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Vorwort

Anlass für dieses Buch war der „Tag der Forschung“, ein im Sommer 2011 an der Universität Wien abgehaltenes Symposion zum Konstruktiven Realismus. Rund die Hälfte der in diesem Buch versammelten Beiträge wurde als Vorträge am Symposion gehalten, die übrigen im Nachhinein für dieses erarbeitet. In vielseitigen und interdisziplinären Ansätzen werden verschiedene „As- pekte des Konstruktiven Realismus“ behandelt. Philosophische, d.h. wissen- schaftstheoretische Grundfragen stehen neben diversen einzelwissenschaftlichen Anwendungen der Konzepte des Konstruktiven Realismus, insbesondere seiner Methode der Verfremdung.

Fengli Lan und Friedrich Wallner zeigen am Beispiel der Chinesischen Medizin, wie man interkulturelle Strategien entwickeln kann. Khosrow Bagheri bietet eine Islam-Interpretation, in der eine gleichermaßen konstruktive wie realistische Sicht zum Ausdruck kommt, und erarbeitet das Konzept für eine „Religiöse Wissenschaft“. Karl Edlinger kritisiert aus konstruktiv-realistischer Sicht die traditionelle Evo- lutionstheorie. Andreas Schulz vergleicht Wallners Konstruktiven Realismus mit Glasersfelds Radikalem Konstruktivismus. Michael Franck stellt die Methode der Verfremdung im Konstruktiven Realis- mus der Verfremdung in Brechts Schauspieltheorie gegenüber. Gerhard Klünger erläutert einige Beispiele der Verfremdung im Bereich der Pä- dagogik. Nicole Holzenthal stellt den Konstruktiven Realismus dem philosophischen Ma- terialismus Gustavo Buenos gegenüber. Wolfgang Schelberger führt einen verfremdenden Vergleich der beiden Psycho- therapien von Gunther Schmidt und Steve de Shazer durch. Saied Zarghami Hamrah schlägt eine Erneuerung des Chemie-Unterrichts mit Hilfe der wissenschaftstheoretischen Überlegungen des Konstruktiven Rea- lismus vor. Koji Nakatogawa, Hajime Tanaka und Hiroyasu Nagata vergleichen die Bezie- hungen zwischen klassischer Physik und Quantenmechanik mit Gödels Un- vollständigkeitssätzen. Shiva Khalili bietet eine Klassifikation verschiedener Arten der Integration von Religion und Spiritualität in die Psychotherapie.

Wolfgang Schelberger vergleicht Wallners Konstruktiven Realismus mit Feyerabends Relativismus. Mansour El-Ganady skizziert eine vom Konstruktiven Realismus inspirierte Phi- losophie der Globalisierung, die zu einer „konstruktiven Realität“ menschli- chen Lebens anleiten soll.

In den vielseitigen Ansätzen kommt der interdisziplinäre und interkulturelle Charakter, der für den Konstruktiven Realismus wesentlich ist, sehr gut zum Ausdruck.

Wien, im März 2012

Die Herausgeber

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Fengli Lan / Friedrich Wallner How to Develop Intercultural Strategies:

Chinese Medicine as an Example

9

Khosrow Bagheri Noaparast Constructive Realism: A Reading of Islam and a Version of Religious Science

49

Karl Edlinger Der verfremdete Darwin:

brauchen wir eine neue Evolutionstheorie?

69

Andreas Schulz Glasersfelds Radikaler Konstruktivismus und Wallners Konstruktiver Realismus

113

Michael Frank Verfremdung bei Brecht

139

Gerhard Klünger Verfremdung als Instrument der Bewusstmachung

151

Nicole Holzenthal de Cimadevilla Wissenschaftsphilosophische Fragen an den Philosophischen Materialismus und den Konstruktiven Realismus

179

Wolfgang Schelberger Gunther Schmidt und Steve de Shazer im konstruktiv-realistischen Dialog

205

Saied Zarghami Hamrah The Nature of Knowledge in Constructive Realism:

A

Ground for Revision of Chemistry Education in High Schools

227

Hajime Tanaka / Koji Nakatogawa / Hiroyasu Nagata

A

proposition called T0906 and Gödel's Incompleteness Theorem

247

Shiva Khalili

Psychology, Psychotherapy and Religion:

A Decision between Religious or

Culture and Religion Sensitive Approach

269

Wolfgang Schelberger Die Verfremdung im Spannungsfeld der Methodologie des Radikalen Konstruktivismus und des Relativismus nach Feyerabend

295

Mansour El-Ganady

Constructing a Constructive Reality:

A

Call for a Globalization Philosophy

315

Über die Autoren / On the Authors

337

Fengli Lan / Friedrich Wallner

How to Develop Intercultural Strategies:

Chinese Medicine as an Example 1

Both transmission of Chinese medicine to the West and dissemination of Wes- tern medicine in China started in the Ming dynasty (16 th -17 th centuries). Some missionaries taught and spread religion by practicing Western medicine; meanwhile, they introduced Chinese medicine curiously, esp. their own expe- riences in Chinese medicine, to the West. Over 300 years passed by. At present, Chinese medicine and Western medicine actually coexist no matter in China or in the West. Chinese medicine is not only a special medical system with distinc- tive cultural features of China, but is also a medical system for the mankind of the whole world. There are three main problems foreign students face when they study Chi- nese medicine: 1) the cultural differences between Western medicine and Chi- nese medicine, 2) ambiguous translations and even misinterpretations of Chinese medical concepts and terms, and 3) the limitation of the capacity of memory. The students here I mean are those who will study Chinese medicine for at least 500 class hours not the visitors who just take a three-day visit to get a glimpse of Chinese medicine. Briefly speaking, the intended readers are professionals not laymen. As regards to the above mentioned problems, we propose three correspond- ing resolutions: 1) Take an intercultural approach to bridge the differences be- tween Western medicine and Chinese medicine by applying “Strangification”, the methodology of Constructive Realism, 2) Fulfill cultural, linguistic, and communicative values of translation to make translation of Chinese medical concepts and terms faithful to the original and understandable for foreign stu- dents, and 3) Understand Chinese medicine as a linguistic knowledge system by

1 This paper is a common research outcome of a national research project “A Corpus- Based Translation Study on Classical Chinese Medical Texts” (No. 09CYY008) spon- sored by National Social Science Fund of China and "Theory, Methodology and Struc- ture of TCM", one of the Joint Research Projects of the TCM Research Cluster Austria together with the Sino-Austrian Collaborating Centre for Chinese Medicine Research:

TCM and Age Related Diseases.

understanding its forming procedure - linguistication and the importance of metaphors in Chinese medicine. The paper expounds the above mentioned strategies from the following as- pects: 1 Understanding Chinese Medicine As Its History, A Linguistic Medical System, and A philosophy, 2 Cultural Differences between Western Medicine and Chinese Medicine, 3 English Translation of Chinese Medical Concepts and Terms, and 4 Interpreting Chinese Medicine with Methodology of Constructive Realism: Strangification.

1 Understanding Chinese Medicine As Its History, A Linguistic Medical System, and A Philosophy

There are two main ways of researching Chinese medicine in the West, the way of Sinology and the way of natural sciences (especially pharmaceutics). Sinol- ogy is a geisteswissenschaft not taking into account that Chinese medicine is more than a system of signs; natural sciences, on the other hand, neglect the fact that the art of healing in Chinese medicine is insolvably connected with its cul- tural background. Hence, the first way of research does not pay respect to the effectiveness of Chinese medicine, and the second way actually destroys Chi- nese medicine by imposing its own methods on it. But Chinese medicine is a culturally dependent art of healing, i.e. a real medicine that roots in a special culture.

1.1 Understanding Chinese Medicine As Its History 2

The history always becomes the past. But the history of Chinese medicine is surely an exceptional case. We would like to say “Chinese Medicine Is Its His- tory” for the historical literature of Chinese medicine reflects cultural presuppo- sitions of Chinese medicine, records its origin and development, and is the most important source of the knowledge system of Chinese medicine. The update knowledge system of Chinese medicine is the sum total of the knowledge con- tained in all of the literature on Chinese medicine of all the times - from Qin- Han Dynasties (221 B.C. – 220 A.D. ) to the 21 st century.

2 Lan Fengli. Chinese Medicine Is Its History. In Lan, Wallner, and Wobovnik (eds). SHEN, Psychotherapy and Acupuncture: Theory, Methodology and Structure of Chine- se Medicine [C]. 2011.

Generally speaking, Chinese medicine is leant, known and developed in this way: acquire profound knowledge by memorising theories and experiences of the ancients in the texts, put these theories and experiences into and combine them with one’s own practice, and develop Chinese medicine by interpreting ancient medical literature with one’s own experiences and leaving one’s own writings to the later generations if possible. The ways of knowing and practicing Chinese medicine in the past were of mainly three patterns: one was taught by a specific person such as a local famous doctor, known as master-apprentice type; one was handed down from the older generations of the family such as his fa- ther, grandfather, or uncle; and one was self-taught, e.g., reading and studying ancient medical classics by himself. While nowadays the way of knowing Chi- nese medicine since 1915 is of mainly one pattern, i.e. the Westernized Profes- sional Standard Way. Differences in the ways of knowing and practicing Chi- nese medicine in the past and nowadays result in the gap between Classical Chi- nese Medicine (CCM) and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Such differ- ences are vital important for understanding the real Chinese medicine and for the further development of Chinese medicine. Table 1 shows the gap between Clas- sical Chinese Medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine.

Table 1: The Gap Between Classical Chinese Medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine 3,4

Type of Difference

Classical Chinese Medicine

Traditional Chinese Medicine

Philosophical Foun- dation

Naturalist philosophy (Taoism)

Pragmatist philosophy (scien- tific materialism, communism)

Definition of the profession

Requires broad base of knowl- edge due to intimate relationship to other traditional arts and sci- ences

A technical and highly special- ised trade

Understanding of the Body

Body is treated as a microcosm that follows macrocosmic laws and is continually informed by macrocosmic influences

Body is treated as an independ- ent entity

Diagnostic Proce- dure

Clinical diagnosis primarily based on “subjective” experience of the senses

Clinical diagnosis primarily informed by “objective” in- strumental data

3 Fruehauf, Heiner. Chinese Medicine in Crisis [J]. Journal of Chinese Medicine. 1999, 10: 1-9.

4 Wallner Friedrich G, Lan Fengli. Rationality of Acupuncture: How to Protest Acupunc- ture against Misunderstanding, 2009.

What is TCM? “The term ‘TCM’ is increasingly used in the West for the ar- tificial construct generated between 1950 and 1965 by committees in PR China (as described by Kim Taylor in her book ‘Chinese Medicine in Early Commu- nist China’). ‘TCM’ is not considered a suitable term for describing Chinese medicine prior to the 20th century. We use either ‘Chinese Medicine’ or, in jux- taposition with ‘Western Medicine’: Chinese Traditional Medicine”. 5 The making of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in the communist China and the followed dissemination of TCM to other countries result in that Chinese medicine has been gradually losing its advantages and being western- ized in the whole world. “TCM, the medical system that has monopolized the practice of Oriental medicine in mainland China, and that has come to serve as the main mold for the budding profession of Oriental medicine around the globe. It exposes a system that has been conditioned by a distinctly political agenda, and reveals its logo ‘TCM’ (Traditional Chinese Medicine) as a grave misno- mer--designating a medicine that is not at all aiming to preserve the traditional characteristics of Chinese medicine, but, on the contrary, to expurgate, reform, and control the classical and folkloric texture of the traditional record in the name of progress. Between the lines of this argument resides the warning that the progressive removal of the unique foundations of Chinese medicine is far more than just a philosophical issue. It affects the heart of our medicine itself, namely the nature of the clinical encounter and the quality and the results of therapy. It greatly diminishes, moreover, the unique edge that the traditional sci- ence of Chinese medicine has over allopathic medicine and its various off- shoots.” 6 But both Classical Chinese Medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine are different stages in the long development course of Chinese medicine. In the 21 st century the most important thing for Chinese medicine is to modernize not west- ernize it preconditioned that its specific advantages can be preserved.

5 Unschuld, Paul U. Personal Mail to the Author in 2008.

6 Fruehauf, Heiner. Chinese Medicine in Crisis: Science, Politics, and the Making of “TCM” [J]. Journal of Chinese Medicine. No 61 Oct 1999: 1-9.

1.2

Understanding Chinese Medicine As A Linguistic Medical System 7

Compared to Western medicine, an applied science based on achievements of Western science and technology, Chinese medicine is a typical linguistic medi- cal system in essence for it is formed in the way of linguistication and is re- corded in self-interpreting Chinese characters. Therefore Chinese medicine can be regarded as a linguistic medical system being composed of its language writ- ing forms, concepts, terminology, formulations, sentences, and their logic rela- tionships. The core knowledge of Chinese medicine is from classical Chinese medical texts, which are written in self-interpreting characters, or more exact, sino- grams 8 . Compared to phonetic writings, Chinese language (logographic writing) is more stable and accumulative. In Chinese language, giving the original char- acter new meanings by the way of metaphorizing instead of creating new char- acters is the major way to reflect the changes and developments of the world and the means and process of Chinese people cognizing, understanding and stating the world. After tracing back to the original meanings of characters, concepts and statements are not difficult to understand in their contexts in a broad sense, which also provide us extensive but close links among different disciplines of Chinese science and culture. Therefore, etymology investigation is of vital sig- nificance for etymology of a character can unify all the migrating meanings of concepts based on the one character with the same etymology. The theoretical system of Chinese medicine is stated and expressed in a natural language with the two major characteristics: being polysemous and ambiguous, which can also be clarified and unified by etymology investigation and metaphor understanding.

7 Lan Fengli. Metaphor, Qu Xiang Bi Lei and Chinese Medicine. In Wallner, Lan and Jandl (eds). The Way of Thinking in Chinese Medicine: Theory, Methodology and Structure of Chinese Medicine [C]. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2010: 63-88.

8 For translation of Chinese 汉字 we prefer “sinogram” instead of “Chinese character”, which was originally proposed by Prof. Pan Wenguo in his monograph entitled “Zi Standard and Chinese Language Study” published in 2002.

1.3

Understanding Chinese Medicine As A Philosophy:

Metaphorizing 9

Chinese medicine has been developed in the framework which the Four Great Medical Classics 10 established around 2000 years ago. Historical texts of Chi- nese medicine are full of metaphors: from terms to sentences, to paragraphs, to texts, and even to the whole system, 11 which reflect the imaging thinking in Chi- nese medicine. Metaphor is an important field of study shared in rhetoric, linguistics and philosophy. The nature of metaphor is to understand, analyze, perceive, and de- scribe one category of things through another. Qu Xiang Bi Lei or Taking Image and Analogizing, the core, specific and major methodology of Chinese science and culture (including Chinese medicine), results in the formation of metaphors, and thus is the metaphorizing process. In order words, metaphorizing is the ma- jor way to form the ontological concepts, the fundamental theories, and to de- velop clinical explorations of Chinese medicine. And only by understanding the metaphors in Chinese medicine, we know that Chinese medicine is a different medical system from Western medicine which weaves natural and social phe- nomena together with the basic correct understanding of the body as an integ- rity, thus revealing its methodology “Qu Xiang Bi Lei 取象比類 or Taking Im- age and analogizing” under the guidance of “Tian Ren He Yi 天人合一 or and Universe Man Uniting and Resembling Each Other”, the core idea of classical Chinese philosophy. By this way it becomes clear that Chinese medicine must not be taken as a natural science in the Western sense, but it goes closer to hu- manities (geisteswissenschaften). Here it is worth to note that Qu Xiang Bi Lei is the core, specific and major methodology of Chinese science and culture, and metaphorizations are the cen- tre and of the most significance in Chinese scientific discourses, while induction and deduction are the core and major methodologies of Western science, and metaphorizations in Western scientific discourses are far away from being ac- knowledged compared to the so-called objective descriptive language.

9 Lan Fengli. Chinese Medicine as a Philosophy: Metaphorizing. In Lan, Wallner, and Wobovnik (eds). SHEN, Psychotherapy and Acupuncture: Theory, Methodology and Structure of Chinese Medicine [C]. 2011.

10 The Four Great Medical Classics refer to Huang Di's Inner Classic, Classic of Difficult Issues, Treatise on Cold-Induced and Miscellaneous Diseases, and Shen Nong's Classic of Materia Medica.

11 Lan Fengli. Chinese Medicine as a Philosophy: Metaphorizing. In Lan, Wallner, and Wobovnik (eds). SHEN, Psychotherapy and Acupuncture: Theory, Methodology and Structure of Chinese Medicine [C]. 2011.

The Chapter 25 of Lao Tzu states:

“Therefore, Tao is great. Heaven is great. Earth is great. Man is great. In the universe, there are four great things, and man is one of them. Man abides by the earth. Earth abides by the heaven. Heaven abides by Tao. Tao abides by the nature”.

It is thus clear that metaphorizing is also the bridge in between the Tao (The Way) of the Nature and Medicine. “Heaven”, “Earth”, and “Man” compose a whole system; In Lao Tzu, Tao abides by the nature; In Huang Di’s Inner Clas- sic, medicine abides by the Tao; In essence, medicine abides by the nature.

2 Cultural Differences between Western Medicine and Chinese Medicine

As a medical system, Chinese medicine and Western medicine share at least 2 common features, one is that both deal with the same object - life processes and diseases of the human beings; the other is that both take preventing and treating diseases as the same goal. But, Chinese medicine bears strong characteristics as a discipline of humanities; while Western medicine, esp. modern Western medi- cine, has typical features of modern Western science, or in other words, an ap- plied science based on achievements of Western science and technology. What are the cultural differences between the two medical systems? How do these dif- ferences influence the dissemination of Chinese medicine in the West? A leading authority on Chinese herbal medicine, Dr. Yakazu Domei, lists the following differences between Chinese medicine and Western medicine: 12

12

www.tcmhelp.com/Theory/3.htm

Chinese Medicine

1. Philosophical

2.

3.

4.

5. Conformational

6.

7.

8. Individualized

9. Preventive

Synthetic

Holistic

Internal

Empirical

Hygienic

10. Experiential

11.

12.

13. Natural sources

Humoral

Subjective

Western Medicine

1. Scientific

Analytical

Topical

Surgical

5. Heteropathic

4.

2.

3.

6.

7.

8. Socialized

9. Bacteriological

10. Experimental

Theoretical

Preventive

11.

12.

13. Synthetic analogy

Cellular

Objective

Hereafter is our understanding of the cultural differences between the two medi- cal systems.

2.1 Chinese Medicine Going Closer to Humanities Rather than Natural Science

There is no breakthrough but only development and enrichment in Chinese medicine since the establishment of the knowledge system of Chinese medicine about 2000 years ago; and there is even no real development since the estab- lishment of standardized transmission of Chinese medicine in 1956. Why? You can get our answer from the Table 2. In contemporary China, Chinese medicine is classified as a discipline of natural science by the government of China since 1956. For example, there are two major national foundations in China, one is National Natural Science Foun- dation of China (NNSFC) for sponsoring research projects in the field of natural science, where Chinese medicine is included; the other is National Funds for Social Science for sponsoring research projects in the field of social science, where Chinese medicine is excluded. That is to say, researches on Chinese medicine have to be performed by applying Western scientific methods and evaluated according to Western scientific standards, 13 which inevitably results in

13 Note: Generally speaking, the researches on Chinese medicine are mainly classified into three major categories: Studies on the History and Literature of Chinese Medicine, Cli- nical Trials, and Experimental Studies, of which studies on the history and literature are

that there is even no real development in Chinese medicine no matter in aspect of theoretical or clinical framework. The reason is that Chinese medicine is to- tally different from and incompatible with Western science and it is not re- searched in an adequate way, and such approaches to Chinese medicine do not accord with its philosophical characteristics.

Table 2: Different Views of Heart in Hippocratic Corpus and Huang Di Nei Jing 14

Heart

Hippocratic Corpus 15

Huang Di Nei Jing 16

General Un-

Two atriums and two ventricles;

The organ as a Monarch, from which spirit originates; the root of life, the seat of the spirit; the greater yang within yang;

derstanding

Main Func-

The right atrium provides lungs with blood, accepts air from lungs, exchanges air;

Rules the body’s blood and vessels; opens into the tongue; it’s brilliance manifests in the face;

tions

Relations to

There is only air, no blood in the left atrium; the left atrium is the location of intrinsic heat.

South, summer, hot & fire, bitter, red, zheng, elation, laughing, and the Heart, etc. all correspond to fire in the five elemental phases; the heart (fire) en- genders the spleen (earth).

Others

the most difficult to get foundation or sponsor and are usually separated from clinical and experimental studies on Chinese medicine, and almost all clinical and experimental studies are performed in accordance with the Western scientific standards. But the author holds that Chinese medicine is its history. See the paper “Chinese Medicine Is Its History” in details.

14 LAN Fengli. Intercultural Philosophy and Chinese Medicine: Reflections of Philosophy of Chinese Medicine in Chinese Language. In Lan Fengli, Wallner F. G., Jandl M.J (eds.). Chinese Medicine and Intercultural Philosophy: Theory, Methodology and Struc- ture of Chinese Medicine [C]. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2010: 14-34.

15 Note: Here the contents from Hippocratic Corpus are translated into English from the Chinese translation.

16 Huang Di Nei Jing came out at about the same time as Hippocratic Corpus about 2000 years ago. As Unschuld said in “Prefatory Remarks” of “HUANG Di NEI JING SU WEN: Nature, Knowledge, Imagery in an Ancient Chinese Medical Text” (University of California Press, 2003: IX) that it “plays a role in Chinese medical history compa- rable to that of the Hippocratic writings in ancient Europe. Progress and significant pa- radigm changes have reduced Hippocrates to the honored originators of a tradition that has become obsolete. In contrast, many practitioners of Chinese medicine still consider the Su Wen a valuable source of theoretical inspiration and practical knowledge in mo- dern clinical settings. ”

Outcome

A Morphological Heart Organ:

A

Heart Complex System: Separates

Focuses on the morphological structure of the heart, thus pro- viding direction, possibilities and leaving space for the fur- ther study on its anatomical structure and corresponding physiological functions

“Heart” from the organ “Heart” in ana- tomical sense, integrates “Heart” with

the theories of Yin-Yang and Five Phases, social phenomena (Monarch), natural phenomena (season, direction,

climate, flavor, color), and other aspects

of

man (spirit, joy, tongue, face, spleen)

 

into “A Heart Complex System

Analysis

Guides Western medicine to develop on the philosophical foundation of reductionism, mechanism and dichotomy, thus embodying the analytical thinking

Establishes the theory of Visceral Im- age (藏象学), embodying the holistic approach “Four Seasons - Five Zang Organs – Yin-Yang” and “Universe and Man Uniting and Resembling Each Other”

Conclusion

Western Medicine continuously refreshes itself because of the application of advanced scien- tific technology and instruments (tools)

Chinese Medicine has formed a self- contained fruitful paradigm, so can be enriched and developed in the same framework – Qu Xiang Bi Lei guided by Tian Ren He Yi established about 2000 years ago, survive up till today.

2.2 Linguistic Differences

“Language is the outcome of culture. Language of a nation is the general reflection of the culture of the nation; but we can also say that language is a part of the culture, and that culture and language have developed together for thousands of years.” (Claude Levi Strauss, Translated into English from Chinese)

2.2.1 Logographic Writing, Phonetic Writing, and Thinking Ways

2.2.1.1 Logographic Writing and Thinking Ways of Chinese Medicine

Chinese characters (or sinograms) are the only logographic writing (as opposed to phonetic writing) which has been preserved for over 5,000 years. The shape of a Chinese character is directly related to its meaning, and both integrate into a unity. The formation of a Chinese character, an organic whole of the shape and the meaning, is one-step made following the rule of nature, reflecting the direct communication between and integration of the subject and the object. The for- mation also implies an important thinking way, i.e. the imaging thinking. Inte- gration of the subject and the object is a thread running through the classical Chinese culture and science, on the basis of which Universe and Man Uniting

and Resembling Each Other (tian ren he yi, 天人合一) constitutes the founda- tion of the classical Chinese culture and sciences. The imaging thinking is a spe- cific thinking way of classical China, whose process, methods, and rules make up the methodology of Taking Image and Analogizing (Qu Xiang Bi Lei, 取象比類), the core methodology of classical Chinese culture and science. Developed on the basis of the ideographic writing, Chinese characters and their meanings are quite stable and conservative, which greatly promotes the development of the imaging thinking in classical China. Then such a thinking way was set up in the Huang Di’s Inner Classic and has greatly influenced ex- perts of Chinese medicine of the later generations. The logographic writings of yin-yang陰陽, wu xing,or five phases 五行, qi and blood , the extensive analogizing and abundant imaging thinking ex- amples in the Huang Di’s Inner Classic, and criticism, proofreading, annotations for characters from the aspects of the “shape”, “pronunciation”, and “meaning” in the ancient medical classics made in the Ming (1368-1644 AD) and Qing (1644-1911 AD) Dynasties, all demonstrate the far-reaching influences of the logographic imaging thinking way on the development of Chinese medicine.

2.2.1.2 Phonetic Writing, and Thinking Ways of Western Medicine

Phonetic writing (as opposed to ideographic writing) is the most common writ- ing form in the world. English, German, French, Spanish, Portuguese, etc. are all phonetic writings, but are different languages composed by the same Latin al- phabets. Let’s take English as an example. Shapes of the English words are directly related to their pronunciations, but have nothing to do with the meanings or the external images of concrete things. That is to say, in phonetic writing forms, the shape is separate and independent from the meaning, and the meaning comes from man-made prescript outside the shape, which indicates that the formation of a word of the phonetic writing is composed of two steps: first, building its shape (spelling of alphabets); second, defining its meaning (linguistic rules or grammar). The understanding of the meanings of words is based on the sense of hearing, thus jumping out the think- ing frame of the visual sense of the concrete images of things, then providing a bigger possibility for logic thinking based on the abstraction, finally forming thinking traditions of abstract inference, conceptual thinking, categorization, and trying to make an objective judgment to the world. This is really indeed the case. The formation of phonetic writing reflects its two important characteristics: tool (alphabet) and abstraction (linguistic rules). Every tool is made to have a certain function according to human beings’ spe- cific aim or intention, thus becoming a medium of connection between human

beings and the nature, and so interrupting the natural direct communication be- tween them. Tool plays a vital role in the Western culture, esp. in the field of natural sciences, where it is standardized and systematized, and the experimental research approach characterized by the use of various tools was set up. Actually, the alphabet is the mother of various tools. The thinking way corresponding to the experimental research approach is abstraction. The rule of abstraction is logic, while linguistic rules or grammar is an embryonic form of logic. The emergence of tool reflects the relationship between the subject and the object, i.e., the separation and opposition of them (e.g. man remakes the nature). The abstraction pays more attention to being analytical, logical, and restricts imagination. The tool and abstraction become the foundation of the Western cul- ture and sciences, and of the natural sciences (including the Western medicine) in particular. The Western natural sciences manifest in two edges, which have been realized by more and more people as time goes by, i.e. environmental pol- lution and ecological imbalance, the repay of the nature to the human beings, always accompany the process of human conquering and remaking nature. As regards to the Western medicine, the two edges lie in that severe side effects, drug resistance, and effect being temporary always accompany the notable therapeutic effects. 17

2.2.2 Classical Medical Chinese, Medical English and Epistemology

Ferid Murad (1936-), a Nobel Prize winner in medicine (1998), set up Murad Research Institute for Modernized Chinese Medicine, a modern research centre on Chinese pharmacology named after his name with the collaboration with Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine in 2003. At that time, he said he was seeking for a language which is able to give a scientific interpreta- tion for pharmacological and molecule mechanisms of the therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal remedies. Chinese medicine has its own discourse, and so why do we need to look for another language to interpret it? Is it possible to find such a kind of language? Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951) believed that language is a kind of pictu- re, which cannot be proved with facts of the real world. That is to say, we do not need to prove or interpret the logic contained in the discourse of Chinese medi- cine with the so-called scientific method, what we should do is to regard it as a picture in which the discourse of Chinese medicine describes man’s lifestyle - a

17 Wang Zhenhua. Theoretical Difference between TCM and Western Medicine on the Basis of Linguistics: Modernization of TCM. China Journal of Traditional Chinese Me- dicine. 2001: 16 (6): 5.

harmonious state among man, the nature and the society, how man behaves in the daily life to preserve health, to prevent and treat illnesses, which is like a picture of the life world. According to Wittgenstein’s idea of philosophy of language - “language games”, Chinese medicine is definitely a kind of language, a language game in respect to man, its healthy state, and its connection with the Universe; Western medicine is another language game in respect to the body and its diseases; and the difference between both is that Chinese medicine does not reduce its langua- ge but it enriches it by metaphors. Therefore it makes sense to say: Chinese me- dicine is a natural language and Western medicine is a formal descriptive tech- nical language. Here is an importance difference for the theoretical understan- ding of both: Formal languages must be interpreted for getting sense. Natural languages are interpreting themselves. It’s true that the textual criticism, exegetical studies and annotations of an- cient medical classics have always been an important academic field of study in Chinese medicine up till now since the era of the Huang Di’s Inner Classic, 18 which helps the practitioners of Chinese medicine of the past dynasties un- derstand and develop Chinese medicine in both theoretical and clinical explora- tions. Now, let’s look at the two paragraphs about the origin of man both from the angle of genetics in Chinese medicine and Western medicine respectively:

人生於地,懸命於天,天地合氣,命之曰人。人能應四時者,天地為之父母(素問寶命全形論)。 Translation: Man is born on the earth, hanging his life to the heaven. The union of Qi of Heaven and Earth makes up a man. Man can adapt himself to the seasons for the Heaven and Earth are his parents. (Plain Questions·Discourse on Protecting Life and Preserving Physical Appearance)

“Man is metazoon, triploblastic, chordale, vertebrate, pentadactyle, mammalian, eutherian, primate… The outlines of each of his principal system of organs may be traced back, like those of other mammals, to the fishes.” (L.A.B.-orradaile) '譯文:人屬於後生動物,系五趾,三胚層高級動物,屬脊索動物門,脊 椎動物亞門,哺乳綱,靈長目……象其他哺乳動物一樣,他的每一個器官系統 的輪廓可以追溯到魚類。 19

It is clear that the latter is a kind of formal technical language, a typical language of modern Western science, which is only used as a tool to convey information,

18 Note: For example, the chapter of Zhen Jie of Plain Questions素問針解and the chap- ter of Xiao Zhen Jie of the Spirit Pivot 靈樞小針解 both interpret the chapter of Jiu Zhen Shi Er Yuan of the Spirit Pivot 灵枢 九針十二原.

19 Hou Weirui. English Styles of Writing [M]. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press, 1988: 278.

to identify its reference, and to express points of view. And it has become so boring and dry by the so-called theoretical and scientific statements. While dis- course of Chinese medicine is a kind of hermeneutic language full of metaphors, and it is closely related to the context of the life world - an inseparable organic whole of man, the nature and the society. It can inspire, hint, and enlighten you to know how Chinese medicine understands man in a direct and original way. According to Wittgenstein’s idea of philosophy of language, the discourse of Chinese medicine and that of Western medicine are different “language games”, showing different lifestyles, and describing different “pictures” of life, and so one cannot be interpreted or proved by the other. For example, mixing the discourse of Western medicine with that of Chinese medicine will disturb the cognizing way of Chinese medicine, which is just like to coat or cover the trans- parent life world with the scientific formal language. Therefore, we should re- consider the current progress of researching, modernizing, or even westernizing Chinese medicine, and what we need to do is to understand the rationality of Chinese medicine from its own discourse, from the “picture” of the lifestyle in the life world its discourse describes. That is to interpret Chinese medicine with itself. I do not deny the approach to apply modern science and technology to study Chinese medicine, but such researches must be in accordance with phi- losophy of Chinese medicine.

2.3 Differences in Their Philosophical Foundations

Philosophy, the core of culture and the theoretical thinking of the top level, has been guiding the development of medicine and other sciences. Western thinking mode is known as analytical thinking, causal thinking, or conceptual thinking, on the basis of which the mechanism, reductionism, dichotomy formed and greatly promoted the development of Western medicine. Surgery and organ transplantation medicine have developed on the basis of the mechanism which views the human body as a “machine”. On the basis of reductionist ideology or reductionism - that is, it seeks to understand a system by breaking it down into its constituent parts, experimental physiology and cellular biology were founded in the 19 th century and molecular biology was founded in the 20 th century; influ- enced by such a thinking, the Western medicine has studied various systems and organs of the body down to cell, to molecule, and to gene in the recent 2 centu- ries, and constructed a series branches of learning of basic medicine, thus form- ing the so-called “scientific” Western medicine. Dichotomy, philosophy of a division into two opposite parts---A and Non-A , indicates the separation of the subject and object, of the nature and human being, of the time and space, of the

body and mind, of the ontology and epistemology, and so and so forth, guides the treating principle of Western medicine as well which treats a condition using drugs which produce opposite symptoms to those of the condition. Classical Chinese thinking mode is known as correlative thinking, which originated in the Book of Changes and is mainly characterized by explaining dy- namic life processes by opposing and complementing as the Yin-Yang Dia- phragm suggests. The correlative thinking sees everything in the universe as in- terdependent and interactive. In Chinese medicine, the correlative thinking manifests itself concretely in the yin-yang theory, the five-phase theory, and the visceral image theory, the vessel theory, etc., which evolved in the way of fol- lowing the features of the heaven and earth (nature) to the human being from concrete to abstract, from structure to function. In Chinese medicine, disease is regarded as the result of imbalance or disharmony of yin and yang, and the goal of Chinese medical treatment is to restore the balance for each individual under his or her own unique environment. Actually, correlative thinking mode of Eastern tradition and causal thinking mode of Western tradition depend on each other and complement to each other, to some extent oppose to each other. Both together will surely make a better world for the mankind. More and more scholars in the West have recognized this point. Compared to the Western philosophical thinking mode, classical Chinese philosophical thinking mode is not inferior at all, but can be a perfect comple- ment to the Western philosophical thinking. The two traditions should under- stand each other, respect each other. Only in this way, each tradition can under- stand its own culture more thoroughly; the two traditions can promote each other and develop together. We would like to reformulate Confucius’s statement “Men of noble charac- ter can be harmonious but different” in this way: Culture, Philosophy and Medi- cine of East and West are different but together can make a harmonious world.

3 English Translation of Chinese Medical Concepts and Terms

3.1 A Review of English Translation and Transmission of Chinese Medicine in the West

Transmission of Chinese medicine to the West started in the 17 th century. Mat- teo Ricci (利瑪竇,1552-1610) gave a comparatively fair introduction of Chi-

nese medicine to the West for the first time in Matteo Ricci's Reading Notes on China 20 . It is the Clavis Medica ad Chinarum Doctrinam de Pulsibus in Latin au- thored by Michel-Pierre Boym (1612-1659) that really introduced Chinese medicine in a quite all-round way for the first time, which includes six parts such as translation of Mai Jing or The Pulse Classic written by Wang Shuhe (王叔和, 201-280AD), tongue diagnosis, 289 items of Chinese materia medica, etc. This book was published in 1680 in Frankfurt, Germany. De Acupuncture and Dissertatio de Arthritide, in which acupuncture was in- troduced as an effective treatment for arthritis, authored by Williem ten Rhyne (1647-1700), got published in 1683. This is the earliest documents to introduce acupuncture into Europe. In 1812, a French sinologist named Jean-Pierre Abel-Rémusat (1788-1832) published a paper on Ben Cao Gang Mu or Compendium of Materia Medica (published first in 1596 in China) written by Li Shizhen (李時珍, 1518-1593), which was also his PhD dissertation for he got a doctor’s degree in medicine after that.

3.1.1 A Historical Review of English Works on Chinese Medicine 21

According to our study, the earliest English publication on Chinese medicine would be Treatise of the Gout by Busschof H. published in 1676 in London. Busschof H. had suffered from gout on his feet for more than 14 years, which was cured occasionally in Japan with moxibustion. Therefore he authored the book to introduce how to treat gout with moxibustion. It was translated into English from Dutch language. Busschof H. coined the word “moxibustion” for艾灸, which is composed of two parts, “moxa” and “bustion”. Moxa comes from J. mugusamoe kusa, meaning “burning herb”, which actualy refers to mugwort 艾蒿; “-bustion” is the contraction form of “combustion”, from Latin “combustio”. Williem Ten Rhyne coined the word “acupuncture” for針刺, which is composed of “acu” and “puncture”. “Acupuncture and Moxibustion” have been used for 針灸 in the Western world for over 300 years, and they are medical subject headings for use in MEDLARS (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System), from which Index Medicus is produced.

20 Authored by Matteo Ricci, Translated by He Gaoji, Wang Zunzhong, Li Shen. Matteo Rocci’s Readngs Notes on China. Beijing: China Book Company, 1983: 34.

21 Lan Fengli. A Review of History of English Translation of Chinese Medicine [J]. Chi- nese Journal of Medical History. 2008, 38(1): 28-32.

Three hundred thirty-five years have passed by since the publication of Treatise of the Gout in 1676. We divide the 335 years of the history of English translation of Chinese medicine into the following six stages to show the pro- gress in this field of study. The 1 st stage (1676-1854): In 1676Treatise of the Gout was translated from Dutch into English and got published in London; Acupuncture and moxibustion were introduced to Europe through Japan by Busschof H., Williem Ten Rhyne, et al.; The words “acupuncture and moxibustion” have continued to be used up till today; All of the translators were Europeans, among which some were the staff members of Dutch East India Company (the original name was Vereenig de Oostindische Compagnie, abbreviated as VOC), and most were for- eign missionaries from Europe to China; Most of the works or translations were what translators or authors saw or heard, or about the general situation of Chi- nese medicine, or about acupuncture and moxibustion, or about history of Chi- nese medicine, or about materia medica, or about pulse; Chinese medical clas- sics were not involved in the translation during this period; Besides, many Latin works on Chinese medicine were published in the U.K. The 2 nd stage (1855-1949): Publishing places were expanded from London in UK to Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Guangdong in China and Philadelphia and Baltimore in the USA; Chinese scholars, doctors of Western medicine in par- ticular, directly participated in, or bore the responsibility of the writing and translating Chinese medical works, for example, History of Chinese Medicine (the 1 st ed. in 1932, the 2 nd ed. in 1936), the first English publication on medical happenings in China by Chinese scholars K. CHIMIN WONG 王吉民 and WU LIEN-TEH 伍連德, has been one of the most important references on Chinese medicine for the Western scholars up till today; History and disease patterns of Chinese medicine were the main parts of the translation or works; Chinese medical classics, such as Huang Di Nei Jing or Huangdi’s Inner Classic, Xi Yuan Lu or Instructions to Coroners (literally Records for Washing Away Wrong Cases, 1247), a book on forensic medicine written by Song Ci (宋慈, 1186- 1249), and Ben Cao Gang Mu or Compendium of Materia Medica were partly translated into English; Almost no Latin works on Chinese medicine got pub- lished during this period. The 3 rd stage (1950-1971): During the years between 1956 and 1960government of China set up 20 colleges of Chinese medicine, and Chi- nese medicine has turned out to be an artificially constructed TCM, i.e. Tradi- tional Chinese Medicine, influenced by Western Science and Communism; Sci- ence and Civilization in China Series directed and written by Joseph Needham (1900-1995) started to be published by Cambridge University Press in 1954 to demonstrate achievements in science and civilization in ancient China, which

includes 7 volumes: Volume 1 “Introductory Orientations” (1954), Volume 2 “History of Scientific Thought” (1956), Volume 3 “Mathematics and the Sci- ences of the Heavens and the Earth” (1959), Volume 4 “Physics and Physical Technology” (1962-1971), Volume 5 “Chemistry and Chemical Technology” (1974-2004), Volume 6 “Biology and Biological Technology” (1986-2000), and Volume 7 “The Social Background”(1998-2004); French works on Chinese medicine were published much more than that in English, which may be influ- enced by sino-foreign international relationships; No Latin works on Chinese medicine got published at all during this period. The 4 th stage (1972-1991): We think James Reston (1990-1995) should be mentioned here for he really helped open the doors in the USA to an exploration of alternative medicine. He ranks among the most important journalists of the 20 th century. When Mr. Reston traveled to China in 1971 as a part of the advance team before President Richard Nixon's (1913-1994) 1972 visit, he suffered an acute attack of appendicitis and was hospitalized at Peking Union Medical College Hospital in China in between July 17 th -28 th , 1971. His appendix was removed in an emergency procedure. He suffered postsurgical pain severe enough to cause him great distress. This pain was relieved with acupuncture by Dr. Li Zhanyuan (李占元) when Mr. Reston was in the hospital. Mr. Reston's reports of his experiences with Chinese medicine, and the reports he sent along with his observations of the effectiveness of acupuncture (one published on the first page of New York Times of July 26 th , 1971), helped open the doors in the USA to an exploration of alternative medicine, a trend that has matured. 22 As a follow-up, The American Journal of Chinese Medicine and American Journal of Acupuncture started their publication in 1973 in the USA; The Theoretical Foundation of Chinese Medicine: Systems of Correspondence by Manfred Porket was published by Cambridge, Mass. and. London: MIT Press in 1974; Celestial Lancets: a History and Rationale of Acupuncture and Moxa by Lu Gwei-Djen and Joseph Needham was published first by Cambridge University Press in 1980 and then reprinted in 2002 by Routledge Curzon in London; The Web That Has No Weaver (the 1 st ed. in 1983; the revised ed. in 2000) has been one of the bestsellers on Chinese medicine in the West for nearly 30 years; Giovanni Maciocia started to publish his series of textbooks on Chinese medicine in 1989, The Foundations of Chinese Medicine; Nigel Wiseman published his Glossary of Chinese Medical Terms and Acupuncture

22 Wen Li. Commemoration Symposium on 35th Anniversary of Nixon’s Visit in China and Development of Chinese Medicine (Acupuncture) in the USA [J]. Chinese Journal of acupuncture and moxibustion, 2006, 26 (3): 176.

Points in 1990 at Paradigm Publications; and WHO (World Health Organization) issued the standardization of the English terms of acupuncture--A Proposed Standard International Acupuncture Nomenclature (Geneva, 1989) and Standard Acupuncture Nomenclature (Revised ed., Manila, 1991) as the outcome of the international cooperation since 1982. During this stage, Paul U. Unchuld published a series of books on Chinese medicine, including Medicine in China: A History of Pharmaceutics (1986), Nan-Ching: The Classic of Difficult Issues (1986), Medicine in China: A History of Ideas (1988)Forgotten Traditions of Ancient Chinese Medicine: The I- hsueh Yuan Liu Lun of 1757 by Hsu Ta-ch’un (1990). In China, several International Acupuncture Training Centers were set up in Shanghai, Beijing, Nanjing, etc. by the aid of WHO. Ministry of Public Health and State Administration of TCM of China organized experts to compile and translate textbooks for beginners and advanced learners, i.e. Essentials of Chinese Acupuncture (1975, 1980) and Chinese Acupuncture and Moxibustion (1987); English-Chinese Edition of Practical Book Library on Chinese Medicine (Zhang Enqin, 1990) and English-Chinese Edition of A Practical Complete Collection of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacology (Xu Xiangcai, 1990-92) were published in China, which thus laid foundation for translation of different subjects of Chinese medicine; Ou Ming (歐明, 1924-), Xie Zhufan (謝竹藩, 1924-), Shuai Xuezhong (帥學忠), et al. compiled and published different editions of “Chinese-English Dictionary of Chinese Medicine”. The 5 th stage (1992-2002): A great number of English works on Chinese medicine have got published at home and abroad; Chinese medical classics, such as Huang Di Nei Jing or Huangdi’s Inner Classic, Zhen Jiu Jia Yi Jing or The Systematic Classic of Acpuncture and Moxibustion, Shang Han Lun or On Cold Damage, Jin Gui Yao Lǜe or Synopsis of the Golden Chamber, Yin Hai Jing Wei or Essential Subtleties on the Silver Sea, Yi Xue Yuan Liu Lun or The Origin and Development of Medicineetc, have been fully translated into English, but the translation versions are confused with good or bad qualities; English-Chinese & Chinese-English Dictionary of Chinese Medicine (1995 by Hunan Science and Technology Press, China) and A Practical Dictionary of Chinese Medicine (1998 by Paradigm Publications; introduced into China in 2002 by People’s Medical Publishing House) by Nigel Wiseman came out at both home and abroad; The research project “Standard English Translation of TCM Nomenclature” sponsored by the State Administration of TCM results in the publication of Classified Dictionary of Traditional Chinese Medicine (New Edition) in 2002; Chinese medicine has been recognized as a member of CAM

by the US government-White House Commission on Complementary and Alternative Medicine Policy, FINAL REPORT March 2002. 23 The 6 th stage (2003- ): Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen Project chaired by Prof. Paul U. Unschuld started to publish its research outcome after 15 years of international cooperation in 2003 - Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen: Nature, Knowledge, Imagery in An Ancient Chinese Medical Text, then Dictionary of Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen in 2008, and then Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen:

Annotated Translation of Huangdi’s Inner Classic – Basic Questions in 2011. Guidance for Industry on Complementary and Alternative Medicine Products and Their Regulation by the Food and Drug Administration (DRAFT GUIDANCE , Dec. 2006) states that “The term ‘complementary and alternative medicine’ (CAM) encompasses a wide array of health care practices, products, and therapies that are distinct from practices, products, and therapies used in ‘conventional’ or ‘allopathic’ medicine. Some forms of CAM, such as traditional Chinese medicine and Ayurvedic medicine, have been practiced for centuries, whereas others, such as electrotherapy, are more recent in origin.”, and that “NCCAM describes whole medical systems as involving ‘complete systems of theory and practice that have evolved independently from or parallel to allopathic (conventional) medicine.’ These may reflect individual cultural systems, such as traditional Chinese medicine and Ayurvedic medicine”, which shows that the general acknowledgement of cultural dependency of medical systems. WHO International Standard Terminologies on Traditional Medicine in the Western Pacific Region was officially issued on Oct. 16 th , 2007.10.16. The Ben Cao Gang Mu Project chaired by Prof. Paul U. Unschuld and first approved in 1988, the largest research and translation work ever on Chinese medicine in the Western world, re-started in 2008 in cooperation with experts of different fields of study. Let us wait and see their research outcome in the near future! Then How to classify the English works on Chinese medicine? Generally speaking, all the English works on Chinese medicine can be roughly classified into the following four categories: Introductions to Chinese medicine; Translations or rewritings of textbooks used for higher education of Chinese medicine in China; Translations of about 20 ancient Chinese medical classics, including Huang Di Nei Jing or Huangdi’s Inner Classic, Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing or Shennong’s Classic of Materia Medica, Zhen Jiu Jia Yi Jing or The Systematic Classic of Acpuncture and Moxibustion, Mai Jing or The Pulse Classic, Shang Han Lun or On Cold Damage, Jin Gui Yao Lǜe or Synopsis of

23 See http://www.fda.gov/OHRMS/DOCKETS/98fr/06d-0480-gld0001.pdf for details.

the Golden Chamber, Zhong Zang Jing or The Classic of the Central Viscera, Bei Ji Qian Jin Yao Fang • Fu Ren Fang or Invaluable Prescriptions for Emergencies • Prescriptions for Women, Yin Hai Jing Wei or Essential Subtleties on the Silver Sea, Xi Yuan Ji Lu or Instructions to Coroners (literally Records for Washing Away Wrong Cases, Pi Wei Lun or Treatise on Spleen and Stomach, Ben Cao Gang Mu or Compendium of Materia Medica, Bin Hu Mai Xue or The Lakeside Master’s Study of The Pulse, Yi Xue Yuan Liu Lun or The Origin and Development of Medicine, Fu Qingzhu NǚKe or Fu Qingzhu’s Gynecology & Obstetrics, Yi Zong Jin Jian • Fu Ke Xin Fa Yao Jue or Golden Mirror of Medicine • Essentials of Gynecology & Obstetrics, etc.; and Translations of other Chinese medical works already published in China. In the long course development of Chinese medicine, there are over 1,000 ancient Chinese medical classics, but only 20 of which have been translated into English. Chinese medicine is the product of systematizing the knowledge contained in the ancient Chinese medical classics. It is thus clear that Chinese medicine translated and transmitted to the West is the superficial Chinese medicine not the Chinese medicine originating from ancient medical classics and rooted in classical Chinese culture and philosophy.

3.1.2 Translators of Chinese Medicine

Who translated or wrote those works on Chinese medicine? Translators of Chinese medicine come from different academic and cultural backgrounds, including Chinese scholars, doctors of Western medicine in particular, such as Wang Jimin (王吉民, 1889-1972), Wu Liande (伍連德, 1879-1960), Ou Ming (歐明, 1924-), and Xie Zhufan (謝竹藩, 1924-); Chinese practitioners of Chinese medicine working in English-speaking countries, such as Ni Maoshing, Wu Liangsheng, Wu Qi, Henry C. Lu; Foreign practitioners of Chinese medicine, such as Giovanni Maciocia and Bob Flaws; Sinologist such as Manfred Porkert; Historian of occidental medicine such as Ilza Veith; Sinologist, pharmacologist, and historian of medicine, such as Paul U. Unschuld; Linguist such as Nigel Wiseman who has got PhD in Complementary Health and Applied Linguistics, et al. Differences in academic and cultural backgrounds result in different translation strategies, principles, and translated works. Hereafter the table shows Translations of “六節藏象論” &“藏象何如” of Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen by different translators.

Table 3: Translations of “六節藏象論” &“藏象何如” by Different Translators

Translators

六節藏象論

藏象何如

K. CHIMIN WONG & WU LIEN-TEH

Numerical Categories of the Five Viscera

/

VEITH, ILZA

Treatise on the Six Regulations Governing the Manifestations of the Viscera

How can you explain the outer appearances of the viscera

NI, MAOSHING

The Energetic Cycles of the Universe and Their Effects on Human Beings

How do the functional aspects of the zang organs manifest outwardly?

WU LIANS- HENG & WU QI

The Close Relation Between the Viscera in Human Body with the Environment of the Outside World

What are the outer appearances like when the viscera corresponding to heaven, earth, Yin and Yang?

UNSCHULD,

Discourse on the Six Terms [of a Year] and on Images [associated with the Condition of] the Depots

/

PAUL U.

It is well known that the Zang Xiang Theory is a vital basic theory of Chinese medicine. Zang Xiang 藏象 is generally considered as a compound term. But the translations of Zang Xiang 藏象in the Table 3 are so different from each other. Actually Translations of Chinese Medical Concepts Being Confusing is the major problem in translating Chinese medical texts.

3.1.3 Translations of Chinese Medical Concepts Being Confusing

At least 33 different Chinese-English Dictionaries of Chinese Medicine have got published in the years between 1980 and 2011 in mainland China, in which English translations of the same concept are very far from each other; English terminology of Chinese medicine by Dr. Nigel Wiseman has been adopted by two of the three major Chinese medical publishers in the United States (Paradigm Publications and Blue Poppy Press) as the standard terminology for their publications; In Europe, Prof. Paul U. Unschuld and Dr. Giovanni Maciocia have adopted different terminology systems. Obviously, English translations of the same original text are very different from each other at home and abroad, which undoubtedly hinders translation, transmission, and exchange of Chinese medicine and the culture it is loaded to the West. Experts of home and abroad have been making unremitting efforts in order to standardize English translation of Chinese medical terminology: WHO issued

two standardizations of the English terms of acupuncture--A Proposed Standard International Acupuncture Nomenclature (Geneva, 1989) and Standard Acupuncture Nomenclature (Revised ed., Manila, 1991) as the outcome of the international cooperation since 1982; Prof. Xie Zhufan was assigned by the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine a research project on the standardization of English translation of Chinese medical terminology in 2000, the research outcome of which was published by Foreign Languages Press in Beijing; Academician Wang Yongyan took the lead of a research project approved by Ministry of Science and Technology on “Standardization of Basic Chinese Medical Terminology”, the research outcome of which was published by Science Press in Beijing after being examined and approved by “China National Committee for Terms in Sciences and Technologies”; and WHO approved and issued the WHO International Standard Terminologies on Traditional Medicine in the Western Pacific Region in 2007 as the outcome of the international cooperation since 2004; and so and so forth. So many different versions of “Chinese-English Dictionary of Chinese Medicine”, and different standardization proposals will unavoidably make people lost and confused as to which to follow: Which proposal on earth is the real “standard” one? Each has been sticking to his own version and argument for so many years. Several translations available for one term are very common in the English translation of Chinese medical terminology, which may result from different understanding of the same concept or from different translation strategies. The following table shows translations of some basic concepts of Chinese medicine.

Table 4: Translations of Some Basic Concepts of Chinese Medicine

 

Translation1

Translation2

Translation 3

Translation 4

五行

five elements

five phases

five agents

five elemental

phases

經脈

meridian

channel

vessel

Meridian vessel

五藏

five zang organs

five viscera

five depots

the yin organs

六府

six fu organs

six bowels

six palaces

the yang organs

正气

healthy qi

upright qi

normal qi

Body resistance

邪气

pathogenic qi

evil qi

pathogenic agent

pathogen; patho- genic factor

syndrome

pattern

configuration

Conformation

vacuity

deficiency

asthenia

Emptiness

repletion

excess

sthenia

Fullness

hernia

genital disease

lower abdominal colic

Mounting

消渴

diabetes

dispersion-thirst

wasting-thirst

melting-thirst

奔豚

Gastroenteroneuro-

running-piglet

“running-pig” syn- drome

 

sis

Even the Standard Acupuncture Nomenclature approved and issued by WHO has not been well implemented, see the Table 5. A standard terminology system is of no value and significance no matter how good and authoritative it is if it cannot be carried out and adopted by translators in English publications.

Table 5: A Comparison between Standardized Translation Approved by WHO and Popular Translations in the West

ORIGINAL TERMS

STANDARD TRANSLA- TION (WHO)

POPULAR TRANSLATIONS IN THE WEST

經脈

Meridian

Channel

三焦

Triple Energizer

Triple Burner

督脈

Governor Vessel

Governing Vessel

任脈

Conception Vessel

Directing (or Controlling) Vessel

沖脈

Thoroughfare Vessel

Penetrating Vessel

帶脈

Belt Vessel

Girdle (or Girdling) Vessel

太陽、陽明、少陽

Taiyang, Yangming, Shao- yang

Greater Yang, Bright Yang, Lesser Yang

太陰、少陰、厥陰

Taiyin, Shaoyin, Jueyin

Greater Yin, Lesser Yin, Terminal (or Absolute) Yin

It is well known that Chinese medicine is the product of systematizing the knowledge contained in the ancient Chinese medical classics, esp. the Four Great Medical Classics. The academic and cultural exchanges between different medical systems are first embodied in their terminologies, and terminology is

the sole means by which we understand concepts. English Translation of Con- cepts of Classical Chinese Medical Texts not only deals with the historical texts but rather the present practice and research for Chinese medicine has still claimed to follow and observe the system established by ancient Chinese medi- cal classics, the Four Great Medical Classics in particular. The concepts of clas- sical Chinese medical texts embody the thinking way and the core methodology of Qu Xiang Bi Lei 取象比類 or Taking Image and Analogizing. Therefore we propose to clarify the confusing translations by referring to etymology. Then what is the value of Qu Xiang Bi Lei 取象比類 or Taking Image and Analogiz- ing for Chinese medicine?

3.2 Chinese Medical Concepts: Embodying Methodology of Qu Xiang Bi Lei

Chinese medical concepts embody the methodology of Qu Xiang Bi Lei or Tak- ing Image and Analogizing, 取象比, which weaves natural and social phe- nomena together with rudimentary understanding of the human being 24 into the knowledge system of Chinese medicine.

3.2.1 Understanding Qu Xiang Bi Lei

The Origin of Chinese Characters (shuo wen jie zi, 说文解字) states that “xiang, with long nose and teeth, a big mammal in the Southern Yue area, will be pregnant every three years”, so the original meaning of “xiang” is elephant. In remote antiquity, the elephant had lived in the Central Plains of China. Later on, the elephant had to migrate south because of the changes in climate, so the people in the Central Plains had few opportunities to see live elephant again. Han Fei Tzu 韩非子, a famous philosopher and the representative of the Legalists of the late Warring States Period (475-221B.C.), said in his Jie Lao Pian (解老篇) that “people seldom see the live elephant, but has gained the skeleton of a dead one, so they can imagine what it is like after investigating the picture or image of its skeleton. Therefore, all in people’s imagination is known as ‘xiang’”. This quotation also reveals the mystery of the origin of the Chinese compound “xiang xiang” (想象literally “thinking or imagining elephant”,

24 The paper prefers being instead of body for Chinese medicine actually studies the being (the live system being composed of body and mind) while Western medicine mainly ca- res the body.

means imaging or imagination), setting off “xiang”’s “imagining” cultural connotations. Here below is the evolution process of the character Xiang .

is the evol ution process of the character Xiang 象 . Xiang: Oracle-Bone Script Xiang: Bronze

Xiang: Oracle-Bone Script

Xiang: Bronze Script

Xiang: Lesser Seal Script

Xiang: Regular

Script

In the meanwhile, we can see that “xiang” originally evolved from “seeking similarities” between things from the angle of genetics, as stated in The Book of Changes (·系辞下) “xiang refers to something being like or resembling this thing”. Transforming xiang into a cultural symbol is related to divining activities Buwith tortoise shell and shi with stalk of shi grass – the two main ways to hunt for information of the cosmos in the Yin and Zhou dynasties (16 th cen- tury -256 B.C.). Zuo’s Spring Autumn Annals · The Fifteenth Year of Xo Gong’s Reign (Zuo Zhuan·Xi Gong Shi Wu Nian, ·僖公十五年) states that “tor- toise is xiang”; The Book of Changes (周易·系辞下) states that “change is xiang”. That is to say, the omens on the tortoise shell and the trigrams were called xiang for they were regarded as being capable of communicating the Heaven with the Man and ruling all the cultural information. Thereafter, xiang has become a symbol which carries all the cultural information. In Chinese tra- ditional culture all of the sceneries, the stars, even man’s pulses, tongues and viscera are termed together with xiang like jing (scenery) xiang 景象, xing (star) xiang 星象, mai (pulse) xiang 脉象, she (tongue) xiang 舌象 and zang (visceral) xiang 藏象; Dao or Tao , the primitive motive force of the origin of every- thing in the universe, is also known as xiang, the big xiang (大象). Xiang has a very strong adhesive power, and is a vital part of a series of compounds, includ- ing everything from the concrete xiang of objects which can be felt and the metaphysical subtle xiang which is difficult to grasp, thus possessing both per- ceptual and rational ingredients, and also indicating relationships. Qu Xiang Bi Lei can be summarized into four steps as stated in The Book of Changes: 1) Observing object or phenomenon (guan wu, 观物): directly observ- ing an object or a phenomenon; 2) Taking image (qu xiang, 取象): summarizing and refining the image of the object or phenomenon after repeatedly observing and feeling it; 3) Analogizing (bi lei, ): comparing the things which need to know with the known “image (xiang)”; 4) Understanding the Way or Rule (ti dao, 体道): finding the rules, which can be achieved by applying metaphors. Qu Xiang Bi Lei, the core methodology of Chinese medicine, plays a vital role in stating, constructing and developing the theoretical system and clinical practice of Chinese medicine mainly in the following three aspects: 1) Forming Metaphors (Theory): naming basic concepts, stating and constructing the theo-

retical system; 2) Gaining knowledge through metaphorizing (Practice): Grasp- ing the hidden essence or telling the interior through observing the external im- age or manifestation such as in the processes of making diagnosis and identify- ing pattern in the practice; and 3) Understanding rules through metaphorizing (Development and Modernization): inferring the unknown through the known image such as developing new theories/methods.

3.2.2 Enlightenments of Philosophy of Language

Modernization of Chinese medicine must be directed by scientific methodology, and scientific methodology is in the field of philosophy, esp. the field of phi- losophy of science. The key tone of the modern Western philosophy focuses on language analysis and understanding. Today, language is redefined as “the means and process of man cognizing, understanding and stating the world”. 25 The Characteristics of the definition of language manifest in the following three aspects: first, “Cognizing” and “Stating” instead of Being “Communicative” and “Systematic” ; second, “Means”, a kind of subjective behavior and manifestation of subjectivities, instead of “Tool”, an object; third, Emphasizing “Process”. It is well known that language is dynamic, constantly changing, generating new words to meet the needs of the developments and changes of the world. The founding of philosophy of language at the beginning of the last century is another “Copernican revolution” in the history of philosophy, which has deeply influenced philosophy of science, highlighting the vital role of linguistic analysis in the scientific methodology, thus promoting the development of mod- ern logic. Modern logic stresses the role of language, regards a scientific theory as a language system, being composed of word items, sentences, and their logic rela- tionships. When analyzing Chinese medical system, how the ontological Chi- nese medical concepts and theories were formed, stated and constructed, and how Chinese medicine has been developed should be clarified in the first place for the purpose of understanding the system itself, bridging traditional Chinese medicine and modern Western medicine in deep level and complementing each other, thus laying foundation for modernization of Chinese medicine.

“Languages are metaphoric in its essence and nature. …”; “We should not content ourselves to the present state of language. We have to trace back to the origins of words if we want to discover the ties which link the words and their references”. (Ernst Cassirer, From Essays on Man, Translated into English from Chinese)

25 Pan Wenguo. Redefining Language: Means and Process of Man Cognizing and Stating the Genuine World [J]. (Hongkong) Chinese Philology Correspondence. 2002, 2: 33-36.

Metaphors in Chinese medicine reveal relationships, and metaphor thinking is an exact thinking. The metaphor system of Chinese medicine is the deep struc- ture of Chinese medicine, and the key to understand Chinese medicine.

3.2.3 Example: Translation of Jing Luo

Several translations are available for “經絡系統”: "Meridian System" is the standard translation approved by WHO, but the word "Meridian" only indicates a two-dimensional grid while Jing Luo system is supposed to carry qi and blood, and thus must be a three-dimensional system; “Channel System” is the most popular translation in the English literature on Chinese medicine, but the word "Channel" is polysemous; We think "Vessel System", a translation in Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen by Paul U. Unschuld in 2003 is the best translation if we take into account the origin and development of the concepts of Mai (脈, vessel) and Jing-Luo (經絡). Based on some anatomical knowledge on Mai (脈, vessel) and medical practice esp. the application of acupuncture, moxibustion, tuina, and qigong, the concepts of Jing-Luo (經絡) are actually metaphors formed in the way of ob- serving, taking images of and analogizing the water flow in the rivers under the earth and the longitudinal lines of the textiles, which are embodied in their writ- ing forms. The chapter Water & Earth of Guan Tzu states that “Water is the qi and blood of the earth, running on (under) the earth just like qi and blood flow- ing in the vessels”. The simplified form of mai has 4 variant original complex forms. 26

of mai 脉 has 4 variant original complex forms. 2 6 脈 and 衇 are its

and are its common original complex forms. Its lesser seal script is

its common original complex forms. Its lesser seal script is . This character is a signifc-phonetic

. This character is a signifc-phonetic compound: the left part is the signific com-

26 Li Ding. Rationality of Acupuncture: The Origin and Development of Theories of Ves- sels and Acupoints. 2009.

ponent (flesh moon) or (blood), indicating that mai () functions to carry and move blood and is a part of the body; and the right part is the phonetic, indi- cating both pronunciation and meaning at the same time. In the medical books unearthed in Mawangdui Han Tomb, most of maiwere written as “”. “is the variant form of “ ”, “” the variant form of “flesh”, “” the variant form of “blood”. The structure of the character has clearly illustrated that the ancients analogized or metaphorized water flow with blood flow. 27 It is thus clear that “mai” of the early days referred to blood vessel, so “mai” is also known as “blood vessel血脈”, as stated in Huangdi’s Inner Classic ·Plain Ques- tions ·Discourse on Subtleties and Essentials of Vessels (huang di nei jing su wen mai yao jing wei lun) “the vesselsare the residence of the blood”(Attention: qi does not appear). The concepts “jing” and “luo” appeared later than “mai or vessel”. Jing and luo are further divisions of “mai or vessel”, i.e. “jing” vessel and “luo” vessel, which was first recorded in the Huangdi’s Inner Classic·Spiritual Pivot · On Vessels (huang di nei jing ling shu mai du) “Jing vessels reside in the interior; their branches running transversely are known as luo vessels; the branches of luo vessels are known as grandchild vessels”. The characters “jing” and “luo” share the same silk part “”, which is originally used in the textiles. The concept “jingmai經脈” is a metaphor formed in the way of Qu Xiang Bi Lei or taking images and analogizing. The right part of “” is “indicating both pronunciation and meaning, which is inter- preted in The Origin of Chinese Characters as “water vessels, following (川, pictographic, indicating rivers, under the ; , refers to the earth”, that is to say, “” refers to the water vessels running under the earth. Jingis ex- plained in The Origin of Chinese Characters as “the longitudinal line of the tex- tiles”. The reason that “jing” is used to name the main stems of the vessels is closely related to the origin of the character “jing”, which contains two im- ages and reflects the similarities between the longitudinal line of the textiles, the rivers running under the earth and the running route of the main stems of the vessels. Another part of “luo” is “”, indicating both pronunciation and meaning, which is interpreted in The Origin of Chinese Characters as “diver- gence of views being different”. Another interpretation ofis that “It originally meant unreeled silk, hemp, or cotton fiber, and from its association with stringy fibers came to be used in Chinese medicine as a noun that means network and as

27 Li Ding. Interpretation of Difficult Issues in Acupuncture [M]. Shanghai: Shanghai Ui- versity of TCM Press, 1998: 2-3.

a verb that means to net”. 28 Anyway, is used to name divergent branches of the vessels. Huangdi’s Inner Classic · Spiritual Pivot · On Viscera (huang di nei jing ling shu ben zang) states that “jing vessels經脈function to move qi and blood, nourish yin and yang, moisten tendons and bones, and lubricate joints”. Com- pared to the statement that “the vesselsare the residence of the blood”, quite a lot new contents were supplemented to jing vessels, among which the most re- markable point is that the function of moving blood was extended to moving qi and blood. “Xue mai血脈”, “jing” and “luo” appeared together in the Han Shu·Yi Wen Zhi 汉书·文志),“Medical classics explore the origins of blood ves- sels 血脈, jingluo經絡, bone marrow, yin-yang, exterior and interior in order to treat various diseases from the root”, where seemingly differentiated blood ves- sels from jing-luo. Jing-luo 經絡 functions to carry and move qi and blood in the body. Guan Tzu · Water & Earth (guan zi · shui di) states that “water is the qi and blood of the earth, running on the earth which is just like qi and blood flowing in the ves- sels”. Judged from the cognizing order, the flow of qi and blood in man is analogized and inferred from the natural phenomena of water flow in the rivers under the earth. The extensions from “vessel ” to “jing-luo經絡” and from “blood” to “qi and blood” are also closely related to the application of acupunc- ture, moxibustion, tuina, qigong, etc, which explore the phenomena of qi and blood flowing in the body, thus enriching the understanding on the “vessels”. To sum up, the concepts and theory of jing-luo were formed first on the ba- sis of some anatomical knowledge on “vessel”; then by the way of Qu Xiang Bi Lei, i.e. observing and taking images of the water flow in the rivers on the earth and the longitudinal lines of textiles, then analogizing, enlightened by the idea of Tian Ren He Yi; and then have been proved and modified in the medical practice esp. the application of acupuncture, moxibustion, tuina, and qigong. That is to say, jing-luo or the vessels are metaphors, referring to the circular or round pathways of the living system. Therefore, we believe that it will take forever to find any three-dimensional structure of jing-luo 經絡 through dissecting dead human bodies. Jing-luo 經絡system or the vessel system is more like a functional concept reflecting a certain image, which is embodied in their writing forms. As stated in the Huangdi’s Inner Classic · Plain Questions · Discourse on Leaving and Uniting of True Qi and Evil Qi (huang di nei jing su wen·li he zhen xie lun) “The sages

28 Wiseman Nigel and Zhang Yuhuan. Chinese Medical Characters Volume One: Basic Vocabulary. Brookline, Massachusetts: Paradigm Publications, 2003: 174.

formulated principles, which must conform to the nature. Therefore, the heaven has 365 degrees and 28 constellations, the earth has 12 jing rivers, and man has 12 jing vessels”.

3.3 Standard and Methods for Translating Chinese Medical Concepts

3.3.1 English Translation of Chinese Medical Terminology: One Standard or Multiple Standards?

It is well known that even up till today, Chinese medicine still claims to follow the system established by such Chinese medical classics as Huang Di's Inner Classic, Classic of Difficult Issues, Treatise on Cold Damage and Miscellaneous Diseases, which were systematized and classified into On Cold Damage and Synopsis of the Golden Chamber by later generations. Chinese medicine forms by systematizing the knowledge contained in ancient Chinese medical classics; Most of the specialized Chinese medical concepts formed for the first time in ancient Chinese medical classics by means of metaphorization and analogiza- tion, embodying a specific Chinese methodology of Qu Xiang Bi Lei or taking image and analogizing, thus bearing historical, cultural and medical values at the same time. But when translating a Chinese medical concept, most of translators no matter of home or abroad lay stress only on its medical value and ignoring its cultural and historical values, and thus making the English translation lose the central methodology of Chinese medicine - Qu Xiang Bi Lei or taking image and analogizing. We hold that specialized terms of both Chinese and Western medicine re- flect that they are based on specific and different cultural traditions and thinking ways; and that Chinese medicine is a systematic, complete, and unique medical system incompatible with Western medicine; and therefore, English translation of concepts of Chinese medical classics, esp. those formed by means of meta- phorization and analogization, should apply the translation strategy which can reflect their metaphorical connotations and the specific Chinese methodology of Qu Xiang Bi Lei, thus observing the only one standard.

3.3.2 Method: Literal Translation Approach Based on Etymology Investigation

“However, in communicative as in semantic translation, provided that equivalent- effect is secured, the literal word-for-word translation is not only the best, it is the

only valid method of translation. There is no excuse for unnecessary ‘synonyms’, let alone paraphrase, in any type of translation”. 29

Actually, English Chinese medical terminology formed through literal transla- tion approach bears the following merits: 1) accuracy in content, form, and logic, i.e. the translation gives the ideas, words, and logic of the original; 2) con- ciseness and pithiness in style, i.e. the translation reproduces the conciseness and pithiness of the original compared to the lengthy paraphrase for the original is usually concise in form but profound in meaning; 3) systematicness, i.e. the lit- eral translation approach makes the English Chinese medical terminology being systematic, and thus faithfully reflecting the integrity and inter-relationship in its concept system for Chinese medical terminology comes from the way of Qu Xiang Bi Lei based on daily life experiences of the ancients; 4) back-translation, i.e. literal translation improves or realizes translation of English Chinese medical terminology back into Chinese, thus keeping distinguishing features of Chinese medical culture and being beneficial for the double direction information inter- change.

3.3.3 Adopting Western Medical Terms to Translate Chinese Medical Terms into English: A Critical View

Undoubtedly, no matter the language of Chinese medicine or the language of Western medicine is a kind of technical language. Modern terminologists define

a “technical language” as a form of any given language that is used by people

involved in a special field and that has a “terminology”, i.e., a set of expressions not used in the common language or, as is often the case, expressions that are used in a different or more specific way than in the common language. A popular misconception about technical terms is that they are words used exclusively by specialists. In actual fact, technical terms in most disciplines largely, if not mostly, come from the common language. Any language only has

a certain number of words, and new terms are usually combinations of existing

lexical items. Many terms are completely indistinguishable in form from expres-

sions in the common language although they are more specific in meaning. The process whereby common language expressions are given more specific or metaphorical meanings in the technical contexts is called “terminologization”. The modern terminological observation that technical terms are largely derived from the common language is reflected clearly both in Chinese medicine and Western medicine. Those acquainted with the language of Chinese medicine are

29 Newmark, Peter. Approaches to Translation [M].Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press, 1981: 39.

aware that most of the characters they come across in Chinese medical texts are used in the common language. And most of the Western medical terms are com- binations of Latin or Greek morphemes. Actually, about 10,000 Latin or Greek words came into English during the Renaissance Period and finally became a part of English vocabulary. Actually, both Chinese medical terminology and Western medical terminol- ogy can be classified into three levels: 1.) words and expressions for everyday use; 2.) specialized terms of their own; and 3.) original terms of their own.

3.3.3.1 Three Levels of Chinese Medical Terminology

Both Dr. Nigel Wiseman and Prof. Paul U. Unschuld advocated classifying the basic Chinese medical terminology into two categories: one comprises of words and expressions for everyday use, e.g., head, foot, chest, abdomen, heart, liver, blood; the other is composed of specialized TCM terms ex- tended from the common language and formed through metaphor or analogy, e.g., orifice, point or hole, upright, evil, nutrient, defense, 命門life gate, 督脈the governing vessel. 30 According to our understanding of Chinese medical terminology, esp. of the Origin of Chinese Characters, We think that Chinese medical terminology can be classified into 3 levels. The first level is made up of words and expressions from the common language, e.g., some body parts like heart, liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys, nose, eyes, ears, head, foot, chest, abdomen, blood; some disease names like 霍亂cholera, 麻疹measles, 麻風leprosy, 瘧疾malaria, 癲癇epilepsy; some climatic pathogenic factors like wind, cold, dampness, dryness, fire; some symptoms like 發熱fever, 頭痛headache, pain, 咳嗽cough, 心悸 palpitation, 健忘forgetfulness, 頭暈目眩dizziness, 嘔吐vomiting, 噁心nausea, 泄瀉diarrhea, 便秘(不更衣)constipation. The second level constitutes spe- cialized Chinese medical terms from daily words and expressions formed through metaphor or analogy, e.g., depots or viscera, palaces or bowels, meridian or channel, collateral or network vessel, orifice, point or hole, upright, evil, nutrient, defense, 督脈the governing vessel, 任脈the controlling vessel, 三焦the triple energizer or san jiao, 命門life gate, etc. which usually bear historical, cultural, and medical values at the same time. The third level comprises of original Chinese medical terms, e.g., some picto-

30 Wiseman, Nigel. Translation and Transmission of Chinese Medicine in the West. Medi- cine and Philosophy. 2001, 22(7): 51-54.

phonetic characters such as , , , , , , , etc. in The Origin of Chi- nese Characters Disease Section.

3.3.3.2 Three Levels of Western Medical Terminology

Dr. Nigel Wiseman 31 roughly classified the Western medical terminology into 3 levels and distinguished them as well. The first level constitutes borrowings from the common language, e.g., fe- ver, chill, cough, cold, hiccough, headache, pain, tenderness, soreness, palpita- tions, bleeding, hot flushes, forgetfulness, dizziness, vomiting, blindness, jaun- dice, deafness, nausea, emaciation, diarrhea, constipation, goiter, sores, corn, sty, boil, measles, mumps, and fracture. These words, commonly used by doc- tors, are known to all speakers and denote conditions that can be identified by most normal adults. The second level comprises terms devised by modern medicine to describe certain technical concepts: conjunctivitis, anemia, hypertension, paranasal si- nusitis, trichomoniasis, arteriosclerosis, optic atrophy, hyperchlorhydria, coro- nary thrombosis, glomerulonephritis hematoma, cerebrovascular ischemia. Al- though some of these words (such as anemia, hypertension and conjunctivitis) may be familiar to and even used by non-experts, the conditions they denote cannot be diagnosed by the non-experts with the medical precision. These terms reflect knowledge that lies at a long distance from lay understanding. Between these two levels is a third comprising terms of medical origin that do not require any specialist knowledge or instrumentation to understand or identify, e.g., enuresis, lochia, pharynx, larynx, dysphagia, strangury, scrofula, tumor, fistula, miliaria, macule, papule, and diphtheria. We think that the terms of the first level are actually from words and expres- sions for everyday use, that of the second level are specialized terms of Western medicine, and that of the third level are original terms of Western medicine.

3.3.3.3 Drawing Lessons from English-Chinese Translation of Western Medi- cine in China

In the course of transmission and exchange of medical cultures, linguistic con- tact is a forerunner of the contact of different medical cultures. Language, an essential medium, is the carrier of the medical knowledge. The transmission and exchange between different medical cultures will first manifest in the terminol-

31 Wiseman, Nigel. The Translation of Chinese Medical Terminology. English-Chinese & Chinese-English Dictionary of Chinese Medicine, Changsha: Hunan Science and Tech- nology Press, 1996: 67.

ogy. The foreign terminology comes to be the “envoy” of the different medical cultures. Generally speaking, a foreign medical culture is introduced and dis- seminated by translating the foreign medical terminology. The translated termi- nology gradually integrates into the native language, finally becomes an organic part of the mainstream medical culture of the nation proper. The history of translation and dissemination of Western medicine in China shows that the Western medical terminology and culture are very closely associ- ated with each other, just like the shadow following the person. It also took a very long time for the formation of standard Chinese translation of Western medical terminology in China. In the early stage of translation and dissemination of Western medicine in China, for example, translation of the term “scarlet fe- ver” had been very confusing, which had many different translations such as 紅熱症,紅疹,疹子熱病,痧病,花紅熱症,猩紅熱,etc. It can be seen from the history and reality of translating Western medicine into Chinese that the first and third levels of the Chinese medical terms have been successfully used to express Western medical knowledge, and that using the second level of Chinese medical terms, which carry the most distinctive TCM knowledge, to translate specialized terms of Western medicine, has produ- ced serious confusions or even mistakes. Here are two examples:

1. Translating “typhoid” into 傷寒 Typhoid refers to “infection of the intestine caused by Salmonella typhi in food and water” 32 , manifesting in fever, diar- rhea, even bloody stool; while 傷寒 is a specialized Chinese medical term, bears two meanings in TCM: in a broad sense, 傷寒, cold-induced disease, is

a general term for various externally contracted febrile diseases, as stated in the Plain Questions · Discourse on Febrile Diseases (su wen·re lun, 《素問熱論》) “今夫熱病者,皆傷寒之類也”; in a narrow sense, 傷寒, cold affection, refers to a condition caused by cold, manifesting in chills and fevers, absence of sweating, headache, floating and tense pulse, as stated in

(nan jing,

《難經·五十八難》傷寒有五:有中風,有傷寒,有濕溫,有熱病,有 溫病,其所苦各不同”. Later on, some translators rendered 傷寒 in Chinese medicine back into “typhoid”. Such a translation has confused the differences between “typhoid” in Western medicine and 傷寒 in Chinese medicine, thus causing misunderstanding or even misleading the readers.

2. Translating “surgery” into 外科學 Surgery refers to “treatment of a disease or disorder which requires an operation to cut into or to remove or to manipu-

the Classic of Difficult

Issues

32 Collin, P.H. Dictionary of Medicine. Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, 2001: 613.

late tissue or organs or parts” 33 ; while外科學 in Chinese medicine refers to a specialty which studies the causes, pathogenesis, and treatments of the dis- eases on the body surface 34 . Many majors of Chinese medicine, including un- dergraduates and even doctorate candidates, and some translators transla- te外科學 in Chinese medicine into “Surgery”. Actually, 外科學 in Chinese medicine should be translated into “external medicine” for the real “surgery” in Chinese medicine declined long ago since Hua Tuo died in 208 A.D.

We should draw some lessons from the above mentioned translation examples that the second level of Western medical terms should not be used to translate and express the specialized Chinese medical terms. For example, although 風火眼 in Chinese medicine and “acute conjunctivitis” in Western medicine ac- tually refer to the same disease, it is ill-advised to translate 風火眼 into “acute conjunctivitis” for such a translation must confuse cultural differences between the two medical systems, and fail to produce such association of the cause (pathogenic wind-fire) and therapeutic method (coursing wind and clearing fire) with the translation “acute conjunctivitis”, thus destroying the independency, wholeness and systematicness of the theoretical system of Chinese medicine. An interesting issue to be addressed is that some disease names in the Plain Questions (su wen) may be of foreign origin. Here are some examples: li lai 癘癩: 癘,whose ancient pronunciation is ljadh or rjats, and 癩,whose ancient pronunciation is ladh or ratsthe initial consonants come closer to those of the three most popular ancient European terms for leprosy, one might speculate about an association of li and lai with leuke, lepra, and e-lephantiasishuo luan 霍亂,the compound huo luan does not correspond to the graphic structure of the vast majority of ancient Chinese disease terms, while its ancient pronuncia- tion *hwak* luan was formed to reflect in ancient Chinese the sound of the term cholera used along the travel routes from regions where the Greek term was in use to the Far East to designate a particularly violent type of diarrhea; fei xiao 肺消, whose ancient pronunciation is *phjats*sjaw, literally “lung wasting”, could be a rendering into Chinese of the ancient Greek term phtisis or lung phtisis, which has exactly the same meaning; xiao ke 消渴, wasting/melting and thirsta label used to this day for diabetes, is a compound ideally suited to sig- nify two obvious symptoms of the disease. An identical meaning was expressed

33 Collin, P.H. Dictionary of Medicine. Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, 2001: 571.

34 Li Jing-Wei, et al. A Concise Dictionary of Chinese Medicine. Beijing: China Press of Traditional Chinese Medicine:301.

in European antiquity by Aretaios of Cappadochia. 35 Is it purely coincidental? Or there existed medical cultural exchange between the East and the West around the Zhou Dynasty (C.1100-256B.C.)? Anyway, these terms all came out far before the modern Western medicine and should be regarded as the terms of the first level. The above understanding further provides etymological evidence when translating 癘癩, 霍亂, 肺消, 消渴 into leprosy, cholera, lung wasting, wasting and thirst respectively.

3.3.3.4 Learning Successful Experiences of Dissemination of Western Medi- cine in China

Why has Western medicine been successfully transmitted to China? The key lies in that Western medical terminology has been translated into Chinese in a com- plete, independent and systematic way through literal or word-for-word transla- tion approach, e.g., Conjunctivitis is rendered as “結膜炎” not “風火眼”, Acute contagious conjunctivitis as “急性觸染性結膜炎” not “天行赤眼”; Globus as “;()”, and Globus abdominalis as “()()” not “癮瘕”, Globus hystericus as “癔症球, 癔病性窒息()” not “梅核氣” . The Chinese terms of Western medicine are so strange to the terminology of Chinese medicine and to the Chinese fraternity as well, but why do translators not adopt the terms of Chinese medicine to translate Western medical terms? Because the translator intends to preserve the systematicness, independence, and completeness (or integrity) of Western medicine, don’t want to make Western medicine in China become a Non-Chinese Non-Western Medicine or Non- Donkey Non-Horse medicine.

4 Interpreting Chinese Medicine with Methodology of Constructive Realism: Strangification

Hence, a strict intercultural and interdisciplinary approach is necessary in order to disclose the thinking structure of Chinese medicine and to understand why Chinese medicine has been working until now. Constructive Realism developed by Prof. Dr. Friedrich Wallner in the 1980s connects a hermeneutical Philo- sophy of Science with a constructive Philosophy of Science, which connects in- terpretation with construction. Thus it is an interdisciplinary and intercultural

35 Unschuld, Paul U. Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen: Nature, Knowledge, Imagery in An An- cient Chinese Medical Text. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003: 203-204.

hermeneutical philosophy of science, which offers a methodology named “strangification” to make the implicit presuppositions explicit. “Strangification” is an artificial word, a translation of the German word “Verfremdung”. This methodology comes from the field of hermeneutics, which is a way of interpreting and understanding. Strangification is able to show the presuppositions of a scientific system, and represents one of the core ideas of Constructive Realism. How does the procedure of Strangification go? It follows a simple strategy: Take a proposition system or concept out of its original con- text and put it into another different context, then observe what happens with the proposition system. The more different the other context is the better it is for the use of this methodology. For instance, transfer a proposition system from the context of Chinese medicine to the context of Western medicine but not in the aim of direct comparison. Then observe what will happen with the proposition system of Chinese medicine. Take Pi or spleen as an example. In Western medicine, the spleen refers to the organ in the top part of the ab- dominal cavity behind the stomach and below the diaphragm; it is the largest endocrine (ductless) gland, appears to act to remove dead blood cells and fight infection; and an adult can live normally after his spleen has been removed. But the spleen in Chinese medicine is radically different from that in Western medi- cine except its location: The spleen is located in the middle jiao 36 (the center) and below the diaphragm. According to its central position and its yellow color, Chinese medicine attributes the spleen to the soil in the five phases. Soil is sow- ing and reaping, corresponding to the late summer in the seasons and dampness in the climate, representing the features of receiving, generating, transforming, and supporting. Therefore, the spleen’s function in Chinese medicine is meta- phorized as transforming the water and grain into essence, then transporting and sending the essence to the whole body; thereby, the spleen is regarded as the foundation of postnatal existence, the source of the formation of qi and blood, is interrelated with the flesh, governs the limbs, opens into the mouth, manifests its brilliance in the lips, and so on. Finally a spleen system is formed. The common symptoms of the spleen diseases such as abdominal pain or distension, poor ap- petite, loose stool, diarrhea, jaundice, fatigue or weakness of the limbs, edema can be successfully relieved by treating the spleen in Chinese medicine. It is

36 Energizer is a standard translation for Jiao , which is approved by World Health Or- ganization, such as Triple Energizer for San Jiao 三焦. Actually, Burner is more popu- lar than energizer in the English literature on Chinese medicine published in the West. But actually both translations are misleading. Pinyin transliteration is the best but far away from well-known. See LAN Fengli. A Corpus-Based Study on Cultural Connota- tions and Translation of Fundamental Concepts in Classical Chinese Texts (Post- Doctoral Report). Shanghai: Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 2008.

clear that the spleen in Chinese medicine does not refer to any concrete organ, maybe not the organ spleen at all (according to its central position and the yel- low color, this organ may be the pancreas, which was not perceived by Chinese medicine in the ancient time), but to a functional system by applying the five- phase theory in the way of Qu Xiang Bi Lei, the methodological principle which demonstrates the circular reasoning and phenomena as reality guided by the idea of Tian Ren He Yi, the ontological principle and the presupposition of Chinese Medicine. The spleen in Chinese medicine suggests a complex system, which is understood based on a holistic approach and emphasis of relations and functions. Strangification has been always a way of mutual learning and understand- ing. Therefore, meanwhile it is also clear that understanding of the spleen in Western medicine is based on Reductionist Ideology with deduction and induc- tion as its methodologies by taking an analytic approach, emphasizing morpho- logical structure based on experimental studies. Science depends on culture. There are different cultures in the world, such as Islamic, Indian, Chinese, and Western cultures. Hence different scientific ap- proaches based on different cultures are possible to reveal the manifoldness of the world to the mankind. As an international cooperation working team, we think that Chinese culture and Western culture are two major and influential dif- ferent types of cultures originated and developed in incompatible but comple- mentary approaches, from which classical Chinese science and modern Western science have evolved and developed. Strangification is a vital method for us to learn from and understand each other, on the basis of which a harmonious sus- tainable world will be set up.

Chief References

[1] Lan Fengli. Chinese Medicine Is Its History. In Lan, Wallner, and Wobovnik (eds). SHEN, Psychotherapy and Acupuncture: Theory, Methodology and Structure of Chinese Medicine [C]. 2011. [2] Lan Fengli. Chinese Medicine As A Philosophy: Metaphorizing. In Lan, Wallner, and Wobovnik (eds). SHEN, Psychotherapy and Acupuncture:

Theory, Methodology and Structure of Chinese Medicine [C]. 2011. [3] Lan Fengli. Metaphorizing: The Way to Bridge The Book of Changes and Chinese Medicine. In Wallner, Schmisberger, Wimmer (eds). Intercultural Philosophy [C]. Frankurt am Mein: Peter Lang, 2010: 177-192. [4] Lan Fengli. Metaphor, Qu Xiang Bi Lei and Chinese Medicine. In Wallner, Lan and Jandl (eds). The Way of Thinking in Chinese Medicine: Theory,

Methodology and Structure of Chinese Medicine [C]. Frankurt am Main:

Peter Lang, 2010: 63-88. [5] Lan Fengli. Globalization of TCM: Cultural Differences between TCM and Western Medicine. In Wallner, Lan and Jandl (eds). The Way of Thinking in Chinese Medicine: Theory, Methodology and Structure of Chinese Medicine [C]. Frankurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2010: 24-44. [6] Lan Fengli. English Translation of Chinese Medical Terminology: One Standard or Multiple Standards? [J]. Chinese Journal of Integrated Tradi- tional and Western Medicine. 2010, 30 (2): 188-192

[7] Lan Fengli. Intercultural Philosophy and Chinese Medicine: Reflections of Philosophy of Chinese Medicine in Chinese Language. In Lan FL, Wall- ner F.G., Jandl M. J. (eds). Chinese Medicine and Intercultural Philoso- phy: Theory, Methodology, and Structure of Chinese Medicine [C]. Fran- kurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2010: 14-34. [8] Lan Fengli. Constructive Realism and Its Enlightenments for Researching Chinese Medicine [J]. Medicine and Philosophy. 2010, 31 (8): 8-9,24;

[9] Wallner Friedrich G

Acht

Vorlesungen zum Konstruktiven Realismus [M].

Vienna: WUV (Vienna University Press), 1990.

[10] Wallner Fritz G

Constructive Realism in the Intercultural World [M]. Wien: Wilhelm Braumuller, 1997. [11] Wallner Friedrich G. Five Lectures on the Foundations of Chinese Medi- cine [M]. Frankurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2009. [12] Wallner Friedrich G. The Philosophical Foundation of A Comparison be-

tween Western Medicine and Chinese Medicine (English-Chinese) [M]. Beijing: Higher Education Press, 2011.

How

to Deal with Science If You Care for Other Cultures:

Khosrow Bagheri Noaparast

Constructive Realism: A Reading of Islam and a Version of Religious Science

Introduction

Realism and constructivism in philosophy of science are incompatible rivals at least in their radical versions. While the former puts the entire emphasis in knowledge on discovery, the latter considers construction as the main character- istic of human knowledge. However, who advocate constructive realism (e.g. Wallner 1994, Bagheri Noaparast 1995, Warren 1998) put forward a combina- tion of realism and constructivism. Even though each one of these attempts has its own particularity, a common core can be considered for the strategy of con- structive realism in general. This common core consists of providing a room for scientists’ speculations in terms of their cultural backgrounds in developing hy- potheses which are, in their turn, put across the experience. While constructive realism keeps the relationship with reality by means of appealing to experience and experiment, he refrains from reducing scientific endeavor to mere observa- tions. According to this standpoint, science puts one of its feet on reality and observation and the other on culture and speculation. This article wants to examine a particular case of constructive realism in re- lation to the Islamic cultural sphere. I am going to argue for two points in this regard. Firstly, I want to suggest that a kind of constructive realism is presup- posed in Islam. This no doubt involves a new reading of Islam as there are other readings some of which might go directly against the strategy of constructive realism. The well-known fundamentalist reading of Islam implies that Islam urges us to have a rigid view and a set of fixed beliefs. I am going to challenge this reading and suggest that a kind of constrictive realism is presupposed in the main Islamic text namely Quran. That is to say, according to Quran, as far as ontology is concerned, there are realities in the world including the reality of God, on the one hand. However, epistemologically speaking, achieving these realities involves a constructive development in the human mind. Thus, while knowledge is held in this reading to be toward reality, reality is taken to be achieved through human constructs.

The second part of this article puts forward an outline of the possibility of developing a religious (human) science according to Islamic teachings. This would be a case of constructive realism. This is because a religious science qua science takes a direction toward reality and qua religious takes a religion's teach- ing as the standpoint for constructing hypotheses about the realities concerned. The two parts will be addressed below respectively.

1 Islam and constructive realism

This part is going to take place in an epistemological space. I am concerned here with epistemological foundations presupposed by Quran. In order to do this, I will divide this epistemological discussion into two sections; one in relation to “the known” and the other with regard to “the knower”. This division is reason- able as knowledge has two poles; one being rooted in the things known and the other in a subjective being namely the knower. Thus, in what follows, first I will show that there are realistic presuppositions in Quran as far as the first pole is concerned. Then, in relation to the second pole, I will show that the realistic concern in Quran is qualified by appealing to the role played by the knower.

1.1 Knowledge characteristics regarding "the known"

In so far as "the known" is concerned with the human knowledge, Quran men- tions explicitly or implicitly features for knowledge which reasonably should be understood in a realistic sphere. Some of these features will be addressed below. All the verses of Quran are used from the translation of Shakir (1995).

1.1.1 The explorative nature of knowledge

According to Quran, knowledge refers to the reality of ‘something’. Based on this, one can speak about knowledge only when ‘something’ is known. Attaining the reality of a certain thing is what makes knowledge have the explorative characteristics. In other words, with regard to knowledge not only a separate re- ality has been acknowledged for the known but also the possibility of exploring or attaining the independent reality is assumed. The following verse is an exam- ple: ‘And Allah has brought you forth from the wombs of your mothers—you did not know anything—and He gave you hearing and sight and hearts that you may give thanks.’ (Quran, 16: 78). As this verse indicates, the humans do not

know anything in the beginning but with gaining ears, eyes and hearts as instru- ments for seeing, hearing, and thinking about the objects surrounding them they have the possibility to unveil the unknown objects and gain knowledge about them.

1.1.2 Correspondence to reality

Because of the same reason that knowledge is explorative another characteristic for knowledge is presupposed in Quran, namely correspondence to reality. Cor- respondence to reality is a criterion in epistemology for the truth of claims. On this basis when knowledge is conceived it corresponds to reality and when there is no correspondence it means that knowledge has not been attained. Quran's reliance on this assumption can be observed in a verse that points out to a historical fact about a group of youths who escaped from their oppres- sive emperor and refuged to a cave and that is why they are called Fellows of the Cave (Asshabe Kahf): “(Some) say: (They are) three, the fourth of them being their dog; and (others) say: Five, the sixth of them being their dog, making con- jectures at what is unknown; and (others yet) say: Seven, and the eighth of them is their dog. Say: My Lord best knows their number, none knows them but a few…” (Quran, 18: 22). In the case in point knowledge of a historical fact has been considered as an exact statement corresponding to reality so that any kind of reckoning which is not based on reality is not more than a valueless conjec- ture. Based on the importance of correspondence to reality, it becomes evident that definitiveness and assurance in contrast to conjecture and guessing are char- acteristics of knowledge. However, definitiveness and assurance are not meant to be merely psychological states of a knower since they may occur while reality has not been explored. In fact, definitiveness and assurance should be based on reasons so that they certify achieving reality. Therefore, in the below verse of Quran, while the difference between conjecture and knowledge has been ex- pressed, this point is made clear that conjecture will not lead to truth and knowl- edge: “And they have no knowledge of it, they do not follow anything but con- jectures and surely conjecture does not avail against the truth at all.” (Quran, 53:

28)

1.1.3 Different levels of knowledge

Since knowledge is in correspondence with reality it may be implied that knowl- edge requires achieving the whole nature of reality. However, the usage of the word knowledge and its synonyms in Quran does not confirm this point. One

may not be able to achieve the entire nature of reality; however, this is not an obstacle for achieving a certain level of reality. Knowledge corresponds to the reality of objects in different levels. It can be said that in Quran different levels of reality have been offered, in the way that one can achieve knowledge of objects without having the possibil- ity of achieving the whole nature of reality. These implications is founded on the basis that while in Quran the possibility of gaining knowledge of the surround- ing phenomena has been deemed possible, accessing in-depth reality and the

entire nature of things have been considered as impossible: “

single thing but glorifies Him with His praise, but you do not understand their ”

glorification

Paying attention to different levels of reality not only hampers limitation of knowledge to in-depth knowledge but also impedes limiting knowledge to an all-encompassing knowledge of the entire universe. Inattention to different lev- els of reality and consequently knowledge has led some scholars to claim that in Islam knowledge is considered as knowledge only when it is in its widespread and ultimate shape (Al-Attas, 1980). From what Al-Attas states a proposition (even if empirical evidences are in its favor) is true so long as it will be situated in the final system of truth. There- fore, he considers correspondence insufficient but thinks that in addition to it the corresponding proposition should be situated in the correct position in the gen- eral epistemic system that God has introduced to the world which means it should guide us towards God (Al-Attas, 1980). However, the usage of the term knowledge qua knowledge does not have the requirement of having a final and all-encompassing concept of knowledge but gaining benefits from levels of knowledge suffices in order to speak about knowledge. A verse of Quran indicates this matter: “They know the outward of this world's life, but of the hereafter they are absolutely heedless.” (Quran, 30:

7). As it is obvious in this verse knowledge has been used to refer to insufficient and incomplete knowledge. While a person is ignorant of some aspects of reality and has not attained the final system of the universe it cannot be an impediment for him to gain other aspects of reality. Assigning different levels of reality indicates that correspondence with real- ity is a suitable and sufficient criterion for knowledge. What Al-Attas mentions as the place of object in the entire system of universe is correspondence with reality not anything additional to it but in macrocosmos scale. Therefore, knowl- edge is knowledge of correspondence with reality and since reality has different levels knowledge has different levels as well. Although what is knowledge in one level of reality may be having a very weak appearance of light rays or even

and there is not a

(Quran, 17: 44)

be invisible in a higher level of reality; however, this does not refute the possi- bility that knowledge in its specific level may have those enlightening rays.

1.1.4 Stability of knowledge

Knowledge from the perspective of the known has stability. In other words, when knowledge about something is acquired and achieving reality makes this obvious the epistemic work has been done and after that no difference will occur in this certain knowledge. If a mistake is considered as knowledge and after that it will be rectified it does not mean that there has been a change in knowledge because in fact no knowledge had taken place and therefore no change has taken place. This characteristic of knowledge is evident in this passage: “Have you not considered how Allah sets forth a parable of a good word (being) like a good tree, whose root is firm and whose branches are in heaven… Allah confirms those who believe with the sure word in this world’s life and in hereafter, and Allah causes the unjust to go astray, and Allah does what He pleases.” (Quran, 14: 24-27). ‘Good word’ is true faith and the verse indicates that it has solidity as its trait and in the simile it is likened to a tree that has solid roots. In the con- tinuation of this verse those who have true faith have been referred to and God endows them with strength and solidity in this world and the after because of they do not amend their saying. (Tabatabie, 1972) As shown in the verses true saying and thoughts have been introduced as solid and permanent and this is because the mentioned saying and thought corre- sponds with the reality that is its background.

1.1.5 Monism-pluralism of knowledge

Knowledge with regard to the known brings about the question of monism or pluralism of knowledge. In other words, the question is whether the known things have a single truth or different truths. The former indicates monism and the latter pluralism. Muslim scholars from the olden times have put forward different types of knowledge. The first Muslim philosophers, such as Farabi and Avicenna, have differentiated knowledge, mainly like their Greek predecessors, into two branches: theoretical philosophy including mathematics, theology and medicine; and practical philosophy including ethics, house management and politics. In another classification which became popular among Muslim thinkers knowledge was divided into religious or shari'a on the one hand and rational or non-shari'a on the other. For instance, Ghazali classified knowledge into this-

worldly and other-worldly. The former was for answering the needs of people. It should be noted that he regards jurisprudence as a sub-category of this-worldly knowledge. The other-worldly knowledge consists of "moa’melah" and "moka- shefah". Moamelah knowledge is related to emotional states such as envy or pa- tience and mokashefah consists of knowledge that after purifying one’s heart enters it like light. (Feyz Kashani, 1995, pp. 114-150) In the same manner, in the preface to his book “Moghadama”, Ibn-Khaldun speaks about two major parts of knowledge; rational and scriptural. Rational or philosophical knowledge consists of knowledge that human achieves by his own reason whereas scriptural knowledge has been offered to human by shari’a in which the role of reason is limited to relating principles to derivatives. Likewise, Mulla Sadra in his division mentions this-worldly knowledge and other-worldly knowledge. According to him, this-worldly knowledge consists of knowledge of speeches (simple vocals, single letters and meaningful words), knowledge of deeds (jobs, writing and the like, finances with benefits in the world or the world after, morality and virtue), knowledge of thoughts (recognizing limits and argu- ments, arithmetic, geometry, medicine and veterinary). On the other hand, other- worldly knowledge consists of knowledge about God, prophets, angels, and the holy books. (Mulla Sadra, Eksirol Arefin, cited in Mohaghegh, 1999) However, dividing knowledge into theoretical and practical, implied by Ar- istotle, or this-worldly and other-worldly can be challenged based on Islamic ontology and epistemology or at least a particular reading of Islam that I sup- port. For Aristotle, the division of theoretical and practical knowledge indicated the supremacy of the theoretical knowledge. However, in Islam theory and ac- tion are two aspects of human that are required by each other. There is a great emphasis on providing integrity between faith and action (Quran, 45: 30), knowledge and action (Quran, 3: 79) and saying and action (Quran, 61: 2). This emphasis along with reproaching the learners who do not act upon what they know (Quran, 2: 44) and those who act without knowledge (Quran, 11: 46) show that in Islam action and theory are considered as a union. Therefore, from the standpoint of this Islamic interpretation, dividing knowledge into theoretical and practical is not acceptable as a serious division. Likewise, classification of knowledge to shari'a or religious, on the one hand, and rational or this-worldly on the other hand, although a very common categorization, cannot be considered as a reliable division of knowledge. This is for the reason that in Islamic ontology such a demarcation does not exist be- tween the visible and the invisible or this world and the world after. The visible and invisible worlds are completely in one continuation since the visible world is just a sign for the invisible. Also, this world and the world after as two stages of being are deeply related. On the one hand, this world is the farmland of the

next world and, on the other hand, the world after is the place for emergence and realization of human actions in this world. Therefore, demarcating knowledge into religious and rational is not defendable from an Islamic point of view. If we decided to categorize knowledge based on epistemology and ontology of Islam, we can advocate a different view with respect to different levels of re- ality. On the highest or most popular level of reality, the entire universe with all its creatures is created by God and all the creatures are his signs. On this level, there is no difference between creatures, they have a symbolic reality whether prone to senses or not, have life or not. The basis of sign or symbolic reality is made of its ostensive characteristic. For example, an arrow is a symbol as its basic reality indicates a direction no matter of what it is made or what color it has. In this respect, when all the crea- tures of the world are considered as signs of God, everything is on a bar and there is no difference among a material thing, a psychological state in human or a social evolution, all are the signs of God’s power and his dominance on the world. Therefore, on this level one cannot assign different levels for knowledge but knowledge is monistic. This knowledge is completely sign-based and sym- bolic and since God is himself one, the signs and symbols are one and the same in implying him and there is no pluralism. Although some of these signs are symbols of God’s omnipotence and some others of his benevolence and so on, but since these are one and the same in God and have no real plurality, the sym- bols also have such a relation to each other. In a lower level, things are considered not as signs and symbols but in term of their kinds. In order to do this, some kind of “methodological negligence” is needed. The term “methodological negligence” is similar to the Cartesian meth- odological doubt. Descartes used doubt not as a solid and persistent element leading to scepticism but as a temporary method for achieving certainty. Similar to the Cartesian method, methodological negligence ignores the symbolic aspect of creatures temporarily and their characteristics get considered as objects. When a ‘symbol’ is considered as an ‘object’, its sign-ness gets neglected and attention is paid to the characteristics of the object. Getting back to the example of arrow, instead of paying attention to it in terms of showing direction, one fo- cuses on the material the arrow is made of. Contrary to what might be thought otherwise, methodological negligence is permitted in Islam. There are instances in Islamic texts that acknowledge meth- odological negligence. For an example, we can mention a saying by Imam Ali:

"Make for this world as if you will live in it for ever and make for the other world as if you will leave it tomorrow." (Razi, 2001, letter 30). Here two imagi- native approaches have been introduced. In these approaches, the term “as if” has been used for forgetting something temporarily. Thus, we assume the condi-

tion to be otherwise and act accordingly. In these two axiomatic approaches, once with negligence towards the world after, we assume that we will live in this world eternally and the second time, with negligence towards this world, we as- sume that there is no time left and we have to enter the world after. These imaginative approaches are not useless efforts but effective methods that have important results. In the first approach, with the assumption that we always have to live in this world the kind and domain of human activity in this life will be modified and as a result this world will become prosperous. Also in the second approach, with the assumption that there is no time left, human’s cal- culations about his condition and his agility for leaving this world will improve. By applying methodological negligence, the creatures in the world are con- sidered like objects that have certain characteristics not like symbols that refer to something. Based on this method, creatures are considered with their specific characteristics and the differences that they have. For example, the living crea- tures and the inanimate creatures are considered as different categories; likewise creatures with will power are different from will-less creatures; the creatures who lack culture and society differ from the one who have it. These kinds of real differences in creatures can lead to different kinds of knowledge. These kinds of knowledge do not only have different subjects but may as well have different methods. Examining creatures with will power in comparison to material objects may require specific methods for conducting research and study. Methodological negligence leaves monism in knowledge behind by tempo- ral standby of the fundamental reality of creatures which is their symbolic-ness and embraces pluralism in knowledge. This pluralism can be realized both in the subject of knowledge and its method. On the level of monism, there is no con- ceptual or methodological variety since all the phenomena are described as signs and acts of God and hence should be examined and interpreted as signs and symbols in the way of gaining knowledge. We have to keep methodological negligence in mind. Based on this method- ology, pluralism in knowledge cannot be permanent and after gaining the results from it we have to return to monism. This return is as referring to the more fun- damental reality of creatures. In other words, after descending to pluralism for the sake of knowledge one ascends back to monism which means after clarifying the characteristics of what God has created we have to consider them as God’s signs and symbols again.

1.2

Characteristics of Knowledge with Regard to "the

Knower"

In dealing with knowledge, the mere concentration on the known is insufficient. There are important aspects of knowledge which are tied to the perspective of the knower. These aspects consider knowledge from the perspective of its gene- sis. Some characteristics of knowledge from this standpoint will be examined in what follows.

1.2.1 Creativity of knowledge

For this characteristic it is held that the knower constructs knowledge. The con- structive character of knowledge has been the subject of attention in epistemo- logical challenges in the contemporary era. A dominant tendency in these chal- lenges has been to substitute the explorative characteristic of knowledge with the constructive characteristic. However, while paying attention to the construc- tive aspect of knowledge is very important, taking an excessive position in this regard turns knowledge to a thoroughly subjective endeavor so that it loses its objective backgrounds. Islamic epistemology takes the constructive characteristic of knowledge into account but not in a manner that it would not be reconcilable with the explor- ative feature of knowledge. Combination of the innovative and the explorative aspects happens only when we hold this important principle: the realities of things are concealed from human. For achieving this type of reality, the knower has to construct different conceptual schemes till one of them becomes relevant to reality. Metaphorically speaking, the knower is like a tailor who tries to make a dress for someone whom he has not seen and the tailor’s information about her is very limited. It is the conjecture and the creativity of the tailor that should lead him to design and make a dress that would fit the customer. The suitable dress exposes itself on the pattern of reality, yet we should not forget that this dress was constructed by the tailor. It should be noted that the explorative characteris- tic does not stand in opposition to invention but these two are deeply intermin- gled. Knowledge with regard to the known is explorative but with regard to the knower it is constructive and inventive. Regarding knowledge from the former perspective is not sufficient and it should be complemented with the second per- spective. The constructive characteristic of knowledge has been mentioned in this verse: “Therefore turn aside from him who turns his back upon our reminder and does not desire anything but this world’s life. That is their goal of knowledge;

surely your Lord knows best him who goes astray from His path and He knows best him who follows the right direction.”(Quran, 53: 29-30) In this verse, the phrase “the height of their knowledge” that would become “the height of motion of their knowledge” indicates the limited and certain amount of knowledge that they have gained. Tabatabei (1972) states that this phrase is metaphorical in a way that knowledge and the knower are moving to- wards knowledge and the knowledge of the above mentioned people has been stopped in this world’s station and has not gone any forth. In this simile the knower is like a traveler who is moving towards knowledge but this journey does not occur in a single and light path and therefore there is deviation; stop- page and standing still in one of the stations exists in this journey and the above verse mentions both points. This simile also indicates the determination of the knower’s role in achieving knowledge. It is the knower who - with suitable or unsuitable approach - determines his share and benefit from knowledge.

1.2.2 Knowledge and human needs

The second characteristic of knowledge with regard to the knower is that knowl- edge is an answer to human needs. The need can be used here in its general meaning consisting of general need for inquisitiveness. In this regard, knowl- edge relates to needs and problems of humans and is beneficial for them. It is clear that when knowledge is conceived in terms of human needs, a knower per- spective is assumed. This is because benefit involves loss and whatever is bene- ficial to one can be a loss for another. The benefit of knowledge has gained attention in history of contemporary epistemology. The evident example of this approach to knowledge is pragma- tism. In this approach, the problem solving and benefit of knowledge have sub- stituted correspondence to reality (Rorty, 1994). This confrontation is not ac- ceptable for Islamic epistemology. These two perspectives of knowledge are not each other’s substitute but they complete and complement each other. In the previous parts, some evidence for correspondence to reality was mentioned from Quran. Apart from them, we have other evidence about the benefit of knowl- edge. For example, Prophet Muhammad states: “knowledge is the inception of all the goods and ignorance is the inception of all the evils.” (Majlessi, 1983, vol. 77, p. 175). Here knowledge has been considered with regard to the knower because it deals with the relation between good and knowledge, on the one hand, and ignorance and evil on the other. Good and evil refer to human action here.

1.2.3 Different Levels of relation between knowledge and Human Needs

As knowledge with regard to the known has different levels of correspondence to reality, the knower with regard to his needs has different levels of benefit. Different levels of benefit parallel different levels of knower’s needs. The knowledge that answers a fundamental need has more benefit. What does “fundamental need” mean? In a nutshell, a fundamental need means that its satisfaction is decisive in human existence. Decisiveness has two different kinds: satisfaction of some needs brings about human’s survival while there are other needs whose satisfying will bring about transcendence. In the Islamic perspective, these two fundamental needs have been com- pared with each other. Transcendental needs are prior to survival needs in de- gree, while survival needs are prior to the transcendental needs in time. There- fore, satisfying the survival needs is the necessary and prior condition for satis- fying the transcendental ones. However, satisfying the survival needs is not the necessary and sufficient condition for satisfying the transcendental needs. In other words, it is not the case that if survival needs of human get satisfied, then necessarily his transcendental needs will be satisfied as well. Apart from fundamental needs, there are parts of inauthentic needs in hu- man. These needs also lead to certain knowledge. However, this knowledge is either without any benefit or with some loss, because their origin is not authen- tic. In Islamic texts, as it is cited below, examples of benefit-less knowledge is what was referred to as the knowledge of family trees and a knowledge that brings about loss is magic. Now, with regard to the condition and degrees of human needs, in Islamic perspective the degree of their benefit will be examined. A knowledge that re- sponds to inauthentic needs of the knower has the lowest degree. A knowledge that responds to the survival needs of human are in the middle and have tempo- ral priority over the transcendental needs. Finally, a knowledge that responds to transcendental needs has the highest degree. In connection to the low-degree knowledge that responds to the unnecessary needs of human, Imam Kazim states: “Do not devote yourself to knowing some- thing that its ignorance will not bring about loss for you” (Majlessi, 1983, vol. 78, p. 333). For indicating the low degree of such knowledge, addressing those who devoted their time to family trees, Prophet Muhammad states that ‘knowl- edge’ is not the correct term for them and we should call them merit (fazl) as having them just shows that a person has more information. (Koleini, 1989, vol 1). It should be noted that magic is absolutely abandoned in Islam (Razi, 2001, Sermon 78).

1.2.4 Knowledge as a dynamic process

As mentioned in the previous parts with regard to the known knowledge has sta- bility. However, when we pay attention to knowledge with regard to the knower the dynamic characteristic exposes itself. This dynamic characteristic stems from the fa