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Composites Market Report:

Market Developments, Challenges, and Chances


The European GRP market Dr. Elmar Witten (AVK) The CRP market in 2009/2010 Alfons Schuster (CCeV)

September 2010

Table of Contents
Der Composites-Markt Europa 2010..................................................................................... 4 Faserverstrkte Kunststoffe: Marktzahlen und -entwicklung 2010 ................................... 4 Die Produktion Glasfaserverstrkter Kunststoffe (GFK) 2010: Gesamtentwicklung ....... 5 Tendenzielle Entwicklungen von Verfahren/Teilen ............................................................. 7 Die Anwendungsindustrien im berblick ............................................................................ 9 Die GFK-Produktion 2010: Lnder-Betrachtung ............................................................... 10 Naturfaser- und kohlenstofffaserverstrkte Kunststoffe ................................................. 12 Ausblick ................................................................................................................................ 13 Image und Bekanntheit der Werkstoffe .............................................................................. 13 Nachhaltigkeit ....................................................................................................................... 14 Der CFK-Markt 2009/2010 .................................................................................................... 16 Carbonfaserverstrkte Kunststoffe: Marktzahlen und -entwicklung 2009 und 2010 ..... 16 Die CFK-Produktion 2009 und 2010: Gesamtentwicklung ............................................... 17 Trends ................................................................................................................................... 19 Die Anwendungsindustrien im berblick .......................................................................... 21 Die CFK-Produktion 2009/2010: Lnderbetrachtung ........................................................ 22 Ausblick ................................................................................................................................ 23 Literatur ................................................................................................................................. 24

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Dr. Elmar Witten

The European GRP Market


The Autor Dr. Elmar Witten is Managing Director of the AVK - Industrievereinigung Verstrkte Kunststoffe (Federation of Reinforced Plastics). The AVK, as a professional association for fibre composite plastics/composites, represents the interests of producers and processors of reinforced and filled plastics on a national and a European level. Nationally, the AVK is one of the four pillars of the GKV Gesamtverband Kunststoffverarbeitende Industrie and an international member of the European composites confederation EuCIA the European Composites Industry Association. In these organisations, Dr. Witten represents the AVKs interests as a member of the extended management (GKV) resp. the board (EuCIA).

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The European Composites Market in 2010


Almost Recovered to the Level Seen in 2008

The 2010 market for fibre composite plastics / composites is expected to considerably exceed predictions made in late 2009. By the end of 2010, the entire production volume of the European market considered in this context is likely to increase by approximately 25 % as compared to the previous year. This development reveals a surprisingly rapid recovery almost to the level seen in 2008. However, not all companies or even all countries are profiting from this generally positive trend in quite the same way. Growth rates may vary considerably, depending on the areas of component application, the production / processing techniques, and the company size. Markets continue to be highly dynamic. On the one hand, additional growth impetus is to be expected wherever economically efficient weight reductions may be realised. On the other hand, the fact that market developments are so difficult to predict means that investments that are frequently required for business expansion are sometimes cancelled or postponed. Composites still possess an enormous unexhausted potential in conjunction with the sustainable substitution of traditional materials.

Fibre-Reinforced Plastics: Market Data and Market Development in 2010


As in the year before, the German association AVK (Industrievereinigung Verstrkte Kunststoffe e.V.) once again conducted a survey in 2010 in order to obtain data regarding production volumes for fibre-reinforced plastics throughout Europe. In order to obtain comparable data, the entire European market analysed in this context was once more limited to those countries that are explicitly familiar to raw materials suppliers interviewed in this context. Market data collection focused on

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glass fibres for reinforcement that are still dominating the market in quantitative terms, being used for about 90% of the entire composites volume.

Production of Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastics (GRP) in 2010: Overall Developments


In 2010, GRP production volumes in Europe, at a total of 1.015 million tons (see Fig. 1), rose by about 25 % as compared to the setback experienced in 2009, thus almost returning to the volumes registered before the economic and financial crisis in 2008. It should be noted, however, that data acquisition in this context primarily relies on information supplied by producers of raw materials (resins, glass fibres). Thus, it is possible that, following the initial tendency to deplete warehouse stocks in the early phase of the crisis, the current unexpectedly strong growth may also be attributed to restocking efforts. This upturn in business, however, may not yet be reflected in a corresponding increase of production volumes at all processing companies.

In Europe there are probably 10,000 composites-processing companies with far more than 100.000 employees. This market is specifically characterised by the fact that most players are small or medium-sized companies with limited staff. These companies are difficult to quantify from a statistical point of view Besides, there are several thousands of companies acting as material suppliers, equipment suppliers, or contractors for this segment of the plastics industry or that are concerned only with specific individual subsegments of this branch of industry.

After last years major apprehension about the general economic decline, the production slump, and the respective consequences, companies are now concerned about consolidating and fortifying the improved business situation. Besides, reactivating previously disused production capacities are now at the center of attention, along with the expansion of production facilities.

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In addition, many companies are trying to open up new markets, exploring regional as well as applicational options.

This development is primarily attributed to the tangible recovery of the sales markets. In Germany, for instance, automotive production has almost regained levels not seen since before the crisis. With some delay, utility vehicle production shows a similar recovery. Significant growth rates are currently also experienced by the infrastructure and wind energy sectors.

SMC BMC SMC/BMC Hand lay-up Spray-up Open mould RTM Sheets Pultrusion Continous processing Filament winding Centrifugal casting Pipes and Tanks GMT/LFT Others Sum total:

2010* 2010/09* Kt 23.8 198 23.2 69 23.6 267 30.1 160 24.3 92 27.9 252 20.2 113 28.6 72 20.5 47 25.3 119 18.8 82 20.0 66 19.4 148 33.3 100 14.3 16 24.5 1.015

2009 2009/08 Kt % -23.8 160 -20.0 56 -22.9 216 -39.1 123 -28.2 74 -35.4 197 -11.3 94 -18.8 56 -15.2 39 -15.7 95 -12.7 69 -11.3 55 -12.1 124 -21.1 75 -12.5 14 -23.0 815

2008 Kt 210 70 280 202 103 305 106 69 46 115 79 62 141 95 16 1,058

Fig. 1: GRP production volumes in Europe, itemised by techniques / components (2010* = estimated)

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Trends in the Development of Procedures / Components


The upswing in automotive production and now also lorry production - is one of the primary reasons for the production increase of thermosetting SMC (sheet moulding compound) and BMC (bulk moulding compound) components. During the economic and financial crisis, BMC production also because of the less drastic decline of the electronic sector / the electrical industry as compared to vehicle production suffered much less than SMC production.

Processors using the comparatively less automated so-called open processes of hand lay-up and spray lay-up - mostly small and medium-sized companies experienced the relatively greatest impact of the crisis. Markets for component parts with large surface areas with their low-volume production, which were partially down, showed a certain degree of recovery, but not to the same extent as other applications. Very small-sized processors in particular, who are dependent on a very few products / customers, experienced most insolvencies in 2009. Many of these companies did not succeed in gaining a durable, unique market position and are merely trying to reduce prices. Processors who are buying them, too, are frequently looking for the cheapest supplier (for instance in conjunction with glass fibre products from Asia).

Production of component parts manufactured by closed RTM processes (resin transfer moulding) held its ground relatively well during the years of the economic crisis. Considering the general decline of the total production volume, this sector bore up relatively well against the crisis. Somewhat below-average growth is expected for 2010. The development of RTM components is closely related to the manufacture of
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special-purpose component parts. In this context, production by closed processes is to be preferred, either due to the quantity to be produced or because of the defined standard component quality and/or component geometry. The wind energy sector attained exemplary results among customer segments, experiencing an upturn in business despite the general crisis. More considerable growth is to be expected in this sector. German manufacturers, after all, create approximately one third of the worldwide added value in this segment.

Pultruded GRP profiles, too not least because of the multitude of public funds survived the crisis better than did other areas of application. In general, there are only a few processing companies with often highly individual production processes that are constantly on the advance. Production of GRP plates primarily used by the utility vehicle and the construction industry also climbed to an above-average growth rate. Considering the significant downturn in the utility vehicle sector, this is probably due to the increased demand throughout the construction industry. Plates, for instance, are used in refrigerated warehouses, as facade elements, or as modules.

Growth rates in conjunction with sewer renovation based on so-called hose liners are still up significantly. The enormous substitution potential for conventional materials in this context is expected to continue through the next few years. Customers (usually public authorities) who have expressed reservations about the unknown material properties of the benefits need to be convinced of the benefits. As confirmed by recent studies, GRP safety tanks, which have been in use for many years, offer a number of advantages over other tank variations (for instance in conjunction with the storage of biogenic fuels). This subsegment, too, suffered a setback in conjunction with the overall economic decline, but held its ground relatively well compared to the overall average. Current prognoses for 2010 indicate a moderate increase. The focus in the immediate future will have to be on enhancing the substitution potential.
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Thermoplastic moulding compounds and semi-finished products, just like other procedures, depend primarily on the development of the automotive sector and are now experiencing an above-average upturn in business. During the crisis, glass mat reinforced thermoplastics (GMT) much more advanced in the product lifecycle experienced more of a setback and are picking up more slowly than continuous strand reinforced thermoplastics (LFT).

Application Industries at a Glance


Fig. 2 shows the respective contribution of each industrial sector with regard to the application of GRP components. While applications in the transport sector and the electrical industry / electronics picked up just slightly as compared to previous years, the construction sector remained comparatively stable. Applications in the area of recreation and sports show a slight downward trend. This tendency, however, may be partially attributed to the comparatively slow growth as compared to applications that had suffered more of a setback during the crisis.

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14%

2% 34%

36%

14%

Transport Construction Others

Electro / Electronic Sports & Leisure

Fig. 2: GRP production in Europe for different application industries (year: 2010)

GRP Production in 2010, Itemised by Countries


Fig. 3 shows the respective development with regard to the total GRP production volume in individual European countries respectively groups of countries. The big five - Spain, Italy, Germany, Great Britain, and France are still heading the list of large players in the European composites market, together accounting for about three quarters of the entire European production volume. Top growth rates were achieved in France, Germany, and Eastern European countries, although a nationally specific analysis based on existing numerical data is difficult in the latter case. Spain and Portugal, on the other hand, experienced below-average growth. The Scandinavian countries are the only ones with no growth at all.

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Differences between individual countries are closely associated with the specific development of industrial applications in each country and the related processing techniques, not all of which felt the crunch in quite the same way. Thus, in some countries (for instance in Scandinavia where the focus is primarily on applications in the sector of boat building), the share of open processes is above average.

Besides, economic-political reactions to the economic crisis had a significant bearing on this development. In Germany, for instance, a policy of reduced working hours supported by government stimulus spending largely prevented or delayed job cuts and layoffs, which would have been economically preferable at the time. Later on, still existing human resources made it possible to react appropriately and quickly to the increasing demand after the peak of the crisis.

Because of globalisation, markets in Asia in particular are expected to gain importance for the European composites market. On the one hand, this applies to Europeans who are customers of Chinese production. Thus, approximately half of the major glass fibre products are already being produced in Asia, specifically driven by China. The volume imported from China has been on the increase for several years. On the other hand, the same might be said of Asia as a sales market. From a global economic viewpoint, after all, we may rely on continuing above-average growth rates throughout the Asian domestic markets as well as regional investments especially those that are government-funded. In contrast to Europe, the composites market in China therefore continued to increase between 2007 and 2009 and the market volume now exceeds that of the entire European market.

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2010* Kt UK / Ireland Belgium / the Netherlands / Luxembourg Finland / Norway / Sweden / Denmark Spain / Portugal Italy France Germany Austria / Switzerland Eastern Europe** Sum total: 130 40 50 217 154 116 161 16 131 1.015

2010/09* % 23.0 29.0 -2.0 15.0 26.0 33.0 36.0 23.0 34.0 24.5

2009 Kt 106 31 52 188 122 87 118 13 98 815

2009/08 % -13.8 -18.4 -24.6 -20.3 -33.3 -24.3 -18.6 0.0 -27.9 -23.0

2008 Kt 123 38 69 236 183 115 145 13 136 1,058

Fig. 3: GRP production volumes in Europe, broken down by country / group of countries (2010* = estimated, Eastern Europe** = Poland, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Croatia, Macedonia)

Natural Fibre-Reinforced Plastics and Carbon Fibre-Reinforced Plastics


Many of the general statements pertaining to the GRP market, especially with regard to the high substitution potential for other materials, also apply more or less to natural fibre-reinforced plastics as well as carbon fibre-reinforced plastics. On the one hand, there is a certain competition between different reinforcing fibres in some sectors. On the other hand, completely new areas of application may be explored due to the different material properties required for certain purposes. High-

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performance applications that are prohibitive for GRP may, in this case, justify higher prices for CRP because the raw materials are so much more expensive. On the other hand, industries catering to price-oriented customer requirements (for instance in conjunction with high volume vehicle production) are not likely to substitute GRP by CRP any time soon.

In terms of production volume, natural fibres only account for a minor share of all fibres used for reinforcement. They are now primarily used in automobile construction, specifically for automobile interiors. However, new areas of application were tapped in recent years, for instance in the consumer goods sector. The entire segment and WPC (wood plastic composites) in particular have experienced an ongoing upturn in business in recent years.

Outlook
The abnormal decline of composites production volumes in 2008 and 2009 caused by the economic and financial crisis, which to this extent was unparalleled in previous years, has come to a stop. Companies are now once more optimistic and confident about the future, even though more long-term growth prognoses are hazardous at best which is also true of the total economy and the entire plastics industry. The companies will try to take advantage of existing opportunities and capitalize on current trends. There are concrete developments now regarding the prime challenges in this market that were already addressed in conjunction with the 2009 Market Report.

Image and Popularity of the Materials in Question


Companies have intensified their networking efforts even during the crisis, fully aware of the fact that it is easier for all partners to join forces instead of individual
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companies going their own way. Associations were formed involving all partners in the value-added chain who then act as a body in order to point out the benefits of these materials and to lend credence to their statements. One of the core tasks will be to familiarise engineers, designers, scientists, and other partners involved in manufacturing with the advantages of the materials for specific areas of application, to open up additional markets, and to utilise existing potentials. This requires joint, coordinated, and elaborate strategies that are supported and implemented equally by all market players.

Sustainability
Consumers as well as application industries are introducing ever more stringent requirements regarding sustainable products as well as the corresponding certification. Durable disposal and recycling concepts for the constantly increasing volumes of fibre composite components are needed. The composites market has made initial attempts to define how to document sustainability in a cross-company context. AVK has compiled an initial sustainability report and is now performing generic studies in order to develop suitable solutions regarding pertinent processing concepts.

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The CRP Market in 2009/2010

The Author Alfons Schuster is a project architect with Carbon Composites e. V. (CCeV). CCeV is the leading network of excellence for companies and research institutes in the southern German-speaking world involving the entire value-added chain of fibre composite technologies. The aim is to enhance and expand the position of these advanced technologies on a national as well as an international scale. Fibre composite technologies are to be promoted, science and industry connected, and new markets tapped. Marketable high-performance fibre composite structures - this is the product group CceV focuses on.

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The CRP Market in 2009/2010


In conjunction with the global economic and financial crisis, the carbon fibre market in keeping with the industrial context in general experienced a setback in 2009 and is not expected to regain 2008 levels in 2010 [JEC56]. 2009 was a difficult year for the entire fibre composites industry; manufacturers of glass fibres and carbon fibres in particular felt the crunch [JEC51]. By 2011, however, the market is expected to show a tangible recovery from the downturn, once more reaching levels seen in 2008. Prospects for the next few years are highly promising. Prognoses for the carbon fibre market and therefore also for the CRP market predict an above-average growth rate up until 2015, with Europe probably satisfying about half of the worldwide demand [JEC56].

Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastics: Market Data and Market Development in 2009 and 2010
Carbon fibres, as a starting material for CRP, are only produced by a very few manufacturers worldwide. On the other hand, there is a considerable number of component manufacturers producing a great many products that are difficult to quantify. The various types of fibres sold may be used as a basis to estimate the number of components produced in each segment, since very different fibre qualities are being used for the primary areas of application in the aerospace sector, industry, and sports and recreation. The price structure varies considerably. High-end components for the aerospace industry may sell at about 400 US $ / kg; the industrial sector is likely to fetch 100 US $ / kg; while sports and recreation only raise about 20 US $ / kg. The highly complex CRP component market is therefore somewhat elusive and fibre manufacturing data are not always sufficient to allow an assessment. In detail, quantities may vary considerably, depending on the source; and fibre data cannot necessarily be transferred to components.

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This report focuses on the global market. In this context, market volumes are assessed on the basis of the monetary value instead of the weight of the fibres sold because the price structure of CRP components may vary considerably.

Production of Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastics in 2009 and 2010: Overall Developments
Carbon fibre production just like glass fibre production - hit the bottom of the economic recession in 2009 but has picked up in the meantime. By 2011, the market is expected to recover to levels last seen in 2008. In the aviation industry, a segment that suffered a maximum setback during the crisis, the production slump in the commercial aircraft sector caused a decline of 35 % in the production of carbon fibres as compared to 2008. Reduced production quantities for Airbus A320 and A330/340 (approximately 15 % CRP percentage of the structural weight), production delays for the Boeing B787 (approximately 50 % CRP percentage of the structural weight), and the resulting reduction of storage capacities brought about the 2009 decline. The situation in Europe was aggravated by the postponement of the A400M air force cargo aircraft, which had considerable consequences since CRP contribute approximately 38 % of the structural weight. Since the CRP contribution to the aviation sector is supposed to increase in the next few years (CRP probably accounting for of up to 60% of the structural weight), prognoses for the aviation industry are definitely encouraging. The industry is expected to fully recover by 2011 and regain levels last seen in 2008 [JEC56]. In 2009, carbon fibre production for sports and recreation - which was down by 25 % from 2008 did not feel the crunch quite as badly as aviation. Sports and recreation are an established market segment for CRP, showing a relatively stable development. This sector is looking forward to a moderate growth rate, primarily driven by China.

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New areas of application are not within sight at the moment. Despite similar transshipment volumes, revenues are far below those realised by aviation, due to pricing and quality requirements [JEC56]. In 2009, the industrial segment for carbon fibres experienced a 25 % drop as compared to the previous year. In terms of quantity, the industrial sector has already outdistanced aviation as well as the sports / recreation sectors. This segment shows a potential for broad market penetration and therefore considerable growth. Sectors where growth is at an above-average level, such as wind energy, automotive lightweight construction, or shipbuilding have a positive effect on the forecast. As far as CRP are concerned, the long-term outlook suggests that the industrial sector might even surpass the aviation sector in terms of revenues. Growth is now limited since there is still considerable insecurity in many branches of industry concerning the possibilities offered by CRP. This is getting in the way of increasing the foreseeable substitution potentials for metal materials [JEC56]. In this case, too, manual production of CRP component parts is the primary limiting factor. In the automotive sector, for instance, the lack of fully automatic CRP production plants and the relatively long cycle times compared to sheet metal are putting on the brake. The industrial sector, too, will have to wait until 2011 to recover and return to the levels of 2008. The carbon fibre market has a specific problem as well. The tendency among components manufacturers to deplete warehouse stocks during the crisis encumbered the fibre market. This effect was enhanced by the fact that market availability of fibres in 2009 for the first time exceeded the demand [JEC51]. This put a perspective on the necessity of maintaining high stock levels. In conjunction with the favourable growth prognoses, this tendency may now, curiously enough, cause the upturn in business to swing the other way. Fibre manufacturers, in turn, were forced to postpone investments, possibly creating another shortage of carbon fibres.

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Production of CRP components, too, is beginning to pick up quickly; recovery in this case probably occurs from a higher base, with less drastic setbacks than for fibre manufacturing. 2010 shows a 7.5 % upturn in business, which is significantly above the expected global economic growth of about 4 %. At the top of the list is the pultrusion / filament winding sector, closely followed by tape laying. Table 1 shows an overview of the production volumes for individual procedures.

Procedure/year Pultrusion / Winding Tape Laying VAP / VARI RTM / RIM Other Sum total

2010 2.40

2009 2.21

2010/2009 +8.35%

2.15 0.69 0.34 0.23 5.80

2.00 0.65 0.32 0.22 5.40

+7.43% +7.02% +4.91% +4.91% +7.51%

Table 1: Worldwide production volumes in 109 Euros for individual procedures in 2010 and 2009 [ACM].

Trends
Following the aviation industrys meteoric rise, which was only temporarily slowed down by the crisis [JEC56], carbon fibre reinforced plastics are now continuing to conquer new markets. The wind energy segment shows a clear tendency towards ever larger and therefore more powerful plants. By 2020, approximately 30 % of the entire power consumed in Germany alone is to be supplied by renewable energies, and wind power stations are

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expected to play a major role in this context. The larger the plants, the more important the rigidity of the rotor blades. Carbon fibre materials are gaining popularity in conjunction with the belts that are bracing the rotor blades. These belts used in a hybrid construction with glass fibre reinforced plastics respectively carbon fibre reinforced plastics - may account for approximately 12 % of the blade weight without incurring any technical risks. A single 40 meter rotor blade may accommodate up to 1250 kilograms of CRP. Thanks to the anticipated tripling of the global market for wind energy plants during the next ten years, this is a gigantic market with a great future [LCC]. As far as the automotive construction industry is concerned, there are no particular prospects on the horizon right now with regard to conquering markets beyond those of racing or the upper price segments. Thus, institutes and companies are searching for and researching manufacturing processes capable of series production for this market segment, an effort that is driven by the need for electrically powered vehicles. The decisive argument for the customer is still the quality of riding pleasure. The point is to compensate for an additional weight of several hundred kilograms, even with most advanced battery and propulsion technology. Manual operation (which is still quite common), insufficient industrialisation, and automation of the processes as well as the resulting high individual costs are considered to impede the progress of series production [AUD1]. This is a demanding task, considering that the aim is to industrialise a heterogeneous overall process while reducing cycle times, material expenses, and post-processing expenditures, for instance in conjunction with paint application, by 50 - 90 % [AUD2]. The joint venture between BMW and SGL Group is a pioneer project in this context that will force competitors hands and cause additional projects to be launched. The emission-free electrically powered vehicle for urban areas named Megacity Vehicle is expected to come out in 2013 [KK]. Recently published studies by production planning experts are optimistic. According to these reports, add-on parts may already be produced by available techniques in lean production at attractive pricdes in large-batch production [MM]. In addition, there

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are efforts to reduce the relatively long curing times for thermosetting materials to less than five minutes by using thermoplastic materials and special procedures [LWD].

Application Industries at a Glance


The diagram allocating CRP components to individual application industries shows only marginal changes as compared to 2009. In 2010, the total volume shows a 7.5 % increase to 5.8 x 109 Euros worldwide, Western Europe accounting for 2.0 x 109 Euros. This upswing is encouraging for all areas of application - aviation and windpower heading the list with growth rates of 9.8 % and 9.7 %, respectively. Bringing up the rear is the sports sector with 4.2 % increase. This shows that markets recovering from a lower base are also picking up faster.

Aviation / wind power / vehicle / industry / medical sector / sports / other

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Figure 1: Worldwide production volumes of CRP components in 2010, targeted for different areas of application (total global volume: 5.8 x 109 Euros, Western Europe: 2.0 x 109 Euros)

CRP Production in Different Countries in 2009/2010

The total global CRP production volume is distributed as shown in Asian-Pacific region / Western Europe / North America / Japan / Rest Figure 2, revealing a noticeable increase by 7.5 % on the average from the 2009 crisis. Western Europe (at a plus of 8.6 %) is number one, followed by North America (7.7 %) and Japan (7.0 %). Although Carbon Composites e. V. does not possess a more details analysis of the European market at the moment, this topic is to be addressed next year.

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Asian-Pacific region / Western Europe / North America / Japan / Rest Figure 2: Geographic distribution of the CRP market in 2010 [ACM].

Outlook
After its collapse in 2009, the CRP market is clearly recovering in 2010. It hit the bottom of the economic recession but has picked up significantly in the meantime. By 2011, the market is expected to recover to levels last seen in 2008. The long-term predicted annual growth of the global market between 2013 and 2018 is 12.0 %; up until 2015, market revenues may more or less double to about 14 x 109 Euros from 2009 [ACM]. Thus, the industry is now facing a limited phase with less revenues and should not forget to invest in the future. After all, if the demand increases quite

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as drastically as anticipated, new, quick automatic production techniques will be needed to satisfy the need. The crisis has come to an end and the market is going to pick up soon. Owing to the predicted high growth rates in all market segments, it is important to address recycling questions as soon as possible so as to efficiently cope with future CRP waste. In the aviation sector as well as in wind energy, reutilisation of CRP or GRP is still uncommon. Although alternative strategies are available, energy production and recovery is currently the state of the art. The volumes produced now do not yet constitute a major problem. In the automotive sector, on the other hand, CRP is competing with aluminium and steel. Both are excellent materials from an ecological point of view, since they may be molten down and reused practically indefinitely. Long-term sustainable solutions are to be found regarding the predicted growth of the fibre composite market. Initial attempts have been made. In Stade, for instance, a CRP Recycling Center the first of its kind in Europe is being built in conjunction with a research and development project. This location is targeted for the commercial material recycling of waste materials containing carbon fibres. All of this shows a medium-term to long-term trend towards the development of sustainable recycling technologies. Literature
[JEC51]: Carbon fibre: investing cautiously, JEC Composites Magazine No. 51, September 2009 [JEC56]: Positive forecast for the carbon-fibre market, JEC Composites Magazine No. 56, April 2010 [ACM]: [LCC]: World Carbon Fiber Composite Market, Acmite Market Intelligence, July 2010 Prof. Klaus Drechsler (LCC TU-Mnchen), CRP-Technologie im Automobilbau: Was man von anderen Mrkten lernen kann [CRP technology in automotive construction: learning from other markets], lecture at the CCeV-Automotive Forum on 24 June, 2010 in Neckarsulm, available under http://www.carboncomposites.eu/tempdats/files_content/1002.pdf

[MM]:

Monika Zwettler, Mit schlanker Produktion werden auch die Karosserien leichter [lean production makes for more light-weight bodywork, too],

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http://www.maschinenmarkt.vogel.de/themenkanaele/automatisierung/ fertigungsautomatisierung_prozessautomatisierung/articles/277705/, 23 August, 2010 [LWD]: Katrin Pudenz, Forscher machen thermoplastische Faserverbundbauteile serientauglich [researchers are making thermoplastic fibre composite components capable of series production] , http://www.lightweight-design.de/ index.php;do=show/alloc=135/id=12194/site=lwd/sid=4212da7e913b2f54a473c9af5ce4adad , 23 August, 2010 [AUD1]: Michael Dick (AUDI AG), Leichtbau with CRP Herausforderungen fr die Mobilitt der Zukunft [Lightweight construction with CRP a future mobility challenge], lecture at the CCeV-Automotive Forum on 24 June, 2010 in Neckarsulm, available under http://www.carbon-composites.eu/tempdats/files_content/1015.pdf [AUD2]: Heinrich Timm (AUDI AG), Wo liegt der Bedarf fr CFK im Automobilbau?" [where is the need for CRP in automotive construction?], lecture at the CCeV-Automotive Forum on 24 June, 2010 in Neckarsulm, available under http://www.carboncomposites.eu/tempdats/files_content/1003.pdf [KK]: Leichtbau fr Elektromobilitt [lightweigt contruction for electrically powered vehicles], http://www.k-zeitung.de/home/branche/news-detail/news/6/1280833800leichtbau-frElektromobilitt/, 23. 8. 2010

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