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Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S.

Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Technische Universitt Chemnitz

TENDENCIES IN THE DEVELOPMENT


OF COATINGS AND THEIR
MANUFACTURING
S. Steinhuser
TU Chemnitz, Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe, Chemnitz, Deutschland

Lima (Peru), 23. 06. 2006

1
Leiter: B. Wielage
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Technische Universitt Chemnitz


Introduction (Remarks about our institute and
Chemnitz in Saxoni, Germany)

Coatings - general survey


Coatings - Examples
Coatings of paint
Electrochemical coatings
Ceramic coatings
Plasma coatings (PVD)
Thermal sprayed coatings
Some aspects of nano-technology

2 Conclusions
Acknowledgement
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Technische Universitt Chemnitz

Introduction
3
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Technische Universitt Chemnitz

Coatings
general survey

4
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Manifold technically useable coating systems and surface technologies are


Technische Universitt Chemnitz

integral part of our present-day life. High quality standards and service values
have been achieved in many domains.
We have become accustomed to coatings and we often only take notice of
them if their functionality has become constricted as a result of a problem.
Without surface techniques modern technologies such as traffic engineering,
information technology, medical engineering or micro and nanotechnology are
not practicable. Light-weight construction is very often connected with surface
enlargement and therefore requires comprehensive protection. Not only the
coating technologies but also the processing and testing methods as well as
the modelling and simulation theories have to be developed further or anew.
Innovative surface technology contributes to the development of new and to
the optimisation of products already in use. For this reason surface technology
will be considered a development impulse ranking amongst the strengths of the
economy.
On the one hand coatings comply with decorative, aesthetic-improving
requirements and therewith improve the market success of products, on the
other hand they meet multifunctional requirements (friction decrease or
increase; wear and corrosion protection; improvement of optical, thermal,
5 electrical, mechanical, physiological or medical properties) or serve as
information storage and improve operational reliability and life cycle.
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Technische Universitt Chemnitz

Basically, there is demand for high-quality, environmentally sound, process-


integrated and cost-minimised surface technologies.

The scientists and engineers are required to choose optimal conditions with
regard to the technical-technological and economic-ecological aspects and to
develop and apply them respectively.

Starting from the demands on surfaces and materials, it is essential to


recognise technological trends or emerging restrictions (e.g. restrictive or
prohibitive provisions on the part of the EU) at a very early stage. The
constructing engineers and developers have to understand the surface of a
component part as a constructional element and to include it into their
calculations. The optimal coating thickness has to be determined and the
stress maximum during load must not be located in the interface range.
Economical and eco-technical developments have to be incorporated.

6
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Technische Universitt Chemnitz

Increasingly more complex demands are made on the uncoated or


coated surface. The increase in power density of machines and the
rise of efficiency with the reduction of the total energy consumption
leads to ever-increasing operational demands on components (e.g.
motor, gear, bearing, brakes; compare Figure 4).
Additionally, surfaces are subject to strong tribological loads because
of the sparing application of precursors (e.g. lubricants).
Plasma technologies have become an important technology factor.
Modern coating systems for dry chipping are based almost without
exception on a TiAlN basis. Glass, foils and transparent plastics (e.g.
polycarbonate) are stabilised (scratch resistance) with thin coatings in
which ceramic nanoscaled particles are incorporated.
Hightech can also be found in metal-armouring refinement, for
example, in the additional upgrading of galvanised surfaces by means
of coatings with high-rate electron beam vaporisation or high-rate
sputtering.
7
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Technische Universitt Chemnitz

The mixed-architecture construction which necessitates pre-treating and


coating of different materials in one technological sequence makes high
demands on the coating experts.
More and more functions are being integrated into the surface
(multifunctionality; release of smells from microcapsules after a certain
wear in composite coatings; sensory surfaces, e.g. the indication of product
changes through colour changes of the package, for example, milk cartons;
self-cleaning and self-healing of the applied coatings).
Technical effects regarding the materials are increasingly tried to be
combined with processing technologies (e.g. surface modification through
aimed grinding). In-situ property requirements have to be met (e.g. coatings
in accordance with the wear pattern).

8
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Technische Universitt Chemnitz

In many cases the surface area of materials or


component parts is exposed to mechanical, tribological,
corrosive or thermal load - frequently in a combined form.
In order to avoid damages or destructions, very often
coatings are applied. Technological progress is not
conceivable without the application of coatings or coating
processes.
The surface and also the coatings are important for
decorative appearance, for functional properties and
nowadays for good feeling.
It was a long way to the modern technology.

9
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Technische Universitt Chemnitz

Surfaces as boundary regions between two media such as technical


objects (component parts, equipment, ...) and their adjoining space
(vacuum, atmosphere, fluid, bottom, ...) show very specific properties
on the one hand and they are always subjected to the influences of
their environment on the other. They either have to fulfil a certain
function (e. g. cylinder running in an engine) or a subordinate task (e. g.
the outer surface of an engine block). Surfaces can either develop
through an individual process (e. g. casting/solidification or machining)
or through a series of processes (e. g. milling, deep drawing, pre-
treatment, varnishing).

10
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

In the course of this, processes such as material removal (e. g.


Technische Universitt Chemnitz

chip forming, pickling), material application (e. g. electroplating,


varnishing) or processes that change the properties of the
materials (e. g. milling, surface layer hardening, chemical
transformation) are used which finally lead to surfaces with very
different properties. Further functional requirements are made on
the surface region (corrosion and wear protection, decorative
effects, electrical or thermal conductivity and insulating capacity,
diffusion barriers, radiation absorption or reflection, physiological
harmlessness, low contamination, catalytic behaviour etc.),
whereas the basic material above all has to provide the expected
11 strength behaviour and support effects.
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Technische Universitt Chemnitz

Anwendung Korrosions- Verschlei- dekorative funktionelle


schutz schutz Gestaltung Zwecke
Schichtstoff 1)
Anstrichstoffe + + (+)
Metalle + + + +
Metallverbindungen + + + +
Silikate 2) + + + (+)
Kunststoffe + (+) + (+)
le, Fette + +
Wachse, Paraffine +
Gummi, Kautschuk + +
Teer, Bitumen +

1) Schichten mit spezifischen Eigenschaften wie spezielle thermische und/oder elektrische


12 Leitfhigkeit oder Isolationswirkung, elektromagnetische Eigenschaften, optische
Wirkungen u. a.
2) Email, Glas, Keramik, Zement
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Possibilities of coating
Technische Universitt Chemnitz

Inserting of elements
Application of Converting of
coating (paints,...) surfaces

13
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Technische Universitt Chemnitz

14
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Golf V
Technische Universitt Chemnitz

Decorative surfaces
Corrosion and wear resistance

Reliability

Functionality
15

Long-life cycle Quelle: H-J. Koeppen , G.


Laudien,Volkswagen AG,Zentrallabor
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Vollverzinkte Karosse des Golf IV


Technische Universitt Chemnitz

12 years guarantee against rust


elektrolytrisch- und
feuerverzinkte Bleche
Heiwachsflutung (hot
wax)
Mehrschichtlackaufbau

2K-
Basecoat Clearcoat
Fller
KTL
Zinkphosphatierung

Verzinktes
Stahlblech

16

Quelle: H-J. Koeppen , G. Laudien,Volkswagen AG,Zentrallabor


Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Technische Universitt Chemnitz

Trends in the industry

Miniaturisation
Lightweight construction
Advancement of surfaces
Saving of energy
Environment protection

17

Quelle: VDI Technologiezentrum Dsseldorf Sept.2004


Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Technische Universitt Chemnitz

18

Quelle: Alex Dommann, SGO GV 20 May 2005


Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Technische Universitt Chemnitz


Market Forecast Nanotechnology ($ bn)

Matthias Werner, et. al. , Deutsche Bank Nanoreport 2004


19
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Technische Universitt Chemnitz

20
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Technische Universitt Chemnitz

21
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Technische Universitt Chemnitz


Ca. 20 Chips von Infineon in a care !
AIR CONDITION AIRBAG
POWER STEERING INTELLIGENT SEATS

CAR PC DOOR MODULE


BLUETOOTH
TELEMATICS
NAVIGATION TIRE PRESSURE
GSM GPS MONITORING SYSTEM

LIGHT MODULE ABS


ENGINE MANAGEMENT VEHICLE STABILITY CONTROL
TRANSMISSION CONTROL
22

Quelle: DESIGN&VERIFICATION 2/2004


Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Technische Universitt Chemnitz

head / hard disc

23
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Technische Universitt Chemnitz

24
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Technische Universitt Chemnitz

25
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe
Joining of electronical and
biological systems
Technische Universitt Chemnitz

26
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Technische Universitt Chemnitz

Prospect of totality

27
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
Quelle: S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Complete process
Technische Universitt Chemnitz

(example)
Legislation of Legislation of
environment Cost pressure
safety at work

Energy
supplies coatings

Units, Pre After


materials treatment coating
28 treatment
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Exchange regarding data relevant for coatings and component parts


Technische Universitt Chemnitz

Fundamental knowledge

Industry-academy-collaboration

Coating
Coating properties
n
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rs

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Construction
R&D engineer
Coating Component
load Consumer
engineer requirement

Coating characteristics

29 Practical know how


Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Technische Universitt Chemnitz

Trends and ways of thinking

Optimating traditional Developing new materials


materials and technologies and technologies

30
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Technische Universitt Chemnitz

Using Synergien.
Thinking in networks.
Single fighters are undesirable.
Prospect of totality.
Researching world wide.

31
Using cooperations.
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Technische Universitt Chemnitz

All industrially manufactured units have a functional surface...

Constructors must
understand the
surface of a unit as a
construction element.

32
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Technische Universitt Chemnitz

Trends of development

scientifical
technical economical

environment
legislation
(national - international)
33
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Those who want to participate in technological progress must not allow


Technische Universitt Chemnitz

themselves any gaps of knowledge

Development of materials
Mischbauweisen

Process technology
(quality)

Multi functional, intelligent


Environmental friendliness coatings
Product development Adaptation of coating thickness
34 Ability for recycling
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Technische Universitt Chemnitz

Material load
and
35
coatings
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Technische Universitt Chemnitz

36
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Technische Universitt Chemnitz

Material load requirement and its consequences

Reduction of Use Properties Damage

covered external
defects influences

Overloading Destruction Fatigue

mechanical mechanical chemical


electrochemical
thermal physical
Frequent interaction between
the individual load requirements
e.g. tribocorrosion, stress
Corrosion corrosion!
Cavitation

37
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Properties generated or changed by surface treatment or coating


Technische Universitt Chemnitz

Surface Low or high


Properties
interaction with
Reproducibility environment

Applicability

Economy / marketing High interaction


with substrate
Environmental compatibility

Recycling Substrate

Influence on substrate
and material compound
(layer - substrate)
38
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Methods used in surface technology


Technische Universitt Chemnitz

Used surface processes Surface processes in the future

electroplating 70 PVD 32
varnishing 56 26
electroplating
heat treatment (diffusion process) 54 thermal spraying 19
thermal spraying 43 17
CVD
PVD 39
varnishing 17
heat treatment (hardening) 38
heat treatment (hardening) 14
currentless deposition 38
currentless deposition 12
CVD 30
anodising
anodising 21
Ion plating 3
pre-treatment and cleaning 17
nanotechnology 3
hot dip coating 16
heat treatment (diffusion process) 3
deposit welding 12
deposit welding 2
printed circuit technology 7
enamelling 2
ion beam process 5
printed circuit technology 2
enamelling 4
hot dip coating 2
sol-gel-process 3
sol-gel-process 2
laser beam process 2
other processes 5
other processes 4

39 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Technische Universitt Chemnitz

Environment

40
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Technische Universitt Chemnitz

Human beings are surrounded and


integrated in lots of systems.
As a first approximation it is the same in the
technology.
In the following parts Id like to talk about
some important systems.

41
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Environment
Technische Universitt Chemnitz

Environment-friendly process-technolgy

Environment-friendly materials

Application recyclable materials

Reduction materials variety

42
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Pre-Treatment
Technische Universitt Chemnitz

Pre-Cleaning
Mechanical Treatment
(Cutting, Grinding, Blasting)
Post-Cleaning
(Removing of Residues)
Masking, Covering of
Areas not to be Caoted

Coating

Post-Treatment (if necessary)

OR

Intermediate-Treatment
AND

Further Coating

As can be seen from the technological sequence (work cycle), in every


43
process step there are like in any other surface coating technology points
of contact with the environment.
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Technische Universitt Chemnitz

44
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Technische Universitt Chemnitz

Different materials
in one product
45
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Metallische Leichtbauwerkstoffe
Technische Universitt Chemnitz

Neue (ultrahochfeste) Leichtmetalle Leichtmetallbasierte


Sthle fr den neue Werkstoffe
Automobilbau
Einteilung z.B. in
DP-, CP-, TRIP/TWIP-, TMS- Aluminium u. MMC
Sthle Aluminiumlegierungen Einteilung z:B. in faserverstrkte
und partikelverstrkte MMC

Magnesium u.
Magnesiumlegierungen
Titanaluminide
Einteilung z.B. in 2-Ti3Al-, -TiAl,
Titan u. Ti2AlNb-Titanaluminide
Titanlegierungen
Einteilung z.B. in -, -, +-
Legierungen Metallschume
Einteilung z.B. in
46
geschlossenporige und offenporige
Beryllium Metallschume
nach Alisch, TUC
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Technische Universitt Chemnitz

VW Lupo Light weight construction

Lenkrad Heckklappe: Al /
Mg Hybrid Design
Tren

Motorhaube

Kotflgel

Bremstrommel:
Faserverstrktes Al
Fahrwerk: Al-
Komponenten
Bremssattel

47

Quelle: H-J. Koeppen , G. Laudien,Volkswagen AG,Zentrallabor


Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Process integrated manufacturing


Technische Universitt Chemnitz

of functional surfaces

Today: Still predominantly produced in


separate process steps

In the future: Economizing of process


steps

48
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Technische Universitt Chemnitz

A wide field for further development


will be the improvement of the
process stability and process
control, to achieve an enhancement
of the process quality control. The
development and the application of
new feedstock materials under
economic and ecological aspects will
be of high interest for the future.
49
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Technische Universitt Chemnitz

Demands of economy
Pressure of price
Substitution or reduction of expensive materials

Reduction of process steps, variable production

Diversity of variants and technologies

Short times for developing and redesign

Highest demands on quality


Value creating

50
High productivity low costs
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Technische Universitt Chemnitz

Wear behavior
and

wear tests
51
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Circumstances of motion
Technische Universitt Chemnitz

Load
Operating variables State of friction
Temperature

Conditions of contact
Microgeometry

Counter body
Structure
of the

Surround medium
tribosystem
Material

Body

Interfacial medium
Wear process

Loss of material (wear quantity, wear products, wear debris) [DIN 50320]
52
Wear characteristics Wear phenomena (surface change)
Change of properties
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Technische Universitt Chemnitz

General possibilities of improving


tribotechnical properties

- interfacial material

- constructive and technological measures

- material composition and structure

53
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Technische Universitt Chemnitz

Characterization of tribology materials behaviour

Testing methods for Tests by integral Investigation of tribolo-


simulation of basic wear test methods Simulation of technical gical relevant material
wear systems properties

- abrasive wear - sliding wear test - stretching rolls - chemical composition


- adhesive wear - oscillation wear test - drawing - texture
- long time fatigue wear - fretting wear test - driving gear - hardness
- erosive wear test - state of stress
- Tabor-Abraser test - adherence of coatings
- grain size

10

4
test in practice
2

54
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Technische Universitt Chemnitz

Corrosion
behavior
and

55
Corrosion tests
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Technische Universitt Chemnitz

56
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Technische Universitt Chemnitz

Corrosion protection -
construction and material/coatings

Designabdeckung
Designabdeckung
57 New
New Beetle
Beetle
Quelle: H-J. Koeppen , G. Laudien,Volkswagen AG, Zentrallabor
Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. B. Wielage Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. S. Steinhuser
S. Steinhuser
Lehrstuhl fr Verbundwerkstoffe

Technische Universitt Chemnitz

58