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MAT00005C

UNIVERSITY OF YORK

BA, BSc and MMath Examinations 2015 MATHEMATICS Real Analysis

Time Allowed: 3 hours.

Each question carries 25 marks.

Please write your answers in ink; pencil is acceptable for graphs and diagrams. Do not use red ink.

The marking scheme shown on each question is indicative only.

Calculators may not be used.

MAT00005C

1 (of 4). (a) Deﬁne the terms supremum and inﬁmum, as applied to a non-empty and bounded set S of real numbers. What are the maximum and minimum

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

of S when they exist?

[4]

For the following sets, write down their supremum and inﬁmum if they exist. You are not required to justify your answers.

S 1

=

{x R: x 3 + x > 0}

and

S 2

=

{x R : (x 1) 2 < 4} .

[4]

State the deﬁnition of convergence of a sequence of real numbers (a n ) nN to a limit a R, and use this deﬁnition to show that

n

3

2n 3 1

1

2

as

n → ∞ .

[7]

Determine the limit as n → ∞ of the following sequences. Make free use of standard combination rules and standard limits, brieﬂy indicating which results you are using; “ε” arguments are not required.

(i)

a n

=

1 + n n n 2 n + 2n n + n!

,

b n

=

4n 4 + n 2 1 + n 5 + n .

Determine whether the following series converges:

n=0

(1) n

log(n + 2) .

[4]

[2]

(ii) What is meant by the radius of convergence of a power series

n=0

a n (x x 0 ) n

(including the cases 0 and )? Find the radius of convergence of the series:

n=0

(1) (2n)! (x 2) n .

n

Page 2 (of 5)

[4]

MAT00005C

2 (of 4). (a) Let f : J R be a real function deﬁned on the non-empty open interval

J R. Give the ε, δ deﬁnition for the limit of f (x) to be L as x tends

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

to a J.

[3]

Using the ε, δ deﬁnition of limit show that the function f : R R given by f (x) = 2x 3 satisﬁes

x1 f(x)

lim

=

2 .

[5]

Let f : J R be a real function deﬁned on the non-empty open interval

J R. Give the deﬁnition for f to be diﬀerentiable at a point a J.

[3]

Using the deﬁnition of derivative, show that

f(x) =

2

1 + x 2

is diﬀerentiable for all x R and compute the derivative f (x).

[6]

Give the deﬁnition of a partition P of the compact interval [a, b]. Give the deﬁnitions of the lower sum L(P, f ) and upper sum U (P, f ) of a

b (f ).

bounded function f : [a, b] R. Deﬁne the quantities L a (f ) and U

b

a

What does it mean for f to be Riemann integrable? [8]

3 (of 4).

(a)

MAT00005C

Suppose S is a bounded, non-empty subset of R consisting of non- negative numbers. Deﬁne

Show that

T

=

{x 2 :

x S} .

sup(T ) =

sup(S) 2 .

[8]

(b) By expanding the numerator and denominator into n factors, show that if n 3 then

 2 n n! ≤ Deduce that 2 n /n! → 0 as n → ∞. 4 n .

[5]

(c) Using any of the convergence tests show that

diverges and

converges.

(d) Show that

j=1

j=1

1

j 2/3

4j + 3

j 5 + j 3 + 1

inf

nN

n + 1

n

=

1

.

Page 4 (of 5)

[6]

[6]

4 (of 4).

(a)

MAT00005C

Suppose f : R R satisﬁes

(i) lim x0 f (x) = 1 , and

(ii) f (x + y) = f (x)f (y) , for all x, y

R .

Show that f is continuous at all x R and f (x) > 0 for all x R.

[8]

(b) Let α and β be two real constants. Deﬁne a function f by:

f(x) =

α(x 1) 2 β(x 1)

if x < 1 , if x 1 .

Using the deﬁnition of diﬀerentiability, show that if β is not equal to

(c)

 zero, then f is not diﬀerentiable at x = 1. [5] State the Mean Value Theorem. Use it to show that if a function
 f : (a, b) → R is diﬀerentiable with f (x) ≤ 0 for all x ∈ (a, b), then f is decreasing. [5]

(d) State Riemann’s criterion of integrability. Let t (a, b) be ﬁxed. Sup-

pose g : [a, b] R is a function such that g(x) = 0 for all x

that g is Riemann integrable on [a, b] and

= t. Show

[7]

a

g = 0.

b

1.

SOLUTIONS

MAT00005C

(a) The supremum of a non-empty and bounded set is the least upper bound

and the inﬁmum is the greatest lower bound. The minimum is the inﬁmum when the inﬁmum belongs to the set, and the maximum is the supremum

when the supremum belongs to the set.

4 Marks

(b) Note that S 1 = (0, ), so it is not bounded above and has no supremum,

x S 2 if and only if |x 1| < 2.

This is equivalent to 1 < x < 3, so the inﬁmum of S 2 is 1 and the supre-

mum is 3.

and also it has inﬁmum 0.

For S 2 we have:

4 Marks

(c) The sequence (a n ) nN converges to a as n → ∞ if for every ε > 0 there

exists N ε N such that if n > N ε then |a n a| < ε.

2 Marks

Let a n = n 3 /(2n 3 1) and let a = 1/2. Given ε > 0, working backwards we have

|a n a| < ε

2n 3 1 1

2

n

3

< ε

1

2(2n 3 1)

< ε .

The latter inequality is equivalent to n 3 > (1/2)(1+1/(2ε)), or n > ((1/2)(1+ 1/(2ε))) 1/3 . By the Archimedean property, there exists N ε N such that N ε > ((1/2)(1 + 1/(2ε))) 1/3 , and by the above, if n > N ε then |a n a| < ε.

So a n converges to 1/2 as n → ∞.

5

Marks

(d) We have for the sequence a n :

a n

=

1 + n n n 2 n + 2n n + n!

=

1/n n + 1 n/n n 2 n /n n + 2 + n!/n n

+ 1 0 + 2 + 0

0

0

=

1

2

,

using combination rules and the fact that n n grows faster to than n, 2 n and n!. Now for the sequence b n we have:

b n

=

4n 4 + n 2 1 + n 5 + n

=

3

4/n + 1/n 1/n 5 + 1 + 1/n 4

0 + 0 0 + 1 + 0

=

0

1

=

0 ,

using combination rules and the fact that n 5 grows faster to than n 4 , n 2

and n.

4

Marks

(e) (i) Leibniz test: note that log(n +2) are positive for n 0 and are increas-

ing, so the terms of the given series alternate in sign, decrease in magnitude

and tend to zero, so the series converges.

2 Marks

(ii) The radius of convergence of the given power series is 0 if the series con-

verges only when x = x 0 and it is when the series converges for all x R.

7

SOLUTIONS

MAT00005C

Otherwise, it is the number R > 0 satisfying that the series converges if

|x x 0 | < R and diverges if |x x 0 | > R.

2 Marks

For the given series, we use the ratio test:

(1) n+1 (x 2) n+1 (1) n (x 2) n

(2(n + 1))!

(2n)!

=

(2n)!

2)! |x 2|

(2n +

=

1

(2n + 2)(2n + 1) |x 2|

0

as n → ∞ .

So the series converges absolutely for all x. Hence the radius of convergence

is R = .

 ✞ 2 ✝ ☎ Marks ✆

Total: 25 Marks

2. (a)

f (x) L as x a if for every ε > 0 there exists δ ε > 0 such that

0 < |x a| < δ ε

x J and |f (x) L| < ε .

3

Marks

(b)

have (we may assume ε < 2)

We have L = 2 and we require |f (x) L| < ε. Working backwards we

 |2x 3 − 2| < ε ⇔ |x 3 − 1| < ε/2 ⇔ −ε/2 < x 3 − 1 < ε/2 ⇔ 1 − ε/2 < x 3 < 1 + ε/2

(1 ε/2) 1/3 < x < (1 + ε/2) 1/3

⇔ −1 + (1 ε/2) 1/3 < x 1 < 1 + (1 + ε/2) 1/3 .

Now choose

δ ε

=

min{1 (1 ε/2) 1/3 ; 1 + (1 + ε/2) 1/3 }

>

0 .

By the above computation we have |x 1| < δ ε implies |f (x) 2| < ε.

f (x) 2 as x 1.

So

5

Marks

(c) f is diﬀerentiable at a J if the following limit exists

f

(a)

=

lim

h0

f(a + h) f(a)

h

.

f (a) is called the derivative of f at the point a.

8

3

Marks

SOLUTIONS

MAT00005C

(d) For f (x) = 2/(1 + x 2 ) we have

f(x + h) f(x) h

=

=

=

=

1

h 1 + (x + h) 2

2 (1 + x 2 ) (1 + (x + h) 2 )

h

2 (1 + x 2 ) (1 + x 2 + 2hx + h 2 )

h

2

2

1 + x 2

2

h

(1 + (x + h) 2 )(1 + x 2 )

(1 + (x + h) 2 )(1 + x 2 )

(1 + (x + h) 2 )(1

2hx h 2 + x 2 ) =

4x 2h

(1 + (x + h) 2 )(1 + x 2 ) .

Taking the limit as h 0 and using the algebra of limits, we conclude that f is diﬀerentiable at all x R and

f

(x)

=

4x

(1 + x 2 ) 2 .

(e) A partition of the interval [a, b] is a subset P = {x 0 , x 1 ,

a = x 0 < x 1 <

< x n = b.

By deﬁnition, the lower sum is

L(P, f) =

n1

j=0

m j (x j+1 x j ),

where m j = inf{f (x) : x j x x j+1 },

and the upper sum is

U(P, f) =

n1

j=0

M j (x j+1 x j ),

where M j = sup{f (x) : x j x x j+1 }.

Deﬁne also the numbers

b

L a (f )

= sup{L(P, f ): all partitions P } ,

and

b (f ) = inf{U (P, f ): all partitions P } .

U

a

9

6 Marks

, x n } for which

3.

SOLUTIONS

MAT00005C

1 Mark

f

as

is Riemann integrable if L a (f) = U

b

a

f = L a (f) = U

b

b

a

(f ).

b

b (f ), in which case we deﬁne the integral

a

3 Marks

Total: 25 Marks

(a) Let b = sup(S). Then x b for all x S. Since f (x) = x 2 is strictly

increasing on (0, ) we see that x 2 b 2 for all x S. This shows that for every y T , we have y b 2 . Hence b 2 is an upper bound for T . To show that this is the least upper bound, suppose c is another upper bound for T . (Note that since the elements of T are non-negative, we have c 0.) So for every

y T we have y c. Since the function g(x) = x is strictly increasing on

(0, ) we have y c. Putting y = x 2

we get x c for all x S. Hence

c is an upper bound for S. Therefore, b c (since b is the least upper bound for S). So applying f we obtain b 2 c and then b 2 is the least upper

bound for T .

 ✞ 8 ✝ ☎ Marks ✆

(b) We have

2

n

n!

=

2 2 2

1 2

3 ···

2

2

(n 1) n .

The product of the ﬁrst two terms is 2, and if n 3, each of the next (n 3) terms are less than 1, and the last term is 2/n, so we obtain

0 < 2 n! n 2 n = 4

2

n .

Since 4/n 0 as n → ∞, by the Sandwich Theorem we conclude that

2 n /n! 0 as n → ∞.

5

Marks

(c) Consider the series

(1)

j=1

1

j 2/3

and

(2)

j=1

4j + 3

j 5 + j 3 + 1

we apply the Cauchy’s condensation test to (1) and the limit comparison test to (2). In the case of (1) the condensed series is

k=1

2 k

1

2 2k/3

=

k=1

2 k/3 .

Since the latter series diverges, the condensed series diverges. Therefore, by Cauchy’s condensation test the series (1) diverges. Another way of proving

10

SOLUTIONS

MAT00005C

this is to see that j 2/3 j for all j N, which implies 1/j 2/3 1/j and then

n

j=1

1

j 2/3

n

j=1

1

j

,

for all n N. Since the harmonic series j1 1/j diverges, it follows that the series (1) diverges by the comparison test.

Now for the series (2) we note that

4j + 3 j 5 + j 3

+ 1 j

1

4 =

4j 5 + 3j 4 j 5 + j 3

+ 1 4 ,

so the series (2) converges by the limit comparison test (since j1 1/j 4 is

convergent and the series (2) has non-negative terms).

 ✞ 6 ✝ ☎ Marks ✆

(d) Since n + 1 > n we conclude that n + 1/ n 1, so 1 is a lower

bound for the set. bound. Assume

Now let b > 1 and we should show that b is not a lower

n + 1

n

=

1 + 1/n

b .

Then 1 + 1/n b 2 and 1/n b 2 1 > 0. This implies that n 1/(b 2 1). By the Archimedean property, this does not hold for every n N, so b cannot be a lower bound. This shows that the greatest lower bound (inﬁmum) is 1.

6

Marks

Total: 25 Marks

4. (a) First let us show that f is continuous at every x R. Consider the point x + h for h small. Then

f (x + h) f (x) = f (x)f (h) f (x) = f (x)(f (h) 1) .

Since lim h0 f (h) = 1 by hypothesis, we see that lim h0 f (x + h) = f (x), so

lim yx f (y) = f (x) and f is continuous at x R.

4

Marks

Now, suppose that f (x) = 0 for some x R then

f(x + y) = f(x)f(y) = 0 ,

for all y R. This implies that f is identically zero. But lim x0 f(x) = 1

= 0 for all x R.

11

SOLUTIONS

MAT00005C

By the Intermediate Value Theorem, since f is continuous, it may not change signs in R. Since lim x0 f (x) = 1 this implies that f (x) > 0 for all x R.

 ✞ 4 ✝ ☎ Marks ✆

(b) Suppose β

one-sided limits. We have

= 0. For the diﬀerentiability of f at x = 1 we need to consider

lim

h0 +

f (1 + h) f (1)

h

=

lim

h0 +

βh 0

h

=

β

while

lim

h0

f (1 + h) f (1)

h

=

lim

h0

αh 2 0

h

= 0 .

Since the two one-sided limits exist but do not coincide (since β

conclude that the two-sided limit

= 0),

lim

h0

f (1 + h) f (1)

h

we

does not exist, i.e., f is not diﬀerentiable at x = 1.

5 Marks

(c) The Mean Value Theorem states that if a function f : [a, b] R is con-

tinuous on [a, b] and diﬀerentiable on (a, b) then there exists c (a, b) such that

f (c) = f(b) f(a) b a

.

2

Marks

Suppose f : (a, b) R is diﬀerentiable and let a < x < y < b. Mean Value Theorem there exists c (x, y) for which

Then by the

f(y) f(x)

y x

= f (c) 0.

Since y x > 0 it follows that f (y) f (x). arbitrary, f is decreasing on (a, b).

Since the choice of x < y was

3 Marks

(d) Riemann’s criterion for integrability states that a bounded function f : [a, b]

R is Riemann integrable if and only if given any ε > 0 there exists a partition

P ε of [a, b] for which

U(P ε , f) L(P ε , f ) < ε.

12

 ✞ 2 ✝ ☎ Marks ✆

SOLUTIONS

MAT00005C

Now for the function g, consider the partition

P δ = {r, t δ, t + δ, s}.

Then

(1)

So given ε > 0, we may choose δ small enough (for instance less than

2δ|g(t)| ≤ L(P δ , g) U(P δ , g) 2δ|g(t)| .

ε/(4|g(t)|) for g(t)

= 0, which we can assume to be true) such that U (P δ , g)

L(P δ , g) < ε. By Riemann’s criterion for integrability, it follows that g is integrable on [a, b]. Now the integral satisﬁes

L(P δ , g) b g U(P δ , g).

a

From (1) we see that for every δ > 0,

2δ|g(t)| ≤ b g 2δ|g(t)| .

a

Hence the only solution is

a b g = 0.

13

5 Marks

Total: 25 Marks