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4Dr.-Ing. H. Baier, Dipl.-Ing. K.

Menzel, Vecoplan FuelTrack GmbH, Bad Marienberg, Germany

SUMMARY All over the world alternative fuels have become more and more popular in the cement industry to cut the costs of energy during clinker production. Due to the lack of regulations a lot of governments especially those of emerging countries raise the potential of alternative fuels by establishing successful joint ventures with the cement industry and its professional energy management. Therefore ThyssenKrupp Polysius and Vecoplan established FuelTrack as a joint venture to offer reasonable and economical solutions to the cement and lime industry: Starting with identification of combustibles and the technical assessment of the pyro-process, the correct pre-treatment process has to be designed. The reception of the waste material, pre-treating waste to alternative fuel storage and feeding at the cement works as well as technical optimization or replacement will complete the service for a cost saving co-processing of alternative fuels and raw materials.3

ZUSAMMENFASSUNG Die Verwendung von alternativen Brennstoffen beim Klinkerbrennen wird heute aus Kostengrnden in der internationalen Zementindustrie immer wichtiger. Wegen des Fehlens von Regularien gehen viele Regierungen speziell in den Entwicklungslndern den Weg, die Potenziale von alternativen Brennstoffen im Joint Venture mit der Zementindustrie und deren fortschrittlichem Energiemanagement zu heben. Durch diese Entwicklung veranlasst, etablierte ThyssenKrupp Polysius mit Vecoplan die FuelTrack als Joint Venture, die es sich zur Aufgabe gemacht hat, der Zementund Kalkindustrie akzeptable und wirtschaftliche Lsungen beim Einsatz von alternativen Brennstoffen anzubieten. Beginnend mit der Identifizierung eines Brennstoffs und seiner technischen Bewertung fr den Einsatz im PyroProzess, kommt der Wahl und Auslegung des richtigen Aufbereitungsverfahrens eine wichtige Rolle zu. Die Annahme von Abfllen, deren Aufbereitung zu Ersatzbrennstoffen sowie deren Anlieferung und Lagerung im Zementwerk, die Dosierung und der Transport ebenso wie ihre technische Aufbereitung, vervollstndigen den Service fr eine Kosten sparende Herstellung von alternativen Brenn- und Rohstoffen.3

(English text supplied by the authors)



Utilization of alternative fuels in the cement clinker process

Die Verwendung von alternativen Brennstoffen beim Klinkerbrennen

1 Introduction
Most of the alternative fuels used are biogenic or waste1 derived and, despite all rumors they have to be preprocessed for the reduction of impurities, a constant quality and continuous mass flow behavior for utilization in the pro cess of clinker burning. The search for the right source and amount must start with a look into the immediate vicinity around the cement works where municipalities or industrial sectors are located. In general, waste could occur in a dry, wet or pasty consistency as 2 well as in a hazardous and non-hazardous form. Non-hazardous wastes are solids coming from industrial, commercial or municipal sources, free of hazardous contamination and consisting of plastic, paper, cardboard, textiles, biomass or composites or mixtures of these. In some cases disposal companies collect it on behalf of the public authority for dumping or for themselves for a first approach of sorting and recycling.

Table 1: Advantages and disadvantages of selecting appropriate residues of production (Cherry picking) Advantages Disadvantages

Small investment Short depreciation time M  odular flexible technology

while market develops and emerges

Major efforts for acquisition Unstable access Input quality control H  igher costs for quality

Tailor-made engineered fuel Low range of quality fluctuation

N  ot suitable for a universal

waste management system

The advantages and disadvantages of picking out appropriate residues are listed in Table 1. Most of the clients working in an established waste management market, started with monofractions of industrial products which never entered the lifecycle such as for example overproduction, rejects, cuts or blanks, which could be treated and blended to a high quality alternative solid fuel. During examination of the area around a cement plant, different waste streams may appear mixed as mentioned or separately collected from different industrial sectors, i.e. coming from agriculture or from the food industry. There are also wood or paper, cardboard, pulp, furniture, leather and textiles. There are also wastes coming from petroleum refining, from oil and solvents, from treatment of coal as well as from coatings, paints, varnishes, adhesives, resins, sealants or inks. There is also waste from the photographic industry, from shaping and surface treatment of plastics, packaging, absorbents, wiping cloths, filter materials or protective clothing, from residues of pre-treating demolition wastes or other treatment facilities, like precipitation from process water or waste water treatment. However, many countries all over the world do not have such established waste management systems and dump the wastes as wild land filling. A potential source of alternative fuels is a public partner district or municipality which due to environmental problems has to start a sustainable waste management system. Obviously the envisaged wastes are products at the end of their lifecycles and in most cases mixed and contaminated with hazardous, solid and liquid components. The advantages and disadvantages of those wastes are listed in Table 2. In an established waste management market normally public companies operate Mechanical-Biological Treatment Plants (MBT) firstly to split the wastes into combustibles, biode gradable and recyclables to produce alternative solid fuels from municipal waste [1]. Consequently the first step is to assess the waste producing process, the source and the

2 How to find the right source?

Typically the market starts with cherry picking by seeking several types of waste. On the one hand looking for an appropriate non-contaminated waste which shows, after pre-treatment and blending, a high similarity to the wellknown primary fuels like oil, lignite, coal etc., on the other hand which brings a high gate fee for safe disposal. Hazardous waste, which can be pre-treated in a simple reasonable device, but due to its hazard risk it has to be handled in a precautious and liable manner in order not to harm co-workers health or the local environment. Due to the fact that the waste producing companies want to reduce their disposal costs, the amount of this hazardous waste will decrease continuously. Therefore, FuelTrack concentrates on non-hazardous solid waste as a feedstock for alternative fuels. To feed the continuously running clinker burning process and to avoid the impact of quality variation on the process and the product, two concepts had been proved: A larger procurement process picking out appropriate residues of production or a long term contract for obtaining municipal solid waste (MSW) as an unpredictable mixture at the end of the life cycle.

Under the Waste Framework Directive (European Directive 75/442/EC as amended), the European Union defines waste as an object the holder discards, intends to discard or is required to discard, and anything which is discarded or otherwise dealt with as if it were waste shall be presumed to be waste until the contrary is proved. 2 Hazardous means that materials are at least corrosive, ignitable, reactive or toxic, and which may have to be handled, stored, transported, and disposed of in a controlled and safe manner. International companies certified according to ISO 14000 EMS will arrange a safe disposal of hazardous waste and will respect the polluter pay principle.




Table 2: Advantages and disadvantages of alternative fuels derived from mixed municipal solid wastes (MSW) Advantages Disadvantages

Table 4 a: Average chemical composition of German lignite in % [2] Designation Caloric value C H O N S Volatiles Ash CaO SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 Table 4 b: Trace elements of German lignite in ppm Designation As Be Pb Cd Cr Ni Hg Tl V Zn Value 0.2 ... 2.5 0.04 ... 0.40 < 0.01 ... 2.20 0.01 ... 1.50 0.01 ... 15.00 1.0 ... 9.3 0.11 ... 0.90 0.027 ... 0.200 113 3.9 ... 22.0 Value 21 800 MJ/kg 25.2 ... 28.8 2 10.0 ... 11.5 0.2 0.1 ... 0.5 46 ... 48 2 ... 20 1.6 ... 2.0 0.3 ... 0.4 0.5 ... 0.6 1.0 ... 1.4

Universal waste management

system for many types of waste

P  re-selection of feasible

Long term contracts with

waste producers or responsible institutions

F  acility and mandatory


M  anagement of delivered and/

or splitted streams (RDF, biomass, recyclables, contaminated etc.)

Long depreciation time

H  igh range of quality

fluctuation Table 3: Indication for input criteria of alternative fuels for valorization in a preheater and calciner Element CaO in ash SiO2 in ash Al2O3 in ash Fe2O3 in ash Mercury (Hg) Cadmium (Cd) Thallium (TI) Other trace elements 2 ppm dry substance 50 ppm dry substance 45 ppm dry substance 20 000 ppm dry substance Single or in total 50 mass % Content

chemical and physical composition to discover the calorific value etc., in order to establish exactly how the treatment process should be designed ( Fig. 1). As has been shown, a lot of sources might become the feedstock for alternative fuels or raw materials for the clinker burning process, and after identifying the source and its chemical composition, the envisaged waste has to be crosschecked with the process technology, composition of raw material, as well as the specific heat demand or the presence of alkaline or chlorine which will boost the volatility of trace elements or can form a recirculation. Table 3 lists the input criteria of alternative fuels for valorization in a preheater and calciner. The key for a first indication is to monitor the input concentration of the high volatile trace elements mercury, cadmium and thallium in a sufficient way. Other medium- or non-vola

tile trace elements are dust bounded and remain in the filtering system. This might become a question of cement quality. At least the success of cost reduction is totally interdependent on the energy demand, the resulting quality of the product and the impact on the emissions. As a rough estimate, the waste and its pre-treated Residue Derived Fuel (RDF) is suitable for co-processing, when the chemical composition and physical behavior is similar to a brown coal ( Tables 4 a and b). Tables 5 a and b and Tables 6 a and b list the average chemical composition of SRF, produced from selected industrial and municipal solid wastes (MSW). After assessing the technical potential of the kiln and the chemistry of the waste, the physical behavior has to be prepared for process neutral utilization. The first treatment step is to separate the High Caloric Fraction (HCF) with a grain size of max. 300 mm. In the next step this HCF will be processed to a Residue Derived Fuel (RDF) with a grain size of max. 80 mm only for feeding a properly designed calciner. So far it is clear that for feeding the main burner coal has to be ground or delivered with a degree of fineness of 2% sieve retention on 90 m, but due to the


Figure 1: The FuelTrack AFR Approach



economy of pre-treating it is commonly accepted to process the quality controlled Solid Recovered fuel (SRF) in a third step to a grain size less than 30 mm. In some cases a further comminution process to produce RDF-meal with less than 3 mm may even also be beneficial for high substitution rates at the main burner. The close interconnection between pretreatment and conversion technology is the economical answer. Fig. 2 shows the way from waste to treated tailor-made alternative fuels.

3 Treatment of AFR
Residues, wastes and biomass of almost Figure 2: The way from waste to treated/tailor-made alternative fuels undefined size and form are typically either separately or jointly treated to remove minerals, organic, reacting coarse alternative fuels. As a function of the altermetals, glass, ash or other constituents from the fuel, which native fuel quality, the transport and discharge rates in the might harm the treatment process as well as the clinker burn- step combustor can be separately controlled and retention ing process or the emission balance. After shredding, siev- times extended up to 15 min. Transporting with controlled ing, screening and/or ballistic separation, a Highly enriched air blast nozzles, an elegant side effect is that no mechaniCaloric Fraction (HCF) with a lump size of less than 300 mm cal internal fittings or moving parts are necessary inside the is received ( Fig. 3).The HCF is either the basis material for reaction chamber. Fig. 4 shows the principle of a step comfurther processing of RDF or can be fed directly into a spe- bustor. This type of step combustor can be fed with up to cialized calciner, called a step combustor ( Fig. 4). Storage 70% of the amount of the calciner fuel. The coarse alternaand handling of this material should be relatively simple but tive fuel will be thermally comminuted and might burn out it is necessary to consider the large size and the low bulk in the stages 70 to 90%. The remaining coke fraction is fine density. For separate pre-treatment at a distance from the enough to achieve the final burnout within the calciner itself. cement plant it might be necessary to bale it. Beside bale- So the coarse HCF can build the basic fuel load of the calopening in the plant itself, it needs no further treatment, ciner. For controlling the calciner operation in any case either just rough dosing and transportation to the step combustor. primary fuel or higher quality RDF is required. This can be an RDF in the next treatment step.

4 The step combustor

The step combustor is designed for large-sized alternative fuels. Retention time and transportation conditions in a standard calciner are not sufficient for the safe burnout of such coarse and slow-reacting alternative fuels [4].

5 Processing of RDF/SRF

Fig. 5 demonstrates the processing of RDF <80 mm or SRF <30 mm. To create such well-defined RDF, the HCF needs a second shredding step. Particularly, when it will be used as controlling fuel for the calciner or needs to be fed pneumatiThe retention time of 4 to 8 s in a typical suspension flow cal- cally, it is a must to have a good quality monitored pre-sorted ciner is grossly insufficient for the safe burnout of such slow- and air classified SRF where the large and heavy 3-D parti-

Figure 3: Preprocessing the highly enriched calorific fraction




Table 5 a: Average chemical composition of SRF (preselected industrial waste components) [2] in % Designation Caloric value C H O N S Volatiles Ash CaO SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 Cl F Value 21 800 ... 32 200 MJ/kg n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. 0.1 0.8 n.d. 9 39 n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. 0.39 2.20 0.1 1.7

Table 6 a: Average chemical composition of SRF (out of municipal solid waste) [1, 2] in % Designation Caloric value C H O N S Volatiles Ash CaO SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 Cl F Value 16 700 ... 25 700 MJ/kg 48.2 ... 54.1 7.3 ... 8.5 32.5 ... 34.1 0.76 ... 1.35 0.1 ... 1.0 n.d. 13.6 ... 46.7 26.0 ... 32.1 22.6 ... 30.5 7.82 ... 60.00 4.26 ... 6.75 0.8 ... 4.3 0.02 ... 0.09

Table 5 b: Trace elements of SRF (preselected industrial waste components) in ppm Designation As Pb Cd Cr Ni Hg Tl V Value 0.68 ... 15.32 27 ... 4406 0.75 ... 162.00 19.10 ... 187.00 5.41 ... 1622.00 0.09 ... 1.62 0.23 ... 1.96 2.17 ... 164.00

Table 6 b: Trace elements of SRF (out of municipal solid waste) in ppm Designation As Pb Cd Cr Ni Hg Tl V Value 0.48 ... 7.33 131 30176 2.1 ... 55.0 82.73 ... 3 029.00 14.19 ... 3658.00 0.28 ... 3.39 0.18 ... 5.90 5.19 135.00

cles have been eliminated. Fig. 6 shows a typical arrangement: processing of sorted material with a 2-shaft coarse shredder, a ballistic separation followed by a fine shredder and a subsequent storage system for RDF/SRF.

and treatment site, but may consist of a truck receiving and unloading station, an appropriate storage system, the transport equipment to the calciner, main burner and a dosing station as close as possible to the calciner or main burner. For the calciner feeding, pneumatic feeding is not recommended, because the pneumatic transport requires more energy. As well as for the main burner fuel mechanical transportation and a straight blow line without any bending avoid energy losses and wear. Often a police filter for insufficient quality due to heavy and oversize particles is needed. Experience shows that not a screening, but an air classifier is recommended for a right quality fuel to the main burner (Fig. 7). If RDF/SRF is received in different qua lities and/or from different sources, good sampling and quality monitoring is mandatory. Furthermore it is recommend to have a modular storage system as shown here which can be extended and gives the option of blending different qualities. The Truck Unloading and Loading System (TULS) shown here can take RDF/SRF feed material at one side and is able to unload to a screw and chain conveyor sys-

6 RDF/SRF handling and dosing


The RDF/SRF handling to feed the calciner and/or the kiln burner is, of course, dependent on the situation of plant

Figure 4: The principle of a step combustor



Figure 5: Processing RDF < 80 mm or SRF < 30 mm

Using the RDF for calciner firing, all suitable designed calciner types are possible. Multistage combustion or a separate combustion chamber may be an advantage. At least RDF and the calciner just have to fit together: Either the RDF is made fit for the given calciner or the calciner fits for the given alternative fuel. Fig. 9 illustrates a well-designed standard calciner for using 100% RDF. The RDF consists of 50 mm tire chips. Sometimes separate biomass is available. Coal/petcoke is normally on standby, the calciner operation control is done with the on short distance pneumatically injected RDF.
Figure 6: Treating HCF and processing and storage of RDF

To run the calciner coal-free with 100% alternative fuel is not tem at the same time. With the help of a flexible wide chain magic, but to increase the thermal substitution rate to above scraper freely self-controlled in height the RDF can be 50 to 60% it is necessary to go to the main burner as well. distributed over the whole rectangular box and filled into the The well-cleaned HCF, other pre-sorted or mono-industrial speed-controlled extraction screw at the same time. Typically residue fractions can be the basic material to prepare quality required, more than one box opens the possibility of stor- assured SRF for the main burner. For an accept able burning and locating different fuel qualities and blends them at out and correct clinker quality, the RDF compounds must the extraction in a favorable way. Fig. 8 shows the Truck be comminuted into finer particles. Due to the economical Unloading and Loading System (TULS), fed by a truck unload- limits, the fineness of the main burner fuel is not as typical ing station and discharging to calciner transport. as for a coal dust.

Figure 7: RDF/SRF handling and dosing at the cement plant




The burner itself should be a multi-channel type with sufficient momentum and flexibility, particularly if the target is to substitute more than 50% of fuel at the main burner by SRF [6].

7 Using RDF meal at the main burner

In practice, alternative fuels are not always well defined as required by external parties. The preparation process may have some weaknesses, the burning behavior of the mixed SRF is insufficient, the heating value may be too low or the moisture content too high for good clinker burning. In this case, a further option is to increase the thermal substitution rate by a subsequent treating and fining of the RDF to get better conditions for the combustion process [4].

8 Final remarks
Based on many years of experience in cement plant engineering, it is now possible to offer a sustainable concept for all types of solid alternative fuels. This could and should An ideal quality SRF for the main burner should basically con- include the whole process chain from treating and refining sist of 2-D material only. The SRF particles have to be within the potential of alternative fuels, tailored storage and dosing a limited range of density and burning behavior. Otherwise arrangements up to adaptations of the calciner, main burner the particles of the alternative fuel mixtures are burning at or clinker production process itself. different levels: While thin, large-area particles are consumed This competence in pre-treating and handling is now concenduring floating in the flame, three-dimensional particles, e.g. trated in the newly founded company, Vecoplan FuelTrack hard plastic, rubber, wood, etc. can accumulate in the tip of GmbH, a joint venture of ThyssenKrupp Polysius AG and the flame or fly beyond it into the clinker bed which leads Vecoplan AG, acting internationally with a long background to reducing conditions, sulfur cycles and bad clinker causing of experience in cement plant engineering and engineering loss of strength. Because the quality of the SRF cannot be in the handling of alternative fuels. guaranteed no screening will help. Due to the open sieving floor three dimensional disruptions will pass. Only appropriate quality control or an air classifier will fulfill the requirements for a police filter [5].
Figure 8: Truck Unloading and Loading System (TULS) fed by a truck unloading station and discharging to calciner transport

Figure 9: Well-designed standard calciner for using 100% AFR




[1] Baier, H.: Ersatzbrennstoffe fr den Einsatz in Mitverbrennungsanlagen. ZKG International 59 (2006) No. 3, pp. 78-85. [2] N.N.: Leitfaden zur energetischen Verwertung von Abfllen in Zement-, Kalk- und Kraftwerken in NordrheinWestfalen (Guideline for thermal valorization of waste in cement and lime works, power plants in NorthrheinWestfalia), 2. circulation, Ministry of Environment and Conservation of Nature, Agriculture and Consumer Protection of Northrhine-Westfalia (2005). [3] Baier, H.: Erzeugung von Ersatzbrennstoffen fr die deutsche Zementindustrie Rahmenbedingungen, Herkunft, Aufwand und Realisierung. Berliner Energiekonferenz

Erneuerbare Energien 10. und 11. November 2009 in Berlin, TK Publishing House Neuruppin, pp. 75-88. [4] Menzel, K.; Maas, U.; Lampe, K.: Technologies for Alternative Fuel Enhancement in Clinker Production Lines. 2009 IEEE Cement Industry Technical Conference, USA (2009). [5] Baier, H.: Disruptive substances and the burning behavior of solid alternative fuels. ZKG International 63 (2010) No. 6, pp. 58-67. [6] Reznichenko, A.: Welcome to a new dimension. Burner Technology. International Cement Review (2009) No. 6, pp. 96-98.

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