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Dipl.-Ing. Th. Fahrland, Dr.-Ing. K.-H.

Zysk,
Loesche GmbH, Duesseldorf, Germany

CEMENTS GROUND IN THE VERTICAL ROLLER MILL


FULFIL THE QUALITY REQUIREMENTS OF THE MARKET
IN DER VERTIKAL-WLZMHLE GEMAHLENE ZEMENTE
ERFLLEN DIE QUALITTSANFORDERUNGEN DES MARKTES
4Dipl.-Ing. Th. Fahrland, Dr.-Ing. K.-H. Zysk, Loesche GmbH, Duesseldorf, Germany

SUMMARY ZUSAMMENFASSUNG

Cement production typically requires the grinding of three Im Zementherstellungsprozess mssen gewhnlich drei
separate types of material during the process: the raw ma- unterschiedliche Materialien fein gemahlen werden: vor dem
terials and coal before the kiln, and the final cement product Zementdrehofen die Zementrohmaterialien sowie die als
once firing is complete and the clinker cooled. Looking back Brennstoff verwendete Kohle und nach dem Klinkerkhler
on a century or more, ball mill systems were used for all der gebrannte Klinker zur Herstellung des Endprodukts
three grinding stages, but the development of more energy- Zement. Vor mehr als 100 Jahren wurden zur technischen
efficient vertical roller mills (VRMs) led to their replacement. Realisierung dieser drei Mahlprozesse fast ausschlielich nur
Initially, this focused on grinding coal and the cement raw Kugelmhlen eingesetzt, meist im Kreislauf mit einem Sich-
materials, with the adoption of vertical roller mills for cement ter, bis diese Mhlen durch die Entwicklung der energieeffi-
product grinding with its finer grinding requirements com- zienteren Vertikal-Wlzmhlen immer mehr verdrngt wur-
ing more recently, in the late 1990s. The main reason for den. Zuerst vollzog sich dieser Wandel bei der Kohlemahlung
the delay in uptake of VRM technology for cement grinding und der Rohmehlerzeugung, bis in den spten 1990er Jahren
was the concerns of producers that their product qualities die Vertikal-Wlzmhle auch bei der Zementmahlung mit
would not meet market requirements, specifically in three ihren spezifisch hohen Anforderungen an die Mahlfeinheit
key areas: water demand, strength development and set- den Einzug hielt. Der Hauptgrund fr die spte Akzeptanz
ting times. Over the past 15 years, however, it could be der Vertikal-Wlzmhle bei der Zementmahlung war die ver-
demonstrated that these concerns are unfounded, and that breitete Skepsis bei den Zementherstellern, dass die Qualitt
the quality of cement obtained from VRM grinding is as des in der Vertikal-Wlzmhle hergestellten Finalprodukts
good as, or in some cases better than, that produced in a Zement den Marktanforderungen nicht entsprechen knnte,
ball mill. In consequence, most of the worlds major cement speziell was die Anforderungen an den Wasserbedarf, die
producers now use vertical roller mills for cement grinding Festigkeitsentwicklung und die Verarbeitungszeiten betrifft.
with no hesitation.3 ber die letzten 15 Jahre konnte jedoch der Nachweis
erbracht werden, dass die bisherigen Bedenken unbegrndet
waren und der in einer Vertikal-Wlzmhle erzeugte Zement
hinsichtlich seiner Qualitt einem Kugelmhlenzement nicht
nachsteht, fallweise sogar besser sein kann. Im Ergebnis die-
ser Entwicklung entscheiden sich deshalb heute die meisten
Zementhersteller weltweit ohne jegliche Bedenken bei der
PROCESSING

Zementmahlung fr den Einsatz von Vertikal-Wlzmhlen.3

(English text supplied by the author)

64 CEMENT INTERNATIONAL 4 2/2013 4 VOL. 11


Cements ground in the vertical roller mill fulfil
the quality requirements of the market
In der Vertikal-Wlzmhle gemahlene Zemente erfllen die Qualittsanforderungen
des Marktes

1 Introduction matically some possible alternative flowsheets using VRMs


and ball mills.
There is no question that vertical roller mills like the Loesche
Mill offer significant advantages over ball mills in terms of With the focus here being on ball mills and VRMs, Table 1
their energy efficiency. As noted in a current publication (1) shows some comparative performance parameters for the
the specific power consumption of a ball mill is higher than two systems when used for grinding cement. It has to be
that of a vertical roller mill (VRM) carrying out the same oper- remembered that there are major differences in the mech-
ations by a factor of between 1.5 and 2, depending on the anism of grinding between VRMs and ball mills, in terms of
degree of optimisation of the ball mill. Fig. 1 illustrates this how grinding occurs, the residence time, the level of repeat
connexion, as well as showing the increasing energy bene- grinding and recirculation factors, among others.
fit that can be obtained with a vertical roller mill as the spe-
cific Blaine surface area rises. In a VRM, comminution occurs by pressure and shear forces
that are introduced via the grinding rollers. In ball mills, com-
100 Ball mill minution is mainly done by impact, with the grinding balls
Power consumption [kWh/t]

90 system being lifted up by the rotating shell, then dropped back onto
80
the charge and other balls. There is some attrition as well.
70
60 Loesche
50 VRM system There is also a major difference in terms of the average resi-
40 dence time the time the material particles remain in the mill
30 system before they leave the classifier as product. Including
20
both grinding in the mill body and a circulation factor, the res-
3 500 3 000
4 000 4 500 5 000
idence time for a VRM is less than one minute, while parti-
Fineness acc. to Blaine [cm2/g]
cles can remain within a ball mill system for 20 to 30 min-
Figure 1: Specific power consumption of ball mill system v/s vertical
utes. Individual cement particles will be ground from one to
roller mill system for OPC grinding three times in a VRM before being offered to the classifier,
whereas repeat grinding in a ball mill is virtually uncounta-
Fundamentally, ball mills use proportionately more energy ble because of the grinding mechanism. Finally, while a ball
to produce a finer ground product than do VRMs, and while mill will have a recirculation factor of 2 to 3, this increases
the energy consumption in a VRM obviously does increase between 6 to 20 for a VRM, depending on the pressure
with product fineness, it does so much less rapidly. Indeed, height, the grinding tools configuration, the grindability of the
while the difference in energy efficiency is significant when material and the required product fineness. The differences
a VRM is used for grinding OPC, the energy benefit is even in all of these parameters are shown in Table 1.
greater in the case of blastfurnace slag which is hard to grind,
as can be seen in Fig. 2. 3 Outlining the issues
Having demonstrated the energy advantage of the VRM The first modern Loesche Mill for cement and slag grinding,
concept over ball milling, the remainder of this paper a mill with the designation LM 46.2+2, was sold to Taiwans PROCESSING
focuses on various aspects of cement quality, with the aim Lucky Cement Corp. in 1993 and commissioned in 1994, for
of putting to rest once and for all the outdated, disproven grinding cement at its Pu Shin plant. While producers were
ideas that cements produced in a VRM differ markedly from initially concerned that the quality of the cement produced
those produced in traditional ball mill systems. The arti-
cle looks first at the various grinding systems that are avail-
able for cement producers today, then takes each of the pur- 160
ported product quality issues in turn to show that these are Ball mill
140
Power consumption [kWh/t]

system
neither justified nor valid.
120

2 Grinding system options 100


80
Today, cement producers have the option for using a range 60 Loesche
of different systems for cement grinding. A comprehensive 40 VRM system
list of all the available options would certainly include tradi-
20
tional ball-mill systems, high-pressure grinding rolls in every
3 000 4 000 5 000 6 000
kind of design types and their various combinations with ball
mills and, of course, VRMs vertical roller mills. All of these Fineness acc. to Blaine [cm2/g]

systems treat the material to be ground differently, in that


the actual grinding needed to achieve the desired character- Figure 2: Specific power consumption of ball mill system v/s vertical
istics varies from one to the other. Fig. 3 illustrates sche- roller mill system for slag grinding

CEMENT INTERNATIONAL 4 2/2013 4 VOL. 11 65


Clinker Gypsum Limestone Clinker Gypsum Limestone

Product Product

Ball mill Vertical roller


system mill system

Figure 3: Alternative flow sheets using vertical roller mills and ball mills

would not meet their clients specifications, results from the Fig. 4 shows that in this case, n for the VRM cement sys-
first installations showed that the cement qualities are indeed tem is steeper than for a cement produced in a ball mill. This
acceptable to the market. From the late 1990s, the majority is caused by the higher proportion of fine (over-ground) ma-
of cement producers changed their preference towards the terial present in the ball mill cement, which in turn reflects
vertical roller mill system. the greater number of impacts and the inherent inefficiency
of ball mill grinding.
Table 1: Comparative performance parameters for the two systems
when used for grinding cement In more general terms, a typical particle size distribution
Ball mill for a ball mill system in closed-circuit operation with a high-
Characteristics Vertical roller mill
(closed circuit) efficiency, third-generation classifier would be between 0.75
Pressure and and 0.98. The equivalent would be between 0.82 and 1.05
Comminution by Impact and attrition in a Loesche vertical roller mill system. These ranges may
shear forces
differ when different types of laser sizers are used.
Residence time [min] 20 to 30 <1
Crushings before The area of concern in the past was that the steeper particle
1 to 3
separation size distribution for VRM cements would lead, for example,
Circulation factor 2 to 3 6 to 20 to their having higher water demand and lower early strength
development. This could, of course, generate problems,
Wear rate [g/t] ~ 50 3 to 6
especially in precast concrete manufacturing with its sophis-
ticated production processes regarding cycle and stripping
The producers concerns were centred on three specific times.
areas: that cement produced in a VRM would have a higher
water demand when mixed to a workable paste; that the The question then has to be asked as to the reason for the
setting times would differ drastically; and that the compres- different slopes in the particle size distribution diagrams.
sive strength would be lower when compared to the same Firstly, and as explained above, the different grinding behav-
cement produced in a ball mill system. The supposed reasons iour of the vertical roller and ball mill systems means that
for these concerns were, respectively: a steeper particle size particles remain in a ball mill system for about 20 to 30 min-
distribution, the different particle shape produced by a VRM, utes before they leave the classifier as product. They are
PROCESSING

and a lower gypsum dehydration. In point of fact, operating impacted repeatedly during that time, with the result that
experiences since then have shown conclusively that none of some particles are ground more than necessary. By con-
these concerns is justified, and that the cements produced by trast, the limited amount of grinding for each particle in the
grinding in a VRM meet market requirements in all respects. VRM system before classification avoids any unnecessary
over-grinding.
4 Particle size distribution
The particle size distribution of a cement is
usually plotted on the well known RRSB- VRM
System
Sum of passing Q (x) [mass %]

diagram. Fig. 4 shows size distribution Slope n = tan (Slope n: 0.82 to 1.05)
curves for cements produced by grinding
in VRMs and in ball mills. The inclination
of each curve, the slope n, is measured
at the positioning parameter that repre-
Position parameter
sents the particle diameter at which the Ball mill
system
residue, in terms of mass, is 36.8 %. A Particle size [m] (Slope n: 0.70 to 0.98)
higher n-value produces a steeper curve,
whereas the lower the slope, the more
fine and over-ground particles are in the
finished product at a constant Blaine value,
2
measured in cm /g. Figure 4: Different particle size distributions

66 CEMENT INTERNATIONAL 4 2/2013 4 VOL. 11


Testwork carried out in 2009 at the Vicat groups Montalieu
plant in France has proved conclusively that these adjustments
Grinding pressure
will deliver the required results. The study involved grinding
Dam ring height
the same cement once in a closed-circuit ball mill system
Mill airflow
Classifier rotor speed
and once in a grinding plant with a Loesche mill LM 53.3+3.
Table speed for very high Blaine cements Fig. 7 shows some results from the project, confirming
that the positioning parameter, the slope of the particle size
distribution and the product fineness of both cements are in
exactly the same range. Furthermore, the water demand for
both cements needed to create a cement paste with a stand-
Dam ring ard consistency are the same, reflecting the same slope
n, positioning parameter and Blaine values. This testwork
proved in a practical way that there is no difference in ma-
terial properties due to the differing grinding mechanisms.
Figure 5: The operational parameters
5 Particle shape considerations
Differences in particle shape have been another area in
which vertical roller mill systems have been the subject of
scrutiny. The suggestion was made that cement particles
Steep ==>

coming out of a ball mill are always much rounder then those
lower lower higher higher coming out of a VRM, which are more shallow and elongated.
Slope n

Grinding Height of Mill air Classifier This again, together with fewer fine particles, would result in
pressure dam ring flow speed increased water demand for the cement paste.
higher higher lower lower
<== Shallow

The roundness or circularity of the particles can be deter-


mined by optical methods such as image analyses. Within
those measurements, particle shapes are described with val-
ues of between 1 and 0. A value of 1 indicates a particle that
is perfectly spherical, and as the value approaches 0, it indi-
Figure 6: Simple adjustment options to achieve the desired product cates an increasingly elongated, shallow polygon.

If a similar product to one from an existing ball mill system is Fig. 8 illustrates the particle size distribution of a cement
2
needed, however, the VRM can be adjusted to achieve this. with a product fineness of about 4 100 g/cm acc. to Blaine.
As shown in Fig. 5, adjustments can be made to the grind- This shows that the size of the smallest particle is about
ing pressure, the dam ring height, the mill airflow, the clas- 0.1 m and the size of the largest particle is about 52 m
sifier rotor speed and, for cements with a very high Blaine for this particular cement. In general, while a wide variety of
value, the table speed. Fig. 6 shows the effects on the cements are ground to different finenesses, the largest par-
slope of the particle size distribution curve by adjusting each ticles are usually between 45 and 55 m.
of these parameters.
In addition, 95 % of all the cement particles are below 45 m
A higher grinding pressure will result in more intense grind- in size, again depending on the final product fineness and
ing with the development of more fine material, and hence the slope of the particle size distribution curve.
a shallower particle size distribution. The higher the dam
ring, the longer the material remains on the grinding table, Testwork undertaken by the VDZ in its role as Germanys
and the more it is ground in one cycle. This again results in Cement Research Institute compared the particle shapes PROCESSING
the generation of more fines, and a shallower particle size produced in different types of milling systems. Fig. 9 shows
distribution. In addition, the airflow and the classifier set- a plot of the shapes of cement particles from high-pressure
tings can be adjusted in order to produce the desired prod- grinding rolls, ball mills and vertical roller mills, with the par-
uct characteristics. ticle size being shown on the x-axis and the circularity on
the y-axis [2].

It is clear from this plot that there


Technical properties is no significant difference in particle
Mill Unit VRM BM shape between the cements produced
Separator LSKS O-SEPA
Residue [mass %]

in all three of these mill types, apart


Density g/cm3 3.164 3.152
from at a particle size of around 58 m,
Blaine cm2/g 4 258 4 095
Slope n - 0.93 0.92
where the shapes begin to differ. How-
Position parameter d' m 11.7 12.6 ever, this particle size rarely occurs in
Water demand % 28 28.5
most types of cement, and where it does,
(Standard consistency) it only appears in such small proportions
that there is no severe influence on the
Particle size DK [m] water demand, strength development or
other issues.
Figure 7: A particle size distribution as needed can be easily produced within a vertical roller
mill system

CEMENT INTERNATIONAL 4 2/2013 4 VOL. 11 67


hardening. This is because the gypsum is dried more inten-
sively in a ball mill system, resulting in the formation of more
Fineness: about 4100 Blaine
5% hemihydrate and hence higher sulphate solubility.

Residue [mass %]
Of course, commissioning any new mill requires the system
to be optimised, including adjusting the amounts of gypsum
and the other additives needed to achieve the required set-
ting and strengthening behaviour. The same applies when
changing from a ball mill system to a vertical roller mill sys-
tem, when the operator needs to increase slightly the amount
of gypsum put into the cement, or substitutes the gypsum to
Particle size DK [m] 52 m increase the solubility by hemihydrate or anhydrite.
37 m
Other optimisation measures include increasing the mill
Figure 8: Particle sizes in cements mostly below 55 m and 95 % below exit temperature and/or reducing the moisture content of
45 m the mill gas flow, both of which will enhance the drying pro-
cess of the added gypsum. As summarised in Fig. 10 these
are standard process-optimisation procedures that can also
Blaine-value B 3 000 cm2/g
be used to ensure that the cements produced in vertical
1.0
roller mills have comparable setting times and compressive
0.8
strength development to those from ball mills. Because it is
partly true that cement produced in a vertical roller mill has
0.6 lower gypsum dehydration, this can be adjusted through
Circularity

standard process optimisation.


0.4
VRM
Roller press
7 Final remarks
0.2
Ball mill

0.0
Table 2 presents a summary of the results obtained from
0.1 1 10 58 100 the comparative milling tests at the Montalieu plant in France.
Particle size [m] (VDZ 2007) While key features include the very similar particle size distri-
bution, positioning parameter and the fineness acc. to Blaine,
Figure 9: Similar particle shapes of cement produced on vertical roller the results show that the setting times for the two cements
mill systems are the same. Setting begins after about 125 minutes and
stops in both cases after 175 minutes. In addition, the
6 Gypsum dehydration optimisation compressive strength and the strength development meas-
ured after 2, 7 and 28 days are basically exactly the same.
Gypsum is mainly added to cement to act as setting regu-
lator, with the precise amount and type of gypsum being This proves that cements produced in a ball mill or in a ver-
chosen in relation to its solubility and the individual clinker. tical roller mill can have the same characteristics and qual-
A producer will work out the correct proportion and type of ities when required to do so by local markets, particularly in
sulphate to be used through product optimisation in order to terms of the water demand of the cement paste, the set-
fulfil optimal requirements. ting times, the compressive strengths and strength devel-
opments of mortars.
The energy input into the mill and the hot gases will heat
the cement, with the gypsum being partially dried and con- Today, out of the 260 Loesche mills sold around 185 are used
PROCESSING

verted to hemihydrate, so-called bassanite or plaster. Mixed worldwide for grinding cement products. On a regional basis,
together with water, hemihydrate dissolves better than gyp- the largest proportion of the total is in eastern Asia, with sig-
sum, so the dilution is more reactive in regulating the cement nificant numbers of the machines in Europe and the Amer-
set. Partial dehydration is intended within the milling process, icas as well. It is also significant that around 60 % of these
but if it exceeds or underruns a certain value, it can result in mills are used for grinding more than one grade of product,
accelerated setting behaviour. This in turn can lead to prob- with around 40 % being used for more than three products.
lems such as with the workability of the cement paste. Indeed, the flexibility of this mill system is such that today

As the retention time in ball mills is 20 to 30 times greater


than in vertical roller mills, the cement is exposed to the hot- Increase gypsum content
gas atmosphere for much longer. In addition, ball mills use Add an amount of hemihydrate
much more energy than vertical roller mills in order to grind
Add an amount of natural anhydrite
the same amount of cement, with this additional energy
heating the material even further. Because of this, the par- Increase mill exit temperature
ticle temperatures at the exit from ball mills operated with- Decrease humidity of mill gas flow
out water cooling are usually about 30 C higher than those
experienced with vertical roller mills. resulting in

Same setting behaviour, i.e. setting time and compressive strength


Therefore, if the same cement recipe is ground in both mills,
paste from cement ground in a vertical roller mill will exhibit
different setting behaviour and strength development during Figure 10: Normal optimisation process by works quality department

68 CEMENT INTERNATIONAL  2/2013  VOL. 11


Table 2: Same cements with the same characteristics Testwork carried out
there are several millsinused
2009toatgrind
the Vicat groups
five or Montalieu
six cement prod-
Vertical plant inCement
ucts. France has proved conclusively
producers worldwide that these adjustments
appreciate the higher
Designation Grinding pressure
Unit Ball mill
roller mill will deliver
energy the required
efficiency of theresults.
verticalThe study
roller mill.involved grinding
In addition, the
Dam ring height
the sameflexibility
inherent cement of oncethisinmill
a closed-circuit
system means ball that
mill product
system
Separator Mill airflow LSKS O-SEPA
Classifier rotor speed
and once in a grinding
specifications plant with
can be changed a Loesche
quickly mill LM
and easily 53.3+3.
in contrast
Fineness acc. to Blaine cm 2
/gspeed for very
Table 4 258high Blaine cements
4 095 Fig.
to 7 mill.
a ball shows some results from the project, confirming
that the positioning parameter, the slope of the particle size
Standard consistency % 28 28.5
distribution and the product fineness of both cements are in
Setting time, begin min 130 130 exactly the same range. Furthermore, the water demand for
both cements needed LITERATURE
to create/ LITERATUR
a cement paste with a stand-
Setting time, end min 175 175
Dam ring ard consistency are the same, reflecting the same slope
Compressive strength n,
[1] positioning parameter
Pohl, M.; Obry, and K.-H.:
C.; Zysk, Blaine Operating
values. This testwork
experience
(w/c = 0.5) proved
withinaavertical
practical waymill
roller thatfor
there is no blastfurnace
grinding difference inslagma-
2d MPa 29.8 29.9
terialand
properties
compositeduecements.
to the differing
CEMENT grinding mechanisms.
INTERNATIONAL 10
7d 38.9 38.6
Figure 5: The operational parameters
28 d 57.1 54.1
(2012) No. 2, p. 5669.
5 Particle
[2] shape
VDZ: Activity considerations
Report 20052007. Ed.: Verein Deutscher
Specific energy consump- Zementwerke e.V., Forschungsinstitut der Zementindus-
kWh/t 28.6 39.7
tion (measured at shaft)
Differences in particle
trie, Dsseldorf, 2009,shape have been another area in
p. 38.
which vertical roller mill systems have been the subject of
scrutiny. The suggestion was made that cement particles
Steep ==>

coming out of a ball mill are always much rounder then those
lower lower higher higher coming out of a VRM, which are more shallow and elongated.
Slope n

Grinding Height of Mill air Classifier This again, together with fewer fine particles, would result in
pressure dam ring flow speed increased water demand for the cement paste.
higher higher lower lower
<== Shallow

The roundness or circularity of the particles can be deter-


mined by optical methods such as image analyses. Within
those measurements, particle shapes are described with val-
ues of between 1 and 0. A value of 1 indicates a particle that
is perfectly spherical, and as the value approaches 0, it indi-
Figure 6: Simple adjustment options to achieve the desired product cates an increasingly elongated, shallow polygon.

If a similar product to one from an existing ball mill system is Fig. 8 illustrates the particle size distribution of a cement
2
needed, however, the VRM can be adjusted to achieve this. with a product fineness of about 4 100 g/cm acc. to Blaine.
As shown in Fig. 5, adjustments can be made to the grind- This shows that the size of the smallest particle is about
ing pressure, the dam ring height, the mill airflow, the clas- 0.1 m and the size of the largest particle is about 52 m
sifier rotor speed and, for cements with a very high Blaine for this particular cement. In general, while a wide variety of
value, the table speed. Fig. 6 shows the effects on the cements are ground to different finenesses, the largest par-
slope of the particle size distribution curve by adjusting each ticles are usually between 45 and 55 m.
of these parameters.
In addition, 95 % of all the cement particles are below 45 m
A higher grinding pressure will result in more intense grind- in size, again depending on the final product fineness and
ing with the development of more fine material, and hence the slope of the particle size distribution curve.
a shallower particle size distribution. The higher the dam
ring, the longer the material remains on the grinding table, Testwork undertaken by the VDZ in its role as Germanys
and the more it is ground in one cycle. This again results in Cement Research Institute compared the particle shapes PROCESSING
the generation of more fines, and a shallower particle size produced in different types of milling systems. Fig. 9 shows
distribution. In addition, the airflow and the classifier set- a plot of the shapes of cement particles from high-pressure
tings can be adjusted in order to produce the desired prod- grinding rolls, ball mills and vertical roller mills, with the par-
uct characteristics. ticle size being shown on the x-axis and the circularity on
the y-axis [2].

It is clear from this plot that there


Technical properties is no significant difference in particle
Mill Unit VRM BM shape between the cements produced
Separator LSKS O-SEPA
Residue [mass %]

in all three of these mill types, apart


Density g/cm3 3.164 3.152
from at a particle size of around 58 m,
Blaine cm2/g 4 258 4 095
Slope n - 0.93 0.92
where the shapes begin to differ. How-
Position parameter d' m 11.7 12.6 ever, this particle size rarely occurs in
Water demand % 28 28.5
most types of cement, and where it does,
(Standard consistency) it only appears in such small proportions
that there is no severe influence on the
Particle size DK [m] water demand, strength development or
other issues.
Figure 7: A particle size distribution as needed can be easily produced within a vertical roller
mill system

CEMENT INTERNATIONAL 4 2/2013 4 VOL. 11 67


Loesche worldwide presence
Loesche is an export-oriented company run by the owner, which
was established in 1906 in Berlin. Today the company is inter-
nationally active with subsidiaries, representatives and agencies
worldwide.
Our engineers are constantly developing new ideas and individual
concepts for grinding technologies and preparation processes for
the benefit of our customers. Their competence is mainly due to
our worldwide information management. This ensures that current
knowledge and developments can also be used immediately for
our own projects.
The services of our subsidiaries and agencies are of key importance
for analysis, processing and solving specific project problems for
our customers.

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40549 Dsseldorf
Tel. +49 - 211 - 53 53 - 0
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Email: loesche@loesche.de

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