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Gold reserves, tonnes, 1948-2008, major official gold holders

Source: WGC calculations based on IMF data and national sources


(See notes below)

1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959
World 30,182.6 30,623.4 31,096.1 31,302.3 31,561.8 32,006.1 32,606.9 33,172.9 33,657.3 34,245.5 34,865.8 35,615.9
All countries 28,878.7 29,286.2 29,721.0 29,843.2 29,876.2 30,290.5 30,856.9 31,242.0 31,863.1 32,950.1 33,607.4 33,561.3
CBGA(1)1 na na na na na na na na na na na na
CBGA (2)1 na na na na na na na na na na na na
Eurosystem2 na na na na na na na na na na na na
EU3 na na na na na na na na na na 6,045.8 7,064.8
Total Institutions4 1,303.7 1,337.4 1,374.8 1,401.4 1,545.4 1,579.2 1,613.8 1,714.2 1,556.1 1,070.0 1,146.4 2,019.0
IMF 1,276.1 1,289.5 1,327.7 1,359.7 1,503.6 1,512.5 1,546.3 1,606.7 1,503.6 1,048.6 1,183.7 2,138.1
BIS 27.5 48.0 47.1 41.8 41.8 66.6 67.5 107.5 52.4 21.3 -37.3 -119.1
EMI5 na na na na na na na na na na na na
EPU/EF6 na na na 57.6 140.2 136.5 136.1 216.7 238.1 225.5 112.1 35.6

United States 21,682.4 21,828.2 20,279.3 20,326.3 20,663.1 19,631.4 19,366.7 19,331.0 19,602.2 20,312.3 18,290.6 17,335.1
Canada 356.3 431.9 515.4 748.3 786.5 876.2 953.5 1,007.7 980.2 977.8 958.1 852.8
Australia … 54.1 79.3 88.3 101.4 100.5 113.5 124.4 145.3 102.6 130.3 136.2
Japan 2.7 3.5 6.3 9.2 14.2 16.3 18.6 20.0 20.4 20.8 47.8 217.1
New Zealand 20.4 24.0 25.8 28.4 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 29.3 30.2
ECB na na na na na na na na na na na na
Austria 4.6 4.8 6.3 11.7 13.7 53.8 61.9 62.7 63.0 91.3 172.7 259.7
Belgium 554.3 622.1 521.9 564.5 625.2 689.2 691.4 824.5 822.1 813.3 1,128.4 1,007.7
Cyprus … … … … … … … … … … … …
Finland 5.3 5.3 10.7 23.5 23.5 23.5 27.7 31.4 31.4 31.4 31.4 33.9
France 487.1 482.4 588.2 530.6 517.2 548.3 629.2 837.0 821.1 516.3 666.5 1,146.5
Germany 0.0 0.0 0.0 24.5 124.1 289.1 555.7 816.8 1,327.7 2,258.6 2,345.5 2,343.7
Greece 5.3 5.3 1.8 3.5 8.9 9.4 9.6 9.7 8.4 11.8 15.0 22.9
Ireland 15.1 15.1 15.1 16.0 16.0 16.0 16.0 16.0 16.0 16.0 16.0 16.0
Italy 85.3 227.5 227.5 295.9 307.5 307.5 307.5 312.8 300.4 401.5 965.0 1,553.9
Luxembourg 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 4.1 6.8 6.8 6.8
Malta 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Netherlands 162.5 178.3 280.1 282.1 486.3 658.5 710.8 772.4 754.6 665.6 933.6 1,006.2
Portugal 209.6 158.3 170.8 234.5 254.1 320.7 381.3 380.4 398.1 409.6 438.2 484.3
Slovenia … … … … … … … … … … … …
Spain 98.6 98.6 98.6 98.6 112.9 115.5 117.3 117.3 117.3 89.8 51.5 60.4
Denmark 28.4 28.0 28.0 37.8 42.7 54.4 54.2 61.5 58.4 28.3 42.9 50.5
Iceland 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9
Norway 45.9 45.8 44.6 44.5 44.5 46.1 39.6 40.3 44.7 39.9 38.1 27.0
Sweden 72.0 62.2 80.0 135.1 163.5 194.6 235.5 245.3 236.4 194.6 181.3 169.7
Switzerland 1,232.6 1,336.5 1,306.3 1,290.5 1,253.1 1,295.8 1,344.6 1,419.2 1,478.6 1,516.0 1,710.7 1,718.8
United Kingdom 1,431.6 1,173.6 2,543.1 1,930.1 1,317.5 2,011.4 2,254.8 1,787.9 1,575.6 1,381.7 2,494.7 2,234.2

CEMAC 7) … … … … … … … … … … … …
Cameroon … … … … … … … … … … … …
Central African Republic … … … … … … … … … … … …
Chad … … … … … … … … … … … …
Gabon
WAEMU 8) … … … … … … … … … … … …
Algeria 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1
Congo, Dem. Rep. of 37.3 46.2 53.3 64.9 71.1 89.8 102.2 103.1 108.4 72.0 73.7 37.3
Ghana 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Mauritius … … … … … … … … … … … …
Ethiopia 1.7 2.4 3.5 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.3
Morocco 9.8 9.8 9.8 11.5 14.2 15.1 10.7 12.4 14.2 11.5 14.2 20.4
Mozambique … … … … … … … … … … … …
Nigeria 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
South Africa 162.7 113.8 174.8 168.9 151.2 156.8 177.0 188.5 199.1 192.5 187.9 211.8
Tunisia 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.9 2.7
Zambia … … … … … … … … … … … …
Zimbabwe … … … … … … … … … … … …

Bangladesh … … … … … … … … … … … …
Cambodia … … … … … … … … … … … …
China … … … … … … … … … … … …
Hong Kong … … … … … … … … … … … …
Fiji … … … … … … … … … … … …
India 227.5 219.8 219.8 219.8 219.8 219.8 219.8 219.8 219.8 219.8 219.8 219.8
Indonesia 158.2 158.2 185.7 248.8 208.8 128.9 80.0 72.0 40.0 34.6 32.9 29.3
Korea 0.7 0.6 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.6
Laos … … … … … … … … … … … …
Malaysia 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Mongolia … … … … … … … … … … … …
Myanmar 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Pakistan 12.1 24.1 24.1 24.1 34.1 34.1 34.1 43.0 43.3 43.4 44.1 47.1
Papua New Guinea … … … … … … … … … … … …
Philippines 0.9 0.9 2.7 6.2 8.0 8.0 8.0 14.2 19.6 5.3 8.9 8.0
Sri Lanka … … … … … … … … … … … …
Singapore … … … … … … … … … … … …
Taiwan … … … … … … … … … … … …
Thailand 68.4 87.1 104.8 101.3 101.2 101.2 100.5 99.9 99.9 99.9 99.9 92.7

Albania … … … … … … … … … … … …
Belarus … … … … … … … …
Bulgaria … … … … … … … … … … … …
Czech Republic … … … … … … … … … … … …
Estonia … … … … … … … … … … … …
1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959
Hungary … … … … … … … … … … … …
Kazakhstan … … … … … … … … … … … …
Kyrgyz Republic … … … … … … … … … … … …
Latvia … … … … … … … … … … … …
Lithuania … … … … … … … … … … … …
Macedonia … … … … … … … … … … … …
Montenegro … … … … … … … … … … … …
Poland … … … … … … … … … … … …
Romania … … … … … … … … … … … …
Russia … … … … … … … … … … … …
Serbia … … … … … … … … … … … …
Slovak Republic … … … … … … … … … … … …
Tajikistan … … … … … … … … … … … …
Turkey 144.0 136.9 133.3 134.2 128.0 128.0 128.0 128.0 128.0 128.0 128.0 118.2
Ukraine … … … … … … … … … … … …

Egypt 48.0 48.0 87.1 154.6 154.6 154.6 154.6 154.6 167.1 167.1 154.6 154.6
Iraq 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.5 12.4 17.4 29.9 74.6
Jordan … … 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Kuwait 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Lebanon 1.5 11.6 17.8 23.4 27.2 30.8 56.1 65.5 68.6 81.1 81.1 90.4
Libya … … … … … … … … 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Oman … … … … … … … … … … … …
Qatar … … … … … … … … … … … …
Saudi Arabia … … … … … … … … … 14.2 15.1 16.0
Syria 0.9 2.7 4.4 9.8 12.4 12.4 15.1 16.9 16.9 21.3 21.3 16.9
United Arab Emirates … … … … … … … … … … … …
Yemen … … … … … … … … … … … …

Argentina 127.1 186.6 186.7 236.9 254.7 330.1 330.1 330.1 199.1 111.7 52.9 49.9
Aruba … … … … … … … … … … … …
Bolivia 20.2 20.3 20.3 20.3 18.5 19.6 4.4 0.1 0.9 0.7 0.9 0.8
Brazil 281.7 281.7 282.6 283.5 284.4 285.2 286.1 287.1 287.9 287.9 289.0 290.3
Chile 38.6 35.5 35.8 40.2 37.0 37.2 37.8 39.5 40.6 35.7 35.6 36.9
Colombia 45.3 46.2 65.8 42.6 66.7 76.4 75.5 76.4 50.7 55.1 64.0 63.1
Costa Rica 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.9
Dominican Republic 3.5 3.5 3.5 10.8 10.8 10.8 10.8 10.8 10.1 10.1 10.2 9.3
Ecuador 18.3 18.3 16.7 19.9 20.1 20.2 20.3 20.3 19.3 19.2 19.3 18.1
El Salvador 12.9 15.4 20.4 22.8 26.1 25.9 25.5 25.2 25.0 27.9 27.9 27.0
Guatemala 24.2 24.2 24.2 24.2 24.2 24.2 24.2 24.2 24.2 24.2 24.2 20.9
Hounduras 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
Mexico 37.3 46.2 184.8 184.8 128.0 140.4 55.1 126.2 148.4 160.0 127.1 126.2
Netherlands Antilles … … … … … … … … … 17.3 17.3 17.3
Peru 17.8 24.9 27.6 40.7 40.7 32.3 31.0 31.0 31.2 24.7 17.0 24.9
Suriname … … … … … … … … … 6.5 8.7 8.7
Trinidad and Tobago … … … … … … … … … … … …
Uruguay 145.7 158.2 209.7 196.4 183.9 201.7 201.7 191.5 165.7 159.6 159.6 159.6
Venezuela 287.1 331.6 331.6 331.6 331.6 331.6 358.0 358.9 537.8 639.8 639.8 581.9

Notes: … not available na not applicable


1. CBGA: Central Bank Gold Agreement (also known as the Washington Agreement) signed September 1999. Under this the 15 signatories (European
Central Bank, other central banks of the then Eurosytem, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK) agreed to limit their collective annual gold sales to around
400 tonnes a year for five years (not exceeding 2,000 tonnes in total) and not to increase their gold leasings and their use of futures and options during
this period. The Agreement was renewed for a further five years in 2004 (CBGA (2)). Greece, which had joined the Eurosystem in 2001 became a
signatory while the UK, announcing that it had no plans to sell gold, did not sign. Slovenia became a signatory in December 2007, while Cyprus and
Malta also joined in January 2008 and Slovakia joined in January 2009. All of the figures provided for CBGA (2) are inclusive of all of the current
signatories to the agreement.
2. Eurosystem: The central banks of countries adhering to European Monetary Union. From 1999, the European Central Bank (ECB) and the central
banks of Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain. Greece joined from 2001.Cyprus,
Malta and Slovenia joined in January 2008. Slovakia joined in January 2009.
3. EU: European Union (European Communities prior to November 1993). The original members were Belgium, France, (West) Germany, Italy,
Luxembourg and the Netherlands. Denmark, Ireland and the UK joined in 1973, Greece in 1981, Spain and Portugal in 1986, Austria, Finland and
Sweden in 1995. Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia joined in 2004. Bulgaria and
Romania joined in 2007. The EMI is included in the total from 1979 to 1998.
4. Total institutions: The IMF, the BIS and the EPU/EF and EMI when they existed.
5. EMI: European Monetary Institute. From 1979 all EU members deposited 20% of their gold and foreign exchange holdings with the EMI in exchange
for Ecus (European Currency Unit). These swaps were unwound at the end of 1998 and the gold concerned returned to EU member countries.
6. EPU/EF; European Payments Union and its successor, the European Fund.
7. Central African Economic and Monetary Union including the central bank.
8. West African Economic Monetary Union including the central bank.
Gold reserves, tonnes, 1948-2008, major official gold holders
Source: WGC calculations based on IMF data and national sources
(See notes below)

1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971
World 35,893.1 36,437.9 36,754.2 37,586.9 38,113.9 38,346.7 38,283.6 36,900.9 36,192.6 36,286.8 36,606.7 36,574.7
All countries 33,695.4 34,439.7 34,799.2 35,738.9 36,183.3 37,124.5 36,258.0 35,035.0 34,442.8 34,614.8 32,961.3 32,045.0
CBGA(1)1 na na na na na na na na na na na na
CBGA (2)1 na na na na na na na na na na na na
Eurosystem2 na na na na na na na na na na na na
EU3 8,393.9 9,642.2 10,189.9 10,970.6 11,759.6 13,192.0 13,517.5 13,386.9 12,953.2 12,296.9 12,149.0 12,398.3
Total Institutions4 2,147.9 1,948.0 1,905.3 1,806.7 1,892.0 1,165.0 1,979.9 1,828.9 1,723.1 1,626.3 3,605.3 4,480.6
IMF 2,164.8 1,845.8 1,949.7 2,054.6 1,936.4 1,660.9 2,356.7 2,383.4 2,033.3 2,052.8 3,855.9 4,205.2
BIS -16.9 102.2 -44.4 -247.9 -44.4 -495.9 -376.8 -554.5 -310.1 -426.6 -250.6 275.5
EMI5 na na na na na na na na na na na na
EPU/EF6 49.0 50.0 50.0 41.4 38.6 57.5 45.7 37.3 26.1 45.8 39.2 49.1

United States 15,821.9 15,060.2 14,269.2 13,859.6 13,748.6 12,499.1 11,761.4 10,721.6 9,679.3 10,538.7 9,839.2 9,069.7
Canada 786.7 840.8 629.6 726.2 911.5 1,022.7 929.2 901.9 767.0 775.2 702.7 705.6
Australia 131.3 143.4 169.2 185.1 200.9 219.9 199.1 205.3 228.4 233.7 212.4 231.1
Japan 219.6 255.0 256.6 257.1 270.6 291.7 292.9 301.1 316.4 367.2 473.2 604.0
New Zealand 31.1 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.3 0.2 0.5 0.5 0.8 0.7 0.7
ECB na na na na na na na na na na na na
Austria 260.5 269.2 403.2 476.6 533.2 622.3 622.6 622.9 634.8 635.1 634.2 647.7
Belgium 1,040.1 1,109.5 1,213.0 1,218.6 1,289.5 1,384.7 1,354.9 1,314.4 1,353.9 1,349.9 1,306.6 1,372.3
Cyprus … … … … … … … … 13.3 13.3 13.3 13.3
Finland 36.5 41.7 54.1 53.8 75.9 74.3 40.0 39.9 40.1 40.1 25.7 43.4
France 1,458.4 1,884.9 2,298.8 2,821.4 3,313.7 4,182.1 4,654.9 4,651.2 3,445.3 3,152.0 3,138.6 3,130.9
Germany 2,640.4 3,255.6 3,269.5 3,415.7 3,774.9 3,918.9 3,813.8 3,756.8 4,033.7 3,625.3 3,536.6 3,622.5
Greece 67.7 77.3 68.7 68.8 68.8 68.8 106.4 115.6 124.2 115.4 103.5 87.2
Ireland 16.0 16.0 16.0 16.0 16.9 18.7 20.4 22.2 70.2 34.7 14.2 14.2
Italy 1,958.0 1,977.2 1,993.6 2,082.2 1,872.0 2,136.0 2,145.2 2,132.6 2,597.9 2,626.9 2,565.3 2,562.8
Luxembourg 7.2 9.3 9.3 9.3 9.3 9.3 10.7 10.7 13.7 13.7 13.7 13.8
Malta 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 10.9 10.9 8.6 11.0
Netherlands 1,289.7 1,405.7 1,405.7 1,423.5 1,500.1 1,560.9 1,538.1 1,521.2 1,508.7 1,529.1 1,588.2 1,696.2
Portugal 488.6 392.8 418.6 441.7 464.7 512.0 571.4 621.1 760.8 777.6 801.5 818.3
Slovenia … … … … … … … … … … … …
Spain 158.2 281.7 396.8 509.4 547.1 719.9 697.9 697.2 697.4 697.0 442.6 442.7
Denmark 94.7 94.8 81.7 81.8 81.8 86.5 96.0 96.0 101.3 78.9 57.4 56.4
Iceland 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9
Norway 26.9 27.0 27.1 27.2 27.2 27.3 16.2 16.2 21.1 22.5 20.8 29.5
Sweden 151.1 160.0 160.8 160.8 168.0 179.5 180.4 180.5 199.9 200.6 177.8 179.7
Switzerland 1,941.8 2,274.9 2,370.1 2,506.0 2,421.7 2,703.2 2,524.6 2,745.2 2,331.8 2,348.0 2,427.0 2,585.0
United Kingdom 2,489.1 2,014.4 2,293.5 2,208.0 1,898.9 2,012.4 1,725.2 1,146.4 1,309.2 1,308.0 1,198.1 689.9

CEMAC 7) … … … … … … … … … … … …
Cameroon … … … … … … … … … … … …
Central African Republic … … … … … … … … … … … …
Chad … … … … … … … … … … … …
Gabon
WAEMU 8) … … … … … … … … … … … …
Algeria 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 138.1 182.4 182.4 170.1 170.2
Congo, Dem. Rep. of 26.7 3.5 1.0 1.9 2.6 2.8 3.1 3.6 11.1 48.8 44.3 44.8
Ghana 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0
Mauritius … … … … … … … … … … … …
Ethiopia 2.8 3.2 2.8 2.1 2.4 2.8 3.5 4.1 7.2 8.4 7.0 7.4
Morocco 25.8 25.8 25.8 25.8 30.2 18.7 18.7 18.7 18.7 18.7 18.7 18.7
Mozambique … … … … … … … … … … … …
Nigeria 0.0 17.8 17.8 17.8 17.8 17.8 17.8 17.8 17.8 17.8 17.8 16.9
South Africa 158.3 265.3 443.2 559.9 510.4 377.6 566.1 517.6 1,104.5 990.9 591.9 364.5
Tunisia 2.7 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.4 3.4 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.0
Zambia … … … … … 6.9 11.3 11.3 5.7 5.7 5.7 6.2
Zimbabwe … … … … … … 19.6 26.9 24.9 24.9 32.6 25.4

Bangladesh … … … … … … … … … … … …
Cambodia … … … … … … … … … … … …
China … … … … … … … … … … … …
Hong Kong … … … … … … … … … … … …
Fiji … … … … … … … … … … … …
India 219.8 219.8 219.8 219.8 219.8 249.6 216.3 216.3 216.3 216.3 216.3 216.3
Indonesia 51.5 39.1 40.0 32.9 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 1.8
Korea 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 2.5 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.1
Laos … … … … … … … … … … … …
Malaysia 0.0 0.0 2.8 7.2 6.2 1.9 0.9 27.7 58.8 56.0 42.6 51.6
Mongolia … … … … … … … … … … … …
Myanmar 0.0 0.0 37.3 37.3 74.3 74.3 74.3 74.3 74.3 74.3 55.7 19.2
Pakistan 47.1 47.6 47.7 47.7 48.0 48.1 48.1 48.1 48.5 48.5 48.5 49.2
Papua New Guinea … … … … … … … … … … … …
Philippines 13.3 24.0 36.4 24.9 20.4 33.8 39.1 53.3 55.1 40.0 49.8 59.5
Sri Lanka … … … … … … … … … … … …
Singapore … … … … … … … … … … … …
Taiwan 36.4 39.1 38.2 44.4 48.9 48.9 55.1 72.0 72.0 72.9 72.9 72.0
Thailand 92.7 92.6 92.6 92.6 92.6 85.7 81.5 81.5 81.5 81.5 72.8 72.8

Albania … … … … … … … … … … … …
Belarus … … … … … … … … … … … …
Bulgaria … … … … … … … … … … … …
Czech Republic … … … … … … … … … … … …
Estonia … … … … … … … … … … … …
1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971
Hungary … … … … … … … … … … … 45.0
Kazakhstan … … … … … … … … … … … …
Kyrgyz Republic … … … … … … … … … … … …
Latvia … … … … … … … … … … … …
Lithuania … … … … … … … … … … … …
Macedonia … … … … … … … … … … … …
Montenegro … … … … … … … … … … … …
Poland … … … … … … … … … … … …
Romania … … … … … … … … … … … …
Russia … … … … … … … … … … … …
Serbia … … … … … … … … … … … …
Slovak Republic … … … … … … … … … … … …
Tajikistan … … … … … … … … … … … …
Turkey 111.1 118.2 124.4 102.2 90.6 103.1 90.6 86.2 86.2 104.0 112.9 106.7
Ukraine … … … … … … … … … … … …

Egypt 154.6 154.5 154.5 154.5 123.8 123.8 82.9 83.1 83.2 83.2 75.7 75.6
Iraq 87.1 74.6 86.9 86.9 99.4 97.5 93.8 102.0 171.2 171.3 127.5 127.5
Jordan 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 26.3 26.3 24.8 24.8
Kuwait 0.0 38.6 43.5 42.3 42.3 46.0 59.7 121.2 108.0 76.6 76.6 77.1
Lebanon 105.9 124.6 152.6 152.6 162.8 161.9 171.5 171.5 255.5 255.5 255.5 286.5
Libya 0.0 0.0 2.5 6.2 15.0 60.2 60.2 60.2 75.8 75.8 75.8 75.8
Oman … … … … … … … … … … 2.0 0.4
Qatar … … … … … … 0.0 4.3 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8
Saudi Arabia 16.0 57.8 69.3 69.3 69.3 64.9 61.3 61.3 105.8 105.8 105.8 96.0
Syria 16.9 16.9 16.9 16.9 16.9 16.9 16.9 16.9 24.9 24.9 24.9 24.9
United Arab Emirates … … … … … … … … … … … …
Yemen … … … … … … … … … … … …

Argentina 91.9 168.5 53.9 69.0 63.1 58.5 74.4 74.4 96.6 119.7 124.2 79.7
Aruba … … … … … … … … … … … …
Bolivia 0.8 0.9 2.7 1.8 4.2 6.0 6.5 8.3 9.7 10.4 11.3 11.9
Brazil 255.0 253.2 244.8 253.6 81.0 56.0 40.4 40.4 40.2 40.2 40.2 41.1
Chile 40.0 42.5 38.0 38.1 38.4 38.9 40.2 40.0 41.1 42.1 41.5 41.9
Colombia 69.3 78.2 50.7 55.1 51.5 31.1 22.2 27.6 27.6 23.1 15.1 12.4
Costa Rica 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9
Dominican Republic 9.2 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7
Ecuador 17.8 17.1 17.0 16.6 10.0 10.0 9.8 15.2 23.3 19.7 17.0 16.6
El Salvador 26.6 15.9 15.8 15.8 15.9 16.0 16.0 15.8 15.8 15.4 15.4 15.3
Guatemala 20.9 21.0 20.9 20.5 20.4 19.3 17.8 17.8 17.9 17.8 15.5 15.4
Hounduras 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
Mexico 120.9 99.5 83.5 123.5 150.2 140.4 96.9 147.5 146.6 150.2 156.4 163.5
Netherlands Antilles 17.3 17.3 17.4 17.4 17.4 17.4 17.4 17.4 17.4 17.4 17.4 17.0
Peru 37.7 42.1 42.1 51.0 59.9 59.7 57.5 17.9 17.6 22.1 35.3 35.2
Suriname 10.9 10.9 8.7 8.7 6.4 6.4 8.7 16.6 16.6 7.7 7.7 7.7
Trinidad and Tobago … … … … … … … … … … … …
Uruguay 159.6 159.6 159.5 152.3 152.3 137.7 130.2 124.0 118.5 146.5 143.5 131.5
Venezuela 356.4 356.4 356.4 356.4 356.4 356.4 356.4 356.4 358.0 358.0 341.2 347.4

Notes: … not available na not applicable


1. CBGA: Central Bank Gold Agreement (also known as the Washington Agreement) signed September 1999. Under this the 15 signatories (European
Central Bank, other central banks of the then Eurosytem, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK) agreed to limit their collective annual gold sales to around
400 tonnes a year for five years (not exceeding 2,000 tonnes in total) and not to increase their gold leasings and their use of futures and options during
this period. The Agreement was renewed for a further five years in 2004 (CBGA (2)). Greece, which had joined the Eurosystem in 2001 became a
signatory while the UK, announcing that it had no plans to sell gold, did not sign. Slovenia became a signatory in December 2007, while Cyprus and
Malta also joined in January 2008 and Slovakia joined in January 2009. All of the figures provided for CBGA (2) are inclusive of all of the current
signatories to the agreement.
2. Eurosystem: The central banks of countries adhering to European Monetary Union. From 1999, the European Central Bank (ECB) and the central
banks of Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain. Greece joined from 2001.Cyprus,
Malta and Slovenia joined in January 2008. Slovakia joined in January 2009.
3. EU: European Union (European Communities prior to November 1993). The original members were Belgium, France, (West) Germany, Italy,
Luxembourg and the Netherlands. Denmark, Ireland and the UK joined in 1973, Greece in 1981, Spain and Portugal in 1986, Austria, Finland and
Sweden in 1995. Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia joined in 2004. Bulgaria and
Romania joined in 2007. The EMI is included in the total from 1979 to 1998.
4. Total institutions: The IMF, the BIS and the EPU/EF and EMI when they existed.
5. EMI: European Monetary Institute. From 1979 all EU members deposited 20% of their gold and foreign exchange holdings with the EMI in exchange
for Ecus (European Currency Unit). These swaps were unwound at the end of 1998 and the gold concerned returned to EU member countries.
6. EPU/EF; European Payments Union and its successor, the European Fund.
7. Central African Economic and Monetary Union including the central bank.
8. West African Economic Monetary Union including the central bank.
Gold reserves, tonnes, 1948-2008, major official gold holders
Source: WGC calculations based on IMF data and national sources
(See notes below)

1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983
World 36,722.7 36,797.8 36,745.4 36,674.3 36,374.8 36,493.9 36,267.3 35,694.1 35,836.3 35,830.0 35,697.6 35,639.9
All countries 31,772.0 31,852.2 31,790.0 31,720.9 31,581.6 32,047.2 32,284.5 29,451.3 29,721.0 29,709.5 29,587.9 29,552.7
CBGA(1)1 na na na na na na na na na na na na
CBGA (2)1 na na na na na na na na na na na na
Eurosystem2 na na na na na na na na na na na na
EU3 12,382.6 13,100.3 13,102.3 13,102.3 13,105.1 13,219.7 13,275.7 13,314.6 13,334.9 13,462.9 13,463.3 13,463.8
Total Institutions4 4,950.7 4,945.4 4,955.2 4,953.4 4,792.6 4,446.9 3,983.0 6,242.9 6,114.9 6,119.6 6,119.6 6,119.6
IMF 4,772.1 4,772.1 4,771.2 4,772.1 4,650.4 4,092.3 3,676.4 3,322.7 3,217.0 3,217.0 3,217.0 3,217.0
BIS 178.6 173.3 184.0 181.3 142.2 354.6 306.6 267.5 234.6 237.3 226.6 204.4
EMI5 na na na na na na na 2,652.7 2,663.3 2,665.4 2,665.8 2,665.9
EPU/EF6 36.3 na na na na na na na na na na na

United States 8,583.6 8,583.6 8,583.6 8,544.4 8,543.4 8,632.7 8,597.2 8,229.9 8,221.2 8,214.7 8,212.2 8,192.3
Canada 682.7 682.7 682.8 682.8 672.3 684.5 688.3 689.8 652.6 636.5 630.2 627.4
Australia 230.2 229.3 229.5 229.5 229.0 237.9 242.3 246.7 246.7 246.7 246.7 246.7
Japan 656.1 656.5 656.6 656.6 656.6 672.5 745.6 753.6 753.6 753.6 753.6 753.6
New Zealand 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 1.4 2.0 1.4 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7
ECB na na na na na na na na na na na na
Austria 648.6 649.4 649.4 649.4 649.4 653.0 654.8 656.6 656.6 656.6 656.8 657.1
Belgium 1,339.9 1,311.6 1,311.6 1,311.6 1,311.6 1,320.3 1,324.7 1,064.0 1,063.1 1,063.1 1,063.1 1,063.1
Cyprus 13.3 13.3 13.3 13.3 13.3 13.7 13.8 14.3 14.3 14.3 14.3 14.3
Finland 43.5 25.6 25.6 25.6 25.6 28.1 29.4 30.7 30.7 39.5 39.5 39.5
France 3,131.8 3,138.6 3,139.2 3,139.2 3,142.0 3,162.3 3,172.2 2,548.0 2,545.8 2,545.8 2,545.8 2,545.8
Germany 3,650.1 3,658.1 3,658.2 3,658.1 3,658.1 3,679.4 3,690.0 2,962.6 2,960.5 2,960.5 2,960.5 2,960.5
Greece 108.7 108.9 112.3 112.9 113.6 116.0 117.3 118.4 119.3 119.8 120.4 120.7
Ireland 14.2 13.3 13.9 13.9 13.9 14.7 13.9 11.9 11.1 11.2 11.2 11.2
Italy 2,562.0 2,565.5 2,565.5 2,565.5 2,565.5 2,578.8 2,585.4 2,075.0 2,073.7 2,073.7 2,073.7 2,073.7
Luxembourg 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 13.8 14.0 14.2 14.2 14.2 14.2 14.2 14.2
Malta 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.2 11.2 11.4 13.5 14.2 14.4 14.7
Netherlands 1,685.0 1,689.7 1,689.8 1,689.8 1,689.8 1,699.1 1,703.7 1,367.7 1,366.7 1,366.7 1,366.7 1,366.7
Portugal 836.1 856.6 865.9 862.2 860.6 749.9 688.3 688.3 689.6 688.6 687.1 635.4
Slovenia … … … … … … … … … … … …
Spain 442.7 443.7 443.7 443.7 443.7 449.0 451.7 454.3 454.3 454.3 454.3 454.3
Denmark 56.4 56.4 56.4 56.4 56.4 59.9 61.6 51.0 50.7 50.7 50.7 50.7
Iceland 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5
Norway 30.4 30.5 30.5 30.5 30.5 33.6 35.2 36.8 36.8 36.8 36.8 36.8
Sweden 179.8 180.1 180.1 180.1 180.1 184.4 186.6 188.8 188.8 188.8 188.8 188.8
Switzerland 2,585.0 2,587.8 2,587.8 2,587.8 2,590.3 2,590.3 2,590.3 2,590.3 2,590.3 2,590.3 2,590.3 2,590.3
United Kingdom 655.7 653.3 654.0 654.0 654.0 691.3 710.0 567.6 585.9 591.9 591.3 591.4

CEMAC 7) … … … … … … … … … … … …
Cameroon … … … 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.5 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9
Central African Republic … … … 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
Chad … … … 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
Gabon
WAEMU 8) … … … … … … … … … … … …
Algeria 170.2 170.2 170.2 170.2 170.2 171.0 171.9 173.6 173.6 173.6 173.6 173.6
Congo, Dem. Rep. of 45.2 45.5 15.6 8.1 8.1 8.1 9.6 7.8 9.3 11.1 12.8 13.7
Ghana 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 6.2 6.8 6.8 7.9 9.6 11.9 11.9
Mauritius … … … … 0.0 0.3 1.0 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2
Ethiopia 7.7 8.0 8.6 8.6 8.6 8.9 8.9 8.9 9.6 8.1 6.5 6.5
Morocco 18.7 18.7 18.9 18.9 18.9 19.7 21.2 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9
Mozambique … … … … … … … … … … … …
Nigeria 16.9 17.8 17.8 17.8 17.8 19.6 19.6 21.4 21.4 21.4 21.4 21.4
South Africa 557.7 590.7 567.6 552.1 394.1 302.3 304.5 312.0 377.9 288.9 235.5 242.3
Tunisia 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.7 5.0 5.3 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8
Zambia 6.2 6.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 6.3 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7
Zimbabwe 17.2 23.3 15.6 10.9 8.2 4.7 5.0 8.1 10.9 14.5 12.3 18.4

Bangladesh 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.7 0.8 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.8
Cambodia … … … … … … … … … … … …
China … … … … … 398.1 398.1 398.1 398.1 395.0 395.0 395.0
Hong Kong … … … … … … … … … … … …
Fiji 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3
India 216.3 216.3 216.3 216.3 216.3 228.8 260.1 266.2 267.3 267.3 267.3 267.3
Indonesia 3.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 5.3 7.0 8.7 74.5 96.5 96.5 96.5
Korea 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.5 4.6 8.6 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.4 9.5
Laos … … … … … … … … … … … …
Malaysia 51.6 51.6 51.6 51.6 51.6 54.1 58.8 66.2 72.2 72.5 72.5 72.5
Mongolia … … … … … … … … … 1.4 1.4 1.1
Myanmar 10.0 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 7.0 7.4 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8
Pakistan 49.4 49.4 49.4 49.4 50.3 50.3 53.4 56.6 56.6 57.4 57.5 57.9
Papua New Guinea #VALUE! 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.9 1.4 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.9
Philippines 57.8 32.9 32.8 32.8 32.8 32.8 47.1 52.9 59.7 51.6 58.0 9.0
Sri Lanka … … … … … 0.0 1.3 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
Singapore … … … … … … … … … … … …
Taiwan 71.1 72.0 71.1 72.0 69.3 75.5 75.5 74.6 97.8 101.3 117.3 128.0
Thailand 72.8 72.8 72.8 72.8 72.8 74.6 75.5 76.4 77.4 77.4 77.4 77.4

Albania … … … … … … … … … … … …
Belarus … … … … … … … … … … … …
Bulgaria … … … … … … … … … … … …
Czech Republic … … … … … … … … … … … …
Estonia … … … … … … … … … … … …
1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983
Hungary 52.0 56.6 41.4 29.6 41.1 39.9 61.5 55.3 64.4 52.4 20.1 47.7
Kazakhstan … … … … … … … … … … … …
Kyrgyz Republic … … … … … … … … … … … …
Latvia … … … … … … … … … … … …
Lithuania … … … … … … … … … … … …
Macedonia … … … … … … … … … … … …
Montenegro … … … … … … … … … … … …
Poland … … … … … … … 40.0 23.6 14.6 14.6 14.7
Romania … 70.8 76.1 80.8 85.5 95.1 104.1 109.9 115.5 111.7 110.5 112.6
Russia … … … … … … … … … … … …
Serbia … … … … … … … … … … … …
Slovak Republic … … … … … … … … … … … …
Tajikistan … … … … … … … … … … … …
Turkey 111.1 111.1 111.0 111.0 111.0 113.0 114.1 117.1 117.2 117.2 117.2 117.4
Ukraine … … … … … … … … … … … …

Egypt 75.6 75.6 75.6 75.6 75.6 75.6 76.9 76.9 75.6 75.6 75.6 75.6
Iraq 127.5 127.5 127.5 127.5 127.5 128.9 … … … … … …
Jordan 24.8 24.8 24.8 24.8 24.8 25.1 25.2 25.4 31.8 33.2 33.6 33.9
Kuwait 77.1 88.5 109.0 124.0 173.5 78.1 78.5 79.0 79.0 79.0 79.0 79.0
Lebanon 286.5 286.7 286.6 286.6 286.6 286.7 286.7 286.8 286.8 286.8 286.8 286.8
Libya 75.8 75.8 75.8 75.8 75.8 76.1 76.1 76.6 95.7 111.3 111.3 111.3
Oman 0.4 0.4 0.9 0.9 1.4 3.2 5.8 5.8 6.5 8.5 8.7 9.0
Qatar 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8 6.0 5.7 7.9 8.4 14.8 22.2 27.9 33.1
Saudi Arabia 96.0 96.0 95.8 95.8 95.8 95.8 141.2 142.0 142.0 142.0 143.0 143.0
Syria 24.9 24.9 24.5 24.5 24.5 25.2 25.2 25.9 25.9 25.9 25.9 25.9
United Arab Emirates … 0.0 0.0 0.0 17.0 17.7 17.9 17.9 17.9 21.1 25.4 25.4
Yemen … … … … … … … … … … … …

Argentina 124.2 124.3 124.3 124.3 124.3 130.1 133.1 136.0 136.0 136.0 136.0 136.0
Aruba … … … … … … … … … … … …
Bolivia 12.6 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.9 18.7 20.0 21.2 23.6 25.8 27.7 28.4
Brazil 41.2 41.3 41.3 41.3 41.3 47.1 50.0 53.0 58.3 68.6 4.7 16.8
Chile 42.1 42.8 44.7 40.3 41.6 42.4 43.2 47.4 53.0 52.9 53.2 …
Colombia 13.3 13.3 13.3 35.0 43.9 53.8 61.0 72.1 86.7 104.7 118.7 131.3
Costa Rica 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 2.3 2.5 2.7 2.7 0.9 1.6 2.7
Dominican Republic 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 3.2 3.2 3.5 4.1 4.4 2.8 2.4
Ecuador 11.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.0 12.4 12.7 12.9 12.9 12.9 12.9 12.9
El Salvador 15.1 15.1 15.1 15.1 15.1 15.6 15.6 15.8 16.0 16.0 16.0 14.6
Guatemala 15.3 15.3 15.3 15.3 15.3 15.8 16.0 16.2 16.2 16.2 16.2 16.2
Hounduras 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
Mexico 153.7 144.0 113.9 113.8 49.8 54.6 58.9 61.7 64.1 70.2 64.2 71.8
Netherlands Antilles 17.0 17.0 17.0 17.0 17.0 17.0 17.0 17.0 17.0 17.0 17.0 17.0
Peru 33.9 31.2 31.2 31.2 31.2 31.2 31.2 36.0 43.5 43.5 43.5 43.5
Suriname 7.7 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7
Trinidad and Tobago … … … … … 0.8 1.3 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7
Uruguay 110.0 110.0 110.0 110.1 110.2 111.2 113.2 103.0 106.4 105.5 88.9 80.9
Venezuela 347.4 347.4 347.7 347.7 347.7 352.1 354.3 356.4 356.4 356.4 356.4 356.4

Notes: … not available na not applicable


1. CBGA: Central Bank Gold Agreement (also known as the Washington Agreement) signed September 1999. Under this the 15 signatories (European
Central Bank, other central banks of the then Eurosytem, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK) agreed to limit their collective annual gold sales to around
400 tonnes a year for five years (not exceeding 2,000 tonnes in total) and not to increase their gold leasings and their use of futures and options during
this period. The Agreement was renewed for a further five years in 2004 (CBGA (2)). Greece, which had joined the Eurosystem in 2001 became a
signatory while the UK, announcing that it had no plans to sell gold, did not sign. Slovenia became a signatory in December 2007, while Cyprus and
Malta also joined in January 2008 and Slovakia joined in January 2009. All of the figures provided for CBGA (2) are inclusive of all of the current
signatories to the agreement.
2. Eurosystem: The central banks of countries adhering to European Monetary Union. From 1999, the European Central Bank (ECB) and the central
banks of Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain. Greece joined from 2001.Cyprus,
Malta and Slovenia joined in January 2008. Slovakia joined in January 2009.
3. EU: European Union (European Communities prior to November 1993). The original members were Belgium, France, (West) Germany, Italy,
Luxembourg and the Netherlands. Denmark, Ireland and the UK joined in 1973, Greece in 1981, Spain and Portugal in 1986, Austria, Finland and
Sweden in 1995. Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia joined in 2004. Bulgaria and
Romania joined in 2007. The EMI is included in the total from 1979 to 1998.
4. Total institutions: The IMF, the BIS and the EPU/EF and EMI when they existed.
5. EMI: European Monetary Institute. From 1979 all EU members deposited 20% of their gold and foreign exchange holdings with the EMI in exchange
for Ecus (European Currency Unit). These swaps were unwound at the end of 1998 and the gold concerned returned to EU member countries.
6. EPU/EF; European Payments Union and its successor, the European Fund.
7. Central African Economic and Monetary Union including the central bank.
8. West African Economic Monetary Union including the central bank.
Gold reserves, tonnes, 1948-2008, major official gold holders
Source: WGC calculations based on IMF data and national sources
(See notes below)

1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995
World 35,606.1 35,687.0 35,703.0 35,612.3 35,790.9 35,605.2 35,582.1 35,544.8 35,186.6 34,878.3 34,710.1 34,690.5
All countries 29,517.9 29,595.3 29,594.4 29,423.3 29,445.1 29,269.4 29,213.4 29,214.0 28,890.5 28,606.3 28,480.4 28,333.3
CBGA(1)1 na na na na na na na na na na na na
CBGA (2)1 na na na na na na na na na na na na
Eurosystem2 na na na na na na na na na na na na
EU3 13,470.6 13,471.1 14,558.8 14,539.5 14,625.1 14,556.3 14,542.3 14,542.4 14,338.6 13,972.6 13,973.7 14,521.2
Total Institutions4 6,119.6 6,119.6 6,119.6 6,188.9 6,344.9 6,335.6 6,369.1 6,330.0 6,296.2 6,271.3 6,229.5 6,357.0
IMF 3,217.0 3,217.0 3,217.0 3,217.0 3,217.0 3,217.0 3,217.0 3,217.0 3,217.0 3,217.0 3,217.0 3,217.3
BIS 204.4 207.9 199.9 190.2 205.3 206.2 242.6 204.4 210.6 268.4 216.8 226.6
EMI5 2,666.0 2,666.0 2,691.7 2,781.8 2,922.6 2,912.4 2,909.5 2,908.6 2,868.6 2,786.0 2,795.7 2,913.0
EPU/EF6 na na na na na na na na na na na na

United States 8,173.6 8,169.3 8,150.3 8,160.9 8,145.0 8,146.9 8,146.2 8,146.2 8,144.1 8,142.5 8,140.5 8,139.8
Canada 626.3 625.4 613.5 576.0 533.1 500.8 459.2 403.2 309.3 188.3 120.8 106.2
Australia 246.7 246.7 246.7 246.7 246.7 246.7 246.7 246.7 246.8 245.7 245.7 245.7
Japan 753.6 753.6 753.6 753.6 753.6 753.6 753.6 753.6 753.6 753.6 753.6 753.6
New Zealand 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
ECB na na na na na na na na na na na na
Austria 657.3 657.4 657.6 657.7 657.7 642.5 634.3 623.0 620.0 578.6 570.5 373.1
Belgium 1,063.1 1,063.1 1,063.1 1,046.0 1,047.2 940.3 940.3 940.3 778.8 778.8 778.9 638.8
Cyprus 14.3 14.3 14.3 14.3 14.3 14.3 14.3 14.3 14.3 14.3 14.3 14.3
Finland 39.5 59.5 59.5 60.8 60.8 62.3 62.3 62.3 62.3 62.3 62.3 49.8
France 2,545.8 2,545.8 2,545.8 2,545.8 2,545.8 2,545.8 2,545.8 2,545.8 2,545.8 2,545.8 2,545.9 2,545.9
Germany 2,960.5 2,960.5 2,960.5 2,960.5 2,960.5 2,960.5 2,960.5 2,960.5 2,960.4 2,960.4 2,960.4 2,960.4
Greece 127.7 128.2 102.9 103.9 105.6 105.6 105.8 106.5 106.8 107.1 107.2 107.6
Ireland 11.2 11.2 11.2 11.2 11.2 11.2 11.2 11.2 11.2 11.2 11.2 11.2
Italy 2,073.7 2,073.7 2,073.7 2,073.7 2,073.7 2,073.7 2,073.7 2,073.7 2,073.7 2,073.7 2,073.7 2,073.7
Luxembourg 13.3 13.3 13.3 13.3 13.3 10.7 10.7 10.7 10.7 9.5 9.5 9.5
Malta 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 7.0 4.9 3.6 3.7 3.1 3.3 1.3
Netherlands 1,366.7 1,366.7 1,366.7 1,366.7 1,366.7 1,366.7 1,366.7 1,366.7 1,366.7 1,090.1 1,081.5 1,081.5
Portugal 631.4 629.2 627.0 623.9 499.8 499.2 492.4 493.6 499.5 499.5 499.7 499.7
Slovenia … … … … … … … 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Spain 454.9 455.8 461.0 370.8 436.8 488.8 485.6 485.8 485.8 485.8 485.8 486.2
Denmark 50.7 50.7 50.7 50.6 50.7 50.9 51.3 51.5 51.6 51.0 50.7 51.2
Iceland 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5
Norway 36.8 36.8 36.8 36.8 36.8 36.8 36.8 36.8 36.8 36.8 36.8 36.8
Sweden 188.8 188.8 188.8 188.8 188.8 188.8 188.8 188.8 188.8 188.8 188.8 146.2
Switzerland 2,590.3 2,590.3 2,590.3 2,590.3 2,590.3 2,590.3 2,590.3 2,590.3 2,590.3 2,590.3 2,590.2 2,590.2
United Kingdom 591.9 591.9 591.2 591.3 591.1 590.5 589.1 587.6 579.0 573.7 573.5 573.3
7.1
CEMAC 7) … … … … … … … … … … … 0.9
Cameroon 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.3
Central African Republic 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3
Chad 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 173.6
Gabon 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
WAEMU 8) … … … … … … … … … … … 24.9
Algeria 173.6 173.6 173.6 173.6 173.6 173.6 159.9 173.6 173.6 173.6 173.6 0.9
Congo, Dem. Rep. of 14.5 13.8 14.5 15.2 14.0 6.7 3.4 0.9 0.9 0.7 0.9 0.9
Ghana 13.7 7.0 8.8 8.8 6.7 6.9 7.3 8.3 8.6 8.5 8.6 8.6
Mauritius 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.6 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9
Ethiopia 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.0 2.8 4.6 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5
Morocco 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9
Mozambique … … … … … … … … … … … …
Nigeria 21.4 21.4 21.4 21.4 21.4 21.4 21.4 21.4 21.4 21.4 21.4 21.4
South Africa 228.9 150.5 149.9 181.3 107.9 95.8 127.2 201.2 206.8 148.1 130.6 132.2
Tunisia 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7
Zambia 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.7 … … … 0.0
Zimbabwe 21.6 24.0 16.7 13.1 12.3 13.9 11.8 12.8 17.0 15.6 14.6 23.5

Bangladesh 1.8 1.9 2.1 2.1 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.9
Cambodia … … … … … … … … … 0.0 0.0 0.0
China 395.0 395.0 395.0 395.0 395.0 395.0 395.0 395.0 395.0 395.0 395.0 395.0
Hong Kong … … … … … … 7.1 7.1 7.1 2.1 2.1 2.1
Fiji 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
India 271.7 292.3 325.0 325.0 325.0 325.0 332.6 350.9 353.0 356.3 367.0 397.5
Indonesia 96.5 96.5 96.5 96.5 96.5 96.6 96.8 96.8 96.5 96.5 96.5 96.5
Korea 9.6 9.7 9.9 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 10.1 10.1 10.2
Laos … … … … … 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
Malaysia 72.5 72.8 72.8 73.1 73.1 73.7 73.1 73.1 74.3 74.3 74.3 74.3
Mongolia 1.1 1.5 1.0 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.1 4.4 0.6 0.5 1.0 3.3
Myanmar 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.2
Pakistan 58.0 59.2 60.1 60.3 60.5 60.6 60.6 61.0 62.9 63.6 63.8 63.9
Papua New Guinea 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 0.4
Philippines 24.4 46.0 70.3 86.3 88.4 76.1 89.8 104.7 87.0 100.2 90.0 111.3
Sri Lanka 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9 3.4 5.0 1.9 1.9 1.9
Singapore … … … … … … … … … … … …
Taiwan 138.6 155.5 173.3 238.2 419.4 421.0 421.0 421.0 421.3 421.7 421.9 422.1
Thailand 77.4 77.4 77.4 77.0 77.0 77.0 77.0 77.0 76.9 76.9 76.9 76.9

Albania … … … … … … … … … 1.5 1.5 2.0


Belarus … … … … … … … … … … … …
Bulgaria … … … … … … … 31.6 31.6 31.6 32.1 32.1
Czech Republic … … … … … … … … … 60.7 65.3 61.9
Estonia … … … … … … … … 2.6 0.2 0.2 0.2
1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995
Hungary 64.2 72.4 73.0 51.0 49.5 46.6 9.3 8.0 3.2 3.5 3.4 3.5
Kazakhstan … … … … … … … … … 20.3 30.7 42.2
Kyrgyz Republic … … … … … … … … … … … 4.2
Latvia … … … … … … … … 2.1 7.6 7.8 7.8
Lithuania … … … … … … … … 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8
Macedonia … … … … … … … … 0.6 1.3 1.4 1.4
Montenegro … … … … … … … … … … … …
Poland 14.7 14.7 14.7 14.7 14.7 14.7 14.7 14.7 14.7 14.7 14.7 14.7
Romania 116.0 118.8 101.0 42.4 45.1 67.6 68.7 69.9 71.8 73.7 81.7 84.1
Russia … … … … … … … … … 317.1 261.8 292.8
Serbia … … … … … … … … … … … …
Slovak Republic … … … … … … … … … 40.1 40.1 40.1
Tajikistan … … … … … … … … … … … …
Turkey 118.2 120.0 119.4 119.2 118.9 117.7 127.4 129.5 125.9 125.4 118.8 116.5
Ukraine … … … … … … … … 0.0 0.4 1.1 1.5

Egypt 75.6 75.6 75.6 75.6 75.6 75.6 75.6 75.6 75.6 75.6 75.6 75.6
Iraq … … … … … … … … … … … …
Jordan 33.0 33.0 33.1 31.2 23.1 23.3 23.4 24.5 24.5 24.6 24.7 24.7
Kuwait 79.0 79.0 79.0 79.0 79.0 79.0 79.0 79.0 79.0 79.0 79.0 79.0
Lebanon 286.8 286.8 286.8 286.8 286.8 286.8 286.8 286.8 286.8 286.8 286.8 286.8
Libya 113.5 112.0 112.0 112.0 112.0 112.0 112.0 112.0 112.0 … … …
Oman 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0
Qatar 37.5 33.5 30.0 25.9 27.4 28.0 25.9 25.8 26.8 26.8 25.3 8.3
Saudi Arabia 143.0 143.0 143.0 143.0 143.0 143.0 143.0 143.0 143.0 143.0 143.0 143.0
Syria 25.9 25.9 25.9 25.9 25.9 25.9 25.9 25.9 25.9 25.9 25.9 25.9
United Arab Emirates 25.4 25.4 25.4 25.4 25.4 24.8 24.8 24.8 24.8 24.8 24.7 24.7
Yemen … … … … … … 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6

Argentina 136.0 136.0 136.0 136.0 136.0 136.0 131.7 128.2 136.0 136.0 136.0 136.0
Aruba … … 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1
Bolivia 28.4 27.8 27.8 27.8 27.8 27.8 27.8 27.8 27.8 27.8 27.8 27.8
Brazil 45.7 96.4 75.6 75.7 84.8 92.6 142.1 63.0 69.4 91.0 115.4 142.3
Chile … … 55.8 56.3 56.7 54.5 57.8 57.9 58.1 58.0 58.0 57.9
Colombia 42.5 57.3 62.5 21.2 34.3 19.1 19.5 26.8 15.1 9.4 9.1 8.3
Costa Rica 0.7 1.8 2.2 1.9 0.7 0.3 0.3 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.1
Dominican Republic 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6
Ecuador 12.9 12.9 12.9 12.9 12.9 12.9 13.8 13.8 13.8 12.9 12.9 12.9
El Salvador 14.6 14.6 14.6 14.6 14.6 14.6 14.6 14.6 14.6 14.6 14.6 14.6
Guatemala 16.2 16.2 16.2 16.3 16.3 16.9 6.4 6.5 3.8 6.5 6.5 6.5
Hounduras 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7
Mexico 75.3 73.5 79.9 78.9 79.5 31.9 28.6 28.7 21.4 15.1 13.2 16.0
Netherlands Antilles 17.0 17.0 17.0 17.0 17.0 17.0 17.0 17.0 17.0 17.0 17.0 17.0
Peru 43.5 60.8 66.5 46.6 53.2 61.2 68.7 57.0 56.7 40.6 34.7 34.7
Suriname 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 2.9
Trinidad and Tobago 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7
Uruguay 81.4 81.5 81.0 81.1 81.1 81.1 74.5 70.4 63.1 52.9 53.0 53.3
Venezuela 356.4 356.4 356.4 356.4 356.4 356.4 356.4 356.4 356.4 356.4 356.4 356.4

Notes: … not available na not applicable


1. CBGA: Central Bank Gold Agreement (also known as the Washington Agreement) signed September 1999. Under this the 15 signatories (European
Central Bank, other central banks of the then Eurosytem, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK) agreed to limit their collective annual gold sales to around
400 tonnes a year for five years (not exceeding 2,000 tonnes in total) and not to increase their gold leasings and their use of futures and options during
this period. The Agreement was renewed for a further five years in 2004 (CBGA (2)). Greece, which had joined the Eurosystem in 2001 became a
signatory while the UK, announcing that it had no plans to sell gold, did not sign. Slovenia became a signatory in December 2007, while Cyprus and
Malta also joined in January 2008 and Slovakia joined in January 2009. All of the figures provided for CBGA (2) are inclusive of all of the current
signatories to the agreement.
2. Eurosystem: The central banks of countries adhering to European Monetary Union. From 1999, the European Central Bank (ECB) and the central
banks of Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain. Greece joined from 2001.Cyprus,
Malta and Slovenia joined in January 2008. Slovakia joined in January 2009.
3. EU: European Union (European Communities prior to November 1993). The original members were Belgium, France, (West) Germany, Italy,
Luxembourg and the Netherlands. Denmark, Ireland and the UK joined in 1973, Greece in 1981, Spain and Portugal in 1986, Austria, Finland and
Sweden in 1995. Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia joined in 2004. Bulgaria and
Romania joined in 2007. The EMI is included in the total from 1979 to 1998.
4. Total institutions: The IMF, the BIS and the EPU/EF and EMI when they existed.
5. EMI: European Monetary Institute. From 1979 all EU members deposited 20% of their gold and foreign exchange holdings with the EMI in exchange
for Ecus (European Currency Unit). These swaps were unwound at the end of 1998 and the gold concerned returned to EU member countries.
6. EPU/EF; European Payments Union and its successor, the European Fund.
7. Central African Economic and Monetary Union including the central bank.
8. West African Economic Monetary Union including the central bank.
Gold reserves, tonnes, 1948-2008, major official gold holders
Source: WGC calculations based on IMF data and national sources
(See notes below)

1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
World 34,558.4 33,945.4 33,535.6 33,523.7 33,059.9 32,780.7 32,412.8 31,858.0 31,342.3 30,742.3 30,378.7
All countries 28,276.0 27,751.6 30,119.1 30,107.3 29,643.3 29,366.3 28,998.6 28,447.3 27,916.8 27,339.1 26,989.46
CBGA(1)1 na na na 15,795.4 15,372.1 15,116.2 14,704.5 14,265.0 13,874.4 13,351.8 13,006.4
CBGA (2)1 na na na 15,302.7 15,031.7 14,883.5 14,513.0 14,059.2 13,669.9 13,149.0 12,807.9
Eurosystem2 na na na 12,527.1 12,426.9 12,499.6 12,410.9 12,240.5 12,130.2 11,690.5 11,359.3
EU3 14,263.8 13,869.0 13,479.2 13,550.4 13,299.4 13,107.6 12,977.4 12,806.3 12,694.4 12,236.2 11,894.6
Total Institutions4 6,277.8 6,193.9 3,416.5 3,416.4 3,416.5 3,414.4 3,414.2 3,410.7 3,425.5 3,403.1 3,389.2
IMF 3,217.3 3,217.3 3,217.3 3,217.3 3,217.3 3,217.3 3,217.3 3,217.3 3,217.3 3,217.3 3,217.3
BIS 204.3 194.2 199.2 199.0 199.2 197.0 196.9 193.4 208.2 185.8 171.9
EMI5 2,856.2 2,782.4 0.0 na na na na na na na na
EPU/EF6 na na na na na na na na na na na

United States 8,138.6 8,138.0 8,136.9 8,138.9 8,136.9 8,149.0 8,149.0 8,134.9 8,136.2 8135.1 8,133.5
Canada 96.0 96.0 77.4 56.1 36.8 32.7 18.6 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4
Australia 245.7 79.6 79.7 79.7 79.7 79.7 79.7 79.7 79.7 79.8 79.8
Japan 753.6 753.6 753.6 753.6 763.5 765.2 765.2 765.2 765.2 765.2 765.2
New Zealand 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
ECB na na na 747.4 747.4 766.9 766.9 766.9 766.9 719.9 639.9
Austria 334.3 244.9 299.9 407.5 377.5 347.5 317.5 317.5 307.5 302.5 288.7
Belgium 476.5 476.5 296.2 258.1 258.1 258.1 258.0 257.9 257.8 227.7 227.7
Cyprus 13.7 14.4 14.4 14.4 14.4 14.4 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5 14.5
Finland 49.8 49.8 62.3 49.0 49.0 49.0 49.0 49.0 49.1 49.1 49.1
France 2,545.9 2,547.2 3,184.0 3,024.6 3,024.6 3,024.6 3,024.7 3,024.7 2,985.3 2825.8 2,719.8
Germany 2,960.4 2,960.4 3,700.5 3,468.6 3,468.6 3,456.6 3,445.8 3,439.5 3,433.2 3427.8 3,422.5
Greece 107.9 113.3 112.7 131.8 132.6 122.6 122.4 107.3 107.7 108.0 111.8
Ireland 11.2 11.2 14.0 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5
Italy 2,073.7 2,073.7 2,592.9 2,451.8 2,451.8 2,451.8 2,451.8 2,451.8 2,451.8 2451.8 2,451.8
Luxembourg 9.5 9.5 0.0 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3
Malta 1.4 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2
Netherlands 1,081.5 841.9 1,052.3 982.0 911.8 884.5 851.7 777.5 777.5 694.9 640.9
Portugal 499.7 499.8 624.8 606.7 606.7 606.7 591.8 517.2 462.3 417.5 382.6
Slovenia 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.6 5.1 5.1
Spain 486.2 486.2 607.7 523.5 523.4 523.4 523.4 523.4 523.3 457.7 416.8
Denmark 51.7 52.5 66.6 66.6 66.6 66.6 66.6 66.5 66.5 66.5 66.5
Iceland 1.5 1.5 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
Norway 36.8 36.8 36.8 36.8 36.8 36.8 36.8 36.7 0.0 0.0 0.0
Sweden 146.2 146.9 146.9 185.4 185.4 185.4 185.4 185.4 185.4 168.4 158.5
Switzerland 2,590.2 2,590.2 2,590.2 2,590.2 2,419.4 2,198.5 1,916.7 1,633.3 1,354.3 1290.1 1,290.1
United Kingdom 573.1 572.9 715.2 639.1 487.5 355.2 313.9 313.2 312.2 310.8 310.2
7.1
CEMAC 7) 0.9 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1
Cameroon 0.3 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9
Central African Republic 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3
Chad 173.6 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3
Gabon 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 173.6 173.6
WAEMU 8) 26.7 28.1 29.8 31.5 32.9 34.7 36.5 36.5 36.5 0.3 0.3
Algeria … 173.6 173.6 173.6 173.6 173.6 173.6 173.6 173.6 0.4 0.4
Congo, Dem. Rep. of … 1.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 36.5 36.5
Ghana 8.6 8.6 8.6 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7
Mauritius 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9
Ethiopia 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4 6.4 6.4 7.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Morocco 21.9 21.9 21.9 21.9 22.0 22.0 22.0 22.0 22.0 22.0 22.0
Mozambique … 2.2 2.2 1.9 2.2 1.5 2.0 0.8 2.0 3.0 3.0
Nigeria 21.4 21.4 21.4 21.4 21.4 21.4 21.4 21.4 21.4 21.4 21.4
South Africa 117.9 124.1 124.4 122.5 183.5 177.9 173.6 123.6 123.9 124.0 124.1
Tunisia 6.7 6.7 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8 6.8
Zambia 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Zimbabwe 19.8 23.9 19.3 22.8 14.5 6.2 4.4 … … … …

Bangladesh 2.9 3.1 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5
Cambodia 0.0 0.0 12.4 12.4 12.4 12.4 12.4 12.4 12.4 12.4 12.4
China 395.0 395.0 395.0 395.0 395.0 500.8 600.0 600.0 600.0 600.0 600.0
Hong Kong 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1
Fiji 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.2
India 397.5 396.2 357.3 357.8 357.8 357.8 357.8 357.8 357.7 357.7 357.7
Indonesia 96.5 96.5 96.5 96.5 96.5 96.5 96.5 96.5 96.5 96.4 73.1
Korea 10.2 10.4 13.5 13.6 13.7 13.7 13.8 14.0 14.1 14.2 13.0
Laos 0.5 0.5 0.5 3.6 0.5 2.2 2.2 3.6 3.6 4.5 6.5
Malaysia 74.3 73.1 73.1 36.7 36.4 36.4 36.4 36.4 36.4 36.4 36.4
Mongolia 4.5 2.6 1.0 0.0 2.6 5.7 4.4 0.5 1.0 0.0 6.7
Myanmar 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2
Pakistan 63.9 64.3 64.6 64.9 65.0 65.0 65.1 65.2 65.3 65.3 65.3
Papua New Guinea 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
Philippines 144.7 155.1 169.0 192.8 224.8 248.2 271.5 255.6 221.4 154.5 143.7
Sri Lanka 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 10.5 7.9 6.7 5.1 5.2 5.2 5.2
Singapore … … … … … 127.4 127.4 127.4 127.4 127.4 127.4
Taiwan 421.9 421.9 421.9 421.9 421.8 421.8 421.8 421.8 421.8 423.3 423.3
Thailand 76.9 76.9 76.9 76.9 73.6 77.1 77.8 80.9 84.0 84.0 84.0

Albania 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.5 3.5 2.5 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2
Belarus … … … 0.7 1.2 3.3 7.8 7.9 12.0 16.4 20.1
Bulgaria 32.1 40.1 40.2 39.9 39.9 40.0 39.9 39.9 39.8 39.8 39.8
Czech Republic 61.7 32.4 9.0 13.9 13.9 13.8 13.7 13.7 13.6 13.5 13.5
Estonia 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
Hungary 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1
Kazakhstan 56.1 56.3 54.5 55.9 57.2 57.2 53.1 54.1 57.1 59.8 67.3
Kyrgyz Republic 3.8 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6
Latvia 7.8 7.7 7.8 7.8 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7
Lithuania 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8
Macedonia 2.4 2.5 3.1 3.2 3.5 6.0 6.2 2.8 6.1 6.8 6.8
Montenegro … … … … … … 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.2
Poland 14.7 28.1 102.8 102.8 102.8 102.9 102.9 102.9 102.9 102.9 102.9
Romania 87.6 93.9 100.3 103.4 104.9 105.2 105.3 105.1 105.0 104.8 104.7
Russia 419.6 506.9 458.4 414.5 384.4 423.0 387.7 390.2 387.0 386.9 401.5
Serbia … … … 14.8 14.2 18.4 10.2 10.4 10.6 13.0 11.8
Slovak Republic 40.1 40.1 40.1 40.1 40.1 35.1 35.1 35.1 35.1 35.1 35.1
Tajikistan … 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.4 1.0 1.3 1.4
Turkey 116.5 116.6 116.6 116.5 116.3 116.1 116.1 116.1 116.1 116.1 116.1
Ukraine 1.0 1.9 3.4 5.1 14.1 15.0 23.3 19.6 16.2 24.3 25.2

Egypt 75.6 75.6 75.6 75.6 75.6 75.6 75.6 75.6 75.6 75.6 75.6
Iraq … … … … … … … … 5.9 5.9 5.9
Jordan 24.9 25.3 25.7 15.1 12.5 12.6 12.8 12.8 12.8 12.8 12.7
Kuwait 79.0 79.0 79.0 79.0 79.0 79.0 79.0 79.0 79.0 79.0 79.0
Lebanon 286.8 286.8 286.8 286.8 286.8 286.8 286.8 286.8 286.8 286.8 286.8
Libya … … 143.6 143.8 143.8 143.8 143.8 143.8 143.8 143.8 143.8
Oman 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Qatar 8.3 1.7 1.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 1.3 0.6 0.6
Saudi Arabia 143.0 143.0 143.0 143.0 143.0 143.0 143.0 143.0 143.0 143.0 143.0
Syria 25.9 25.9 25.9 25.9 25.9 25.9 25.9 25.9 25.9 25.9 25.9
United Arab Emirates 24.8 24.7 24.7 12.3 12.3 12.3 12.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Yemen 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6

Argentina 136.0 11.2 11.2 10.5 0.6 0.3 0.3 0.3 55.1 54.7 54.7
Aruba 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1
Bolivia 29.2 29.2 29.2 29.3 29.2 29.2 28.3 28.3 28.3 28.3 28.3
Brazil 114.8 94.2 142.9 113.9 65.9 34.1 33.6 33.6 33.6 33.6 33.6
Chile 57.8 57.8 38.0 37.9 2.3 2.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
Colombia 7.8 11.1 11.1 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 6.9
Costa Rica 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
Dominican Republic 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6
Ecuador 12.9 12.9 12.9 26.3 26.3 26.3 26.3 26.3 26.3 26.3 26.3
El Salvador 14.6 14.6 14.6 14.6 14.6 14.6 14.6 14.6 13.0 10.1 7.3
Guatemala 6.6 6.6 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.8 6.7 6.8 6.8 6.9 6.9
Hounduras 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7
Mexico 7.9 5.9 6.9 5.0 7.8 7.2 7.0 5.3 4.3 3.4 2.9
Netherlands Antilles 17.0 17.0 13.1 13.1 13.1 13.1 13.1 13.1 13.1 13.1 13.1
Peru 34.7 34.7 34.2 34.2 34.2 34.7 34.7 34.7 34.7 34.7 34.7
Suriname 4.2 6.0 4.0 7.7 8.0 8.2 0.7 0.6 0.6 1.0 1.1
Trinidad and Tobago 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9
Uruguay 54.0 54.7 55.5 56.0 33.6 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3
Venezuela 356.4 356.4 303.6 303.6 318.5 340.3 328.5 356.8 357.4 356.8 357.1

Notes: … not available na not applicable


1. CBGA: Central Bank Gold Agreement (also known as the Washington Agreement) signed September 1999. Under this the 15 signatories (European
Central Bank, other central banks of the then Eurosytem, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK) agreed to limit their collective annual gold sales to around
400 tonnes a year for five years (not exceeding 2,000 tonnes in total) and not to increase their gold leasings and their use of futures and options during
this period. The Agreement was renewed for a further five years in 2004 (CBGA (2)). Greece, which had joined the Eurosystem in 2001 became a
signatory while the UK, announcing that it had no plans to sell gold, did not sign. Slovenia became a signatory in December 2007, while Cyprus and
Malta also joined in January 2008 and Slovakia joined in January 2009. All of the figures provided for CBGA (2) are inclusive of all of the current
signatories to the agreement.
2. Eurosystem: The central banks of countries adhering to European Monetary Union. From 1999, the European Central Bank (ECB) and the central
banks of Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain. Greece joined from 2001.Cyprus,
Malta and Slovenia joined in January 2008. Slovakia joined in January 2009.
3. EU: European Union (European Communities prior to November 1993). The original members were Belgium, France, (West) Germany, Italy,
Luxembourg and the Netherlands. Denmark, Ireland and the UK joined in 1973, Greece in 1981, Spain and Portugal in 1986, Austria, Finland and
Sweden in 1995. Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia joined in 2004. Bulgaria and
Romania joined in 2007. The EMI is included in the total from 1979 to 1998.
4. Total institutions: The IMF, the BIS and the EPU/EF and EMI when they existed.
5. EMI: European Monetary Institute. From 1979 all EU members deposited 20% of their gold and foreign exchange holdings with the EMI in exchange
for Ecus (European Currency Unit). These swaps were unwound at the end of 1998 and the gold concerned returned to EU member countries.
6. EPU/EF; European Payments Union and its successor, the European Fund.
7. Central African Economic and Monetary Union including the central bank.
8. West African Economic Monetary Union including the central bank.