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LAKE’S AND

DAM’S
SUBMITTED BY-
DIVYANSHI SATSANGI
145033
ZOM601
LAKE
• A lake (from the Latin word lacus) is an inland body of water,
not part of the ocean, that is larger and deeper than a pond and
is localized at the bottom of a basin.
• In ecology, the environment of a lake is described
as lacustrine. The study of lakes, ponds, and other inland
bodies of water and related ecosystems is called limnology.
FORMATION OF LAKE’S
• Lakes are typically formed by a sudden catastrophic event
and eventually end by slow and gradual processes.
• In general the forces forming a lake are:
1. Catastrophic, or sudden in geological terms.
2. Regional in nature, often giving rise to several similar lakes
forming a "lake district."
3. Followed by erosion (of the outlet) and sedimentation of the basin
so that lakes are temporary features of the landscape.
TYPES OF LAKE’S
• Lakes are classified on the basis two characteristic,
On The Basis Of Existence
• TEMPORARY LAKES-
• Lakes exist temporarily by filling up small depressions.
• Evaporation is greater than precipitation.
• Don’t exist throughout the year, include SMALL LAKES OF DESERT.
• PERMANENT LAKES-
• Evaporation is lesser than precipitation.
• Exist throughout the year.
• These lakes are deep and carry more water than could be over
evaporated, include GREAT LAKES OF NORTH AMERICA & EAST
AFRICAN RIFT LAKES.
On The Basis Of Origin

A lake may be formed by any of a number of natural processes. 


• By landslides : LANDSLIDING LAKES
• By tectonic uplift: TACTONIC LAKES
• By glacial blockages : GLACIAR LAKES
• By rapid water evaporation : SALINE LAKES
• By meandering : CRESCENT-SHAPED LAKES
• By volcanic caldera : CRATER LAKES
TECTONIC LAKE

• Tectonic basins are those formed by movements of the


earth's crust. Although few in number, tectonic lakes include
the largest and by far the oldest freshwater lakes.
• Some principal types are:
• Tilted fault block
• Graben lake

• Example
Caspian Sea, Baikal Lake(worlds Largest Lake)
BAIKAL LAKE, SOUTHERN
SIBERIA
SYNCLINE: ..."A FOLD OF STRATIFIED ROCK INCLINING UPWARD IN
OPPOSITE DIRECTIONS FROM BOTH SIDES OF ITS AXIS..."
VOLCANIC LAKE
• Volcanic lakes are formed by the volcanic eruption's and
depression’s.
• They are of 3 types-
a. Caldera

• A caldera results from the collapse of the surface after


subsurface material has been ejected (may or may not be an
explosive event). Crater lake in Oregon is a spectacular
example of a caldera lake. It resulted from the explosion
of Mt. Mazama about 7000 years ago.
• Some characteristics of interest are: circular basin, steep sides,
relatively flat floor, and very little drainage basin.
b. Lahar Lake
• A lahar is a mudflow containing much volcanic debris. Some
local examples of lahar lakes are castle lake and cold water
lake on either side of The Toutle River Valley In The Mt.
St. Helens National Monument.

CASTLE
LAKE
c. Maars lake

• A maar results from a steam explosion from hot subsurface


rocks. Local examples Are Blue Lake (In Santiam Pass)
And St. Helens Lake Near Spirit Lake.
• Although small in surface area, these lakes may be quite deep,
and are often nearly circular.
SPIRIT LAKE St. HELENS
LAKE
• Other types of volcanic lake include,
VOLCANIC DAM LAKE formed by work of lava, bearing
some valley’s. Examples are Chamban, D’ayat From
Central Massive Of France.
LANDSLIDE LAKE’S
• A lake basin may result from the damming of a river valley by a landslide.
• But since the dams are eroded by the stream flow pressure, these lakes
disappear rapidly.
• Examples are Clear Lake and Lost Lake Of The Oregon Cascades,
and Loon Lake Of The Coast Range Near Reedsport, or; Eagle
Lake In The Warner Range Of Northern California.
• Some characteristics: these lakes are often very transitory, depending on
the nature of the material forming the dam. The drowned stream valley
pattern is similar to man-made reservoirs.
QUAKE LAKE,
MONTANA
GLACIAL LAKES

• Because of the relatively recent Pleistocene Glaciations, glacial


lakes are the most common kind of lake at this time (at higher
latitudes).
• About 3/4 of all lakes are glacial in origin.
• They are the outcome of erosion and accumulation process.
a. Cirque Lakes

• These lakes are formed by the repeated frost-riving due to


repeated freezing and thawing.
• Some examples are Mirror Lake, Just South of Mt. Hood and
Hanaford, Fawn, Venus and others near Mt. St. Helens.
• The elevation of these lakes is evidence of the climate
characteristic of the time of formation.
MIRROR LAKE (BETWEEN GOVERNMENT CAMP AND
RHODODENDRON)
b. Moraine lakes

• These lakes are formed by damming by glacial


moraines.
• Example is WALLOWA LAKE.
c. Fjord Lakes

• Fjord lakes are formed when a glacier scours out a


pre-existing stream valley.
• Example: LAKE CHELAN.
• These lakes characteristically are elongate and have a u
shaped bottom profile.
• Many such basins are open to the ocean (hence the
Norwegian name).
d. Continental Scour Lakes

• These lakes collectively represent the single largest body of


freshwater in the world (Approximately Equalled In Volume By
Lake Baikal).
• THE NORTH AMERICAN GREAT LAKES Are an outstanding
example of continental scour lakes (but there are many smaller
lakes of this type).
• Characteristics Include: An irregular bottom due to the
differential resistance to scouring by the parent rock, and an
ongoing tilting of the shorelines because of isostatic rebound.
e. Kettles

• Kettle lakes result from the collapse of overlying material after a


block of relict ice melts. As expected, kettles are small and
nearly circular.
• Kettles are common in some areas of THE UPPER MID-WEST.
BEDROCK’S LAKE OR SOLUTION LAKE

• These occurs in most of the Lime Stone Base Depressions And Also
By Salt Deposits.
• Solution lakes result from the dissolution of soluble rock, usually
carbonates.
• The dissolution results from:
CACO3 + H2O + CO2 CA+2 + 2 HCO3
• Examples are Lake Jackson (Tallahassee), Is Known Nationally
As A Premiere Bass Fishing Lake, And Region In The US Of
Solution Lakes, The Romanian Lake.
FUNNEL SHAPED (DOLINES).
BEFORE
AFTER
HOLE
FLUVIATILE LAKES
• LAKES FORMED BY THE ACTION OF RIVERS OR BY FLOOD ARE FLUVIATILE
LAKES.
a. Plunge Pool Lakes
• There are plunge pool lakes In Eastern Washington Where The Columbia
Once Flowed Over A Cliff (Soap Lake, Etc.) And In Idaho.

DRY FALLS, WASHINGTON


b. Oxbow Lakes
• Oxbow lakes are common features on the flood plain of a
mature river valley.
• Examples are BLUE LAKE AND VANCOUVER LAKE.
• A large number of shallow
lakes emerge during the
wet cycle of large tropical
rivers. These lakes
commonly dry up during
the dry season, but can be
extremely important to the
biology of the region

HORSESHOE LAKE, WOODLAND, WA. FORMED ON LEWIS RIVER.


WIND DEFLATED LAKE’S
• Lake basins may be formed by the erosion action of the wind by
accumulating wind borne material.
• They are short lived.
• They occur in aired area after rainfall, excessive evaporation causes its to
become the great salt.
• Moses Lake In Eastern Washington Is Said To Be The Result Of Wind Action.
There Are Many Small Bodies Of Water Along The Oregon Coast Which Are
The Result Of Deflation Of Sand Down To The Water Table.
TAYLOR LAKE, OREGON DUNES NRA
SHORELINE LAKE’S

• Lake basins may result from the growth of spits across the
mouth of bays or estuaries.
• If the passage to the sea becomes narrow enough, a freshwater
basin is formed.
• Example: LAGOONS OF MEXICO.
METEORITE IMPACT CRATER’S
• Rare and dramatic.
• The only well documented example is the New Quebec Crater
In Northern Quebec. The Basin Was Formed By The
Explosion Of Gases Following The Impact Of A Meteorite.
LAKES FORMED BY DAMS
• Two species of vertebrates build dams: humans and beavers.
• Reservoirs are of course very young in geological terms. Some characteristic
features include: shorelines which are subject to active erosion (especially
with fluctuating water levels) and (usually) a dendritic shape.
• Other human activities can also produce lakes: quarries, subsidence over
subsurface mines.
GRAND COULEE
ARTIFICIAL LAKE’S

• A lake created by flooding land behind a dam, called an


impoundment or reservoir, by deliberate human excavation, or
by the flooding of an excavation incident to a mineral-extraction
operation such as an open pit mine or quarry.
• Some of the world's largest lakes are reservoirs like HIRAKUND
DAM IN INDIA.
• Existence of artificial lakes are from the back of 400 years.
LAKE PARRAMATTA, AN ARTIFICIAL LAKE IN SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA
ONE OF THE MANY ARTIFICIAL LAKES IN ARIZONA AT SUNSET.
DAM’S
DAM’S
• A dam is a barrier that impounds water or underground streams.
• Reservoirs created by dams not only suppress floods but also provide water
for activities such as irrigation, human consumption, industrial
use, aquaculture, and navigability. 
• The word DAM can be traced back to middle English, and before that,
from middle Dutch, as seen in the names of many old cities.
• The first known appearance of dam occurs in 1165.
• However, there is one village, Obdam, that is already mentioned in 1120. The
word seems to be related to the Greek word taphos, meaning "GRAVE" OR
"GRAVE HILL". So the word should be understood as "dike from dug out
earth".
Definition

• Dam is a solid barrier constructed at a suitable location


across a river valley to store flowing water.
OR
• The arrangement made for systematic control of water flow
for better optimum utilization of available water.
PURPOSE OF DAM
REQUIREMENT OF DAM
PARTS OF DAM
• Heel: Contact with the ground on the upstream side 
• Toe: Contact On The Downstream Side
• Dam Body: Body forms the main part of A dam as an impervious barrier
• Reservoir: It is the artificial lake behind A dam body
• Spillway: Is that part of A dam to evacuate the flood water from reservoir.
• Water Intake Structures: Is A facility to withdraw water from A reservoir.
• Sluiceway: An opening in the dam near the ground level, which is used to
clear the silt accumulation in the reservoir side.
• Abutment: Sides of the valley on which the structure of the dam rest
• Diversion Facilities: To redirect the streamflow from construction area
CLASSIFICATION OF DAM
• Dams can be formed by human agency, natural causes, or even by the
intervention of wildlife such as beavers. Man-made dams are typically
classified according to their size (height), intended purpose or structure.
• The dams are classified by various characters-
1. By STRUCTURE
2. By SIZE
3. By USE
4. By MATERIAL
5. Other NATURAL PROCESS
BY STRUCTURE

• Based on structure and material used, dams are


classified as easily created without materials, arch-
gravity dams, embankment dams or masonry dams,
with several subtypes.
Arch Dam
• In the arch dam, stability is obtained by a combination of arch and gravity
action. If the upstream face is vertical the entire weight of the dam must be
carried to the foundation by gravity, while the distribution of the
normal hydrostatic pressure between vertical cantilever and arch action will
depend upon the stiffness of the dam in a vertical and horizontal direction.
• When the upstream face is sloped the distribution is more complicated. 
• EXAMPLE: WILDHORSE DAM NEAR MOUNTAIN CITY, NEVADA, IN THE
UNITED STATES and GORDON DAM, TASMANIA, is an arch dam.
An arch dam is a curved dam
which is dependent upon arch
action for its strength.
Arch dams are thinner and
therefore require less
material than any other
type of dam.
Arch dams are good for
sites that are narrow and
have strong abutments.
Material of Construction:
Concrete
Gravity Dam
• In a gravity dam, the force that holds the dam in place against
the push from the water is earth's gravity pulling down on the
mass of the dam.
• The GRAND COULEE DAM is an example of a solid gravity
dam.
Gravity dams are dams which resist
the horizontal thrust of the water
entirely by their own weight.

Concrete gravity dams are


typically used to block streams
through narrow gorges.
Material of Construction: Concrete, Rubber Masonry
Arch Gravity Dam

• A gravity dam can be combined with an arch dam into an arch-


gravity dam for areas with massive amounts of water flow but
less material available for a purely gravity dam.
• The inward compression of the dam by the water reduces the
lateral (horizontal) force acting on the dam. Thus, the
gravitation force required by the dam is lessened, i.e. The dam
does not need to be so massive.
• This enables thinner dams and saves resources.
Barrages
• A barrage dam is a special kind of dam which consists of a line of large gates
that can be opened or closed to control the amount of water passing the
dam.
• The gates are set between flanking piers which are responsible for supporting
the water load, and are often used to control and stabilize water flow for
irrigation systems.
• An example of this type of dam is the now-decommissioned RED BLUFF
DIVERSION DAM ON THE SACRAMENTO RIVER NEAR RED BLUFF,
CALIFORNIA & HIRAKUD BARRAGE, INDIA.
• Barrages that are built at the mouths of rivers or lagoons to prevent tidal
incursions or utilize the tidal flow for tidal power are known as tidal
barrages.
HIRAKUD BARRAGE
Buttress Dam
• A buttress dam or hollow dam is a dam with a solid, water-tight upstream side
that is supported at intervals on the downstream side by a series of buttresses
or supports.
• The dam wall may be straight or curved.
• Most buttress dams are made of reinforced concrete and are heavy, pushing
the dam into the ground. Water pushes against the dam, but the buttresses are
inflexible and prevent the dam from falling over.
• Buttress or hollow gravity dams were originally built to retain water for
irrigation or mining in areas of scarce or expensive resources but cheap labour.
A buttress dam is a good choice in wide valleys where solid rock is rare.
Buttress dams can take many forms - the face may be flat
or curved.
Material of Construction: Concrete, Timber,
Steel
Embankment DamEmbankment dams are massive
dams made of earth or rock.

They rely on their weight to


resist the flow of water.
Material of Construction: Earth, Rock
BY SIZE

• International standards (including the international commission


on large dams, ICOLD) define large dams as higher than 15 m
(49 ft.) and major dams as over 150 m (490 ft.) in height.  
• The report of the world commission on dams also includes in
the large category, dams, such as barrages, which are between
5 and 15 m (16 and 49 ft.) high with a reservoir capacity of more
than 3 million cubic metres (2,400 acre·ft.).
• The tallest dam in the world is the 300 m-high (980 ft.) Nurek
Dam In Tajikistan.
BY USE

• SADDLE DAM
A saddle dam is an auxiliary dam constructed to confine the reservoir created by a
primary dam either to permit a higher water elevation and storage or to limit the
extent of a reservoir for increased efficiency. An auxiliary dam is constructed in a
low spot or "saddle" through which the reservoir would otherwise escape. On
occasion, a reservoir is contained by a similar structure called a dike to prevent
inundation of nearby land. Dikes are commonly used for reclamation of arable land
from a shallow lake. This is similar to a levee, which is a wall or embankment built
along a river or stream to protect adjacent land from flooding.

• WEIR
A weir (also sometimes called an overflow dam) is a type of small overflow dam that
is often used within a river channel to create an impoundment lake for water
abstraction purposes and which can also be used for flow measurement or
retardation.
• DRY DAM
A dry dam, also known as a flood retarding structure, is a dam designed to control
flooding. It normally holds back no water and allows the channel to flow freely, except
during periods of intense flow that would otherwise cause flooding downstream.

• DIVERSIONARY DAM
A diversionary dam is a structure designed to divert all or a portion of the flow of a river
from its natural course. The water may be redirected into a canal or tunnel for irrigation
and/or hydroelectric power production.

• UNDERGROUND DAM
Underground dams are used to trap groundwater and store all or most of it below the
surface for extended use in a localized area. In some cases they are also built to prevent
saltwater from intruding into a freshwater aquifer. Underground dams are typically
constructed in areas where water resources are minimal and need to be efficiently stored,
such as in deserts and on islands like the Fukuzato dam in Okinawa, japan. They are most
common in North-eastern Africa and the arid areas of Brazil while also being used in
the Southwestern United States, Mexico, India, Germany, Italy, Greece, France and Japan.
• TAILINGS DAM
A tailings dam is typically an earth-fill embankment dam used to
store tailings, which are produced during mining operations after
separating the valuable fraction from the uneconomic fraction of an ore.
Conventional water retention dams can serve this purpose, but due to cost,
a tailings dam is more viable. Unlike water retention dams, a tailings dam is
raised in succession throughout the life of the particular mine. Typically, a
base or starter dam is constructed, and as it fills with a mixture of tailings
and water, it is raised. Material used to raise the dam can include the
tailings (depending on their size) along with dirt.
• CHECK DAM
A check dam is a small dam designed to reduce flow velocity and control
soil erosion. Conversely, a wing dam is a structure that only partly restricts
a waterway, creating a faster channel that resists the accumulation of
sediment.
BY MATERIAL
• STEEL DAMS
A steel dam is a type of dam briefly experimented with around the start of the 20th
century which uses steel plating (at an angle) and load-bearing beams as the
structure. Intended as permanent structures, steel dams were an (arguably failed)
experiment to determine if a construction technique could be devised that was
cheaper than masonry, concrete or earthworks, but sturdier than timber crib dams.

Red Ridge steel dam, built 1905, Michigan


• TIMBER DAMS
Timber dams were widely used in the early part of the industrial revolution
and in frontier areas due to ease and speed of construction. Rarely built in
modern times because of their relatively short lifespan and the limited
height to which they can be built, timber dams must be kept constantly wet
in order to maintain their water retention properties and limit deterioration
by rot, similar to a barrel. The locations where timber dams are most
economical to build are those where timber is plentiful, cement is costly or
difficult to transport, and either a low head diversion dam is required or
longevity is not an issue. Timber dams were once numerous, especially in
the north American west, but most have failed, been hidden under earth
embankments, or been replaced with entirely new structures. Two common
variations of timber dams were the crib and the plank.
A timber crib dam in Michigan, photographed in 1978
OTHER TYPES
• COFFERDAMS
A cofferdam is a barrier, usually temporary, constructed to exclude water from an
area that is normally submerged. Made commonly of wood, concrete,
or steel sheet piling, cofferdams are used to allow construction on
the foundation of permanent dams, bridges, and similar structures. When the
project is completed, the cofferdam will usually be demolished or removed unless
the area requires continuous maintenance. (See also causeway and retaining
wall.)
Common uses for cofferdams include construction and repair of offshore oil
platforms. In such cases the cofferdam is fabricated from sheet steel and welded
into place under water. Air is pumped into the space, displacing the water and
allowing a dry work environment below the surface.
A cofferdam during the construction of locks at
the Montgomery Point Lock and Dam
• NATURAL DAMS
Dams can also be created by natural geological forces. Volcanic dams are formed when lava
flows, often basaltic, intercept the path of a stream or lake outlet, resulting in the creation of a
natural impoundment. An example would be the eruptions of the Uinkaret volcanic field about 1.8
million–10,000 years ago, which created lava dams on the Colorado river in northern Arizona in
the united states. The largest such lake grew to about 800 km (500 mi) in length before the failure
of its dam. Glacial activity can also form natural dams, such as the damming of the clark
fork in montana by the cordilleran ice sheet, which formed the 7,780 km2 (3,000 sq mi) glacial
lake missoula near the end of the last ice age. Moraine deposits left behind by glaciers can also
dam rivers to form lakes, such as at flathead lake, also in montana (see moraine-dammed
lake).Natural disasters such as earthquakes and landslides frequently create landslide dams in
mountainous regions with unstable local geology. Historical examples include the usoi
dam in tajikistan, which blocks the murghab river to create Sarez lake. At 560 m (1,840 ft) high, it
is the tallest dam in the world, including both natural and man-made dams. A more recent
example would be the creation of attabad lake by a landslide on Pakistan's Hunza river.
Natural dams often pose significant hazards to human settlements and infrastructure. The
resulting lakes often flood inhabited areas, while a catastrophic failure of the dam could cause
even greater damage, such as the failure of western Wyoming's gros ventre landslide dam in
1927, which wiped out the town of kelly and resulted in the deaths of six people.
• BEAVER DAMS
Beavers create dams primarily out of mud and sticks to flood a
particular habitable area. By flooding a parcel of land, beavers can
navigate below or near the surface and remain relatively well hidden
or protected from predators. The flooded region also allows beavers
access to food, especially during the winter.
ADVANTAGE OF DAM
• 40 % OF WORLD FOOD PRODUCTION COMES FROM
IRRIGATED FORMING OUT OF WHICH 16% IS
CONTRIBUTED DUE TO DAMS.
• 30-40% OF 268 MILLION HECTARES OF IRRIGATED LAND IS
WATERED FROM DAMS
• 19% OF WORLD ENERGY COMES FROM HYDRO-ELECTRIC
POWER ( WHICH INCLUDES 150 COUNTRIES)
• 90% OF 24 COUNTRIES
• 50% IN 63 COUNTRIES
DISADVANTAGE OF DAM
• FLOOD
• NOT ECONOMICAL
• TIME
• CULTURAL DAMAGE

• LOSS OF FORESTS , WILDLIFE HABITAT, THE


DEGRADATION OF UPSTREAM CATCHMENTS

The fragmentation and physical
transformation of rivers
• DISRUPTION OF FISHING AND WATERWAY TRAFFIC
THANK YOU!