Sie sind auf Seite 1von 21

ANUARIO DE DERECHO CONSTITUCIONAL LATINOAMERICANO

AO XIX, BOGOT, 2013, PP. 489509, ISSN 23460849

Claudio Nash Rojas (Chile)*

Control de convencionalidad. Precisiones conceptuales


y desafos a la luz de la jurisprudencia de la Corte
Interamericana de Derechos Humanos
RESUMEN
El presente artculo desarrolla el concepto y alcance de la gura del control de conven-
cionalidad a la luz del derecho internacional de los derechos humanos. En particular, se
hace un anlisis contextual y conceptual de la gura a travs de la evolucin de la juris-
prudencia de la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos, con el objetivo de sealar
que dicho control no es ms que la concrecin jurisdiccional de la obligacin de garanta
de los derechos humanos en el mbito interno.

Palabras clave: derechos humanos, derecho y jurisprudencia, Corte Interamericana de


Derechos Humanos, derecho internacional de los derechos humanos, control de con-
vencionalidad.

ZUSAMMENFASSUNG
Der vorliegende Artikel befasst sich mit dem Konzept und der Reichweite der Figur der
berprfung der vlkerrechtlichen Vertragskonformitt im Hinblick auf das Internationa-
le Recht der Menschrechte. Insbesondere werden Inhalt und Kontext dieser Rechtsgur
anhand der Entwicklung der Rechtsprechung des Interamerikanischen Gerichtshofs fr
Menschenrechte analysiert. Damit soll die These begrndet werden, dass diese ber-
prfung nichts anderes ist als die richterrechtliche Konkretisierung der Verpichtung, die
Menschenrechte im innerstaatlichen Rahmen zu garantieren.

Schlagwrter: Menschenrechte, Recht und Rechtsprechung, Interamerikanischer Ge-


richtshof fr Menschenrechte, Internationales Recht der Menschenrechte, Prfung der
Vereinbarkeit nationalen Rechts mit internationalen Vertrgen.

 %PDUPSFO%FSFDIP 6OJWFSTJEBEEF$IJMF
BDBENJDPEFMB'BDVMUBEEF%FSFDIP 6OJWFSTJEBE
EF$IJMFZTVCEJSFDUPSEFM$FOUSPEF%FSFDIPT)VNBOPTEFMB'BDVMUBEEF%FSFDIP 6OJWFSTJEBEEF
$IJMF"HSBEF[DPB$POTUBO[B/F[ BTJTUFOUFEFJOWFTUJHBDJOEFM$%) QPSTVBZVEBQBSBFTUF
USBCBKPDOBTI!EFSFDIPVDIJMFDM
490 CONTROL DE CONVENCIONALIDAD. PRECISIONES CONCEPTUALES Y DESAFOS A LA LUZ / CLAUDIO NASH ROJAS

ABSTRACT
This paper deals with the concept and scope of conventionality control in the light of
International Human Rights Law. Specically, it provides a contextual and conceptual
analysis using the evolution of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights case law, to
show that this type of control is simply the judicial mechanism for complying with the
duty to guarantee human rights within the country.

Keywords:Human rights, Law and case law, Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Inter-
national Human Rights Law, Conventionality control.

1. Introduccin

-BHVSBEFMDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBE DPOEJDIBEFOPNJOBDJO
1FTEFSFDJFOUF
EFTBSSPMMPFOMBEPHNUJDBEFMPTEFSFDIPTGVOEBNFOUBMFTZFMDPOTUJUVDJPOBMJTNP DPO
VOJODJQJFOUFUSBUBNJFOUPFOMBKVSJTQSVEFODJBEFMBT$PSUFTOBDJPOBMFT4VBQBSJDJOFO
FMFTDFOBSJPKVSEJDPFTUFTUSFDIBNFOUFSFMBDJPOBEBDPOMBTPCMJHBDJPOFTRVFJNQPOF
MB$POWFODJO"NFSJDBOBEF%FSFDIPT)VNBOPT $"%)
ZFMEFTBSSPMMPQSPHSFTJWP
EFMPTFTUOEBSFTEFEFSFDIPTIVNBOPTFOMBKVSJTQSVEFODJBEFMB$PSUF*OUFSBNFSJDBOB
EF%FSFDIPT)VNBOPT $PSUF*%)
-PBOUFSJPS DPOVOBDMBSBJOTQJSBDJOFOMBHVSB
EFMDPOUSPMEFDPOTUJUVDJPOBMJEBE BNQMJBNFOUFEFTBSSPMMBEPFOFMNCJUPJOUFSOPEF
MPT&TUBEPTZFOFMDPODFQUPEFiDPOUSPMJOUFSOBDJPOBMw2&OMBBDUVBMJEBEWFNPTRVFZB
OPCBTUBDPOMBNFSBJODPSQPSBDJOGPSNBMEFMPTUSBUBEPTJOUFSOBDJPOBMFTEFEFSFDIPT
IVNBOPT TJOPRVFQBSBEBSDVNQMJNJFOUPBTVTJNQFSBUJWPTTFSFRVJFSFVOFTGVFS[PJO
UFSQSFUBUJWPNBZPSQPSQBSUFEFMBTKVSJTEJDDJPOFTOBDJPOBMFT RVFJODPSQPSFFMEFTBSSPMMP
EFFTUOEBSFTBOJWFMJOUFSOBDJPOBM
%FBIRVFTFBSFMFWBOUFQMBOUFBSTFMBQSFHVOUBCul es el alcance de la figura del
control de convencionalidad a la luz del derecho internacional de los derechos humanos? -P
RVFRVJFSPTPTUFOFSFTRVFFMDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBEFTMBconcrecin jurisdiccional
de la obligacin de garantaEFMPTEFSFDIPTIVNBOPTFOFMNCJUPJOUFSOP4VQBSUJDVMB

1
 4FSFBMJ[BFMBMDBODFQVFTUPRVFMBGVODJOEFMDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBETFEFTBSSPMMB
EFTEFMBFOUSBEBFOWJHPSEFMB$POWFODJO"NFSJDBOB QFSPOPFTTJOPFOMPTMUJNPTBPTFORVF
FTUBMBCPSTFIBDBSBUVMBEPCBKPEJDIPDPODFQUP&OFTUFTFOUJEP WFS,BSMPT$BTUJMMBi&MDPOUSPMEF
DPOWFODJPOBMJEBEVOOVFWPEFCBUFFO.YJDPBQBSUJSEFMBTFOUFODJB3BEJMMB1BDIFDPw FOAnuario
Mexicano de Derecho Internacional WPM9* QQ  Q Z+VBO$BSMPT)JUUFSTi$POUSPM
EFDPOTUJUVDJPOBMJEBEZDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBE$PNQBSBDJO DSJUFSJPTKBEPTQPSMB$PSUF
*OUFSBNFSJDBOBEF%FSFDIPT)VNBOPT
w FORevista de Estudios Constitucionales,$FOUSPEF&TUVEJPT
$POTUJUVDJPOBMFT6OJWFSTJEBEEF5BMDB BP O  QQ Q
2
 &MDPOUSPMJOUFSOBDJPOBMTFVUJMJ[BQBSBSFGFSJSTFBMDPOKVOUPEFQSPDFEJNJFOUPTZUDOJDBT
EFTUJOBEPTBWFSJDBSTJFMDPNQPSUBNJFOUPEFMPT&TUBEPTTFBEFDBPOPBMPFYJHJEPQPSOPSNBT
EFDPOEVDUBJOUFSOBDJPOBMFT 7FS'FSOBOEP.BSJPDerecho internacional pblico, parte general,
.BESJE5SPUUB  Q
ANUARIO DE DERECHO CONSTITUCIONAL LATINOAMERICANO 491

SJEBEFTRVFNBSDBVOQVOUPEFDPOWFSHFODJBSPCVTUPFOUSFMPTTJTUFNBTEFQSPUFDDJO
OBDJPOBMFJOUFSOBDJPOBM
%JDIPMPBOUFSJPS SFTVMUBJNQPSUBOUFBDMBSBSEFTEFVOJOJDJPRVFFTUBNPTBOUFVOB
HVSBRVFMB$PSUFIBUFOJEPRVFEFTBSSPMMBSOPQPSRVFFTUBQPSUBOEPVOBOVFWBPCMJHB
DJOBMBTZBFYJTUFOUFT TJOPRVFTVSHFEFMEDJURVFFTQPTJCMFDPOTUBUBSFOMPTNMUJQMFT
DBTPTRVFMMFHBOBMTJTUFNBEFQSPUFDDJOEFEFSFDIPTIVNBOPT&TUPFTFTQFDJBMNFOUF
FWJEFOUFFOMPTDBTPTRVFMMFHBOBOUFMB$PSUF*%)EPOEFFMQSPCMFNBTFQSPEVDFQPSRVF
MBTBVUPSJEBEFTMPDBMFT QSJODJQBMNFOUFEFMQPEFSKVEJDJBM OPBQMJDBOMBTPCMJHBDJPOFT
DPOUSBEBTQPSFM&TUBEPFJODPSQPSBEBTBMBMFHJTMBDJOOBDJPOBM&TEFDJS FTUBNPTBO
UFVOBHVSBRVFWJFOFBDMBSJDBSVOBPCMJHBDJOZBFYJTUFOUFZMBEPUBEFDPOUFOJEPZ
FTQFDJDJEBE

2. Aproximacin contextual

%VSBOUFFTUPTMUJNPTBPTFOMBSFHJOIFNPTTJEPUFTUJHPTEFMEFTBSSPMMPEFVOBDSF
DJFOUFJOUFSBDDJOFOUSFFMEFSFDIPJOUFSOBDJPOBMEFMPTEFSFDIPTIVNBOPT %*%)
Z
FMEFSFDIPJOUFSOPEFMPT&TUBEPT&TUBSFMBDJOTFNBOJFTUB QPSVOMBEP FOMBJODPS
QPSBDJOGPSNBM EFUSBUBEPTJOUFSOBDJPOBMFT
ZTVTUBOUJWB EFFTUOEBSFT
EFMEFSFDIP
JOUFSOBDJPOBMBMEFSFDIPJOUFSOP ZBTVWF[FYJTUFVOBJOUFHSBDJOEFFTUOEBSFTEFTEF
MPTTJTUFNBTOBDJPOBMFTIBDJBFMTJTUFNBJOUFSOBDJPOBM DPNPQPSFKFNQMP FOMBJOVFO
DJBRVFUJFOFFMEFSFDIPJOUFSOPFOEBSDPOUFOJEPZBMDBODFBMPTEFSFDIPTDPOTBHSBEPT
JOUFSOBDJPOBMNFOUF%FFTUBGPSNB TFWJWFVOQSPDFTPEFJOUFSOBDJPOBMJ[BDJOEFMEF
SFDIPDPOTUJUVDJPOBMZEFDPOTUJUVDJPOBMJ[BDJOEFMEFSFDIPOBDJPOBMRVFJNQMJDBRVF
MPTTJTUFNBTEFQSPUFDDJOEFEFSFDIPTGVOEBNFOUBMFT FTUOWJODVMBEPTEFGPSNBUBM
RVFDPOTUJUVZFOVOTPMPDVFSQPKVSEJDPEFHBSBOUBZRVFFMQSJODJQJPGVOEBNFOUBMQBSB
FYQMJDBSEJDIBVOJEBEFTFMQSJODJQJPEFJOUFSBDDJO RVFFTVOWODVMPEFSFUSPBMJNFO
UBDJOFOUSFBNCPTTJTUFNBTOPSNBUJWPT

6OFKFNQMPEFFTUBJOUFSBDDJO FTFMDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBE RVFTFDPOTUJUVZF
DPNPVOQVOUPEFDPOWFSHFODJBRVFQFSNJUFFMEJMPHPKVSJTQSVEFODJBMBMBMV[EFMBT
FYQFSJFODJBTOBDJPOBMFTFJOVZFFOHFOFSBSVOBBSUJDVMBDJOZFTUOEBSFTFONBUFSJBEF
QSPUFDDJOEFMPTEFSFDIPTIVNBOPT

3. Delimitacin conceptual

&MDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBEQVFEFTFSEFTBSSPMMBEPFOEPTNCJUPTFOFMNCJUP
OBDJPOBMZFOFMJOUFSOBDJPOBM&OFTUFMUJNP FTMB$PSUF*%)MBRVFFKFSDFFMDPOUSPM
EFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBEQSPQJBNFOUFUBM FTUPFT VODPOUSPMRVFQFSNJUFMBFYQVMTJOEF
MBTOPSNBTDPOUSBSJBTBMB$"%)BQBSUJSEFMPTDBTPTDPODSFUPTRVFTFTPNFUFOBTV
DPOPDJNJFOUP&TSFMFWBOUFEFTUBDBSRVFFTUPTFIBDFFGFDUJWP QPSFKFNQMP BUSBWTEFMB
492 CONTROL DE CONVENCIONALIDAD. PRECISIONES CONCEPTUALES Y DESAFOS A LA LUZ / CLAUDIO NASH ROJAS

TVQSFTJOEFOPSNBTMPDBMFTPQVFTUBTBMB$"%) DPNPIBPDVSSJEPDPOMBEFDMBSBDJO
EFJODPNQBUJCJMJEBEEFMFZFTEFBNOJTUBDPOMBTPCMJHBDJPOFTRVFJNQPOFMB$"%)3
&OFMNCJUPJOUFSOP FMDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBEFTFMSFBMJ[BEPQPSMPTBHFOUFT
EFM&TUBEPZQSJODJQBMNFOUFQPSMPTPQFSBEPSFTEFKVTUJDJB KVFDFT TDBMFTZEFGFOTPSFT

BMBOBMJ[BSMBDPNQBUJCJMJEBEEFMBTOPSNBTJOUFSOBTDPOMB$"%)4JOFNCBSHP MBTDPO
TFDVFODJBTEFFTUFBOMJTJTEFQFOEFOEFMBTGVODJPOFTEFDBEBBHFOUFFTUBUBMZ QPSUBOUP 
FTUPOPJNQMJDBOFDFTBSJBNFOUFMBGBDVMUBEEFFYQVMTBSOPSNBTEFMTJTUFNBJOUFSOP6O
NPEFMPEFUFSNJOBEPEFDPOUSPMEFDPOTUJUVDJPOBMJEBEPDPOWFODJPOBMJEBEOPQPESBTFS
JNQVFTUPQPSMB$PSUF*%)45FOJFOEPDMBSPFTUP QPEFNPTBSNBSRVFMPRVFTFTUO
PCMJHBEPTBIBDFSMPTKVFDFTZUPEPTMPTGVODJPOBSJPTEFM&TUBEPFTBJOUFSQSFUBSMBTOPS
NBTJOUFSOBTEFGPSNBUBMRVFTFBODPNQBUJCMFTDPOMBTPCMJHBDJPOFTJOUFSOBDJPOBMFTEFM
&TUBEP ZRVFMFEFOFGFDUJWJEBEBMPTEFSFDIPTDPOTBHSBEPTJOUFSOBFJOUFSOBDJPOBMNFOUF 
TFBQPSWBEFQSFGFSFODJBEFMBOPSNBJOUFSOBDJPOBM NFEJBOUFVOFKFSDJDJPIFSNFOVUJDP
PQPSPUSBTWBTRVFQVEJFSBFTUBCMFDFSFMEFSFDIPJOUFSOP
$POTJEFSBOEPMPTEPTNCJUPTFORVFTFQVFEFSFBMJ[BSFMDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOB
MJEBE QPEFNPTTPTUFOFSRVFFTUBFTVOBHVSBRVFWJFOFBDPODSFUBSMBPCMJHBDJOEF
HBSBOUB NFEJBOUFVOFKFSDJDJPIFSNFOVUJDPRVFDPOTJTUFFOMBWFSJDBDJORVFSFBMJ[B
MB$PSUF*%)ZUPEPTMPTBHFOUFTFTUBUBMFT EFMBBEFDVBDJOEFMBTOPSNBTKVSEJDBTJO
UFSOBTBMB$"%)ZBMPTFTUOEBSFTJOUFSQSFUBUJWPTEFTBSSPMMBEPTFOMBKVSJTQSVEFODJB
EFEJDIPUSJCVOBM BQMJDBOEPFODBEBDBTPDPODSFUPBRVFMMBJOUFSQSFUBDJORVFTFBKVTUF
BMBTPCMJHBDJPOFTJOUFSOBDJPOBMFTEFM&TUBEPZRVFEFGFDUJWJEBEBMPTEFSFDIPTDPOTB
HSBEPTDPOWFODJPOBMNFOUF5


3
 7FS$PSUF*%)Casos Barrios Altos vs. Per, EFNBS[PEF QSSBGPTAlmonacid
Arellano y otros vs. Chile,EFTFQUJFNCSFEF QSSBGPLa Cantuta vs. Per,EFOP
WJFNCSFEF QSSBGPTZTTDe la Masacre de las Dos Erres vs. Guatemala,EFOPWJFNCSF
EF QSSBGPTGelman vs. Uruguay,EFGFCSFSPEF QSSBGPT
4
 &TUPTFSFBSNBDVBOEP4FSHJP3BNSF[FOTVWPUPSB[POBEPFOFMDBTPTrabajadores cesa-
dos del Congreso vs. PerTVKFUBMBPCMJHBDJOEFSFBMJ[BSFMDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBEBMTJTUFNB
OPSNBUJWPEFMPT&TUBEPTi4JFYJTUFFTBDPOFYJODMBSBZSPUVOEBoPBMNFOPTTVDJFOUF JOUFMJHJCMF 
RVFOPOBVGSBHVFFOMBEVEBPMBEJWFSTJEBEEFJOUFSQSFUBDJPOFTo ZFOUBMWJSUVEMPTJOTUSVNFOUPT
JOUFSOBDJPOBMFTTPOJONFEJBUBNFOUFBQMJDBCMFTFOFMNCJUPJOUFSOP MPTUSJCVOBMFTOBDJPOBMFTQVFEFO
ZEFCFOMMFWBSBDBCPTVQSPQJPADPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBE"TMPIBOIFDIPEJWFSTPTSHBOPTEF
MBKVTUJDJBJOUFSOB EFTQFKBOEPFMIPSJ[POUFRVFTFIBMMBCBFOTPNCSFDJEP JOBVHVSBOEPVOBOVFWB
FUBQBEFNFKPSQSPUFDDJOEFMPTTFSFTIVNBOPTZBDSFEJUBOEPMBJEFBoRVFIFSFJUFSBEPoEFRVF
MBHSBOCBUBMMBQPSMPTEFSFDIPTIVNBOPTTFHBOBSFOFMNCJUPJOUFSOP EFMRVFFTDPBEZVWBOUFP
DPNQMFNFOUP QFSPOPTVTUJUVUP FMJOUFSOBDJPOBMw QSS

5
 &TUBSBNPT FODPOTFDVFODJB BOUFMPRVF'FSSBKPMJIBMMBNBEPVOBiHBSBOUBOFHBUJWBTFDVO
EBSJBwRVFDPOTJTUFFOiMBBOVMBDJOPFOMBEFTBQMJDBDJOEFMBTOPSNBTMFHBMFTDPOUSBSJBTBMBTOPS
NBTDPOTUJUVDJPOBMFTZRVFWJPMBO QPSUBOUP TVHBSBOUBOFHBUJWBQSJNBSJBw OPQSPEVDJSOPSNBT
MFHBMFTRVFWJPMFOPEFSPHVFOOPSNBTDPOTUJUVDJPOBMFT
7FS-VJHJ'FSSBKPMJLa teora del derecho
en el paradigma constitucional, .BESJE.YJDP&EJUPSJBM'POUBNBSB  Q
ANUARIO DE DERECHO CONSTITUCIONAL LATINOAMERICANO 493

4. Fundamento del control de convencionalidad

1BSBQPEFSQSPGVOEJ[BSFOFMBOMJTJTEFMDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBE TFSFRVJFSFQSF
DJTBSDVMFTFMPSJHFOEFTVPCMJHBUPSJFEBE FTEFDJS TVGVOEBNFOUP-BNFODJOBFTUPT
FMFNFOUPTFTGVOEBNFOUBMQBSBFOUFOEFSMBJNQPSUBODJBEFSFBMJ[BSEJDIPDPOUSPMZQBSB
TFBMBSRVFTVBVTFODJBJNQMJDBRVFMPT&TUBEPTQVFEFODPNQSPNFUFSTVSFTQPOTBCJMJ
EBEJOUFSOBDJPOBM
"T WFNPTRVFFMDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBEFODVFOUSBTVGVOEBNFOUPFOMBTGVFOUFT
OPSNBUJWBTEFMBTDVBMFTFNBOBOMBTPCMJHBDJPOFTEFMPT&TUBEPT BUSBWTEFMBMFDUVSB
DPOKVOUBEFMPTBSUDVMPT ZEFMB$"%)&MBSUDVMPEFMB$POWFODJOEJTQPOF

-PT&TUBEPT1BSUFTFOFTUB$POWFODJOTFDPNQSPNFUFOBSFTQFUBSMPTEFSF
DIPTZMJCFSUBEFTSFDPOPDJEPTFOFMMBZBHBSBOUJ[BSTVMJCSFZQMFOPFKFSDJDJPBUPEB
QFSTPOBRVFFTUTVKFUBBTVKVSJTEJDDJO TJOEJTDSJNJOBDJOBMHVOBQPSNPUJWPT
EFSB[B DPMPS TFYP JEJPNB SFMJHJO PQJOJPOFTQPMUJDBTPEFDVBMRVJFSPUSBO
EPMF PSJHFOOBDJPOBMPTPDJBM QPTJDJOFDPONJDB OBDJNJFOUPPDVBMRVJFSPUSB
DPOEJDJOTPDJBM

&MBSUDVMPBTVWF[TFBMB

4JFMFKFSDJDJPEFMPTEFSFDIPTZMJCFSUBEFTNFODJPOBEPTFOFMBSUDVMPOPFT
UVWJFSFZBHBSBOUJ[BEPQPSEJTQPTJDJPOFTMFHJTMBUJWBTPEFPUSPDBSDUFS MPT&TUBEPT
1BSUFTTFDPNQSPNFUFOBBEPQUBS DPOBSSFHMPBTVTQSPDFEJNJFOUPTDPOTUJUVDJPOBMFT
ZBMBTEJTQPTJDJPOFTEFFTUB$POWFODJO MBTNFEJEBTMFHJTMBUJWBTPEFPUSPDBSDUFS
RVFGVFSFOOFDFTBSJBTQBSBIBDFSFGFDUJWPTUBMFTEFSFDIPTZMJCFSUBEFT

&MBSUDVMPFTUBCMFDF

/JOHVOBEJTQPTJDJOEFMBQSFTFOUF$POWFODJOQVFEFTFSJOUFSQSFUBEBFOFM
TFOUJEPEFB
QFSNJUJSBBMHVOPEFMPT&TUBEPT1BSUFT HSVQPPQFSTPOB TVQSJNJS
FMHPDFZFKFSDJDJPEFMPTEFSFDIPTZMJCFSUBEFTSFDPOPDJEPTFOMB$POWFODJOP
MJNJUBSMPTFONBZPSNFEJEBRVFMBQSFWJTUBFOFMMBC
MJNJUBSFMHPDFZFKFSDJDJPEF
DVBMRVJFSEFSFDIPPMJCFSUBERVFQVFEBFTUBSSFDPOPDJEPEFBDVFSEPDPOMBTMFZFTEF
DVBMRVJFSBEFMPT&TUBEPT1BSUFTPEFBDVFSEPDPOPUSBDPOWFODJOFORVFTFBQBSUF
VOPEFEJDIPT&TUBEPTD
FYDMVJSPUSPTEFSFDIPTZHBSBOUBTRVFTPOJOIFSFOUFTBM
TFSIVNBOPPRVFTFEFSJWBOEFMBGPSNBEFNPDSUJDBSFQSFTFOUBUJWBEFHPCJFSOP Z
E
FYDMVJSPMJNJUBSFMFGFDUPRVFQVFEBOQSPEVDJSMB%FDMBSBDJO"NFSJDBOBEF%F
SFDIPTZ%FCFSFTEFM)PNCSFZPUSPTBDUPTJOUFSOBDJPOBMFTEFMBNJTNBOBUVSBMF[B

%FMBMFDUVSBJOUFHSBEBEFEJDIPTBSUDVMPTTFEFTQSFOEFRVFMBQSPUFDDJOEFMPTEF
SFDIPTIVNBOPTEFCFTFSHVBFOMBBDUVBDJOEFMPT&TUBEPTZRVFTUPTEFCFOUPNBS
UPEBTMBTNFEJEBTQBSBBTFHVSBSFMSFTQFUP MBQSPUFDDJOZMBQSPNPDJOEFEJDIPTEF
494 CONTROL DE CONVENCIONALIDAD. PRECISIONES CONCEPTUALES Y DESAFOS A LA LUZ / CLAUDIO NASH ROJAS

SFDIPT&OFTUFTFOUJEP EFTEFFTUBDPNQSFOTJOTFIBDPODFCJEPFMDPODFQUPEFDPOUSPM
EFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBE FOUFOEJEPDPNPMBPCMJHBDJORVFUJFOFOMPTKVFDFTEFDBEBVOP
EFMPT&TUBEPT1BSUFTEFFGFDUVBSOPTMPVODPOUSPMEFMFHBMJEBEZEFDPOTUJUVDJPOBMJEBE
FOMPTBTVOUPTEFTVDPNQFUFODJB TJOPEFJOUFHSBSFOFMTJTUFNBEFTVTEFDJTJPOFTMBT
OPSNBTDPOUFOJEBTFOMB$"%)ZMPTFTUOEBSFTEFTBSSPMMBEPTQPSMBKVSJTQSVEFODJB
&TUFDPOUSPMFT QPSUBOUP MBDPODSFDJOJOUFSQSFUBUJWBZFTQFDJBMNFOUFKVSJTEJDDJPOBM
EFMBPCMJHBDJOEFHBSBOUBDPOTBHSBEBFOMB$"%) "SUTZ
&TUBPCMJHBDJOEF
HBSBOUBTFUSBEVDFFOMBPCMJHBDJORVFBTVNFFM&TUBEPEFPSHBOJ[BSUPEPFMBQBSBUP
EFQPEFSQCMJDPQBSBQFSNJUJSFMQMFOPZFGFDUJWPHPDFZFKFSDJDJPEFMPTEFSFDIPTZMBT
MJCFSUBEFTRVFTFMFTSFDPOPDFOFOMB$"%)&TEFDJS FM&TUBEPTFFODVFOUSBPCMJHBEPB
DSFBSDPOEJDJPOFTFGFDUJWBTRVFQFSNJUBOFMHPDFZFKFSDJDJPEFMPTEFSFDIPTDPOTBHSBEPT
FOMB$POWFODJO6'JOBMNFOUF TFUSBUBEFRVFIBZBDPOGPSNJEBEFOUSFMPTBDUPTJOUFSOPT
ZMPTDPNQSPNJTPTJOUFSOBDJPOBMFTDPOUSBEPTQPSFM&TUBEP
"TJNJTNP MBOFDFTJEBEEFSFBMJ[BSVODPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBEEFMBTOPSNBT
FNBOBEFMPTQSJODJQJPTEFMEFSFDIPJOUFSOBDJPOBMQCMJDP&OQBSUJDVMBS FMQSJODJQJPEF
ius cogensipacta sunt servanda,DPOTBHSBEPFOMB$POWFODJOEF7JFOBTPCSFEFSFDIP
EFMPTUSBUBEPT DPNPMBPCMJHBDJORVFUJFOFOMPT&TUBEPTEFEBSDVNQMJNJFOUPBMPTUSB
UBEPTEFMPTRVFTPOQBSUF 7EBDVFOUBEFMDPNQSPNJTPRVFEFCFOUFOFSMPT&TUBEPTRVF
IBOTVTDSJUPMB$"%) EFSFBMJ[BSVODPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBEDPOFMQSPQTJUPEF
DVNQMJSDPOFMNBOEBUPEFQSPUFDDJOEFMPTEFSFDIPTGVOEBNFOUBMFT&TUFJNQFSBUJWPEF
EFSFDIPJOUFSOBDJPOBMQCMJDPEFCFTFSDVNQMJEPEFCVFOBGFQPSQBSUFEFMPT&TUBEPT8
&NBOBUBNCJOEFMPTQSJODJQJPTEFMEFSFDIPJOUFSOBDJPOBMQCMJDP FMIFDIPEFRVF
MPT&TUBEPTOPQVFEFOJOWPDBSEJTQPTJDJPOFTEFEFSFDIPJOUFSOPDPNPGVOEBNFOUP

6
 &ODPODSFUP SFTQFDUPBMBPCMJHBDJOEFHBSBOUBMB$PSUFIBTFBMBEPi&TUBPCMJHBDJOJNQMJ
DBFMEFCFSEFMPT&TUBEPTQBSUFTEFPSHBOJ[BSUPEPFMBQBSBUPHVCFSOBNFOUBMZ FOHFOFSBM UPEBTMBT
FTUSVDUVSBTBUSBWTEFMBTDVBMFTTFNBOJFTUBFMFKFSDJDJPEFMQPEFSQCMJDP EFNBOFSBUBMRVFTFBO
DBQBDFTEFBTFHVSBSKVSEJDBNFOUFFMMJCSFZQMFOPFKFSDJDJPEFMPTEFSFDIPTIVNBOPTw $PSUF*%)
Velzquez Rodrguez vs. Honduras,EFKVMJPEF QSS
"TJNJTNP DBCFEFTUBDBSRVFMBSFB
MJ[BDJOEFVODPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBEDPNPDPODSFDJOEFMBPCMJHBDJOEFHBSBOUB QVFEFTFS
FYUFOEJEPBMDPOUSPMEFPUSPTJOTUSVNFOUPTJOUFSOBDJPOBMFT DPNPTFBMB4FSHJP(BSDB3BNSF[FO
TVWPUPSB[POBEPFOFMDBTPTrabajadores cesados del Congreso vs. Peri&OMBFTQFDJF BMSFGFSJSTFBVO
ADPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBEMB$PSUF*OUFSBNFSJDBOBIBUFOJEPBMBWJTUBMBBQMJDBCJMJEBEZBQMJDBDJO
EFMB$POWFODJO"NFSJDBOBTPCSF%FSFDIPT)VNBOPT 1BDUPEF4BO+PT4JOFNCBSHP MBNJTNB
GVODJOTFEFTQMJFHB QPSJEOUJDBTSB[POFT FOMPRVFUPDBBPUSPTJOTUSVNFOUPTEFJHVBMOBUVSBMF
[B JOUFHSBOUFTEFMcorpus jurisDPOWFODJPOBMEFMPTEFSFDIPTIVNBOPTEFMPTRVFFTQBSUFFM&TUBEP
1SPUPDPMPEF4BO4BMWBEPS 1SPUPDPMPSFMBUJWPBMB"CPMJDJOEFMB1FOBEF.VFSUF $POWFODJOQBSB
1SFWFOJSZ4BODJPOBSMB5PSUVSB $POWFODJOEF#FMNEP1BSQBSBMB&SSBEJDBDJOEFMB7JPMFODJB
DPOUSBMB.VKFS $POWFODJOTPCSF%FTBQBSJDJO'PS[BEB FUDUFSB%FMPRVFTFUSBUBFTEFRVFIBZB
DPOGPSNJEBEFOUSFMPTBDUPTJOUFSOPTZMPTDPNQSPNJTPTJOUFSOBDJPOBMFTDPOUSBEPTQPSFM&TUBEP RVF
HFOFSBOQBSBTUFEFUFSNJOBEPTEFCFSFTZSFDPOPDFOBMPTJOEJWJEVPTDJFSUPTEFSFDIPTw QSS

7
 7FS$POWFODJOEF7JFOBEF%FSFDIPEFMPT5SBUBEPT
BSUDVMP
8
 &TUBNJTNBBSHVNFOUBDJOFOUPSOPBMGVOEBNFOUPEFMDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBEFOMBT
OPSNBTEFMEFSFDIPJOUFSOBDJPOBMQCMJDP IBTJEPSFDPHJEBQPSMB$PSUF*%)FOFMDBTPAlmonacid
Arellano vs. Chile,EFTFQUJFNCSFEF QSSBGP
ANUARIO DE DERECHO CONSTITUCIONAL LATINOAMERICANO 495

QBSBEFKBSEFDVNQMJSDPNQSPNJTPTJOUFSOBDJPOBMFT9&OFTUFTFOUJEP MB$PSUF*%)IB
SFBSNBEPRVFMBPCMJHBDJOEFUPNBSUPEBTMBTNFEJEBTOFDFTBSJBTQBSBEBSVOHPDF
QMFOPZFGFDUJWPBMPTEFSFDIPTZMJCFSUBEFTDPOTBHSBEPTFOMB$POWFODJO JODMVZFMBEF
BEFDVBSMBOPSNBUJWBOPDPOWFODJPOBMFYJTUFOUF10
2VFFMGVOEBNFOUPEFMBHVSBEFMDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBETFCBTFUBOUPFOOPS
NBTDPOWFODJPOBMFTDPNPFOQSJODJQJPTEFMEFSFDIPJOUFSOBDJPOBMQCMJDP PUPSHBVO
QPEFSPTPSFTQBMEPKVSEJDPRVFQFSNJUFTBMWBSMBTPCKFDJPOFTRVFTFQVFEFOQMBOUFBSFO
UPSOPBMBQPTJCMFSFTUSJDDJOBMBTPCFSBOBEFMPT&TUBEPTRVFTVQPOESBMBPCMJHBDJO
EFSFBMJ[BSVODPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBE

5. Evolucin de la jurisprudencia de la Corte Interamericana


de Derechos Humanos

-BKVSJTQSVEFODJBEFMB$PSUF*%)IBQBTBEPQPSWBSJBTFUBQBTFOFMEFTBSSPMMPEFMDPO
DFQUPEFiDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBEw"OBMJ[BSFTUBFWPMVDJOFTGVOEBNFOUBMQBSB
FOUFOEFSFMBDUVBMTFOUJEPZBMDBODFEFFTUBHVSB
$VBOEP4FSHJP(BSDB3BNSF[ FOTVWPUPSB[POBEP EFMDBTPMyrna Mack Chang
vs. GuatemalaIBDFQPSQSJNFSBWF[BMVTJOBMDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBE TFQPOFEF
SFMJFWFMBJNQPSUBODJBRVFUJFOFQBSBFMDVNQMJNJFOUPEFMBTPCMJHBDJPOFTJOUFSOBDJPOBMFT
EFMPT&TUBEPT FMBOBMJ[BSFMGVODJPOBNJFOUPEFM&TUBEPFOTVDPOKVOUPZRVFFOFTUFBO
MJTJTMB$PSUF*%)SFBMJDFVODPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBEEFMBTBDUVBDJPOFTEFM&TUBEP

1BSBMPTFGFDUPTEFMB$POWFODJO"NFSJDBOBZEFMFKFSDJDJPEFMBKVSJTEJDDJO
DPOUFODJPTBEFMB$PSUF*OUFSBNFSJDBOB FM&TUBEPWJFOFBDVFOUBTFOGPSNBJOUF
HSBM DPNPVOUPEP&OFTUFPSEFO MBSFTQPOTBCJMJEBEFTHMPCBM BUBFBM&TUBEPFO
TVDPOKVOUPZOPQVFEFRVFEBSTVKFUBBMBEJWJTJOEFBUSJCVDJPOFTRVFTFBMFFM
%FSFDIPJOUFSOP/PFTQPTJCMFTFDDJPOBSJOUFSOBDJPOBMNFOUFBM&TUBEP PCMJHBS
BOUFMB$PSUFTMPBVOPPBMHVOPTEFTVTSHBOPT FOUSFHBSBTUPTMBSFQSFTFOUBDJO
EFM&TUBEPFOFMKVJDJPoTJORVFFTBSFQSFTFOUBDJOSFQFSDVUBTPCSFFM&TUBEPFO
TVDPOKVOUPoZTVTUSBFSBPUSPTEFFTUFSHJNFODPOWFODJPOBMEFSFTQPOTBCJMJEBE 
EFKBOEPTVTBDUVBDJPOFTGVFSBEFMiDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBEwRVFUSBFDPOTJHP
MBKVSJTEJDDJOEFMB$PSUFJOUFSOBDJPOBM11

9
 $POWFODJOEF7JFOBEF%FSFDIPEFMPT5SBUBEPT
BSUDVMP
10
 $PSUF*%)3FTQPOTBCJMJEBEJOUFSOBDJPOBMQPSFYQFEJDJOZBQMJDBDJOEFMFZFTWJPMBUPSJBT
EFMB$POWFODJO "SUTZ$POWFODJO"NFSJDBOBTPCSF%FSFDIPT)VNBOPT
EFEJDJFNCSF
EF
11
 $PSUF*%)Caso Myrna Mack Chang vs. Guatemala,EFOPWJFNCSFEF WPUPSB[POBEP
EFMKVF[4FSHJP(BSDB3BNSF[ QSSBGP
496 CONTROL DE CONVENCIONALIDAD. PRECISIONES CONCEPTUALES Y DESAFOS A LA LUZ / CLAUDIO NASH ROJAS

5.1. Primera etapa

&TDMBSPRVFFYJTUFVOBQSJNFSBFUBQBFOMBKVSJTQSVEFODJBEFMB$PSUF*%) FOMBDVBMTF
EFMJOFBSPOMPTBTQFDUPTHFOFSBMFTEFMBHVSBEFMDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBE&OTUBTF
TFBMBRVFFMQPEFSKVEJDJBMEFCFSFBMJ[BSVOBiFTQFDJFwEFDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBE 
MPRVFQBSFDFVOBQPTJDJOQSVEFOUFZDMBSJDBEPSBEFMBOBUVSBMF[BEJWFSTBRVFUJFOF
FTUBHVSBEFBRVFMFKFSDJDJPQSPQJPEFMEFSFDIPDPOTUJUVDJPOBM"TJNJTNP TFBWBO[B
FOJOEJDBSRVFFTUFDPOUSPMJODMVZFMBJOUFSQSFUBDJORVFIBIFDIPMB$PSUF*%)EFMBT
PCMJHBDJPOFTJOUFSOBDJPOBMFTEFM&TUBEP MPRVFFTVOEBUPSFMFWBOUFZBRVFFONVDIPT
TJTUFNBTJOUFSOPTTUBFTVOBDVFTUJOEFCBUJEB

-B$PSUFFTDPOTDJFOUFRVFMPTKVFDFTZUSJCVOBMFTJOUFSOPTFTUOTVKFUPTBMJNQFSJP
EFMBMFZZ QPSFMMP FTUOPCMJHBEPTBBQMJDBSMBTEJTQPTJDJPOFTWJHFOUFTFOFMPSEFOB
NJFOUPKVSEJDP1FSPDVBOEPVO&TUBEPIBSBUJDBEPVOUSBUBEPJOUFSOBDJPOBMDPNP
MB$POWFODJO"NFSJDBOB TVTKVFDFT DPNPQBSUFEFMBQBSBUPEFM&TUBEP UBNCJO
FTUOTPNFUJEPTBFMMB MPRVFMFTPCMJHBBWFMBSQPSRVFMPTFGFDUPTEFMBTEJTQPTJDJP
OFTEFMB$POWFODJOOPTFWFBONFSNBEBTQPSMBBQMJDBDJOEFMFZFTDPOUSBSJBTB
TVPCKFUPZO ZRVFEFTEFVOJOJDJPDBSFDFOEFFGFDUPTKVSEJDPT&OPUSBTQBMBCSBT 
FM1PEFS+VEJDJBMEFCFFKFSDFSVOBFTQFDJFEFiDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBEwFOUSF
MBTOPSNBTKVSEJDBTJOUFSOBTRVFBQMJDBOFOMPTDBTPTDPODSFUPTZMB$POWFODJO
"NFSJDBOBTPCSF%FSFDIPT)VNBOPT&OFTUBUBSFB FM1PEFS+VEJDJBMEFCFUFOFSFO
DVFOUBOPTPMBNFOUFFMUSBUBEP TJOPUBNCJOMBJOUFSQSFUBDJORVFEFMNJTNPIB
IFDIPMB$PSUF*OUFSBNFSJDBOB JOUSQSFUFMUJNBEFMB$POWFODJO"NFSJDBOB12

&OTOUFTJT BRVFTUOFYQSFTBEPTMPTFMFNFOUPTDFOUSBMFTEFMDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJP
OBMJEBE

B
&YJTUFVOBPCMJHBDJOEFMQPEFSKVEJDJBMEFDVNQMJSDPOMBOPSNBUJWBJOUFSOBDJPOBM
RVFFM&TUBEPIBSFDFQDJPOBEPJOUFSOBNFOUFZRVFQPSUBOUPIBQBTBEPBTFSQBSUF
EFMTJTUFNBOPSNBUJWPJOUFSOP
C
&TUFFTVOFKFSDJDJPIFSNFOVUJDPRVFEFCFCVTDBSMBFGFDUJWJEBEEFMPTEFSFDIPT
DPOTBHSBEPTDPOWFODJPOBMNFOUFZFWJUBSRVFFM&TUBEPJODVSSBFOSFTQPOTBCJMJEBE
JOUFSOBDJPOBM
D
-BTOPSNBTDPOUSBSJBTBMB$POWFODJOOPQVFEFOUFOFSFGFDUPTFOFMNCJUPJOUFS
OP UPEBWF[RVFEJDIBTOPSNBTJODPNQBUJCMFTDPOMBTPCMJHBDJPOFTJOUFSOBDJPOBMFT
DPOTUJUVZFOVOJMDJUPJOUFSOBDJPOBMRVFIBDFSFTQPOTBCMFBM&TUBEP
E
1BSBSFBMJ[BSEJDIPFKFSDJDJPJOUFSQSFUBUJWPFMKVF[EFCFUFOFSFODPOTJEFSBDJOMB
KVSJTQSVEFODJBEFMB$PSUF*%)

12
 $PSUF*%)Caso Almonacid Arellano y otros vs. Chile,EFTFQUJFNCSFEF QSSBGP
ANUARIO DE DERECHO CONSTITUCIONAL LATINOAMERICANO 497

5.2. Segunda etapa

"WBO[BOEPFOMBFWPMVDJOEFTVKVSJTQSVEFODJB MB$PSUF*%)FTUBCMFDJRVFFMDPOUSPM
EFCFFKFSDFSTFJODMVTPEFPDJPQPSMBNBHJTUSBUVSBMPDBM ZBDMBSRVFTUFTFEFCFIBDFS
EFOUSPEFMNCJUPEFDPNQFUFODJBTZGVODJPOFTEFMBNBHJTUSBUVSB&TUBBQSPYJNBDJO
EFMB$PSUF*%)FTSFMFWBOUFEFTEFFMQVOUPEFWJTUBEFMBMFHJUJNJEBEEFMTJTUFNB ZBRVF
UPNBFODPOTJEFSBDJOMBPSHBOJ[BDJOJOUFSOBEFM&TUBEPZQFSNJUFVOGVODJPOBNJFOUP
DPIFSFOUFEFMBTJOTUJUVDJPOFT-B$PSUF*%)OPJNQPOFVOTJTUFNB QFSPTFTUBCMFDF
DVMFTTPOMBTPCMJHBDJPOFTRVFUJFOFFMJOUSQSFUF DVBMRVJFSBTFBFMTJTUFNBDPOTUJUVDJP
OBMOBDJPOBM

$VBOEPVO&TUBEPIBSBUJDBEPVOUSBUBEPJOUFSOBDJPOBMDPNPMB$POWFODJO
"NFSJDBOB TVTKVFDFTUBNCJOFTUOTPNFUJEPTBFMMB MPRVFMFTPCMJHBBWFMBS
QPSRVFFMFGFDUPUJMEFMB$POWFODJOOPTFWFBNFSNBEPPBOVMBEPQPSMBBQMJ
DBDJOEFMFZFTDPOUSBSJBTBTVTEJTQPTJDJPOFT PCKFUPZO&OPUSBTQBMBCSBT MPT
SHBOPTEFM1PEFS+VEJDJBMEFCFOFKFSDFSOPTMPVODPOUSPMEFDPOTUJUVDJPOBMJEBE 
TJOPUBNCJOiEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBEwFYPDJPFOUSFMBTOPSNBTJOUFSOBTZMB$PO
WFODJO"NFSJDBOB FWJEFOUFNFOUFFOFMNBSDPEFTVTSFTQFDUJWBTDPNQFUFODJBT
ZEFMBTSFHVMBDJPOFTQSPDFTBMFTDPSSFTQPOEJFOUFT&TUBGVODJOOPEFCFRVFEBS
MJNJUBEBFYDMVTJWBNFOUFQPSMBTNBOJGFTUBDJPOFTPBDUPTEFMPTBDDJPOBOUFTFODBEB
DBTPDPODSFUP BVORVFUBNQPDPJNQMJDBRVFFTFDPOUSPMEFCBFKFSDFSTFTJFNQSF TJO
DPOTJEFSBSPUSPTQSFTVQVFTUPTGPSNBMFTZNBUFSJBMFTEFBENJTJCJMJEBEZQSPDFEFODJB
EFFTFUJQPEFBDDJPOFT13

5.3. Tercera etapa

&OVOBUFSDFSBFUBQBFOFMBOMJTJTEFMDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBE MB$PSUF*%)WBNT
BMMZTFBMBRVFFTUFDPOUSPMDPNQFUFBDVBMRVJFSKVF[PUSJCVOBMRVFNBUFSJBMNFOUF
SFBMJDFGVODJPOFTKVSJTEJDDJPOBMFT JODPSQPSBOEPMPRVFTFIBCBTFBMBEPBOUFSJPSNFOUF
BDFSDBEFMBJNQPSUBODJBEFRVFFTUFDPOUSPMTFSFBMJDFFOFMNCJUPEFDPNQFUFODJBTEF
DBEBNBHJTUSBUVSB&TUBBQFSUVSBIBDJBMPTSHBOPTDPNQFUFOUFTQBSBSFBMJ[BSFMDPOUSPM
QFSNJUFMBJODMVTJOEFMPTUSJCVOBMFTDPOTUJUVDJPOBMFTZSFBSNBMBJEFBEFRVFUPEP
KVF[EFCFSFBMJ[BSFTUFDPOUSPM DPOJOEFQFOEFODJBEFMBTDBSBDUFSTUJDBTQBSUJDVMBSFTEF
MBPSHBOJ[BDJOEFTVTGVODJPOFT14&TSFMFWBOUFEFTUBDBSRVFFTUFDPOUSPMEJGVTPOPMP
QVFEFJNQPOFSMB$PSUF*%)

13
 $PSUF*%)Caso Trabajadores cesados del Congreso (Aguado Alfaro y otros) vs. Per,EF
OPWJFNCSFEF QSSBGP
14
 6OBJOUFSQSFUBDJONTBNQMJBEFMBQBSUJDJQBDJOEFMPTUSJCVOBMFTDPOTUJUVDJPOBMFTFOMB
SFBMJ[BDJOEFMDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBEEJDFSFMBDJODPOBTFHVSBSFMFGFDUPUJMEFM1BDUPEF4BO
+PT&TUBJOUFSQSFUBDJOMBQPEFNPTFODPOUSBSFO/TUPS1FESP4BHT0CMJHBDJPOFTJOUFSOBDJP
OBMFTZDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBEw FORevista de Estudios Constitucionales,$FOUSPEF&TUVEJPT
$POTUJUVDJPOBMFT6OJWFSTJEBEEF5BMDB BP O QQ  Q
498 CONTROL DE CONVENCIONALIDAD. PRECISIONES CONCEPTUALES Y DESAFOS A LA LUZ / CLAUDIO NASH ROJAS

&TUF5SJCVOBMIBFTUBCMFDJEPFOTVKVSJTQSVEFODJBRVFFTDPOTDJFOUFRVFMBT
BVUPSJEBEFTJOUFSOBTFTUOTVKFUBTBMJNQFSJPEFMBMFZZ QPSFMMP FTUOPCMJHBEBT
BBQMJDBSMBTEJTQPTJDJPOFTWJHFOUFTFOFMPSEFOBNJFOUPKVSEJDP1FSPDVBOEPVO
&TUBEPFT1BSUFEFVOUSBUBEPJOUFSOBDJPOBMDPNPMB$POWFODJO"NFSJDBOB UP
EPTTVTSHBOPT JODMVJEPTTVTKVFDFT UBNCJOFTUOTPNFUJEPTBBRVM MPDVBMMFT
PCMJHBBWFMBSQPSRVFMPTFGFDUPTEFMBTEJTQPTJDJPOFTEFMB$POWFODJOOPTFWFBO
NFSNBEPTQPSMBBQMJDBDJOEFOPSNBTDPOUSBSJBTBTVPCKFUPZO-PTKVFDFTZ
SHBOPTWJODVMBEPTBMBBENJOJTUSBDJOEFKVTUJDJBFOUPEPTMPTOJWFMFTFTUOFOMB
PCMJHBDJOEFFKFSDFSFYPDJPVOiDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBEwFOUSFMBTOPSNBT
JOUFSOBTZMB$POWFODJO"NFSJDBOB FWJEFOUFNFOUFFOFMNBSDPEFTVTSFTQFDUJWBT
DPNQFUFODJBTZEFMBTSFHVMBDJPOFTQSPDFTBMFTDPSSFTQPOEJFOUFT&OFTUBUBSFB MPT
KVFDFTZSHBOPTKVEJDJBMFTWJODVMBEPTBMBBENJOJTUSBDJOEFKVTUJDJBEFCFOUFOFS
FODVFOUBOPTPMBNFOUFFMUSBUBEP TJOPUBNCJOMBJOUFSQSFUBDJORVFEFMNJTNP
IBIFDIPMB$PSUF*OUFSBNFSJDBOB JOUSQSFUFMUJNBEFMB$POWFODJO"NFSJDBOB15

"TJNJTNP FOFTUBTFOUFODJBTFDMBSJDBDVBMRVJFSEVEBRVFQVEJFSBTVSHJSTPCSFMB
OBUVSBMF[BEFFTUBJOTUJUVDJOZMPTBMDBODFTQSPQJBNFOUFJOUFSQSFUBUJWPTEFMBHVSBEFM
DPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBE

%FUBMNBOFSB DPNPTFJOEJDFOMPT$BTPT3BEJMMB1BDIFDP 'FSOOEF[0SUFHB


Z3PTFOEP$BOU FTOFDFTBSJPRVFMBTinterpretacionesDPOTUJUVDJPOBMFTZMFHJTMB
UJWBTSFGFSJEBTBMPTDSJUFSJPTEFDPNQFUFODJBNBUFSJBMZQFSTPOBMEFMBKVSJTEJDDJO
NJMJUBSFO.YJDP TFBEFDVFOBMPTQSJODJQJPTFTUBCMFDJEPTFOMBKVSJTQSVEFODJBEF
FTUF5SJCVOBMRVFIBOTJEPSFJUFSBEPTFOFMQSFTFOUFDBTPZRVFBQMJDBOQBSBUPEB
WJPMBDJOEFEFSFDIPTIVNBOPTRVFTFBMFHVFIBZBODPNFUJEPNJFNCSPTEFMBT
GVFS[BTBSNBEBT&MMPJNQMJDBRVF independientemente EFMBTSFGPSNBTMFHBMFTRVF
FM&TUBEPEFCBBEPQUBS FOFMQSFTFOUFDBTPDPSSFTQPOEFBMBTBVUPSJEBEFTKVEJDJBMFT 
DPOCBTFFOFMDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBE EJTQPOFSJONFEJBUBNFOUFZEFPDJPFM
DPOPDJNJFOUPEFMPTIFDIPTQPSFMKVF[OBUVSBM FTEFDJSFMGVFSPQFOBMPSEJOBSJP16

5.4. Cuarta etapa

&OTVKVSJTQSVEFODJBNTSFDJFOUF MB$PSUF*%)JODPSQPSBDPNPSHBOPDPNQFUFOUF
QBSBSFBMJ[BSFMDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBEBUPEBBVUPSJEBEQCMJDB FTEFDJS TFBNQMB
FMFTQFDUSPEFTEFFMQPEFSKVEJDJBMBUPEPTMPTSHBOPTQCMJDPT BQSPQTJUPEFMBOMJTJT

15
 $PSUF*%)Caso Cabrera Garca y Montiel Flores vs. Mxico, EFOPWJFNCSFEF QSSBGP

16
 $PSUF*%)Caso Cabrera Garca y Montiel Flores vs. Mxico,EFOPWJFNCSFEF QSSBGP
 OGBTJTBBEJEP

ANUARIO DE DERECHO CONSTITUCIONAL LATINOAMERICANO 499

EFMBDPNQBUJCJMJEBEEFVOBMFZEFBNOJTUBBQSPCBEBEFNPDSUJDBNFOUF DPOMBTPCMJ
HBDJPOFTRVFJNQPOFMB$"%)

y-BMFHJUJNBDJOEFNPDSUJDBEFEFUFSNJOBEPTIFDIPTPBDUPTFOVOBTPDJFEBE
FTUMJNJUBEBQPSMBTOPSNBTZPCMJHBDJPOFTJOUFSOBDJPOBMFTEFQSPUFDDJOEFMPT
EFSFDIPTIVNBOPTSFDPOPDJEPTFOUSBUBEPTDPNPMB$POWFODJO"NFSJDBOB EF
NPEPRVFMBFYJTUFODJBEFVOWFSEBEFSPSHJNFOEFNPDSUJDPFTUEFUFSNJOBEBQPS
TVTDBSBDUFSTUJDBTUBOUPGPSNBMFTDPNPTVTUBODJBMFT QPSMPRVF QBSUJDVMBSNFOUF
FODBTPTEFHSBWFTWJPMBDJPOFTBMBTOPSNBTEFM%FSFDIP*OUFSOBDJPOBMEFMPT%F
SFDIPT MBQSPUFDDJOEFMPTEFSFDIPTIVNBOPTDPOTUJUVZFVOMNJUFJOGSBORVFBCMF
BMBSFHMBEFNBZPSBT FTEFDJS BMBFTGFSBEFMPiTVTDFQUJCMFEFTFSEFDJEJEPwQPS
QBSUFEFMBTNBZPSBTFOJOTUBODJBTEFNPDSUJDBT FOMBTDVBMFTUBNCJOEFCFQSJNBS
VOiDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBEw RVFFTGVODJOZUBSFBEFDVBMRVJFSBVUPSJEBE
QCMJDBZOPTMPEFM1PEFS+VEJDJBMy17

6. Contenido y alcance del control de convencionalidad

6OBWF[BOBMJ[BEBMBFWPMVDJOEFMBKVSJTQSVEFODJBEFMB$PSUF*%)FOUPSOPBMDPOUSPM
EFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBE FTJNQPSUBOUFSFTPMWFSBMHVOBTDVFTUJPOFTSFMBUJWBTBMDPOUFOJEPZ
BMDBODFEFMBHVSB BTDPNPTVGPSNBEFJNQMFNFOUBDJO

B
&MEFTBSSPMMPEFMBTJOUFSBDDJPOFTBRVFIFNPTIFDIPSFGFSFODJB UJFOFDPNPCBTF
VOBJOUFSQSFUBDJOEFMPTFTUOEBSFTJOUFSBNFSJDBOPTTPCSFEFSFDIPTIVNBOPT
EFTEFVOBNJSBEBOPSNBUJWBZOPNFSBNFOUFQSPHSBNUJDB1PSUBOUP UPEPBHFOUF
EFM&TUBEPQBSBFMDVNQMJNJFOUPEFTVTMBCPSFTEFCFSUPNBSFODPOTJEFSBDJOMBT
OPSNBTZMBKVSJTQSVEFODJBJOUFSBNFSJDBOBTPCSFEFSFDIPTIVNBOPT
 6OFKFNQMPEFMBGPSNBDPODSFUBFORVFTFEBFMBOMJTJTEFDPOUSPMEFDPO
WFODJPOBMJEBEFTFMCaso Boyce y otros vs. Barbados
&OFTUFDBTP MB$PSUF
*%)PCTFSWRVFMBKVSJTEJDDJOJOUFSOBIBCBIFDIPVOBOMJTJTTPMBNFOUFDPOT
UJUVDJPOBM EPOEFOPTFDPOTJEFSBSPOMBTPCMJHBDJPOFTEFM&TUBEPDPOSFMBDJOB
MB$"%)4FTFBMRVFMBKVSJTEJDDJOJOUFSOBOPTFEFCJMJNJUBSBFWBMVBSTJMB
OPSNBFSBDPOTUJUVDJPOBMPOP TJOPUBNCJOTFEFCBBOBMJ[BSTJMBMFZFTHSJNJEB
WJPMPOPMB$POWFODJO

&MBOMJTJTEFM$+$1OPEFCFSBIBCFSTFMJNJUBEPBFWBMVBSTJMB-%$1FSBJODPOT
UJUVDJPOBM.TCJFO MBDVFTUJOEFCFSBIBCFSHJSBEPFOUPSOPBTJMBMFZUBNCJO
FSBiDPOWFODJPOBMw&TEFDJS MPTUSJCVOBMFTEF#BSCBEPT JODMVTPFM$+$1ZBIPSBMB

17
 $PSUF*%)Caso Gelman vs. Uruguay,EFGFCSFSPEF QSSBGP
500 CONTROL DE CONVENCIONALIDAD. PRECISIONES CONCEPTUALES Y DESAFOS A LA LUZ / CLAUDIO NASH ROJAS

$PSUFEF+VTUJDJBEFM$BSJCF EFCFOUBNCJOEFDJEJSTJMBMFZEF#BSCBEPTSFTUSJOHF
PWJPMBMPTEFSFDIPTSFDPOPDJEPTFOMB$POWFODJOy18

0USPFKFNQMPFTFMcaso Radilla Pachecovs. Mxico


EPOEFMB$PSUF*%)
TFBMRVFFM&TUBEPBMJOUFSQSFUBSVOBOPSNBDPOGPSNFBMPTFTUOEBSFTDPO
WFODJPOBMFT BVORVFQVFEBIBCFSEVEBTFOFMUFYUPNJTNPBDFSDBEFMBDPOWFO
DJPOBMJEBEEFEJDIBOPSNB OPTFJODVSSFFOSFTQPOTBCJMJEBEJOUFSOBDJPOBM&O
DPODSFUPMB$PSUFEJTQPOF

%FUBMNBOFSB FTOFDFTBSJPRVFMBTJOUFSQSFUBDJPOFTDPOTUJUVDJPOBMFTZMFHJTMB
UJWBTSFGFSJEBTBMPTDSJUFSJPTEFDPNQFUFODJBNBUFSJBMZQFSTPOBMEFMBKVSJTEJDDJO
NJMJUBSFO.YJDP TFBEFDVFOBMPTQSJODJQJPTFTUBCMFDJEPTFOMBKVSJTQSVEFODJBEF
FTUF5SJCVOBM MPTDVBMFTIBOTJEPSFJUFSBEPTFOFMQSFTFOUFDBTP<y>
#BKPFTFFOUFOEJEP FTUF5SJCVOBMDPOTJEFSBRVFOPFTOFDFTBSJPPSEFOBSMB
NPEJDBDJOEFMDPOUFOJEPOPSNBUJWPRVFSFHVMBFMBSUDVMPEFMB$POTUJUVDJO
1PMUJDBEFMPT&TUBEPT6OJEPT.FYJDBOPT19

&OSFTVNFO MPRVFQJEFMB$PSUFFTRVFBMNPNFOUPEFSFTPMWFSVODBTPPUPNBS
DVBMRVJFSEFDJTJOFTUBUBMMPRVFEFCFIBDFSTFFTEFUFSNJOBSMPTIFDIPTSFMFWBOUFT
TPCSFMPTDVBMFTEFCFUPNBSTFVOBDJFSUBEFDJTJOMVFHP BOBMJ[BSFMTJTUFNBOPS
NBUJWPRVFTFWBBVUJMJ[BSZFTBRVEPOEFUJFOFVOQSJNFSJNQBDUPEFMDPOUSPMEF
DPOWFODJPOBMJEBE ZBRVFTFBNQMBPSPCVTUFDFFMTJTUFNBOPSNBUJWPBQMJDBCMFQVFT
OPTMPRVFEBMJNJUBEPBMBTOPSNBTEFPSJHFOJOUFSOP DPOTUJUVDJPOBMFT MFHBMFT
ZSFHMBNFOUBSJBT
TJOPUBNCJOBBRVFMMBTEFPSJHFOJOUFSOBDJPOBMRVFIBOTJEP
SFDFQDJPOBEBTJOUFSOBNFOUF FOFTUFDBTPMB$"%)

'JOBMNFOUF MPRVFQSPDFEFFTIBDFSVOFKFSDJDJPJOUFSQSFUBUJWPQBSBBQMJDBSEJDIBT
OPSNBTBMBTJUVBDJODPODSFUBZFOEJDIBJOUFSQSFUBDJOTFEFCFUFOFSFODPOTJEF
SBDJOFMDPOUFOJEPZBMDBODFRVFMBKVSJTQSVEFODJBEFMB$PSUF*%)IBEBEPBMBT
OPSNBTDPOWFODJPOBMFT UBOUPPCMJHBDJPOFTHFOFSBMFTDPNPEFSFDIPTFTQFDDPT

C
&MDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBEJODPSQPSBFOFMBOMJTJTEFMBBEFDVBDJOEFMBOPS
NBUJWBZBDUPTEFM&TUBEPBMB$"%) UBNCJOMBJOUFSQSFUBDJORVFIBSFBMJ[BEP
MB$PSUF*%)EFMBTOPSNBTEFMB$POWFODJO1BSBFMDVNQMJNJFOUPEFCVFOBGF
EFMBTPCMJHBDJPOFTJOUFSOBDJPOBMFTEFM&TUBEP FMSPMEFMBKVSJTQSVEFODJBJOUFSB
NFSJDBOBFTEFUFSNJOBOUF QVFTUPRVFMBTQBVUBTJOUFSQSFUBUJWBTRVFFNBOBOEF
EJDIBKVSJTQSVEFODJB TPOMBHVBRVFQPESOVUJMJ[BSMPTBHFOUFTEFM&TUBEPQBSB
DVNQMJSDPOTVTGVODJPOFT"TJNJTNP QFSNJUFVOEJMPHPKVSJTQSVEFODJBM FOUSF
MBKVSJTEJDDJOJOUFSOBDJPOBMFJOUFSOB
RVFFOSJRVFDFMPTFTUOEBSFTEFQSPUFDDJO
EFMPTEFSFDIPTGVOEBNFOUBMFT

18
 $PSUF*%)Caso Boyce y otros vs. Barbados,EFOPWJFNCSFEF QSSBGPT
19
 $PSUF*%)Caso Radilla Pacheco vs. Mxico,EFOPWJFNCSFEF QSSBGPT
ANUARIO DE DERECHO CONSTITUCIONAL LATINOAMERICANO 501

&OFTUFTFOUJEP FMDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBEQFSNJUFRVFMBSFHVMBDJOJOUFSB
NFSJDBOBTPCSFEFSFDIPTIVNBOPTTFBVODPNQMFNFOUPFDB[EFMBMFHJTMBDJO
JOUFSOBEFM&TUBEP&OFGFDUP FOMPTTJTUFNBTOPSNBUJWPTSFMBUJWPTBEFSFDIPTIV
NBOPTQVFEFOFYJTUJSMBHVOBTZBOUJOPNJBT-BTMBHVOBTQVFEFOTFSBCTPMVUBTZ
SFMBUJWBTMBTQSJNFSBTTFSBOBRVFMMPTDBTPTFORVFFMTJTUFNBJOUFSOPOPDPOUFNQMB
VODJFSUPEFSFDIPRVFTTFDPOUFNQMBFOFMNCJUPJOUFSBNFSJDBOPMBTSFMBUJWBT 
TFSBOBRVFMMPTDBTPTFORVFFYJTUBVOBDJFSUBOPSNB QFSPFTUQMBOUFBEBFOUS
NJOPTJODPNQMFUPTZFTUPJNQJEFTVBQMJDBDJOFOMBSFBMJEBE-BTBOUJOPNJBTIB
DFOSFGFSFODJBBMBTDPOUSBEJDDJPOFTFOUSFMBTOPSNBTJOUFSOBTZMPTDPNQSPNJTPT
JOUFSOBDJPOBMFTEFM&TUBEP
.FEJBOUFMBTOPSNBTZMBKVSJTQSVEFODJBJOUFSBNFSJDBOBTFQVFEFOTVQFSBSMBT
MBHVOBTBCTPMVUBT JODPSQPSBOEPBMPSEFOBNJFOUPOPSNBTRVFFTUOSFHVMBEBTFO
MB$"%)5BNCJOTFTVQFSBOMBHVOBTSFMBUJWBT EBOEPDPODSFDJOBMBTOPSNBT
SFEBDUBEBTDPNPQSJODJQJPTHFOFSBMFTRVFSFRVJFSFOBQMJDBDJODPODSFUB UBOUP
SFDVSSJFOEPBMBTOPSNBTJOUFSBNFSJDBOBTDPNPBMBKVSJTQSVEFODJBEFMB$PSUF
*%)"TJNJTNP MBTOPSNBTZMBKVSJTQSVEFODJBJOUFSBNFSJDBOBJODPSQPSBEBTBM
TJTUFNBOPSNBUJWPJOUFSOPQFSNJUFOUFOFSVOBCBTFOPSNBUJWBQBSBBQMJDBSEJDIBT
OPSNBTZOPMBTJOUFSOBTRVFTFFODVFOUSBOFODPOUSBEJDDJODPOMBOPSNBUJWB
JOUFSOBDJPOBM TJOBQBSUBSTFEFMBPCMJHBDJORVFUJFOFOMBTBVUPSJEBEFTOBDJPOBMFT
EFBQMJDBSMBTOPSNBTKVSEJDBTWJHFOUFTFOFM&TUBEP
%FFTUBGPSNB MBHVSBEFMDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBEBDMBSBRVFFODBTPEF
MBHVOBTPBOUJOPNJBT MBTBVUPSJEBEFTEFCFOIBDFSVOFKFSDJDJPIFSNFOVUJDPFO
FMNCJUPEFTVTDPNQFUFODJBTQBSBQSFGFSJSMBOPSNBUJWBEFPSJHFOJOUFSOBDJPOBM
RVFQFSNJUFVOBNFKPSQSPUFDDJOEFMPTEFSFDIPTIVNBOPT
&MDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBEEFCFTFSSFBMJ[BEPEFPDJPQPSUPEBBVUPSJEBE
QCMJDB-BPDJBMJEBEEFMDPOUSPMJNQMJDBRVFBEFNTEFMBQFUJDJOEFQBSUF MPT
KVFDFTEFCFOSFBMJ[BSFMDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBEQPSJOJDJBUJWBQSPQJB&TUPFT
EFTVNBJNQPSUBODJBQBSBEBSQMFOPDVNQMJNJFOUPBMBTPCMJHBDJPOFTJOUFSOBDJP
OBMFTTJOFNCBSHP FTUBPDJBMJEBETJFNQSFEFCFDPODPSEBSTFDPOMBTDBQBDJEBEFT
QSPDFTBMFTRVFUFOHBDBEBKVF[FOFMNCJUPEFTVTDPNQFUFODJBT/PQPESBOFY
DVTBSTFMBTBVUPSJEBEFTFOFMIFDIPEFRVFOPIBFYJTUJEPVOBTPMJDJUVEFYQMDJUB
EFSFBMJ[BSEJDIPFKFSDJDJPEFDPNQBUJCJMJEBE
D
&MDPOUSPMTFSFBMJ[BEFOUSPEFMNCJUPEFDPNQFUFODJBTZSFHVMBDJPOFTQSPDFTBMFT
EFMBBVUPSJEBEQCMJDB&OFTUPMB$PSUF*%)IBTJEPQSVEFOUFZIBTFBMBEPRVF
OPFTQPTJCMFJNQPOFSEFTEFFMDPOUSPMJOUFSOBDJPOBMVOUJQPQBSUJDVMBSEFDPOUSPM
EFEFSFDIPTIVNBOPTFOFMNCJUPJOUFSOP
-PRVFTFTDMBSPFTRVFMBFMFDDJOEFM&TUBEPFOFTUFTFOUJEPOPFTEJTDSFDJP
OBM TJOPRVFFMEJTFPJOTUJUVDJPOBMQPSFMRVFPQUFEFCFQFSNJUJSDVNQMJSDPO
MBTPCMJHBDJPOFTJOUFSOBDJPOBMFTEFM&TUBEPZEBSFGFDUJWJEBEBMPTEFSFDIPTFOFM
NCJUPJOUFSOP-BDPOUSBDBSBEFFTUBMJCFSUBEEFEJTFPJOTUJUVDJPOBMFTRVFFM
&TUBEPOPQVFEFFYDVTBSVOJODVNQMJNJFOUPEFTVTPCMJHBDJPOFTJOUFSOBDJPOBMFT
FOMBOPSNBUJWBJOUFSOB
502 CONTROL DE CONVENCIONALIDAD. PRECISIONES CONCEPTUALES Y DESAFOS A LA LUZ / CLAUDIO NASH ROJAS

7. Experiencias nacionales

&MEFTBSSPMMPKVSJTQSVEFODJBMEFMDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBEIBTJEPFYUFOTPFOFMTJT
UFNBJOUFSBNFSJDBOP QFSPFOFMNCJUPOBDJPOBMBOFTJODJQJFOUF4JOFNCBSHP BOBMJ
[BSFNPTBMHVOPTDBTPTJOUFSFTBOUFTFOMBKVSJTQSVEFODJBSFHJPOBMQBSBJMVTUSBSDNPTF
EFTBSSPMMBVOBDBEBWF[NBZPSJOUFSBDDJOFOUSFBNCPTTJTUFNBTZRVFOPTQFSNJUFWFS
DNPFOFMNCJUPJOUFSOPEFMPT&TUBEPTTFIBVUJMJ[BEPFMDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBE
DPOFMPCKFUPEFEBSDVNQMJNJFOUPBMBPCMJHBDJOEFHBSBOUB
.YJDP FOTVNTSFDJFOUFKVSJTQSVEFODJBEFMB$PSUF4VQSFNBEF+VTUJDJBEFMB
/BDJO 20IBEFTBSSPMMBEPVOJOUFSFTBOUFBOMJTJTEFMDPOUSPMEJGVTPEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBE B
QSPQTJUPEFMBTFOUFODJBFNJUJEBQPSMB$PSUF*%)FOFMDBTPRadilla Pacheco vs. Mxico.21

MPTEFNTKVFDFT MPTRVFOPQFSUFOFDFOBM1PEFS+VEJDJBMEFMB'FEFSBDJO

FOMPTBTVOUPTEFTVDPNQFUFODJBQPESOEFTBQMJDBSMBTOPSNBTRVFJOGSJOKBOMB
$POTUJUVDJO'FEFSBMZPMPTUSBUBEPTJOUFSOBDJPOBMFTRVFSFDPOP[DBOEFSFDIPT
IVNBOPT TMPQBSBFGFDUPTEFMDBTPDPODSFUPZTJOIBDFSVOBEFDMBSBDJOEFJOWB
MJEF[EFMBTEJTQPTJDJPOFT<y>
UPEPTMPTKVFDFTEFM&TUBEP.FYJDBOPBQBSUJSEFFTUFNPNFOUPZEFDPOGPSNJEBE
DPOFMBSUDVMPDPOTUJUVDJPOBM FTUOGBDVMUBEPTQBSBJOBQMJDBSMBTOPSNBTHFOFSBMFT
RVFBTVKVJDJPDPOTJEFSFOUSBOTHSFTPSBTEFMPTEFSFDIPTIVNBOPTDPOUFOJEPTFO
MBQSPQJB$POTUJUVDJO'FEFSBMZFOMPTUSBUBEPTFONBUFSJBEFEFSFDIPTIVNBOPT

-BTBSNBDJPOFTEFMB$PSUF4VQSFNBNFYJDBOBEBODVFOUBOUFHSBNFOUFEFDNP
TFIBEFTBSSPMMBEPVOBWJWBJOUFSBDDJOFOUSFMPTTJTUFNBTOBDJPOBMFTZFMTJTUFNBJOUFS
OBDJPOBM BMGBDVMUBSBMPTKVFDFTOBDJPOBMFTBJOBQMJDBSOPSNBTRVFJOGSJOKBOUSBUBEPT
JOUFSOBDJPOBMFT%FFTUBGPSNB TFBWBO[BFOFMPCKFUJWPEFMPHSBSVOQMFOPZFGFDUJWP
HPDFEFMPTEFSFDIPTIVNBOPT
0USPFKFNQMPMPFODPOUSBNPTFOMBKVSJTQSVEFODJBEFMB$PSUF$POTUJUVDJPOBMDP
MPNCJBOB EPOEFTFEFTUBDBMBKBDJOEJBMHJDBEFFTUOEBSFTKVEJDJBMFTFONBUFSJBEF
EFSFDIPTIVNBOPT&OMBKVSJTQSVEFODJBEFFTUFUSJCVOBMIBZVODPNQSPNJTPKVSJTQSV
EFODJBMEJSJHJEPBJODPSQPSBSFTUOEBSFTJOUFSBNFSJDBOPTFOMPTGBMMPTOBDJPOBMFT22-B
$PSUF$POTUJUVDJPOBMIBTFBMBEP

<4>MPFTQPTJCMF J
GVOEJSBNCBTOPSNBT MBOBDJPOBMZMBJOUFSOBDJPOBM
Z JJ

BDPHFSMBJOUFSQSFUBDJORVFMBTBVUPSJEBEFTDPNQFUFOUFTIBDFOEFMBTOPSNBTJO
UFSOBDJPOBMFTFJOUFHSBSEJDIBJOUFSQSFUBDJOBMFKFSDJDJPIFSNFOVUJDPEFMB$PSUF
1PSFMMPFTUB$PSUFIBTFBMBEP FOWBSJBTPQPSUVOJEBEFT RVFMBKVSJTQSVEFODJBEF
MBTJOTUBODJBTJOUFSOBDJPOBMFTEFEFSFDIPTIVNBOPTDPOTUJUVZFVOBQBVUBSFMFWBO

20
 $PSUF4VQSFNBEF+VTUJDJBEFMB/BDJO EFKVMJPEF
21
 $PSUF*%)Caso Radilla Pacheco vs. Mxico, EFOPWJFNCSFEF
22
 1PSFKFNQMP WFS$PSUF$POTUJUVDJPOBMEF$PMPNCJBTFOUFODJB$ 
ANUARIO DE DERECHO CONSTITUCIONAL LATINOAMERICANO 503

UFQBSBJOUFSQSFUBSFMBMDBODFEFFTPTUSBUBEPTZQPSFOEFEFMPTQSPQJPTEFSFDIPT
DPOTUJUVDJPOBMFT23

$PTUB3JDBFTPUSPFKFNQMPSFMFWBOUFEFMBJOUFSBDDJOQFSNBOFOUFRVFFYJTUFFOUSF
MPTTJTUFNBTOBDJPOBMFTZMPTJOUFSOBDJPOBMFT&OFGFDUP MB4BMB$POTUJUVDJPOBMEFMB$PSUF
4VQSFNBEFEJDIPQBTIBTPTUFOJEPMBQPTJCJMJEBEEFEPUBSEFVODPOUFOJEPOPSNBUJ
WPDPODSFUPFOFMNCJUPJOUFSOPBVOEFSFDIPGVOEBNFOUBMRVFTVSHFEFVOQSJODJQJP
DPOTBHSBEPFOJOTUSVNFOUPTJOUFSOBDJPOBMFTEFMPTEFSFDIPTIVNBOPT&ODPODSFUP FT
QPTJCMFRVFMPTEFSFDIPTGVOEBNFOUBMFTUFOHBOTVGVFOUFOPTMPFOFMDBUMPHPDPOT
UJUVDJPOBM TJOPUBNCJOFOMPTQSJODJQJPTJOUFSOBDJPOBMFTTPCSFEFSFDIPTIVNBOPT"M
SFTQFDUPMB4BMB$POTUJUVDJPOBMIBTFBMBEP

yEFCFBEWFSUJSTFRVFTJMB$PSUF*OUFSBNFSJDBOBEF%FSFDIPT)VNBOPTFTFM
SHBOPOBUVSBMQBSBJOUFSQSFUBSMB$POWFODJO"NFSJDBOBTPCSF%FSFDIPT)V
NBOPT 1BDUPEF4BO+PTEF$PTUB3JDB
MBGVFS[BEFTVEFDJTJOBMJOUFSQSFUBSMB
DPOWFODJOZFOKVJDJBSMFZFTOBDJPOBMFTBMBMV[EFFTUBOPSNBUJWB ZBTFBFODBTP
DPOUFODJPTPPFOVOBNFSBDPOTVMUB UFOESoEFQSJODJQJPoFMNJTNPWBMPSEFMB
OPSNBJOUFSQSFUBEB/PTPMBNFOUFWBMPSUJDPPDJFOUDP DPNPBMHVOPTIBOFO
UFOEJEP&TUBUFTJTRVFBIPSBTPTUFOFNPT QPSMPEFNT FTUSFDFQUBEBFOOVFTUSP
EFSFDIP DVBOEPMB-FZ(FOFSBMEFMB"ENJOJTUSBDJO1CMJDBEJTQPOFRVFMBTOPS
NBTOPFTDSJUBToDPNPMBDPTUVNCSF MBKVSJTQSVEFODJBZMPTQSJODJQJPTHFOFSBMFT
EFMEFSFDIPoTFSWJSOQBSBJOUFSQSFUBS JOUFHSBSZEFMJNJUBSFMDBNQPEFBQMJDBDJO
EFMPSEFOBNJFOUPFTDSJUPZUFOESOFMSBOHPEFMBOPSNBRVFJOUFSQSFUBO JOUFHSBO
PEFMJNJUBO BSUDVMPM
24

&OEFOJUJWB EFCFEFTUBDBSTFFMBMDBODFRVFUJFOFFTUBBQMJDBDJOTVTUBOUJWBEFM%*%)
FOFMNCJUPJOUFSOPZFOQBSUJDVMBSMBOPSNBUJWBZKVSJTQSVEFODJBJOUFSBNFSJDBOB&M
QSJODJQBMFGFDUPEFMBJODPSQPSBDJOEFMBOPSNBUJWBZKVSJTQSVEFODJBJOUFSOBDJPOBMDP
NPQBSUFEFMDVFSQPOPSNBUJWPEFEFSFDIPTGVOEBNFOUBMFT FTFMDVNQMJNJFOUPEFMBT
EJGFSFOUFTGVODJPOFTEFMPTEFSFDIPTGVOEBNFOUBMFTDPOCBTFFOMBDPOTUSVDDJOJOUFSOB
DJPOBM FTUPFT TFSWJSEFQSJODJQJPTRVFPSJFOUBOMBBDUJWJEBEEFM&TUBEPFJSSBEJBOBUPEPT
TVTQPEFSFT GVODJOPCKFUJWB
ZTFSWJSDPNPEFSFDIPTTVCKFUJWPTFYJHJCMFTSFTQFDUPEFMBT

23
 &ODPODSFUPBMBMV[EFMDBTPRVFFTUBCBDPOPDJFOEPMB$PSUF$POTUJUVDJPOBM SFMBUJWPBMB
MJCFSUBEEFFYQSFTJO TFBMBi1BSBFGFDUPTEFMQSFTFOUFDBTP FMCMPRVFEFDPOTUJUVDJPOBMJEBESFMB
UJWPBMBMJCFSUBEEFFYQSFTJOIBEFFTUBSJOUFHSBEPQPSMBTOPSNBTJOUFSOBDJPOBMFT FOQBSUJDVMBS
FM1BDUPEF4BO+PTZMB$POWFODJO*OUFSOBDJPOBMEF%FSFDIPT$JWJMFTZ1PMUJDPT KVOUPDPOMBT
JOUFSQSFUBDJPOFTRVFEFUBMFTUFYUPTIBOQSFTFOUBEPMB$PNJTJO*OUFSBNFSJDBOBEF%FSFDIPT)VNB
OPT MB$PSUF*OUFSBNFSJDBOBEF%FSFDIPT)VNBOPTZ$PNJUEF%FSFDIPT)VNBOPTEF/BDJPOFT
6OJEBT5BNCJOIBEFPUPSHBSTFVOQFTPEJTUJOUPBMBTPQJOJPOFT QVFTMBOBUVSBMF[BKVEJDJBMEFMB
$PSUF*OUFSBNFSJDBOBEF%FSFDIPT)VNBOPT ZTVDPNQFUFODJBTPCSF$PMPNCJB JNQMJDBRVFTVT
PQJOJPOFT NTRVFUFOJEBTFODVFOUB OPQVFEFOTFSJHOPSBEBTJOUFSOBNFOUFw $PSUF$POTUJUVDJPOBM
DPMPNCJBOBTFOUFODJB$ DPOTJEFSBOEP

24
 $PSUF4VQSFNBEF$PTUB3JDBTFOUFODJB DPOTJEFSBOEP
504 CONTROL DE CONVENCIONALIDAD. PRECISIONES CONCEPTUALES Y DESAFOS A LA LUZ / CLAUDIO NASH ROJAS

BVUPSJEBEFT GVODJOTVCKFUJWB
%FFTUBGPSNB FTJOUFSFTBOUFMBMFHJUJNJEBERVFBERVJFSF
FMEFSFDIPJOUFSOBDJPOBMEFMPTEFSFDIPTIVNBOPTQPSWBEFTVJODPSQPSBDJOGPSNBM
ZTVTUBOUJWBFOFMNCJUPJOUFSOP&OFTUFTFOUJEP TJMPT&TUBEPTOPTMPJODPSQPSBOMBT
OPSNBTEFEFSFDIPTIVNBOPTFOTVTTJTUFNBTOPSNBUJWPT TJOPRVFIBDFOVOVTPQSDUJDP
EFTUBTZBEPQUBOFMSB[POBNJFOUPFYQSFTBEPFOMBKVSJTQSVEFODJBJOUFSOBDJPOBM MPRVF
TFFTUIBDJFOEPFTMFHJUJNBSQPSWBEFMBQSBYJTDPOTUJUVDJPOBMFMTJTUFNBJOUFSOBDJPOBM
EFEFSFDIPTIVNBOPT BEPQUBOEPVOBNJSBEBVOJUBSJBEFMPTTJTUFNBTEFQSPUFDDJO

8. Dicultades en la aplicacin del control de convencionalidad


en el derecho interno

-BFWPMVDJORVFIFNPTWJTUPFOMBDPODFQUVBMJ[BDJOEFMBHVSBEFMDPOUSPMEFDPOWFO
DJPOBMJEBEUSBFDPOTJHPJNQPSUBOUFTEFTBGPTQBSBTVBQMJDBDJOFOFMNCJUPJOUFSOPEF
MPT&TUBEPT1PSFKFNQMP FTQPTJCMFEJTUJOHVJSFOUSFQBTFTRVFUJFOFOVODPOUSPMEJGVTP
EFDPOTUJUVDJPOBMJEBEZQBTFTRVFUJFOFOVODPOUSPMDPODFOUSBEP1BSBFTUPTMUJNPT
BQBSFDFMBEJDVMUBEZMBJOUFSSPHBOUFEFTJVOSHBOPEFMBKVSJTEJDDJOPSEJOBSJBQVFEF
iJOBQMJDBSwVOBMFZJOUFSOBFOWJSUVEEFMDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBE TJTUBOPIBTJEP
EFDMBSBEBJODPOTUJUVDJPOBM1BSBSFTPMWFSFOQBSUFFTUBTJOUFSSPHBOUFTIBZRVFSFDBMDBS
BMHVOBTDVFTUJPOFTGVOEBNFOUBMFTRVFUFOFSFODVFOUB

B
&MDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBEEFCFEFTBSSPMMBSTFFOFMNBSDPEFMBTDPNQFUFO
DJBTJOUFSOBTEFDBEBPQFSBEPSEFKVTUJDJB DPNPIBSFDBMDBEPMB$PSUF*%)FOTV
KVSJTQSVEFODJB25&TUPQFSNJUFEFTDPNQSJNJSMBEJTDVTJOFOUPSOPBMBMFHJUJNJEBE
EFMTJTUFNBZSFTQFDUPEFMPTBMDBODFTEFMDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBE RVFOP
TVQPOFTJFNQSFZFOUPEPDBTPRVFMBBVUPSJEBEiFYQVMTFwVOBOPSNBEFMTJTUFNB
OPSNBUJWPJOUFSOP"DMBSBEPFTUPTFFWJUBDBFSFOFMFSSPSEFQFOTBSRVFFMBHFOUF
EFM&TUBEPRVFSFBMJ[BFMFKFSDJDJPEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBEOFDFTJUBVOBCBTFOPSNBUJWB
FTQFDJBMQBSBSFBMJ[BSEJDIPQSPDFTP ZOPMFCBTUBFMIFDIPEFRVFFM&TUBEPIBZB
JODPSQPSBEPMBOPSNBUJWBJOUFSBNFSJDBOBFOTVPSEFOBNJFOUPKVSEJDPJOUFSOP
C
0USBQPTJCMFDPOGVTJOTFEBFOUSFEPTDVFTUJPOFTWJODVMBEBT QFSPEJTUJOUBT6OB
DPTBFTFMDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBEUBMDPNPMPIFNPTEFTDSJUPZPUSBEJTUJOUB
FTMBPCMJHBDJOEFDVNQMJSDPOMBTTFOUFODJBTRVFEJDUBMB$PSUFSFTQFDUPEFVO
&TUBEP&OFTUFDBTPFTUBNPTBOUFVOBPCMJHBDJOFTQFDJBMGVOEBEBFOFMBSUDVMP
EFMB$"%)1VFEFTFS UBMDPNPMPIBEJTQVFTUPMB$PSUF 26RVFFMDPOUSPMEF
DPOWFODJPOBMJEBETFBVOBHBSBOUBEFOPSFQFUJDJO QFSPFTPUJFOFRVFWFSDPOMB

25
 $PSUF*%)Caso Trabajadores cesados del Congreso vs. Per,EFOPWJFNCSFEF QSSBGP
Ibsen Crdenas e Ibsen Pea vs. Bolivia,EFTFQUJFNCSFEF QSSBGPCabrera Garca y
Montiel Flores vs. Mxico,EFOPWJFNCSFEF QSSBGPVlez Loor vs. Panam,OPWJFNCSF
EF QSSBGPGomes Lund y otros vs. Brasil, EFOPWJFNCSFEF QSSBGP
26
 $PSUF*%)Caso Gelman vs. Uruguay,EFGFCSFSPEFRadilla Pacheco vs. Mxico,
EFOPWJFNCSFEF
ANUARIO DE DERECHO CONSTITUCIONAL LATINOAMERICANO 505

DPODSFDJOEFMBPCMJHBDJOEFHBSBOUBZOPDPOFMDVNQMJNJFOUPEFMPPSEFOBEP
QPSMB$PSUFBNPEPEFNFEJEBTEFSFTUJUVDJOVPUSBT BDUVBDJOFOFMNCJUP
JOUFSOP

D
5BNCJOQPESBQMBOUFBSBMHVOBTEVEBTDVMFTFMMNJUFFOUSFMBPCMJHBDJOEFMPT
KVFDFTEFJNQMFNFOUBSFMDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBE QBSBFWJUBSRVFFM&TUBEP
JODVSSBFOSFTQPOTBCJMJEBEJOUFSOBDJPOBM ZMBPCMJHBDJOEFMQPEFSMFHJTMBUJWPEF
TVQFSBSBOUJOPNJBTHSBWFTFOUSFMBMFHJTMBDJOJOUFSOBZMPTDPNQSPNJTPTJOUFS
OBDJPOBMFTEFM&TUBEP&MQSPCMFNBFTVOBDVFTUJOEFMNJUFTZFOUSBBVOQFMJ
HSP4JCJFOFMFKFSDJDJPEFMDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBEFTJOUFSFTBOUFQPSRVFEB
VOTFOUJEPDPODSFUPZFDB[BMBPCMJHBDJOHFOFSBMDPOTBHSBEBFOMPTBSUDVMPT
ZEFMB$"%) FOPSEFOBRVFVOBEFMBTNFEJEBTFGFDUJWBT EFOUSPEFMBT
iPUSBTNFEJEBTwRVFFTUBCMFDFMBOPSNB
RVFEFCFUPNBSFM&TUBEPFONBUFSJBEF
EFSFDIPTDPOWFODJPOBMFTFTMBMBCPSIFSNFOVUJDBEFMPTKVFDFT1PSPUSBQBSUF 
TFBMBSRVFVOBOPSNBFTWMJEBFOMBNFEJEBRVFTFBJOUFSQSFUBEBEFBDVFSEP
BDJFSUPTFTUOEBSFT FTQMBVTJCMF&MQFMJHSPFTUFOUSB[BSMBMOFBEJWJTPSJBFOUSF
BRVFMMBTOPSNBTRVFEFCFOTFSFYQVMTBEBTEFMTJTUFNBBUSBWTEFVOBSFGPSNBMF
HJTMBUJWBZBRVFMMBTRVFQVFEFOTPCSFWJWJSNFEJBOUFVOBJOUFSQSFUBDJOBEFDVBEB
-BQPTJDJOEFMB$PSUFQBSFDFTFSRVFDPOGPSNFBMKVJDJPEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBE 
FMKVF[TJFNQSFEFCJFSBJOUFSQSFUBSFMTJTUFNBOPSNBUJWPOBDJPOBMDPOGPSNFBMBT
PCMJHBDJPOFTJOUFSOBDJPOBMFTZ QPSUBOUP TJFNQSFQPSWBJOUFSQSFUBUJWBTFQPESB
TBMWBSMBSFTQPOTBCJMJEBEEFM&TUBEP&MQVOUPFTRVFFTUFDSJUFSJPTFIBDFJNQPTJCMF
FOFMDBTPEFOPSNBTBCJFSUBNFOUFDPOUSBSJBTBMB$POWFODJO MBTDVBMFTEFCFO
TFSNPEJDBEBT1BSFDFTFSQSVEFOUFTPTUFOFSRVFEBEBVOBOPSNBRVFGPNFOUB
PQFSNJUFJOUFSQSFUBDJPOFTDPOUSBSJBTBMB$POWFODJO EFCJFSBQSFGFSJSTFTVFY
QVMTJOEFMTJTUFNBBUSBWTEFTVBEFDVBDJOMFHJTMBUJWB TJMPRVFRVFSFNPTFT
VOTJTUFNBEFEFSFDIPTIVNBOPTFDB[NFOUFQSFWFOUJWP TJOQFSKVJDJPEFMPRVF
FMKVF[IBHBDPNPQBSUFEFMDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBEFOFMDBTPDPODSFUPRVF
EFCBSFTPMWFS1BSBRVFFTUPTFBQPTJCMF TFEFCFSBOQSJWJMFHJBSEJTFPTOPSNBUJWPT
RVFBCSBOFTQBDJPQBSBRVFFMQPEFSKVSJTEJDDJPOBMQVFEBOPTMPFYQVMTBSOPSNBT
DPOUSBSJBTBMBTPCMJHBDJPOFTEFM&TUBEP TJOPRVFUBNCJOQFSNJUBOMBBDUJWBDJO
EFMTJTUFNBMFHJTMBUJWPWBKVSJTEJDDJPOBM
E
0USBDVFTUJORVFQVFEFPDBTJPOBSQSPCMFNBTFTEFUFSNJOBSDVMFTMBKVSJT
QSVEFODJBEFMB$PSUF*%)BQMJDBCMF&MDSJUFSJP GVOEBEPFOFMBSUDVMPEFMB
$"%) EFCJFSBTFSRVFFODBTPEFIBCFSNTEFVOQSPOVODJBNJFOUPEFMB$PSUF 
EFCFQSFGFSJSTFBRVFMRVFEFNFKPSNBOFSBQSPUFKBMPTEFSFDIPTIVNBOPTFOFM
DBTPDPODSFUP4JFMJOUSQSFUFMMFHBBMBDPODMVTJOEFRVFVOBOPSNBJOUFSOBP
VOBJOUFSQSFUBDJOEJTUJOUBBMBEBEBQPSMB$PSUFFTVOBNFKPSJOUFSQSFUBDJO FT
QPTJCMFQSFGFSJSMBQSPUFDDJOOBDJPOBM QFSPFMJOUSQSFUFEFCFSFYQMJDBSEFRV
GPSNBTFEBFTUBNFKPSQSPUFDDJO
F
&YJTUFFMSJFTHPEFRVFMBHVSBEFMDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBEBCSBVOFTQBDJP
BMBEPDUSJOBEFMiNBSHFOEFBQSFDJBDJOwOBDJPOBMQBSBTBMWBSMBTEJDVMUBEFT
PQFSBUJWBTRVFUSBFDPOTJHPMBBQMJDBDJOEFMDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBEFOFM
506 CONTROL DE CONVENCIONALIDAD. PRECISIONES CONCEPTUALES Y DESAFOS A LA LUZ / CLAUDIO NASH ROJAS

NCJUPJOUFSOPEFMPT&TUBEPT-BQFMJHSPTJEBESBEJDBFORVFMBVUJMJ[BDJOEFFT
UBEPDUSJOBQVFEFMMFWBSBMBEFTOBUVSBMJ[BDJOEFMBTPCMJHBDJPOFTEFMPT&TUBEPT
ZQPSDPOTJHVJFOUFQVFEFJODSFNFOUBSFMSJFTHPEFJODVSSJSFOSFTQPOTBCJMJEBE
JOUFSOBDJPOBM
BEFNT EFTEFFMQVOUPEFWJTUBEFMBTFHVSJEBEKVSEJDBQBSFDF
QPDPQMBVTJCMFBQMJDBSFTUBEPDUSJOBDVBOEPFMEFTBSSPMMPEFMDPOUSPMEFDPOWFO
DJPOBMJEBEQVFEFFTUBSTVKFUPBMPTWBJWFOFTQPMUJDPTEFMPT&TUBEPT
G
 'JOBMNFOUF RVJFSPEFTUBDBSDPNPEFTBGPEFMBJNQMFNFOUBDJO FMRVFFOFM
EFSFDIPJOUFSOPTFEFCFJSBWBO[BOEPIBDJBMBBQMJDBDJOEJSFDUBEFMBTOPSNBT
EFM%*%)ZTVKVSJTQSVEFODJB&OMPTTJTUFNBTDPOTUJUVDJPOBMFTEPOEFTFIBO
DPOTUJUVDJPOBMJ[BEPMBTOPSNBTJOUFSOBDJPOBMFTTVBQMJDBDJOQVFEFTFSNTGDJM
EFTEFFMQVOUPEFWJTUBEFMPTQSJODJQJPTEFKFSBSRVB DPIFSFODJBJOUFSOBZVOJEBE
EFMTJTUFNBKVSEJDPDPEJDBEP&OBRVFMMPTFORVFMBDVFTUJOKFSSRVJDBIBTJEP
SFTVFMUBEFPUSBGPSNBBMBDPOTUJUVDJPOBMJ[BDJO MBHVSBEFMiCMPRVFEFDPOTUJ
UVDJPOBMJEBEwQVFEFTFSVOCVFOJOTUSVNFOUPQBSBSB[POBSFOFMNCJUPJOUFSOPZ
QFSNJUJSRVFMBTOPSNBTJOUFSOBDJPOBMFTZTVJOUFSQSFUBDJOKVSJTQSVEFODJBMTFBO
VUJMJ[BEBTFODBTPTDPODSFUPT4FBWBDPOTUJUVDJPOBMJ[BDJOPCMPRVFEFDPOTUJUV
DJPOBMJEBE BKVJDJPEFMBQSPQJB$PSUF*%) TFEFCFJODMVJSUBOUPMBTOPSNBTEF
MPTUSBUBEPTJOUFSOBDJPOBMFTEFEFSFDIPTIVNBOPTDPNPMBKVSJTQSVEFODJBEFMB
$PSUF*%)

9. Conclusin

5SBTFMBOMJTJTDPOUFYUVBM DPODFQUVBMZKVSJTQSVEFODJBMEFMDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBE 
NFHVTUBSBQPOFSEFSFMJFWFBMHVOBTDVFTUJPOFTRVFNFQBSFDFOGVOEBNFOUBMFTQBSB
FOUFOEFSMBSFMFWBODJBEFMDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBE
&OQSJNFSMVHBS IBZRVFSFBSNBSMBJNQPSUBODJBEFRVFUPEPFMBOMJTJTEFMDPOUSPM
EFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBEFTVOBQJF[BDMBWFQBSBFWJUBSFMSJFTHPEFRVFMPT&TUBEPTJODVSSBO
FOSFTQPOTBCJMJEBEJOUFSOBDJPOBM&TUPTFSFBMJ[BNFEJBOUFMBJODPSQPSBDJOEFFTUO
EBSFT BQMJDBDJOEJSFDUBEFOPSNBTJOUFSOBDJPOBMFTZBOMJTJTEFMBDPNQBUJCJMJEBEEF
MBTOPSNBTJOUFSOBTDPOMB$"%)QPSQBSUFEFMPTSHBOPTQCMJDPTMMBNBEPTBEBS
DVNQMJNJFOUPBMBTPCMJHBDJPOFTJOUFSOBDJPOBMFT QSJODJQBMNFOUF BVORVFOPEFNBOFSB
FYDMVTJWB FOMBMBCPSKVSJTEJDDJPOBM&TUFFKFSDJDJPTFCBTBFOMBDPOTJEFSBDJOEFRVFFM
DPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBETUJFOFVOTVTUSBUPKVSEJDP RVFTFFODVFOUSBFOMBDPOKV
HBDJOOPSNBUJWBEFMPTBSUDVMPT ZEFMB$"%)ZFOMPTQSJODJQJPTEFMEFSFDIP
JOUFSOBDJPOBMQCMJDP
)BZRVFQPOFSEFSFMJFWFMBJNQPSUBODJBEFMBPCMJHBDJOEFHBSBOUBDPNPQJMBSGVO
EBNFOUBMFOFMBDUVBSEFM&TUBEP ZBRVFTEPOEFFMDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBEFTDMBWF
QBSBBTFHVSBSRVFTFEQMFOPHPDFZFKFSDJDJPEFMPTEFSFDIPTDPOTBHSBEPTFOMB$PO
WFODJO EFDPOGPSNJEBEDPOMPTFTUOEBSFTJOUFSOBDJPOBMFT&OFTUFTFOUJEP FMDPOUSPM
EFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBEOPWJFOFBTFSVOBPCMJHBDJOOVFWB TJOPNTCJFOMBDPODSFDJO
KVSJTEJDDJPOBMEFMBPCMJHBDJOEFHBSBOUBEFMPTEFSFDIPTIVNBOPTFOFMNCJUPJOUFSOP
ANUARIO DE DERECHO CONSTITUCIONAL LATINOAMERICANO 507

EFMPT&TUBEPT&OFTUFDPOUFYUP FTDMBSPBFTUBTBMUVSBTRVFFMDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOB
MJEBETFJNQMFNFOUBFODBEB&TUBEPDPOGPSNFBTVSFHVMBDJOJOUFSOB TJORVFMB$PSUF
*%)JNQPOHBVOEFUFSNJOBEPTJTUFNBEFDPOUSPMEFDPOTUJUVDJPOBMJEBE-BFYQFSJFODJB
DPNQBSBEBRVFIFNPTSFWJTBEPWBFOEJDIPTFOUJEP
&OEFOJUJWB DVBOEPFMDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBETFQFSMBDPNPVOJOTUSVNFOUP
SFMFWBOUFQBSBMBQSPUFDDJOEFMPTEFSFDIPTGVOEBNFOUBMFTZMFHJUJNBFMBDUVBSEFM&T
UBEP FMEJMPHPKVSJTQSVEFODJBMTFDPOTUJUVZFFOIFSSBNJFOUBGVOEBNFOUBMBMBIPSBEF
EFTBSSPMMBSFTUOEBSFTDPNVOFTRVFUJFOEBOBMBFGFDUJWJEBEEFMTJTUFNB

Bibliografa

" .BSJFMBi{-BEFNPDSBDJBDPNPQSJODJQJPEFMJVTDPOTUJUVUJPOBMFDPNNVOF
FO"NSJDB-BUJOB $POTUSVDDJO SFDPOTUSVDDJOZEFTBGPTBDUVBMFTQBSBMBKVTUJDJB
DPOTUJUVDJPOBMw FO"SNJOWPO#PHEBOEZ &EVBSEP'FSSFS.BD(SFHPSZ.BSJFMB
.PSBMFT"OUPOJB[[J DPPSET
La justicia constitucional y su internacionalizacin.
Hacia un Ius Constitutionale Commune en Amrica Latina? U**
.YJDP%'
*OTUJUVUPEF*OWFTUJHBDJPOFT+VSEJDBTEFMB6/". .BY1MBODL*OTUJUVUGSBVTMO
EJTDIFTFOUMJDIFT3FDIUVOE7MLFSSFDIUF*OTUJUVUP*CFSPBNFSJDBOPEF%FSFDIP
$POTUJUVDJPOBM 
$ ,BSMPTi&MDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBEVOOVFWPEFCBUFFO.YJDPBQBSUJS
EFMBTFOUFODJB3BEJMMB1BDIFDPw FOAnuario Mexicano de Derecho Internacional WPM
9*  QQ
' -VJHJLa teora del derecho en el paradigma constitucional, .BESJE.YJDP
&EJUPSJBM'POUBNBSB 
'.( &EVBSEPi3FFYJPOFTTPCSFFMDPOUSPMEJGVTPEFDPOWFODJPOBMJ
EBEBMBMV[EFMDBTP$BCSFSB(BSDBZ.POUJFM'MPSFTWT.YJDPw FOBoletn Mexicano
de Derecho Comparado,*OTUJUVUPEFJOWFTUJHBDJPOFTKVSEJDBTEFMB6/". O 
QQ
(. .BOVFM&i%JMPHPTKVSJTQSVEFODJBMFTFOUSFMB$PSUF*OUFSBNFSJDBOB
EF%FSFDIPT)VNBOPTZMB$PSUF$POTUJUVDJPOBMEF$PMPNCJBVOBWJTJODPFWPMV
UJWBEFMBDPOWFSHFODJBEFFTUOEBSFTTPCSFEFSFDIPTEFMBTWDUJNBTw FO"SNJOWPO
#PHEBOEZ &EVBSEP'FSSFS.BD(SFHPSZ.BSJFMB.PSBMFT"OUPOJB[[J DPPSET
La
justicia constitucional y su internacionalizacin. Hacia un Ius Constitutionale Com-
mune en Amrica Latina? U**
.YJDP%'*OTUJUVUPEF*OWFTUJHBDJPOFT+VSEJDBTEF
MB6/". .BY1MBODL*OTUJUVUGSBVTMOEJTDIFTFOUMJDIFT3FDIUVOE7MLFSSFDIU
F*OTUJUVUP*CFSPBNFSJDBOPEF%FSFDIP$POTUJUVDJPOBM 
) +VBO$BSMPTi$POUSPMEFDPOTUJUVDJPOBMJEBEZDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBE
$PNQBSBDJO DSJUFSJPTKBEPTQPSMB$PSUF*OUFSBNFSJDBOBEF%FSFDIPT)VNBOPT
w 
FORevista de Estudios Constitucionales,$FOUSPEF&TUVEJPT$POTUJUVDJPOBMFT6OJWFS
TJEBEEF5BMDB BP O  QQ
508 CONTROL DE CONVENCIONALIDAD. PRECISIONES CONCEPTUALES Y DESAFOS A LA LUZ / CLAUDIO NASH ROJAS

-- .BSBi&MQSJODJQJPEFMFHBMJEBEZFMDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBE
EFMBTMFZFTDPOVFODJBTZQFSTQFDUJWBTFOFMQFOTBNJFOUPEFMB$PSUF*OUFSBNFSJDB
OBEF%FSFDIPT)VNBOPTw FOBoletn Mexicano de Derecho Comparado,*OTUJUVUPEF
*OWFTUJHBDJPOFTKVSEJDBTEFMB6/". O  QQ
. 'FSOBOEPDerecho internacional pblico, parte general, .BESJE5SPUUB 
/3 $MBVEJPLa concepcin sobre derechos fundamentales en Latinoamrica:
tendencias jurisprudenciales,.YJDP&EJUPSJBM'POUBNBSB 
4 /TUPS1FESPi&MiDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBEwDPNPJOTUSVNFOUPQBSBMB
FMBCPSBDJOEFVOJVTDPNNVOFJOUFSBNFSJDBOPw FOFO"SNJOWPO# 
&EVBSEP'FSSFS.BD(SFHPSZ.BSJFMB.PSBMFT"OUPOJB[[J DPPSET
La justicia
constitucional y su internacionalizacin. Hacia un Ius Constitutionale Commune
en Amrica Latina? U**
.YJDP%'*OTUJUVUPEF*OWFTUJHBDJPOFT+VSEJDBTEFMB
6/". .BY1MBODL*OTUJUVUGSBVTMOEJTDIFTFOUMJDIFT3FDIUVOE7MLFSSFDIUF
*OTUJUVUP*CFSPBNFSJDBOPEF%FSFDIP$POTUJUVDJPOBM  QQ
@@@@@i0CMJHBDJPOFTJOUFSOBDJPOBMFTZDPOUSPMEFDPOWFODJPOBMJEBEw FORevista de Es-
tudios Constitucionales,$FOUSPEFFTUVEJPTDPOTUJUVDJPOBMFT6OJWFSTJEBEEF5BMDB 
BP O  QQ

Jurisprudencia

$$Accin de inconstitucionalidadTFOUFODJB
$
_____ Accin de inconstitucionalidad TFOUFODJB$
$PSUF*OUFSBNFSJDBOBEF%FSFDIPT)VNBOPT19 comerciantes vs. Colombia,EFKVMJPEF
GPOEP SFQBSBDJPOFTZDPTUBT
_____ Caso Almonacid Arellano y otros vs. Chile FYDFQDJPOFTQSFMJNJOBSFT GPOEP SFQB
SBDJPOFTZDPTUBT EFTFQUJFNCSFEF
_____ Caso Barrios Altos vs. Per GPOEP EFNBS[PEF
_____ Boyce y otros vs. Barbados FYDFQDJOQSFMJNJOBS GPOEP SFQBSBDJPOFTZDPTUBT 
EFOPWJFNCSFEF
_____ Caso Cabrera Garca y Montiel Flores vs. Mxico,FYDFQDJOQSFMJNJOBS GPOEP 
SFQBSBDJPOFTZDPTUBT EFOPWJFNCSFEF
_____ Caso De la masacre de Las Dos Erres vs. Guatemala
FYDFQDJOQSFMJNJOBS 
GPOEP SFQBSBDJPOFTZDPTUBT EFOPWJFNCSFEF
_____ Caso Gelman vs. Uruguay,GPOEPZSFQBSBDJPOFT EFGFCSFSPEF
_____ Caso Gomes Lund y otros (Guerrilha do Araguaia) vs. Brasil FYDFQDJPOFTQSFMJNJ
OBSFT GPOEP SFQBSBDJPOFTZDPTUBT EFOPWJFNCSFEF
_____ Caso Ibsen Crdenas e Ibsen Pea vs. Bolivia,GPOEP SFQBSBDJPOFTZDPTUBT EF
TFQUJFNCSFEF
_____ Caso La Cantuta vs. Per,GPOEP SFQBSBDJPOFTZDPTUBT EFOPWJFNCSFEF
_____ Caso Myrna Mack Chang vs. Guatemala GPOEP SFQBSBDJPOFTZDPTUBT OPWJFN
CSFEF
ANUARIO DE DERECHO CONSTITUCIONAL LATINOAMERICANO 509

_____ Caso Radilla Pacheco vs. Mxico,FYDFQDJPOFTQSFMJNJOBSFT GPOEP SFQBSBDJPOFT


ZDPTUBT EFOPWJFNCSFEF
_____ Responsabilidad internacional por expedicin y aplicacin de leyes violatorias de
la convencin arts. 1 y 2 Convencin Americana sobre Derechos Humanos
PQJOJO
DPOTVMUJWB0$EFMEFEJDJFNCSFEF
_____ Caso Trabajadores cesados del Congreso (Aguado Alfaro y otros) vs. Per FYDFQ
DJPOFTQSFMJNJOBSFT GPOEP SFQBSBDJPOFTZDPTUBT EFOPWJFNCSFEF
_____ Caso Velsquez Rodrguez vs. Honduras GPOEP EFKVMJPEF
_____ Caso Vlez Loor vs. Panam FYDFQDJPOFTQSFMJNJOBSFT GPOEP SFQBSBDJPOFTZ
DPTUBT EFOPWJFNCSFEF
$4$3 4$Accin de inconstitucionali-
dad TFOUFODJBOo EFNBZPEF
$4+/.4FTJOQCMJDBPSEJOBSJBEFM
1MFOPEFMB4VQSFNB$PSUFEF+VTUJDJBEFMB/BDJO EFKVMJPEF

Fuentes

$"%) 1BDUPEF4BO+PTEF$PTUB3JDB

TVTDSJUBFO4BO+PTEF$PTUB3JDBFOMB$POGFSFODJB&TQFDJBMJ[BEB*OUFSBNFSJDBOB
TPCSF%FSFDIPT)VNBOPT FMEFOPWJFNCSFEF
$7%56/%PD"$0/'