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Jazzinstitut Darmstadt
Around the World
Music tiSA

'll /Tantovanl's loug-tirtte ( l4 ¡'ears t per- to repeat in u'ords tvhat he has just said "\\¡e nrusicians nlust builtl ourselves into
lYl .rr.ioni.t, C"ha.lie Botterill, along iIr rrrusic. Thc fuItut, I Loac-thin¡tç have all 'high-class' types. Ancl wc nrust be au'are
rvitl.r trumpeter Stan Nelt'some an<l bassist been said before over and over again. not only of music s'orld, but of the
Wally Ashs'orth, Mantovaui men for 12 The reasor.r people- clon't come to coltcerts rest of society as u'ell. We should study
years and 18 years respectively, acconl- is that they're used to the sounds." other cultures, other languages, other arts.
panied the rnaestro from London to New To guard against this "stagnation," said ìftrst American musiciatts <lou't even care
York recently to receive an a*'ard for l{alik, jazz must branch out, experintent, to study music. \\Iithout stu<ly of solrre art,
selling scads of nrood music ot.r l,oncloIr fight the inbreeding that is not' its rvont. people don't progress. Ancl t,ithout pr,rg-
records. It s'as Botterill's l23rd trip. À{usicians must stop looking inrvard, and ress, there can be only recession."
insteacl, open their eyes to the irnagina- He empl.rasizes that the public is ahva¡'s
tions of other cultures. Said he: "Musi- looking for nelness, that it is tirecl of the
cians of the Far and Middle East are lor same ol<l 4/4, heavy beat nrusic u'e call
Bob Gannon's Vibrations nrore advanced in imagination than U.S. 1azz. Says he: "It's los,brcxr'. It's dull.
nrusicians. What the West plays in 4/4, And it's hackneyetl. No'rl' is the time to
. . . american jazz is dull the East plays in 5/4 or 9/4 and thinks transfuse nerv bloo<l foreign scales. for-
nothing of it. I've been on the scene for eign rnelodic lines, the- Oriental flalt,r.
fifteen ¡,ears. and I fin<1 that Anlerican "\\¡e should combine authentic foreign
l-f-the 30-odd listerters. tlill crrltl ir,'rrr lhe nrusicians and music haven't changed tnusic u'ith our o\\:lr culture. There's reallv
nruch at all." - not such a big junlp involi'ed. -A chant
I pie.cing chill oi Ne*' York's February
stre€ts, were warming fast. In a rvoru, l{alik is one of the ferv .q'ho doesn't from Lebano¡r or Egypt ir.rvolves essential-
Eighth Ave¡rue ballet studio, Ahmad blarne the public. He feels that people will ly the sarne emotions as America¡ blues.
¡\Mul-Malik, eyes shut, sensitive fir.rgers accept anything to rvhich they are intel- Humans all have the sanre blood, tlre same
fmding chords, plucked quickly rvith a ligently exposed. As an example, he cited experiences, tlre same entotions. Only the
mountain eagle feather Far East melodies the reaction of the J.U. listeners in the bal- language is different.
on an Egyptian ortd. To his left, Bilal let studio. "When I first started playing, "Actually, rve Westerners play too close
Ab<lurahrnan beat a contriputrtal rhythm on I could feel the antagonism, the lack of to our scale any\ray. If you plal' rvhat
a Syrian daral¡uþa. And the listeners. ears understanding. Then they started to soften, you feel, it's impossible to play in tunc."
slorvly grorvittg accustorne<1 to the alien the sounds seemed to them to become less trfalik nos' has his o\\¡r1 group as-"emble<1,
sounds, had stopped scluinting their eyes. discordant, and they began to get the mes- a group oriented not only in Arnerican
sage. Of course," he added, "J.U. members jazz roots, but in Eastern culture as well.
and instead, breathe<l slowly, quietly, con-
centrating. n;ake an ideal group; they're intensely inter- At present, he is trying find a sponsor
ested, really concentrate on,tvhat I'm. doing. - lrence the'corrcert; Í.or ,Jazz
Unlimited ex;
.A.udience at llrc iruprumptu corìcert: ex-
ecutive niernheis of Jazz Unlimited, Inc.. So they,accept fast. But this can be.clone.i . ecutives.'' lle'$ànts' t'o start rvith airthentic
Neu' York's massive jazz promotion so- u'ith the general public too o\¡er a longer Eastern ntusic, and then gradual'ly merge it
ciety. period of time, of course." - ivith Arnerican jazz. He says that n'hen he
Reason for the program: To start the tr,Ialik doesn't blame the public, but, like ñrst learned to play the violin, his first in-
crgarrization thinking along jazz lines other Inge, heaps gloomy u'rath on musicians. strumeut, lre played traclitionall¡'. authen-
than 4/4 or 3/4 and the l3-tone \Vestern He says that the American musician is still tically, just as the music t'as n'ritten. Then,
scale. "American jazz, is dull," sai<l Ahmacl living in tlie past that adnrired him, placecl rvhen he developed, he learned to interpret.
Abdul-lvfalik. "To survive, iazz rnust keep hint on a hero's pedestal. Nou', " . . peo- He feels that this same prcrcedure should
ahead of the public, ancl as of norv the p'le respect a porter more than tlrey do a be follou'ed itr respect to the intr,,ductiolt
public has caught up. American jazz d,e- n.rusician." of Oriental rnusic.
velopment has ceased. lt's boiled <1os'n to A feu' years ago, according to \,Ialik, the At first, the concerts rrorrld consist oi
a single type, r,r'ith all musicians follos'ers nl¡-rsician rvas quite a romantic figure; in authentic Eastern folk tunes. Then. as
oÍ Dizzy or Parker. The rrltinrate goal "the u'il<1 era." his flexible morals made these are establisherl. as the audiences gro\\'
of American musicians is no longer the hirn most exciting. But norv society has accustomerl to the foreign voicings, scales
commu¡rication of emotion, but techniques l;ecome niore serious, ancl it tr.on't put up and rhythms, he rr'oul<l a<1<1 the Oriental
to play fast. \\¡hy? Because Parker n'ith non-conformity. flavor to American jazz.
-played fast. "\{usic is a business a highly com- Ahmad Abdul-Ifalik, American bassist
"\\¡hen a musician plays, he should petitive business and -the modern musi- u'ith intergalactic ideas, n,ill probably never
paint a picture"; saicl tr{alik, "he should -
cian cannot be only an artist; he must be see his ideas fully accepted. But in an age
portray s'ind, nlovement. \\'ar. the universe a businessman as u'ell. He must think. He oí intrenched conservatism, of grass-roots
and after he finishes, he shoultl be able nrust forget temperament. immovability, it is at least a start.

yþ,, {"
:::s. :.f_
enos up 11de¡st3aing,
¡n sterilitv. But.rhe
easy patrerning_all of rhat
we,- as a- higher
$ecies, ,¡"rl.i
-þe able to see, hear, and ,nå..rrå'rj'ãiJ,;ñ;.,,

$ I


\t I


/:\I Dì "fl,iALilK
e. Erit Ca:S

l"d:iï i::ä::i,1'¿ äîìþ,î

erally determines ité essential worth.
ík;:;",äï''#å ,ï:
For composer Ahmed aU¿ul_liaff the content en_
compasses all the sciences, particularlysociotogicaì, thì
ethnic, and rheolosicat..Túe
be that Abdut-Mati[ ¡. ¿tnì.enì]rãä to say woutd
and both his brief biography a"¿
Åär,"¡ä musicians,
t¡e of
his thought immediatelf ,i.; tÀ; ;ïr;;;.,
the same time serving as primer while at
.a for youngsters who
mighr aspire to be whät Ábd;r:ü;ïk';;,ito:;,
plete musician. rhe com_
All his conscious development has come
convictions. ,,people think i am too from religious
he said. "But it is so necessary
¡";-"; win re[gion,,,
to know the Creator, to
know the rules of being_whát it
commandments, to know_you are
Ààu"._io know the
commanded to use your
intellect and will. . . . That,"ii;;;;äiäuan"e
subjecrs. How else can you tno, in all
utã,rt iirlî'ao¿ rnuri.
is life.
"You must do subsidiary study. All
own history, of course, music has its
it is.atso,imporrânt to'knor/
you nÉ.¿-io tnî* tnut, Uut
people. Thar way you learn
,h.-;;;;;dl side of a
*or.;b;;;;iãii .rri".
studyjng a people's habits, you fi;elir#;usical ny
pressions. ex_ There are some things, however,
that help, he said,
"That you are commanded to do. tvtooSrn Jazz euartefs presenr;ii;;år'jì.
The whole health lf¡_
rnstance, has done much foi jaz" rnuri", to,
of^ the world is based on .orrtriUïi**'a unJ _*ì"iäns, he said,
"u"t, If musicians one an_
other: doctors, bakers, musicians. and this is good because_
¡u"r'n""or-io;;i" ;"..
co-operate, they must be masters want to should naturally look up to ,üii"i""r. respecr
of all ,"ui., which will -people
"That would lead to--the gou.."_*i
broadcast to the receiver of the
mind.,, the arrisrs," Abdul-Malik fi-uîg respect to
"Really, a musician ,f,ouf¿ U.'lriexcellent ir'To_op..ution
physically, mentallv. pro-fessionãIy, condition, with the Crearor. who has "o,irtnulãl'"riuui
giu." ,p..iäi;;ä" ro each.
Abd ul_-Marik conri;ued^. .r ä"ã"i.ì*rifically,,, Honorary degrees ,r,ourJ tå'giu";";ö;ö;
r,"u"- ìi" erements :
riíåi"ä'är who have done practical versions of in rhe arts
animals, inse*s, plants, space_rh;
new__jazz but nrost importåntly
;"i;;;;L"ld and ways should be worked. out-to allow;;;;,
aòademic work, or
th. C;;;;;;:' school. Srill, I believe tlre ro go ro
.beauty can you pra¡1 geguty îirr,""ï'i""wing
-.T"yis, what it ,eoity,is? what
;;;;;r"i, ,iåi'in
ships ro a conse¡varory.bur il ;;;_;;"g'.ät. scholar_
ú"¿.rrir"ã¡rg'it. c."u,o, in some other countrrr, b.cuu.. urt¡ír-r¡"oJä to t.uu"l
leads,. to
understanding the creations, and travel
st¿nding of what yoi.pJay better under_
study _outside of thei own country and thei¡ ownand
you undersrand fuilv wiìnout"n,',.r
rro* cun forms." art
iiuir, ,r,"
tin.uation, and the enAingl
"on_ .Abdul-Malik said he believes ..a musician must teach
"So much of iazz has.iecome
surface music because it
others if he is to retain- whar h. k";;:'ili: is in addi_
hasn't searched for ulrimare t."it.^jãr"'ìî"'iur, performing. And by ,...fri"Ë, i,. _ái.rt"in.
world today. The a¡rificiat livin!'oi-iäuyJ1¡" o, ,t.
a con_
,1ir¡r_ lilli-.with young p"opte. ¡rri¿ä,--n.'äåi. gooo uy
passing his knowledge or1."
Understandably, he is concerned that the teaching "There were fantastic acrobats, and the music was
exist on the broadest possible level because "it is hard to interesting. Much of it is what is called high-life. It is
find musicians who have open minds, not only to hear very common to west Africa, and it has a real rela-
but to play. So many drummers and horn men are more tionship to calypso, especially in the dance. There were
prejudiced and more in a rut than are bassists. But all some musicians there from the eastern part of Nigeria,
musicians have to learn that you can work with all and their music is quite different, more related to the
music." Arabian."
He says he is amazed at how little he knows now that In South America, Abdul-Malik also found a lack of
he has learned how much Eastern musicians know of government understanding of jazz' importance.
conception, theory, and science. And he is concerned "The people," he said, "were so hungry for jazz. I
with that very lack among iazzmen. saw lines of people everywhere, all kinds of people, ask-
"Jazz," he said, "has contributed very little musically' ing for records, asking for all sorts of groups, wondering
Individual expressions have been extensive and excep- why the embassy promoted classical music and movie
tional though. It's important to remember that from all stars. They [embassy personnell are completely out of
parts of the world each man is expressing himself. But touch with the native people."
here so many cut themselves off from development by He was not out of touch, however. An inveterate
sticking to only chords or simple scales." walker wherever he visits, he met dozens of musicians,
"This has always been me," he said, "since the first
I N ANy pRoLoNcED conversation with Abdul-Malik, one time I knew myself. I always wander, talk to people, and
I Uegins to understand that he is no mere theoretician. eat in the people's restaurants. You know, I always ask
He is the most practical of men. Realizing that the tem- for a kosher restaurant. If I can't find one, I usually eat
pered scale is the basis of Western music, he began an fish, either baked or broiled. It's the safest. And I don't
èxtensive study of the mathematics on which it is based. eat vegetables or fruit."
As he grew more fascinated with scäles, he became a The tour stayed almost a week in Sao Paulo, Brazil,
piano tuner in an attempt to familiarize himself with the and his knowledge of Arabic was useful when he found
mechanics of piano scales. This and his studies have a large Oriental section in that city. He played with
made him somewhat unhappy about the piano's ¡elative groups there and in other parts of the city, particularly
rigidity. with "a modern samba group. They were amazed at my
"There is," he said as an example, "a difference be- feeling for their music, but I think most Latin music has
tween a B flat and an A sharp-but not on a piano. The a strong calypso feeling. The people were very friendly,
piano limits you. There are no one-eighth or one-quarter and they gave me music, records, and instruments.
tones available. People like Monk should have them." "In Argentina I had a similar experience. I went to
And this is nearly criminal in Abdul-Malik's estimation, Lebanese and Syrian places, and I heard music you
because part of his whole concept is to get between notes would never hear in New York. In Argentina they play
and to concentrate more on scales than on chords. His tangos and boleros, as well as sambas, the way they
primary studies have been of music from India and the should be played. It was exciting to hear all this and to
Mediterranean countries and a general study of African hear so many good musicians. I want to return there and
music. to all parts of Africa to learn more and to record with
"The music of Somaliland and Sudan," he explained, the musicians."
"has JapaneseJike effects and something like the blues. These wants hardly dent the scope of Abdul-Malik's
Arabian music-and that includes part of the Sudan- ambitions. He'd like to extend that African recording
is a music all by itself. It specializes in strings and voice. trip through the Near East. Now studying Indian music,
They can hit one-quarter tones on the head. he wants to devote a record to it. He plans on a sound
"The Greeks measure tones in different ways, paying track for an African film. He wants to start his own
no attention to standard piano tones. A lazz musician flexible group again. But he also wants to play with every
can hear this if he wants to, but he can't play it because other kind of group.
of the nature of his instrument or his past training. The "The widest experience," he said, "is most important,
Greek instruments can break in eighths from Western especially playing music you don't want to play."
notes. They change in midflight and get an infinite Then, sometime this fall, he said he plans on a con-
amount of scales. They consider the greatest musician cert at the Brooklyn Museum in company with Japanese
to be the one who can go from one scale to another with- musicians. Through it all, he said he intends to keep
out it being easily heard. You see, they have much more on teaching-"it is as important as learning yourself.
freedom than the jazz musician has." One retains your memory, the other advances you."
The other important element of his practicality is rep- All of that, much as it may be, is not a complete
resented in a pragmatic curiosity, whether in study (he's portrait of the man but only an outline, hopefully to be
working now with a Japanese musician) or in travel. He's filled in when the scope of his learning and abilities reach
been on two overseas tours during the last year, both fruition in more acceptance. For now, even the outline
sponsored by the State Department. casts a huge shadow, in his playing-wherever or with
He was largely disappointed by the one to Nigeria whomever-and in his teaching but most particularly
because "it was too much a government social event. in his belief in total musicianship, in the dependence that
The people who wanted to see us couldn't. Some of them musicianship has on faith and diversified knowledge, and
didnt even know we were there. And because of the the change that those things can bring about in life as
way it was run, very little real iazz was heard, and there well as music. As he put it, "The tribes have always con-
was very little mixing between us and them, un- tributed to each other for common expression and
fortunately." growth."
But he was pleased, he said, with what he did see and Thus, exact and total expression is the goal of man-
hear. kind and the duty of the artist. Abdul-Malik is reaching
"People from all over came and performed," he said. for that goal. GÞ

July 4. 1963 . 15
cook-a summer-long array of artisans and FINAL BAR sists Milt Hinton and Larry Ridley, and drum-
craftsmen, on a weekly or bi-weekly basis, mers Alan Dawson, Cliff Leeman, Mousey Al-
who do things for themselves and do them exander, Bobby Rosengarden and l8-year-old
well' Pioneer ragtime pianist and composer Joe Duffy Jackson, son of Chubby Jackson. Plus,
And there were plenty of people who make Jordan, 89, died Sept. 13 in Tacoma, Wash. of course, The World's Greålest Jazz Band.
rÍusic there, as one might expect from Jordan was born Feb. I I, 1882 in Cincinnati, Details in next issue.
¡lcCormick, who has had a hand in the ca- Ohio. During his long and varied career, he
reers of Lightning Hopkins and Mance Lip- was musical director of the Chicago Theater
scomb. (He didn't "discover" anybody, in the early I 900s, arranged and composed for Bassist Ahmed Abdul-Malik is involved in
¡,tcCormick insists. The singers and musi- lhe Ziegfield Fol/ies (his Lot'ey Joe, in- varied and extensive teaching activities, rang-
cians have been of all kinds, and known and troduced by Fanny Brice in the l9l0 Follies, ing from a graduate seminar in American Mu-
unknown. was her first big hit), toured the U.S. and sic at New York University through two
Bessie Jones and a group ofblack relþious Europe with his own band and as a single in courses at Brooklyn College-East Meets
singers from the Georgia Sea Islands came up vaudeville, scored several musicals, including West, a comparative music course in the adult
during June. Johnny Hartford was there in Brown Buddies and Bandana Land, served education division, and lntroduction to Music
July, Roy Acuffin August. with the rank of captain in the U.S. Army, in the general studies program-to directing
And blues and traditional jazz were there was on the faculty of the Modern Institute of an ensemble at a Brooklyn Jr. High School.
all summer. For the opening week in June, Music in Tacoma, where he also conducted a a
pianist Jay McShann (in whose band Charlie real estate business, and in his younger years,
After a long stay abroad, tenor and soprano
Parker first attracted attention) brought up a was a famous gambler who made and lost saxophonist Lucky Thompson returned to the
group from Kansas City, and Jimmy Withers- several fortunes.
U.S. in September. The length of his stay is
poon shouted his tantalizing, rubato blues. Jordan best known compositions are Lovey
indefinite at present, but hopefully will be long
Little Brother Montgomery brought his vocal Joe, That Teasin' Rag, Take Your Time, and
enough to allow Americans to hear his beau-
and keyboard blues. Sweety Dear. He recorded two sides with his
tiful playing once again. Another expatriate,
During a "Cajun Music Week" in July, Sharps and Flats in 1926 (Old Folks Shffie pianist Steve Kuhn, is also back for an in-
Texas barrelhouse pianist Robert Shaw was and Moroccan Blues) and can be heard with
definite stay, and has recorded an album for
on hand. The following week, Danny Barker Eubie Blake and Charley Thompson on Re-
Buddah, on which he will also be heard as a
filled the dome with the sounds of his New ùnion In Ragtime (Stereoddities), recorded in
singer in his owncompositions, backed by
Orleans Jazz Band, Ray Nance came in with t962.
bassist Ron Carter, percussionists Billy Cob-
his quartet. Blues pianist-composer Roosevelt
hgm and Airto Moreira, plus strings and ar-
"Honeydripper" Sykes was there (you'd Pianist Call Cobbs Jr,, 60, died Sept. 2l at ranged and conducted by Gary McFarland.
probably be surprised to know how many of Jacobi Hospital in the Bronx, N.Y. of injuries a
his early numbers have become pop and rock sustained in a hit-and-run accident.
hits tbr other people over the past 15 years). Born in Springfield, Ohio, Cobbs best For years, friends of singer tæe Wiley have
And the Jo Jones-Ruby Braffquartet came in known for his recorded work with
Albert tried to persuade her to come out of retire-
from New York. Ayler's groups in the I960s. In his youth, he ment. The great stylist finally heèded their
In late July, Honeydripper Sykes stayed on was a companion and guide for Art Tatum. call and recently recorded for Mon-
and, for contrast, the impeccable Teddy Wil- He also worked as accompanist for Billie mouth-Evergreen backed by among others,
son arrived. Holiday, replaced Hamp Hawes in Wardell trumpeter Rusty Dedrick, reedman Johnny
Then, in mid-August, bluesman Robert Gray's combo, and worked and recorded with Mince, and pianist Dick Hyman.
Pete Williams was up, as was John "Knocky" Johnny Hodges. With Ayler, Cobbs played a
Parker, who collects and plays traditional jazz piano and harpsichord and also acted as cop- Pianist-composer Mary Lou Williams
piano as a hobby, and teaches English at the yist and musical director. A well-schooled recently conducted a four-day jazz workshop
University of South Florida. musician who had studied the Schillinger Sys- for the 300 boys at Lincoln Hall, a residential
McCormick may indeed have shown Cana- tem, Cobbs was at home in many jazz styles. treatment center in Lincolndale, N.Y. Events
dians that the U.S. is not all concrete factory included seminars, a workshop for student
fronts, hamburger drive-ins, and dollar diplo- Samuel O'Donnel Dutrey, 62, clarinetist and musicians, a concert in which Miss Williams
macy. But perhaps the group that stood to brother of the late trombonist Honore Dut- joined forces with students, and a Sunday
gain the greatest revelations from the "Festi-
rey, succumbed to a heart attack while play- morning performance of her Mass for Pea<'e.
val of American Folklife" were the American ing an early-morning engagement in New Or- The workshop was held under the auspices of
visitorsthemselves. -MartinlVilliams leans Aug. 28. the Creative Artists Public Service Program,
Dutrey was playing with william Houston a new state-funded project. Miss Williams
Jr.'s Band at the Rivergate for an Elks con- was recently awarded a $4,000 musical com-
MILES, DUKE, FIDDTERS vention when he suffered the fatal heart seiz- positional grant from the New York State
ure at l:50 a.m. Council on the Arts.
SET FOR BERTIN BASH A native of New Orleans, Dutrey played a
with the bands of Joe Robichaux, Sidney Des-
The "Berliner Jazztage" -long established A new group, Interchånge, made up of Ger-
vignes and Joan Lunceford and in later years
a major festival-will take place this year man pianist Joachim Kuhn, U.S. bassist Peter
as with the Freddie Kohlman All-Stars and the
from Nov. 4 through Nov. 7. \ilarren, and Swiss drummer Pierre Favre, is
Hep Cats of Opelousas. He toured Japan in
As usual, most of the artists touring Europe currently touring Europe and has an album in
1969 \ryith Kid Sheik Colar's band.
in George Wein's Newport package (see sep- the works.
arate story) will participate: Duke Ellington, a
Miles Davis, Ornette Coleman, The Soft Ma- Kenny Burrell, recently conducted a
chine, and the Kid Thomas New Orleans five-day seminar at his friend and fellow gui-
band. The latter willjoin forces with Ellington tarist Bill Harris' guitar studios in Washing-
tn a special expanded performance of his Nex, ton, D.C. Eighteen-year-old Orville Sanders
Orleans Suite. Dick Gibson's annual Jazz Pr¡,,fy was held won first prize-a scholarship to the semi-
Other features will
include the Berlin this year in Colorado Springs, Sept. 4-6. The nar-and the event was so successful that a
Dream Band directed by Gil Evans; a Violin stellar cast included trumpeters Sweets Edi- repeat is planned for 1972. Burrell recently
Summit with Jean-Luc Ponty, Sugar Cane son, Pee Wee Erwin, Joe Newman and Clark received an award from the Philadelphia Jazz
Harris, and several European fiddleis, among Terry; trombonists Trummy Young, Urbie At Home Club.
them a newly discovered Gypsy artist, Nipso Green, Carl Fontanâ and Kai Winding; saxo-
Brantneri John McLaughrinl Jurie Driscoil; phonists Benny Carter, Al Cohn, James
C.hris l\4cGregor's Brotierhood of Breath; a Moody, Flip Phillips and Zoot Sims; clari- Lionel Hampton recently produced a TV
otg band made up of artists from Eastern Eu- netists Barney Bigard and Johnny Mince; the jazz spectacular in Toronto with guests includ-
rope, including the U.S.S.R.; a "New Music guitar duo of George Barnes and Bucky Pizar- ing Roy Eldridge, Cat Anderson, Zoot Sims,
Night", and others not set at presstime. relli; pianists Dick Hyman, Victor Feldman, Teddy Wilson, and Gene Krupa, the first in a
Joachim E. Berendt is artistic director. Willie The Lion Smith and Teddy Wilson; bas- series planned by the vibisrbandleader.
November 11 f1 I
64 Jozz in Block ond White
the originators of the music: "This is our contnbution
to the world,
though they want to ignore it and are always t yi"g
to connect it to some-
o'e else. It couldn't come from anyone but us. It couldn't
come from the
Although it is a littre uncrear in the context, Blakey is
probabry refer_
ring to whites when he refers to "they who would .utt..
gru" credit to Af_
ricans than to African-Americans." The irony is thãt
Americans who have been especiaily vocar in deålaring jazz
it i, Afü.un
andother at-
tributes of their culhrre as African idiomu.
Blakey's album, The African Beat, was a successfur
brend of jazz and
African music in which African elements dominated.
Brakey demon-
strated that he had internalized his knowledge of
African music and was
able to play in a manner that, while it meihed with
the context, stilr
sounded unmistakably like Art Blakey. In addition
to two American
dmmmers who had stLrdied Afro-cubãn and Nigerian
music as welr as
the Jamaican drummer n4ontego
Joe, who peiformed with olahrnji,
Blakey included thrge^AÍiican-percussion specialists:
solomon Irori,
James ola Folami, and chief Bey. Rounding ouf the ensemble were yusef
Lateef playing oboe, saxophoné, flute, cow-horn,
and nng". fiuno; Curtis
playing tympani (only on one track); and bassist"err-"a Abdur-
Malik. These musicians were among the most promrnent
in the jazz com-
munity with a background in Africãn music.
The African Beat demonstrated to jazzmusicians
the possibilities of in-
tegrating hand percussionists into the rhythm
section. sev"rJ d".ad",
after this record came out, the jazz community
has become aclustomed
to rhythm sections with severJ percussionists.
But at one time the multi_
p.ercussio' concept was problematic for drummers.
Adding extra percus-
sion meant th_at they had to pray less than they
wourd in a"standard jazz
setting' An additional problem is that most of
the drummers in multi_
drum.ensembles play traditionar ostinato figures
tn", i.riãg"tier into a
complete web. unless the jazz dmmmer bleñds
into thi, *"b", he or she is
like a hfth wheel.
more recent years, jazz drummers have been able
. ^ln to listen to new
African popular musical styles such as soukous
and the newest cuban
style, songo, for inspiration. In these styres, the
drumset is searrilessly in_
tegrated into a multi-drum ensemble.
Ahmed Abdul-tÅatìk (I 927- I 99J)
Jazz musicians have been drawn to the Middle East since
the 1940s.
Duke Ellington's and. Dizzy Gtnespie's
Night in Tunisia were
early reflections of this interest, arthough these piecei
do not reaìry have
Africon Music, Africon ldentitY 65

music. If one had to pick a key figure in

much to do with Middle Eastern
the musicians who
,fr" ntrio" of jazzwith Middle Eastern music among
t"u" *o.k"d in this area-Randy Weston, Yusef Lateef, and Ornette
õol"-* are just a few-it would probably be the Brooklyn-bornhebassist grew
Ahmed Abdul-Malik. Unlike mostiazz artists with
Ambic names,
,ro ir ur Arabic environment. Abdul-Malikwas of Sudanese
descent and
,åok" fuabic. He had a diverse career that today would be described as
,.irutti"rlt-,.¿. In addition to the bass, he played oud. Besides playing and
recording wiïh jazz musicians such as Thelonious Monk, Art Blakey,
Randy weston, and coleman Hawkins, he played in symphony
ffas and with the calypso singer Lord Macbeth. His early professional

reer included playing for Greek, Syrian, and Gypsy weddings'

TheMusic of AhmedAbdul-Malik,a 1961 recording, reveals the diver-
sity of his music. He derived his composition Hannibal's Carniuals from
ttr"" ,orrr."s: highlife, calypso, and the chord changes for the bridge of
Monk's composition, Well, You Needn't. La Ibhq, named for an Arabic
phrase meaning "don't cry," is n7/4 In addition to recording composi-
iions influenceã by music outside the jazztradition, Abdul-Malik and his
ensemble recorded Don't Blame Me, apop standard recorded many times
by jazzmusicians, but this time featurin g jazz cellßtcalo Scott. Based on
thii recording, it seems that at the core of Abdul-Malik's musical interests
was a fascinátion with exploring a variety of musical cultures-Middle
Eastern, jazz, Affican music, calypso, and so on.
RondyWeston (192e )
Randy weston has had a lifelong interest in African music. Marshall
Stearns and Asadata Dafora familiarized him with African music in the
early 1950s.87 He has traveled and performed in Africa many times. In
addition,he ran a nightclub inMorocco forseveral years. Westonbelieved
that in the traditional music of the African continent we can hear the
elements of all modern African and African-American musical idioms.

I've listened to African music and I've heard everything from

old-time blues to avant-garde. . . . I've heard singers who sang
things that were rþttrmically just like Charlie Parker playing
his horn. I've heard cats who sound like Coltrane. The music
of the tribes is just

He was convinced that there is a single factor permeating all African mu-
sic and its descendants but, apart from calling it "a beat," he could not ver-
balize it. But he was sure that "ttrere is a certain something which
Ahmed Abdul-Molik: Yo onnos (Oh. peopte) (l 9S8)

Ahmed Abdul-Molik (geó, 1927 ols Tim Jonothon) wuchs in Brooklyn in

einer mulljelhnischen umgebung ouf, die ihn früh mit verschiedenen
Musikkulturen Nordofrikos und des Nohen ostens in KonIokT brochle,(óo)
Mitte der 50er Johre nohm er den orobischen Nomen Ahmed Abdul-
Molik on. Abdul-Moliks islomischer Glouben steht vermuiich im Hinter-
grund seiner offenheit gegenüber nicht-wes|ichen Musikkulturen, Abdul-
Molik spielte ols Jozzbossist u.o. in den Gruppen von Rcndy weston
(1954-57) und Thelonious Monk (19s7-s8). Zugleich erlernte er die Loute
'Ü0, dos repösentotive lnstrument der orobischen Musikkultur, und ver-
wendete dieses InstrumenT neben oder onstelle des Bosses ouf ver-
schiedenen Plottenoufnohmen,
Abdul-Moliks musikolisches lnteresse blieb ubrigens nicht ouf den orobi-
schen Roum beschrönkt, Anfong der óoer Johre unternohm er eine stote
Deportment-Tournee noch sudomeriko und reiste miI der Gruppe von
Rondy weston noch Nigeric, Noch seinem Nigeriooufenlholt mochle er
vom Highlife inspirierte Aufnohmen (ouf seiner Lp sounds of Africo 1962).
Eostern Moods (19ó3) dokumentiert mit dem SIück so-ro-go yo-hindi
Abdul-Mcliks vorsichtige Annöherung on indische Musik, bei der er
ebenfolls die orobische 'üd verwendet. lm lnterview mit Bill coss sprichT
er von einem für Herbst l9ó3 geplonten Konzert mil joponischen Musi-
kern. ln Anerkennung seiner Verbindung von Jozz und orientolischer Mu-
sik verlieh die omerikonische urheberrechtsgesellschofj BMl Abdul-Molik
1984 den Pioneer of Jozz Aword.

Der vollslöndige Titel von Ahmed Abdul-Moliks im oklober l95g in New

York oufgenommener Debut-Lp louÍe| Jozz sohoro - Ahmed Abdut-
Molik's Middle-Eostern Music with Johnny Griffin. Dos plottencover zeigt
eine Fotogrofie Abdul-Moliks, ouf der er eine 'üd in Hönden hölt. lm Hin-
Tergrund des Fotos isT ein Tenorsoxophon zu erkennen. Titelgebung und
coverfoTo enlsprechen der Progrommotik der Aufnohme: Es gehl um die
Verbindung von Musik ous dem 'Mifileren osien' mil Jozz, symbolisiert
durch dos Soxophon und den prominenten Bebop-soxophonislen
Johnny Griffin.
Griffin spielt bei drei der vier stücke Tenorsoxophonsoli, die dokumentie-
ren, ouf welche weise sich der soxophonist miT seinem personolstil in den
orientolisch geförbten Kontext einfugt, Neben Griffin sind on den Auf-
nohmen Musiker beteiligt, die verschiedene orobische lnsfrumente spie-
len: die Bechertrommel Dorobukko (Mike Homwoy), den schellenring
Duff (Bilol Abdurrohmon), die Kostenzllher eänun bzw, Konoon (Jock
Ghonoim), die Violine (Noim Korocond), die im 20. Johrhunderl in der
orobischen Musik die troditionellen Spießgeigen weitgehend erseÞt hot

lr ló
(vgt. Toumo 1983, S. l55f), und die'ÜO (Abdul-Molik). Dieses lnstrumento-
rium entspricht weitgehend dem Tokht-Ensemble, dem troditionellen
Ensemble der orobischen Kunstmusik, dem normolerweise zusölzlich die
Löngsflöte Näy ongehört (vgl. Toumo 1983, S. 171; Wright et ol, 1980. s.
524t. Al Horewood om Schlogzeug versuchl über weile Possogen, sich
mit zurückholTendem Spiel ouf den Tom-toms in den Kontexl der orobi-
schen Perkussionsinstrumente einzufugen. Nur on zwei Stellen spielt er in
der für den modernen Jozz typischen Schlogzeugidiomotik mit ternören,
"swingenden" Achtelfiguren ouf dem Becken und offbeot-Akzenten ouf
snore und Boss Drum, wobei dos Jozzfeeling durch wolking Boss-Linien
von Abdul-Molik om Kontroboss weiter unlerslutzf wird.
Die vier Stucke von Jozz Sohoro trogen orobische Titel mit in Klommern
ongefugten englischen Übersefzungen: Yo onnos (Oh, People), lsmo'o
(i{ten), El honis (Anxious) und Foroh 'oloíyno (Joy upon us). Sie werden
ouf dem Plotlencover ols Kompositionen und Arrongements von Abdul-
Molik ousgewiesen, lehnen sich jedoch vermutlich on Volksmusikmelo-
dien des orobischen Roums on. lm Covertext zu Abdul-Moliks zweiter LP-
Veröffentlichung Eosl Meels West findet sich der Hinweis, doss dos ver-
wendete Themenmoteriol ous den orobischen Musiklroditionen Nordofri-
kos, Ägyptens, Sudons, lroks, Syriens, Jordoniens und des Libonons
stommi(Anonym ì959). Der formole Aufbou der Stucke ist einheitlich.
Am Anfong stehl jeweils eine zumeist zweileilige orientolische Melodie,
die von v¡òl¡ne. Qãnun und 'Üd Über einem ostinotopottern von Doro-
bukko und Duff unisono bzw. im Oktovobslond vorgestelll wird. Es folgen
Soli der verschiedenen Melodieinstrumente, die von einfochen Ostinoto-
figuren der Melodie- und Perkussionsinstrumente begleitet werden und
zwischen denen wiederum die Melodie (bzw. ein Teil der Melodie) wie-
derholt wird, Am schluss erklingT noch einmol dos Melodiethemo. Von
der jozzÜblichen'sondwich'-Form Ohemo-lmprovisolion(en)-Themo) wird
durch die Wiederholung des Themos zwischen den einzelnen Soli obge-
wichen. Hinsichtlich des formolen Aufbous bildet dos Stück Yo onnos
eine Ausnohme. Griffin spielt hier zu Beginn eine kurze solistische Einlei-
lung, dos Stuck endet mit Abdul-Moliks Bosssolo.(6)
Die Themenmelodien der vier Stucke orienTieren sich on jeweils einer
einzigen Tonleiter, die zugleich den tonolen Ausgongspunkt fur die lm-
provì-sotionsteile dorsiellt: der phrygischen (lsmo'o und Foroh 'oloiyno)'
bolischen (Et hon6) bzw. einer orientolischen Skolo mil zwei übermößi-
gen sekundschritten (Yo onnos). Die den Melodien zugrunde liegenden
Stoten lossen sich mit orobischen Maqäm-Tonleitern bzw. mit Maqäm-
Gottungen (chorokterisiert durch dieselbe obsteigende lntervollfolge hin
zum Grundton der Skolo) noch der Klossifikotion der orobischen Musik-
theorie in Verbindung bringen: Phrygisch entspricht dem Maqäm Kurd,
öotisch dem Maqäm Nohowond (vgl. Toumo 1989, S. ól bzw. 59). Die

skolo in Yo onnos verweisr ouf die Maqäm-Gottung Hlgã2, deren chorok-
teristikum die zum Grundton führende lntervollfolge klejne sekunde,
ubermößige Sekunde, kleine Sekunde ist;(6)die Skolo mit dem Grundron
C entsprichT dobei der Maqãm-Skolo Higäzkãr (vgl, Toumo 19g9, S. 59Ð
Bezeichnenderweise vermeiden die ouf Jozz soharo gespielTen skolen
dos lntervoll der sogenonnten mitileren Sekunde (entspricht drei Vier-
teltönen), dos in vielen onderen Maqãm-Gottungen der orobischen
Kunstmusik ouftoucht. Dies mog ein ZugesTöndnjs on die Kompotibilitöt
mil dem westlichen Tonsystem (sei es nun 'Temperiert' oder 'rein' ge-
stimmt) und domit on die splelmöglichkeifen des soxophonislen Griffin
bzw, on die Hörgewohnheifen der wesflichen Hörerschofl sein, Allerdings
intonieren Qänün und 'üd innerholb ihrer soli lntervolle, die vom wesfli-
chen Tonsystem obweichen.

Notenbeispiel 6: Ahmcd Abdul-Mahk Yø annas (Oh, people)

Saxophonintroduktion (Johnny Griffin) und Thema
Tenorsaxophon, rubato


Thema, .J - 126

lr ra
ln seiner solistischen Einleitung stellt Griffin dos lonole Moteriol von Yo
onnes mit einzelnen geholTenen Skolentönen und zwei weiT ousholenden
Skolenlinien vor. Am Schluss dieser lntroduklion verziert er die Töne u.o.
durch ProllTriller. Dos Themo von Yo onnos steht wie die drei onderen
o¡o-Metrum. Die Perkussionsinstrumente
Stücke in einem regelmößigen
begleilen mit nur leichlen rhythmischen Uberlogerungen, Auffollend ist
eine Melodieführung, welche die regelmößige Periodisierung in symme-
trische 4-Toktgruppen tendenziell oufbrichl. So scheint der erste Teil
durch die Wiederholung des ersten Tokts in Tokt 4 eher in zwei unter-
schiedlich longe Einheiten von drei und fünf Tokten unlerteilt zu sein.
Ähnliche Asymmetrien, zumeist von der Dorobukko- und Duff-Begleilung
betont, finden sich ouch in den Themen der onderen StÜcke und verwei-
sen ouf ein komplexes rhylhmisches Denken in der orobischen Musik, dos
jedoch onsonslen in den vorliegenden SIÜcken zugunsten einer mög-
lichst einfochen Metrik ousgeblendef bleibt.
Auf die Themenmelodien folgen in ollen vier StÜcken zur Begleitung der
einzelnen lmprovisolionssoli rhythmisch und lonol einfoche Oslinotofigu-
ren, die von den Perkussionsinstrumenlen sowie 'Üd, Qänün und Violine
(insofern diese lnslrumente nicht selbst im Vordergrund stehen) gespielt
werden. Die Perkussionsstimme ist im folgenden Notenbeispiel nur in ih-
rem Grundrhythmus und ohne genoue Differenzierung der lnsfrumente,
Schlogtechniken bzw. Trommelklongforben notierl.

Notenbeispiel 7: Ahmed Abdul-Malik lazz Saharø

Ostinatofiguren der vier Stücke

1. Yø ønnøs (Oh People), ) - D6


2. Isma'a (Lísten\, ) - n6


3. El harris (Anxious), ) - 120

4. Farah'alaiyna (Joy upon Us¡, J - tSO

ln der Vorksmusik und popurören unTerhorïungsmusik des orobischen

Roums sind sorche osrinoti und spierfiguren weiT verbreiïet.
Die ostinoto_
potterns der Merodieinstrumente steilén dobei
eine tonore Ausdeutung
des TrommerosÌinotos dor. rmprovisierte sori über diese
einfochen oslinoti
wie in Jozz sohoro, die sich vom merodischen Ausgongspunkt
der STücke
weilgehend rösen, sind oilerdings fur die crobische Voiksmusik,
in der sich
die improvisotorischen Eremente zumeist ouf eine Abwondrung von
Liedmelodien und Spierfiguren beschrönken, eher ungewöhnrich.
ostinotofiguren in Jozz sohoro können ors Versuch gJwertei
einen möglichst einfochen und kroren rhyfhmisch-tonoÉn
jenseits des Jozzidioms (ternöre swing-phrosierung
und Funkfloîshormo_
nik) zu etoblieren, der zwor einen Bezug zur orobischen
hersiellt und die rmprovisotoren on áinen Grundrhythmus
Grundtonclitöi bindeÌ, ihnen ober onsonsten große Freiheiten
und eine
in der im_
provisoTorischen GesÌoltung ihrer Soli lösst,
Die Qãnün- und Violinspieler verzichten in ihren soli in yo
onnosouf An_
klönge on die Jozzidiomotik. Noim Korocond spielt ein ¡.eich
tes Geigensoro, dos sich zunöchst in ousgreifenden Bögen
uoeì oie ste-
reotype osllnoiorhythmik hinwegseTzt. Erst om Ende oeJsoros
er die Rhyihmik seines^spiers mit der Rhythmik der ostinotobegreitung.
Dogegen spielt Jock Ghonoim on der eânun vorwiegend rrrytrrmiscn
einfoche Achteilöufe. ebenfoils mii instrumententyprschén Verzi'erungen
(irillern, Tremoli usw.) rnteressonlerweise beginnl
er sein Soro in der öori-
schen Skolo, inÏoniert donn mehrmors eine mitflere sexie (zwischen
und As) und kommt erst om schruss seines soros zur RusgoÀgsst
oro des
Maqäm Higãzkär zurück.

Es konn im Rohmen dieser Untersuchung weder um eine Anolyse noch
um eine öslhetische Beurteilung der lnstrumentolsoli und des lmproviso-
lionsstils der Musiker gehen, die der orobischen Musikkultur verpflichtet
sind. Vermutlich sind die Qãnún- und Violinensoli von Korocond und
Ghonoim vom STondpunkt der orobischen Musik ous belrochtet recht
"untypisch" - wos sowohl om ungewöhnlichen musikolischen Rohmen ols
ouch on dem Umsiond liegen könnte, doss die wohrscheinlich in den
USA oufgewochsenen Musiker keine umfossende musikolische Ausbil-
dung in orobischer Musik genossen hoben, Ähnliches ließe sich ouch von
der 'Üd-spielweise Abdul-Moliks sogen, der in seinen Loutensoli in Jozz
Sohoro ebenfolls ouf Anklönge ons Jozzidiom weitgehend verzichtet.
Wie reogiert nun ober der Jozzsoxophonist Griffin ouf den orienlolischen
Bezugsrohmen? Die ersten TokTe seines Soxophonsolos in Yo onnos ver-
onschoulichen die wichtigsten Merkmole seiner Übernohme orobischer
Elemente in einen vom Hordbop geprögÌen lmprovisotionssTil - siehe
Notenbeispiel B, S. 122. Gritfin verbindet seine jozztypische Tonbildung
und Phrosierung mit Zitoten der Maqäm-Skolo, vor ollem der chorokteristi-
schen Schlusswendung hin zum Grundton. So schließT er eine typische
Bebop-Phrose in Tokt 5, dìe die skolenfremden kleine Septime (B), und
die Flotted Fith (Ges, ols Wechselnote) enthöll, durch die Schlusswen-
dung F - E - Des - C ob. Auf die rhylhmische Verschiebung einer Drei-
longruppe (Flotted Filh, Quinte, Oktove: Ges/Fis - G - C) in den Tokten
ló - l8 folgt ebenfolls jeweils diese Schlusswendung, die donn in Tokt l9
mehrmols wiederholt wird. Drei ondere Linien beschließt Griffin mit der
gesomten obsteigenden Mäqãm-Skolo (I. 9, 23, 26).é') Diesen Skolen-
zitoten gegenüber stehen Phrosen mit rhyThmischen Verschiebungen (1.
ì2 bis ì9), in denen jeweils die Flotted Fith on exponierter Stelle erklingl,
und Possogen mit betont jozlypischer Tonbildung: Bends, houplsöchlich zu
den Blue NoTes (zum E in T. 3, zum Ges in T. l3 sowie der longe Bend vom
F zum Ges in I. 25126), sowie Tonhöhenvoriotion durch Folse Fingering (l-,
21122, im Notenbeispiel symbolisiert durch ein " " uber der Note).

Zwor lösst sich Griffin in seinem Solo ouf dos ungewohnte Tonmoteriol ein.
Er verzichtel dobeijedoch nichl ouf seine jozztypischen Ausdrucksmitfel.
Die stereotype Ostinolobegleitung lösst Griffin diese Freiheilen, gibt ihm
ober umgekehrt koum rhythmische oder tonole Anregungen. Dies ön-
dert sich schlogortig in jenen beiden Possogen von Jozz Sohoro (in den
Slücken Yo onnos und F/ horris), in denen die OstinoTo-Schicht der orobi-
schen lnstrumente von einer zweiten Schichf miT der typischen Jozz-
Begleitung durch Abdul-Molik ftVolking Boss-Linie) und Horewood (Jozz-
schlogzeug) überlogert wird. Unterstulzi vom vertrouten Spiel der Jozz-
Rhythmusgruppe legt Griffin hier richtig los und versÖumt es nichT. in olter
Bebop-Monier ein Zitot des Bebop-Klossikers soll Peonuts einzuflechten.

Notenbeispiel 8: Ahmed Abdul-Maltk Ya annas (Oh people)
Saxophonsolo von Johnny Griffin (Anfang)

)- nr'




t-31 f- 3.l t-31

6--_-]r- Þ 6
T-s -_-l 3-l 3-l

r; 6
3 I

An Ahmed Abdul-Moliks Yo onnos lossen sich einige Möglichkeiten und
Probleme der Verbindung von Jozz und orobischer Musik, jo osiolischer
Musik uberhoupt oblesen:
Eine Verbindung der verschiedenortìgen Klongsphören und lnstrumento-
rien isl prinzipiell moglich, Schwierigkeiten treTen houptsöchlich bei der
Kombinolion des vergleichsweise weichen Klongs osiolischer Hondtrom-
meln (im vorliegenden Foll der Dorobukko) und dem horten sound des
mit Slocken gespielten schlogzeugsels ouf. Ein einfuhlsomer Schlog-
zeuger, der wie Al Horewood sein spiel Über weile strecken ouf lmpulse
derÍom-toms reduziert, konn sich jedoch sehr wohl on die Klongsphöre
der Hondtrommeln onPossen.
Die KombinoTion orienlolischer Melodien und Skolen mit lnslrumentolsoli
von Jozzmusikern, die ouf dieses tonole Moteriol Bezug nehmen, ist un-
problemofisch, Jedoch hölt ein rigider rhyThmischer Bezugsrohmen wie in
Yo onnos wenig lnleroktionsmöglichkeiÌen zwischen lmprovisotionsso-
listen und begleitenden Musikern bereit. Do jedoch diese direklen Anre-
gungen im Jozz essentiell fur die solistische EntfolTung der lmprovisotoren
s¡nOlso ouch fur Johnny Griffin), wirkt der neue rhyThmisch-tonole Osti-
notorohmen eher einschrönkend. Die Fusionsmöglichkeiien von Hordbop
Jozz und orientolischer Muslk gelongen hier on eine Grenze: Wird on der
fur den modernen Joz typischen Rhythmik, d.h. einer vorherrschend
ternören AchTelphrosierung der Solisten, lernören Beckenfiguren und
Akzenten in der Schlogzeugbegleitung, Offbeots und einer Wolking Boss-
Begleitung des Bosses, festgehollen, so werden die fremden lnstrumente,
Skolen und Themenmelodien schnell zu oddiliven Exotismen' Wird jedoch
ouf diese rhythmischen Eigenheifen verzichlet, so stehen die Musiker vor
der Aufgobe, einen neuen rhythmischen Bezugsrohmen zu entwickeln,
der dem solislen onregende lnTeroktionsmóglichkeilen mit seinen Be-
gleitmusikern offen lössI.
ouf die SIucke von Abdul-Moliks zweiter Ploitenoufnohme Eosf
Ein Blick
Meets wesi (1959) zeigl, doss dos dorgesTellte Fusionskonzepl von Abdul-
Molik bereils in Jozz Sohoro on seine idiomotisch bedingten Grenzen
gesloßen isT. Die ochl Stucke von Eosl Meets Wesî, die on verschiedenen
Aufnohmetogen mit unterschiedlicher Beselzung oufgenommen wur-
den, sind heterogener ols diejenigen von Jozz Sohoro. Neben einem
reinen Hordbop-sIuck (seorchin) und einem schlogzeugsolo mit Perkus-
sionsbegleitung (E/ Ghodo) stehen Stúcke, die den Violinisten Noim Ko-
rocond und den Qãnúnspieler Ahmet Yetmon - Rooh (The soul), Moho-
woro (The Fugue) - sowie den orobischen Gesong des sÖngers Jokoro-
won Nosseur - Tokseem (so/o) - in den vordergrund stellen. Dobei enl-
fernen sich die Aufnohmen von der jozztypischen 'Sondwich'-Form und
vezichten ouf Themenexposilion und -reprise.

123 |
Die drei verbleibenden Stücke - E-loil (The Night), Lo lkby (Don't Cry) und
lsmo'o (trsfen) -stellen öhnlich wie in den Aufnohmen von Jozz Sohoro
den orobisch geprögten Soli von 'Üd, Qänün und Violine Jozzimprovisc-
Iionen gegenüber, die von Johnny Griffin, Benny Golson (lenorsoxo-
phon) und Lee Morgon (Irompete) gespielT werden. Die Stucke stehen in
den Skolen G- bzw. C-Aolisch und G-Phrygisch. Dle lmprovisolionsposso-
gen werden durch einfoche zweiioktige Ostinotofiguren der orcbischen
lnstrumenle begleilet, Gegenüber Jozz Sahoro follen zwei Verönderun-
gen ouf : Einerseiïs wird ouf eine rondoortige Wiederoufnohme der jewei-
ligen Themen zwischen den Soli verzichtet. Andererseils werden bei zwei
der drei Sïucke die Soli von Morgon, Griffin und Golson von Wolking Boss
und Jozzschlogzeug und nicht, wie die Soli von 'Üd, Qänun und Violine
von den Ostinotofiguren begleitet, Auf diese Weise bleiben trotz einiger
orientolischer Wendungen im Spiel der BlÖser (Übermößige Sekunden,
Eigenheiten der Phrosierung) ihre Soli sehr stork jozzbezogen. lnsgesomt
trögt dos Album Eosf Meets Wesl weil eher den Chorokter einer bezie-
hungslosen Gegenüberstellung von Jozz und orobischer Volksmusik ols
eines Verbindungsversuchs, wie er in Jazz Sohoro ongedeutel worden ist.

Zur Rezeption osymmetrischer Metren im Jozz

Jozz wurde longe fost ousschließlich im (bzw, '/.-)Tokt gespielt, Diese
Beschrönkung ouf "gerode" Toktorten löste sich in den 50er Johren durch
die Einfuhrung des'/,-Tokts von Hcrdbop-Musikern wie Sonny Rollins oder
Kenny Dorhom (ols bop wotZ oder jozz woltz) ollmöhlich ouf,tuu' Rondy
Weston, der in den óOer Johren hÖufig SIÜcke im '/o-Tokt spielte und
komponierte, verweist ouf die ofrikonischen EinflÜsse, die ihn zu seinen
jozz wollz ongeregt hoben (vgl, Donce l9ó5)

Obwohl sich ouch in ofrikonischer Musik rhyihmische Zirkel miI ungero-

den Zöhlzeitsummen finden, kom der Ansloss zur Vetwendung von Ser-,
7er- oder 9er-lr4etren im Jczz seit den spöten 50er Johren ous osiotischen
Musiktroditonen, besonders ous der Turkei und lndien. Ungerode Metren
sind ober ouch in der Volksmusik der Bolkonlönder, die Ionge unter lÜrki-
schem Einfluss gestonden hoben, verbreitet. Europöische Komponisten
wie Bélo Bortók oder Dorius Milhoud erhielten ìn der erslen Johrhun-
derthölfte ous der Volksmusik des Bolkons Anregungen fÜr eine meTrische
Erweiterung ouch der obendlöndischen Kompositionsmusik, - Allerdings
verwenden die osiolischen Volks- und Kunstmusiktroditionen ebenfolls viele
regelmößige, gerodzohlig unlerteilte RhyIhmen, ln der orobischen Kunst-
musik (noch dem System des orobischen Musiktheoretikers SofI ol-DTn) isl
der gerodzohlige Thoqil Romol (2+2+2+2+2+2 und verschiedene Vori-
onten) dos bei weitem gebröuchlichste Metrum (vgl. Wright et ol. 1900,