Sie sind auf Seite 1von 10

Studien zur

altgyptischen
Kultur
Herausgegeben von
Jochem Kahl und
Nicole Kloth

Band 43 | 2014

Helmut Buske Verlag


Hamburg

SAK-43_Druck_x3_2014-12-15.pdf

Dezember 15, 2014

13:50:52

Die Studien zur Altgyptischen Kultur (SAK), gegrndet 1974, erscheinen jhrlich in ein bis
zwei Bnden. Manuskripte erbeten an die Herausgeber oder an den Verlag:
Helmut Buske Verlag GmbH
Richardstrae 47
D-22081 Hamburg
SAK@buske.de
Herausgeber:
Prof. Dr. Jochem Kahl
Freie Universitt Berlin
gyptologisches Seminar
Altensteinstr. 33
D-14195 Berlin
jochem.kahl@fu-berlin.de

Dr. Nicole Kloth


Sondersammelgebiet gyptologie
Universittsbibliothek
Plck 107-109
D-69117 Heidelberg
kloth@ub.uni-heidelberg.de

Beirat:
Prof. Dr. Hartwig Altenmller (Hamburg)
Prof. Dr. Manfred Bietak (Wien)
Prof. Dr. Angelika Lohwasser (Mnster)
Prof. Dr. Joachim Friedrich Quack (Heidelberg)

Alle Manuskripte unterliegen einer anonymisierten Begutachtung (peer review); ber die Annahme oder Ablehnung des Manuskripts entscheiden die Herausgeber. ber die Internetseite
http://studien-zur-altaegyptischen-kultur.de sind die Formatvorlage sowie weitere Hinweise
zur Erstellung von Manuskripten fr die SAK zu finden.
ISSN 0340-2215 (Studien zur Altgyptischen Kultur)
ISBN 978-3-87548-692-6
Helmut Buske Verlag GmbH, Hamburg 2014. Alle Rechte, auch die des auszugsweisen Nachdrucks, der fotomechanischen Wiedergabe und der bersetzung, vorbehalten. Dies betrifft auch
die Vervielfltigung und bertragung einzelner Textabschnitte durch alle Verfahren wie Speicherung und bertragung auf Papier, Filme, Bnder, Platten und andere Medien, soweit es nicht 53
und 54 URG ausdrcklich gestatten. Bildbearbeitung, Druckvorstufe: Da-TeX Gerd Blumenstein,
Leipzig. Druck: Strauss, Mrlenbach. Buchbinderische Verarbeitung: Schaumann, Darmstadt.
Gedruckt auf surefreiem, alterungsbestndigem Papier: alterungsbestndig nach ANSI-Norm
resp. DIN-ISO 9706, hergestellt aus 100% chlorfrei gebleichtem Zellstoff. Printed in Germany.

SAK-43_Druck_x3_2014-12-15.pdf

Dezember 15, 2014

13:50:52

The overseer of mSa of the section of nfrw


(stela London BM EA 1822)

Danijela Stefanovi
(Taf. 16)
Abstract
The aim of this article is the publication of the early Middle Kingdom stela London BM EA 1822, as well as the
analysis of the title mr mSa n wart which is otherwise unattested.

Rectangular limestone stela, London BM EA 18221 measures 46 x 51 cm. It was acquired


by the British Museum in 1961, from M. Sameda. The stela had been broken into two large
parts which were later rejoined. Still, the lower right corner is missing. The object was
presumably placed in a tomb chapel, or has been the centre-piece of an offering chapel,
where it would act as the focus of a funerary cult.
The surface of the stela is divided into two areas. At the top are three lines of text,
written from right to left, which contains an offering formula:

1) Htp dj nsw gb xA t Hnqt xA jHw ApDw xA Ss mnxt xA snTr xA m


2) qbHw xA m xt nbt nfrt n kA n mr mSa n wart
3) nt nfrw mrjj nb.f mAa jmAx Xtjj-wAH
1) An offering which the king has given, and Geb,2 a thousand of bread and beer, a
thousand of beef and fowl, a thousand of (oil in) alabaster (vessels) and linen, a thousand of
incense, a thousand of libation (water)
2) offerings and a thousand of everything good and pure for the ka of overseer of the mSa
of the section
3) of nfrw, the truly beloved by his lord,3 the venerated Xtjj-wAH4

PM VIII/3 803-030-292.
The god Geb is rarely attested in the offering formula (Durham N1941; Cairo, GC 20390, 20402,
90151; Karlsruhe H.412; Liverpool M13846; Lovre C182; KHM S 112, 118; PT 172, 599; BM 903).
See LGG VII, 303305; P. Vernus, Deux statues du Moyen empire, in: BIFAO 74, 1974, 158.
3
For the epithet mrjj nb.f mAa, see D. Doxey, Egyptian Non-Royal Epithets in the Middle Kingdom: A
Social and Historical Analysis, P 12, Leiden 1988, 134-135.
4
Ranke, PN I, 278/6 referring to Louvre C181; for the Xtjj-wAH, attested on Wadi Hammamat inscriptions,
see R. Leprohon, The Reign of Amenemhet III, Ph.D. diss, (unpublished), Toronto 1980, 315, 370 (785-786).
2

SAK-43_Druck_x3_2014-12-15.pdf

423

Dezember 15, 2014

13:51:10

418

D. Stefanovi

SAK 43

In the main register below, the scene, carved in raised relief, shows Xtjj-wAH on the left,
seated on a low-backed chair, facing right toward a rich offering table. The facial features
display fleshy lips, elongated eyes and pointed nose. He wears a bagwig that leaves his ears
uncovered, a kilt and a broad collar. His right hand rests on his chest, holding a
handkerchief, while his left reaches out toward the offerings piled on top of the bread
loaves5: joints of meat, loaves of various shapes, ducks or gooses, a basket of figs on a tray,
onions or leeks, and other vegetables.
dbHt-Htp
the required offerings
The offering formula alone, based on its elements, the omission of the dj.f prt-xrw formula,
and epigraphic criteria would suggest a date in the first half of Dynasty 12, before the reign
of Senwosret III.6 Stylistically, the object may belong to the cluster of stelae labeled by R.
Freed as workshop no 6 Large Male showing a seated official before a table of offerings,
with no other people depicted.7
The title of Xtjj-wAH, mr mSa n wart nt nfrw, is otherwise unattested. This is a compound
title consisting of two elements: mr mSa and wart nt nfrw. While the title mr mSa8 is well
5

For the arrangement of the offering scene, and its resemblance to the late Old Kingdom - First
Intermediate Period patterns, see E. Brovarski, False Doors and History. The First Intermediate Period and
Middle Kingdom, in: D. Silverman - W.K. Simpson - Josef Wegner (eds.), Archaism and Innovation, Studies in
the Culture of Middle Kingdom Egypt, New Haven - Philadelphia 2009, 397-407; Id., A second style in
Egyptian relief of the Old Kingdom, in: S. Thompson - P. der Manuelian (eds.), Egypt and Beyond: Essays
presented to Leonard H. Lesko, Providence 2008, 7475.
6
J. C. Bennett, Growth of the Htp-di-nsw Formula in the Middle Kingdom, in: JEA 27, 1941, 77-82; C.
Obsomer, Di.f prt xrw et la filiation ms(t).n/ir(t).n comme critres de datation dans les textes du Moyen Empire,
in: C. Cannuyer and J-M. Kruchten (eds), Individu, socit et spiritualit dans lgypte pharaonique et copte:
Mlanges gyptologiques offerts au Professeur Aristide Thodorids, Brussels 1993, 163201; H. Satzinger,
Beobachtungen zur Opferformel: Theorie and Praxis, in: LingAeg 5, 1997, 177188; D. Spanel, Palaeographic
and Epigraphic Distinctions between Texts of the Socalled First Intermediate Period and the Early Twelfth
Dynasty, in: P. Der Manuelian (ed.), Studies in Honor of William Kelly Simpson II, Boston 1996, 771; O. D.
Berlev, ( , . . .),
46, 1962, 66; A. Ilin-Tomich, Changes in the Htp-djnsw Formula in the Late Middle Kingdom and the Second Intermediate Period, ZS 138, 2011, 21, n.11.
7
R. Freed, Stela Workshops of Early Dynasty 12, in: Studies in Honor of William Kelly Simpson I, 315.
The stelae from the first half of the 12th Dynasty include London BM EA 251, BM EA 585, BM EA 587; the
stelae of ANOC 3 (EA 566, EA 830, Louvre C 240) and 71 (Zagreb 1 and 2); Cairo CG 20053. See also W.
Grajetzki, Two Treasurers of the Late Middle Kingdom, BAR 1007, London, 200, 13.
8
A. Gardiner, AEO I, 25; W. Ward, Index of Egyptian administrative and religious titles of the Middle
Kingdom, Beirut 1982, no 205; R. O. Faulkner, Egyptian Military Organization, in: JEA 39, 1954, 33-39; M-P.
Chevereau, Contribution la prosopographie des cadres militaries du Moyen Empire, in: RdE 42, 1991, 46-56;
L. Gestermann, Kontinuitt und Wandel in Politik und Verwaltung des Frhen Mittleren Reiches in gypten,
GOF IV/18, Wiesbaden 1987, 191ff; A. R. Schulman, Military Rank, Title and Organisation in the Egyptian
New Kingdom, MS 6, Berlin 1964, 94-101; W. Grajetzki, Die hchsten Beamten der gyptischen
Zentralverwaltung zur Zeit des Mittleren Reiches: Prosoprographie, Titel und Titelreihen, Achet: Schriften zur
gyptologie 2, Berlin 2000, 116-129; S. Quirke, Titles and bureaux of Egypt 1850-1700 BC, GHP Egyptology
1, London 2004, 98-99; D. Stefanovi, The Holders of Regular Military Titles in the Period of the Middle
Kingdom: Dossiers, GHP Egyptology 4, London 2006, 182-202 (for the list of titleholders).

SAK-43_Druck_x3_2014-12-15.pdf

424

Dezember 15, 2014

13:51:10

2014

The overseer of mSa of the section of nfrw

419

attested, and belongs to the group of so-called regular military titles,9 the syntagm wart nt
nfrw has not been recorded in any other sources.
During the Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period, overseers of mSa, as is
recorded in their biographies, biographical phrases and the context of the sources, have
been attested in military10 and non military enterprises11 - quite often involved in building
projects and expeditions. Similarly, the overseer of mSa was in charge of various
companies of people, who were engaged in military and non military tasks, or who were
identified by their professions,12 or ethnonyms.13 With the same analogy, the word mSa14
(although the standard orthography of mSa displays the determinative / classifier of a soldier
and in accordance with the classifier theory, the semantic origin of mSa should therefore be
military)15 in the Middle Kingdom sources, has been attested as:

S. Quirke, The regular titles of the Late Middle Kingdom, in: RdE 37, 1986, 122.
See, for example stelae Louvre C1 (Grajetzki, Zentralverwaltung, 127; C. Obsomer, La date de NsouMontou (Louvre C1), in: RdE 44, 1993, 103-140; Id., Ssostris Ier: Etude chronologique et historique du rgne,
Connaissance de l'gypte Ancienne tudes 5, Bruxelles 1995, 546-552; L. Berman, Amenemhet I, Diss. Yale
University, New Haven Conn 1985, 107-109; Grajetzki, Zentralverwaltung, 118; Stefanovi, The Holders of
Regular Military Titles, 1089), Florenz 2540 (H. S. Smith, The fortress of Buhen: The Inscriptions, EES
Excavation Memoirs 48, London 1976, 39-41; C. Obsomer, Les lignes 8 24 dela stele de Mentouhotep
(Florence 2540) rige Bouhen en l'an 18 de Ssostris Ier, in: GM 130, 1992, 57-74; Id., Sesostris Ier, doc.
137; Grajetzki, Zentralverwaltung, 127; Stefanovi, The Holders of Regular Military Titles, 1009), and Boston
MFA 29. 1130 (R. Leprohon, Stelae II: The New Kingdom to the Coptic Period, CAA Boston 3, Mainz 1991,
153-155; Grajetzki, Zentralverwaltung, 128; Stefanovi, The Holders of Regular Military Titles, 1008).
11
For example, the mr mSa sbkj (Munich Gl WAF 31) held the post of a Hrj-tp mDHww rwDt n Hm.f m kAt
nbt nt prnswt (Grajetzki, Zentralverwaltung, 128; Stefanovi, The Holders of Regular Military Titles, 1047).
12
The late Middle Kingdom stela Liverpool Museum M.13634 records an overseer of the mSa of rowers
(mr mSa n Xnww; see Lieblein, NWB, no. 293; D. Jones, A Glossary of Andent Egyptian Nautical Titles and
Terms, London 1988, 58 [40]). The overseer of the mSa of stonemasons (mr mSa n Xrtjw-nTr; Ward, Index
MK, 212) is well attested from the reign of Senwosret I on at the quarry sites of Wadi Hammamat (G 61), and
on Sinai (IS no 90), and only from the late 12th or early 13th Dynasty on stelae found at Abydos (See K.
Kothay, Phyles of stone-workers in the phyle system of the Middle Kingdom, in: ZS 134, 2007, 147). For mr
mSa n sqdw (overseer of mSa of sailors) see J. Allen, The Historical Inscription of Khnumhotep at Dahshur:
Preliminary Report, in: BASOR 352, 2008, 29-39.
13
mr mSa n aAmw (Ward, Index MK, 206).
14
Wb II, 155156. See, C. Eyre, Work and the Organization of Work in the Old Kingdom, in: M. Powell
(ed.), Labor in the Ancient Near East, New Heaven 1987, 10; G.P.F. van den Boorn, Duties Of The Vizier: Civil
Administration in the Early New Kingdom, London 1988, 119; W. Helck, Zur Verwaltung des Mittleren und
Neuen Reichs, P 3, Leiden 1958, 36.
15
See O. Goldwasser, A Comparison between Classier Languages and Classier Script: The Case of
Ancient Egyptian, in: G. Goldenberg - A. Shisha-Halevy (eds.), Egyptian, Semitic and general grammar:
Studies in memory of H. J. Polotsky, Jerusalem 2009, 1639.
10

SAK-43_Druck_x3_2014-12-15.pdf

425

Dezember 15, 2014

13:51:10

420

D. Stefanovi

SAK 43

1. a fighting unit (very often under command of non-military personnel);16


2. an expedition force / mission (people of mSa in such cases are variously specified
simply as mSa n s 3000,17 mSa 20000,18 rxt n mSa19 or more precisely mSa.f n Xrtjw-nTr 20
jkjw 30 Xnw 30 mSaw aSAw 2000; 20
3. labour force.21
The ubiquitous nature of the Middle Kingdom mSa may imply that its people were
grown up males (agricultural producers) of local contingents raised on occasion, for the
purposes of any collective enterprises the state was able to conduct, and engaged, perhaps,
in the same way as men were recruited for corve labor, public building and civic projects,
or war. 22
It is well known that various groups of artisans, or craftsman, were organised in awart,
i.e. a section or production unit supervised by an overseer.23 Thus, wartdenotes a group
of craftsmen in the same profession, but perhaps also a site where they were concentrated
16
As, for example, in the Annals of Amenemhat II (H. Altenmller - A. M. Moussa, Die Inschrift
Amenemhets II. aus dem Ptah-Tempel von Memphis: Vorbericht, in: SAK 18, 1991, 47ff; J. Mlek - S. Quirke,
Memphis 1991: Epigraphy, in: JEA 78, 1992, 13-18, and more recently E. Marcus, Amenemhet II and the sea:
maritime aspects of the Mit Rahina (Memphis) inscription, in: L 17, 2007, 137 - 190), in the authobiography
of Khusobek named Djaa (Manchester Museum 3306; John Baines, The Stela of Khusobek: Private and Royal
Military Narrative and Values, in: J. Osing (ed.), Form und Mass: Festschrift fr Gerhard Fecht zum 65.
Geburtstag, AT 12, Wiesbaden 1987, 43-61), or in a tomb inscription of the nomarch Amenemhat (Beni
Hasan no 2; P. E. Newberry, Beni Hasan I, London 1898, 25). For a more general overview see: C. Raedler, Zur
Prosopographie von altgyptischen Militrangehrigen, in: R. Gundlach - C. Vogel (eds.), Militrgeschichte des
pharaonischen gypten: Altgypten und seine Nachbarkulturen im Spiegel der aktuellen Forschung,
Paderborn 2003, 325328.
17
J. Couyat - P. Montet, Les inscriptions hiroglyphiques et hiratiques du Oudi Hammmt, Le Caire,
1913, no 114, 427-429 (see also K-J. Seyfried, Beitrge zu den Expeditionen des Mittleren Reiches in die
Ostwste, HAB 15, Hildesheim 1981, 243-244; C. Vandersleyen, Les inscriptions 114 et 1 du Ouadi
Hammamt (11e dynastie), in: CdE 64, 1989, 148-158), and M. Abdel-Raziq, New Inscriptions at El Ein El
Sukhna, in: Memnonia X, 1999, 129, pl. XXXIII.
18
E. Eichler, Untersuchungen zum Expeditionswesen des gyptischen Alten Reiches, GOF IV/ 26,
Wiesbaden 1993, 113 [U].
19
A. I. Sadek, The Amethyst Mining Inscriptions of Wadi El-Hudi I, Warminster 1980, no 4, 6, 20, 23 B.
Cf. Seyfried, Expeditionen, 218ff;
20
Couyat - Montet, Oudi Hammmt, no 19, lines 14-15; cf. Faulkner, in: JEA 39, 1954, 38; or more
detailed list in G. Goyon, Nouvelles inscriptions rupestres du Wadi Hammamat, Paris 1957, no 61; D. Farout,
La carrire du wehemu Ameny et l'organisation des expditions au Ouadi Hammamat au Moyen Empire, in:
BIFAO 94, 1994, 145147; Obsomer, Sesostris Ier, doc. 149.
21
F. Arnold, The South Cemeteries of Lisht/2: The Control Notes and Team Marks, PMMA 23, New York
1990, 25. For the context of mSa on the stela Tbingen 458 [10/ swD.Tn iAwt.Tn n Xrdw.Tn pH.Tn 11/ m Htp sDdw.Tn
mSaw.Tn n Hmwt.Tn] - see more recently D. Silverman, The Appeal of Sobek-hotep, in: T. A. Bacs, A tribute to
excellence; Studies offered in honor of Ern Gal, Ulrich Luft, Lszl Trk, Studia Aegyptiaca 17, Budapest
2002, 425426) I do not have a precise explanation, except that it perhaps refers to the generation, or to the
company.
22
J. C. Moreno Garcia, War in Old Kingdom Egypt (2686-2125 BCE), in: J. Vidal (ed.), Studies on War in
the Ancient Near East, AOAT 372, Mnster 2010, 14.
23
For example, mr wart n irw wHmt (Ward, Index MK, 109; H. G. Fischer, Egyptian Titles of the Middle
Kingdom. A Supplement to Wm. Wards Index, New York 1985, 47; Quirke, Titles and bureaux, 76-77; S.
Quirke, 'Art' and 'the Artist' in late Middle Kingdom administration, in: S. Quirke (ed.), Discovering Egypt from
the Neva: The egyptological legacy of Oleg D. Berlev, Berlin 2003, 90, 94), or mr wart n sSw qdwt (Ward,
Index MK, 117; Fischer, Egyptian Titles, 47; Quirke, Titles and bureaux, 75-76; Quirke, in: Discovering Egypt
from the Neva, 91, 96).

SAK-43_Druck_x3_2014-12-15.pdf

426

Dezember 15, 2014

13:51:10

2014

The overseer of mSa of the section of nfrw

421

within a larger production or workshop area, in which different professions coexisted, each
organised in their own section.24 The term wart was also used as a marker of territorial or
even administrative districts.25 The exact scope of duties of an wart is still puzzling,
although the terms wart mHtt - northern mHtt, wart rst - wart of the South, wart tp rsy - wart
of the Head of the South are frequently attested during the late Middle Kingdom, referring
to some sort of administrative, geographically definable areas, or districts of Egypt.26
The wart of nfrw would refer than to the section of nfrw, and is otherwise unattested.
The term nfrw points to groups of young men in military, labor, and expeditionary
contexts, 27 perhaps young men of a working age.
Although the inscription on the stela London BM EA 1822 may seem to be typical and
formulistic (consisting just of the Htp dj nswt formula, the dedicators name and the title) it
is a good example of the richness and variety in one particular aspect of social studies of
Middle Kingdom Egypt, namely the importance of the data of titles and titular sequences.

24

A study on the wart system for craftsmen working with valuable materials is Quirke, in: Discovering
Egypt from the Neva, 89 ff. Rock inscription Sinai no. 24A from the reign of Amenemhat III mentions four
stonemasons attached to wart sections, and each of these sections is probably named after its overseer:
Senwosret, Heqaib and two men called Amenyseneb.
25
W. C. Hayes, Notes on the Government of Egypt in the Late Middle Kingdom, in: JNES 12, 1953, 3133; J. Wegner, Regional Control in Middle Kingdom Lower Nubia: The History and Function of the Settlement
at Areika, in: JARCE 32, 1995, 151152; D. Stefanovi, wart mHtt on the stela Sinai 115, in: GM 190, 2002, 7582; S. Quirke, The Administration of Egypt in the Late Middle Kingdom, New Malden 1991, 4.
26
Helck, Verwaltung, 13, 241243; Leprohon, The Reign of Amenemhet III, 234sq; L. Gestermann, Der
politische und kulturelle Wandel unter Sesostris III - Ein Entwurf, in: L. Gestermann (ed.), Per Aspera ad Astra:
Wolfgang Schenkel zum neunundfnfzigsten Geburtstag, Kassel 1995, 6; see also H. Kees, Zur Bedeutung
von wart in Urkunden der MR, ZS 70, 1934, 8691; R. Leprohon, Some Remarks of the Administrative
Department (wart ) of the Late Middle Kingdom, JSSEA X/2,1980, 162sq; Quirke, Administration, 4.
27
Scholars have assigned significantly different renderings and interpretations to the term nfrw (Wb II, 258;
cf. E. Feucht, Das Kind im Alten gypten: Die Stellung des Kindes in Familie und Gesellschaft nach
altgyptischen Texten und Darstellungen, Frankfurt - New York 1995, 524-526). As the word has often been
related to its homonym meaning young man, recruit, W. Helck systematically favoured, in respect to the New
Kingdom attestation, to translate the nfrw as recruits of the army. This was in part based on the determinative
used - the figure of a child or youth (W. Helck, Der Einflu der Militrfhrer in der 18. gyptischen Dynastie,
Untersuchungen zur Geschichte und Altertumskunde gyptens 14, Leipzig 1939, 15ff). On the other hand
Faulkner argued that the nfrw carried out tasks as labourers rather than soldiers (Faulkner, in: JEA 39, 1954, 55;
for the Old Kingdom attestations see P. Posener-Kriger, Les papyrus de Gblein: Rmarques preliminaries,
in: RdE 27, 1975, 211-221; H. G. Fischer, The Inspector of Youths nfr-n-xwfw, in: OMRO 41, 1960, 1-13; Id.,
A Scribe of the Army in the Saqqara Mastaba of the Early Fifth Dynasty, in: JNES 18, 1959, 258-261; Eyre, in:
Labor in the Ancient Near East, 19). Schulman however pointed out that the New Kingdom sources indicate
rather a type of elite troops, who while perhaps young were not newly enlisted (Schulman, Military Rank, 2021). The wide range of use for nfrw in general, and as an element of various syntagms and titles in particular,
suggest that the translation of nfrw has to be broadened to include a non-military meaning, especially within the
realm of the Middle Kingdom (see, for example IS no 85 recording rxt n DAmw nfrw wD Ht-Hr, and comments by
D. Mueller, Some Remarks on Wage Rates in the Middle Kingdom, in: JNES 34, 1975, 251ff; for the possible
military context of the term see A. Erman, Zwei rekrutenaushebungen im Abydos aus dem Mittleren Reich, in:
ZS 38, 1900, 42-45, and Leprohon, Amenemhat III, 46).

SAK-43_Druck_x3_2014-12-15.pdf

427

Dezember 15, 2014

13:51:10

Tafel 16

D. Stefanovi

SAK 43

Stela London BM EA 1822


The Trustees of the British Museum

SAK-43_Druck_x3_2014-12-15.pdf

482

Dezember 15, 2014

13:51:39

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Abdel-Raziq, Abdalla
Three Late Middle Kingdom Stelae from
Al-Salam School Museum, Assiut (Taf. 1-3) ...........................................................

1-16

Antoine, Jean-Christophe
Social position and the organisation of landholding in Ramesside Egypt.
An analysis of the Wilbour Papyrus .........................................................................

17-46

Breyer, Francis
Vorlagen zur Punthalle von Dair al-Bar aus dem Alten Reich.
Philologisch-epigraphische, textkritische und ikonographische cruces im
Zusammenspiel von Darstellungen und Inschriften .................................................

47-91

Di Biase-Dyson, Camilla
Multiple Dimensions of Interpretation.
Reassessing the Magic Brick Berlin MP 15559 (Taf. 4) .......................................

93-107

Daz Hernndez, Roberto A.


The Role of the War Chariot in the Formation
of the Egyptian Empire in the Early 18th Dynasty ....................................................

109-122

Hellum, Jennifer
Toward an Understanding of the Use of Myth in the Pyramid Texts .......................

123-142

Hsu, Shih-Wei
Pharaos Krper: Tiere als bildliche Ausdrcke in den Knigsinschriften ...............

143-157

Kahl, Jochem
Assiut Theben Tebtynis.
Wissensbewegungen von der Ersten Zwischenzeit und
dem Mittleren Reich bis in Rmische Zeit ...............................................................

159-172

Klotz, David
Hibis Varia (1-3): Diverse Liturgical Texts from Hibis Temple ............................

173-207

Lapp, Gnther
Totentexte der Privatleute vom Ende des Alten Reiches bis zur 1. Zwischenzeit
unter besonderer Bercksichtigung von Sargkammern und Srgen .........................

209-222

Malaise, Michel
Le calathos sur la tte dIsis: une enqute ................................................................

223-265

SAK-43_Druck_x3_2014-12-15.pdf

Dezember 15, 2014

13:50:52

VI

Inhaltsverzeichnis

SAK 43 (2014)

Metawi, Dina
The False Door of WDa-ri (Cairo Museum, without number) (Taf. 5-7) ...............

267-276

ORourke, Paul F.
The Book of the Dead of Ankhefenkhonsu in Brooklyn (Taf. 8-12) .......................

277-315

Ramcke, Rainer
Der Sothis-Zyklus und die zwei Anfnge des altgyptischen
Verwaltungskalenders. Eine astronomische Simulation ..........................................

317-358

Ridealgh, Kim
A Tale of Semantics and Suppressions: Reinterpreting Papyrus Mayer A
and the So-called War of the High Priestduring the Reign of Ramesses XI .........

359-373

Rummel, Ute
War, death and burial of the High Priest Amenhotep:
the archaeological record at Dra Abu el-Naga (Taf. 13-15)....................................

375-397

Spalinger, Anthony John


Eleventh Day, Twelfth Night:
Further Remarks Concerning Three Feasts in Egyptian Civil Tooth .......................

399-415

Stefanovi, Danijela
The overseer of mSa of the section of nfrw
(stela London BM EA 1822) (Taf 16) ......................................................................

417-421

Theis, Christoffer
Zu den an der Pyramide Lepsius XIII gefundenen Namen.
Die Frage nach Nfr-k# und B#-k#...............................................................................

423-438

El-Tonssy, Mohamed A. / Mohamed, Yossef


Two Unpublished False Doors from Saqqara (Taf. 17-18) ......................................

439-455

Anschriften der Autorinnen und Autoren .................................................................

457-458

Tafeln 1-18

SAK-43_Druck_x3_2014-12-15.pdf

Dezember 15, 2014

13:50:52