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tIc-f-hn-I-k-\hpw ae-bmf kÀh-I-em-im-ebpw

cq]-tcJ

kq£va ]cn-tim-[\: H.-F³.-hn. Ipdp¸v

X¿m-dm-¡n-bXv:

sFIy-a-e-bmf {]Øm\w ( ae-bmf sFIy-th-Zn, ae-bmf kan-Xn, ae-bmf kwc-£WthZn F¶o amXr-`mjmkwL-S-\-I-fp-sSbpw `mjm-kvt\-ln-I-fp-sSbpw s]mXp-th-Zn) Xncp-h-\-´-]pcw 2011 BKkvXv 14

DÅ-S¡w

1

AapJw

2

ae-bmf `mjbpw tIc-f-¯nsâ hnI-k-\hpw

3.

^m¡Âän-IÄ, kvIqfp-IÄ, ]T-\-tI-{µ-§Ä

4.

XpS¡-¯n¯s¶ {i²n-t¡Imcy-§Ä

ae-bmf kÀh-I-em-ime Øm]n-¡p-sa¶ {]Jym-]\w h¶p Ign-ªp. AXn-sâ {]mY-anI sNe-hp-I-fn-te-¡mbn Hcp tImSn cq] _P-än \o¡n-sh- ¡p-Ibpw sNbvXn-cn-¡p-¶p. ae-bmf kÀh-I-em-ime F§n-s\-bm-bn-cn-¡Ww F¶-Xns\ kw_-Ôn¨v ]e \ne-bn-epÅ A`n-{]m-b-§Ä \ne-hn-ep-v. C¡m-cy-¯n tIc-f-¯nse amXr-`mjm kwL-S-\-I-fp-sSbpw `mjm-kvt\-ln- I-fp-sSbpw s]mXp-th-Zn-bmb sFIy-a-e-bmf {]Øm\w Nne \nÀt±-i-§Ä apt¶m-«p-sh-¡p-I-bm-Wv.

1. BapJw

1.temI-`m-j-I-fn ae-bm-f-¯nsâ Øm\w amXr`mjsb¶ \nebn kwkmcn¡p¶ BfpIfpsS IWs¡Sp¯m C¶v temI¯n aebmfw Ccp]¯nbmdmas¯ Øm\¯mWv. ]e bqtdm]y³ `mjIfpw C¡mcy¯n aebmfs¯¡mÄ ]ndInemWv. {Ko¡v `mj kwkm-cn-¡p-¶-h-sc-¡mfpw Gsd-bmWv ae-bm-fn-I-fpsS F®w. t\mÀshbpw kzoU\pw ^n³emâpw sFkveâpw BsI tNÀ¶m-epÅ P\-kw-Jy-bpv tIc-f-¯n-\v. temIcmjv{S§fnse Hu-tZym-Kn-I- `mjm]ZhnbpÅ ]e `mjIsf¡mfpw F®wsImv ap¼nemWv aebmfn kaqlsa¶À°w. F¶m C¯c¯nepÅ AwKoImcw tIcfkaqlw Hcn-¡epw aebmf¯n\v sImSp¯n«n-Ã. sImtfm-Wn-b `qX-Imew \ÂInb A[-a-t_m[w Ct¸mgpw \s½ ]n´p-S-cp-¶p. Cu A[-a-t_m-[-¯nÂ\n¶v \mw sasà hnap-à-am-Im³ {ian-¡p-I-bm- Wv. Cu Zni-bn-epÅ Hcp Nph-SmWv ae-bmf kÀh-I-em-ime Øm]n-¡m\pÅ Xocp-am-\w. Cu Xocp-am-\-sa-Sp¯ tIcf kÀ¡m-dns\ Bßm-`n-am-\-apÅ FÃm ae-bm-fn-I-fp-sSbpw t]cn R§Ä A`n-\-µn-¡p-¶p.

2.`mjm-k-acw kzmX-{´y-k-acw Xs¶ X-§Ä¡v A\y-ambn¯oÀ¶ cmjv{So-bm-[n-Im-cs¯ Xncn-¨p-]n-Sn-¡m³ P\X \S- ¯nb ka-c-s¯bmW----- tÃm \mw kzmX-{´y-k-acw F¶p- hn-fn-¨-Xv. hntZim[n]Xy¯ns\Xnsc cmjv{Sob kacw hnPbIcambn \S¶p. kzmX-{´y-sa-¶Xv cmjv{Sobm[nIm-c-¯nsâ {]iv\w am{X-a-Ã, AtXm-sSm¸w kmaq-ln-Im-[n-Im-c-¯nsâ ]p\:- Øm-]\w IqSn-bm-Wv. B \nebv¡pw `mj-bpsS A´Êpw kzm[o-\-Xbpw hos-Sp-¡pI F¶Xv kzmX-{´y-¯nsâ ]qÀW-amb km£m-XvIm-c-¯n\v A\n-hm-cy-am-Wv. Cu cmjv{Sob kacw `mjmimkv{X ]T\cwK¯pw kzm[o\w sNep¯n¯p-S-§n-bn-cn-¡p-¶p. P\-X-bpsS s]mXp-hmb kzmX-{´y-t_m-[-hp-ambpw hnIm-k-hp-ambpw `mjsb _Ôn-¸n-¡p¶ Idp¯ `mjmimkv{Xw (Black Linguistics) F¶ H¶v aq¶mw-tem-I¯v Ct¸mÄ DbÀ¶phcnIbpw sNbvXncn¡p¶p. C´ybnepw kzmX-{´y-k-a-c-¯nsâ `mK-am-bn-¯s¶bmWv `mjm-]-c-amb ka-chpw DbÀ¶p-h-¶-Xv. KmÔnb³ {]Øm\¯n amXr`mjbv¡pmbncp¶ Øm\w FÃmhÀ¡pw AdnhpÅXmWv. lnµnsb, kmam\ya\pjycpsS `mjbmb lnµpØm\nsb {]Ncn¸n¡m³ KmÔnPn \S¯nb {iat¯msSm¸w amXr`mjbpw At±l¯nâ ]cnKW\mhnjbambncp¶p. KmÔnPnbpsS lnµvkzcmPpw BßIYbpw KpPdm¯n `mjbnemWv FgpXs¸«Xv F¶Xv ad¶pIqSm. Z£ntW´ybn B-{Ô-bnse t]män {iocm-aep, Xangv \m«n kzmX-{´y-k-ac t\Xm-hm-bn-cp¶ kXy-aqÀ¯n XpS-§nb-hcpw cmjv{Sob kzmX{´y¯n\v `mjm-]-c-amb Xeaps¶ hyàamb t_m[yt¯msS {]hÀ¯n¨hcmbncp¶p. \½psS sFIy-tI-c-f-k-¦ev]w kzmX-{´y-k-a-c-¯nsâ DuÀÖ- ¯n-emWv hnI-kn-¨Xpw e£yw I-Xpw. aebmf¯n\p thnbpÅ hmZw Cw¥ojnt\mSpÅ hntcm[w {]Ncn¸n¡m\pÅXÃ. Cw¥ojns\ AXnsâ B[n]Xybpànbn \n¶v kzX{´ambn ImWm\pw AXnsâ tamN\]camb aqey§sf kzmwioIcn¡m\papÅXmWv; bPam\`mjsb¶ \nebnÂ\n¶v AXns\ ktlmZc`mjbmbn P\m[n]Xyh¡cn¡m\pÅXmWXv. Cw¥ojv am{Xaà temI¯nte¡pÅ hgnsb¶pw Hmtcm P\-k-aq-l-hp-ambpw _Ô-s¸-Sm³ Gähpw icnbmb hgn Ah-cpsS amXr`mjbneqsSbpÅXmWv F¶ Xncn¨dnhpamWXv. 3. Hcp `mj-bv¡mbn kÀh-I-em-ime Bh-iytam?þa-e-bmf kÀh-I-em-im-e-bpsS t\sc-bpÅ FXnÀ¸p-IÄ Xangv\m«n X©mhqcn Xangv kÀhIemime Bcw`n¨Xv 1981 emWvþFw.Pn.cmaN{µ³ apJya{´nbmb Ime¯v. cphÀjw sImv AXv bp.Pn.knbpsS AwKoImcw t\SnsbSp¯p. sslZc_mZn\Sp¯v \¼Ånbn t]män {iocmaephnsâ t]cnepÅ sXep¦v kÀhIemime 1985 epw l¼nbn I¶U kÀhIemime 1991 epw Bcw`n¨p. B{Ôbnse Ip¸¯v {ZmhnU kÀhIemime Bcw`n¨Xv 1997 emWv. AXn\pw aps¼ Xs¶ ]Symebn 1962  ]©m_n kÀhIemime \nehn h¶ncp¶p. ae-bm-f-¯n-\mbn Hcp kÀh-I-em-ime thW-sa¶

hmZw iàn-s¸-«Xv Cu kml-N-cy-§-fn-sem-s¡-bm-Wv. F¶m AXn\v FXnÀ¸p-I-fp-ap- m-bn.

Hcp hnj-b-¯n\v am{X-ambn Hcp kÀh-I-em-ime F¶Xv kÀh-I-em-ime F¶ k¦-ev]-¯n\v Xs¶ FXn-cmWv F¶XmWv ae-bm-f kÀh-I-em-im-e- F¶p ]d-bp-t¼mÄ ]e-t¸mgpw DbÀ¶p h¶ adphmZw. F¶m tIc-f-¯n¯s¶ Btcm-Kyw, \nb-aw, ^nj-dokv XpS-§nb {]tXyI hnj-b-§Ä¡v kÀh-I-em-ime h¶p. Ahbvs¡-Xnsc Cu hnaÀi-\-§Ä Bcpw D¶-bn-¨n-«n-Ã. Hcp `mjbv¡p am{X-ambn Hcp kÀh-I-em-ime Bh- iy-an-sö hmZ-amWv tIÄ¡m-dp-Å- asämcp hnaÀi\w. aebmf kÀhIemime h¶m aäp `mjIÄ¡pw kÀhIemime thWsa¶ hmZw hcpsa¶phsc Nn´n¨v AXns\ hnaÀin¨hcpapv. \s½ kw_-Ôn-¨n-S-t¯mfw amXr-`m-j-bmb ae-bmfw GsX-¦nepw Hcp `mjam{X-amWv F¶ bm{´nI Nn´-bmWv CXn\p ]n¶n-ep-Å-Xv. tIcfs¯ Hcp kaqlam¡n \nÀ¯p¶Xnsâ B[mcamb aebmf`mjsb aäp `mjIfpambn XmcXayw sN¿m³ Ignbp¶Xà F¶ efnXamb kXyamWv C¯cw hnaÀiIÀ ad¶pt]mIp¶Xv. aebmf¯nsâ hnImkw tIcfkaql¯nsâ FÃm \nebnepÅ P\m[n]Xyh¡cW¯n\v A\nhmcyamWv. amXr-`m-jbv¡v P\-X-bpsS Pohn-X-¯n A\y-`m-j-IÄ¡n-Ãm¯ khn-ti-j-X-I-fp-

v:

1. amXr-`m-j-bp-ambn Hcp P\-X-bv¡pÅXv Ncn-{X-]-c-amb ssPh-_-Ô-am-Wv.

2. aäp `mj-IÄ hyàn-]-c-amb Xe-¯n-emWv ]Tn-s¨-Sp-¡p-¶-sX-¦n amXr-`mj kmaq-

lnI-amb A\p-`-h-am-Wv. DZv{K-Yn-X-amb Hcp kaq-ls¯ krjvSn-¡m-\pÅ D]m-[nbpw am[y-ahpw amXr-`m-j-bm-Wv.

3. Hcp P\-X-bpsS t_m[-a-WvU-es¯ am{X-a-Ã, D]t_m-[-s¯-¯s¶ cq]-s¸-Sp-¯p¶

kuµ-cym-ß-I-Xew amXr-`m-j-bn-emWv IpSn-sIm-Åp-¶-Xv. kmln-Xyhpw Iebpw Cu _Ô-¯nsâ LS-I-§-fn apJy-hp-am-Wv.

4. Hcp P\-X-sb¶ \ne-bn-epÅ kaq-l-¯nsâ kÀh-tXm-ap-J-amb hnI-k\¯nsâ Bß-

\n-jvT-Xew Ah-cpsS amXr-`m-j-bpsS tijn-bm-Wv. AXp-hsc k©-cn-¨n-«n-Ãm¯ temI-§- fn-te¡v k©-cn-¡p-¶-Xn-\pÅ auenI Nn´-I-fpsS Iev]-\m-ti-jnbmWXv. aäp hkvXp- \njvT LS-I-§-tfm-sSm¸w Cu LSIw IqSn hnI-kn-¡p-¶n-sÃ-¦n B[p-\nI kaq-l- ambn amdp-¶-Xn Hcp P\X ]cm-P-b-s¸-Sp-¶p. amXr-`mj \jvS-s¸« P\-Xbv¡v X§-fpsS hnIm-k-¯n\v Bh-iy-amb hkvXp-\n-jvT-L-S-I-§fpsS \nÀam-W-ti-jn Xs¶ \jvS-s¸-Sp- ¶p. Fs´-¶m hyàn-IÄ X½n ]c-kv]-c-apÅ kmaq-ly-_-Ô-¯nsâ ZmÀVy-amWv Ahsc \nÀam-W-ti-jn-bpÅ a\p-jy-cm-¡p-¶-Xv. Hcp P\-X-sb¶ \ne-bn-epÅ Cu

ZmÀVyw amXr-`m-j-bn-eqsS-bmWv cq]-s¸-Sp-¶-Xv. AXp-sImp Xs¶ amXr-`mj GsX-¦nepw Hcp `mj-b-Ã. F¶n«pw ae-bmf kÀh-I-em-im-e-bvs¡-Xnsc hnaÀi-\ap-bÀ¶Xv bqtdm-]y³ kÀh-I-em-im-e-Isf ap³\nÀ¯n-bmWv.

4.bqtdm¸n `mjmkÀhIemimeIÄ BhiyanÃm¯Xn\v ImcWw bqtdm-¸n-s\bpw Ata-cn-¡-sbbpw ap³\nÀ¯n Hcp `mj-bv¡mbn Hcp kÀh-I-em- ime ths¶p ]d-bp-¶-hÀ a\Ênem¡m¯ Hcp Imcy-ap-v. bqtdm¸nse FÃm kÀhIemimeIfpw AhchcpsS `mjm kÀhIemimeIfmsW¶XmWXv. AhchcpsS `mjbn hnÚm\w hnIkn¸n¡m\pÅ Øm]\§fmWhsbÃmw. Imâpw slKepw apX kaImenI ]WvUnXÀhsc AhchcpsS hnjb§Ä hnIkn¸n¨Xv amXr`mjbnemWv. AXphgn AhcpsS hyàn]camb sshÚm\nI hnImkw kmaqlnIhnImkhpambn ebn¨ptNcpIbmWpmbXv. \½psS ]T\hIp¸pIfn \n¶v ssPh_p²nPohnIÄ cq]s¸Sm¯Xn\v ImcWhpw Cu _ÔanÃm¯Xp Xs¶. Adnhv F¶Xv hyàn]camb Úm\aÃ, kmaqlnIamb Úm\amsW¶v AwKoIcn¨m kaql¯nsâ `mjbnemWv AXnsâ Dev]m-Z\w \St¡Xv F¶v hyàamIpw. 5.ae-bmf kÀh-I-em-ime: cpXcw k¦ev]§Ä aebmf kÀhIemimesb¡pdn¨v cp Xcw k¦ev]§Ä C¶v \nehnepv. AXnsem¶v aebmf`mjbpsS Ncn{Xhpw kmt¦XnIXehpw aebmfkmlnXyhpw am{Xw

]Tn¡p¶Xn\pÅ Hcp Øm]\ambn AXns\ t\m¡n¡mWemWv. Hcp ]s£ ZiI§Ä¡p ap¼v Cu ImgvN¸mSv BZy-ambn apt¶m«psh¡pt¼mÄ aebmf`mj C¶v t\cnSp¶{X shÃphnfn A´co£¯nepmbncp¶nÃ. `mjbpw kaqlhpw X½nepÅ _Ôs¯¡pdn¨pÅ ssk²m-´nI k¦-ev]-§fpw {]mtbm-Kn-I-]-T-\-§fpw C{Xt¯mfw hnIkn¨ncp¶pan-Ã. F¶m CXn \n¶pw XnI¨pw hyXykvXamb coXnbnepÅ ae-bmf kÀh-I-em- imem k¦ev]hpw XpS-¡-¯n¯s¶ D¶-bn-¡-s¸-«n-cp-¶p. AXmIs« imkv{Xhpw kmt¦XnIimkv{X§fpw kmaqlyimkv{XhpapÄs¸sS FÃm hnjb§fpw ssIImcyw sN¿m³ Ignbp¶ a«n aebmf`mjsb hnIkn¸n¡pI F¶ e£ys¯ ap³\nÀ¯nbpÅXpamWv (s]cp¶ sI.-F³.-\m-bÀ hnhn[ cmPy-§fnse ]T-\-am-[y-a- §sf ap³\nÀ¯n 1990 se hnÚm\ ssIc-fn- `mjm-]-Xn-¸n ae-bmf kÀh-I-em-im- esb kw_-Ôns¨gp-Xnb teJ-\-¯n C¡mcyw Nqn-¡m-«n-bn-cp-¶p). imkv{Xkmt¦- XnI cwK§fn aebmf`mjsb imàoIcn¡pI F¶Xv aebmfw A[ym]IcptSXnt\¡mÄ imkv{Xm[ym]IcpsS D¯chmZn¯amWv. AXpt]mse kmaqlyimkv{X aWvUe¯n aebmf `mjsb hnIkn¸n¡pI F¶Xv kmaqlyimkv{X A[ym]IcpsSbpw B aWvUe¯n {]hÀ¯n¡p¶hcpsSbpw D¯chmZn¯amWv. CubnsSbmWv ap³ sF.Fkv.BÀ.H sNbÀam³ Pn.am[h³ \mbÀ tIcf¯n saUn¡Â hnZym`ymkw amXr`mjbnembncn¡Ww F¶p ]dªXv. bqtdm-¸nse coXn-bn \n¶v hyXy-kvX-ambn amXr-`m-j-bv¡mbn Hcp kÀh-I-em- ime Øm]n¨v hnP-bn¨ Ncn-{X-amWv lo{_p kÀh-I-em-im-e-bv¡p-Å-Xv. CXns\ ae-bmf kÀh-I-em-im-ebv¡pw amXr-I-bm-¡m-hp-¶-Xm-Wv. 6.BÂ_ÀSv sF³ssÌ\pw lo{_p kÀhIemimebpw aX]camb ImcW§fm Ncn{X]cambn aÀ±n¡¸«v NnXdnt¸mb Hcp P\X B[p\nI kzXzamÀÖn¨v Hcp kaqlambn¯oÀ¶Xnsâ Gähpw \à DZmlcWamWtÃm Hcp Ime¯v temI¯mIam\w th«bmSs¸« PqXÀ ]n¶oSv Hcp cmjv{Sambn¯oÀ¶Xv (CcIÄ th«¡mcmbn amdnbXmWv C¶v C{ktbensâ AhØ. AhÀ ]mekvXo\nIsf th«bmSp¶p F¶Xv asämcp Imcyw). CcIÄ F¶ AhØsb AhÀ adnIS¡m³ XpS§nbXn `mjm]T\¯n\v \nÀWmbIamb ]¦ps¶p ImWmw. PqXsct¸mse Hcp aXkaqlaà \mw. B \nebnepÅ XmcXayw {]kàhpaÃ. F¶m inYneambnt¸mb, arX-{]m-b-ambn hnÚm\ tijn \jvSs¸« Hcp `mjsb B[p\nI temI`mjIfnsem¶mbn DbÀ¯nbXn kÀhIemimemØm]\w hln¨ ]¦n\v Gähpw \à DZmlcWamWv lo{_p kÀhIemime. CÑmiànbpÅ cmjv{Sob kwhn[m\¯nsâ CSs]S Hcp `mjbpsS hfÀ¨bn F{X \nÀWmbIamWv F¶pÅXnsâ DZmlcWamWv lo{_p kÀhIemime. lo{_p kÀhIemimebpsS Øm]IcnsemcmÄ BÂ_ÀSv sF³ssÌ\mbncp¶p. t_m[-{]-]-©-¯nsâ AXnÀ¯n-IÄ At\z-jn¨ sF³ssÌ\pw At_m-[-¯nsâ AXnÀ¯n-IÄ At\z-jn¨ knÜv t{^mbvUn\pw Hcp t]mse amXr-`m- j-bn-epÅ hnÚm-\-¯nsâ {]m[m-\y-a-dn-bm-am-bn-cp-¶p. 1918 emWv lo{_p kÀhIemimebv¡v Xd¡Ãn«Xv. kÀhIemimebpsS BZy KhÀWÀamcn sF³ssÌ\pw t{^mbvUpw DÄs¸Sp¶papv. Atacn¡bnse {]n³Ì¬ kÀhIemimebnemWv Kuchtadnb {]_豈 sF³ss̳ AhXcn¸n¨Xv. AhnsS¯s¶ sh¨mWv acn¨Xpw. F¶m lo{_p kÀhIemimebv¡mWv Xsâ A¡mZanIamb FÃm AhImi§fpw sF³ss̳ FgpXnsh¨Xv (Ccp]Xmw \qämp IGähpw henb imkv{XÚsâ imkv{XtcJIfpsS AÊ Ct¸mgpw kq£n¨ncn¡p¶Xv lo{_p kÀhIemimebnemsW¶v HmÀ¡Ww. At±l¯nsâ t]cnepÅ FÃm AhImi§fpw kÀhIemimebv¡p Xs¶). temI{]kn² KWnXimkv{XÚ\mb FUvav em³UphmWv lo{_p kÀhIemimebn KWnXimkv{X C³Ìnäyq«v Øm]n¨Xv. PÀa\nbnencp¶v lo{_p kz´ambn ]Tn¨ em³Up lo{_p kÀhIemimebn 1925  kwJymimkv{Xs¯¡pdn¨pÅ BZy {]`mjWw \S¯nbXv \m«p`mjbmb lo{_phnembncp¶p. kÀhIemimebpsS BZys¯ Xeh\mbn \nÀt±in¡s¸« t]cpw At±l¯ntâXmbncp¶p ( cmjv{Sob ImcW§fm \nba\w \S¶nsænepw ).

sshÚm\nI `mjsb¶ \nebn lo{_p hnIkn¡pIbmbncp¶p. lo{_p kÀh-I-em- ime C¶v temI-¯nse Gähpw anI¨ kÀh-I-em-im-e-I-fn-sem-¶m-Wv. Cu A\p-`-h-§sfsbÃmw ap³\nÀ¯n-bm-IWw ae-bmf kÀh-I-em-im-e-bpsS e£y-§Ä \nÀh-Nn-t¡--Xv. aebmf kÀhIemime aebmf`mjbv¡p am{XapÅ kÀhIemimebÃ, FÃm hnjb§Ä¡pw thnbpÅXmWv. tIcfkaqlhpambn _Ô-s¸« kakvX hnÚm\§fpsSbpw A[y-b-\hpw Kth-j-Whpw ae-bm-f-¯n- eqsS kpkm-[y-am-¡p¶ Xc-¯n ae-bm-fs¯ kÖ-am-¡p-¶-Xn\v Dt±-in-¨n-«p-Å-Xm- Wv.

_lp-{[p-h-temIw, _lp-`m-jm-temIw þhnhn[ temI-`mjm hnÚm-\-§Ä ae-bm-f-

¯n-te-¡v, ae-bmf hnÚm-\-§Ä temI-`mjIfn-te¡v tIc-f-¯nsâ sshÚm-\nI taJ-e-bn ae-bm-fhpw Cw¥ojpw X½n am{X-amWv Ct¸mÄ hn\n-abw \S-¡p-¶-Xv. AXpw ]e-t¸mgpw A§p-\n¶v Ct§m«p am{Xw. Cw¥ojv

Xs¶ temI-`m-j-I-fn-sem-¶mbn hnI-kn-¨p-h-¶Xv hnhn[ `mj-IÄ¡n-S-bn CS-\n-e-¡m-c- \mbn \n¶p-sIm-m-Wv. AXp-hgn B `mj-bpsS ]Z-tIm-ihpw k¦-ev]-\-ti-jnbpw hnI- kn-¨p. Cu hnIm-k-t¯m-sSm¸w AXv CS-\n-e-bv¡m-c-\mbn \n¶ aäp-`m-j-IÄ X½n ]c- kv]cw hf-tc_Ôw hf-cmsX t]mhp-Ibpw sNbvXp. GI {[ph temI-¯n\v ]Icw _lp-{[p-h-tem-I-amWv th-sX¶v \mw Du¶n-¸-d-

_lp-{[p-h- tem-I-¯n-te-¡pÅ hgn _lp-`m-j-I-fn-eq-sS-bm-Wv. AXn-

\m¯s¶ ae-bmf kÀh-I-em-imebn hnhn[ temI-`m-j-IÄ ]Tn-¸n-¡-s¸-S-Ww. ae- bm-fnsb _lp-`m-j-mtem-I-¯n-te¡v {]th-in-¸n-¡p-¶Xn\pw _lp-`m-j-Isf ae-bm-f-tem- I-¯n-te¡v {]th-in-¸n-¡p-¶-Xn-\p-apÅ Ihm-S-am-IWw AXv. Cw¥o-jnsâ Hä hmXneneqsS am{XaÃ, At\-I-`m-j-I-fpsS At\-I- I-hm-S-§-fn-eqsS hnhn[ P\-k-aq-l-§- fpambn tIc-f-¯nsâ sshÚm-\n-I-_Ôw Dd-¸n-¡p-¶-Xn\mIWw AXv e£yw sht¡-

-Xv. C´y³ `mj-IfpsSbpw bqtdm-]y³, Gjy³, B{^n-¡³ `m-j-I-fp-ambn ae-bm- fn¡v t\cn«v _Ô-s¸-Sm³ Ign-bp-¶ Xc¯n hntZ-i-`mjIfpsSbpw ]T\ hIp-¸p-IÄ Dm-I-Ww. AXv hnhn[ hnÚm-\-ta-J-e-Ifnse IrXn-I-fpsS XÀÖ-a-bp-ambn _Ô-s¸- Sp-Ibpw thWw. aäp `mj-I-fp-ambn kwh-Zn-¨p-sImv ae-bm-fs¯ A`n-am-\-t_m-[-apÅ temI-`m-j-I-fn-sem-¶mbn hnI-kn-¸n-¡p-¶-Xn\v CXm-h-iy-am-Wv. 8.`mj ]Tn-¡epw `mj-bn ]Tn-¡epw X½n-epÅ hyXymkw Cw¥ojv `mj ]Tn-¡pI F¶m FÃm hnj-b-§fpw Cw¥o-jn ]Tn-¡pI F¶m- sW¶ sXän-²m-c-W-bn-emWv \mw. AXp-sImp Xs¶ kÀh- hn-j-b-§fpw ae-bm-f-¯n ]Tn-¡p¶ kÀh-I-em-ime Cw¥ojv ]T-\-¯n\v FXn-c-Ã. F¶p am{X-aà Cw¥ojv ]T-\-h- Ip-¸n\v AXn {]ap-J-amb Øm\w Dm-bn-cn-¡p-Ibpw sN¿pw. Cw¥ojv `mjm-tijn hnZymÀ°n-IÄ¡v Dm-Ip-¶Xv {]tbm-P-\-Ic-amb Imcy-am-Wv. F¶m AXn {]mK-Ûy- an-sÃ-¶Xv sshÚm-\nI temI-¯n-te-¡pÅ {]th-i-\-¯nt\m hnÚm-t\m-ev]m-Z-\-ti- jnt¡m XS-Ê-am-I-cpXv F¶Xn ae-bmf kÀh-I-em-im-e-bn {]tXyIw \njvIÀj thWw. {^©v ]Tn-¡m³ FÃm hnj-b-§fpw {^©n ]Tn-t¡--Xn-Ãm-¯-Xp-t]mse, kwkvIrXw ]Tn-¡m³ FÃm hnj-b-§fpw kwkvIr-X-¯n ]Tn-t¡--Xn-Ãm-¯-Xp- t]mse, Ad_n ]Tn-¡m³ FÃm hnj-b-§fpw Ad-_n-bn ]Tn-t¡--Xn-Ãm-¯-Xp-t]mse Cw¥ojv ]Tn-¡m³ FÃm hnj-b-§fpw Cw¥o-jn ]Tn-t¡bmsXm-cm-h-iy-hp-an-Ã. ae- bmfw am[y-a-¯n ]Tn¨v {]K-Û-amb coXn-bn temI-¯n hnhn[ `mK-§-fn imkv{X- ta-J-e-I-fn-e-S¡w ae-bm-fn-IÄ tPmen sN¿p-¶p-s-¶ Imcyw FÃm-hÀ¡pw Adn-bm-hp-¶- Xm-Wv. 9.FXnÀhm-Z-§Ä¡v \ne-\n-ev]nà D¶-X-hn-Zym-`ymkw amXr-`m-j-bn BIWw F¶v ]d-bp-t¼mÄ D¶-bn-¡m-dpÅ FXnÀhmZw ae-bm-f-¯n imkv{X-hn-j-b ]T\-¯n\p th]Z-tIm-i-an-sÃ-¶-Xm-Wv.- im- kv{X-X-Xz-§Ä {]Xn-]m-Zn-¡m³ ae-bm-f-¯n ]Z-§-fn-sö hmZ-¯n\v F.BÀ.cmP-cm-P- hÀa ap¼p Xs¶ adp-]Sn ]d-ªn-«p-v: Cu hI ]Z-§sf Cw¥o-jn \n¶p Xs¶ ISw-

bm-dp-v.

7.

hm-§mw.- \-½psS `mj-bn DÅ ]cym-b-§-fn H¶ns\ ]cn-`mj sImv AÀ°-¯n\p hym]vXntbm kt¦m-Ntam Bhiyw t]mse sNbvXp hnh-£n-X-amb D]-tbm-K¯n-\p-am-{X- ambn \o¡n-sh-¡mw. ip²-a-e-bmfhmZw Hcp auen-I-hm-Z-ambn kzoI-cn-t¡--Xn-söv

kmcw. 1957  `c-W-`mj ae-bm-f-am-¡m³ tImam-«n ANyp-X-ta-t\m³ sNbÀam-\mbn I½n-änsb \ntbm-Kn-¨p. B dnt¸mÀ«n `c-W-`mj ae-bm-f-am-¡p-¶-Xn-s\-Xnsc D¶-bn-¨ Btcm-]-W-§sf AhÀ JWvUn-¨Xv C§-s\-bmWv : Hcp `mjbpw ip²-iq-\y-X-bn hf- cp-Itbm ]pjvSn-s¸-Sp-Itbm sN¿p-¶nà F¶ AwKo-Ir-X-X-Xz-am-Wv Nqn-¡m-Wn-¡m-\p-Å- Xv.- a-e-bmfw `c-W-Im-cy-§Ä¡p ]änb hn[-¯n hfÀ¶-Xn-\p-tijw HutZym-Kn-I-`m-j- bmbn kzoI-cn-¡-W-sa¶p ]d-bp-¶-hÀ Cu X¯zw ]mtS hnkva-cn-¡p-I-bmWv sN¿p-¶-Xv. ]pXnb kt¦-X-§fpw Bi-b-§fpw k¦-ev]-§fpw ssIImcyw sNt¿Bhiyw hcp- t¼mÄ AX-\p-k-cn¨v `mjbpw ]pjvSn-s¸-Spw.HutZym-Kn-I-`mj ae-bm-f-am-¡p-¶Xn-s\-Xn-t\mSpÅ FXnÀ¸v ]n¶oSv sI«-S-§n.- A¯-c-¯nÂXs¶ Ah-km-\n-¡p-¶-XmWv ]T-\-am-[y-a-¯ns\Xn-sc-bpÅ hmZ-§-fpw. ae- bm-f-s¯-¡mÄ F{Xtbm Ipdª P\-kw-Jy-bpÅ kaq-l-§Ä Ah-cpsS s{]m^-j-W hnZym-`ym-k-a-S¡w D¶-X-hn-Zym-`ym-k-amsI amXr-`m-j-bn-emWv \nÀh-ln-¡p-¶-Xv. ae-bmfw kwkm-cn-¡p-¶-h-cpsS ]¯n-sem-¶p-t]mepw P\-§Ä kwkm-cn-¡m¯ Imä-e³ `mjbn D¶-X-hn-Zym-`ym-k-a-S¡w kÀhhpw amXr-`m-jbnem-Wv. Cw¥ojv temI-`m-j-bm-b-Xn-\m `mhnam-[y-a-§-fpsS `mj Cw¥o-jm-bn- cn¡psa¶v Hcp Ime¯v sXän-²-cn-¡-s¸-«n-cp-¶p. -sS-en-hn-j\pw I¼yq-«dpw ae-bmfw t]mepÅ `mj-Isf sImÃp-sa¶v Icp-Xn-bn-cp-¶p.- F-¶m kw`-hn-¨Xv adn-¨m-Wv.- ÌmÀ Sn.hn-bpsS \£-{X-§Ä {]mtZ-in-I-`m-j-I-fn DZn-¡p--Ib-mWv sNbvXXv.- _n tKävkvv I¼yq-«-dn\v ae-bm-f-¯n hmXn-ep-m-¡m³ {ian-¡p-¶p.- \mw Cw¥ojv Ib-än-b-b-¡p- t¼mÄ bqtdm-¸n \n¶pw Ata-cn-¡-bn \n¶p-amWv ae-bmfkwcw-`-§Ä hcp-¶-Xv.- a-e- bmfw t]mepÅ `mj-Isf sImÃp-¶Xv BtKm-f-h¡-c-W-a-Ã,- A-Xns\ sNdp-¡m³ ss[cy-an-Ãm¯ kz´w P\-X-bn hnizm-k-an-Ãm¯ aq¶mw temI-¯nse kÀ¡m-cp-I-fpsS \b-ssh-I-ey-§-fm-Wv. acn-¡p-¶Xv `mj-bÃ, {]Xn-tcm-[-§-fm-Wv. hÀ¯-am-\-¯n-sâbpw `mhn-bp-sSbpw `mj-bmbn ae-bm-fs¯ ImWm³ Ign-ªm am{Xta ae-bmfw = `qXw, Cw-¥o-jv = `mhn F¶ ka-hm-Iy-¯nÂ\n¶v c£-s¸-Sm³ Ign-bq.

2. ae-bm-f-`mjbpw tIc-f-¯nsâ hnI-k\hpw

ASn-Øm-\-]-c-ambn tIc-f-¯nsâ ka-{K-hn-I-k-\-am-IWw ae-bmf kÀh-I-em-im- e-bpsS e£yw. hnI-k\w amXr-`m-j-bn-eqsS F¶-Xm-IWw kÀh-I-em-im-e-bpsS apJ-hm- Iyw. Hcp kaql¯nsâ hnI-k\w B kaqlw Dev]m-Zn-¸n-¡p¶ hnÚm-\-¯nsâ DÅ-S- ¡hpw coXn-bp-ambn _Ô-s¸-«n-cn-¡p-¶p. Hmtcm hnÚm-\-ta-J-ebpsSbpw hnIm-ks¯ kw_-Ôn¨v \mep LS-I-§Ä {][m-\-am-sW¶p ImWmw:

1. B hnj-b-t¯m-SpÅ coXn-imkv{X kao-]\w

2. AXnsâ DÅ-S¡w

3.- AXv ]Tn-¡p¶ am[y-aw

4. hnÚm-\s¯ kz´w kaq-l-¯nsâ hnIm-k-¯n-\p-thn {]tbm-Kn-¡p-¶-Xn-\pÅ ]Tn-

Xm-¡-fpsS k¶-²X. A´Àt±-iob-X-e-¯n Hmtcm hnÚm-\-ta-J-e-bnepw hnI-kn¨phcp¶ hnhn[ sshÚm-\n-I-coXn-imkv{X-§sf DÄs¡m-p-X-s¶-bmWv tIc-f-¯nepw FÃm hnj-b- §fpw ]Tn-¡pIbpw Ah-sb-¡p-dn¨v Kth-jWw \S-¯pIbpw sNt¿--sX¶ Imcy-¯n kwi-b-an-Ã. F¶m hnhn[ hnÚm-\-ta-J-e-I-fnse kao-]-\-¯nse A´Àt±-io-bX Adn-hnsâ DÅ-S-¡-¯nse {]mtZ-inI LS-I-§sf \ncm-I-cn-¡p-¶-Xn-te¡v F¯n-t¨À¶p- Iq-Sm. A´Àt±-iob kao-]\w F¶-Xn-\À°w bqtdm-]yt\m Ata-cn-¡t\m Bb DÅ- S¡w F¶-Ã. AXp-t]mse Xs¶ {][m-\-amWv ]Tn-¡p-Ibpw Kth-jWw \S-¯p-Ibpw sN¿p¶ am[y-a-¯nsâ Imcy-hpw. DÅ-S-¡-¯nepw ]T-\-am-[y-a-¯nepw khn-ti-jX ]peÀ¯p-t¼m-gmWv \ne-hn-epÅ ]T-\-co-Xn-I-fpsS Xs¶ ]cn-an-Xn-IÄ hyà-am-¡p¶ ]pXnb kao-]-\-§-Ä ]e-t¸mgpw

hnI-kn-¨p-h-cp-¶-Xpw. Cu kao-]-\-§Ä A´Àt±-io-b-am-bn-¯s¶ Hmtcm hnÚm-\-ta- J-e-sbbpw apt¶m-«p-sIm-p-t]m-Ip-Ibpw sN¿pw. am\-hnIimkv{X-¯n-sâbpw kmaq-ly- im-kv{X-¯n-sâbpw taJ-e-bn am{X-a-Ã, imkv{X-km-t¦-XnI taJ-e-bnepw CXv ]e- t¸mgpw {][m-\-am-sW¶p ImWmw. ae-bmf `mj-bn \S-¯p¶ ]T-\-K-th-j-W-§Ä¡v t\cn«v \½psS P\-Po-hn-X-hp-ambn _Ô-s¸-tSn hcpw. tIc-f-¯nsâ {]iv\-§Ä¡v Du¶Â sImSp-t¡-n-h-cpw. A\y-`mj am[y-a-ambn ]Tn¨ hnZymÀ°n¡v kzm`m-hn-I-ambn kz´w `mj kwkm- cn-¡p¶ P\-XbpsS Pohn-X-hp-ambn ssPh-_Ôw A\p-`-h-s¸-Sp-I-bn-Ã. AXpsImp Xs¶ Xsâ Adnhv kzk-aq-l-¯n {]tbm-Kn-¡p-¶-Xn-epw AXn-eq¶n AXns\ hnI-kn-¸n- ¡p-¶-Xnepw XmXv]-cyw ImWp-I-bn-Ã. hyàn F¶ \ne-bn ]pd¯v A´m-cmjv{S Øm]-\-§-fntem hntZi sXmgn-entem F§ns\ F¯n-s¸Smw F¶Xn am{X-amIpw Abm-fpsS {i². akvXnjvI tNmÀ¨-bn-te¡v \bn-¡p-¶Xv Cu at\m-`m-h-am-Wv. henb sNehp sNbvXv kaqlw hfÀ¯n-sb-Sp¯ hnZymÀ°n-IÄ \mSn\p {]tbm-P-\-an-Ãm-¯-h-cm- bn-¯o-cp-¶p. A§ns\ hnZym-`ym-khpw hnI-k-\hpw X½n-ep-m-tIssPh-_Ôw A\y-`mjm hnZym-`ymkw aqew \jvS-s¸-Sp-¶p. \m«n \n-¶mÂt]mepw XnI¨pw hyàn-]- c-amb XmXv]-cy-§Ä am{X-am-bn-cn¡pw Abmsf \bn-¡p-I. \mw FÃm-än\pw Ipäw ]d-bp¶ A`y-kvX-hn-Zy-\mb ae-bm-fn-bpsS at\m-`mhwC§-s\-bmWv cq]-s¸-Sp-¶-Xv. amXr-`m-j-bn-epÅ hnZym-`ym-khpw Hcp kaq-l-¯nsâ km¼-¯n-Ihpw kmaq- lnIhp-amb hnI-k-\hpw X½n-epÅ t\À_-Ôs¯ shfn-s¸-Sp-¯p¶ ]T-\-§Ä C¶p ]pd-¯p-h¶p Ign-ªn-«p-v. amXr-`mj \jvS-s¸« kaq-l-§Ä XI-cp-¶Xv kmwkvIm-cn- I-ambn am{X-a-Ã, km¼-¯n-I-ambn IqSn-bmWv F¶v sXfn-bn-¡-s¸-«n-«p-v. C¶v IpXn¨p Ib-dp¶ km¼-¯nI iàn-I-fmb ssN\bpw P¸m\pw Ah-c-h-cpsS amXr-`m-j-bn- emWv imkv{X-apÄs¸sS FÃm hnÚm\taJ-e-bnepw ]T-\hpw Kth-j-Whpw \S-¯p-¶- Xv. hnam\w \nÀ½n-¡p¶ FbÀ_kv I¼-\n-bpsS tjm¸nse `mj {^©pw temI-¯nse BUw-_c ImÀ \nÀ½n-¡p¶ tagvkn-Ukv s_³kv I¼-\n-bnse `mj PÀ½\pw kmwk- §n-sâXv sImdn-b\pw tXmjn-_-bp-tSXv Pm¸m-\okpw BWv. ]s£ C´y-bn Cw¥ojv ]cn-Úm-\s¯ At]-£n¨v sshZ-Kv[yw cmw Øm\-¯m-Wv(sI.-tk-Xp-cm-a³þ ae-bm- f-¯nsâ `mhn). kmt¦-XnI cwK¯v AZv`pXw krjvSn-¡m³ Ign-bp¶ {]Xn-`-IÄ sNdp- {]m-b-¯n¯s¶ A\y-`m-j-sb¶ IS-¼-bn¯«n hogp-¶p. AXn-epÅ ]cm-Pbw Ah- cpsS hnZym-`ym-k-t¯m-SpÅ s]mXp-Xm-Xv]-cy-s¯-¯s¶ XÃn-s¡-Sp-¯p-¶p. AsÃ-¦n Xsâ _p²n-bpsS hen-sbm-cwiw A\y-`mjbn tijn t\Sm-\pÅ Ir{Xn-a-amb {]{In-b- bn X«n \jvS-s¸-Sp-¯p-¶p. {]Xn-`-bpsS ssPh-km-[m-c-WXzw \jvS-s¸-Sp-¶p, {]Xn-`-I- fpsS hfÀ¨ apc-Sn-¡p-¶p. A\y-`m-j-bn-epÅ hnZym-`ymkw hnI-k-\s¯ F§ns\ XS-Ê-s¸-Sp-¯p-¶p-sh¶v {]mtbm-Kn-I-am-bn-¯s¶ hni-Zo-I-cn-¡-s¸-«n-«p-apv. Btcm-Ky-ta-J-e-bn \n¶pÅ HcpZml-cWw t\m¡p-I. Cw¥ojv hnZym-`ymkw t\Snb ]«-W-¯nse {]am-Wn-amÀ¡v {Kmao-W-ta-J-e-bn AÀ¸-W-t_m-[-t¯m-Sp-IqSn tPmen sN¿p-hm³ XmXv]-cy-an-Ã. C¯cw BÄ¡mÀ hnZym-`ym-khpw tPmen t\Sm-\pÅ Ah-k-chpw I¿-S-¡p-¶p. CXmWv A[n-\n- th-i-`m-j-bv¡pÅ kl-P-amb ZuÀ_-eyw. AÀ¸-W-a-t\m-`m-h-t¯mSp IqSnb BtcmKy {]hÀ¯-I-cp-sSbpw A[ym-]-I-cp-sSbpw A`m-h-amWv B taJ-e-bn Xmgv¶ t\«w ssIh-- cn-¡phm³ CS-bm-¡n-b-Xv. AXv kÀ¡mÀ tkh\ taJ-e-bnse KpW-s¯bpw KW-s¯bpw k´p-en-Xm-h-Ø-sbbpw Hcp t]mse _m[n-¡p-¶p(ae-bm-f-¯nsâ `mhn). CXv Btcm-Ky-ta-J-ebv¡p am{X-aÃ, ka-kvX-ta-J-e-IÄ¡pw _m[-I-am-sW¶p ImWmw. hnÚm-\-ta-J-e-bn DÅ-S-¡hpw ]T-\-am-[yhpw X½n-epÅ ]c-kv]-c-_-Ôs¯ ae-bmf kÀh-I-em-ime DbÀ¯n-¸n-Sn-¡p-¶p. tIc-f-¯nsâ ka-{K-hn-I-k\w km[y-am-¡p- ¶-Xn-\pÅ Kth-j-W-]-T-\-{]-hÀ¯-\-§Ä \S-¯p¶ Øm]-\-am-bn-cn-¡-Ww AXv. km¼-¯n-Ihpw Dev]m-Z-\-]-c-hp-amb Xe§Ä `mjm]chpw kmwkvIm-cn-I-hpamb X-e§fp-ambn tbmPn-¡p¶ Øm]-\-am-bn-cn-¡Ww ae-bmf kÀh-I-em-im-e. tIc-f-k-aq-l- ¯nsâ amXr-`m-j-bmb ae-bmfw am[y-a-ambn kwkvIm-cs¯bpw km¼-¯nI Dev]m-Z\ Kth-j-W-s¯bpw DZv{K-Yn-¡p-I-bm-hWw e£yw. tIc-f-k-aq-l-¯n¯s¶ {]hÀ¯n- ¡m³ k¶-²-cmb hnZymÀ°n-Isf krjvSn-¡-W-sa-¦n Cu DZv{K-Y\w A\n-hm-cy-am-Wv.

C´y³ dn¸-»n¡v apt¶m-«p-sh-¡p¶ cmPy-kvt\-lhpw aqey-t_m-[hpw kzm`n-am-\hpw At¸mÄ am{X-amWv hnZymÀ°n kzmwio-I-cn-¡p-¶-Xv.

1. kaq-l-hn-I-k-\-¯n\v amXr`mjbpsS sshÚm-\nI tijn hnI-kn-¡Ww `cW`mjsb¡pdn¨v NÀ¨ sN¿pt¼mÄ \mw ]dbmdpv, P\m[n]Xykaql¯n `cn¡p¶hcpsS `mjbà `cn¡s¸Sp¶hcpsS `mjbmWv D]tbmKnt¡Xv F¶v. P\m[n]Xy¯nsâ {]mYanIamb kZmNmchpw \oXnbpamWXv. CXv `cW`mjbv¡p am{Xaà _m[Iw. FÃm hnÚm\taJeIfpw Ahbn \n¶pbÀ¶phcp¶ Bib§fpw amXr`mjbnemIpI F¶Xpw Hcp kaqls¯ \nÀan¡p¶Xn\v A\nhmcyamWv. Hcp Ihn-bpsS shfn-]m-Sp-t]mse Xs¶ Hcp kaqlyimkv{X-Úsâtbm {]Ir-Xn-im-kv{X-Ú-sâtbm shfn-]mSpw `mjsb \ho-I-cn-

¡p-¶p. hnÚm-\-`m-jbpw kmln-Xy-`m-jbpw ]peÀ¯p¶ Cu NmÀN-bmWv `mjbv¡v _ew \ÂIp-¶-Xv, A-Xn \n¶v AI-¡m-¼pÅ a\-Êp-Isf cq]-s¸-Sp-¯p-¶-Xv. D¶-X-hn-Zym-`ymkw Cw¥o-jn-em-b-Xn-\m ae-bm-f-¯nse sshÚm-\n-I-km-ln-Xyw hnI-kn-¡p-¶n-Ã. sshÚm-\n-I-km-lnXy-¯nsâ Ahn-Imkw ae-bm-fs¯ \nc-´-c-ambn ss]¦n-fn-h¡-cn-¨p-sIm-n-cn-¡p-¶p.- k¦-ev]-\-]-c-tam hnaÀi-\m-ß-I-tam Bb Nn´ km[y-a-Ãm¯ a«n tIhew Hcp kmln-Xy-`m-j-bmbn am{Xw ae-bmfw A[:]Xn-¨psIm- ncn-¡p-¶p. ae-bmfw am{Xw hmbn¨p ioen¨ Hcp hmb-\-¡m-c³ k¦oÀW-amb Nn´-I- fn \n¶v Hgn-ªp-am-dp-¶p. ]{X-am-kn-I-IÄ¡p-t]mepw hcp¶ ss]¦n-fn-h¡-c-W- ¯nsâ ASn-Øm-\§fn-sem¶pw CXp Xs¶. `cWIqS¯nsâ `mj amXr`mjbmIp¶Xp t]mse sshÚm\nIkaql¯nsâ `mjbpw amXr`mjbmbncn¡pI F¶Xv IqSpX kq£vaamb P\m[n]Xykwhn[m\¯n A\nhmcyamWv. ImcWw `cWwt]mse hnÚm\hpw {]mYanIambn A[nImchpambn _Ôs¸«p \nev¡p¶XmWv. tIcf¯nse KthjW Øm]\§fn Ct¸mÄ GXp `mjbnemWv hnjb§Ä ssIImcyw sN¿p¶Xv? Hcp imkv{XÚ³ CubnsS ]dªXv Xsâ imkv{XKthjWØm]\¯n Hcp {]_ÔmhXcW thfbn aebmf¯n Xm³ Hcp tNmZyw tNmZn¨t¸mÄ AhnsS t_mw_v hoW {]XoXnbmbncp¶psh¶mWv. KthjW Øm]\§Ä `mjm]cambn P\m[n]Xyh¡cn¡s¸tSXptm? Ds¦n FhnsSbmWv \mw XpSt§Xv? HscmäbSn¡v FÃm hnÚm\taJeIfpw amXr`mjmhXvIcn¡m³ IgnbnÃ. apgph³ aebmfnIÄ am{Xancn¡p¶ F{Xtbm A¡mZanI thZnIfn C¶v Cw¥ojnemWv {]_豈 AhXcn¸n¡p¶Xv. A\y-`mjbneq-sS-bpÅ hnÚm\w AXp ]Tn¨ GXm\pw ]WvUn-X-cn-sem-Xp-§n \nev¡p¶p. AXv Øm]-\-§-fn \n¶v ]pd-¯pÅ P\-§-fn-se-¯p-¶n-Ã. hnÚm\w P\- §-fn-se-¯p-t¼m-gmWv AXv kmaq-lnIamb s]mXp-hmb hnIm-k-¯n-\p-X-Ip-¶- hnÚm-\- am-Ip-¶-Xv. At¸mtg AXv P\-X-bpsS s]mXp-t_m[ hnIm-k-¯n ]¦m-fn-bm-Ip-¶p-Åq. hnÚm-\-`m-jsb hnI-kn-¸n¡pI F¶Xv e£y-am-Ip-t¼mÄ ae-bmf kÀh-I-em- im-e-bn aebmfw A[ym]Isc¡mÄ F®¯n F{Xtbm IqSpXembncn¡pw imkv{Xþkmt¦XnI kmaqlyimkv{X taJebnse A[ym]IÀ. hnhn[ imkv{Xþkmaqlyimkv{X hnjb§tfmsSm¸w FÃm tImgvkp-I-fnepw aebmfkmlnXyhpw kwkvImchpw Hcp ]T\hnjbhpambncn¡psa¶p am{Xw.

2. ]nF¨v.Un {]_-Ô-§fpw ae-bm-f-¯n ae-bmf kÀh-I-em-im-e-bn hnhn[ hnjb§fnse ]nF¨v.Un {]_豈 ( A\y-`m-jm-hn-j-b-§Ä Hgn-sI) aebmf¯n Xs¶bmIWw kaÀ¸nt¡Xv. (Ihn k¨nZm\µ³ CubSp¯v ]nF¨v.Un {]_豈 DÄs¸sS aebmf¯n h¶m am{Xta aebmf`mj sshÚm\nIambn hnIkn¡pIbpÅq F¶v Nqn-¡m- Wn¨n«pv). hnÚm\`mjsb¶ \nebnepÅ aebmf¯nsâ hnImk¯n\v CXv DXIpsa¶XmWv Hcp Imcyw. ]nt¶m¡ kmlNcy§fnÂ\n¶p hcp¶, Cw¥ojn {]mhoWyanÃm¯ hnZymÀ°nIÄ¡v s]mXphnZym`ymk¯nte¡pw tIcfob s]mXpaWvUe¯nte¡pw IS¶phcm\pw DXIpsa¶XmWv CXnsâ asämcp {]tbmP\w. ]nF¨v.Un {]_-Ô-§Ä ae-bm-f-¯n hcp-¶Xv s]mXp-hn-Zym-`ymks¯¯s¶ iàn-s¸-Sp¯pw. hnhn[ hnj-b-§-fn ae-bm-f-¯n \ÂI-s¸-Sp¶ ]nF¨v.Un {]_-Ô- §Ä {]kn-²o-I-cn-¨p-h-cp-t¼mÄ kvIqÄ hnZymÀ°n-IÄ¡p t]mepw d^-d³kv {KÙ-ambn

AXv D]-tbm-Kn-¡m³ Ign-bp-¶p. B \ne-bn D¶-X-hn-Zym-`ym-k-¯nse Hmtcm t\«hpw s]mXphnZym-`ym-k-ta-J-e-bnse ASn-¯-«p-hsc sNs¶-¯p-¶p. `mjbpsS tijnsb hnIkn¸n¡pIbpw hyànbpsS Adnhv kmaqlnIhnÚm\ambn hnIkn¡pIbpw sN¿pw F¶Xn\p ]pdsa imkv{X ]T\¯nepw KpW]camb ]cnhÀ¯\w hcp¯³ aebmf kÀhIemimebv¡v Ignbpw. FÃm hnj-b-§-tfm-Sp-sam¸w ae-bm-f-`m-jbpw kmln-Xyhpw ]mTyhnj-b-am-Ipt¼mÄ AXv imkv{Xbpànsbbpw B[p\nI kuµcymht_m[s¯bpw Iq«nbnW¡pw. Adnhnsâ kmaqlnIX AXnsâ kuµcymßIX IqSn-bm-sW¶v hyàam¡p¶Xmbncn¡pw Cu kwhn-[m-\w.

3. amXr-`mjm hnZym-`ym-khpw kmaqlnI\oXnbpw amXr-`mjbnepÅ hn-Zym-`ym-k-hp-ambn _Ô-s¸« asämcp Xew IqSn- {i²n-t¡-- Xpvv. ]nt¶m¡ ]Ým¯e¯n \n¶p hcp¶ hnZymÀYnIÄ D]cn]T\¯n imkv{Xhnjb§fn ]n´Ås¸Sp¶p F¶v \nco£n¡s¸«n«pv. Hcp ]s£ C¶v ]nt¶m¡ ]Ým¯e¯n \n¶pÅ Ip«nIÄ IqSpX F¯ns¸Sp¶Xv aebmf`mjbpw kmlnXyhpw ]Tn¡p¶ taJeIfnemWv. AXn\¸pd¯pÅ hnjb§fn AhÀ ]et¸mgpw ]cmPbs¸Sp¶Xnsâ apJyamb ImcW§fnsem¶v aäp hnjb§fpsS A[yb\hpw hnÚmt\mev]mZ\hpw Cw¥ojnemWv \S¡p¶Xv F¶XmWv.

asäÃm Ign-hp-ap-m-bn«pw Hc-\y-`m-j-bn tXmäp-sh¶Xnsâ t]cn D¶-X-hn-Zym- `ym-k-cw-K-¯p-\n¶v ]pd-´-Å-s¸-Sp-¶-hÀ \nc-h-[n-bm-Wv. Kth-j-W-{]-_-Ô-¯n Dt±-in- ¡p¶ Bi-b-§Ä Cw¥o-jn Fgp-Xn- ^-en-¸n-¡m-sa¶ Bß-hn-izm-k-an-Ãm¯-Xn-\m ]nt¶m-¡ -km-l-N-cy-§-fn \n¶p hcp¶ F{Xtbm hnZymÀ°n-IÄ imkv{X-þ-am-\-hn- Ihnj-b§-fn ]n-F-¨v.Un DÄs¸-sS-bpÅ D¶-X-_n-cp-Z-cw-K§fn ]cm-P-b-s¸-Sp-¶pv. ]nt¶m¡, {KmaoW taJebn \n¶p hcp¶ hnZymÀYnIfpsS Adnhns\¡pdn¨pÅ k¦ve]w Xs¶ kmaqlnIambncn¡pw. B kaqlnIX ]T-\-co-Xn-bn-en-söp hcpt¼mÄ, AXv tIhew hyànXew am{XapÅ AdnhmsW¶p hcpt¼mÄ Hu]NmcnIamb Adnhnsâ taJebnepÅ AhcpsS XmXv]cyw Ipdbpw. Adnhnsâ kmaqlnIXsb Dd¸n¡p¶Xv amXr`mjbn B imkv{X§Ä ]Tn¡pIbpw AXnt\msSm¸w kmlnXykmaqlykuµcymht_m[hpambn AXns\ _Ôn¸n¡pIbpw sN¿pt¼mgmWv.

4. hn`-hhpw Dev]m-Z-\hpw ae-bm-f-`m-j-bn-eqsS temI-hn-Úm-\-amÀÖn-¡p-¶-tXm-sSm¸w AXXp taJ-e-I- fn tIc-f-¯nse hn`-h-§-sf´v, hnI-k\ km[y-X-I-sf´v F¶v Bcm-ª-dnbp¶ Kth- j-W-§Ä¡v ae-bmf kÀh-I-em-im-e-bn {]apJ Øm\-ap-m-bn-cn-¡-Ww. _Z hnI-k-\-am-Xr-I-Ifpw tIc-f-¯nsâ ]cn-Øn-Xn-¡n-W-§p¶ kmt¦-XnI hnZy-Ifpw hnI-kn-¸n-¡Â kÀh-I-em-im-e-bpsS ZoÀL-Ime e£y-am-I-Ww. tIc-f-¯nsâ `q{]IrXn ssh-hn-[yhpw kky-P-´p- sshhn-[yhpw P-e-k-¼-¯pw \ne-\nÀ¯n-s¡m-Bkq-{X-W-¯n-\pÅ hnÚm-\-]-c-amb A´-co£w Hcp-¡m³ ae-bmf kÀh-I-em-im- ebv¡v Ign-b-Ww. hnhn[ imkv{X-hn-`m-K-§Ä H¶p tNÀ¶p-sImv C¯cw ]T\§Ä¡v t\XrXzw \ÂI-Ww. tIc-f-¯n Ah-K-Wn-¡-s¸-«p-sIm-n-cn-¡p-¶Xpw a¬a-d-ªp-sIm- n-cn-¡p-¶-Xp-amb hnhn-[-Xcw {]IrXn hn`-h-§sfbpw kmt¦-XnI hnÚm-\§sfbpw tIc-f-k-aq-l-¯n-\p-]-bp-à-am-Ip¶ hn[¯n hnI-kn-¸n-¡m³ kÀh-I-em-im-ebv¡v Ign- b-Ww. \mS³ ImÀjnI hnÚm-\w, \mS³ kmt¦-XnI hnZy, \m«p-sshZyw XpS-§n-bh Ah-K-Wn-¡-s¸-Sp¶ X\Xp hnÚm-\-ta-J-e-I-fm-Wv. Btcm-Kyhpw `£-Whpw ASn-Øm\ P\-Po-hn-X-¯nsâ Gähpw {][m-\- ta-J-e-bm- W-tÃm. Zqc-§sfbpw hnhn[ Xcw Imem-h-Ø-I-sfbpw Xmn h-cp¶ `t£ym-ev]-¶-§- fnemWv tISp-Iq- Sm-Xn-cn-¡m³ cmk-hnj amen-\y-§Ä tNÀt¡n hcp-¶-Xv. a\p-jysâ P\n-XI LS-\-sb- ¯s¶ Cu cmk-hn-j-§Ä _m[n-¡p¶p F¶m-WtÃm Ct¸mÄ hyà-am-bn-s¡m-n-cn-¡p- ¶-Xv. CXn-\pÅ imizXhpw imkv{Xo-b-hp-amb ]cn-lmcw \½psS hn`-h-§Ä Xs¶ \½psS coXn-bn kwc-£n¨v D]-tbm-Kn-¡m³ ioen-¡pI F¶-Xm-Wv. IeÀ¸n-Ãm-¯Xpw Btcm-Ky-]qÀW-hp-amb `£W kwkvImcw \½psS hn`-h-§sf B{i-bn-¨mWv \nev¡p-¶-

Xv. ]e Xcw [m\y-§Ä, \½psS am§bpw N¡-bp-apÄs¸-sS-bpÅ hn`-h-§Ä, ]g-hÀK- §Ä, ]q¡Ä FÃmw Cw¥ojv am[yahnÚm-\-k-aq-l-¯nsâ I®nÂs]-SmsX t]mhp-I- bm-Wv. Cu taJ-e-I-Ä hnÚm-\-k-aq-l-¯nsâ {i²-bnte¡p sImp-h-cn-Ibpw Ahsb ]T-\-K-th-j-W-§Ä¡v hnt[-b-am¡n kwkvI-cn¨v Dev]-¶-§-fm¡n amäp-¶-Xn-\pÅ {iaw \S-¯p-Ibpw th-Ww. \m«p-`-£-Ww, hnhn[ {]Ir-Xn-Po-h-\ -co-Xn-IÄ, Krl-sshZyw F¶n-h-bn-sems¡ Kth-j-W-§fpw km[y-am-Ip-¶n-S¯v CXp-ambn _Ô-s¸« {lkz-Im-e-þ-ZoÀL-Ime tImgvkp-Ifpw Bcw-`n-¡-Ww. ck-X-{´, -ssh-Zy-hn-`m-K-§Äs¡Ãmw CXn ]¦m-fn-I-fm- Im³ Ign-bpw. Im¼-knse Øncw ]Tn-Xm-¡Ä¡p ]pdsa s]mXp-P-\-§Ä¡pw t\cn«v C¯cw tImgvkp-I-fn ]¦m-fn-I-fm-Im³ km[n-¡-Ww. \½psS \m«p-samgn t]mse A\u- ]-Nm-cn-I-amb Hcp P\-Io-bX ]T-\-kw-hn-[m-\-§-fnepw AXnsâ hnX-c-W-¯nepw thWw. kzm{i-b-tI-cfw F¶ e£yw kÀh-I-em-im-e-bpsS ]cn-t{]-£y-am-I-Ww. amXr-`m-jbpw ssiih hnZym-`ym-khpw X½n At`-Zy-amb _Ô-ap-v. AXp-sIm- mWv lo{_p kÀh-I-em-im-e-bn inip ]cn-]m-e\w Hcp _ncpZ tImgvkmbn DÄs¸-Sp- ¯n-bn-cn-¡p-¶Xv. ae-bm-f-¯n \gvkdn A[ym-]-Iscbpw {]oss{]-adn A[ym-]-I-scbpw krjvSn-¡-W-sa-¦n ae-bmf `mj-bn¯s¶ inip-]-cn-]m-e-\-s¯bpw `mjm-]-T-\-s¯bpw _Ôn-¸n-¡-Ww. B \ne-bn-epÅ tImgvkp- IÄ thWw. tIh-e-amb D]-t`m-àrk-aq-l-sa¶ \ne-bnÂ\n¶v Dev]m-Z-I-k-aq-l-am¡n tIc-fs¯ amäp-¶-Xn-\pÅ {]{In-b-bn ae-bmf kÀh-I-em-imebv¡v \nÀWm-bI {]m[m-\y-ap-m-Ipw. amXr-`mj am[y-a-am-Ip-Ibpw tIc-fob hn`-h§Ä ASn-Øm-\- am¡nbpÅ Dev]m-Z\ kwkvImcw hcn-Ibpw sN¿p-t¼mÄ tIc-f-¯n-\Is¯ sXmgnÂ

Ah-k-c-§fpw sXmgn kwkvIm-chpw kzm`m-hn-I-ambn hnI-kn-¨p-h-cpw. cpNn-bnepw A`n- cp-Nn-bnepw amäw hcpw. kzm{i-b-Xz-¯n-te-¡pÅ hgn Xpd-¡p¶Xm-bn-cn¡pw CXv.

5. kmwkvIm-cnI Dev]-¶-§Ä `uXnI Dev]m-Z\¯n\p ]pdta kmwkvIm-cnIamb Dev]m-Z-\hpw {][m-\-am-Wv. Hcp kaql¯n-\-Is¯ hyàn-IÄ X½n-epÅ _Ôw kmwkvIm-cnI Dev]-¶-§sf ap³\nÀ¯n-¡qSnbpÅ-Xm-Wv. Hcp kaq-lhpw aäp kaq-l§fpw X½n-epÅ hn\n-a-b-¯nepw AhcpsS kmwkvIm-cnI Dev]-¶-§Ä¡v ]¦p-v. ]pXnb temI¯v km¼- ¯nIambn¯s¶ hÀ[n¨ {]m[m-\y-apÅ taJ-e-bp-am-Wn-Xv. A¨-Sn¨ Dev]-¶-§Ä (]{Xw, ]pkvX-I-§Ä) apX ]pXnb am[y-a- ta-J-e-bn-sebpw hnhc kmt¦-XnI taJ-e-bnsebpw Dev]-¶-§Ä ( CeIvt{SmWnIv bpK-¯nse _nw_-§Ä) hsc CXnsâ `mK-am-Wv. kz´w `mj-bnse kmwkvIm-cnI Dev]-¶-§Ä \jvS-s¸-Sp-t¼mÄ kmwkvIm-cn-I-amb A[n-\n-th-i- ¯n\v P\X hnt[-b-am-Ip-¶tXmsSm¸w Xs¶ B taJ-e-bnse AXnsâ km¼-¯nI

hn\n-ab tijnbpw \jvS-s¸-Sp-¶p. kz´w `mjsbbpw AXn-epÅ A`n-am-\-s¯bpw iàn-s¸Sp¯n-bmte AXp-ambn _Ô-s¸« kmwkvIm-cn-tIm-ev]-¶-§-sfbpw \ne- \nÀ¯m\pw Ah-bpsS ]p\-cp-ev]m-Z\w Dd-¸p-h-cp-¯m\pw Ign-bq, `mj-bpsS {]Xo-Im-ßI [Àa-§Ä ]eXpw ChnsS IS-¶p-h-cp-¶p. kmwkvIm-cnI taJ-e-bnse B`y-´c hn`-h- tijn amXr-`m-j-bpsS s]mXptijnsb kzm[o-\n-¡p¶ LS-I-am-bXn-\m ae-bmf kÀh- I-em-imebpsS e£y-§-fn Cu taJ-e-bpsS \ne-\nev]pw hnIm-khpw {][m-\-am-I-Ww. kwkvIm-c-¯nsâ B[m-c-tc-J-I-fmbn Icp-X-s¸-Sp¶ ]pcm-tc-J-Ifpw ]pcm-en-Jn-X-§fpw apX hnhn[ Xcw Iem-kmlnXy kr-jvSn-Ifpw sh_vssk-äp-Ifpw FÃmw hnim-e-amb AÀ°-¯n hnhn[ Ime-L-«-§-fn-em-bpÅ \½psS P\-X-bpsS kmwkvIm-cn-tIm-ev]-¶- §-fm-Wv. kz´-amb hnÚm-\-ta-J-e-IÄ sI«n-¸-Sp-¡p-¶-Xn-\pÅ ASn-Øm\ t{kmX-Êp- I-fpamWv Ch. Cu taJ-e-bnepw tIc-fs¯ Dev]m-ZI kaq-l-am-¡n hnI-kn-¸n-¡m³ Ign- b-Ww. AXn-\pÅ ]T-\-K-th-jW hIp-¸p-IÄ Dm-I-Ww.

6. sshÚm-\nI ]mc-¼-cyhpw kmwkvIm-cnI sshhn-[yhpw KWnXw t]mepÅ hnj-b-§-fn tIc-f-¯nsâ Ncn-{X-]-c-amb kw`m-h-\-IÄ A´Àt±-io-b-ambn AwKo-Imcw t\Sn-bn-«p-Å-Xm-Wv. A¯cw hnj-b-§-fnse kw`m-h-\-I- sf-¡p-dn¨v ]Tn-¡m\pw Ahsb hnI-kn-¸n-¡m-\p-apÅ kwhn-[m-\-§Ä kÀh-I-em-im-e-bn- ep-m-I-Ww. kwkvIr-X, {]mIr-X-`m-jm-]-T-\-§Ä¡v Cu e£yw IqSn- thWw. A\y-`m-j- I-fnepw tIc-f-¯n cq]-s¸« hnÚm-\-§Ä ]T-\-K-th-j-W-§fpsS taJ-e-bm-I-Ww.

kmwkvIm-cnI sshhn-[y-s¯bpw kwt_m-[\ sN¿m³ ae-bmf kÀh-I-em-im- ebv¡v Ign-b-Ww. tIc-f-¯nse BZn-hm-kn-`m-j-IÄ, \yq\-]-£-`m-j-IÄ F¶n-hbv¡pw kÀh-I-em-im-e-bn CS-ap-m-bn-cn-¡-Ww. ae-bmfw Ad_n en]n-bn-se-gp-Xn-bn-cp¶ Imes¯ Ad_n ae-bm-fhpw kpdn-bm-\n-bn-se-gp-Xn-bn-cp¶ Imes¯ IÀtkm-\nbpw aäpw \½psS `mjm-N-cn-{X-¯nsâbpw kmaq-ly-ssh-hn-[y-¯n-sâbpw Ncn-{X-tc-J-I-fm-Wv. C¯cw {KÙ-§-fn ]eXpw ae-bmf en]n-bn-te¡v C\nbpw amdn-¯o-cm-\p-ap-v. CsXms¡ DÄs¡m-p-sIm-mWv tIc-fob kaq-l-¯nsâ sshÚm-\n-I- ]m-c-¼-cy-s¯- ¡p-dn-¨pÅ DZv{K-YnX ho£Ww cq]-s¸-tS--Xv.

7. XÀÖ-a, {]kn-²o-I-c-W-hn-`mKw am[yaw ae-bm-f-¯n-em-Ip-t¼mįs¶ AXn-\-\p-k-cn¨v ]T-\-hnj-b-¯nsâ DÅSI¡¯nepw AXn-t\m-SpÅ kao-]-\-¯nepw amäw hcpw. A¯-c-¯n ]mTy-h-kvXp- ¡Ä Dev]m-Zn-¸n-¡p-¶-Xn\p ]änb {]kn-²o-I-cW hn`mKw kÀh-I-em-im-e-bn-ep-m-I-Ww. tIc-f-¯nse kvIqÄ kÀh-I-em-imem Xe-§fn s]mXpsh klm-b-I-c-amb ]mT-]p-kvX- I-§Ä ae-bm-f-¯n \nÀan-¡p-¶-Xn-\pÅ Kth-j-tWm-·p-J-amb D¯-c-hm-Zn¯w Gsä-Sp- ¡m³ ae-bmf kÀh-I-em-im-ebv¡v km[y-am-Iptam F¶v At\z-jn-¡m-hp-¶-XmWv.- {]kn-²o-I-c-W-¯n Hcp {][m-\-ta-Je XÀÖ-a-bm-bn-cn-¡-Ww. XÀÖabv¡mbn

AXn-hn-]p-e-amb Hcp hn`m-K-amWv kÀh-I-em-im-e-bv¡p-m-bn-cn-t¡--Xv. hnhn[ hnÚm- \-ta-J-e-I-fnse B[n-Im-cnI {KÙ-§Ä ae-bm-f-`m-j-bn AXXv `mj-I-fnÂ\n¶v t\cn«v XÀÖa sN¿m-\pÅ _rlZv kwhn-[m\w kÀh-I-em-im-e-bn-ep-m-I-Ww. imkv{X- ¯nsâbpw XXz-im-kv{X-¯n-sâbpw aäpw taJ-e-I-fn-epÅ \nÀWm-bI {]m[m-\y-apÅ ]g- bXpw ]pXn-b-Xp-amb {KÙ-§Ä, teJ-\-§Ä F¶nh ae-bm-f-¯n sImp- h-tc-Xv kÀh-I-em-imem {]kn-²o-I-c-W-hn-`m-K-¯nsâ Npa-X-e-bm-bn-cn-¡-Ww. A\y-`m- j-bn-epÅ Hc-Sn-Øm\ {KÙw ae-bm-f-¯n-te¡p hcp-t¼mÄ AXn-s\m¸w `mj-bnse ]Z- tIm-ihpw hnI-kn-¡p-¶p. ae-bmf kÀh-I-em-im-e-bn \n¶v hcp¶ Kth-jW {]_-Ô-§Ä A¸-t¸mÄ Cw¥o-jnepw {]k-à-amb kµÀ`-¯n aäp `mj-I-fnepw XÀÖa sN¿m-\pÅ Øncw kwhn-[m\w Dm-I-Ww. A´Àt±-iob hnÚm-\s¯ ae-bm-fo-I-cn-¡p-¶-tXm-sSm¸w ae- bm-f--hn-Úm-\s¯ A´Àt±-iob Xe-¯n-se-¯n-¡p-¶-Xn\pw XÀÖa þ{]-kn-²o-I-cW hn`m-K-§Ä ssItImÀ¯p {]hÀ¯n-¡-Ww. hnhn[ hnj-b-§-fn Ah-Km-l-apÅ Kth- jI ]WvUn-Xsc thWw AXXp taJ-e-bnse XÀÖ-a-bv¡mbn \nb-an-¡m³.

8. A´Àt±-iob ae-bmfw tPW A´Àt±-iobXe-¯n-epÅ ae-bmfw tPW kÀh-I-em-im-e-bv¡p-m-bn-cn-¡-Ww. AXn ae-bmf kÀh-I-em-im-e-bn \n¶v hcp-¶Xpw ]pd¯v \n¶v ae-bm-f-¯n Fgp-X- s¸-Sp-¶-Xp-amb {]_-Ô-§Ä Dm-I-Ww. kmaq-ly-im-kv{X-þ-im-kv{X-ta-J-e-Ifnse hnÚm-\s¯ DÄs¡m-Åp-¶-Xm-IWw {]kvXpX tPWÂ. tIc-f-¯n\p ]pd-¯p- tPmen sN¿p¶ ae-bm-fn-I-fmb imkv{X-Ú-cpsS kw`m-h\-\-IÄ Cu tPW-en-ep-m-I-Ww. ae- bm-f-`m-j-bn¯s¶ Ah-cpsS Is-¯-ep-IÄ tIc-f-¯n F¯n-¡m\pw Ah-cpsS kw`m-h-\-IÄ IqSn ae-bm-f-kÀh-I-em-im-e-bnse Kth-j-W-§Ä¡v D]-tbm-Kn-¡m\pw km[n-¡-Ww. kÀh-I-em-im-e-bpsS hfÀ¨-bpsS L«-¯n hnhn[ hnj-b-§sf ap³\nÀ¯nbpÅ {]tXyIw {]tXyIw tPW-ep-IÄ Bbn ae-bm-f-tP-W hnI-kn-t¡-- Xp-am-Wv. tPW \à \ne-hm-c-¯n-se¯n AwKo-Imcw t\Sp-t¼mÄ Cw¥o-jnepw {^©v, PÀa³ XpS-§nb `mj-I-fnepw AXnsâ ]Xn-¸p-IÄ Cd-¡m-hp-¶-Xm-Wv.

9. km¼¯nI t{kmXÊpw km¼-¯nI {]{In-bbpw kÀ¡m-dn \n¶pÅ ]qÀW-amb -k-lm-b-¯n-emWv kÀh-I-em-ime \S-t¯- sX¶ Imcy-¯n kwi-ban-Ã. {]Xy-£-¯n Hmtcm hnZymÀ°nbpw hyàn-sb¶ \ne- bn At¸mįs¶ F´p Xncn¨p Xcp¶p F¶-X-Ã, s]mXp-hmbn km¼-¯nI hnI- k\ {]{In-b-bn F§ns\ AhÀ ]¦m-fn-I-fm-Ip¶p F¶mWv t\mt¡--Xv. Cu \ne- bn aäp kÀh-I-em-im-e-Ifnse hnZymÀ°n-Isf At]-£n¨v tIc-f-k-aq-l-¯nsâ hfÀ¨- bn Gähpw A[nIw kw`m-h\ \ÂIp¶hÀ ae-bmf kÀh-I-em-imebnse hnZymÀ°n-I- fm-bn-cn-¡pw. kÀ¡mÀ klm-b-¯n\p ]pdsa AXnYnþ-{]-hmkn `mjm kvIqfnsâ ap³I-¿n- epÅ hntZ-i-`mjm tImgvkp-I-fp-ambn _Ô-s¸«pw kÀh-I-em-im-ebv¡v {]Xy-£-amb hcp-am-\-ap-m-¡m-hp-¶-Xm-Wv.

3. ^m¡Âän-IÄ, kvIqfp-IÄ ]T-\-tI-{µ-§Ä

ae-bmf kÀh-I-em-im-ebv¡v aq¶p Xe-¯n-ep-Å- kw-hn-[m-\-amWv th-Xv. Hmtcm ^m¡Âän-¡pw Iogn hnhn[ ]T-\-h-Ip-¸p-IÄ, hnhn[ ^m¡Âän¡p Iogn-epÅ ]T\ hIp-¸p-IÄ tbmPn-¨p-sImv {]tXyI e£yw sh¨v {]hÀ¯n-¡p¶ kvIqfp-IÄ, ]T-\-K- th-jW taJ-e-I-fnse AXXp Imes¯ coXn-im-kv{X-§sf ]cn-N-b-s¸-Sp-¯p-¶-Xn-\pÅ ]T-\-tI-µ-§Ä F¶n-h-bm-W-h.

I ^m¡Âän-IÄ

1. ae-bmfw,2.- `m-jm-imkv{Xw,3. {Zmhn-U-`m-j-IÄ,4.- {]mNo\ C´y³ `mj-IÄ: kw-kvIr- Xw, {]mIrXw,5. aäv C´y³ `mj-IÄ, 6. Gjy³ `mj-IÄ,7. bqtdm-]y³ `mj-IÄ,8. B{^n-¡³þ sXs¡ Ata-cn-¡³ `mj-IÄ,9. {]Ir-Xn-im-kv{X-§Ä,10. kmt¦-XnI imkv{X-§Ä,11. hnhc kmt¦-XnI hnZy,12. am[ya ]T-\-§Ä,13. kmaq-ly-im-kv{X-§Ä,14.- Iebpw ku-µ-cy-imkv{Xhpw,15. \m«-dnhp ]T-\w

hIp-¸p-IÄ ^m¡Âän-IÄ Hmtcm-¶n\pw Iogn hnhn-[ hIp-¸p-IÄ:

ae-bm-fw ^m¡Âän¡p Iogn ae-bmf`mj-bpw kmln-Xy-hp-ambn _Ô-s¸« hnhn[ hIp-¸p-IÄ. {ZmhnU `mj-I-fn Xan-gv, I¶-U, sXep¦v `mj-IÄ , tIc-f-¯nse BZn-hmkn `mj-IÄ F¶n-hbv¡v {]tXyIw ]T\ hIp-¸p-IÄ . C´y³ `mj-I-fn lnµn, DÀZp, _wKm-fn, adm-¯n, KpP-dm¯n, ]©m_n, Hdn-b, Im-ivaocn XpS-§n-b-hbv¡v {]tXyIw ]T-\-h-Ip-¸p-IÄ. bqtdm-]y³ `mj-I-fn Cw¥o-jv, {^©v, PÀa³, kv]m\n-jv, t]mÀ¨p-Ko-kv, U¨v, Cäm-en-b³, {Ko¡v XpS-§nb B[p-\nI `mj-IÄs¡m¸w emän-\pw. Gjy³ `mj-I-fn Ad-_n-Iv, t]gvky³, ssN\o-kv, Pm¸m-\o-kv, sImdn-b³ XpS- §nb hIp-¸p- IÄ. H¸w kpdn-bm-\n-bpw. B{^n-¡³ emän-\-ta-cn-¡³ `mjm-hn-`m-K-¯n B{^n-¡³ `mj-Ifpw X\Xv emän- \-ta-cn-¡³ `mj-I-fpw. {]Ir-Xn-im-kv{X-¯n\p Iogn KWn-Xw, DuÀÖ X{´w, ck-X-{´w, kky-im- kv{Xw, P´p-imkv{Xw XpS-§n-b hIp¸p-IÄ kmt¦-XnI imkv{X-¯n\p Iogn Irjn, sshZyw, F©n-\n-b-dnwKv ( hmkvXp-hnZy DÄs¸-sS) hIp-¸p-IÄ.

am[ya ]T-\-§-fn kn\na, sSen-hn-j³, ]{X-{]-hÀ¯\w XpS-§n-b hIp¸p-IÄ kmaq-ly-im-kv{X-¯n XXz-Nn-´, hnZym-`ym-kw, Ncn-{Xw ( CXn tIc-f-N-cn{Xw hnti-j-hn-`m-Kw), cmjv{S-X-{´w, kmaq-ly-im-kv{Xw, kv{Xo]-T-\§Ä, km¼-¯n-I- imkv{Xw, a\-Èm-kv{Xw, `qan-imkv{Xw XpS-§n-b hIp-¸p-IÄ. hnZym-`ym-k-¯n ImbnI hnZym-`ymk hIp-¸v tIc-f-¯nse X\Xp ImbnI kwkvIm-c-s¯bpw Ifn-I-sfbpw IqSn DÄs¡m-Åp-¶-Xm-bn-cn-¡pw. Iebpw kuµ-cy-im-kv{Xhpw F¶ hn`m-K-¯n \mS³ Ie-IÄ, Nn{X-I-e, \r¯w, kwKo-Xw, \mSIw,tIc-f-¯nse ¢mknIv Ie-IÄ F¶n-h-bv¡pÅ hIp-¸p-IÄ.

II kvIqfpIÄ

^m¡Âän-IÄ Xncn-¨pÅ hnj-b -hn-`-P-\s¯ adn-I-S-¶pÅ {]hÀ¯-\-§Ä¡v t\XrXzw sImSp-¡m-\mWv hnhn[ hIp-¸p-Ifn hntij XmXv]-cyhpw tijn-bp-ap-Å A[y-m]-IÀ kl-I-cn-¡p¶ kvIqfp-IÄ Dm-bn-cn-t¡--Xv. XpS-¡-¯n A©p kvIqfp- IÄ BImw. 1. hn`-h hnI-k-\ kvIqÄ X\-Xp -hn-`-h-§sf tI{µo-I-cn-¨p-sImv tIc-f-¯nsâ ka-{K-amb hnI-k-\s¯ e£y-am-¡p¶ hnhn[ ]T\hn`m-K-§-fpsS GtIm-]-\-amWv Cu kvIqfn \S-t¡--Xv. Irjnbpw sshZy-hp-apÄs¸-sS-bpÅ kmt¦-XnI hn`m-K§Ä, `qan-imkv{X hn`m-Kw, km¼- ¯nI imkv{X-hn-`m-Kw, \m«-dnhp hn`m-Kw F¶nh GtIm-]n-¸n¨pÅ {]hÀ¯-\-amWv

th-Xv. tIc-f-¯nse `qan, Pew, [m\yw, ]g-hÀK-§Ä, ]mcn-Øn-XnI kulrZ coXn-bn- epÅ kmt¦-XnI þ DuÀtÖm-ev]mZ\ D]-tbmK coXn-IÄ, `£y-kw-kvI-c- Ww, hnhn[ sXmgn taJ-e-IÄ F¶n-h-sbÃmw ]c-kv]cw _Ôn-¸n¨v ]T\K-th-jWw \S¯n tIc-f-hn-I-k-\s¯ apt¶m-«p-sImp t]mIp-I-bm-bn-cn¡pw Cu kvIqfnsâ e£yw. 2. XÀÖabv¡pÅ kvIqÄ hnhn[ `mjm ]T-\-h-Ip-¸p-IÄ kl-I-cn-¡p¶ hn]p-e-amb kvIqÄ \nÀ_-Ô-ambpw Dm-bn-cn-¡-Ww. kÀh-I-em-im-e-bpsS apJy-e£yw km£m-XvI-cn-¡p-¶-Xn\v CXv A\n- hm-cy-am-Wv. 3.Xmc-Xay]T\§Ä¡pÅ kvIqÄ `mjbpw kmln-Xyhpw imkv{Xhpw kmt¦-XnI hnZybpw Iebpw DÄs¸sS hnhn[ hnj-b-§sf kw_-Ôn¨ {]mtZ-in-Ihpw tZio-bhpw A´Àt±-io-b-hp-amb Xmc-Xay ]T-\- §Ä¡v {]tXyI kvIqÄ kwhn-[m\w BIm-hp-¶-Xm-Wv.

4 AXnYnþ{]-hmkn `mjm]T-\-kvIqÄ C´y-bnse hnhn[ kwØm-\-§-fn \n¶pw A\ycmPy-§-fn \n¶pw tIc-f- ¯n hcp¶ Bfp-Isf `mjm-]-c-ambn klm-bn-¡p-¶-Xn-\pÅ kvIqÄ Bbn-cn-¡Ww CXv. FÃm `mjm-hn-`m-K§fn \n¶papÅ kl-I-cWw Cu kvIqfn\v Dm-bn-cn-¡-Ww. AXnYn-Ifn \n¶pw ]T-\- klm-b-¯n\v ^okv hm§m-hp-¶-Xm-Wv. Hm¬ sse\mbpw AhÀ¡v cPn-ÌÀ sN¿m³ km[n-¡-Ww. kÀh-I-em-im-e-bn A[ym-]-I-cn-Ãm¯ `mj- Isf kw_-Ôn¨v CXn asämcp kao-]-\hpw kzoI-cn-¡mw. A¯cw `mj-IÄ Adn-bp¶ ae-bm-fn-IÄ¡v ( DZm: kpep XpS-§nb B{^n-¡³ `mj-IÄ ) XmXvIm-enI ^m¡Âän- bmbn Cu kvIqfns\ klm-bn-¡m-\pÅ kwhn-[m-\hpw Dm-¡m-hp-¶-Xm-Wv. hnh-c-km-t¦- XnI hnZym hn`m-K-hp-ambn _Ô-s¸«v hnhn[ temI `mj-I-fn ae-bmfw kÀh-I-em-im-e- bpsS Cu kwhn-[m\w kqNn-¸n-¡p¶ sh_v sskäp-IÄ Øm]n-¡m-hp-¶-Xm-Wv. CXp t]mse Xs¶ {]hm-kn-I-fmb ae-bm-fn-IÄ¡v ae-bm-f-¯n¡qSn AhÀ tPmen-sN¿m³ Dt±-in-¡p¶ cmPy-s¯bpw Ct¸mÄ tPmen sNbvXpsIm-n-cn-¡p¶ cmPy- s¯bpw `mj- ]Tn-¡m\pÅ kwhn-[m-\hpw Cu kvIqfn\p Iogn GÀs¸-Sp-¯m-hp-¶-Xm- Wv. (GI-hn-tZ-i-`mjm k¦-ev]-¯nÂ\n¶v _lp-`m-jm-k-¦ev]¯nte¡v IS-¡p-¶-Xn\v

sXmgn taJ-e-bnepw AÀ°-ap-v. Cw¥o-jn\v ]pdsa hnhn[ {]tZ-i-§-fnse `mj-I- fnepw ]cn-io-e\w e`n-¡p-¶Xv ae-bm-fn-I-fpsS AX-Xn-S-§-fnse sXmgn-e-h-k-cs¯ hÀ[n- ¸n-¡pw). C¯cw `mjm-]-cn-io-e-\-¯n\v hnhn[ `mjm hIp-¸p-IÄ X½n-epÅ GtIm-]\w thWw.

5 `mjm-kq-{XW (\nL-p, seIvkn-¡³, hnÚm-\-tImiw) kvIqÄ hnhn[ ]T-\-hn-`m-K-§Ä GtIm-]n-¸n¨p sImv hnÚm-\-ta-J-e-bn-emsI hcp¶ ASn-Øm\k¦-ev]-\-§-sfbpw ]Z-§-sfbpw ae-bm-f-¯n- ]cn-N-b-s¸-Sp¯p¶ hnhn[ Xcw {KÙ-§Ä cNn-¡p-¶-Xn\v ap³ssI FSp-¡p-I-bmWv Cu kvIqfnsâ e£y-am-tI-- Xv. `c-W-`m-j-bpÄs¸sSbpÅ taJ-e-Isf hnI-kn-¸n-¡p-¶-Xn-\pÅ \nÀt±-i-§Ä kaÀ¸n- ¡m³ Cu kvIqfn\v Ign-bpw. kÀh-I-em-im-e-bnse hnZym-`ymk hn`m-Khpw ae-bm-f-hn-`m- Khpw ap³I-s¿-Sp¯v kvIqÄ Xew apX-epÅ A[ym-]-IÀ¡pÅ `mjm-]-cn-io-e\ ]cn-]m- Snbpw Btem-Nn-¡m-hp-¶-Xm-Wv.

III ]T-\-tI-{µ-§Ä

tIc-f-¯n-eq-¶n-bpÅ hntij ]T-\-§Ä¡v ]T-\-tI-{µ-§Ä BImw. hnhn[ hnj- b-§-fnse Kth-j-Ws¯ klm-bn-¡p¶ coXn-im-kv{X-§Ä¡v th]cn-io-e\w \ÂI- emWv ]T-\-tI-{µ-§Ä¡v Dm-bn-cn-cn-t¡Npa-X-e. ZfnXv ]T\w ]cn-ØnXn ]T\w kv{Xo ]T\w {]tZ-i-]-T\w aq¶mw-tem-I-]-T\w

ka-Xz-hmZ ]T\w ( C´y³ `cW LS-\-bnse ASn-Øm\ k¦-ev]-\-amb P\m-[n-]-Xy- s¯-¡p-dn¨pw ka-Xz-hmZs¯¡pdn-¨pw AXnsâ tIc-fob {]tbm-K-§sf¡p-dn¨papÅ aqey-]-c-amb ]T\w) A\u]-Nm-cnI ]T-\-K-th-jW tI{µw tIc-f-¯n A\u-tZym-Kn-I-ambn kz´w \ne-bn Kth-jWw \S-¯p-¶-hsc klm-bn-¡m\pw Ah-cpsS Is-¯-ep-Isf shfn-¨-¯p -sImphcm\pw hnI-kn-¸n- ¡m\pw imkv{X-km-t¦-XnI hn`m-K-§-fpÄs¸sS FÃm-bn-S¯pw _Ô-apÅ Hcp A\u- tZym-Kn-I-amb Kth-jW hn`mKw thWw. C¯cw ]T-\-§Ä ]nF¨v. Unbn-te¡v \bn-¡Wsa¶v \nÀ_-Ô-an-Ã.

tImgvkp-IÄ

apJy- hn-j-b-§-fn _n F, Fw.-F, Fw.-^nÂ, ]n F¨v.Un tImgvkp-IÄ. H¸w kÀ«n-^n-¡-äv, Unt¹mam tImgvkp-IÄ, hnZq-cþ Hm¬ sse³ tImgvkp-IÄ. Cw¥ojpw Ad- _nbpw Hgn-¨pÅ hntZi `mj-IÄ¡v AhnsS sXmgn-e-t\z-jn-¡p-¶-hÀ¡v klm-b-I-c-amb kÀ«n-^n-¡äv tImgvkp-IÄ aXn-bm-Ipw (AXp-sImp Xs¶ XpS-¡-¯n Cu `mj-IÄ¡v Hmtcm A[ym-]I XkvXnI hoXw aXn-bmIpw).

4. XpS¡¯n¯s¶ {i²n-t¡Imcy-§Ä:

1. Øew: ae-bmf am[ya¯nepÅ ]-T-\-¯n\v ASn-¯-d-bpÅ {]tZiw tIc-f-¯nse \K-c-§-sfÃmw Cw¥ojv am[y-a-§-fpsS ]n¶m-se- t]mhpIbm-Wv. ae- bmfw am[y-a-¯n kvIqÄ Xe-¯n ]Tn¨ hnZymÀ°n-IÄ am{Xta hnhn[ hnj-b-§Ä aebmf-¯n ]Tn-¡m³ km[m-cW KXn-bn X¿m-dm-Ip-I-bp-Åq. AXn-\m¯s¶ ae- bmfw am[y-a-am-bpÅ kvIqfp-IÄ¡v \à ASn-¯-d-bp-Å {]tZ-i¯p thWw ae-bmf kÀh-I-em-ime Øm]n-¡m³. AsÃ-¦n- XpS-¡-¯n-¯s¶ hnZymÀ°n-I-fpsS ZuÀe`yw A\p-`-h-s¸-Spw. 2.hnim-e-amb Hä Im¼kv aXn kwkvIrX kÀh-I-em-im-e-bv¡p-Å-Xp-t]mse At\Iw tI{µ-§Ä ae-bmf kÀh- I-em-im-ebv¡v Bh-iy-an-Ã. hnhn[ hnj-b-§Ä X½nepw Ah ]Tn-¡p¶ hnZymÀ°n-IÄ X½nepw ]Tn-¸n-¡p¶ A[ym-]-IÀ X½nepapÅ ssZ\w-Zn\ _Ôw ae-bm-f- kÀh-I-em-im- ebpsS Dt±-iy-e-£y-§Ä ssIh-cn-¡p-¶-Xn\v A\n-hmcy-am-Wv. A¯-c-¯n-epÅ CS-I-e- cen\v hnim-e-amb Hä Im¼-kmWv th-Xv. AXn\p aXn-bmb Øe-ku-I-cy-ap-Ån-S¯p thWw ae-bmf kÀh-I-em-ime XpS-§m³. Aen-KVv kÀh-I-em-im-ebpsS Hcp Im¼- kn\v \m\q-dn-tesd G¡À sImSp-¡m³ km[n¨ \ap¡v ae-bm-f-¯n\v Npcp-§n-bXv Bbncw G¡-sd-¦nepw hen-¸-apÅ Im¼kv \ÂIm³ Ign-b-Ww. 3. ae-bm-f-¯n ]Tn-¸n-¡m-sa¶v Dd-¸pÅ hnj-b-§fn am{Xw XpS-§pI ae-bmfw am[y-a-ambn ]Tn-¸n-¡m³ Ign-bp¶ hnj-b-§Ä am{Xta ( A\y-`mjm hnj-b-§Ä HgnsI ) aebmf kÀh-I-em-im-e-bn-ep-mImhq. CsÃ-¦n aäp kÀh-I-em- im-e-I-fpsS AtX Ah-Ø-bn-te¡v ae-bmf kÀh-I-em-im-ebpw F¯n-t¨-cpw. tIcf kÀh-I-em-im-e-bpsS ASn-Øm\ e£yw ae-bm-f-¯n hnÚm-\-hn-I-k-\-am-bn-cp¶p F¶v HmÀ¡p-I. C¶v Hcn-¡epw ae-bm-f-¯n-te¡v Xncn-¨p-hcm³ Ign-bm¯ Ah-Ø-bn F¯n-t¨À¶n-cn-¡p-I-bmWv tIc-f-kÀh-I-em-im-ebpw tIc-f-¯nse aäp kÀh-I-em-im-e-I-

fpw. tIc-f-¯n-\-I¯v sXmgnÂkm[y-X-bpÅ hnj-b-§Ä am{Xw XpS-¡-¯n ]Tn-¸n- ¨m aXn-bm-Ipw. A{Xbpw F®w koäp-IÄ am{Xta Hmtcm hnj-b-¯nepw th-Xp-Åq. IqSp-X hnj-b-§Ä ae-bm-f-¯neqsS ]Tn-¡m\pw Kth-jWw \S-¯m\pw Ignbpw F¶v Bß-hn-izmkw hcp-¶ apdbv¡v ]pXnb hnj-b-§fpsS ]T-\-hn-`m-K-§Ä Bcw-`n-¡p-I. A¯-c-¯n saUn-¡Â, F©n-\n-b-dnwKv tImf-Pp-IfpÄs¸sS-bpÅ s{]m^-j-W Øm]-\-§fpw ]n¶oSv ae-bmf kÀh-I-em-im-e-bpsS Iogn sImp-h-cm-hp-¶-Xm-Wv. 4.\bn-t¡-Xv amXr-`m-j-bn hnizm-k-apÅhcpsS Hcp Iq«mbva

aebm-f-¯nsâ `mhn-bn hnizm-k-an-ÃmsX kz´w a¡-sf-¯s¶ Cw¥ojv am[ya hnZym-e-b-¯n-e-b-¡p¶hÀ ae-bmfw A[ym-]-I-cm-sW-¦nepw Ahsc ap³\nÀ¯n ae-bmf kÀh-I-em-ime sI«n-¸-Sp-¡m-\m-hn-Ã. amXr-`m-j-bn hnizm-khpw amXr-`m-j-tbmSv {]Xn-_- ²-X-bp-apÅ A[ym-]-Icpw A\-[ym-]-I-cp-amWv ae-bmf kÀh-I-em-im-esb \bn-t¡--Xv. XpS¡w apXte Ahn-Ss¯ `c-W-`mj ae-bm-f-am-Ip¶p F¶v Dd¸p hcp-¯-Ww. BIväpw Ìmäyq-«p-apÄs¸sS FÃm tcJ-Ifpw BZyw ae-bm-f-¯n-emWv Dm-t¡--Xv. Cw¥o-jnepw IqSn thtcJ-IÄ ]n¶oSv XÀÖa sNbvXm aXn-bm-Ipw. ià-amb Hcp XÀÖa hn`mKw XpS-¡-¯n¯s¶ A\-[ym-]-I-hn-`m-K-¯nepw Dm-I-Ww. 5.hnZymÀ°n-I-fpsS sXc-sª-Sp¸v Cw¥o-jn-eqsS temIw sh«n-¸n-Sn-¡m³ B{K-l-apÅ c£n-Xm-¡-fbpw hnZymÀ°n-I- sf-bp-aà ae-bmf kÀh-I-em-im-ebv¡v th-Xv. X§-fpsS sshÚm-\n-Ihpw _u²n-I-hp- amb tijn tIc-f-k-aq-l-¯n\v {]tbm-P-\-s¸-SWw F¶v B{K-ln-¡p¶ {]Xn-_-²-X- bpÅ hnZymÀ°n-I-Ä am{Xw ae-bmf kÀh-I-em-im-e-bn tNÀ¶m aXn-bm-Iqw. CXv hnZymÀ°n-I-sfbpw c£n-Xm-¡-sfbpw {]th-i\ L«-¯n¯s¶ Adn-bn-¡p-¶Xv \Ã-Xm- Wv. CXp-ambn _Ô-s¸« A`n-cpNn ]cn£tbm A`n-apJ ]co-£tbm \S-¯p-¶Xpw Btem-Nn-¡m-hp-¶-Xm-Wv. 6.hnZymÀ°n-IÄ¡pÅ B\p-Iq-ey-§Ä kaq-l-¯nse ]nt¶m-¡-hn-`m-K-§Ä¡mWv IqSp-X {]tbm-P-\-sa-¶-Xn-\m h³tXm-Xn ^okn-fhpw B\p-Iq-ey-§fpw Cu kÀh-I-em-im-e-bn ]Tn-¡p¶ hnZymÀ°n-IÄ¡v e`y-am-I-Ww.- C-Xn-\mbn {]tXy-I -N-«-§Ä Dm-I-Ww. tIc-f-¯n-\-Is¯ \nb-a-\-§-fn ae-bmf kÀh-I-em-im-e-bn \n¶n-d-§p¶ hnZymÀ°n-IÄ¡v , AhÀ tIc-f-¯nse P\-§Ä ssZ\w-Zn\ Pohn-X-¯n D]-tbm-Kn- ¡p¶ `mj-bn-emWv ]Tn-¡p-¶Xv F¶-Xn-\m {]tXyI ]cn-K-W\ thWw. tIc-f-¯n-\- Is¯ \nb-a-\-§-fn Cu kÀh-I-em-im-e-bnÂ\n-¶n-d-§p¶ hnZymÀ°n-IÄ¡v kwh- cWw thWw. Xan-gn ]Tn-¨n-d-§p¶ hnZymÀ°n-IÄ¡v Xan-gv\m-«n 20% kwh-cWw \ÂIn-bn-«p-v. ae-bm-fs¯ kw_-Ôn¨ Krlm-Xpc Nn´-I-sfbÃ, ae-bm-f-¯n-eq¶n B[p-\nI tIc-fs¯ sI«n-¸-Sp-¡p-¶-Xn-\pÅ `mhn {]Xo-£-Isf-bmWv ae-bmf kÀh-I-em-ime {]Xn-\n-[o-Icn-t¡--Xv. 1956  Ah-km-\n¨ {]{In-b-bÃ, Bcw-`n¨ {]{In-b-bm-WtÃm tIc-f- cq-]o-I-c-W-sa-¶-Xv.- A-Xn-\pÅ A\n-hm-cy-amb D]m-[n-I-fn-sem-¶m-Wv amXr-`m-j-bn- epÅ Hcp kÀh-I-em-im-e- F¶ Ah-t_m[w \s½ apt¶m«p \bn-¡-s«. ( cq]-tcJ BKkvXv 14 \v Xncp-h-\-´-]p-c¯v \S¶ s]mXp-k-½-f-\-¯nÂsh¨vv H.-F³.hn Ipdp¸v apJy-a{´n¡v ssIamdn)