmt]
ground soil, ground earth ● Erdreich n ground survey control, ground control [The marking
ground speed ● Grundgeschwindigkeit f, Flugge- of survey, triangulation or other key points on the ground
schwindigkeit über Grund [Fotogrammetrie] which may be recognized in aerial photographs] ●
ground squall ● Bodenbö f Passpunktüberprüfung f
ground stability, formation stability, formation ground survey control point > ground control point
strength, ground strength ● Formations(stand)- ground surveyor > surveyor
festigkeit f, Gebirgs(stand)festigkeit ground swell [Swell as it passes through shallow water;
ground standing time ● Gebirgsstandzeit f, it is characterized by a marked increase in height in water
Formationsstandzeit [Untertagebau und Bergbau] shallower than one tenth wave length. To the seaman,
ground stiffness ● Baugrundsteifigkeit f ground swell is often an indication of approaching bad
ground strata, stratification, flow of layers ● weather] ● Grunddünung f, Grundströmung,
Schichtenverlauf m, Verlauf m der Schichtung, Unterströmung, tiefe Dünung
Schichtenaufbau m ground table, grass table ● Bankett n, Latsche f
ground strength ● Bodenfestigkeit f [Grundmauer]
groundwater circulation 641

ground target analysis, (terrain) target analysis ● groundwater auger ● Grundwasserschnecke f


Zielobjekterkennung f, Geländeobjekterkenung, [unterirdischer Rohrvortrieb]
Objekterkennung, Bodenobjekterkennung groundwater availability ● Grundwasserdargebot n
ground temperature ● Bodenanfangstemperatur f groundwater balance, groundwater budget ●
ground thawing, soil thawing, earth thawing ● Grundwasserhaushalt m
Bodenauftauen n, Erdauftauen (groundwater) barrier, groundwater dam, (hydro-
ground thermal flow > ground heat flow logic(al)) dam, hydrologic(al) barrier [A natural or
ground timber > dormant(-tree) artificial obstacle, such as a dike or fault gouge, to the
ground timber (⚒) > sill lateral movement of groundwater, not in the sense of
ground top, terrain top ● Geländeoberkante f, GOK, a confining bed. It is characterized by a marked difference
Terrainoberkante in the level of the groundwater on opposite sides] ●
ground transport, earth transport ● Bodentransport m Grundwassersperre f
[Verkehrswege] groundwater basin [An aquifer or system of aquifers, G
ground treatment ● Gebirgsbehandlung f, whether basin-shaped or not, that has reasonably well
Formationsbehandlung [Untertagebau und Bergbau] defined boundaries and more or less definite areas of
ground truth [deprecated]; ground data [Information recharge and discharge] ● Grundwasserbecken n,
collected on or near the surface of the Earth, in conjunc- Grundwassertrog m
tion with an aerial or remote-sensing survey] ● groundwater basin [A subsurface structure having the
Bodenaufnahmedaten f, Geländedaten character of a basin with respect to the collection, reten-
ground vibration ● Bodenschwingung f tion and outflow of water] ● Grundwasserbecken n
ground vibrator, soil vibrator ● Bodenrüttler m (ground)water-bearing ● grundwasserführend
ground vibrator system, soil vibrator system ● (ground)water-bearing formation > aquifer
Boden-Rüttler System n (ground)water-bearing bed > aquifer
groundwater, ground water [The controversy over how (ground)water-bearing deposit > aquifer
to spell ‘groundwater’ has largely been resolved in favor of (ground)water-bearing stratum > aquifer
the one-word ‘groundwater’]; plerotic water [That part (ground)water-bearing zone > aquifer
of the subsurface water which is in the zone of saturation. groundwater (bore)hole, groundwater well(bore) ●
The terms ‘‘underground water’’, ‘‘subterrane(an) Grundwasserbohrloch n
water’’, ‘‘phreatic water’’ and ‘‘subsurface water’’ have groundwater budget, groundwater budget, ground-
been used as synonyms for ‘‘groundwater’’, but their use is water balance ● Grundwasserhaushalt m
to be discouraged] ● Grundwasser n; Bodenwasser groundwater capacity [The ability of a soil to hold
[Schweiz] groundwater] ● Grundwasserhaltevermögen n,
groundwater abatement > groundwater (level) Grundwasserhaltefähigkeit f
drawdown groundwater capture ● Grundwassererschließung f,
groundwater abatement installation > groundwa- Grundwasseraufschluss m
ter (level) drawdown installation groundwater care ● Grundwassererfassung,
groundwater abstraction > groundwater lowering Grundwassererhaltung f, Grundwasserpflege f
groundwater anomaly ● Grundwasseranomalie f Grundwasserschonung
groundwater apex ● Grundwasserscheitel m groundwater cascade [The near-vertical or vertical
groundwater area ● Grundwasserfläche f flow of groundwater over a groundwater barrier] ●
groundwater artery [A body of permeable material Grundwasserkaskade f
encased in a matrix of less permeable or impermeable groundwater catchment area, groundwater drainage
material and saturated with water that is under pressure, area ● Grundwassereinzug(s)gebiet n,
usually artesian] ● Grundwasserader f Grundwassernährgebiet
groundwater ascent, groundwater rise ● Grundwas- groundwater change, groundwater fluctuation,
seranstieg m groundwater oscillation ● Grundwasserschwankung f
groundwater/atmosphere interface ● Grundwas- groundwater charge ● Grundwasserneubildung f
serspiegel m [Ausgeglichene Grenzfläche des groundwater chemistry ● Grundwasserchemie f
Grundwassers gegen die Atmosphäre, z. B. in Brunnen, groundwater circulation ● Grundwasserzirkulation f,
Grundwassermessstellen, Höhlen] Grundwasserumwälzung f
642 groundwater conduit

groundwater conduit, groundwater line ● lateral movement of groundwater, not in the sense of
Grundwasserleitung f a confining bed. It is characterized by a marked difference
groundwater configuration ● Grundwasser- in the level of the groundwater on opposite sides] ●
gestaltung f Grundwassersperre f
groundwater confining bed [Not in the sense of (groundwater) decrement, groundwater discharge
a groundwater dam] ● Grundwassernichtleiter m, [The groundwater or quantity of groundwater released]
Grundwassersperrschicht f, Nichtleiter, Sperrschicht ● abgegebene Grundwassermenge f, Grundwas-
groundwater consultant ● Grundwasserberater m serabgabe(menge) f, abgegebenes Grundwasser n
groundwater contaminant, groundwater polluting groundwater depletion, groundwater recession ●
agent ● Grundwasserverunreiniger m Grundwassererschöpfung f, Grundwasseraufbrauch m
groundwater contamination, groundwater pollution groundwater depletion curve, groundwater reces-
[Impairment of groundwater quality by chemical or bacte- sion curve [A recession curve of stream-flow, so adjusted
G rial agents to a degree that creates an actual hazard to that the slope of the curve represents the runoff (depletion
public health] ● Grundwasserverseuchung f, Grundwas- rate) of the groundwater. Such a curve is formed by the
serverschmutzung, Grundwasserverunreinigung observed hydrograph during prolonged periods of the
groundwater contamination control, groundwater precipitation] ● Grundwassererschöpfungskurve f,
pollution control ● Grundwasserreinhaltung f Grundwasseraufbrauchkurve
groundwater contour(-line) ● Grundwasserhö- groundwater deposit ● Grundwasserlagerstätte f
henlinie f, Grundwasserschichtlinie; Grundwasserhö- groundwater depression ● Grundwasserdelle f
henschichtlinie [Österreich]; Grundwasserhöhenkurve f [Bereich eines Grundwasserkörpers mit konkaver
[Schweiz] Ausbildung der Grundwasserdruckfläche]
groundwater contour(-line) map ● Grundwasserhö- groundwater depression > groundwater (level)
henlinienkarte f, Grundwasserschichtlinienkarte; drawdown
Grundwasserhöhenschichtlinienkarte [Österreich]; groundwater depression cone > depression cone
Grundwasserkurvenkarte [Schweiz] groundwater depression installation > groundwa-
groundwater control ● Grundwasserbeherrschung f ter (level) drawdown installation
groundwater covering layer ● Grundwasser- groundwater discharge, (groundwater) decrement
deckschicht f [Die Schicht der Erdoberfläche (meistens [The groundwater or quantity of groundwater released]
der Boden), welche das Grundwasser abdeckt und das ● abgegebene Grundwassermenge, Grundwas-
einsickernde Wasser filtriert und reinigt] serabgabe(menge) f, abgegebenes Grundwasser n
groundwater cross-section ● Grundwasser- groundwater discharge, hydraulic discharge, hydrau-
querschnitt m [Schnitt durch einen Grundwasserkörper lic decrement, (groundwater) decrement [The ground-
normal zu dessen Grundwasserstromlinien. Anmerkung: water loss by discharge through springs, pumping from
Der Grundwasserquerschnitt entspricht vielfach in guter wells, etc.] ● Grundwasserabnahme f
Näherung einem senkrechten Schnitt entlang einer groundwater distance velocity ● Grundwasser
Grundwassergleiche] Abstandsgeschwindigkeit f
groundwater cross-sectional area ● Grundwasser- groundwater diversion ● Grundwasserumleitung f
querschnitt(s)fläche f, AGW [Inhalt der (Brutto)Fläche groundwater divide, divide, groundwater ridge ●
eines Grundwasserquerschnitts. Einheit: m2] Grundwasserscheide f [Die Linie, welche die höchsten
groundwater current, groundwater stream ● Punkte des Grundwasserspiegels miteinander verbindet]
Grundwasserstrom m groundwater drain [A drain that carries any ground-
(groundwater) cutoff, to prevent groundwater inflow water. Applied in sewer practice to the drain laid below
[This method prevents groundwater flow to the excava- a sewer through wet ground to facilitate construction] ●
tion. Steel sheeting, slurry (concrete) walls, ground freez- Grundwasserdrän m
ing, secant piles and tremie seals are used to cut off groundwater drainage area, groundwater catchment
groundwater flow] ● Absperren n, Absperrung f, area ● Grundwassereinzug(s)gebiet n,
Grundwasser(ab)sperren, Grundwasser(ab)sperrung Grundwassernährgebiet
groundwater dam, (groundwater) barrier, (hydro- (groundwater) drawdown cone > depression cone
logic(al)) dam, hydrologic(al) barrier [A natural or groundwater draw(ing) down > groundwater
artificial obstacle, such as a dike or fault gouge, to the lowering
groundwater increment 643

groundwater drop ● Grundwasserentzug m [Ergebnis groundwater formation ● Grundwasserbildung f


der Grundwasserentziehung] groundwater front ● Grundwasserfront f
groundwater dynamics ● Grundwasserdynamik f groundwater gage (US); groundwater gauge ●
groundwater ecology ● Grundwasserökologie f Grundwasser(stand)pegel m, Grundwasserbeobach-
groundwater effluent zone ● Zone f des tungsrohr n
Grundwasseraustritts groundwater gauging station, groundwater gaging
groundwater engineering ● Grundwassertechnik f station (US) ● Grundwassermessstelle f
groundwater enrichment ● Grundwasseran- groundwater geology [See remark under ‘‘hydrogeol-
reicherung f ogy’’] ● Grundwassergeologie f
groundwater entering sewers ● zusitzendes groundwater geophysics ● Grundwassergeophysik f
Grundwasser n groundwater gradient, groundwater slope ●
groundwater equation [(a) The equation that bal- Grundwassergefälle n, Grundwasserneigung f [Neigung
ances the groundwater budget; R ¼ E + S + I, where des Grundwasserspiegels oder einer Grundwasser- G
R is rainfall, E is evaporation and transpiration loss, S is druckfläche. Gewöhnlich ist das relative Gefälle in
water discharged from the area as streamflow, and I is the Fließrichtung gemeint, d. h. der Quotient aus dem
recharge, (b) A mathematical statement of groundwater Höhenabstand zweier Grundwasserspiegel und dem
losses and gains in a specified area] ● Grundwasser- Abstand der Messstellen. Manchmal ist auch der Quo-
gleichung f tient aus Druckverlust und Wegelänge gemeint, der aber
groundwater equipotential line ● Grundwasserhö- nicht genau mit dem Gefälle des Grundwasserspiegels
hengleiche f, Grundwasseräquipotentiallinie f identisch ist]
groundwater exchange ● Grundwasserübertritt m groundwater hazard ● Grundwassergefährdung f
groundwater exclusion [With this method, groundwa- groundwater head > groundwater (pressure) head
ter is kept from the excavation by using compressed air or groundwater head contour, subsoil water-level
closed face tunnel shields] ● Grundwasserausschluss m contour, water table contour line, isopiestic line [line
groundwater fall ● Grundwasserfall m on a map showing the piezometric surface of an aquifer]
groundwater field velocity ● Abstandsge- ● Grundwassergleiche f
schwindigkeit f [Transportgeschwindigkeit groundwater heat ● Grundwasserwärme f
des Grundwassers, abgeleitet aus Ergebnissen von groundwater high ● höchste Grundwasser-
Felduntersuchungen, mit der Fließzeit zwischen zwei spiegelhöhe f
Punkten und ihrer Entfernung zueinander] groundwater hill, groundwater mound, water table
groundwater filtering ● Grundwasserfilterung f mound, water table hill [A mound-shaped elevation in
groundwater filter(ing) velocity ● Grundwasserfil- a water table or other potentiometric surface that builds
tergeschwindigkeit f up as a result of the downward percolation of water,
groundwater floodage, groundwater inundation, through the aeration zone or an overlying confining
groundwater over-flooding ● Grundwasserüberflutung f, bed, into the aquifer represented by the potentiometric
Grundwasserüberschwemmung surface] ● Grundwasserhügel m, Grundwasserkuppe f
groundwater flow, groundwater runoff [The runoff groundwater hold ● Grundwasserumsatzraum m
that has entered the ground, became groundwater, and groundwater horizon > aquifer
been discharged into a stream or river channel] ● groundwater hydraulics ● Grundwasserhydraulik f
Grundwasserabfluss m, Grundwasserablauf m groundwater hydrograph [It commonly shows water
groundwater flow [Flow of groundwater in the zone of level or head] ● Grundwasserganglinie f
saturation, whether naturally or artificially induced] ● groundwater hydrology [The branch of hydrology
Grundwasserfließen n that deals with groundwater, its occurrence and move-
groundwater flow analysis ● Untersuchung f der ment, its replenishment and depletion, the properties of
Grundwasserströmung rocks that control groundwater movement and storage,
groundwater flow direction ● Grundwasser- and the methods of investigation and use of groundwater]
fließrichtung f ● Grundwasserkunde f
groundwater flow model ● Grundwasserflussmodell n groundwater impact ● Grundwassereinfluss m
groundwater fluctuation, groundwater change, groundwater increment, groundwater recharge,
groundwater oscillation ● Grundwasserschwankung f recharge (of aquifer), recharge of groundwater, intake
644 groundwater infiltration

(of groundwater), recharging of groundwater, (ground)water line, (ground)water table, (ground)


(groundwater) replenishment, groundwater nourish- water level, (ground)water surface, saturation plane,
ment, groundwater intake, groundwater seepage, plane of saturation, saturated surface, saturation level,
groundwater infiltration ● Grundwasseranreicherung saturation line, level of saturation, line of saturation,
f, Grundwasserergänzung, Grundwasserneubildung, phreatic surface [The surface between the zone of satu-
Bodenpassage f, Grundwasserversickerung, Grundwas- ration and the zone of aeration; the surface of a body of
sereinsickerung, Grundwasserinfiltration f unconfined groundwater at which the pressure is equal to
groundwater infiltration > (groundwater) that of the atmosphere] ● Grundwasserspiegel m,
increment Grundwasseroberfläche f
groundwater influx, groundwater inflow ● groundwater line, groundwater conduit ● Grundwas-
Grundwasserzufluss m, Grundwasserzulauf m serleitung f
groundwater ingress ● Grundwassereintritt m groundwater longitudinal section ● Grundwasser-
G groundwater inhibitor, aquiclude, aquitard [An längsschnitt m [Schnitt durch einen Grundwasserkörper
im-pervious stratum of rock, clay or silt that hinders the normal zu dessen Linien gleicher Standrohrspiegelhöhe.
water from passing through it fast enough to be used as Anmerkung: Der Grundwasserlängsschnitt
a water supply] ● Grundwasserhemmer m, Grundwas- entspricht vielfach in guter Näherung einem senkrechten
sersperrer m [veraltet], Grundwassernichtleider m Schnitt entlang einer Stromlinie der Grundwasser-
[Gesteinskörper, der nur eine geringe Wasser- oberfläche]
durchlässigkeit besitzt] groundwater low, phreatic low ● tiefste Grundwas-
groundwater instrumentation ● Grundwasserüber- serspiegelhöhe f
wachungsinstrumente f groundwater lowering, groundwater recovery,
groundwater intake > (groundwater) increment groundwater withdrawal, groundwater offtake,
groundwater inundation, groundwater flood-age, groundwater draw(ing) down, groundwater retrieval,
groundwater over-flooding ● Grundwasserüberflu- groundwater abstraction ● Grundwasser(ab)senkung f,
tung f, Grundwasserüberschwemmung Grundwasserentnahme f, Grundwasserentziehung,
groundwater inventory [A detailed estimate or state- Grundwasserentzug m
ment of quantities of water forming groundwater incre- groundwater lowering by deep wells ● Tiefbrun-
ment balanced against estimates of quantities forming nenentwässerung f, Grundwasser(ab)senkung mit
groundwater decrement for a particular area or basin] ● Tiefbrunnen
Grundwasserbestandsaufnahme f groundwater lowering by gravity > gravity drainage
groundwater irrigation ● Bewässerung f mit groundwater lowering by wells ● geschlossene
Grundwasser, Grundwasserbewässerung [Durch Wasserhaltung f, Brunnenentwässerung [Grund-
Brunnen] wasser(ab)senkung durch Pumpen des Grundwassers
groundwater isohypse > line of constant piezomet- aus Brunnen]
ric head groundwater lowering curve ● Grundwasser(ab)-
groundwater lake [A surface water body that repre- senk(ungs)kurve f
sents an exposure of the uper surface of the saturation groundwater lowering depth ● Grundwasser(ab)-
zone, or of the water table] ● Grundwassersee m senk(ungs)tiefe f
Groundwater Laterite soil [A great soil group in the groundwater lowering height ● Grundwasser(ab)-
1938 classification system; an intrazonal, hydromorphic senk(ungs)höhe f [Durch eine Grundwasserentnahme
group of soils having an A 2 horizon containing concre- hervorgerufene Verringerung der Höhe des Standrohr-
tions that is underlain by a hardpan composed of iron spiegels. Zeichen sgw. Einheit: m]
and aluminum compounds. These soils are formed in groundwater management > groundwater

warm-temperate to tropical climates in response to (resources) management


a fluctuating water table (USDA, 1938). They are now groundwater map ● Grundwasserkarte f
classed as Aquults, Udults, and Ustults, and all contain groundwater mapping ● Grundwasserkartierung f
plinthite] ● Grundwasser-Lateritboden m groundwater measurement, groundwater surveying
groundwater law ● Grundwasserrecht n ● Grundwasservermessen n, Grundwasseraufnehmen
groundwater level station ● Grundwasser- groundwater measurement service, groundwater
Pegelstation f surveying service ● Grundwassermessdienst m
groundwater preparation installation 645

groundwater (measuring) station, groundwater nicht oder nur unwesentlich auf das stromaufwärtige
(measuring) point ● Grundwassermessstation f, Grundwasser auswirken]
Grundwassermessstelle f groundwater over-flooding > groundwater floodage
groundwater migration ● Grundwasserwanderung f groundwater overwithdrawal, groundwater over-
groundwater mining [The process, deliberate or inad- draft ● Überbeanspruchung f der verfügbaren
vertent, of extracting groundwater from a source at a rate Grundwassermenge(n)
so in excess of the replenishment that the groundwater groundwater passage ● Grundwasserdurchlass m [In
level declines persistently, threatening exhaustion of the einer (Ab)Dicht(ungs)wand]
supply or at least a decline of pumping levels to uneco- groundwater path ● Grundwasserweg m,
nomic depths] ● Grundwasserraubabsenkung f, Grundwasserbahn f
Grundwasserraubentnahme f groundwater peat > azonal peat
groundwater monitoring ● Grundwasser- groundwater permeability ● hydraulische
überwachung f Leitfähigkeit f, Grundwasserwegsamkeit, Grundwasser- G
groundwater monitor(ing) net(work) ● Grundwas- wegigkeit, Grundwasserdurchlässigkeit, hydraulisches
serüberwachungsnetz(werk) n Leitvermögen n
groundwater monitor(ing) pipe, groundwater mon- groundwater pipe ● Grundwasserrohr n
itor(ing) tube ● Grundwasserüberwachungsrohr n groundwater piracy [The tapping of groundwater that
groundwater monitor(ing) well ● Grundwasserüber- originates in another surface drainage basin by a solution
wachungsbrunnen m channel in limestone terrain] ● Grundwasserab-
groundwater morphology ● Grundwasser- zapfung f, Grundwasserverwilderung
morphologie f Groundwater Podzol soil, Spodosol [A great soil
groundwater mound, groundwater hill, water table group in the 1938 classification system, an intrazonal,
mound, water table hill [A mound-shaped elevation in hydromorphic group of soils having a prominent light-
a water table or other potentiometric surface that colored leached A2 horizon overlain by thin organic
builds up as a result of the downward percolation of material and underlain by a dark brown B horizon,
water, through the aeration zone or an overlying irregularly cemented with iron or organic compounds. It
confining bed, into the aquifer represented by the poten- develops under various types of forest vegetation, in
tiometric surface] ● Grundwasserhügel m, Grundwas- humid climates of varying temperature (USDA, 1938)]
serkuppe f groundwater point > groundwater (measuring)
groundwater movement, groundwater motion ● station
Grundwasserbewegung f groundwater piezometric surface, piezometric sur-
groundwater nourishment > groundwater recharge face of groundwater ● Grundwasserdruckfläche f
groundwater occurrence ● Grundwasservorkom- [Geometrischer Ort der Endpunkte aller Standrohrspie-
men n, Grundwasservorkommnis n gelhöhen einer Grundwasseroberfläche]
groundwater offtake > groundwater lowering groundwater polluting agent > groundwater
groundwater origin ● Grundwasserherkunft f contaminant
groundwater oscillation > groundwater fluctuation groundwater pollution, groundwater contamination
groundwater outcrop, groundwater outlet ● [Impairment of groundwater quality by chemical
Grundwasseraustritt m or bacterial agents to a degree that creates an
groundwater outflow [The discharge from a drainage actual hazard to public health] ● Grundwasser-
basin, or from any area, occurring as groundwater] ● verseuchung f, Grundwasserverschmutzung,
Grundwasserausfluss m, Grundwasserablauf m Grundwasserverunreinigung
groundwater overdraft > groundwater over- groundwater pollution control, groundwater
withdrawal contamination control ● Grundwasserreinhaltung f
groundwater overfall ● Grundwasserüberfall m groundwater pond ● Grundwasserspiegelblänke f,
[Bereich einer Stufe oder Schwelle in der Grundwasser- Blänke des Grundwasserspiegels [Vertiefte Stelle im
unterfläche mit örtlich begrenzter Zunahme des Gelände, die eine mit dem Grundwasser ausgespiegelte,
Grundwassergefälles bei freiem Grundwasser. sonst aber isolierte Wasseransammlung enthält]
Anmerkung: Ein stromabwärts des Grundwasserüberfalls groundwater preparation installation, groundwater
vorgenommener Eingriff in das Grundwasser würde sich preparation plant ● Grundwasser(aufbereitungs)werk n
646 groundwater pressure

groundwater pressure ● Grundwasserdruck m (groundwater) replenishment, groundwater nourish-


groundwater pressure area ● Grundwasser- ment, groundwater intake, groundwater seepage,
druckfläche f groundwater infiltration ● Grundwasseranreicherung f,
groundwater pressure fluctuation ● Grundwasserergänzung, Grundwasserneubildung,
Grundwasserdruckschwankung f Bodenpassage f, Grundwasserversickerung, Grundwas-
groundwater (pressure) head ● Grundwasser- sereinsickerung, Grundwasserinfiltration f
druckhöhe f groundwater recharge area, catchment area,
groundwater pressure surface ● Grundwasser- recharge area ● Grundwasseranreicherungsfläche f
druckfläche f, piezometrisches Niveau n groundwater recharge rate ● Grundwasserneubil-
groundwater profile ● Grundwasserprofil n [Die dungsrate f, Grundwasserneubildungsspende f
Summe der in einem senkrechten Querschnitt durch [l/s·km2]
einen Grundwasserträger vorhandenen, mit Wasser groundwater reconnaissance ● Grundwasser-
G erfüllten oder erfüllbaren Hohlräume] erkundung f
groundwater prospection, groundwater search(ing), groundwater recovery, groundwater lowering,
groundwater prospecting ● Grundwasserprospektion f, groundwater withdrawal, groundwater offtake,
Grundwasseraufsuchung f, Grundwassersuche f groundwater draw(ing) down, groundwater retrieval,
groundwater protection ● Grundwasserschutz m groundwater abstraction ● Grundwasser(ab)senkung f,
groundwater protection facility ● Grundwas- Grundwasserentnahme f, Grundwasserentziehung,
serschutzbauwerk n Grundwasserentzug m
groundwater province ● Grundwasserprovinz f groundwater regime ● Grundwasserregime n
[Gebiet mit gleichen Grundwasserverhältnissen] groundwater region ● Grundwasserregion f
groundwater pumping, artificial (groundwater) dis- groundwater rehab(ilitation) ● Grundwasser-
charge ● Grundwasser(ab)pumpen n sanierung f
groundwater purification, groundwater scrub(bing), groundwater relief ● Grundwasserentspannung f
groundwater restoration ● Grundwasserreinigung f, groundwater relief hole ● Grundwasserentspan-
Grundwassersäuberung nungsloch n
groundwater quality ● Grundwassergüte f groundwater renewal ● Grundwasserneubildung f,
groundwater quality protection ● Grundwassergü- Grundwassererneuerung
teschutz m (groundwater) replenishment > groundwater

groundwater quantity [The quantity of groundwater recharge


in the zone of saturation] ● Grundwassermenge f groundwater research ● Grundwasserforschung f
groundwater radon content ● Grundwasser- groundwater researcher ● Grundwasserforscher m
radongehalt m groundwater reserve, recoverable groundwater ●
groundwater rapid ● Grundwasser(strom)schnelle f (ausbringbare) Grundwasserreserve f, (ausbringbarer)
groundwater recession, groundwater depletion ● Grundwasservorrat m
Grundwassererschöpfung f, Grundwasseraufbrauch m (ground)water reservoir > aquifer
groundwater recession curve, groundwater deple- (groundwater) reservoir, groundwater storey (Brit.);
tion curve [A recession curve of stream-flow, so adjusted groundwater story (US); groundwater zone [All the
that the slope of the curve represents the runoff (depletion rocks in the zone of saturation, including those containing
rate) of the groundwater. Such a curve is formed by the permanent or temporary bodies of perched groundwater]
observed hydrograph during prolonged periods of the ● Grundwasserspeichergestein n, Grundwasser-
precipitation] ● Grundwassererschöpfungskurve f, stockwerk n
Grundwasseraufbrauchkurve groundwater resource ● Grundwasservorrat m
groundwater recharge, deep percolation, deep drain- groundwater resource development ● Grundwasser-
age [This is a hydrologic process in which water moves (vorrat)entwick(e)lung f
downward from surface water to groundwater.] ● groundwater (resources) management ●
Grundwasserauffüllung f Grundwasser(vorrat)bewirtschaftung f
groundwater recharge, groundwater increment, groundwater restoration > groundwater scrub
recharge (of aquifer), recharge of groundwater, intake (bing)
(of groundwater), recharging of groundwater, groundwater retention ● Grundwasserrückhalt m
groundwater thickness 647

groundwater retrieval > groundwater lowering groundwater storage basin ● Grundwasserspeiche-


groundwater ridge > groundwater divide r(ungs)becken n, Grundwassereinlagerungsbecken
groundwater ridge [A linear elevation in the (ground) groundwater storage curve ● Grundwasserspeiche-
water table that develops beneath an influent stream] ● r(ungs)kurve f, Grundwassereinlagerungskurve
Grundwasserspiegelanhebung f (groundwater) storey (Brit.); groundwater story
groundwater rise, groundwater ascent ● Grundwas- (US); groundwater reservoir, groundwater zone [All
seranstieg m the rocks in the zone of saturation, including those
groundwater runoff, groundwater flow [The runoff containing permanent or temporary bodies of perched
that has entered the ground, became groundwater, and groundwater] ● Grundwasserspeichergestein n,
been discharged into a stream or river channel] ● Grundwasserstockwerk n
Grundwasserabfluss m, Grundwasserablauf m groundwater stream, groundwater current ●
groundwater rush ● Grundwassereinbruch m Grundwasserstrom m
groundwater salinity ● Grundwasserversalzung f groundwater stripper ● Grundwasserreini- G
groundwater salt ● Grundwassersalz n gungsanlage f
groundwater scrub(bing), groundwater purification, groundwater structure ● hydrogeologischer Bau m,
groundwater restoration ● Grundwasserreinigung f, Grundwasserbau [Ein geologisches Mileu mit
Grundwassersäuberung vollständigem Grundwasserkreislauf]
groundwater search(ing) > groundwater prospection groundwater supply ● Grundwasserversorgung f
groundwater section ● Grundwasserabschnitt m (ground)water surface > (ground)water table
[Teil eines Grundwasserkörpers, der durch Grundwasser- groundwater survey ● Grundwasser(ver)messung f,
längsschnitte, Grundwasserquerschnitte oder andere Grundwasseraufnahme f
hydrologische Grenzen bestimmt ist] groundwater surveying, groundwater measurement
groundwater seepage > groundwater recharge ● Grundwasservermessen n, Grundwasseraufnehmen
groundwater seepage into a watercourse ● groundwater surveying service, groundwater mea-
Exfiltration f surement service ● Grundwassermessdienst m
groundwater shaft ● Grundwasserschacht m (ground)water table, (ground)water line, (ground)
groundwater sinking > groundwater (level) water level, (ground)water surface, saturation plane,
drawdown plane of saturation, saturated surface, saturation level,
groundwater sinking installation > groundwater saturation line, level of saturation, line of saturation,
(level) drawdown installation phreatic surface [The surface between the zone of satu-
groundwater slope, groundwater gradient ● ration and the zone of aeration; the surface of a body of
Grundwassergefälle n, Grundwasserneigung f [Neigung unconfined groundwater at which the pressure is equal to
des Grundwasserspiegels oder einer Grundwasser- that of the atmosphere] ● Grundwasserspiegel m,
druckfläche. Gewöhnlich ist das relative Gefälle in Grundwasseroberfläche f
Fließrichtung gemeint, d. h. der Quotient aus dem (ground)water table [rock hydraulics] ● Grundwas-
Höhenabstand zweier Grundwasserspiegel und dem serspiegel m, Grundwasseroberfläche f,
Abstand der Messstellen. Manchmal ist auch der Quo- Bergwasserspiegel, Bergwasseroberfläche [In diesem
tient aus Druckverlust und Wegelänge gemeint, der aber Fall ist der Wasserspiegel nicht wie im Boden eine
nicht genau mit dem Gefälle des Grundwasserspiegels geschlossene Fläche, sondern bildet sich nur in Klüften
identisch ist.] und Störungen]
groundwater soil > hydromorphic soil groundwater table in fissured rock ● Kluftgrund-
groundwater soil wetness ● Grundnässe f, wasserspiegel m
Grundwasservernässung f groundwater table measurement ● Grundwasser-
groundwater spring of the piezometric surface, standsmessung f
deep groundwater spring ● eigentliche Grundwas- groundwater theory ● Grundwassertheorie f
serquelle f [1. Versickerungstheorie 2. Kondensationstheorie]
groundwater station > groundwater (measuring) groundwater thickness ● Grundwasserdicke f,
station Grundwasserabstand m, Grundwassermächtigkeit f,
groundwater storage ● Grundwasserspeicherung f, hGW [Senkrechter Abstand zwischen Grundwasserstauer
Grundwassereinlagerung und Grundwasserspiegel]
648 groundwater tracer

groundwater tracer ● Grundwassermarkie- Kartengegenständen in übergeordnete Raumbegriffe


rungsmittel n durch Zusammenfassen gleichartiger Gegenstände oder
groundwater transfer ● Grundwasserübertritt m Erfassen von Gefügeeinheiten]
groundwater trench [A troughlike depression in the group of islands, archipelago, island group ● Archi-
water table or potentiometric surface, caused by ground- pel m, Inselgruppe f
water flow into a stream, river, or drainage ditch] ● group of piles > pile cluster
Grundwassergraben m, Grundwasserabflussrinne f, group of related landforms, related landform group
Grundwassersenke f, Grundwassertal n ● Formenschatz m [Geomorphologie]
groundwater underside ● Grundwasserunterfläche f group of seams, seams group ● Flözpaket n
[Untere Grenzfläche eines Grundwasserkörpers] group of wells, well group ● Brunnengalerie f,
groundwater vapour (Brit.); groundwater vapor (US) Brunnengruppe f
● Grundwasserdampf m group research ● Gruppenforschung f
G groundwater velocity ● Grundwasserge- group shot ● Gruppenschuss m
schwindigkeit f, Grundwasserfließgeschwindigkeit f group silicate, sorosilicate [A silicate structure in which
groundwater volume ● Grundwasserkörper m, the SiO4 units are linked into finite groups. An example is
Grundwassermasse f [Grundwasservorkommen oder beryl] ● Gruppensilikat n, Sorosilikat
Teil eines solchen, das eindeutig abgegrenzt oder to grout ● eingießen, vergießen, ausgießen [Das Mate-
abgrenzbar ist] rial wird in einen Hohlraum oder Hohlräume
groundwater wave, phreatic wave, wave of the eingegossen und der Hohlraum oder die Hohlräume
(ground)water table [A wave-like movement of the wird/werden vergossen (¼ ausgegossen)]
groundwater table in the direction of its slope] ● grout (US) > tail(ing)s
Grundwasserwelle f grout, injection grout, pressure grout ● Verpress-
groundwater well(bore), groundwater (bore) hole ● mittel n, Einpressmittel, Verpressgut n, Einpress-
Grundwasserbohrloch n gut, Auspressmittel, Auspressgut, Injektions-
groundwater withdrawal > groundwater lowering mittel, Injektionsgut
groundwater works ● Grundwasserwerk n groutability [The conditions in which grounds are able
[Aufbereitung von Trinkwasser aus Grundwasser] to receive pressure grouts for the purposes intended] ●
groundwater zone > groundwater reservoir Verpressbarkeit f, Auspressbarkeit
ground wind, surface wind ● Bodenwind m groutable ● auspressbar, verpressbar
ground zone ● Gebirgsbereich m grout body ● Verpresskörper m [im allgemeinen
group, rock unit, unit [The formal lithostratigraphic bestehend aus Zementmörtel mit Wasserzementwerten
unit next in rank above formation. A group includes zwischen 0,38 und 0,50 ohne Zuschlagstoffe]
two or more contiguous or associated formations with grout bulb [It is formed by extending the grout hole to
significant lithologic features in common. The type or just below the grout pipe or by raising the grout pipe] ●
reference sections of a group are those of its component Auspresszwiebel f, Verpresszwiebel
formations. The proposal for recognition of a group grout curtain, injection curtain ● (Ab)Dicht(ungs)-
should outline clearly the unifying characteristics on schleier, Einpressschleier m, Verpressschleier,
which it is based and the formations of which it is Auspressschleier, Injektionsschleier, Injizierschleier,
composed. A group name customarily combines HDI Schürze f, Dichtschirm m [Injektionsarbeiten]
a geographic name with the word ‘‘group’’, and no litho- [„Schürze’’ und „Schirm’’ können synonym für „Schleier’’
logic designation is included. Abbrev: gr.] ● (Forma- verwendet werden]
tions)Gruppe f grout curtain (toe) cutoff (wall) > grouted (toe)
group effect factor for (the) ultimate limit state cutoff (wall)
[pile foundation] ● Gruppenwirkungsfaktor m für den grout density ● Wichte f des Injektionsmittels
Grenzzustand [Pfahlgründung] grouted ● eingegossen, vergossen, ausgegossen [Das
group explosion ● Gruppensprengung f [z. B. bei der Material wird in einen Hohlraum oder Hohlräume
Sprengverdichtung] eingegossen und der Hohlraum oder die Hohlräume
grouping > array wird/werden vergossen (¼ ausgegossen)]
group (map) generalization ● begriffliches grouted, pressure grouted ● ausgepresst, verpresst,
Generalisieren n [Begriffliches Umsetzen von Auspress. . ., Verpress. . .
grouting mortar 649

grouted anchor pile ● verpresster Ankerpfahl m grout(ing) column, (grout) injection column, injec-
grouted mortar, injected mortar ● Verpressmörtel m tion (grout(ing)) column, pressure grouting column ●
grouted (toe) cutoff (wall), grout curtain (toe) cutoff Verpressmaterialsäule f, Einpressmaterialsäule,
(wall), injection curtain (toe) cutoff (wall) [See remark Verpressgutsäule, Einpressgutsäule, Auspresssäule
under ‘‘(toe) cutoff (wall)’’] ● Auspressherdwand f, grouting conditions, injection conditions ● Einpress-
Verpressherdwand bedingungen f (pl)
grout gel ● Gelmischung f, Weichgelmischung f grout(ing) curtain, grout(ing) veil, (grout) injection
[Injektionsgut] curtain, (grout) injection veil, pressure grout(ing)
grout hole, injection hole ● Einpressloch n, curtain, pressure grout(ing) veil [A zone in bedrock
Injektionsloch, Injizierloch, Auspressloch, Verpressloch beneath a dam and parallel to its length that has been
grouting ● Eingießen n, Vergießen, Ausgießen [Das injected with grout to stop or reduce seepage. See remark
Material wird in einen Hohlraum oder Hohlräume under ‘‘grout barrier’’] ● Einpressschleier m,
eingegossen und der Hohlraum oder die Hohlräume Verpressschleier, Auspressschleier, Injektionsschleier, G
wird/werden ausgegossen (¼ vergossen)] Injizierschleier, Injektionsvorhang m
grouting > (cement) grouting grouting drillhole, (grout) injection drillhole, injec-
grouting, grout injection, (grout) injecting, injection tion (grout(ing)) drillhole ● Einpressbohrloch n,
(grouting), pressure grouting [Grouting is a procedure Auspressbohrloch, Verpressbohrloch, Injektions-
whereby a fluid is injected into pores, fissures or voids to bohrloch, Injizierbohrloch
improve specific properties of soil, rock or concrete once grouting emulsion, (grout) injection emulsion, injec-
the grout sets] ● Einpressen n, Verpressen, Injizieren, tion (grout(ing)) emulsion, pressure grouting emul-
Auspressen, Injektion f, Injektionen f (pl) [Das sion, emulsion grout ● Einpressemulsion f,
Injektionsgut wird in einen Hohlraum oder Hohlräume Auspressemulsion, Verpressemulsion, Injektions-
eingepresst (¼ injiziert) und der Hohlraum oder die emulsion, Injizieremulsion
Hohlräume wird/werden ausgepresst (¼ verpresst)] grouting gallery, (grout) injection gallery, injection
grouting action ● Injektionsmaßnahmen f (pl) (grout(ing)) gallery, pressure grouting gallery [‘‘Tun-
grout(ing) aid, (grout) injection aid, injection (grout nel’’ is used for ‘‘gallery’’ in the USA] ● Einpress-
(ing)) aid, pressure grout(ing) aid ● Einpresshilfe f, stollen m, Auspressstollen, Verpressstollen,
Auspresshilfe, Verpresshilfe, Injektionshilfe, Injektionsstollen, Injizierstollen
Injizierhilfe [Sie verhindert das Absetzen des grouting gel, grout injection gel, (grout) injecting gel,
Einpressmörtels in Spannkanälen beim Spannbeton mit injection (grout(ing)) gel, pressure grouting gel [See
nachträglichem Verbund und bewirkt ein mäßiges remark under ‘‘sodium silicate (injection) grout’’] ●
Quellen zur Verbesserung der Haftung] Verpressgel n, Auspressgel, Einpressgel [Gelierende
grout(ing) barrier, injection (grout(ing)) barrier, echte Lösung, z. B. (Natron)Wasserglas plus
grout injection barrier, (grout) injecting barrier, pres- Chlorkalzium nacheinander injiziert - Reaktion nach
sure grouting barrier [Not to be confused with a grout Joosten]
curtain, which may lie between two grout barriers] ● grouting hose, (grout) injection hose, injection
Einpresssperre f, Auspresssperre, Verpresssperre, (grout(ing)) hose, pressure grouting hose ●
Injektionssperre, Injiziersperre Einpressschlauch m, Auspressschlauch,
grout(ing) blanket, injection (grout(ing)) blanket, Verpressschlauch, Injektionsschlauch, Injizierschlauch
(grout) injection blanket, (grout) injecting blanket, Grouting Intensity Number, GIN value ●
pressure grouting blanket [A grouted zone in the shallow GIN-Wert m
portion of a foundation which has been treated to grouting lance, grout injection lance, injection (grout
improve its strength and reduce its permeability] ● (ing)) lance, pressure grouting lance ● Injektionslanze f,
Einpressteppich m, Auspressteppich, Verpressteppich, Injizierlanze, Auspresslanze, Einpresslanze,
Injektionsteppich, Injizierteppich Verpresslanze, Lanze [Rohr mit verlorener Spitze]
grouting cement mortar, (grout) injection cement grouting material, grout, grout mix, injection
mortar, injection (grout(ing)) cement mortar, pressure medium, injection agent ● Verpressmittel n
grouting cement mortar ● Injektionszementmörtel m, grouting method ● Einpressverfahren n
Injizierzementmörtel, Einpresszementmörtel, grouting mortar, (grout) injection mortar, injection
Auspresszementmörtel, Verpresszementmörtel (grout(ing)) mortar, pressure grouting mortar ●
650 grouting needle

Injektionsmörtel m, Injiziermörtel, Auspressmörtel, grout(ing) trench, injection (grout(ing)) trench [A


Einpressmörtel, Verpressmörtel trench excavated to enable construction of a grout(ing)
grouting needle, grout injection needle, injection cap] ● Einpressgraben m, Injektionsgraben,
(grout(ing)) needle, pressure grouting needle ● Injiziergraben, Auspressgraben, Verpressgraben
Einpressnadel, Verpressnadel, Nadel, Injektionsnadel, grouting trial > grouting test
Injiziernadel, Auspressnadel f grouting umbrella [in underground construction] ●
grouting of revetments, revetment grouting ● Injektionsschirm m [beim unterirdischen Bauen]
Deckwerksverblockung f [Wasserstraßenbau] grout(ing) veil > grout(ing) curtain
grouting of soil, soil grouting ● Bodenvermörtelung f grout(ing) vent, (grout) injection vent, injection
grouting of the base, pressure grouting of the pile (grout(ing)) vent, pressure grout (ing) vent [A plastic
base ● Fußverpressung f [Bohrpfahl] pipe provided, at intervals, along the length of a tendon
grouting of the shaft, pressure grouting of the pile duct to enable the tendon to be completely grouted in
G shaft ● Mantelverpressung f [Bohrpfahl] after stressing has been completed] ● Einpressstutzen m,
grout(ing) pipe ● Verpressrohr n Injektionsstutzen, Injizierstutzen, Auspressstutzen,
grouting pipe, (grout) injection pipe, injection (grout Verpressstutzen [Spannbeton]
(ing)) pipe ● Einpressrohr n, Verpressrohr, grouting zone ● Injektionsstrecke f
Injizierrohr, Injektionsrohr (grout) injecting > grouting
grouting point ● Verpresspunkt m (grout) injecting. . . > grout(ing). . .
grouting pressure, grout pressure, (grout) injection (grout) injection > grouting
pressure, injection (grout(ing)) pressure [see EN 12715 (grout) injection . . . > grout(ing). . .
for additional terms and definition] ● Einpressdruck m, grout-intruded pile, intruded (aggregate) concrete
Verpressdruck, Injizierdruck, Injektionsdruck pile, prepared pile ● Skelettbeton-Ortrammpfahl m,
grouting process, compaction grouting process ● Ortrammpfahl aus Skelettbeton [Nach Einrammen des
Verpressvorgang m; Injektionsverfahren n unten durch eine lösbare Spitze verschlossenen
[Baugrundverbesserung] Vortreibrohres werden Bewehrung, Verpresslanze und
grouting pump, (grout) injection pump, injection Zuschläge eingebracht, das Vortreibrohr gezogen und
(grout(ing)) pump, pressure grouting pump ● Zementschlämme durch die Lanze eingepresst]
Injektionspumpe, Injizierpumpe, Einpresspumpe, grout mix, injection medium, injection agent,
Auspresspumpe, Verpresspumpe f grouting material, grout ● Verpressmittel n,
grouting rate ● Verpressrate f Injektionsmischung
grouting resin, grout injection resin, (grout) injecting grout pressure, grouting pressure ● Verpressdruck m
resin, injection (grout(ing)) resin, pressure grouting [von Injektionsgut]
resin, Newtonian low-viscosity grout [It has a viscosity grout slab ● injizierte Sohle f
close to that of water. See remark under ‘‘sodium silicate grout slab ● Dichtsohle f
(injection) grout’’] ● Verpressharz n, Auspressharz, grout tube, injection hose ● Verpressschlauch m
Einpressharz, Injizierharz, Injektionsharz to grout under pressure > to inject
grouting sequence ● Verpressfolge f to grow ● mächtig werden, wachsen, sich auftun, sich
grouting socket, (grout) injection socket, injection aufschließen [Gang]
(grout(ing)) socket, pressure grouting socket ● growing ● wachsend
Einpressstutzen m, Injektionsstutzen, Injizierstutzen, growing season ● Wachstumsjahreszeit f
Auspressstutzen, Verpressstutzen growing together, coalescence, coalescing ●
grouting suspension, (grout) injection suspension, Zusammenwachsen n
injection (grout(ing)) suspension, pressure grouting growler ● Eisbrocken m, Eishümpel m [Zwischen
suspension ● Injektionssuspension f, Injizier- Scholle und Eisberg]
suspension, Auspresssuspension, Einpresssuspension, grown in place > autochthonic
Verpresssuspension grown in situ > autochthonic
grouting system ● Verpresssystem n grown rock > bedrock
grouting technique ● Injektionstechnik f growth fault, accumulation fault, contemporaneous
grouting test, less frequent: grouting trial ● fault; deposition(al) fault, flexure fault, slump
Injektionsversuch m fault, Gulf Coast-(type) fault, progressive fault,
guide 651

sedimentary fault, synsedimentary fault [less-preferred GSI, geological strength index [by Hoek] ● geologischer
synonyms] ● intraformationelle Verwerfung f, Festigkeitsindex m, GSI
Faltenverwerfung, schaufelförmige Abschiebung, GT, grade x thickness ● Gehalt m mal Mächtigkeit f
listrische Abschiebung [Lagerstätte]
growth framework ● Gerüstporen f guag > ancient working
growth history ● Wachstumsvergangenheit f guano [A deposit of excrement which can be used as
growth island ● Kristallwachstumsinsel f a fertiliser. It is a Spanish word (‘‘huano’’ in South
growth lattice, organic lattice, (reef) lattice, reef frame America) and is applied especially to the thick layers of
[The rigid, reef-building, in-situ framework of an organic excrete of sea-birds found in many islands of the dry
reef, consisting of the skeletons of sessile calcareous organ- Peruvian and Chilean coasts, where there is little or no
isms and excluding reef-flank and associated fragmental rain to wash away the material. The term is also applied
deposits] ● organisches Gitter n to similar deposits elsewhere, e.g. bat-guano in the lime-
growth marking ● Wuchszeichnung f, stone caves of Malaya] ● Guano m, Seevögelkot m G
Wachstumszeichnung guard cell [three-cell pressuremeter test] ● Schutzzelle f
growth of quartz, quartz crystallization, quartz [beim dreizelligen Pressuremeter Test]
growth, crystallization of quartz ● Quarzwachstum n, guard gate, emergency (guard) gate ● Notver-
Quarzwuchs m schluss m [Talsperre]
growth of water, water growth (⚒) ● Wasseran- guard lock > tidal lock
sammlung f guardrail post, crash barrier post ● Schutzplan-
growth rate ● Wachstumsgeschwindigkeit f, kenpfosten m
Wuchsgeschwindigkeit guardrail (US); crash barrier (Brit.) ● Schutzplanke f
growth twin ● Wachstumszwilling m, Wuchszwilling [auf Straßen]
[Kristall] gubbin ● Schwarzerz n, Toneisenerz
groyne, jetty, groin [A barrier built out from a seashore, guest (mineral), metasom(e) [A replacing mineral,
river bank, stream bank or lake shore to protect the land which grows in size at the expense of another mineral
from erosion and sand movements, among other func- (the host or palosome); a mineral grain formed by meta-
tions] ● Buhne f, Buhn n, Baune f, Benne f, Sporn m, somatism] ● Gastmineral n
Flügel m, Stack n, Stacke f, Schlange f, Kribbe f, guet > abyss
Krippe f, Traverse f gu(h)r > diatomite
groyne head > jetty head guid(anc)e bar (⚒) > sliding rail
grub-stake ● Prospektions(bei)hilfe f bei guid(anc)e divider [cathead] ● Führungssichel f,
Gewinnbeteiligung Leitsichel
grumous, clotted ● spätig, sparitisch [Grundmasse der guidance drawings, standard plans ●
Karbonatgesteine] Richtzeichnungen f (pl) [Richtzeichnungen stellen
grunching, grunch blasting, blasting ‘‘off the solid’’ ● geltende Bedingungen für die Umsetzung von Bauwerken
Lösungssprengen n dar; sie haben jedoch keinen normierenden Charakter,
Grundite [commercial name] > illite vielmehr zeigen sie bewährte Konstruktionen für die
Grundoburst rig ● Grundoburst-Lafette f Umsetzung der technischen Festlegungen]
Grundodrill steerable boring machine ● guidance mandrel [of a splitter machine; usually pear-
Grundodrill-Spülbohranlage f shaped] ● Führungsdorn m [einer Berstmaschine für die
Grundomat soil displacement hammer ● Zerstörung einer alten Leitung; meist birnenförmig]
Grundomat-Erdrakete f guid(anc)e pile [A pile driven near a caisson to act as
Grundoram steel pipe ramming machine ● a guide during sinking] ● Leitpfahl, Führungspfahl m;
Grundoram-Stahlbohrvortriebsmaschine f Führungspilot m, Leitpilot [Österreich]
grush, grus(s), grail [The fragmental deposit formed by guid(anc)e rail (⚒) > sliding rail
in situ disintegration of granite with little or no decom- guid(anc)e wall ● Leitwand f, Führungswand
position of the constituents. The term is also used for the [Schlitzwandherstellung]
debris from any rock which has been finely granulated guide (⚒) ● Führungsbaum, Streichbaum m,
but not decomposed by weathering] ● Grus m, Grieß m Schachtführung f, Leitbaum, Spurlatte f
gryke > grike guide (⚒) > sliding rail
652 guide

guide > (practical) guide (book) guide point, guiding point ● Leitpunkt m,
guide copy, drawing key ● Anhaltkopie f; Führungspunkt
Anhaltekopie [Schweiz; Österreich] [Ein- oder guide ring ● Führungsring m
mehrfarbige Kopie als Anhalt für die Bearbeitung der guide rod [of a dilatometer or a borehole jacking probe]
Reinzeichnung oder die Herstellung des Kartenoriginals] ● Richtgestänge n [einer Dilatometerausrüstung od.
(guided) auger boring equipment (or: system) ● eines Seitendruckgeräts]
Schneckenbohranlage f [für die unterirdische guide seam, guiding seam ● Leitflöz n
Herstellung von Abwasserkanälen] guide (sheet) pile, standard (sheet) pile [In an exca-
guided auger boring system ● Pilotbohrverfahren n vation supported by sheet piles, a heavy vertical square
mit Schneckenbohranlage pile which is driven close to them and carries the walings
guided boring, guided drilling, steerable boring, (horizontal members) which first guide, and later support
steerable drilling ● Lenkbohren, gelenktes Bohren n the sheet piles. It is strutted to a similar pile on the far side
G [grabenloser Rohreinbau] of the excavation or to a dumpling or to a raking shore. It
guided boring rig > guided moling rig carries the full earth pressure from the walings] ●
guided drilling, directional drilling, controlled direc- Führungs(spund)bohle f
tional drilling [The drilling of a hole with an intentional guide trench > slurry trench
deviation] ● gerichtetes Bohren n, Richtungsbohren guide tube ● Führungsrohr n
[Zielbohren, bei dem während des Bohrens die guide wall (Brit.); training wall (US) ● Führungswand f,
Bohrrichtung geändert wird, in der Tiefbohrtechnik Leitwand [Hochwasserüberfall]
gebräuchlich] guiding jet > directional jet
guided drilling tool, steerable drilling tool ● guiding mineral, guide mineral ● Leitmineral n
Lenkbohrwerkzeug n, gelenktes Bohrwerkzeug guiding nozzle > directional jet
[grabenloser Rohreinbau] guiding pen, guide pen ● Führungspferch m,
guided moling > directional drilling Leitpferch [Bagger-Senkkastengründung]
guided moling rig, directional drilling rig, directional guiding pile, guide pile [Apile driven down vertically
boring rig, directional moling rig, guided drilling rig, near a caisson to act as a guide during sinking or to guide
guided boring rig [‘‘system’’, ‘‘unit’’ and ‘‘machine’’ may sheet piling] ● Führungspfahl m, Leitpfahl, Richtpfahl
synonymously be used for ‘‘rig’’] ● Richtungsbohr- guiding point, guide point ● Leitpunkt m,
gerät n, Richtungsbohrmaschine f [grabenloses Führungspunkt
Bauverfahren] guiding seam, guide seam ● Leitflöz n
guided pilot drilling (or: boring) ● gesteuerte Guldin’s rule, rule of Guldin ● Guldinische Regel f
Pilotbohrung f [Stereometrie]
guided radio ● leitungsgerichteter Sprechfunk m gulf > abyss
guide fossil, index fossil ● Leitfossil n [Es kommt in gulf [Applied to very varied forms of inlets of the sea, but
einem bestimmten geologischen Horizont vor und dient on the whole it is given to the largest of these inlets, e.g.
dazu alle Ablagerungen verschiedener Orte miteinander Gulf of Guinea, Persia, Mexico, whereas ‘‘bay’’ is applied
in Verbindung zu bringen] to only a few of these large forms and to many smaller
guide-framework, leading system [for lowering ones. A gulf may contain more than one bay, e.g. the Gulf
a caisson] ● Führungsgerüst n of Guinea with the Bays of Benin and Biafra] ● Golf m
guide hood ● Führungshaube f Gulf Coast(-type) fault [less-preferred synonym]
guideline ● Richtlinie f, Leitlinie f > growth fault

guide mineral, guiding mineral ● Leitmineral n gullet (⚒) ● Rösche f, Liesche, Lösche
guide peg [deprecated] > reference peg gully ● Rinne f, Runse f, seltener: Runs m [z. B. in einem
guide pen, guiding pen ● Führungspferch m, Felshang]
Leitpferch [Bagger-Senkkastengründung] gully, gully hole ● Kanaleinlaufschacht m, Gully m
guide pile, guiding pile [A pile driven down vertically gully control ● Runsensicherung f
near a caisson to act as a guide during sinking or to guide gully erosion, gullying ● Gully-Erosion f [Eine zuerst
sheet piling] ● Führungspfahl m, Leitpfahl, Richtpfahl in den USA beobachtete Erosion; deshalb wurde der
guide plate ● Führungsplatte f Ausdruck auch im Deutschen übernommen]
gutter 653

gully hole, gully ● Kanaleinlaufschacht m, Gully m draining adit, deep adit, water level (⚒) ● Rösche f,
gully improvement with brushwood ● Runsenaus- Wassersaige f, Wasserabfuhrstollen m, Wasser(lösungs)-
buschung f strecke f, Sumpfstrecke, Wasserseige, Wasserlö-
gullying, gully erosion ● Gully-Erosion f [Eine zuerst sungsstollen, Tiefstollen [Eine Strecke unter einem Stol-
in den USA beobachtete Erosion; deshalb wurde der len zur Aufnahme des bis auf eine gewisse Teufe
Ausdruck auch im Deutschen übernommen] ausgehobenen Wassers und Zuführung zu den
gully wall ● Runsenwand f Hauptkunstschächten und zur Verbindung von
gum elastic, caoutchouc, natural rubber, Indian Kunstschächten]
rubber ● Kautschuk m gush > torrential rain
gumanite > uranium ocher gusher, geyser, pulsating spring, spouter, ebbing and
gum dynamite ● Sprenggummi n, m flowing spring, gush(ing) spring ● Geysir m, Geisir,
gum resin ● Schleimharz n Geiser, Springquelle f, pulsende Quelle, pulsierende
gumslinger (⚒) ● Schrämkleinwerfer m Quelle, Siedequelle, Springer m G
gun, jet ● Kanone f, Perforateur m, Schießkernrohr n gusher, gushing well [A gas-well or oil-well from which
[Perforieren von Bohrlöchern] the material flows profusely without pumping] ● Springer
gun-applied concrete, shotcrete, gunite [trade name] m, Sprudelbohrung f, Sprudelbohrloch n, Spritzer
● Spritzbeton m, Torkretbeton m [Eine Mischung aus gusset, stay (⚒) ● Bolzen m [Ein als Stütze
Zement, Sand, Brechschlacke und Wasser, welche auf die verwendetes, beiderseits stumpf abgeschnittenes kurzes
Armierung gespritzt wird] Holzstück]
gunbarrel ● Durchlaufbehälter m, Durchlauftank m gusset plate ● Knotenblech n
[An der Bohrung zur Trennung von Öl, Wasser und Gas] gustiness intensity ● Böigkeitsgrad m
gun boat, dump(ing) bucket, overturning skip, self- Gutenberg discontinuity > (Wiechert-)Gutenberg
dumping skip, tilt(ing) skip (⚒) ● Kippkübel m discontinuity
guncotton ● Schießbaumwolle f [Nitrozellulose mit 11 Gutenberg low-velocity zone, low-velocity zone,
Salpetersäureresten im Molekül] B layer [The zone in the upper mantle, variously defined
to gunite, to place shotcrete ● torkretieren as from 60 to 250 km in depth in which velocities are
gunited wall ● torkretierte Wand f about 6% lower than in the outermost mantle. It is
gunite [trade name]; gun-applied concrete, shotcrete ● probably caused by the near melting point temperature
Spritzbeton m, Torkretbeton m [Eine Mischung aus of the material] ● Gutenbergzone f
Zement, Sand, Brechschlacke und Wasser, welche auf gutta-percha fuse, gutta-percha fuze ● Guttapercha-
die Armierung gespritzt wird] zündschnur f
gunk plug ● Diesel-Bentonit-Stopfen m guttate perthite ● gesprenkelter Perthit m
[Tiefbohrtechnik] guttation [The expulsion of water, in excess of transpi-
gunk squeeze ● Diesel-Bentonit-Einpressung f ration, from uninjured vegetation] ● Wasserabstoßen n
[Tiefbohrtechnik] von Pflanzen [Zusätzlich zur Ausdünstung]
gunnie (⚒) ● Sohle f, Bausohle, Stand m gutter (⚒) ● Wasserlutte f
gunnie [in Cornwall] (⚒) ● Streckenbreite f gutter, channel gutter [The lowest portion of a channel
gun perforating, jet perforating ● Schießperforieren n, containing an alluvial deposit and usually the zone of
Schießlochen maximum enrichment] ● Bett(ge)rinne f, (n)
gun perforator > casing gun [Wasserlauf]
gun powder ore ● Pulvererz n [Ein schwedisches See- gutter, drainage channel ● Abflussrinne f
Erz] gutter [A shallow, natural channel, furrow, or gull(e)y
Günz-Mindel [The term applied in the Alps to the first worn by running water] ● Rinne f, Gerinne n
classical interglacial stage of the Pleistocene (Epoch), gutter [For carrying off excess surface water to a
following the Günz and preceding the Mindel glacial gull(e)y] ● Abfluss(ge)rinne, Ablauf(ge)rinne f, (n)
stages] ● Günz/Mindel m gutter [obsolete]; brook; stell (Brit.) ● Bach m
gur > diatomite gutter [This term is used locally in various parts of
gurt, sough, drain, adit, drainage level, deep level, Britain for rock suitable for gutter stones, etc.] ●
water gate (road), blind level, water gateway, thurl, Rinnenstein m [als Rohmaterial]
654 gutter trough

gutter trough (⚒) ● Gerinnetrog m, Rinnentrog gypsum crust ● Gipskruste f


Guttmann method [A chemical consolidation two- gypsum crystal ● Gipskristall n
injection method developed by A. Guttmann. It differs gypsum dehydration ● Gipsentwässerung f
from the Joosten two-injection method in that the viscos- gypsum (drilling) mud ● Gips(Bohr)Schlamm-
ity of the sodium silicate is reduced before injection of (spülung) m, (f)
a suitable salt solution. This allows the treatment of finer- gypsum earth, gypsite, earthy gypsum [A weakly
grained soils] ● Guttmann-Verfahren n, Guttmann- consolidated earthy mix(ture) of gypsum and clay or
Methode f silt] ● Gipserde f, erdiger Gips m, Himmelsmehl n,
guy [such as for a snow net] ● Abspannseil n [z. B. für Mehlgips
ein Schneenetz] gypsum fissure ● Gipsspalt(e) m, (f)
guyed ● seilabgespannt gypsum karst ● Gipskarst m
guyot, tablemount, tableknoll [A type of sea-mount at gypsum Keuper ● Gipskeuper m
G about 200 m depth that has a platform top] ● gypsum layer ● Gipsschicht f
abgestumpfter Tiefseeberg m, Guyot m gypsum leaching ● Gips(aus)laugung f
gymnite, deweylite [A mix(ture) of clino-chrysotile (or gypsum mine, gypsum pit ● Gipsgrube f, Gipsmine f
sometimes lizardite) and stevensite. It was formerly gypsum mining ● Gipsbergbau m
regarded as a mineral of the serpentine group] ● gypsum operation ● Gipsabbaubetrieb m
Deweylit m, Gymnit m gypsum pit, gypsum mine ● Gipsgrube f, Gipsmine f
gyprock, rock gypsum ● Gipsgestein n gypsum plate [An accessory plate used with the polar-
gypseous ● gipsig, Gips . . . izing microscope] ● Gipsblättchen n
gypseous alabaster > alabastrite gypsum replacement test, gypsum calibration test,
gypseous earth ● Gipsgur f calibrated gypsum method ● Gipsersatzverfahren n,
gypsic horizon [A diagnostic subsurface soil horizon at Gipsersatzmethode f [Prüfung der Dichte und Wichte
least 15 cm thick that is characterized by enrichment in des Bodens]
calcium sulfate] ● Gipshorizont m gypsum rock, gypsolith [A term suggested by Grabau
gypsiferous, gypsum-bearing, gypsum-containing, (1924, p. 298)] ● Gipsgestein n
containing gypsum ● gipsführend, gipshaltig, gypsum rock thickness ● Gipsgestein(s)mächtigkeit f
gipsenthaltend gypsum sink ● Gipsschlotte f
gypsiferous cap-rock ● Gipshut m gypsum slag cement grout (US); supersulphated
gypsification [Development of or conversion (slag) cement grout (Brit.) [This grout is used where
into, gypsum, e.g. the hydration of anhydrite] ● groundwater has a pH as low as 3.5] ● Gipsschlack-
Vergipsung f enzement-Einpressschlämme f, Gipsschlackenzement-
gypsification depth ● Vergipsungstiefe f Auspressschlämme f, Gipsschlackenzement-
gypsinate, cemented with gypsum ● gipsverfestigt Verpressschlämme f, Gipsschlackenzementschlämme f,
gypsite, gypsum earth, earthy gypsum [A weakly con- Gipsschlackenzement-Injektionsschlämme f,
solidated earthy mix(ture) of gypsum and clay or silt] ● Gipsschlackenzement-Injizierschlämme f [„Sulfathüt-
Gipserde f, erdiger Gips m, Himmelsmehl n, Mehlgips tenzement’’ kann synonym für „Gipsschlackenzement’’
gypsolith > gypsum rock verwendet werden]
gypsum; plaster of Paris, plaster stone (Brit.) [A widely gyratory aggregate shaker, gyratory (test) sieve
distributed mineral consisting of hydrous calcium sul- shaker ● Rund(prüf)siebsatzrüttler m, Rund(prüf)-
phate: CaSO4·2H2O] ● Gips m siebsatzvibrator m
gypsum-bearing, gypsiferous, gypsum-containing, gyratory crusher ● Kreiselbrecher m
containing gypsum ● gipsführend, gipshaltig, gyratory tippler, rotary car dumper (⚒) ●
gipsenthaltend Kreiselwipper m, Seitenwipper [Entleerung von
gypsum calibration test, gypsum replacement test, Grubenwagen]
calibrated gypsum method ● Gipsersatzverfahren n, gyrocompass, gyroscopic compass, gyrostatic com-
Gipsersatzmethode f [Prüfung der Dichte und Wichte pass ● Kreiselkompass m
des Bodens] gyrocompass repeater, gyroscopic compass repeater,
gypsum cave ● Gipshöhle f gyrostatic compass repeater ● (Kreisel-)
gypsum-containing > gypsiferous Tochterkompass m
gyttja 655

gyro instrument ● Kreiselinstrument n gyrotheodolite ● Kreiseltheodolit m


gyro probe ● Gyrosonde f gyttja [Swedish]; sapropelic mud ● Gyttja f
gyro(scope) ● Kreisel m [Schwedischer Volksname, H. v. Post 1862];
gyro(scope) attachment ● Aufsatzkreisel m sapropelitische Mudde f, Halbfaulschlamm m
gyro-stabilized ● kreiselstabilisiert