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Ingenieurgeologische Schlüsselprobleme beim

Bau der AlpTransit Basistunnel

Simon Löw
Professur für Ingenieurgeologie
ETH Zürich

AlpTransit: Geological Key Problems


of the World‘s Longest Tunnel
System under Construction
Simon Löw
Chair for Engineering Geology
ETH Zürich, Switzerland

Thanks to: Hans-


Hans-Jakob Ziegler,
Ziegler, Franz Keller,
Susanne Laws, Hansruedi Maurer,
Maurer, Volker
Lützenkirchen

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Overview

■ Project Characteristics
■ Geological Setting
■ Key Geologic Hazards and their
Evaluation
– Overbreak & Inflows from Fault Zones
– Strongly Squeezing Ground in Phyllites and Schists
– Debris Inflows from Sugar Grained Dolomites
– Karst Water Inflows from Limestones
■ On-going Investigations & Summary

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Inhalt

■ Die AlpTransit Tunnelprojekte


■ Geologischer Rahmen
■ Geologische Schlüsselprobleme
– Überblick
– Wasserführende Störzonen
– Druckhaftes Gebirge in Phylliten und Schiefern
– Karstwassereinbrüche
– Einbrüche von zuckerkörnigem Dolomit
■ Laufende Untersuchungen und
Zusammenfassung
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The European
High Speed
Railway Network
and the
AlpTransit Axes

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The AlpTransit Base Tunnels

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Schedule

Modernisierung der Bahn


Bauprogramm Gotthard
San Gottardo

2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025

2000 Lötschberg 2007

2000 Gotthard 2012

2006 Zimmerberg 2013


Neat
2006 Ceneri 2016

Ausbauten
2007 2011 St. Gallen – Arth-Goldau
Verbindung
2011 2016
Zürichsee – Gotthard

2000 1. Etappe 2005 Bahn

7.5.2_ Modern.Bahnen.Bauprogramm_98_0161_S
2011 2.Etappe 2022 2000

Rollmaterial
Infrastruktur Lärmschutz

Anschluss an
2002 2012
europäisches Hochleistungsnetz

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Gotthard Axes: Topographic Section

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Tunnel Construction (Gotthard)

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Geological Profile: Lötschberg Tunnel

Modified after: Kellerhals & Ziegler 1998

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Tunnel Construction Stage (Lötschberg)

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Geological Profile: Gotthard Tunnel

Modified after: Schneider 1993

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Tunnel Construction Stage (Gotthard)

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Key Geological Hazards: Overview


Geologic Unit Potential Tectonic Max.
Key Hazard Unit Length
Cataclastic Faults High Pressure Crystalline Massifs, ∼100 ⋅∼5 m
Water Inflow Penninic Gneises
Weak Rocks Strongly Squeezing Crystalline Massifs 1.3 km
(Phillites, Schists, Ground
Cataclasites)
Granites Rock Burst Crystalline Massifs >14 km

Sugar Grained Water Saturated (Par)autochthonous ∼200 m


Dolomites Debris Inflow, Triassic Sediments
Cohesionless Rock
Karst Solution High Pressure Helvetic Limestones 3 km
Cavities Water Inflow

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Fault Zones:
Problem

From: Lützenkirchen et al. 2001

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Fault Zones: Problem

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Fault Zones: Approach

From: Laws et al. 2001

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Fault Zones: Results

From: Laws et al. 2001

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Weak Rocks: Problem

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Weak Rocks: Approach

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Weak Rocks: Results

Typ Lithology W E ν Φ Φ C C
% kN/m3 GPa [-]Peak Res. Peak Res.
[°]° [°]° [kPa] [kPa]
Hard and brittle rocks
D Muskovite 29 26 25 0.20 36 34 2000 500
Gneis
Soft and ductile rocks
F Schist 8 26 15 0.20 30 30 150 150
G Phyllite 1 26 10 0.25 28 28 100 100
Ductile Cataclastic Rocks
D Cataclastic 24 24 - 26 20 0.25 34 34 400 400
Gneis
F Cataclastic 14 24 - 26 12 0.20 30 30 120 120
Schist
G Cataclastic 1 24 - 26 8 0.25 28 28 75 75
Phyllite
H, J Cohesionless 23 24 - 26 2-7.5 0.30 24 26 75 250
Cataclasite

From: Ehrbar & Pfenninger 1999

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Sugar Grained Dolomites: Problem

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Sugar Grained Dolomites: Approach

Modified after: Schneider 1999

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Sugar Grained Dolomites: Results

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Sugar Grained Dolomites: Results
From: Volpers (Blowout2)

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Sugar Grained Dolomites: Results

From: Volpers (Sedimente 2)


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Sugar Grained Dolomites: Results
Modified after: Schneider 1999

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Sugar Grained Dolomites: Results

From: Schaad & Pfiffner 1992

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Karst: Problem

From: Kellerhals & Häfeli AG

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Karst: Problem (Worst Case)

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Karst: Approach
From: Kellerhals & Häfeli AG

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Karst: Approach (Georadar)

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Karst:
Model Results
(Georadar)

From: Schaad & Pfiffner 1992

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From: Schaad & Pfiffner 1992

Karst:
Model Results
(Georadar)

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Karst:
Model Results
(Seismic
Tomography)

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Karst: First Drilling Results (km 26.000)

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Karst: Results (Drilling & Sealing)
From: IG LBT 2002

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Karst: Results (Drilling & Sealing)


From: Kellerhals & Häfeli AG 2001

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Summary and Outlook
■ Generally Good Ground Conditions
■ Key Geological Hazards:
– High Water Inflows under High Pressure from
Faults and Karst Cavities
– Strongly Squeezing Ground in Tectonized Schists
& Phyllites
– Inflows of Rock Debris under High Pressure
– Rock Burst Phenomena
■ Major Ongoing Studies:
– Exploration Methods ahead of Tunnel Face
– TBM Excavation in Highly Stressed Ground
– Sealing Methods for Permeable Structures under
High Fluid Pressures
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Zusammenfassung und Ausblick


■ Generel gute Gebirgsverhältnisse
■ Geologische Schlüsselprobleme:
– Wassereinbrüche unter hohen Drücken aus
kataklastischen Störzonen und Karststrukturen
– Stark druckhaftes Gebirge in tektonisierten Phylliten
und Schiefern
– Wasser-
Wasser- und Sandeinbrüche mit kohäsionslosem
Gebirge in zuckerkörnigem Dolomit
– Bergschlagphänomene
■ Wichtige laufende Untersuchungen:
– Vorauserkundung mit Vorbohrungen & Geophysik
– Injektionen in permeable Störzonen und Karst

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