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High-frequency technology

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High-frequency technology

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2
High-frequency technology

Contents
High-frequency technology
Foundations 4
Alternating current 4
Rotary current 4
Voltage 5
Current 5
Frequency 5
Power 5
Active power 5
Reactive power 5
Apparent power 5
Power factor 6
Electric motors 6
Three-phase motors 6
Synchronous motors 6
Asynchronous motors 7
EC motors 8
Shielding 8
Rotational speeds 9
Torque 9
Control methods 9
Rotation control 9
Stalling-torque control 10
Load capability 10
Cooling 10
Heat emission 10
Forced cooling 11
Surface cooling 11
Direct open-circuit cooling 12
Indirect open-circuit cooling 12
Gearing 12
Spur gearing 12
Planetary gearing 12

HF systems 13
Power demand 13
Simultaneity factor 13
Sample calculation 13
Frequency selection 14
Mains group 14
Converter systems 15
Static converters 15
Dynamic converters 15
Switching stations 16
Reactive-current compensation 16
Wiring systems 16
Skin effect 16
Electromagnetic emission 17
Installation requirements 17
Dimensioning 17
Sample calculations 18
Electric safety 20

3
High-frequency technology

Foundations
AC voltage
There are major technological differences
between handheld high-frequency power U Period duration
tools and the common power tools with uni- +
versal motor used by tradesmen and in the
DIY sector. They use three-phase alternat-
U
ing current, also known as rotary current, as 0
t
their power supply. Due to the increased fre-
quency of the rotary current for these tools
they are also known as high-frequency U
- 0 90 180 270 360
power tools although this term is technical-
ly not quite correct. The term high-frequen- EWL-HF002/P

cy actually refers to alternating currents in


the range of radio frequencies. Technically
correct, the alternating currents used in the
case of the so-called high-frequency (HF)
power tools are referred to as alternating
currents of increased frequency or rotary AC DC
currents of increased frequency. Still, the
Single-phase alternating current
term HF power tool has been established in
the market for a long time and is therefore U
+
generally accepted.
In order to understand the special charac-
0
teristics of HF power tools, one has to know t
the meaning of the technical terms
U
-
alternating current
rotary current Three-phase alternating current
(rotary current)
frequency
U 1 2 3
voltage +

current
0
apparent power t

active power U
-
120
reactive power
Phases offset by 120
cosine phi(power factor)
EWL-HF003/P

as well as their definitions and significance.

Alternating current Voltage


Alternating current is a current which Electric voltage (U) is a measure for the dif-
changes in quantity and direction. Its volt- ference in potential between the poles of an
age passes through zero as the polarity electric source of energy. Its unit of meas-
changes. urement is volt (V) .
The transfer of electric energy from the point
of generation to the consumer is accompa-
Rotary current nied by losses in the power lines which re-
Rotary current is a system of three alternat- duce the voltage at the consumer end.
ing currents offset against each other by
120.

4
High-frequency technology

Current Active power


If a voltage is applied in a closed electric Active power generates a directly usable ef-
circuit, electric current (I) will flow through fect in electric consumer products, e.g. the
the connected consumers according to temperature increase of a heater coil, the
their resistance. It is measured in ampere emission of light from a lightbulb or the work
(A). The current heats up electric conduc- of an electric motor. The consumed active
tors and appliances and causes voltage power is therefore converted into heat, light
losses. Its calculated quantity is used to- or mechanical work.
gether with the voltage to determine the
electric power. The active power is calculated as follows
(example):
Frequency P = U  I  cos = 230 V  3 A  0.8 = 552 W
J
In electrical engineering, frequency ( f )
refers to the number of periods (voltage
changes) per unit of time. The unit of meas- Reactive power
urement is hertz (Hz). In the majority of
countries around the world the public pow- Reactive power is needed to build up the
er supply has a mains frequency of 50 hertz magnetic fields in the coils of electric mo-
(Hz). In some countries like the United tors, transformers and series inductors, e.g.
States 60 Hz is the standard frequency. for fluorescent lamps. Reactive power is not
actually consumed. It flows back and forth
between the generator and the consumer
Power and functions like a catalyst it is not con-
The most important criteria to assess the sumed itself, but without it nothing will work.
performance of a consumer is its output The reactive power indicates how much of
power (P), i. e. its capacity to absorb electric the apparent power can be utilised. It con-
energy and convert it to another form of stitutes an extra load for the wiring since it
energy. The unit of measurement for power commutes back and forth between con-
is watt (W). sumer and generator.
The power supplied by the source of ener- The reactive power is calculated with the
gy (input power) is distinguished on the ba- following formula:
sis of its type and functional principle in
Pq = U  I  sin J
active power Q = g PS - P
2 2

reactive power The power factor cos indicates which por-


J
tion of the apparent power can be effective-
apparent power
ly used.
The power calculation uses the following
formula symbols
Apparent power
The apparent power is the geometric sum of
current I measured in A (ampere)
active and reactive power. It can be cal-
voltage U measured in V (volt) culated as the product between voltage and
power P measured in W (watt) current. The active power is smaller by
the power factor cos than the apparent
J
In addition there are three different power power.
specifications: The apparent power is calculated with the
formula:
apparent power PS in VA or kVA
PS = U  I = 230 V  3 A = 690 VA
active power P in W or kW
reactive power Pq in var

5
High-frequency technology

Power factor cosine J (phi) The rotational speed cannot be modified by


changing the applied voltage, but only by
All inductive consumers, such as motors, changing the number of pole pairs and/or
generators and transformers, have a power the frequency of the rotary current.
factor, cos (cosine phi). The power fac-
J
tor cos indicates which portion of the
J The rotor can come in one of several ver-
apparent power can be effectively used. sions: the so-called squirrel-cage rotor
(slipring rotor), cage rotor or the so-
The power factor can be expressed as the called magnet wheel. The characteristic
ratio between active and apparent power. properties of rotary-current motors are
P largely determined by these rotor types.
cos =
J
PS Consequently, three-phase motors are di-
vided up into
Power tools with universal (collector) mo-
tors have a power factor of approximately synchronous motors
0.9 1.0 which can be neglected. asynchronous motors.
Machines and machine tools with rotary and
alternating current motors have a power
factor of approximately 0.8 which has to be Synchronous motors
taken into account at all times. The stator of a synchronous motor contains
copper windings on an iron core. In the rotor,
which in the case of the synchronous motor
is called magnet wheel, the poles are mag-
Electric motors
netised with the help of direct-current coils
Electric motors convert electric energy into or permanent magnets. The necessary di-
mechanical energy. They consist of a sta- rect current is supplied to the magnet wheel
tionary part (stator, pole shoe) and a rotating via sliprings and carbon brushes. The iron
part (rotor, armature). Electric coils (wind- core of the magnet wheel need not be made
ings) generate magnetic fields in stator and of mutually insulated laminated metal
rotor which create a force between stator sheets since it is d.c.-operated. Therefore it
and rotor, thus producing the torque at the can be made of solid stock whereas the sta-
rotor. In order to be able to conduct the mag- tor whose coils are operated with alternating
netic fields both the stator and the rotor (or current must be made of metal sheets. If the
parts thereof) are made of iron. In case of magnet wheel rotates at the same speed as
temporary magnetic currents (alternating the rotary field (in synchronism) a torque is
voltage) this iron core must be constructed generated which is dependent on the angle
of several mutually insulated metal sheets. of the magnet wheel. In case this synchro-
The spatial arrangement of the coils and nism is lost (rotational speed from rotary field
their electric circuitry has lead to different in stator and rotational speed of rotor) unac-
electric motor designs. The differences in ceptably high currents will flow.
their performance characteristics are in For this reason synchronous motors would
some cases quite considerable and there- be unable to start by themselves. With con-
fore they are used in different application structive auxiliary measures, a type of auxil-
areas. iary cage (asynchronous motor), self-start-
ing is possible. As is the case with asynchro-
Three-phase motors nous motors, the rotational speed of a self-
starting synchronous motor can be modified
The stator of a rotary-current motor consists
only by changing the number of pole pairs
in its simplest version of three windings,
and/or the network frequency, but not by
usually, however, of a multiple of three
changing the voltage. Both synchronous and
which are symmetrically arranged around its
asynchronous motors reverse their rotational
periphery. The three phases of the rotary
direction by exchanging two phases.
current generate a rotating magnetic field
(rotary field) whose number of revolutions Self-starting synchronous motors are used
per unit time results from the frequency of for applications requiring a driving mecha-
the rotary current and the number of pole nism with constant rotational speed inde-
pairs. pendent of load.

6
High-frequency technology

Asynchronous motor The construction of an asynchronous motor


is very simple. It is nearly maintenance-free
In addition to a stator with its windings the
and not subject to wear, low-cost and has
simplest version of an asynchronous mo-
outstanding properties especially during
tor is equipped with a rotor consisting of a
stationary operation. It is one of the most
laminated iron core with aluminium or cop-
frequently used electric motors in drive en-
per bars cast or pressed into its slots.
gineering.
These bars are connected on both front
edges of the rotor by rings of the same
material and therefore electrically short-
Three-phase-current circuit types
circuited. If you look at these bars without
the iron core, they resemble a kind of cage Three-phase system
which is why this type of rotor is also L1
known as a cage rotor. However, if the L2
rotor is made up of a laminated iron core L3
with windings in its slots we are talking N
about a so-called squirrel-cage rotor or Voltage Voltage
slipring rotor because the windings are 230V 400V
each each
short-circuited either directly by carbon
Star connection
brushes on the slipring ends or indirectly
by electric resistors. Differences between L1 V1
the rotor speed and the rotational speed of V2
V2
the rotary field induce voltages in the N
V1
short-circuited windings or bars. These in W2
L3 W1
turn produce currents which generate the
rotor torque .
L2
The deviation of the rotor speed from the
230V are present at each
speed of the rotary field gives the motor its consumer coil (motor).
name: the speed characteristics are asyn- The neutral conductor is
connected to the neutral point
chronous. in the event of asymmetrical load.

This particular deviation is called slip. The Star connection


higher the slip, the higher the losses in the
L1 V1
motor and the heat development. For prac- W2
tical purposes asynchronous motors must W1
L3 V2
be dimensioned in such a fashion that their
V2 V1
EWL-INT004/P

slip at rated load is less than 5 %. L2


Since the slip is at its highest during starting 400V are present at each
from standstill, very high power losses are consumer coil (motor).
experienced at the start due to the very high
starting currents which place a heavy strain
on the mains power supply and also the
motor windings. For this reason a so-called Wechselstrommotor
Key components
Die wichtigsten of a DC motor
Bestandteile eines W
star-delta connection is required for larger 1 2 3 4 5
asynchronous motors with an operating
voltage of 400 volt.
The start takes place in star connection. 1 Front motor bearing
During this phase 230 volts are applied to 2 Fan wheel
EWL-EM005/G

3 Rotor (iron core with encapsulated


the windings (in a 230/400 volt system). aluminium rods)
The current is accordingly smaller. Once 4 Rear motor bearing
5 Stator (with iron core and copper windings)
the motor has attained its rated speed the
windings are connected in delta. Now they
are supplied with 400 volt and the motor
can deliver its full torque under load.

7
High-frequency technology

Asynchronous motors for high-frequency tion of the current in the stator windings
power tools produces a rotary-current-like rotary field
whose rotational speed (frequency) can be
Instead of using rotary current of the network
adjusted and modified across a wide range
frequency 50 Hz the drive motors for HF
by electronic control or alternatively by the
power tools are operated with rotary current
level of voltage applied to the power invert-
of increased frequency of 200 or 300 Hz. By
er. In addition, the motor performance char-
increasing the frequency the rotational
acteristics can be influenced by adjusting
speed of the motors can also be increased.
the commutation angle.
The motors of high-frequency power tools
are therefore much smaller while delivering If you disregard the expense for control and
the same power which makes them suitable performance electronics EC motors have
for use in handheld power tools. the following advantages: high operational
flexibility, low power-to-weight ratio, wide
Electronically commutated three-phase speed adjustment range, dynamic braking.
motors (EC motors) They are quiet-running and not subject to
wear except for the magnet wheel bearing.
Synchronous motors can only be operated Their field of application ranges from appli-
with rotary current, but not with direct cur- cations in electronics and in machine tools
rent, since direct current does not generate to drive motors for submarines.
a rotary field in the stator windings. If three-
phase motors still have to be operated with
Shielding
direct current, it has to be first transformed
into rotary current by a power inverter. By The operation of electric motors with alter-
using modern semiconductor and control nating current of increased frequency gen-
technology this can be realised for nearly all erates electromagnetic interfering radiation
performance ranges. The most important (radiated noise). For this reason the motors
components of the electronically commu- must be magnetically shielded. This is
tated DC motor (EC motor) are a magnet achieved by enclosing the motors in a met-
wheel activated by a permanent magnet, a al casing. Therefore, and in contrast to pow-
sensor which detects the position of the er tools with universal motors, HF power
magnet wheel within the stator and supplies tools will always have a metal casing. In
the control and performance electronics cases where this is useful for ergonomic
with data on rotational speed and position. reasons, the (inner) metal casing is
The magnet-wheel-dependent commuta- sheathed by an (external) plastic casing.

High-frequency
body-grip impact wrench 1

2
3
4

5
6
1 Switch
2 Asynchronous motor
7 3 Fan wheel
4 Planetary gearing
5 Impact system with
EWL-HF001/P

V-groove control
6 Tool fitting
7 Tool

8
High-frequency technology

Rotational speeds
Power and speed in dependence on load
When the stator winding of the motor is
Output Speed
connected to the three-phase mains, a power (W) (rpm)
magnetic field is formed with the character- peak output
istic property to rotate in the motor due to
the arrangement of the winding. This is output power
called a rotary field which is dependent on
the number of pole pairs and the frequency.
The smallest possible number of pole pairs, 3-5% speed
for example, and a frequency of 50 Hz re-
sults in a rotary field or rotor speed of 3000
rpm, a frequency of 200 Hz 12000 rpm and rated power

EWL-HF003/G
300 Hz 18000 rpm.
The speed drop at rated load amounts to input power (W)
only 35 %, and the peak power is approx-
imately 21/2 times the rated power. Short-
term overloading is possible if the maximum
winding temperature is not exceeded in the Electric machines
AC motor
process. (asynchronous motor)

Frequency and rotational speed in n idling speed


dependence on the number of pole
rotational speed

pairs of the motor


pole pair motor motor motor motor motor
count speed speed speed speed speed
of at at at at at
motor 50 Hz 60 Hz 200 Hz 300 Hz 400 Hz*
rpm rpm rpm rpm rpm
1 3000 3600 12000 18000 24000 load MK M
2 1500 1800 6000 9000 12000 The rotational speed changes very
4 750 900 3000 4500 6000 little as the load increases.
When the so-called breakdown
6 500 600 2000 3000 4000 torque Mk is reached, the motor
* often used frequency in military engineering and air- will stop.
EWL-EM004/P
craft and space technology

Control methods
Torque High-frequency power tools are usually op-
erated at a fixed rotational speed. The tool
As the load is increased the rotor falls be- speed depends on the number of pole pairs
hind the rotary field of the stator, i. e. the slip of the motor, the frequency and the trans-
increases too. The motor tries to compen- mission reduction ratio.
sate this by increasing the current which
leads to an increase in torque. Therefore, In principle, the rotational speed can be
the torque increases as the load becomes controlled by varying the frequency through
higher. However, this increase has its limita- an electronic power inverter. HF power tools
tions. If the load is increased further and a for screwdriving can limit their torque by
certain maximum torque, the so-called making use of the higher motor current in
stalling torque, is reached the slip becomes case of increasing load.
so large that the rotor is unable to follow the
rotary field. The motor torque breaks down Rotation control
abruptly and the motor stops. In order to change the direction of rotation
one has to reverse the direction of rotation
of the rotary field. In three-phase motors
this is done by swapping two phases on the
stator winding.

9
High-frequency technology

Load capability of electric motors


Reversal of rotational direction in a
3-phase AC motor The load capability of an electric motor is
polarity reversal of field winding generally limited by the heat losses gener-
ated in it. The heat loss is physically deter-
L1
mined by its efficiency and can not be pre-
L2 vented altogether. For practical purposes
L3 this means that a motor whose heat losses
are not dissipated continues to heat up until
the winding insulation melts and the motor
L1 burns out as a result of the winding short-
circuit. The heat loss has to be able to leave
L2
the motor. The better the heat loss is re-
L3 moved from the motor, the less or the slower
it will heat up and the less or the later will it
tend to burn out.
EWE-009.3/G

rotor (armature)
electro magnet (pole shoe) Efficiency

30% 10%

Stalling-torque control 60%

If the load of the rotary-current motor is in-


creased until the stalling torque is reached,
the current increases in accordance with the 100%
load in a characteristic way. This current in-
crease can be utilised for control purposes.

EWL-EM012/G
This requires an external control device. The 100% Power input
current consumption in proportion with the -30% Heat losses in motor
torque is compared with an adjustable val- -10% Friction losses in the gear
= 60% Power output
ue. When the motor current reaches the
preset value, the power supply to the tool is
switched off and the motor stops running.
Cooling
Two methods are mainly used for heat dis-
Stalling-torque control
sipation, or expressed more in line with
practical application, for cooling:
Stalling torque
heat emission (convection)
Torque

forced cooling with fan

Load Heat emission


This function is like a radiator: the motor
emits the heat to the surrounding compo-
Current

Switch point
nents and the air. The effect is very limited
since the motor is usually very compact and
built into a machine housing with cooling air
EWL-HF004/P Load slots which for reasons of safety (contact
with live or rotating components) cannot be
as large as necessary. Heat emission has
therefore only a very minor cooling effect.

10
High-frequency technology

Forced cooling with fan The following cooling methods for motors
with forced cooling have gained accep-
A fan ensures much better cooling. By
tance:
special construction of the air ducts the
cooling air stream can be optimised in surface cooling
such a fashion that the heat dissipation is
improved even if the fanning power is low. direct open-circuit cooling
For constructive reasons the fan wheel in indirect open-circuit cooling
power tools is always mounted on the ro-
tor shaft and therefore it rotates at the
same rotational speed as the motor. The
fanning power is dimensioned to ensure Cooling variations of different
electric motor types
that the heat loss generated by a motor at Motor cooling (examples)
the rated power (= 100 % full-load power) Universal motor
is dissipated in such a fashion that the Inner cooling (direct cooling)
motor will not overheat even in case of 1 2 3 4
continuous operating duty. If the motor is
loaded beyond its rated power the addi-
tional heat loss can no longer be com-
pletely dissipated and the motor will
sooner or later overheat and burn out un-
less the load is reduced. A disadvantage AC motor
for the motor cooling at motor speed is Surface cooling
2 3 4 5 6 1
that the rotational speed drops with in-
creasing load. Here you have a contra ef-
fect:

The hotter the motor becomes, the worse


the cooling power since the fanning pow-
er drops dramatically with decreasing
speed. Bosch Industrial Tool
Direct, dust-proof cooling
The fanning power changes in square with 1 2 3 4
the rotational speed. For practical pur-
poses this means that the fanning power,
for example, at half the speed is not re-
duced to 50 %, but to 25 %! If the over-
load condition persists the motor will
eventually burn out. 1 Ventilator 2 Stator (pole shoe)
3 Rotor (armature) 4 Housing
A larger motor can accommodate more 5 Cooling fins 6 Air duct
heat and can be overloaded for longer pe- Air flow direction EWL-EM013/G
riods than a smaller motor. On the other
hand, it takes longer to cool back down.
Smaller size motors have a larger surface
area in comparison to their volume and do Surface cooling
not take as long to cool down.
In the case of surface cooling the cooling
After overloading the motor must be given air is blown by an externally installed fan
the opportunity to run at less than the through air guides over the heavily ribbed
rated load for some time, at best at idling motor housing. The inside of the motor
speed, in order to cool down again. housing is usually completely enclosed.
This cooling method is insensitive to dust,
but not very effective since the motor heat
has to penetrate to the housing surface first.
This cooling method is typical for stationary
machines.

11
High-frequency technology

Direct open-circuit cooling Spur-gear units


Direct open-circuit cooling means that the Spur-gear units represent the archetypal
cooling air is blown directly through the mo- transmission type and require only few
tor. This method is highly effective since the components. Their axles are arranged in
air flows directly through the rotor and the parallel. Several transmission stages
stator. The disadvantage is that dust in the (speeds) can be connected in series, every
air is also blown through the motor and can stage implementing a reversal of rotational
damage the windings in the long run. Direct direction. If the difference in diameter be-
open-circuit cooling is typical for power tween two gear wheels of one stage is very
tools with universal motors whose collec- large, the smaller gear wheel is called a pin-
tors become very hot during operation due ion. Spur-gear units are low-cost, but they
to their working principle. require a relatively large amount of space.
Each pair of gear wheels has only a few
teeth engaged at once and high torque
Indirect open-circuit cooling transmissions require the use of large gear
This cooling method implies that cooling air teeth.
circulates between motor housing and sta- Bevel-gear units also belong to the spur
tor winding. And since the main heat in gearing type.
three-phase motors is generated by the sta-
tor windings, this cooling method is best for
this type of motor. It has the advantage that
the dust usually carried by the cooling air is Gear types
kept from coming into contact with rotating
motor parts and that the service life of mo- spur gear
tors cooled in this fashion is much extend-
ed. This cooling method has proven highly
beneficial for HF tool motors.

EWL-GET001/G
planetary gear

Transmission
Apart from very few exceptions, the rated
speed of the motor which is determined
Planetary-gear units
by the pole number and the network fre-
quency, differs from the desired rotational In its simplest form planetary gearing con-
speed of the application tool (spindle sists of a sun wheel, a ring gear wheel and
speed). For practical purposes gear drives the bracket-mounted planetary gears. The
are used to adapt the two rotational arrangement is coaxial, with clutches and
speeds to each other. Depending on appli- brakes on the ring gear wheel or the brack-
cation and machine type, certain transmis- et of the planetary gears, one can achieve
sions are especially advantageous. The different transmission speeds which can be
following types are used: shifted under load.
Planetary-gear units always have several
spur-gear units teeth and gear wheels engaged under load.
planetary-gear units For comparable loads planetary-gear units
can be dimensioned smaller than conven-
tional spur-gear units.

12
High-frequency technology

HF systems Simultaneity factor


In comparison to the public power supply The simultaneity factor indicates how many
network high-frequency systems have to be tools in an installation are operated on aver-
regarded as autonomous installations with age at the same time. The simultaneity fac-
their own source of energy and particular tor depends on the application area of the
consumers. Therefore they have to be tools. The following are experience values
planned as a self-contained system. for the simultaneity factor G:

car body making 0.45


Power demand motor construction 0.30
HF system are equipped with their own apparatus engineering 0.40
source of energy, a frequency converter.
The secondary power output of the convert- machine tool and mould making 0.25
er or alternatively its size is determined as structural steel engineering 0.50
follows:
foundries 0.60
The intended high-frequency power tools
are grouped by motor size and number, and
These values only apply if there are a large
then their rated power consumptions are
numbers of machines. If the machine num-
added together. The sum of the rated cur-
ber is low the simultaneity factor is deter-
rents is multiplied with the operating volt-
mined by the largest and most frequently
age and the factor gVVV
3 to calculate the total
used tools.
apparent power consumption of the tools.
During the planning of a high-frequency
This is the formula:
power tool system the frequency converter
3  U  I = 1.73  U  I
PS = gVVV is always dimensioned with a reserve. Due
to the starting currents during switch-on,
The apparent power value calculated in this particularly in case of small-scale systems
fashion has to be multiplied by the simul- the reserves have to be calculated such that
taneity factor G in order to determine the the power output is at least twice as high
secondary power output of the converter. as the rated power consumption of the
The simultaneity factor G represents the op- most powerful of the connected high-fre-
erating ratio of the tools since usually not quency power tools. This is necessary to
all tools are operated at the same time. ensure the perfect starting of the tools. In
addition, the voltage drop in the frequency
converter will not be quite as strong in case
of a short-term overload.

Sample calculations
In a foundry 3 high-frequency angle grinders
200 V, 300 Hz, 10 A are to be operated in
conjunction with 3 high-frequency straight
grinders 200 V, 300 Hz, 6.4 A. (The current
and voltage values are taken from the cata-
logue data)
Calculation:
Group 1:
3 angle grinders 3  10 A = 30.0 A
Group 2:
3 straight grinders 3  6.4 A = 19.2 A
Sum 49.2 A

13
High-frequency technology

The apparent power is calculated as fol- Mains groups


lows:
PS = 1.73  U  I Six combinations have gained acceptance
PS = 1.73  200 V  49.2 A as mains groups (frequencies with allo-
PS = approximately 17023 VA cated voltage). The ideal, most frequently
PS = approximately 17 kVA used mains group is group 2. In this group
a tool for 300 Hz, 200 volt can be operated
This value is then multiplied by the simul- (without modifications) on 200 Hz, 135 volt
taneity factor G = 0.6 for foundries: without problems and vice-versa. If possi-
Converter apparent power: ble one should therefore choose a voltage
PS  G = 17 kVA  0.60 = 10.2 kVA of 135 V for 200 Hz and 200 V for 300 Hz.

In this case a converter with 11 kVA output The operation on different voltages within
power is chosen to allow for a power re- the same mains groups is possible be-
serve of approximately 10 %. cause the frequency-dependent imped-
ance (a.c. resistance) of the stator wind-
ings allows a lower current to flow through
the windings at the higher frequency than
Frequency selection at the lower voltage of the lower fre-
Rotary current of increased frequency of 200 quency. And, since the product of current
or 300 Hz allows handheld tools to deliver and voltage, the power consumption, re-
high electric output power with a low motor mains the same in both cases, the motor
weight. With increasing frequency of the ro- will not be overloaded.
tary current the motor speed increases at the However, one has to note that the motor
same ratio and with it the output power of the speed changes according to the applied
asynchronous motor. The speed is limited by frequency. In the case of grinding tools
the maximum permissible peripheral veloc- this change in speed can affect safety and
ity (operating speed) of the tools. has to be taken into account at all times!
This optimum power-to-weight ratio is one
of the features of high-frequency power
tools operated at a frequency of 200 to Mains groups
300 Hz. Larger transmissions are required in
frequency frequency
the case of larger differences between 200 Hz 300 Hz
motor and operating speed. As a result, the Mains groups
weight saving of the rotary-current drive group number voltage voltage
motor is neutralised by the higher weight of 1 265 V
the transmission gears. 2 135 V 200 V
3 72 V 110 V
High-frequency systems equipped exclu-
4 72 V
sively with grinders should be operating
7 42 V
with 300 Hz. This ensures favourable trans-
10 42 V
mission speeds at high rotational speeds.
Ideal mains group
Operating frequency and machine weight
If two voltages are specified in one mains group this
means that one and the same power tool can be op-
Weight (kg) erated on both voltage/frequency combinations.
(Exception: grinding tools higher frequency = higher
rotational speed!)
optimum total
weight
weight
of
transmission

weight
of
motor

0 100 200 300 400 500


Frequency (Hz)

EWL-HF001/G

14
High-frequency technology

Converter systems As a rule, frequency converters with a pow-


er output of over 4 kVA should not be con-
A converter system for high-frequency pow- nected directly to the mains, but through a
er tools can be dimensioned along different star-delta switch. A direct power-on pro-
criteria which have to suit the operational duces a short-term current inrush which
requirements. You can always choose be- could place a heavy strain on the wiring
tween different solutions by comparing their leading to converters of more than 4 kVA
advantages and disadvantages. The follow- and trigger the series-connected fuses. If a
ing converter types are used for HF power star-delta connection is used the current in-
tools: rush is reduced since in comparison to di-
rect connection only one third of the current
static converters
will flow. The star-delta switch is used to
dynamic converters switch the windings of the drive motor
through star (starting mode) to delta (oper-
ating mode). A frequency converter to be
Static converters operated on a 400-V system with a star-
This converter type, also known as power delta switch must above all be designed for
inverter, initially rectifies the applied mains 400 V in delta. If the converter is only di-
voltage which is then electronically con- mensioned for 230 V in delta, it can only op-
verted to the desired frequency. Power in- erate in a 400-V system directly in star, i. e.
verters work with power semiconductors without being started by using the star-delta
and do not have any moving parts subject switch. This must be taken into account
to wear. during the dimensioning of a new HF sys-
tem.
Static converters are mainly used for
smaller systems up to approximately 5 kW.
Since they function without noise genera- Converter
tion, they can be placed directly at the (single-wave converter)
workplace.

Dynamic converters
Dynamic converters, also known as rotat-
ing converters, consist of a motor operating
at network frequency and a generator pro-
ducing the high-frequency. They are the
most frequently used converters for HF
power tools. EWL-HF005/P

A combination of an asynchronous motor


and a synchronous generator is the best
technical solution. The converters are so-
called single-shaft machines, i. e. motor and
generator are assembled to form one unit
with a common drive shaft.
The formula to calculate the output frequen-
cy is:
f2 = f1  p2 /p1
f1 = input frequency of the three-phase
mains
f2 = output frequency for high-frequency
power tools
p1 = number of pole pairs of drive motor
p2 = number of pole pairs of generator

15
High-frequency technology

Switching stations
skin effect
In order to increase the economic efficiency
of a plant, two or more small converters electromagnetic emission
controlled by a switching station are usual-
ly preferred to one large converter. These effects have an influence on the di-
Frequency converters can be connected in mensioning and construction of the cables
parallel to compensate for peak loads. This and the type of installation.
ensures an optimum adaptation to the ap-
plied tools. Frequency converters with syn-
chronous generators allow the operation of
units with different performance values Skin effect
without having to take special measures.
The term skin effect describes the charac-
Another advantage of switching stations is teristic property of an electric current to
that they allow the temporary shutdown of move to the surface of the conductor as the
individual converters to carry out repair and frequency increases. In extreme cases (at
maintenance without having to deenergise very high frequencies) this has the effect
the entire system. that current will flow only on the surface
(skin) of the conductor while the cross-
sectional surface inside the conductor be-
Reactive-current compensation haves like an insulator. This is also known as
the inductive resistance of a conductor.
Every inductive consumer has its associat- The diameter of a conductor for higher fre-
ed inductive reactive current which does not quencies must therefore be larger to com-
perform any effective work and only puts an pensate for the effectively lost conductor di-
extra strain on the cables. Frequency con- ameter.
verters and high-frequency power tools are
also inductive consumers.
The compensation of the reactive current on
the secondary or output side of a converter Skin effect
is only possible with great effort since each
Direct current
tool would have to be compensated individ-
ually. Depending on the number and output
power of the individual high-frequency
power tools one has to reckon with a total
Conductivity of total conductor
power factor cos of 0.5 to 0.85. On the pri-
J cross-section
mary or input side of a frequency converter
the power factor cos can be improved con-
J High-frequency
siderably by compensating the reactive cur- alternating current
rent in the drive motor and the generator. By
connecting suitably dimensioned capaci-
tors to the system it is possible to compen-
sate the reactive power on the primary side
of the converter during idling completely for Conductivity only on fringe of conductor
practical purposes and under load to such cross-section

an extent that the power factor increases to Ultra-high-frequency


more than cos = 0.9.
J alternating current

Wiring systems
EWL-HF006/P

The wiring systems for HF systems differ


basically from the wiring systems for com- Conductivity only on surface of
mon network frequencies of 50 or 60 Hz. conductor
Reasons for this are the effects of increased
frequencies:

16
High-frequency technology

Electromagnetic emission Installation requirements


Cables which carry alternating currents emit The HF distribution network must not have
electromagnetic waves. For practical pur- any connection with the existing 50-Hz
poses they act like sending aerials. The power supply network. For this reason, spe-
electromagnetic emission can, especially in cial CEE plug-in connectors in accordance
case of higher frequencies, produce mal- with DIN 49462/63 and DIN 49465 are re-
functions in sensitive electric equipment quired for frequencies between 100 and 300
(e. g. radio and television interference). The Hz. The colour of plug-in connector hous-
aerial effect can be suppressed by proper ings, couplings and wall-mounting socket
electromagnetic shielding of the cable. As a outlets is green. The special design of these
rule, this is achieved by an earthed metal plug-in connectors prevents existing 50-Hz
screen (braided shield) in the cable sheath. plug-and-socket devices being combined
with plug-in connectors or portable socket
outlets.

Electromagnetic radiation Mobile or permanently installed cables can


be used for the distribution network be-
Unshielded cable
tween the frequency converter and the indi-
2
vidual high-frequency power tools, depend-
ing on the requirements.
The transmission of high output power at
low voltage is uneconomical in complex
systems. Either the installation costs are too
1 high due to the large conductor cross-sec-
Aerial effect tions or transformers are required which re-
duce the higher voltage at the operating lo-
Shielded cable cation of the tool. Given the preconditions
constant transmission power, fixed voltage
drop and uniform cable length the cable
5 cross-section changes according to the
1 4 voltage, i. e., half the voltage requires four
3 times the conductor cross-section.
2

No aerial effect
Dimensioning of the wiring system
1 Conductor
EWL-HF007/P

2 Insulation The straightforward dimensioning of an HF


3 Braided screen
4 Insulated sheath wiring system is best based on standard ta-
5 Earthing bles and nomograms. In this fashion it is
quite easy to determine the required cross-
sections according to the following illustra-
tions. The conductor cross-sections are cal-
culated on the basis of the permissible
voltage drop of 5 % due to the ohmic re-
sistance, the permissible temperature in-
crease and the voltage drop due to the in-
ductive resistance (skin effect). The
procedure is described in the following ex-
amples.

17
High-frequency technology

Sample calculations Example 1


Transmission of 4 kW, 72 V rotary current,
Cable cross-section in dependence of
cos = 0.8, cable length (one-way): 10 m
J
voltage and cable length
Calculated cable cross-section in accor-
Take the value of the transmitted output dance with ill. HF 008/G: 2.75 mm2
power and, depending on the type of cur- Calculated cable cross-section in accor-
rent, proceed from left or right horizontally dance with ill. HF 009/G: 4.8 mm2 (select-
to the intersection with the voltage line, from ed cross-section: 6 mm)
there go vertically down to the intersection The cable cross-section of 2.75 mm2 calcu-
with the line for the cable length (simple lated in accordance with ill. HF 008/G and
length) and then again horizontally to the left HF 010/G is insufficient, it would lead to an
or right. (Ill. HF 008/G) excessive temperature increase in the
cable.
A check in accordance with ill. HF 010/G is
Cable cross-section in dependence of not required, since the cross-section is less
voltage and power factor than 10 mm2.
The cross-section determined in the previ-
ous diagram is now tested for temperature Example 2
increase. Take the value of the transmitted Transmission of 3 kW, 220 V single-phase
output power and proceed from the left hor- alternating current, cos = 0.9, cable length
J
izontally to the intersection with the voltage (one-way): 100 m
line, from there go vertically down to the in- Calculated cable cross-section in accor-
tersection with the line for the power factor dance with ill. HF 008/G: 4 mm2
cos , then horizontally to the right to read
J Calculated cable cross-section in accor-
off the cross-section depending on the ca- dance with ill. HF 009/G: 0.9 mm2
ble type. (Ill. HF 009/G) According to ill. HF 008/G a cross-section
of 4 mm2 is required. This measure is the de-
cisive one since the result for the cable in
Cable cross-section in dependence of accordance with ill. HF 009/G is only 0.9
frequency and inductive resistance mm2 and for that reason there is no great
risk of overheating.
If in the case of rotary current, a cable
cross-section of more than 10 mm2 was de- Example 3
termined in the previous diagrams, the in- As for example 1, however 200 Hz rotary
ductive voltage drop is taken into account current at 100 m cable length, calculated
by transferring the exact value into the next cable cross-section from ill. HF 008/G:
diagram where you proceed from the hori- 27 mm2
zontal baseline vertically upwards to the in- This value has to be checked in accordance
tersection with the curve for the frequency with ill. HF 010/G. In this case the larger
and then horizontally to the left or right. cross-section of 50 mm2 has to be chosen.
Of the determined cable cross-sections on-
ly the larger value is decisive for the dimen- Cable cross-section in dependence of
sioning of the cable. frequency and inductive resistance

mm2
The inductive resistance is especially no- 150
ticeable in the case of larger cable cross- 120
200 z
z

150 H z
Hz
300 H
400 H

Hz

95
sections. These in turn are required in case
50

70
of low voltage or higher frequency.
50

For the calculation of the curves in the illus- 35

trations a consumer power factor cos of J 25

0.7 was assumed. In the case of single- 16


phase alternating-current systems with a
10
power factor cos = 1 the inductive resist-
J 5
EWL-HF010/G

ance can be neglected even for larger cable 6

cross-sections. (Ill. HF 010/G) 5 6 8 10 20 30 40 50 100


mm2

18
High-frequency technology

Cable cross-section in dependence of voltage and cable length


kW kW

power to be transmitted in case of direct or single-phase alternating current


40 20
35 15

20 10
power to be transmitted in case of rotary current

15 7.5

10 5.0
8.0 4.0

0V
2

20
0V
6.0 50 3.0
1
0V

0V
38

V
22
4.0 2.0

0
11
0V
3.0 1.5

V
23

72
5 V
11
0V

2.0 1.0

42 V
25

48
5V

36 V
1.5 12 0.75

V
5V
26

5V
13

1.0 0.5

V
36
0.8 0.4
0V
15

0.6 0,3

0.4 0.2

mm2 mm2
70 70
50 50

35 35
h
gt
len

0m

25 25 c
80
le
00 cab

0m
y
wa

40

16 16
m
e-
on

0m
10

0m

20

10 10
60

0m
0m

10
30

m
60

6.0 6.0
0m
15

m
30

b 4.0 4.0
m
80

m
15
m

2.5 2.5 a
40

5m
20

1.5 1.5
m

EWL-HF008/G
10

1.0 1.0

Cable cross-section in dependence of voltage and power factor


current
Rotary
Single-phase alternating current

kW A mm2
20
Rubber-sheathed cable

10
3
26
8.0 5V
50 4
6.0 15
Power to be transmitted in case of rotary current Direct current

10 0V 38 0V 5
permanent

5.0
installation

8.0 0V
25 6
4.0 0V
6.0 4 8
13
3.0 5V
2.5 10
4.0
2.0 72
0.75 1.0
3.0 3 V 15 1.5 1.5
1.5 22
0V 20 1.5 2.5
2.0 12
1.0 5V 25 2.5 4.0
20
0V 30
0.8 4.0 6.0
48 11 40
0.6 1.0 V 5 V 6.0 10
0.5 50
0.0 24
0.4 V 60 10 16
=1

42 11
0. 8
s

0.6 V
0.

0 V 80
6
co

0.3 0.5 16 25
0.25 36 100 35
0.4 V 25
EWL-HF009/G

0.20 35 50
0.3 150
0.15 50
200 70
0.2

19
High-frequency technology

Electric safety for HF systems

EWL-HF008/P
(rotary current of increased frequency) Neutralisation
L L L P
The electric safety of HF power tools is pro- 1 2 3
E
vided by the protective conductor in accor-
R
dance with EN 50144, safety class I. The B

star or zero point is brought out from the


star-connected secondary winding of the
converter. The zero point is earthed (earth- M

ing resistance RB 2 ohm) and connected
through the protective conductors with the
metal housing of the power tools in such a
fashion that in the case of 265 V operating R
B

voltage the danger voltage between phase


and earth is in the worst case only R =<2
B

265 V
= 153 V
1.73
Error-current deactivation
In the case of operating voltages of 135 V or L2 P
72 V the danger voltage between phase and E
L1 L3
earth is only I
R
E

135 V I
= 78 V
I
1.73
or
72 V
= 42 V R
B
1.73
L2 P
whereby 1.73 represents the interlinking L L3
E
factor gVVV
3 for three-phase rotary current. 1
I
R
E

The effectiveness of the protective earth


connection has to be ensured by using suit-
I
ably robust and in their electrical construc- I-I f
f
tion faultless plug-in connections as well as
robust cables.
Just as important is regular and careful E

maintenance. R
L2 P B
E
The construction of the power tool itself L1 L3
must satisfy the high demands of an indus-
M
trial production facility.
R
In standard cases you can follow the above
ne
r li
description, i. e. the safety precaution pro- Wa
te

tective multiple earthing in accordance


with VDE 0100 10 N. S
W P
In the case of 265 V/200 Hz rotary current
I<
one can choose residual-current earth-leak-
age circuit breakers (r.c.c.b.) for 45 mA.
Residual-current earth-leakage circuit
breakers for rotary current of other voltages
and frequencies have to be ordered sepa-
rately from the manufacturers in question! R =< 2
B
Beyond that the standard precautions for 3- EWL-HF009/P
phase systems apply.

20
Available Correspondence Seminars
Type Subject New Order no. booklet
code

Sales The demand analysis: Setting the future course for success V 1.1
The Offer: The rignt sales proposition at the right time is the problem V 1.2
solution for the customer
Sensory Perception: A Picture can say more than a thousand words. V 1.3
The combination offer: The whole is more than the sum of its parts V 1.4
After Sales Service: Small gestures great effects V 1.5
The Bosch-Formula: Providing customer-centred advice and V 1.6
assistance through sales specialists
Explaining customer benefits during tool presentations: V 2.1
Router and System accessories
Explaining customer benefits during tool presentations: V 2.2
Router potential for stationary Operation
Explaining customer benefits during tool presentations: V 2.3
Power Tools for sanding
Explaining customer benefits during tool presentations: V 2.4
All about the mini grinder
Explaining customer benefits during tool presentations: V 2.5
Powerful working with the angle grinders
Explaining customer benefits during tool presentations: V 2.6
Impact free working with diamond drilling Systems
Explaining customer benefits during tool presentations: V 2.7
Diamond drilling Systems Part 2, Concrete grinders, wall chasers
and slot cutters.
Explaining customer benefits during tool presentations: V 2.8
Jigsaw and tenon saw in action
Technical Focus on the wood crafts Part 1: Recognising opportunities 1 609 901 Z 18 V 3.1
Focus on the wood crafts Part 2: Tuition system, Routing, Planing 1 609 901 Z 25 V 3.1
Craft in Vision Part 1: Working in Masonry - Materials and Tools 1 609 901 Z 31 V 3.2
Craft in Vision Part 2: Power Tools for Working in Masonry 1 609 901 Z 32 V 3.2
Metalworking Part 1: Materials and Tools 1 609 901 Z 38 V 3.3
Metalworking Part 2: Power Tools and Applications 1 609 901 Z 39 V 3.3
Electronc Measuring Technology: Basic Principles 1 609 901 Z 40 P3
Bosch Green: Drilling, grinding and sanding 1 609 901 Z 41 P1
Bosch Green: Sawing, routing, joining 1 609 901 Z 42 P2
Power tools and accessories 1 609 901 Z 43
Diamond Accessories 1 609 901 Z 73
Cordless 1 609 901 Y 07
Measuring instruments 1 609 901 Y 10

Please copy this sheet, state the number of copies you need, and send it in or fax to:
Power Tool Training Club Mollenbachstrae 3335 D-71229 Leonberg, Germany Fax +49 (0) 71 52-9 78 20-24

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ESS CLUB FORMACION OUTIL ELECTRO
PORTATIF FORMATION VENDEURS
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TOOL TRAINING CLUB CORRESPON
DENCE SEMINAR GREATER KNOW
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FORMACION OUTIL ELECTROPORTATIF
FORMATION VENDEURS EW-BILDUNGS
CLUB FERNLEHRBRIEF MEHR WIS
SEN MEHR ERFOLG POWER TOOL ROBERT BOSCH GMBH 2003
Power Tool Division

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SEMINAR GREATER KNOWLEDGE http://www.bosch-pt.de
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GREATER SUCCESS CLUB FORMACION


OUTIL ELECTROPORTATIF FORMATION EW/SCT-FLB
Order no. 1 609 901 Y68
09/03 (S)

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LEHRBRIEF MEHR WISSEN MEHR ERF