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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE

GENIE CHIMIQUE
VOL. 16 1961 Nos. 3 and 4

Determination of the Conditions at Minimum Reflux when the keys


are the most and least volatile components

J. A. MCDONOUGII and C. D. HOLLAND


Department of Chemical Engineering, A. and M. College of Texas, College Station, Texas, USA.

and

H. L. BAUNI
Humble Oil and Refining Company, Baytown, Texas, U.S.A.

(Received 18 July 1060 ; in mvised form 24 January 1061)

Abstract-Proofs of the relationships between the temperature and composition of the feed
and those of the pinches are given for feeds having any one of five general thermal conditions.
In the applicationof these relationships a procedure for the calculation of the product distributions
at specified distillate and reflux rates is presented.

RBsum&L’auteur donne 3es preuves des relations existant entre la temp&rature et la com-
position de l’alimentation et celles des “ pinches ” pour des alimentations ayant l’une ou l’autre
des 5 conditions thermiques g&&ales.
Dans le cadre de l’application de ces relations, l’auteur prbsente un pro&d& pour le calcul
des distributions de produit et des taux de reflux pour un distillat dktermind.

Zusammenfassung-Fiir die Beziehungen zwischen der Temperatur und der Zusammensetzung


des Zulaufs und den Werten der Zwickelbereiche werden Bestiitigungen fiir Zuliiufe fiir irgendeine
der fiinf allgemeinen thermischen Bedingungen angegeben. Bei der Anwendung dieser Beziehungen
wird eine Methode fiir die Berechnung deer Produktverteilung bei speziellen Destillier- und
Riicklaufgeschwindigkeiten mitgeteilt. _

THE RELATIONSHIPSwhich are proved herein apply authors solved the problem in which the separa-
at minimum reflux to distillation columns when the tions of two components are specified and the
keys are the most and least volatile components minimum reflux ratio (L,/D) required to effect the
of the mixture. These components are also for separation is determined. In the applications
convenience referred to as the lightest and presented the distillate rate, D, and the overhead
heaviest, respectively. The columns considered vapour rate, V,, (or L,) are specified and the
contain a single feed plate and two withdrawals, corresponding product distribution is determined,
the distillate and bottoms. provided the keys are the most and least volatile
The term “ pinch ” is used to denote the components of the mixture.
existence of a limit for the vapour and for the As discussed by GILLILAND [3], when two
liquid mole fractions as the number of plates is components other than the lightest and heaviest
increased without bound. Following the proofs are designated as the key components, the
a few applications are given. These applications rectifying pinch occurs infinite plates above the
represent a different approach than that taken by feed plate after all components less volatile than
SHIRAS et al. [l] and BACHELOR [2]. These the heavy key have been separated. The pinch

143
J. A. MCDONOUGH,C. D. HOLLANDand H. L. BAUNI

in the stripping section occurs infinite plates


I
below the feed plate. It occurs in the limit as all
t f-l,r )
components lighter than the light key have been 5=v ; Lf =L
separated. L-__ _-___ _f__r______-‘-I ___:
When the keys are specified as the most and F > L
J
least volatile components of the mixture, the
rectifying pinch occurs adjacent to the feed plate
and the stripping pinch occurs at and generally vf= v, Lf_,+ I=
f, s
includes the feed plate, as shown in Figs. 1-5. /I
sr,+,=% = L,
This has been discussed by JENNY [a] and Lf

UNDERWOOD[5].
Feeds having any one of five general thermal
-____---_--- - ----
conditions are considered herein. The action r--- - ---1
I
assumed to occur at the feed plate for each type Vf+,= Vs cc= L, I
of feed is given by the following definitions. A f+Y, s 1

boiling-point liquid feed is defined as one that I


Lf= Lf_,+qF, q-l I
enters the column as a liquid at its boiling point I
vf=vf+,+ (I-q)F I
at the column pressure. A subcooled feed is
I
defined as one which enters the column as a
liquid at a temperature below its bubble point FIG. 2. Conditionson the feed plate for subcooled
at the column pressure. For boiling-point and feeds.
subcooled feeds it is assumed that the liquid
upon entering the column mixes perfectly with column as a vapour at its dew point at the column
the liquid on the feed plate and comes to equili- pressure. A superheated feed is defined as one
brium with the vapour immediately above it. which enters the column as a vapour at a tempera-
A dew point vapour feed is one which enters the ture above its dew point at the column pressure.

I I
I I
I I

r---'
I
I
I

I
i if_,= Lf_,+ F
I
FIG. 1. Conditions on the feed plate for bubble-point FIQ. 8. Conditions on the feed plate for a dew-point
liquid feeds. vapour feed.

144
Determination of the conditions at rrbimum reflux when the keys are the most and least volatile components

feed plate is not assumed). A partially vapourized


feed is defined as one which consists of an equili-
brium mixture of liquid and vapour at the tem-
perature T, and at the column pressure. As
illustrated in Fig. 5 the liquid part of the feed
flows onto the feed plate, mixes perfectly with the
liquid on the tray and comes to equilibrium with
the vapour immediately above it. The vapour
F 1 I&=VftF Ilf_,=L,l’ ” part of the feed is considered to mix perfectly
with the vapour rising from the feed plate and
d

r___ ____-.__-__-___--- ---, then to enter the plate above the feed plate.
In the proofs which follow the equilibrium
,i
I
I Vf = v, f-l=Ls I
I .f,s I constants in Henry’s law are taken to be positive
I
I functions of temperature and pressure. Through-
I
out the pinches, the compositions are constant
for each component i. For the rectifying pinch
this is expressed as follows :
Lf_,=Lf_2+qfs q<O lim yji = yli and lim xj:3i= X,i
vr=vs t (I-q)F j+m j-too

FIG. 4. Conditions on the feed plate for a superheated Thus the temperatures are constant throughout
feed. each pinch. Since the enthalpies are functions of
the compositions and temperatures of the respec-
For dew point and superheated feeds it is assumed tive pinches it follows that the enthalpies as well
that the vapour upon entering the column mixes as the flow rates remain constant throughout
perfectly with the vapour rising from the feed each pinch.
plate and enters the plate above. (Equilibrium The relationships of the pinch compositions
between the mixed vapour and the liquid on the and temperatures with each other and with those
I of the feed are given in Table 1 for feeds having
I any one of the five thermal conditions. Except
I
I for a partially-vapourized feed, which is treated
I
I in a subsequent section, the relationships shown
I -I,r I in Table 1 are obtained in a similar manner to
Vff= v, Lf-,= L,

33
I
L--_- .__-- -------- ----. -- 1 that shown for a boiling-point liquid feed. For
F VF such a feed, Ufi = v/i and v,< = vii. Thus,
LF ----___------. y7i = y8i and since equilibrium exists at each
,____ --1 pinch, x,~ = x8:,iand T, = T,. For subcooled and
r----
VT = v, if-l = L$
I
superheated feeds the equality of the pinch
,S
compositions follows from the equilibrium rela-
tionships given in Table 2. The composition of
l the feed is related to those of the pinches by
I
I equation (3), which is based on the following
I material balance :
QVf tv, FXFi + Lr Xri + J’s yai = J’r Yri + Ls X.vi (1)
if_,=
Lf_,f’L,
Let the thermal condition of the feed be defined
in terms of Q as follows :
FIG. 5. Conditions on the feed plate for a partially
vapourized feed. L, = L, + qF, or V, - V, = (1 - q) F (2)
Ch. Engng. Sci. Vol. 16, Nos. 8 and 4. December, 1981.
_ .-
145
J. A. MCDONOUGH,C. D. HOLLAND and H. L. BAUNI

Table 1. Relationships necessary for the keys to be the most and least
volatile components of the feed

Thermal condition of
Ihe feed Relationships Inequrrlity

Boiling-point liquid Yli = Ysi, zTi = xti, XRi = xTi and T, = T, = T, ICI*-&*<;

Subcooled liquid Yri = Y& + = Q, T,, = T, and T, is given by IQ. [5] “l-Ke<(l +~+f

Partially vapourized yri = Ysi = YFi, si = xsi = xfiTi and T, = T, = TF K,-RK,<(l -+Q-!?j

Dew-point vapour Q = xai, Yri = yd, T, = T,, Xpi = y,i and TF = T,. = T, K,-Kc+ t r

= xJi, Y,.i = ysi, T, = T, and T, is given by equation (5) K _ K < (1 T 9) F%F


Superheated vapour %i 1 c
VT v+I

*Where the components of the feed are numbered in the order of decreasing volatility ; the most volatile component
is denoted by “ 1” and the least volatile by “ c.”

Table 2. Form&e needed for the calculation of bildi


-
Thermal condition
of the feed Calculation of bi/di
--

bi _ (@fJdJ
--_I_ V& = vfi pi = “Li
Boiling-point liquid
di (vfi/bi) ’ di x ’ bi bi

bi= (‘iifildi) vfi _ ‘ri


Subcooled liquid
di ~) ’ di - di ” bi

&= ($-1,i/dg) f (lFJFxFi) , I/-I, i _ & , yi = !&


Partially vapourized
di (V/i/‘bi) + (v&FXFJ di di bi bi

Dew-point vapour

Superheated vapour

I
General pinch equations for a feed of any thermal condition

Rectifying section Stripping se&on

1
V-e= - ) & = Ati ‘!!i
di 1 - A,< di 0 di

146
Determination of the conditions at minimum reflux when the keys are the most and least volatile components

Once it has been shown that yri = ysi and L, zf-l i = Lr XJ-1, i + LEE XFi (9)
xri = x,i equations (1) and (2) may be combined
VT = vs + vl?, L, = L, + LF
to give the expression for the familiar q-line. (10)

Also since the feed plate is in the stripping section


XI% = (1 - 4) Yri + Q&i (3) Tf = T,, but it remains to be shown that T, = T,.
Since q = 1 for a boiling-point liquid feed it Equations (6) and (8) may be combined to give
follows from equation (3) that XJP~= rt;i and
vr yri = vs !/si + VFyFi (11)
thus TF = T,. For subcooled and superheated
feeds T, is determined by use of equation (5), Division of each member of this equation by Kri,
which is developed in the following manner. followed by the summation over all components
Equation (3) may be solved for xri to give gives
v T zz v, i !&! + v, 2 y!! since i& = 1.
XFi i=i Kvi i=i K, i=l Kri
xri= (1 - 4) K,i + Q
This expression for V, may be combined with
Summation of both sides of this expression over equation (10) to give
all components leads to the function p (T), where

XFi V 2 (YdKrJ 1
- 1
’ (T)= ii (5) _._t.= i-1

1
(1 - q) Kri + q - ’ (12)
vF

The temperature which gives p (T) = 0 is


T = T, = T,. Commencing with equations (6), (9) and (lo),
the expression for L,/Lp is developed in an analo-
PARTIALLY-VAPOURIZED FEEDS
gous manner to that shown for V,/ V,.
For systems with a feed of this type in which
the keys are the lightest and heaviest components A? K+i Xp - 2 K,i X,i
L
it is to be shown that at minimum reflux --I_= i=l i=l
(13)
LR =
(1) TF= T,= T, Z Kri xai - 1
i=l
(2) yF( = yri = YslJi
and EFi = r,i = LZ?,i
Equations (12) and (13) are used in the proofs
The equality of the temperatures is established which follow.
by means of an indirect proof. In the first part
of the proof it will be shown that TF = T,. Part I - To prove : TF = T,
In order to prove this it is supposed that TR < T, Proof. Suppose TF < T,. Consideration of
and then a contradiction is obtained. Next it is equation (12) on the basis of this supposition
supposed that TF > T, and again a contradiction shows that
is obtained. This leads to the conclusion that
TF = T,. In the second part of the proof it is
shown in a similar manner that TF = T,. In the
Since all flow rates are positive v,/vF > 6.
final part of the proof the equality of the composi- These
two results require that
tions is shown. The development of certain
relationships needed in the proofs follows. The
conditions at the feed plate are described by the ’
following equations :
which is satisfied provided
Ffi = Y&Y xf-l,i = gri9 zf-l,i = XC Yfi = Ysi (‘3)
T, < T, (14)
YFi = KF~ XF~P YJi = KJi XJi (7) Consideration of equation (13) under the same
vr y/i = va yfi + VF YF~ (8) supposition, TF < T,, gives
Chtm. Engng. Sci. Vol. 16, Nos. 3 and 4. December,1961
147
J. A. MCDONOUGH, C.D. HOLLAND and H. L. BAUNI

aiK,lxFi>l L
iK,s,Yl
i=l -- 7 _ i=l (20)
and since L,/Lp > 0, it is necessary that L,
l- xiKlizti
i-l

1< iK,iqi< i KyixFi Proof. Because of the repetition involved


i=l i-1 only an outline of the proof is given. Suppose
in order for equation (13)to be satisfied. Since T, < T,. In an analogous manner to that shown
by this inequality for the supposition that T, < T, of Part I,
it is readily deduced that T, is either equal to or
e
Z K,i z:si > 1 greater than T,. Similarly, when it is supposed
i=l that T, > T,, it is found that T, is either less
it follows that ‘than or equal to T,. Therefore
T, > T, (15)
T, = T, (21)
This result constitutes a contradiction to the
previous one (equation (14)). Therefore, the In view of equations (18),(21)and the fact that
supposition TF < T,. is false. Thus, T, must be TJ = T, the desired result
either equal to or greater than T,. That TP TF = TI = T, = T,
can not be greater than T, is proved next. is obtained.
Suppose TF > T,. By a method analogous to
that used to obtain equation (14) it is readily
shown that equation (12) leads to the following Part III - To prove : 9~~ = yri = ysi and
conclusion XFi = Li??i
= ;c,i
T, -C T, (16) Proof. By use of the previous result,
TF = T, = T,, it will be shown that ysi = y&.
Similarly, consideration of equation (13) on the Beginning with v,/di = l,i/di + 1 and vri = vsi
basis of the supposition that TF > T, leads to -j- vFi, it is readily shown that
the relationship.
T, > T, (17) bi
__= (&i/4) + (~~i/FxE’i)
(22)
& (vti/bi) + (vFi/FxFI)
This result contradicts the previous one (equation
(16)).Therefore the supposition TP > T, is false. Also, at the stripping pinch vi is given by
Hence, TBl must be either less than or equal to
T,. When this conclusion is compared with the V,i =

previous one which follows equation (15) the


desired conclusion An over-all material balance for component i
TF = T, 08) may be rearranged to the following form :
is obtained.
bi =
FXF~
1 + (diPi)
Part II - To prove : TF = T, Furthermore, since
In an analogous manner to that shown for the
1 =A
development of equations (12) and (13) the A
1 - Ari
following relationships are readily obtained : 4

and K, = K,, V, = V, + VF and L, = L, + LF,


equations (22)-(25)
may be solved to give

2 (Y~L) - 1 Usi
= vFi f1+ ( ‘r LF/‘Fq = v, vFi (26)

i-1 [fvrL,/v, Lr) - ‘1 vF

148
Determination of the conditions at minimum reflux when the keys are the most and least volatile components

Therefore, yti = Eli. By use of this result and of the pinches occur away from the feed plate.
equations (10) and (11) it follows that yTi = y,+ A system may be examined to determine whether
Hence, or not it is possible at the specified values of D
?/ri = Ysi - YFi (27) and V, for the keys to be the lightest and heaviest
components. Since the flow rates of all com-
Since TF = T, = T, division of each member of
ponents in the pinches are greater than zero it is
equation (27) by ~~~ yields
necessary that Ari and S, be less than unity.
x,i = xsi = XFi (23) The quantity A,i is largest when i = c, the heaviest
component, and S, is largest for i = 1, the
APPLICATIONS lightest component. These conditions and similar
In the following treatment of a system at ones for feeds of other thermal conditions lead
minimum reflux it is supposed that D, V,, the to the inequalities stated in Table 1. If the
thermal condition of the feed and the column inequality corresponding to a given feed condition
pressure are specified and that the keys are is satisfied for a given set of specifications a
designated as the most and least volatile com- solution is said to exist. It is to be observed that
ponents of the mixture. For this set of specifi- either the heaviest (or lightest) component
cations it is desired to find the product distribution ceases to be a key as it becomes completely
at infinite plates in both sections. Systems in separated in the limit as A,c (or S,,) approaches
which L/V remains constant throughout each unity.
section of the column and those where L/V may When the thermal condition of the feed is
vary in each section of the column are considered. either boiling-point liquid, dew-point vapour or
partially vapourized the product distribution is
Constant molal overjlows in each section calculated by use of the formulae given in Table 2,
When the specifications are as stated previously as illustrated by Example 1 of Table 3. For
the product distribution is readily obtained, systems with feeds having one of these thermal
provided it exists; that is a set of values for D and conditions a direct solution exists because the
VI may be specified such that it is impossible for temperature of the feed is equal to that of the
the keys to be the lightest and heaviest com- pinches.
ponents of the mixture. In which case one or both For the case of either a superheated or a

Table 3. Statement wui solution of example 1


statemeti

Cmp. no. KF~ FXFi SpecijTcations

1 1.5 33.3333 Thermal condition of feed = boiling-point liquid


2 1.0 33.3333
3 0.5 33.3333 D = 50, Y, = V, = 90, (Thus, L, = 40, L, = lao, V, = 90)
The keys are components “ 1” and “ 3 ”

Solutifm

L s . = Km v= bi d.= FxFi
Ari = -.-L-
81 t
con&p. no. KFiV, 4 4 1 + bt/di

1 0.296296 0.964286 0.052632 31.666666


2 O-M4444 O-642857 1+OOOOO 16.666666
3 0.888889 0.321429 19wOOOO 1666666

Chem.Engng. Sci. Vol. 16, Nos. s and 4. December, 1961.


149
J. A. MCDONOUGH,
C. D. HOLLANDand H. L. BAUNI

subcooled feed, the formulae given in Tables 1 tional procedure for the determination of the
and 2 are applicable, but some trial is involved product distribution at spetiified values of D and
since neither T, nor T, is known, only that VI follows closely that described for systems in
T, = T,. The value of T to be employed is the which the molal overflows remained constant
one for which p (T) = 0, equation (5). It is to be within each section of the column, except that the
observed that this T is a function of the thermal flow rates at the pinches are determined by use
condition of the feed alone and independent of of enthalpy and material balances.
V,., D and L,. However, in order for a solution to When the thermal condition of the feed is either
exist at the specific values of D and VI it is boiling-point liquid, dew-point vapour or partially
necessary for the appropriate inequality given in vapourized the following general procedure is
Table 1 to be satisfied at the T which gives recommended. On the basis of an assumed value
p (T) = 0. If the inequality is not satisfied it is for V,. which satisfies the appropriate inequality
impossible for the keys to be the lightest and of Table 1 b,/d, for each component is computed
heaviest components of the mixture. by use of the appropriate formula given in
In the solution of Example 2, Table 4, equation Table 2. Then by use of an over-all material
(5) was used to determine the temperature of the balance, equation (24), the product rates for each
pinches. The results obtained for Examples 1 component are calculated. After these have
and 2 were checked by use of the formulae stated been computed the compositions needed in the
by MURDOCH and HOLLAND [S]. In the application enthalpy balances are calculated. After the
of their formulae the values of b,/dg for components temperature (or temperatures) of the distillate
1 and 3 obtained for Examples 1 and 2 were taken and the top plate have been determined by
as the specifications. The corresponding values means of the appropriate equilibrium (bubble
of D and L,/D were then computed and found to point or dew point) and material balance calcula-
be in agreement with those specified for Examples tions the condenser duty is found by making an
1 and 2. enthalpy balance around the condenser. The
vapour and liquid rates at the rectifying pinch
Variable overJor.vs are calculated by means of enthalpy and material
For the case of variable overflows the calcula- balances around the condenser and the rectifying

Table 4. Statement and solution of example 2

Comp. no. FXF~ Specijications


“i
_-

3.0 33.3333 Superheated feed : q = - 0.05. D = 50, V, = V 7= 120

2.0 33.3333 (Thus,L, = L, = 70, L, = 65). The keys are components


1 and 3. (Note, for constant - o! problems it is convenient
1.0 33.3333 to replace Ki of equation (5) by miK, and find the value of
K, which gives p (2’) = 0)

Solution

Comp. no. Ki (by equation (5)


K, = 0.61768375)

1 1.85305125 6.54185 26.791482


2 1.2353675 12.420323 20.913010
3 0.61768375 31.037828 2.295505

150
Determination of the conditions at minimum reflux when the keys are the most and least volatile components

pinch. After these rates have been determined adjusting the computed value as required to
the flow rates at the stripping pinch are readily satisfy the inequality. The correct product
determined by use of the appropriate material distribution has been obtained when the assumed
balances. and calculated values of V, are in agreement. If
Instead of using the particular value of V, it is impossible to obtain agreement between these
(computed by means of enthalpy balances) for values and to satisfy the given inequality simul-
the next trial a better value to be employed is taneously a solution does not exist as discussed
the one given by interpolation (regula falsi), as in the preceding section.
described by SOKOLNIKOFF [7]. Before this In order to illustrate the use of the equations
value of V, may be used it is necessary to deter- for variable L/V prablems Example 3 shown in
mine whether or not it satisfies the appropriate Table 5 was solved by two different methods,
inequality of Table 1. If it does not the value of direct interation and interpolation. In the
V, to be assumed for the next trail is obtained by method of direct interation the assumed value of

Table 5. Statement and solution of example 3

Component FXF~ Specijications


___
%HI 20.0 Boiling-point liquid feed (26’7.34’P at 4~0 p.s.i.a.).
i C, H,, 20.0 D = 40, V, = 55, L, = 15. The keys are C, H, and
n C* H,, 20.0 n CLi%* (Curve-fits for the equilibrium,data are given

i C, % 20.0 in Table 6 and those for the enthalpies are given in

n C, % 20.0 Ref. [S].)

Trial no. ( v,)aswmed ( ~,)calculated Component 4

1 55 54.499 ‘S H8 1’7.168039
2 54.499 54.352 i C4 HI, 9.501945
3 54.7058* 54.7060 n C4 % 7.361634
4 54.7058 54.7059** iC5 %z 3440505
n C5H12 2.527875

*For all trials after the second the assumed value was determined by interpolation.
Tin order to obtain this same accuracy by direct intertion thirteen additional trials were required.

Table 6. Equilibrium data*

cowkp. aI x lo2
I
a2x lo5 as x 10’
I a4 = 1PJ

‘3 H8 - 27.980091 118.11943 - 10.935041 3.5180421


i c, - 23.209137 87.122379 - 6.6100972 1.6677740
nC, - 23.203344 83.753226 - 6.177436 1.5243376
i c, - 6.981454 8.8862037 3.9689556 - 2.9075073
n c5 3.7103008 - 36.257004 9.9113800 - 5444111

(Ki/T)1j3 = ali + a2; T + agi T2 + aqi T3, (T in “R)


*See Ref. [9].

Chum.En.gng.Sci. Vd. 10, Nos. 3 and 4. December, 1901.


151
J. A. McDONOUOH, C. D. HOLLAND and H. L. BAUNI

Vr for the next trial was t a k e n equal to the one f e e d s L F ----F, and for d e w - p o i n t v a p o u r
calculated by the previous trial. As s h o w n in and s u p e r h e a t e d f e e d s L F ---- 0
p (T) = f u n c t i o n of t e m p e r a t u r e ; d e f i n e d by e q u a t i o n
Table 5 more rapid convergence is obtained by
(5)
use of interpolation. q ~ a m e a s u r e of t h e t h e r m a l c o n d i t i o n of t h e
Acknowledgments--The a s s i s t a n c e g i v e n by Mr. W. M. feed ; d e f i n e d by e q u a t i o n (2)
HARp and Dr. K. K. McMIIJ~IN of t h e H u m b l e Oil and Sji ~ s t r i p p i n g f a c t o r for c o m p o n e n t i and for p l a t e
R e f i n i n g C o m p a n y is a p p r e c i a t e d . The a u t h o r s a t the J
college wish to acknowledge t h e a d d i t i o n a l s u p p o r t g i v e n T ~ t e m p e r a t u r e in ° R
t o t h e m e i t h e r i n d i v i d u a l l y or collectively by t h e E. I. d u vii ~ m o l a l r a t e a t w h i c h c o m p o n e n t i in the
P o n t de N e m o u r s and C o m p a n y , the N a t i o n a l S c i e n c e v a p o u r s t a t e l e a v e s p l a t e j. vii ~ m o l a l r a t e
F o u n d a t i o n and the T e x a s E n g i n e e r i n g E x p e r i m e n t a t w h i c h c o m p o n e n t i in t h e v a p o u r s t a t e
S t a t i o n , and for t h e e n c o u r a g e m e n t g i v e n by Dr. E. C. e n t e r s p l a t e f -- 1
KLIPPLE of t h e college. VFi ~ m o l a l r a t e of flow of c o m p o n e n t i in the
v a p o u r p a r t of a p a r t i a l l y v a p o u r i z e d feed
NOTATIONS Vj ~ t o t a l m o l a l r a t e of flow of v a p o u r from p l a t e
j. Vy-----total m o l a l r a t e a t w h i c h v a p o u r
Aji = a b s o r p t i o n f a c t o r for p l a t e j and c o m p o n e n t
e n t e r s p l a t e f -- 1.
i. A t i = a b s o r p t i o n f a c t o r for c o m p o n e n t /
V F ~ m o l a l r a t e of flow of the v a p o u r p a r t of t h e
in t h e recitification p i n c h
f e e d . F o r b o i l i n g - p o i n t l i q u i d and s u b c o o l e d
bi ~ m o l a l w i t h d r a w a l rate of c o m p o n e n t i in t h e
f e e d s V F = 0, and for d e w - p o i n t v a p o u r and
bottom product
superheated feeds V F = F.
B = m o l a l w i t h d r a w a l r a t e of b o t t o m s
wFi ~ mole f r a c t i o n of c o m p o n e n t i in t h e l i q u i d
e ~ t o t a l n u m b e r of c o m p o n e n t s ; the l e a s t v o l a t i l e
p a r t of a p a r t i a l l y v a p o u r i z e d f e e d .
component
xji, ~ji = mole f r a c t i o n of c o m p o n e n t i in t h e l i q u i d
d i ~ m o l a l w i t h d r a w a l r a t e of c o m p o n e n t i in t h e
l e a v i n g p l a t e j and mole f r a c t i o n of c o m p o n e n t
distillate
i in t h e l i q u i d flowing o n t o p l a t e j + 1,
D ---- m o l a l w i t h d r a w a l r a t e of distillate
respectively
f = feed p l a t e
XDi mole f r a c t i o n of c o m p o n e n t i in t h e d i s t i l l a t e
~

F ~- m o l a l r a t e of flow of t h e e n t e r i n g feed
r e g a r d l e s s of s t a t e in w h i c h it is w i t h d r a w n
Kjl ~ the H e n r y - l a w c o n s t a n t (y = K x ) for com-
X~, i = t o t a l mole f r a c t i o n of c o m p o n e n t i in t h e t o t a l
p o n e n t i a t t h e t e m p e r a t u r e of p l a t e j. F o r
feed F , r e g a r d l e s s of s t a t e
the r e c t i f y i n g p i n c h j = r and for t h e s t r i p p i n g
YFI = mole f r a c t i o n of c o m p o n e n t i in t h e v a p o u r
pinch j = s p a r t of a p a r t i a l l y v a p o u r i z e d feed
lji .~ m o l a l r a t e a t w h i c h c o m p o n e n t i in t h e l i q u i d
Yji, Yji = mole f r a c t i o n of c o m p o n e n t i in t h e v a p o u r
s t a t e l e a v e s p l a t e j. ty-1, i = m o l a l r a t e of l e a v i n g p l a t e j and mole f r a c t i o n of com-
flow of c o m p o n e n t i in the l i q u i d s t a t e o n t o
p o n e n t i in t h e v a p o u r e n t e r i n g p l a t e j -- 1,
plate f. respectively
1Fi .~ m o l a l r a t e of flow of c o m p o n e n t i in the l i q u i d = relative volatility ;
p a r t of a p a r t i a l i y - v a p o u r i z e d feed
~i = g l / K b ,
Lj •ffi t o t a l m o l a l r a t e o f flow of l i q u i d from p l a t e j.
L f_1 = t o t a l m o l a l r a t e of flow of l i q u i d o n t o 1 ~ y i / ~ i ~ v a l u e of
where K b - ~ o:~xi i=l
t h e feed p l a t e
L p ~ m o l a l r a t e of flow of the l i q u i d p a r t of the i=1
f e e d . F o r b o i l i n g - p o i n t l i q u i d and s u b c o o l e d K for the base c o m p o n e n t

REFERENCES
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