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LANDSCHAFTSENTWICKLUNG UND UMWELTFORSCHUNG

Schriftenreihe der Fakultt Planen Bauen Umwelt

BAND S20 Berlin 2007

Eds.: Hartmut Kenneweg & Uwe Trger

2nd International Congress on Environmental Planning and Management Visions Implemantations Results
Planning the Urban Environment
August 5th - 10th 2007 Technische Universitt Berlin

LANDSCHAFTSENTWICKLUNG UND UMWELTFORSCHUNG


Schriftenreihe der Fakultt Planen Bauen Umwelt der Technischen Universitt Berlin

Die Reihe Landschaftsentwicklung und Umweltforschung dient der Publikation von Ergebnissen und Materialien aus Forschung und Lehre an der Fakultt Planen Bauen Umwelt der TU Berlin. Sie soll die wissenschaftlichen Aktivitten der Fakultt widerspiegeln, Diskussionen anregen bzw. untersttzen und zur Weiterentwicklung von Theorie und Praxis der Landschaftsentwicklung beitragen. Das Spektrum der in ihr verffentlichten Arbeiten umfasst Forschungsberichte (einschlielich von Dissertationen und Habilitationsschriften), Diskussionspapiere, Vorlesungsmanuskripte sowie studentische Projektberichte. Den Lehr- und Forschungsschwerpunkten entsprechend sollen hier vorwiegend Schriften aus den Bereichen Freiraum-/Landschaftsplanung, Landschaftsbau, Umweltkonomie, Umweltpolitik und kologie publiziert werden. Die mit S bezeichneten Ausgaben im Format A4 dienen der Publikation von Arbeiten mit grerformatigen Vorlagen. Dadurch sollen die Publikationsmglichkeiten insbesondere auch fr die Planungswissenschaften verbessert werden.

Umschlagfoto: Moabiter Spreebogen, Berlin Partner/FTB-Werbefotografie

ISSN 0173-0495 Herausgeber: Redaktion: Fakultt Planen Bauen Umwelt der Technischen Universitt Berlin Prof. Dr. Kleinschmit cand.-Ing. Mareike Knocke Prof. Dr. Norbert Khn Dipl-Ing. Norbert Reinsch Dr. Ina Sumel Dipl.-Ing. Marco Schmidt Prof. Dr. Dr. Berndt-Michael Wilke Dipl.-Ing. Astrid Zimmermann Sekr. OE3 Franklinstr. 29, 10587 Berlin www.tu-berlin.de/~luu

Anschrift: Homepage:

LANDSCHAFTSENTWICKLUNG UND UMWELTFORSCHUNG


Schriftenreihe der Fakultt Planen Bauen Umwelt

BAND S20 Berlin 2007

Eds.: Hartmut Kenneweg & Uwe Trger

2nd International Congress on Environmental Planning and Management Visions Implemantations Results
Planning the Urban Environment
August 5th - 10th 2007 Technische Universitt Berlin

Note:

Selected papers of the congress are also available as printed volume (ISBN 978-3-7983-2049-9).

Anschriften der Herausgeber: Prof. Dr. Hartmut Kenneweg Technische Universitt Berlin EB 5 Strae des 17. Juni 145 10623 Berlin e-mail: Kenneweg@ile.tu-berlin.de Prof. Dr. Uwe Trger Technische Universitt Berlin ACK 2-1 Ackerstrae 76 13355 Berlin e-mail: uwe.troeger@tu-berlin.de

ISSN ISBN:

0173-0495 978-3-7983-2050-5

Druck/ Printing: Vertrieb/ Publisher

Tribun EU Gorkeho St. 41, 602 00 Brno, Tschechische Republik http://www.librix.eu Universittsverlag der TU Berlin Universittsbibliothek Fasanenstr. 88 (im VOLKSWAGEN-Haus), D-10623 Berlin Tel.: (030) 314-76131. Fax.: (030) 314-76133 E-Mail: publikationen@ub.tu-berlin.de http://www.ub.tu-berlin.de/

Contents
Foreword Workinggroup 1: Indicators and concepts for sustainable life in cities Anastasia Zefkili Indicators of sustainable development for the monitoring of adapted urban spaces Claudia Dappen, Sven Heilmann, Patricia Jacob, Jrg Knieling, Immanuel Stie Demand-driven Life Cycle Management of Urban Neighbourhoods Doaa Mahmoud El-Sherif Participatory Urban Planning for SustainabilityEgyptian Cities' Profiling as a Case Study W. C. Oliveira, A. H. A. Oliveira, M. L. Peluso, L. C. Martins Environmental Education for Sustainable Planning and Eco-Friendly Management in the Cortado Lake Park Tavis Potts The Natural Advantage of Regions: Integrating Sustainability, Innovation and Regional Development in Australia Gilda Bruna, Eunice Abascal, Anglica Alvim, Arlindo Philippi Jr Sustainability concepts and indicators' reflections in the intermediate-sized city of Limeira, So Paulo state, Brazil L.M.S Andrade & M.A. B. Romero The Principles of Environmental Substainability Applicable to Urban Design Settlements: condominium located in the Federal District of Brazil and inside the Paranoa Environmental Protection Area Maria Helena F Machado The significative value of protected areas for the sustainable urban planning: a case study in the metropolitan region of Campinas/So Paulo D. Gonalo, A. G. Brito The adoption of environmental management systems in Portugal: a strategy towards urban sustainability Matthias Herbert & Torsten Wilke Urban Nature Habitat and anthroposphere from the view of nature conservation C. von Haaren & M. Rode Potentials and Limits of Multifunctional Landscapes: A Case Study of the Kronsberg district of Hannover, Germany Evangelia Athanassiou Reflections on urban metaphors Donald Miller Designing and Using Sustainability Indicators Lessons from the Sustainable Seattle Project Michele de Almeida Corra & Bernardo Arantes do Nascimento Teixeira Developing Sustainability Indicators to Water Resources Management in a Basin in Brazil E. McGurty Indicators for Sustainability in an Urban Watershed in Baltimore, Maryland, USA Glria Nspoli, Paula da Rocha Jorge Vendramini, Tadeu Malheiros, Gilda Bruna, Arlindo Philippi Jr System of Indicators for Municipal Sustainability: Santo Andr So Paulo Brazil T.M. Melo, L.R. Rezende & E.H. Carvalho Construction Residues in Goinia Gulsen Yilmaz & Serkan Gunes How to Measure the Quality of Urban Life: The Tale of Istanbul Metropoliten Area Luiza Helena Nunes Laera & Peter Herman May Economic Valuation of Urban Forestry Environmental services valuation for the efficiency and maintenance of urban environmental resource Daniela Salgado Carvalho & Teresa Fidlis Perception of Environmental Quality in Aveiro, Portugal: an environmental map based on public claims S. M. Viggiani Coutinho, T. F. Malheiros, M. L. de Moraes Padilha, A. Philippi Jr., M. Sulema Pioli Structural aspects of academic information networks and their impact in the process of developing urban public policies H. S. Moon, S. B. Kim & J. H. Shim The Possibilities of revitalizing Physical Activity in Urban Parks for Human Health with special reference to Daegu, South Korea

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Flavia Teixeira Braga, Denise da Costa Pinheiro, V. Andrade Andrade Landscape planning and environmental sustainability in areas of urban and natural conflict in Rio de Janeiro: The private condominiums case in Barra da Tijuca and Jacarpagua Cristian Ioja, Maria Patroescu, Annemarie Ioja Indicators for environmental quality assessment in the urban parks: Case study Bucharest city (Romania) Mattias Qvistrm Betwixt and between: on land-use regeneration at the urban fringe as an asset for sustainable development A. C. Sarti & M. A. Lombardo Identify Attributes of the Landscape in the Basin of the Claro Brook (Rio Claro SP Brazil): a Periurban Park Components Gilda Collet Bruna, Las Raquel Muniz Bomfim & Cristina Kanya Caselli Urban Environmental Quality of Life: Franca intermediated-sized city in the State of So Paulo, Brazil Workinggroup 2: Land management and geo information Frank Iden, Bjrn Dejoks & Dietrich Bangert Interdisciplinary Information Management for the IT-based Assessment of Plans and Programmes related to the Environment Kyong-Jae Lee, In-Tae Choi, Jin-Woo Choi, Kyung-Suk Kee A comparison of biotope mapping and assessment method in Korea and Germany Hlya Yildirim, Mehmet Emin zel, Alpaslan Aka, Roman Radberger Monitoring of uncontrolled urbanization in the metropolitan Istanbul Jrgen Dllner Virtual 3D City Models Flexible User Interface Technology for Complex Urban Information Henning Nuissl & Dagmar Haase Integrated assessment of land resources and land consumption in city regions T. Lakes, H.-O. Kim, M. Bochow, B. Kleinschmit Comparison of Different High Resolution Remote-Sensing Data and Approaches for Mapping the Urban Environment C. A. Simes, A. C. M. Moura, I. S. Cintra, M. P. Nogueira, C. P. Lessa, M. T. P. Aguilar, M. S. Palhares Geo-processing in the Study of Irregular Deposits of Civil Construction, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil Richard Snow & Mary Snow GIS Assessment of Environmental Impacts on Urban Forests M. Kersting & H. Kenneweg Optimizing ecological landscape functions in urban areas using GIS-databases and remote sensing: Urban forestry as an example A. Frick, B. Coenradie, H. Kenneweg Environmental monitoring and urban development: using modern remote-sensing methods Torsten Lipp European directives, environmental planning and geographic information: The need of standardisation B. Theilen-Willige, H. Wenzel, B. Neuhuser & M. Papathoma-Koehle Remote Sensing and GIS Contribution to Natural Hazard Assessment in the Vienna Area Gulsen Yilmaz Thinking about Crime and Space: The Case in Istanbul B. Coenradie, L. Haag, A. Damm, P. Hostert, B. Kleinschmit Hybrid Approach for the Mapping of Sealing with High-Resolution Satellite Data in an Urban Environment Mehmet Emin zel, Hlya Yildirim2 Alparslan Aka Land cover change by rapid industrialization over a decade and its impact on environment Almerinda Antonia Barbosa Fadini, Joo Luiz de Moraes Hoeffel & Pompeu Figueiredo de Carvalho Time and Space Geographical Readings in the Bragantina Region Water Basins So Paulo/Minas Gerais Brazil K. Ulm Reality-based virtual 3D city models for urban planning P. A. Hecker GEOkomm: Network Activities for Urban Research and Planning of the Urban Environment E. U. Rosa & L. Pimentel da Silva The Use of Geomatic Techniques in the Management of Land Partitioning and Occupation Eduardo Ercolani Saldanha, Liane da Silva Bueno & Marcus Polette Evaluation Model for Socio-economic Sustainability

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Workinggroup 3: Water in the urban environment Kyung Ho Kwon and Heiko Diestel A decision support system for planning decentral rain water management measures in urban zones of Korea May A. Massoud, Joumana A. Nasr, Akram Tarhini, Jawaria Tareen The Environmental Impacts of Decentralized Wastewater Treatment: Mitigation Measures and Applicability in Developing Countries Thorsten Schuetze & Kyung-Ho Kwon Sustainable water and sanitation systems in existing housing estates of international cities Llian Alves de Arajo Environmental Degradation of Rivers in the State of Rio de Janeiro Cristian Ioja, Maria Patroescu, Marius Matache, Radu Damian The impact of the human activities from the Bucharest Urban Agglomeration on the quality of water in the Arges River Lower Watershed M.O. Kauffmann L. Pimentel da Silva & M. Kleiman Landscape Imperviousness Index: An Indicator of Water Conservation in Urban Areas Bong-Ho Han, Suk-Hwan Hong, Jung-Hee Bae, Jeong-In Kwak Development for the Biotope Assessment Method that Introduces the Watershed Concept in Urban Planning D. F. Pessoa Seeking a Sustainable Design for Flood Area Occupation: The So Paulo, Brazil Case S. Chatterjee and B. Sen Gupta Ability and willingness to pay for drinking water in a peri-urban area in Ganga delta where the groundwater aquifer is contaminated with arsenic Medhat Ibrahim & Traugott Scheytt Increasing the ability of water hyacinth for removing heavy metals Reena Singh and Thomas Krafft Vulnerability With Respect To Water And Wastewater System In Megacity Delhi/India Eduardo von Sperling & Lenora Nunes Ludolf Gomes Cyanobacteria in urban water supply reservoirs: case study of Vargem das Flores, Brazil A.L. Britto Water management in Brazilian cities: institutional and environmental issues, new water services law and new opportunities in regulation H. Lehn Urban water management is the North setting a good example for the megacities of the South? Hubertus Soppert Water management in dry and semi-dry regions Marco Schmidt, Brigitte Reichmann, Claus Steffan Rainwater harvesting and evaporation for stormwater management and energy conservation Prayatni Soewondo The Mangement of Domestic Wastewater in Urban Area in Indonesia B. Topkaya, M.Yildirim Effects of Urbanization on Drinking Water Resources Gilda Collet Bruna, Cristina Kanya Caselli, Arlindo Philippi Junior & Sheila Walbe Ornstein Social Houses in Water Reservoir Areas: The Case of Land Use and Occupation Evaluation, Itapecerica da Serra, So Paulo, Brazil G. Gunkel & M. C. Sobral Water in the Megacity Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil: Water Supply and Discharge G. O. Ribeiro, F. G. de Albuquerque, R. G. Paula & L. F. de Carvalho Mathematical models as an effective management tool for urban water systems A. Musolff, S. Leschik, F. Reinstorf, S. Oswald, G. Strauch & M. Schirmer Integral studies of urban groundwater and water balance A. Jourieh, M. Heinl, R. Hinkelmann, M. Barjenbruch Hydrodynamic-Numerical Simulation of the Flow around a Waste Water Tank in the River Spree Yu-Fang Lin Habitat Function of Urban River: Keelung River in Taipei City, Taiwan A. Abdou Visions, Perceptions and Use of the River Nile towards a Social Rehabilitation S. Chatterjee, A Bandopadhyay, B. Sen Gupta Arsenic mitigation options in water treatment A brief review

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M. Reza Ghanbarpour An integrated approach for watershed-based landuse planning Patricia Rincn Avellaneda The Water Issue within the Context of the Middle Region of Colombia P. M. Matos, F. G. de Albuquerque, M. Guimares & L. F. de Carvalho Modeling of Microcystis aeruginosa dynamics using STELLA software Workinggroup 4: Handling environmental impacts Thomas B Fischer Handling environmental impacts Biresh Shah Environmental Implications of Urban Waterfront Transformation: A Study of the Sankhmool-Teku Stretch in Kathmandu Robin Abrams Healing a Rift: The Lea River Valley & London 2012 S.V.G. Gama, F.F. Dutra, T.F. Xavier, N.M. Amorim Planning and management in protected areas from environmental impact studies: the brazilian experience in the Atlantic Forest Biome-Ilha Grande (Angra Reis, RJ, Brazil) Maren Regener The influence of public participation on the outcome of the Strategic Environmental Assessment the example of German urban land-use plans Hamdy H. Seisa Protection of ground water resources when selecting landfill sites using shallow refraction technique M. Hanusch Monitoring environmental impacts of regional plans approaches from Germany and England Ana L. S. Spnola Krings, Gilda C. Bruna, Arlindo Philippi Jr., Paula R. J. da Rocha Vendramini Brownfields and urban environmental management Alfred Herberg Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). A Contribution to Sustainable Urban Design The Berlin Approach A. P. Bortoleto & K. Hanaki Environmental Impacts of Waste Prevention Policies applied to Solid Waste Management in Brazilian Cities M. L. M. L Padilha, M. S. Pioli, S. Coutinho, A. Philippi Jr, T.F. Malheiros Impact of the textile industry on cities and its role in the Brazilian context L. F. F. Cerqueira, L. Pimentel da Silva & M. Marques Environmental Impacts by Low-Income Settlements in Rio de Janeiro R. S. Silva, R. B. Peres, E. A. Silva Re-naturalization and eco-techniques in low valley urban areas: Analysis of the Tijuco Preto stream project, So Carlos city, State of So Paulo, Brazil Eduardo von Sperling & Csar Augusto Paulino Grandchamp Mining lake in an urban area: how to harmonize anthropic pressure and landscape requirements Amanda Ramalho Vasques & Magda Adelaide Lombardo Industrial Brownfields in So Paulo-Brazil: From the Abandonment to Redevelopment L.M.S.Andrade, V.G.Gomes, M.B.Dias, J.Moraes Conflicts of the urbenvironmental management in Fernando de Noronhas Archipelago, Brazil Ftima Maria Miranda Brayner, Ana Maria de Freitas Barbosa The River Estuary and its Impact on the Quality of Life of the Population of a Metropolitan Region M. C. L. D'Ottaviano, F. Atique & G. T. Fricke Urban Planning in Metropolitan Areas: urban development versus environmental preservation? A case study: Nova Odessa J. R. R. Menezes, J. J. Rego Silva, L. F. R. Miranda Environmental management in the context of building construction in Brazil R. Mansouri & M. Kherouf Design of stormwater and retention facilities O. A. Oyediran Solid waste management for the abatement of health and environmental impact in Lagos, Nigeria Carmen Ruiz Puente, Antonia Prez Hernando, Pelayo Villanueva lvarez Sustainability strategies in planning and design industrial areas sites

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Gilda Collet Bruna & Elaine Maria Sarapka Shopping Center and Sustainable Environment: The case of the Parque Dom Pedro Shopping Center in Campinas, State of So Paulo, Brazil Maria da Purificao Teixeira, Carmen Ruth Stangenhaus Environmental Preservation in the Production of Built Environment in the Tropics A Matter of Sustainability Jos Gpe. Vargas Hernndez Environmental and Economic Development Shrinkage of Atenquique Workinggroup 5: Urban planning and change management M. Cristina Martinez-Fernandez & Chung-Tong Wu Shrinking Cities: Environmental Legacy and Management Henning Nuissl and Dieter Rink Decline and sprawl S. Rler Urbanisation Models and Green Space Development in Shrinking Cities D Reckien, MKBL Ldeke Old industrial, capitalist and post-socialist cities structural similarities with implications for a sub-urban development? Ashraf Elmokadem "Cairo" an increasing mega city Florian Steinberg Jakarta a Sustainable City? Bernd Mielke Impact of High Quality Landscape of Commercial Areas on Land Values The Ruhr Area Experience Jorg Sieweke What is your Matrix? Reading Regimes of Hamburg-Wilhelmsburg N. J. D. de Azevedo, J. J. Rgo Silva, P. M. W. Maciel Silva, S. C. Angulo The challenge of developing countries in the application of sustainability assessment methods to social housing Dirk Heinrichs & Henning Nuissl Peripheral expansion and central decline in Latin American megacities: recent trends and new challenges for governance Gustavo Martins Marques Barreirinhas Sustainable Development Urban Planning M. A. Lombardo & A. C. Fanti Brownfield's Intervention Proposal in the City of So Paulo / Brazil Dimitris Sgouros Green Space Strategy (Dublin) K. P. Bontempo Public Use Assistance to the Conservation of Environmentally Protected Areas in So Lus Brazil G. Leito Can slums reach a sustainable development in Latin America's cities? Ceclia Maria Parlato Criteria of Sustainable Occupation for Territorial Planning in the Federal District (Braslia) Brazil Sebastian Seelig, Florian Stellmacher Revisiting a Vision. An Investigation into Vision, Implementation and Results of Developing Hashtgerd New Town in Iran Amal Abdou Dynamics of the new cities neighboring Cairo, the effect and the challenges for supportable development Maria Camila Loffredo D'Ottaviano Gated residential communities in So Paulo Metropolitan Area: a new pattern of urban development? Dagmar Haase A new housing demography under conditions of shrinkage? A household-based model approach to conceptualise residential mobility and residential vacancy M.C.Sobral, G.Gunkel & R.Paes Environmental impacts in urban areas due to reservoirs construction in semi-arid Brazil Narciss M.Sohrabi & Nilofar Zarei Effect of Historical Buildings and Zayandeh Rud on Isphahan City Development

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Simone Sandholz & Christian Strau Integrated urban green governance comparing shrinking and emerging cities. The examples of Leipzig and Recife Ayon Kumar Tarafdar Planning the Urban Environment in Developing Countries A Dilemma between Theory and Practise. Case Study: Calcutta, India Khaled Adham & Ashraf Elmokadem The Theming of Arabia: Dubai and the Emerging Cities of Spectacle in the Persian Gulf W. Endlicher, K. Krellenberg Research Training Group: Perspectives on Urban Ecology Shrinking Cities Workinggroup 6: Energy and environment Jian Xingchao Measures of Energy Saving for Buildings in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, P.R.China Matthias Barjenbruch, Alexander Wriege-Bechtold Energy potentials of wastewater A.G. Entrop, A.H.M.E. Reinders, H.J.H. Brouwers Evaluation of financial aspects and energy performance indicators of residential real estate in the Netherlands Martin Buchholz Closed ecosystem design as a new element in urban infrastructure Maria Jos L. de Araujo Saroldi "Termo de Ajustamento de Conduta" TAC as an Instrument in Solid Waste Management J. L. de Sousa & M. A. Lombardo Changes in the Urban Morphology and Temporary Metereological Series Analyze from Thermal Comfort in the Cities Julia Kaazke & Berndt-Michael Wilke Development of a waste management concept for the Yugra Region, West Siberia Ina Sumel & Ingo Kowarik Closing the gap! How local actors respond to climate change processes in urban landscapes J.H. Eum & J. Kppel The Role of Urban Climate in Land Use Planning in the Republic of Korea focused on Environmental Assessment Instruments of Seoul T. Nehls, S. Brodowski & G. Wessolek Heavy Metals and Black Carbon in Paved Urban Soils The Importance of Open Soil Surfaces in Urban Areas Erna M. Frins Air quality in urban centres of South America: Montevideo, Uruguay C. A. C. Brant Waste-Pickers in Anpolis Citys Dump A Case Study Jorge Antnio Martins & Milena Bodmer The "topological index" as a parameter for monitoring the environmental capacity of urban ways Maria Norma Menezes & Celso Pereira Guimares Sustainable Design in Brazil: Creation methodology, implementation and development of projects with industrial wastes Luciana Ziglio The management waste in Brazilian cities Workinggroup 7: Urban green governance U. Weiland New Governance Approach to Sustainable Urban Development Volia Regina Costa Kato, Anglica A. Tanus Benatti Alvim, Gilda Collet Bruna Productive local structures and the challange of sustainable urban strategies: The case of Limeira, State of So Paulo, Brazil Adriana Gondran Carvalho da Silva The city of Freiburg as an example for the city of Florianpolis R. Medeiros, J. T. de Andrade, D. Viana, R. Bateman Governance in Urban Protected Areas in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Hugo Romero and Alexis Vasquez The Chilean free market and the lack of governance of urban green areas

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Irida Tsevreni Implementing and evaluating participatory methods which encourage children activism in urban planning and environmental care Amal Abdou & Ashraf Elmokadem Shielding agriculture bequest against expanded villages with desert planning strategy: the Case of Menia Governorate, Egypt Eveline de Castro Lzaro & Sueli Corra de Faria Green governance in agribusiness dependent towns L. Gailing Landscape governance in urban agglomerations The case of regional parks in Germany Tavis Potts, Cristina Martinez-Fernandez, Kim Leevers Community Engagement, Innovation and Green Networks in the Suburbs Soojeong Myeong, Inju Song The status of natural environment of Seoul, Korea, and its metropolitan management plan toward sustainable development C. R. C. Cardoso & S. Favero Local Urban and Socioeconomic Pressures from Expanding Tourism and Oil and Gas Industry in an Environmentally Sensitive Area a case for improving local green governance in Mara, Brazil D. Bernardes, K.C.X. Alves, R.F. Walter & S.C. Faria Best Practices in Brazil: Successful Experience in Increasing Urban Environmental Governance P. F. de Carvalho & C. Barbosa Land-use guidelines towards sustainable urban development Brazil Adriana Gondran Carvalho da Silva The role of great events in the post industrial urban planning: the EXPO'98 of Lisbon Jochen Monstadt Privatisation and commercialisation as a challenge for green urban governance. A cross-sectoral analysis in the field of energy and water infrastructures in Berlin Ojochide Okunnu Atojoko The Environment & Militants Restiveness in Nigeria's Niger Delta Region

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Foreword

The world's population is growing steadily, and a permanently increasing percentage of this population is living in mega-cities. The first International Congress on Environmental Planning and Management took place in Braslia in 2005. The motto of the congress "Environmental Challenges of Urbanization" resulted from the recognition that the Latin American mega-cities threatened to be stifled by the total dominance of profit orientated regional structures and developments. After the environmental consciousness in Latin America had grown to an important issue both for the population and for the decision makers, it became clear that attempts to protect the environment and to avoid impacts had to be extended from natural reserves towards fast growing urban regions. With regard to the question how pollution control of the environmental media soil, water and air as well as the demands of the living space of man, animal and plant can be more strongly enforced in assertive planning. The Brasilian capital is an interesting example. When, in an entirely deserted environment, the visionary new foundation was conceived in 1960, it was claimed to do every possible justice to all the demands of one million people. Here, too, over-population, deficits of planning and environmental laws as well as wrong, populist motivated decisions have led to the dominance of the well-known destructive development trends of mega-cities. Hence, a "sustainable regional development" with due consideration of the natural environment must not confine itself to audacious concepts and not to their one-time (unique) realization, but it must keep going on with the critical analysis of long-term developments and planning results, and it must be able to intervene in planning procedures and to modify them. There was a strong demand among the congress' participants in Brasilia to have the 2nd "Urbenvironcongress" in a country which had traditionally experienced a long period of environmental legislation and planning. Hence the invitation to join the 2nd "Urbenvironcongress" in Berlin in 2007 was accepted with applause. The following motto was chosen for this conference: Planning the Urban Environment: Visions Implementations Results. Aim of the congress was to address planning scientists from a broader international spectrum and, primarily, to activate the international discourse. The initiators therefore invited specifically in order to initiate an interdisciplinary exchange between planners and planning executives. That is why the concept included more chances for interaction and for discussion, but less highly specific sessions performed for small separate working circles. The articles submitted to the congress which are printed in the seven chapters of this book do not always reflect visions, implementations and results. In some disciplines it is quite difficult to formulate visions as for example in the water sector. However, the editors have tried to get a line into the chapters. Most articles correspond with an oral presentation. The articles follow extensively the sequence of the oral presentations and at the end of each working group chapter follow the articles which were selected from posters. The working groups chosen are the following: Indicators and concepts for sustainable life in cities, Land management and geo information, Water in the urban environment, Handling environmental impacts, Urban planning and change management, Energy and environment, Urban green governance. 41 nations were present in the congress and the articles show a broad selection of urban environmental planning in countries of different stages of development. An interesting point is also that a different development does not mean lower respect for the environment. Many problems of urban environment planning occur in all countries and are not a specific problem of just a few countries. As planning processes worldwide the main differences can be found in the implementations and in the results. Political as well as financial pressure are important for the results, and countries which suffer from a lack of participation have more deficits in the results. These, however, must not necessarily be undeveloped countries. The wide range of articles in each working group corresponds with the broad interdisciplinary approaches. The least contact to other scientists can be noticed in Water in the urban environment when it comes to the engineering part. Planning river margins does not follow standards and is in contrast to the engineering pro10

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cedure of planning a sewage treatment station. River margins enter in green governance and are a political decision and do not follow engineering rules. In all working groups there is evidence of pure techniques but also for a wide range of participation and political decision. Finally, often the budget, either private or public decides on the implementations and results. Planning the urban environment finally is a question of political will. Planners sometimes may have to learn to be less ambitious and to understand that often being a little less demanding can more often lead to successful outcomes. However, they should never forget to fight for solutions which take into account the environment as a complex system which requires multiple analytic approaches in the preparatory phase of planning. On the other hand engineers have to understand the challenge of urban environmental planning in some parts as a vision of planners which requires to generate more imagination in realizing their plans, while in many other parts they will have to replace straight technical solutions which appear simple by the comprehensive framework of multiple-tasking environmental planning. Urban environment needs more than just the planning of a functional sewage piping network and the integration of solar energy. For the soul of man not only the functional solution is important but the mixture of engineering and respecting nature has to be the aim of human dialogue. A human face of mega-cities and cities in general is the real challenge of the future. A human face of cities also means environmental synchrony with nature and people. Uwe Trger & Hartmut Kenneweg, Technische Universitt Berlin

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Workinggroup 1 Indicators and concepts for sustainable life in cities

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Indicators of sustainable development for the monitoring of adapted urban spaces


Anastasia Zefkili
Technical University Berlin, Institute for Urban and Regional Planning azefkili@in.gr

Abstract The current paper presents the development of a set of sustainable development indicators, which serves the monitoring of adapted spaces. As an application field is chosen the infrastructure of educational institutes. The approach and methodology are based on systems theory and orientation theory. The school system and its environment are described. The process is focused on the subsystem of built infrastructure. According to orientation theory, the indicators of sustainable development should express the degree in which certain basic orientors are satisfied. For the system under study, these are: Existence, Effectiveness, Freedom of Action, Security, Adaptability, Coexistence, and Psychological Needs. A set of indicators is then developed, to express the degree of satisfaction of the basic orientors for the subsystem of built infrastructure, and the contribution of this subsystem, to the satisfaction of the basic orientors for the school system. Keywords: Indicators of Sustainable Development, Adapted Spaces, Educational Infrastructure, Orientation Theory Introduction The term "adapted space" indicates the interaction between space and people engaged in any kind of activity in that space. From this point of view, the physical elements are regarded as an active factor, meaning that their characteristics affect the users, and the nature of the contacted activities. Urban space is a general term, which contains a variety of indoor and outdoor places, that can be found in an urban conurbation, with different accessibility degree. However, a basic prerequisite for the allocation or expansion of other urban spaces is the existing infrastructure, technical and social. Social infrastructure is chosen as the research object, due to its decisive role for the confrontation of intensified urban problems, like urban poverty and segregation, on one hand, and because of the lose of the traditional public financing, and the questionable provision criteria and role that it can have in the future, on the other hand. Social infrastructure supports the distribution of services, the promotion of health, recreation, and necessary skills of individuals, in order to cope with the current socio-economic challenges. Therefore, it binds a significant amount of capital (human, natural, financial, and material), which deteriorates through time. Three main stages in the life time of physical elements can be distinguished, according to the demands on capital assets: construction, function, and final disposition (demolition or reconstruction). The maintenace and pattern of use are two significant factors for the prolongation of the functional time of physical (built) elements, and thus for the most efficient use of the assets invested in them. Therefore, they are also fundamental for the promotion of sustainable development. According to the definition shaped in the Preparatory Meetings of the URBAN 21 Conference, taken place in Berlin, on July 2000, sustainable development can be approached by: "Improving the quality of life in a city, including ecological, cultural, political, institutional, social and economic components without leaving a burden on the future generations. A burden which is the result of a reduced natural capital and an excessive local debt." Regarding the built elements of social infrastructure, these general targets can be summarized in the following: - Efficient use of energy and resources: minimize consumption, use of renewable energy. - Waste management: recycling, reuse, better quality of disposals. - Infrastructure management: space utilisation, maintenance, adaptation, and long-term efficiency. - Financing: assure financial resources, without compromising the purpose of provision, minimize degree of dependency on unstable factors. - Health and safety: good indoor conditions, comfort, design for people with special needs, risk assessment and precautions. - Integration to the urban and social environment. - Quality of service: adequate provision rate, user oriented elements, response to existing needs. Methodology The concept of sustainable development, besides of a wide range of idees, definitions and implementation initiatives, generated the need for monitoring and evaluation. Orientation Theory is a thorough method of serv-

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Indicators and concepts for sustainable life in cities

ing this need, since it offers a theoretical base for the approach and evaluation of sustainability, and for the development of competent indicator sets. This theory is actually deduced from general systems theory, although its validity is confirmed through other empirical and theoretical fields. In order to achieve sustainable development, the simultaneous consideration of many factors and of their impacts, in space and time, is required. Therefore, for the recognition of all the important factors, and of the relationships and reaction chains between them, a systemic approach is regarded the most adequate. According to such an approach, the object under study, whether it is a living being, an organisation, or a country, or any part of nature or society, can be regarded as a system, consisted of subsystems, connected with each other, producing a nest of interacting component systems. Orientation theory supports that viability, and thus sustainability, of a system, is achieved when certain, essential interests of the system, called Basic Orientors, are satisfied. For human systems, these are: Existence, Effectiveness, Freedom of Action, Security, Adaptability, Coexistence, and Psychological Needs. The Basic Orientors express the basic needs of the system in order to ensure its function and its future (in order to exist and develop). They occur from the properties of the environment, in which a system must survive, function, and accomplish its purpose, develop and obtain the necessary means to perform all these activities, as well as from the charectirists of the system. The general properties of all system environments are: Normal environmental state, Resource Scarcity, Variety, Variability, Change, and Other Systems. However, these properties may have various interpretations, each of them from the view of a specific system (Table 1).
Table 1: Environmental Properties and Basic Orientors.

Environmental Property Normal Environmental State: The prevailing conditions (social, economic, cultural etc.) in the systems environment. Resource scarcity: Availability of resources in the near or distant environment. Variety: Diversity and range of choices in the environment. Variability: Important fluctuations and cri tical points of environmental systems. Change: Structural or behavior alterations in the environmental systems. Other Systems: Important environmental systems.

Basic Orientor Existence: Secure necessary resources. Protection and regulation mechanisms. Fulfillment of systems purpose. Psychological Needs: Degree of psychological strain or satisfaction of people involved. Effectiveness: Secure provision and efficient use of resources. Ability to influence the environment. Freedom of action: Ability to respond adequately to environmental conditions and inputs. Degree of autonomy. Security: Breakdown limits, dependency on unstable factors, flexibility and ability of the system to find alternatives, when threatened. Adaptability: Recognize environmental changes and react on time. Learning ability. Coexistence: Recognize affected systems and their interests. Ability to respond appropriately to other systems behavior.

The School System The main interest of this work lies upon social infrastructure, and the built infrastructure of education is chosen as the field of application. The educational system is composed by single systems-organisations, for which the school system analysed here, is considered representative (with the exception of tertiary education). The elements of the school system can be divided in four subsystems, according to their nature and function: a) students, b) personnel (administrative, teaching, other), c) institutional infrastructure (e.g. curriculum, school rules) and d) built infrastructure (equipped facilities including classes, laboratories, event and sport hall, offices, library, as well as free time spaces like cafeteria, aula etc.). The subsystem on focus is the built infrastructure of the school system, which can also be defined as the adapted spaces where the main school activities take place. In this point, it must be stressed, that the pedagogical aspects will not to be analysed in this work, since this approach is made from an engineer's point of view. Their effects in the need and use of physical infrastructure must, and will be, however, considered. The environment of the school system includes specific elements of the society, or societal system. The sector systems of the environment are: Social System, Government System, Individual Development, Infrastructure System, Economic System, Environment and Resources. These systems contain the different forms of capital assets, which state determines the potential of human society, and of every system within it. 14

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Anastasia Zefkili: Indicators of sustainable development for the monitoring of adapted urban spaces

They are in constant interaction with the school system, and affect directly or indirectly the subsystem of built infrastructure. Basic Orientors The first step, in order to describe the orientors of the school system, is to examine which elements of the environment are decisive for its function and performance. Then the basic orientors for the built infrastructure are specified, and presented in Table 2. The important elements and parameters of every sector system are mentioned below, and they may interact directly with the school system, through certain inputs, or indirectly, shaping its environment. These are: Government: Educational policy, financing, agenda of sustainable development. Infrastructure: Institutional: administration, norms for educational provision, evaluation processes, educational, training and research institutes. Social: public services provision, proximity of important public facilities. Technical: networks' extensiveness and state (IT, Transportation, Communication). Economic System: Economic development: dominating sectors, required skills, and educational policies of companies. Local development: employment, salaries, competitiveness of local economic activities. Social System: Population development and composition, social structure (income, education, unemployment), household structure, integration, social mobility, living conditions and cost, violence/crime rate, social security, engagement of citizens. Individual Development: Manners and customs, religion, culture, life standards, family model, moral standards, sense of equity, qualification, educational level, adaptability, recreation activities, participation. Environment/Resources: Availability of natural resources, use of renewable energy, management of wastes, land use patterns, distribution and cost of materials, circulation of information (internet, media), exchange of knowledge, familiarity with new technology, protection of cultural heritage.
Table 2: Basic Orientors of the School System

Basic Orientor 1. Existence

2. Effectiveness

3. Freedom of Action

4. Security

5.Adaptability

6.Coexistence

7.Psychological Needs

Desired Monitoring Value Norms and school goals fulfillment. Economic and Social Viability. Resource availability and attainment policy. Infrastructure provision and expenditures. State of facilities. Income sources: size and stability. Distribution of expenditures . Infrastructure management and performance. Energy consumption, distribution, and cost. Efficient use of energy: passive strategies, use of renewable energy. Waste management policy. Recycling. Energy loses due to ineffective construction or use. Transfer and integration of knowledge and t echnology. Networking effects in attaining resources. Feedback to Institutional Infrastructure (e.g. Evaluation, shape Norms/Policies). Resources constraints. Potential savings through alternative methods (green technology, recycling etc). Law constraints. Public Intervention. Choices and available means in goal shaping and implementation. Threats to existence. Declination from Norms. Built infrastructure limits. Safety-State. Flexibility and a lternatives (in location or pattern of use). Resource requirement for the function and maintenance of the facilities. Degree covered by the system (passive energy use, contribute to repairs). Potentials t o introduce new or renewable energy technologies (e.g. photovoltaic), to the existing infrastructure. Possibilities of new infrastructure uses. Evaluation processes. Goal adaptation. Response to socio-economic changes. Contribution of external actors to attain necessary resources and facilities. Common use of Facilities. Impacts to other systems. Promotion of local development. Integration to the urban environment. Cooperation, Exchanges, Practical Trainings. Feelings triggered by the built environment (e.g. enclosure, abandonment). Reaction of Students and Teachers to the provided spaces. Comfort in the internal environment (heat, light, aesthetics, utility).

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Indicators and concepts for sustainable life in cities

Indicators of sustainable development For the evaluation of the basic orientors' state, an indicator set is proposed. The indicators included, can be divided in two groups. The first group aims to the monitoring of the satisfaction degree of the described orientors for the subsystem of built infrastructure (signified by the letter A). The second one aims to the monitoring of the contribution of built infrastructure to the satisfaction of the basic orientors for the system to which it belongs, the school system (signified by the letter B). The numbers used correspond to the basic orientors, as presented in Table 2. 1A.Cover of school capacity per annual expenditures for infrastructure. 1B.Percentage of change in the number of enrolments, per percentage of change of the target group size in the students' pool. 2A.Rate and cause of deterioration (aging, vandalism, physical disaster) per rate and cost of restoration of facilities. 2B.Number and size of income sources per purpose of expenditures. 3A.Percentage of infrastructure needs covered outside the school, per percentage of out-of-school activities taking place in the school facilities. 3B.Changes in the consumption and source of water and energy per use purpose, during the last five years (% increase or decrease of recycled water, rainfall, renewable and passive energy use). 4A.Percentage of school hours when artificial lightning is used, as a percentage of total school hours. 4B.Frequency and range of declination from norms regarding infrastructure provision (in teaching space per student). 5A.Green technology investments, as a percentage of total infrastructure investments during the last five years. 5B.Frequency of not implementing the school goals due to inadequate infrastructure per type of deficit (availability, capacity, equipment, maintenance). 6A.Number of co operations per duration, financing size and source and per infrastructure use. 6B.Students distribution per transportation mean for reaching the school (walk, bicycle, public transportation, car). 7A.Frequency of complaints from teachers, students and parents regarding infrastructure state or size. 7B.Rate of absence per course or school activity. Conclusions The above analysis was concluded with a minimum number of indicators, which are representative of the state and function of built infrastructure. This set is only one possibility, since different indicator sets, with the same usefulness, could be developed. However, the indicators included, should be, in every case, typical for the basic orientor, whose satisfaction are supposed to monitor, and not overlapping. Even if one indicator could be used in more cases than designed, it should not, since the interpretation of its value is depended on the basic orientor, to which it refers. The indicators described can be, in most of the cases, estimated either quantitative or qualitative (e.g. bad, satisfactory, good, or, rare, occasionally, often). For this process, as well as for the ascription of indicators' weights, experts, with good, inside, knowledge of the system are required. Bibliography
Bossel Hartmut (1994). Modeling and Simulation. A K Peters, Ltd. USA. Bossel Hartmut (1998). Earth at a Crossroads, Paths to a Sustainable Future. Cambridge University Press, UK. Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (1995): Measuring the quality of schools. - Paris : Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris. Centre of Educational Research and Innovation (1996). Education at a Glance, Analysis. OECD, Paris. Frederick L. Bates, Clyde C. Harvey (1975). The Structure of Social Systems. Gardner Press, Inc. USA.

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Demand-driven Life Cycle Management of Urban Neighbourhoods


Claudia Dappen, Sven Heilmann, Patricia Jacob, Jrg Knieling, Immanuel Stie
HafenCity University Hamburg, Georg-August University Gttingen, Institute for Social-Ecological Research (ISOE), Germany claudia.dappen@tu-harburg.de

Cities face new challenges Today in many European cities, demographic and structural changes are causing economic, social and ecological problems. A growth in suburbs and exurbs increasingly occurs at the expense of inner-city neighbourhoods. In particular, neighbourhoods which date back to the 1950s - 1970s are vulnerable to losing important groups of residents. As a result, their technical and social infrastructures are no longer adequate to the needs of the remaining residents, with neighbourhoods suffering a consequent loss of image. On the other hand, the demand for land on the periphery of cities results from the fact that not all costs are included in traditional economic cost-benefit analyses. Tools to develop urban neighbourhoods while preserving open land The main objective of the research project is to improve existing neighbourhoods, instead of developing new areas on the edge of the cities. It thus pursues the strategy of realising the 30-hectar goal of the government of the Federal Republic of Germany. The project refers to the concept of life cycles, which in the context of urban neighbourhoods designates a periodically occurring process, during which buildings and technical infrastructure and the residential population structure undergo changes. The project "Demand-driven Life Cycle Management" aims at developing a range of tools which municipalities can employ to improve existing urban neighbourhoods rather than using open land for construction. The integrative approach of life cycle management links planning, economic and communicative tools, and serves municipalities as an instrument of analysis, communication and management by including housing development companies, tenants and investors as participants in the process. One of these tools is a monitoring system based on the concept of life cycles which follows the development of neighbourhoods. First there will be a description of the life cycle concept, then of the monitoring approach. The concept of life cycles Life cycle concepts have been established in several academic disciplines as theoretical models to describe periodical processes. In sociology there is the concept of sociological life phases of households and individuals, whereas the economic sciences use product and market cycles. Additionally, in the field of real estate economics, the modernisation and utilisation cycles of buildings have gained increased importance for investment activities. Sociological life cycle concepts Family life cycles describe the different stages in the development of households, from their formation to the point of their dissolution. They are marked by significant biographical occurrences such as moving out from the parent's house founding a joint household with a partner, the birth of a child or the end of a partnership through separation or death, which influence a person's perceptions, needs and options. Thus the life cycle concept helps to analytically distinguish different stages of family life which follow each other and typically form one's biography. The notion of the life cycle of a family has been operationalised in different ways. The classic concept goes back to the US-American demographer Glick (Glick 1947). He classifies the different phases by the number and generation of family members and distinguishes thereby six stages of the family life cycle: Formation: from marriage or the foundation of a joint household to the birth of the first child Expansion: from the birth of the first child to the birth of the last child Completed extension: from the birth of the last child to the point where the first child leaves the parent's house Contraction: period during which the children leave the household Empty Nesting: from the moving out of the last child until the death of the first spouse Dissolution: from the death of the first spouse until the death of the other spouse Sociologists and demographers criticise that the traditional model of the nuclear family is no longer a binding social norm in western societies due to social individualisation processes and a diversification of lifestyles (Hhn 1985). In consequence, not all individuals go through the six stages of the family life cycle as named above. The change also leads to a significantly varying length of the different phases and even a repetition or an absence of certain phases. This is especially true for cities, where it can be observed that the diversifica-

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Indicators and concepts for sustainable life in cities

tion of household and family structures is greater than in rural areas. Besides the traditional family, new forms of households and partnerships have developed: single households, childless couples, single parents, flatsharing communities, patchwork families etc. As a consequence, it has been suggested to replace the concept of the family life cycle with an extended model of household life cycles (Kemper 1985). Despite these conceptual problems, there is a broad consensus in the social sciences that life cycle concepts can be used to explain the housing requirements of households. Herlyn characterises the housing situation in respect to different life cycle stages, while integrating the new types of households (Herlyn 1990). According to Herlyn, the housing situation in the different stages can typically be described in the following way: During the expansion stage, the growth of the household causes an increased demand for living space. In this stage changes of residence are more frequent than in other stages. Depending on the households' available income and the housing market, those relocations often lead to an increase in living space and households often also acquire property. The frequency of changing residences diminishes in the completed extension stage. Still, growing children's increasing need for space remains an important reason to move to a bigger apartment. In the contraction stage, the economic situation of the household is improved by the children moving out. Especially for the tenants of rental flats, the housing situation is eased. Changes of residence are relatively seldom in this phase. Describing types of housing and needs of the new types of households is difficult due to their heterogeneity. Though as common traits, low attachment to the housing environment, high mobility and a preference for residential areas near the inner city and urban public life can be cited (Herlyn 1990: 93f.). Economic life cycles Similar to sociological life cycles the concept of economic product life cycles is based on the assumption that products pass through typical phases in their life cycles. Independent of the length of the phases, which can last decades or only months, and of the specific evolution of the sales volume, in the first phase each product realises growing earnings which later diminish. Even though there is no consensus in the economic sciences on the number of phases and their exact delimitation, one typically distinguishes periods of market entrance, growth, maturity and regression. Some authors even cite five or six phases. Typically a company has various products on the market at the same time. Usually these products are at different stages in their product cycle. Moreover the length of each phase may vary among the products. The challenge for the company therefore is to manage the phases of the products so that different ones overlap (Meffert 2004; Koppelmann 2001). Building materials age simultaneously. A construction's utilisation cycle starts with its planning and ends with its demolition or liquidation. This cycle can be described in the following way: First, the building is planned and constructed by an investor or builder. During the use phase, maintenance and repairs as well as modernisation and improvements take place in a certain rhythm. There might be changes made in the house and also a change in the use of rooms, even bigger adjustments like changing the ground plan and space modifications, such as extensions. Only a complete reconstruction or demolition marks the end of the utilisation cycle. Similar developments can be observed regarding public spaces, green areas, technical and social infrastructure as well as retail shops. Neighbourhood life cycles Like products neighbourhoods go through cycles of demand. When entering the market, first houses are built and first tenants settle in; during the growth phase, more houses are built until the development of the quarter has been completed and the number of residents is growing; during the maturity phase the neighbourhood is complete and inhabited. The last phase of regression does not necessarily take place, though demand can fall off if there is a sufficient offer of more attractive quarters that are better adapted to the changing needs and demands of potential residents. The consequences may be relatively decreasing rents and real estate prices, vacancies, lack of investment or a decline of the neighbourhood's image. Analogous to the economic product cycle, the demand cycle of neighbourhoods can vary considerably in length. The above mentioned economic, physical and social lifecycles of inhabitants, buildings, infrastructure and demand of the quarter overlap in a neighbourhood, forming the life cycle of the neighbourhood. These different cycles don't necessarily run their course simultaneously, and can differ in length. Nevertheless, particularly their interplay and homogeneous cycles are relevant for life cycle management. The synchronicity of the cycles, meaning a similar time sequence of their phases, is reinforced by the uniformity of the built environment (year of construction, housing type and size of apartments), the use (mainly residential) and the population structure (similar age and family phase or social class) as well as by a similar maintenance of the building (especially wear and tear with low reinvestment). This is particularly true for neigh18

Landschaftsentwicklung und Umweltforschung

Claudia Dappen et al.: Demand-driven Life Cycle Management of Urban Neighbourhoods

new capital Investments

Sale -> Demolition

Development

Temporary Utilisation Vacancy

Urban planning Information and comunication Economic incentives Cooperative governance

Utilisation

Maintenance Abandonment of utilisation


Demolition of dispensable outbuildings, new heating, measures to save energy etc.

Utilisation marginal Modernisation

Fig. 1: Life cycle of neighbourhoods

bourhoods developed from the 1950s - 1970s. They are likely to show parallel lifecycle frequencies, which, as a result of their overlapping, leads to homogeneous neighbourhood life cycles. They are therefore more likely to face problems of deterioration and reduced demand. The end of their life cycle would make comprehensive renewal necessary (figure: life cycle of neighbourhoods). In contrast, the concept of life cycle management for urban neighbourhoods hopes to keep this in check by employing a preventive strategy of constant urban renewal, prolonging the utilisation phase and ensuring diversification. Older neighbourhoods are sometimes affected by this phenomenon as well, though it is increasingly likely that the different reinvestment strategies and household life cycles desynchronise over the years, leading to less homogeneity of inhabitants and a mixture of old, renovated and new constructions. In order to evaluate the life cycle phases in those neighbourhoods regularly, the research project has developed a monitoring tool. Monitoring In order to face measurable problems early and to provide preventive solutions, one focus of the research is the development of indicators that can be used to describe the different life cycles of inner-city neighbourhoods. The monitoring tool in life cycle management aims at identifying changes in these neighbourhoods at an early stage before deterioration and social developments become problematic. It forms the information basis for continuous management of urban neighbourhoods by the municipality in cooperation with owners and involved parties which would lead to steady urban renewal instead of intervening only when huge problems occur. The monitored area consists of homogeneous neighbourhoods that are delimitated according to urban structure rather than statistic districts. The data is collected from statistical block data. This small scale monitoring is necessary in order to obtain valuable information about neighbourhoods from one building period. The monitoring takes place in two steps. In the first step, all delimitated neighbourhoods from the 1950s 1970s are observed on the basis of key indicators in order to detect changes and evaluate the need for action. It serves to select potential neighbourhoods for life cycle management, either due to problematic tendencies or to specific opportunities that make investments worthwhile. As a basis for this continuous examination the neighbourhood's development in the last ten to fifteen years has to be analysed. In the second step, selected neighbourhoods are subjected to an in-depth analysis involving further indicators and qualitative investigations in order to identify strengths and weaknesses. This information serves to facilitate decision making regarding the selection of strategies, measures and instruments to be employed in the neighbourhood. Indicators for household life cycles Household life cycles can be described by the size and structure of households and the age structure of the population. Focussing on the housing situation, the duration of occupancy is also important. For the neighbourhoods from the 50s - 70s it is particularly relevant if there is a large percentage of first tenants in the dis-

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Indicators and concepts for sustainable life in cities

solution stage, meaning that a generation change of inhabitants would necessarily occur as the inhabitants grow older and presumably a large number of apartments would become empty simultaneously. A long occupancy of an apartment also often means that there have been few investments, as modernisation often does not take place until tenants change. Living space and social infrastructure demands vary in different stages of the household lifecycle. Another aspect that can be observed on the basis of population statistics is the social composition of the neighbourhood. Here, the fluctuation rate, the percentage of people living on income from public sources and the percentage of immigrants can be used as indicators. Indicators for economic life cycles For the investment cycles of buildings the year of construction, the condition and furnishings of the apartments as well as the year of the last modernisation and maintenance investments are relevant indicators. For the evaluation of neighbourhoods, it is relevant if necessary investments have been delayed. Demand indicators include the size and plan of the apartments as well as housing type. The demand cycle of the neighbourhood finds its reflection in rent and real estate prices as well as vacancies. A large part of this data is not available at the municipalities' statistics section, but housing companies usually have extensive data on the housing they offer. Hence one step of the monitoring tool entails establishing cooperation for mutual data exchange between municipality and housing companies. Perspectives The monitoring tool, including the interpretation of key indicators and a possible organisation structure, will be tested in the course of the years 2007/2008 in close cooperation with Gttingen and Kiel. It will be especially important to determine which indicators prove to be the key ones and to what extent the monitoring system can be integrated into existing structures of city planning (for example, the continuation of the housing demand concept or the GIS systems). A further area of focus will be cooperation with local housing companies. It will be examined to what extent they can be part of the project and what kind of significant data and information they can efficiently contribute to monitoring. Bibliography
Glick, P.C. (1974): The Family Cycle, in: American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 12: 164-174. Herlyn, Ulfert (1990): Leben in der Stadt, Leske + Budrich, Opladen. Hhn, Charlotte (1985): Familienzykluskonzept und Kohortenanalyse, in: Zeitschrift fr Bevlkerungswissenschaft, Heft 11. Kemper, Franz-Josef (1985): "Die Bedeutung des Lebenszykluskonzepts fr die Analyse intraregionaler Wanderungen." In: Colloquium Geographicum. Vol. 18. S. 180-212 Koppelmann, U. (2001): Produktmarketing : Entscheidungsgrundlagen fr Produktmanager, Springer, Berlin [u.a.]. Meffert, H. (2004): Marketing: Grundlagen marktorientierter Unternehmensfhrung, Wiesbaden.

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Participatory Urban Planning for Sustainability Egyptian Cities' Profiling as a Case Study
Doaa Mahmoud El-Sherif
Housing and Building National Research Center (HBNRC), Urban Training & Studies Institute (UTI), Egypt doaa_elsherif @hotmail.com

Introduction As part of UN-HABITAT drive to address cities' crisis of rapid urbanization, UN-HABITAT is working with the European Commission (EC) and other partners to support sustainable development around the cities allover the world. Given the urgent and diverse needs, the agency found it necessary to develop a tool for rapid assessment to guide immediate and mid- and long-term interventions. In 2004, UN-Habitat's Regional Office for Africa and the Arab States took the initiative to develop the approach further for application in over 24 countries. This was achieved through collaboration with many departments within the agency. The RUSPS application in Egypt was supported by the Governments of Italy, Belgium, and the Netherlands as well as Cities Alliance, the World Bank, and the German Association for Technological Cooperation (GTZ). (RUSPS) a Participatory Approach for Urban Planning Sustainability Rapid Urban Sector Profiling for Sustainability (RUSPS) approach consists of an accelerated and action-oriented assessment of urban conditions, focusing on priority needs, capacity gaps, and existing institutional responses at local and national levels. The purpose of the approach is to develop urban poverty reduction policies at local, national, and regional levels, through an assessment of needs and response mechanisms, and as a contribution to the wider-ranging implementation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The approach is a multi-sectoral approach, which profiles the specific urban issues by assessing main sectors of development. The initial RUSPS method concentrated in the core of four sectors: Governance, Slums & Shelter, Environment, and Gender. Later on two other sectors were added in Egypt, namely Basic Urban Services (BUS) and Local Economic Development (LED). In each sector, general background, regulatory framework, institutional set-up, performance and accountability, capacity buildings gaps are assessed and priority needs and projects are revealed. RUSPS is based on analysis of existing data and a series of interviews with all relevant urban stakeholders, including local communities and institutions, civil society, the private sector, development partners, academics, and others. This consultation typically results in a collective agreement on priorities and their development into proposed capacity-building and capital investment projects that are all aimed at urban poverty reduction. RUSPS is being implemented in over 20 African and Arab countries, offering an opportunity for comparative regional analysis. Once completed, this series of studies will provide a framework for central and local authorities and urban actors, as well as donors and external support agencies. Figure (1) shows RUSPS main concept.
CITY LEVEL DEMANDS and NEEDS City Profiles & Consultation

CITY LEVEL CITY LEVEL Synthesis of C IT Y LEVEL local level findings

RESPONSE

CITY POLICIES PROGRAMS& ACTIONS

STAKEHOLDERS

Local Officials, NGOs, Community, Private Sector

NATIONAL LEVEL

Figure (1) RUSPS Main Concept. Source: UN Habitat, 2007

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Indicators and concepts for sustainable life in cities

RUSPS Objectives To help formulate urban poverty reduction policies at the local, national and regional levels through rapid, participatory, cross cutting, holistic and action oriented assessment of needs. To enhance dialogue and raise awareness of opportunities & challenges with the aim of identifying response mechanisms as a contribution to the implementation of the MDGs. RUSPS Methodology RUSPS methodology consists of three phases: Phase one consists of rapid profiling of urban conditions at national and local levels. Representatives of small, medium, and large cities, revealing a wide range of local conditions, are studied to provide a representative sample in each country. The analysis focuses on the six mentioned sectors. Information is collected through standard interviews and discussions with institutions and key informants, in order to assess the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) of the national and local urban set-ups. The findings are presented and refined during city and national consultation workshops and consensus is reached regarding priority interventions. National and city reports synthesise the information collected and outline ways forward to reduce urban poverty through holistic approaches. Phase two builds on the priorities identified through pre-feasibility studies and develops detailed capacity-building and capital investment projects. Phase three implements the projects developed during the two earlier phases, with an emphasis on skill development, institutional strengthening, and replication. RUSPS Application in Egypt Egyptian cities are confronted in the new millennium with the problem of accommodating rapidly growing populations in cities and providing them with tenure, infrastructure, and shelter while ensuring sustainability and enhancing economic growth. RUSPS in Egypt encompasses a national profile, as well as profiles for six cities. The Egypt RUSPS approach started with two cities; Alexandria and Suez. With the contributions of City Alliance and World Bank and the decision to use RUSPS as the front end of Cities Development Strategies (CDSs), RUSPS was conducted in another four different cities. Baltim represents small cities; Tanta represents a Delta City while Rosetta represents cities where cultural heritage is a major issue. El-Menya city represents medium cities along Nile River in Upper Egypt. Each city is published in a separate report which includes a general background, a synthesis of the six development sectors governance, slums, gender, environment, local economic development, and basic urban services and priority project proposals. RUSPS Localization for the Egyptian Context The RUSPS Egyptian team exerted effort to adapt the initial RUSPS Terms of References (TORs), questionnaires and methodology to fit the local Egyptian conditions. This was based on studying and analyzing local concerns. The following points show the evolution of applying RUSPS approach in Egypt: 1. Localization of TORs a. Adding Additional Sectors: RUSPS application in Egypt started with the initial RUSPS four sectors (Governance, Slums, Gender and Environment). As Local Economic Development (LED) is a major concern of the World Bank, the RUSPS team in cooperating with the World Bank, added a LED and Basic Urban Services (BUS) components and a regional perspective to the city. In Rosetta city an additional sector (Heritage) was further required. Figure (2) shows RUSPS initial and added sectors in horizontal arrows, while the vertical arrows show components under each sector in a city profile. b. Localizing Stakeholders (Development Partners): When applying RUSPS methodology, local stakeholders had to be identified in accordance with the Egyptian context. The main four development partners; municipal authority, private sector, local com22

Figure (2) Horizontal Arrows Show RUSPS Initial & Added Sectors, Vertical Arrows Show Components under each Sector in a City Profile Source: Hassan, G, El-Refai, M, 2006

Landschaftsentwicklung und Umweltforschung

Doaa Mahmoud El-Sherif: Participatory Urban Planning for SustainabilityEgyptian Cities' Profiling as a Case Study

munity, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), were accurately defined for each sector. For example, the local environment department represents the municipal authority for the urban environment sector. 2. Localization of Questionnaires The original interview question guideline was adapted to take into account the unique features of the local context, as follows: a. Under each sector, related questions were separated into four groups of questions. Each group was directed to one development partner. b. Questions directed to local authorities, were divided into separate groups for different local departments. This was done in order to get specific answers from the relevant departments, e.g. environment, social affairs, women affairs, infrastructure etc based on the governmental institutional set up. c. Some questions were added such as questions for city mayor in order to access leadership opinion about problems facing the city as well as its future vision. The reasons for adding those questions were mainly lack of information and poor documentation. d. All questions were translated into native language (Arabic). 3. Localization of Methodology The RUSPS team formulated an easy way to identify priorities, it was important to formulate a rapid way to identify priorities in order to facilitate negotiation between different stakeholders and solve conflicts between them. Each group of stakeholders had possession of one vote in priority selection total agreement reflects first priority of the city. Preparation of Egyptian Cities' Profiles Followed Steps Desk Study Preparation: Conduct a preparatory desk study to get a background about the city from secondary sources such as existing documentation on laws, policies, statistical data etc, Localize Interview Form: Adapt the interview questions to take account of local features, Setting up the Interview: The setting up of the meetings with different stakeholders is the most crucial factor; its objective is not only to gather the necessary information, but also to convince the stakeholder of the use of the project, to involve him/her in the study. During the interviews, the team members used to ask follow-up questions to clarify issues, e.g.: is planning done in a participatory way? If the answer is no, then ask if the public is consulted, if plans are displayed for comments, etc, SWOT Analysis: A SWOT analysis per sector for each city was undertaken by the RUSPS research team based on the results of the interviews, Priority Projects: Priority projects were synthesised and documented per sector by the RUSPS research team and based on the results of the interviews, City Consultation: Results of the SWOT and priority projects for each sector were used as a basis for discussions in cities' consultations with the aim of revising, refining, validating etc, City Profile Preparation: Documentation of revised information and gather all sectors together with city background to finalize city profile. Main Obstacles Faced RUSPS Implementation in Egypt The implementation of RUSPS in Egypt faced many obstacles which differed from city to city; each city faced one or more of the following: Lack of political support of the Governor and/or city mayor. For example, one more city (Port-Said city) was targeted but later on was cancelled due to this obstacle. Lack of transparency resulting in difficulties in obtaining required information especially budget related data from public sector officials. Difficulties in achieving consensus on priority projects between different stakeholders, however, this was solved by the invented easy way to identify priorities as mentioned under method localization. In some cases the team faced difficulties in solving conflicts between stakeholders during city consultation. For example, in Suez city, there was a conflict between local authority and the public concerning the existence or non-existence of water pollution problem. To solve the conflict, the team asked the local officials to provide a recent water analysis, since their denial of the problem existence was based on a 1999 analysis. Lack of awareness of Governance concepts specially "Transparency" between local officials. Misunderstanding the expression shocked one of the city mayors, as the team's request for transparency was as accusing him and his officials to be thieves.

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Opposition of some local officials to the issue of participation of other stakeholders in defining development priorities, as they believe they are capable alone to set development issues. Lack of community and /or NGOs participation in some of the cities' consultations.

Main Driving Factors Supported RUSPS Implementation in Egypt The implementation of RUSPS in Egypt was supported by many driving factors which also differed from city to city; each city had one or more of the following factors: RUSPS Team leader -Habitat Program Manager (HPM) in Egypt- characterized with high awareness, activeness and willingness to support the team in overcoming all the obstacles faced. Arranging start-up meetings with the senior-most political and administrative level to introduce the RUSPS study. Those meetings were very important not only to introduce the approach but also to explain the objectives of the study and the benefits to the involved city itself. Most importantly also to secure commitment among different stakeholders to actively participate in the project. In most cases those meetings were held with the Governor to which the city is affiliated. Good choice of qualified RUSPS team members with high experience in the related sectors besides their good background about participatory planning, Team members showed high level of cooperation between themselves especially in the preparation & implementation of cities' consultations, in information exchange and in finalizing reports, High support from political leaders such as the Governor and/or city mayor. Rashid city profile was prepared based on an initiative from the Governor who contacted of HPM in Egypt and highly supported RUSPS team in performing their role. Main Findings from RUSPS Egypt The implementation of RUSPS in Egypt resulted in many positive outputs: Documentation of current conditions and drawing integrated profiles for a number of cities; this is besides the national Egyptian profile. Defining emerging urban trends for each sector for each city. In addition, common features, urban issues and differences between cities could be understood and analyzed clearly. The cross cutting relationships between different sectors were easily perceived. Different impacts and effects of weakness in one sector became a threat in another and vice versa. This analytical result permits a better understanding of each problem and its complexity. Opening dialogue between the four development partners, which enriched the results of the study. Empowering community participation through involving all stakeholders in defining their actual needs and development priorities. Highlight investment opportunities. References
Rapid Urban Sector Profiling for Sustainability (RUSPS) Initial Terms of References (TORs), United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT), 2004. Hassan, G, El-Refaie, M: "Localization of Rapid Urban Sector Profiling for Sustainability (RUSPS) in Egypt", United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT), 2006. Rapid Urban Sector Profiling for Sustainability (RUSPS) Presentations, United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT), 2007. Author's Personal Experience gained from RUSPS Egypt, Iraq, Sudan and Jordan, 2004-2007.

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Environmental Education for Sustainable Planning and Eco-Friendly Management in the Cortado Lake Park
W. C. Oliveira1, A. H. A. Oliveira2, M. L. Peluso3, L. C. Martins4
1

Departamento de Geografia, 2Instituto de Qumica, 3Departamento de Geografia, 4Decanato de Extenso Universidade de Braslia, Brazil wcandido@solar.com.br

Introduction The spatial organization of the Distrito Federal, with covers an area of 5,789.16 km2, in the Brazilian CentroOeste (Middle-east), was defined due to the building of the Brazilian capital (Braslia), and all this area felt the impact of such action, with its problems and solutions. Thus, we shall start the analysis of the territorial issue by the urbanization process and its territorial implications. The population of the Distrito Federal rose substantially in the first year of the building of the new capital and it is still growing at a very high rate. Some factors explain such growth: the exodus from the countryside caused by the modernization and concentration of farm properties, a marked characteristic of the Brazilian farming structure. The urban population rises steadily in the Distrito Federal a tendency confirmed all over the world what makes more and more poorer people live in substandard conditions in the cities of the district. As a result, there is a rise in the aggravation of environmental problems, more noticeably those related to pollution, forest fires, deforestation of areas next to riverbeds and the degradation of ecological areas of different types. In the Distrito Federal these problems are aggravated due to intense urbanization. The main environmental vulnerabilities of its territory are its water resources, the susceptibility of the soil to erosion and anthropic actions in ecological areas of different types. Thus, the most relevant environmental questions are directly related to the manner of territorial occupation and the lack of adequate infra-structure. Discussion At present, urban growth is moving against the natural environment and the quality of life, be it in the big cities or in smaller towns, in noble or underdeveloped areas; the Capital of Brazil is no exception to this rule. Areas are valorized and occupied by different social classes, and the many plans for organized occupation did not stop preserved areas of the Distrito Federal to be occupied, and a myriad of environmental problems were caused. According to Nelba Azevedo Penna: In Braslia's Plano Piloto, an area privileged by the beauty of its architecture, quality of life, technology and urban design, where aesthetical landscaping substitutes the natural flora, all areas area valorized by its own process which produces its own space occupation. Even in areas surrounding it, less qualified technically and socially (and those which do not have the so-called urban consumption goods: water distribution, electricity, sewage, landline phones, etc.) and those which were not yet occupied rural and environmental reserves have plenty of values that functionally fragment and hierarchies all its territory in an immense urban stretch. (Penna, 2003, p. 57-58). This fast urbanization process reaches the most sensitive environmental areas of the region, specially the irregular occupations, in spite of the planning governmental authorities and the laws governing territorial occupation. So, the lowering of the quality of life is already a fact in the Distrito Federal, as stated by Marta Adriana Bustos Romero: From the 1980's, and specially in the last decade of the 20th century, the actions in the area of the Brazilian capital has intensified the level of environmental damage. At present, the environmental diagnostic shows a critical state in the DF, specially in the urban agglomerations situated in more susceptible areas, where the reduction in the quality of life is more perceptible, due to not only to inadequate urbanization design and poor infrastructure, but also to the continuous degradation process and changing of the local environments. It is possible to observe, then, that a set of factors is responsible for the environmental degradation of the Distrito Federal and that the threat to the water resources is the most visible part of the contradiction between human occupation and the nature. From this point of view, the abundance of water, which was one of the most important points in the choosing of the site for the building of the capital, as it would maintain the water supply for a long period of time, is at great risk. There are also serious environmental conflicts in the use of the soil and the water resources in all water systems within the Distrito Federal. It is possible to succinctly mention some points where the problems have already reached alarming levels, which demand short and medium-term solutions. According to Marilia Luiza Peluso,

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The predatory behavior which characterizes the territorial occupation of the Brazilian capital is neither something random nor typical, but one side of the destructive impetus as regards the nature which has increased drastically, in such a way that social practices, to a certain extent, can be predatory. (PELUSO, 2003, p. 181). Amongst the systemic problems of environmental degradation faced by the DF is the advanced degradation of the Cortado Stream, in the administrative region (Regio Administrativa, RA) of Taguatinga (RAIII). This degradation is the reason for the choosing of the Cortado Stream as the object of research of this paper. Taguatinga is drained by the Cortado Stream and by the Taguatinga Stream, which create the Taguatinga river. It flows to the Descoberto River, in the border between the Distrito Federal and the state of Gois. One of the most important uses of the local rivers is the maintenance of the Green Belt, source of vegetables supplies for the markets of the Distrito Federal. Amongst the rivers/streams of interest for the Water and Sewage Company of Braslia (Companhia de gua e Esgoto de Braslia, CAESB) as sources of water, the most important ones are the Currais Stream and the Pedras River, which are within the area created by the supplementary Law No. 17/97, called the Area of Protection of Water Bodies. Besides, these two water bodies are included in the Area of Environmental Protection of the Descoberto River (APA), which means they are tributary of the Descoberto Lake, responsible for the greatest part of the water supply of the Distrito Federal. Of all the water bodies present in the Administrative Region of Taguatinga, the ones used to received sewage discharge are the Taguatinga River and the Cortado Stream. The Taguatinga River has been monitored by CAESB since 1993, and samples are collected from the river every other month, while in the Cortado Stream, object of study of this paper, there is no such monitoring/ sample collection. There are many other types of environmental degradation near the Cortado Stream. It was verified by visits to the surrounding area that there was widespread deforestation in its riverine forest, and as a consequence, the riverbed is silting up as debris are carried by the rain. Not only the silting, but also the formation of gullies due to the lack of vegetation surrounding the margins of the stream, and changes in the natural environment as the vegetation is being replaced by pasture. This is the most visible portion of the contradiction between human occupation and nature. According the Marlia Luiza, Peluso, The predatory behavior which characterizes the territorial occupation of the Brazilian capital is neither something random nor typical, but one side of the destructive impetus as regards the nature which has increased drastically, in such a way that social practices, to a certain extent, can be predatory. (PELUSO, 2003, p. 181). Methodology Physical, chemical and bacteriological analysis of the water in the Cortado Lake Park had strong traces of pollutants and bacteria considered alarming for a water spring. Analyses were made in three different spots, the first one called Cortado Lake which is the spring water of a small pond within the environmental protection area. The second spot (Cortado I) which is the exit point of a rainwater basin and is also the beginning of another stream which also springs in the park area. The Third and last spot (Cortado II), approximately 50 meters far from the second one, which is downstream in this same stream in an area of dammed water right after a 2-meters-high waterfall, surrounded by riverine forest. There was only one hidrobiological analyses of the site and the physico-chemical and bacteriological monitoring by preset techniques by the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater and by the ABNT (Associao Brasileira de Normas Tcnicas Brazilian Association of Technical Standards). The results are shown in table 1. The data presented in table 1 urge an intensive monitoring of the area, including analysis of the balneability, as the place is opened to the public and available for swimming. According to the bacteria and coliform quantity and associating the observed values on total nitrogen, conductivity and COD (chemical oxygen demand), the presence of wastewater discharges in the water system is evident. This might be done through clandestine rainwater discharge, as the whole area is surrounded by canalized and treated wastewater. After the monitoring to be done during the dry season (April to September), there will be enough data to confirm the nature of these discharges as domestic or industrial, as there are many industries around the park. Conclusion The necessity to create a conscience regarding the causes which provoked the environmental degradation and the possible solutions go through the educational process, having as its goal to create a new attitude in the population and new criteria based on the principles of ecological sustainability. According to Marcos Sorrentino: "[} we must awake in everyone the feeling of belonging, participation and responsibility in the

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W. C. Oliveira et al.: Environmental Education for Sustainable Planning and Eco-Friendly Management

Table 1: Physico-chemical and microbiological results


PHYSICO-CHEMICAL RESULTS
PARAMETER Color pH Turbidity Chloride Hardness Nitrogen (Nitrate) Fluoride emical Oxygen Demand (COD) Magnesium Alkalinity HCO3 CO 2 3 Conductivity Total Nitrogen Total Phosphorus Nitrogen (Ammonia) Nitrogen (Nitrite) issolved Phosphorus UNIT H UT mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L L Cortado L Cortado 13/11/06 8/1/07 2 6,3 2,2 1,20 39 0,168 <0,23 9,08 1,82 35,4 35,4 0,0 89 0,288 0,009 0,047 <0,010 <0,002 3 6,5 1,6 0,9 44,9 0,207 < 0,23 5,9 2,4 41,6 41,6 0,0 106,7 0,471 0,019 0,016 0,003 <0,002 LCortado 7/3/07 3 6,8 0,7 0,98 64,63 0,121 < 0,23 2,1 6,23 45,63 45,63 0,0 86,9 0,347 0,008 0,110 < 0,010 0,002 Cortado I 13/11/06 4 6,5 7,1 13,6 61,3 1,525 <0,23 23,56 3,35 53,5 53,5 0,0 178,5 2,520 0,080 0,432 0,047 0,004 Cortado I 8/1/07 3 6,7 4,9 4,8 55,2 2,576 < 0,23 15,7 2,0 53,2 53,2 0,0 157,3 3,765 0,067 0,056 0,053 0,023 Cortado I 7/3/07 3 6,5 3,2 5,66 74,88 2,85 <0,23 7,4 6,81 55,52 55,52 0,0 172,5 4,258 0,065 0,154 0,122 0,008 Cortado II Cortado II Cortado II 13/11/06 8/1/07 7/3/07 8 7,4 1,2 2,9 32,8 0,956 < 0,23 6,8 1,87 31,4 31,4 0,0 83,9 1,015 0,013 <0,020 <0,010 0,002 3 7,4 1,1 2,2 29,2 1,264 < 0,23 5,3 1,5 31,0 31,0 0,0 93,5 2,410 0,015 0,464 0,011 0,005 3 6,3 1,2 1,85 45,22 1,132 <0,23 2,2 5,27 30,18 30,18 0,0 113,9 1,919 0,011 0,135 0,025 0,005

MICROBIOLOGICAL RESULTS
Total Coliform E. coli

NMP 100 mL
NMP 100 mL

>2419,6 Ausncia

> 2419,6 9,6

>2419,6 8,6

>2419,6 >2419,6

>2419,6 >2419,6

>2419,6 >2419,6

>2419,6 1553,1

>2419,6 >2419,6

>2419,6 >2419,6

search for local and global answers that the theory of sustainable development proposes to us". (SORRENTINO, 2002, p. 19). The lack of discussion of innovative proposals hinders the renewal of our teaching, as education itself must be decisively re-oriented to prepare the present and future generations, finding new possibilities of action. This takes us back to the necessary reflection on the challenges faced when we try to change the manner of thinking and acting towards environmental issues in a contemporary perspective. Just as other areas of social organization, education lives a perpetual process of re-inventing itself. Every attempt at change is full of consensus and contradictions, advances and retreats; and we all must consider the dynamic characteristic of change. The Education Environment relationship takes a more challenging role every day, which demands the appearance of new knowledge to fully understand complex social processes and intensified environmental risks. Environmental education aims at a change in behaviour, development of competences, capacity of evaluation, participation of the learner and it also aims at pedagogical proposals centred at the development of social awareness and interdisciplinary trends; we must mediate knowledge and articulate wisdom, so that all subjects work in mutual cooperation. Environmental education must be a totalizing conception of education, which is possible when it is a result of an organic political-pedagogical project, built collectively from the interaction school-community, and thus articulated with popular organized movements committed to the preservation of life in its deepest meaning. According to Garcia,

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There is no environmental education without political participation. In a society with little democratic tradition like ours, environmental education ought to contribute for the exercise of citizenship, aiming at social transformation. Besides strengthening knowledge on environmental issues, it must also create participative spaces and develop ethical values which can restore humanity to mankind. (Garcia, 1993 apud GUIMARES, 2000, p. 68). The relation between environment and education takes a more challenging role, which demands The Education Environment relationship takes a more challenging role every day, which demands the appearance of new knowledge to fully understand complex social processes and intensified environmental risks. Environmental education aims at a change in behaviour, development of competences, capacity of evaluation, participation of the learner and it also aims at pedagogical proposals centred at the development of social awareness; that is, we must mediate knowledge and articulate wisdom. Bibliography
ALIMONDA, H. Ecologia Poltica: Naturaleza, Sociedad y Utopia. Buenos Aires: Alimonda, 2002. 350 p. BERGER, L. P.; LUCKMANN, T. A Construo Social da Realidade. 24. ed. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Vozes, 2004. 247 p. BOOF, L. Ecologia: Grito da Terra, Grito dos Pobres. Rio de Janeiro: Sextante, 2004, 319 p. GUIMARES, R. P. Desenvolvimento Sustentvel: da retrica formulao de polticas pblicas. In BECHER, B.K.; MIRANDA, M. (org.). A Geografia poltica do desenvolvimento sustentvel. Rio de Janeiro: Editora UFRJ,1997, 13-44 p. PENNA,Nelba Azevedo. Fragmentao do Ambiente Urbano: crises e contradies. In: PAVIANI, Aldo; GOUVA, Luiz Alberto de Campos (org). Braslia: controvrsias ambientais. Braslia: editora UnB, 2003, p. 57-72. PELUSO, Marlia Luiza. Reflexes sobre ambiente urbano e representaes sociais. In: PAVIANI, Aldo; GOUVA, Luiz Alberto de Campos (org). Braslia: controvrsias ambientais. Braslia: editora UnB, 2003, p. 181-196. ROMERO,Marta Adriana Bustos. A sustentabilidade do ambiente urbano da capital. In: PAVIANI, Aldo; GOUVA, Luiz Alberto de Campos (org). Braslia: controvrsias ambientais. Braslia: editora UnB, 2003, p. 241-263. GREENBERG, A.E.. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater, 21st ed. USA: APHA, AWWA, WEF, Centennial edition, 2005.

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The Natural Advantage of Regions: Integrating Sustainability, Innovation and Regional Development in Australia.
Tavis Potts
Scottish Association for Marine Science Tavis.Potts@sams.ac.uk

Introduction As nations and regions change in a globalised economy new debates are emerging about what constitutes effective regional planning and development. Pressures from a shifting and aging population, declining natural resources such as potable water and the impacts of human induced climate change are significant issues for many Australian regions. These issues are placing significant costs and pressures on regional communities and their development potential. Importantly, we must decouple environmental impacts from development processes. This is the notion of sustainable development reducing the ecological footprint from socio-economic activities while simultaneously increasing the quality of life. Governments and academia are increasingly focusing upon the 'region' as a unit of innovation and an appropriate scale to resolve key socio-economic and environmental issues (Martinez and Potts 2005). Changes to regions have advanced rapidly in the last decade, with knowledge-based industries significantly contributing to regional economies, while traditional resource-based and manufacturing sectors are declining or seeking to align with the 'knowledge economy' (Beer et al 2003; Martinez-Fernandez and Potts, 2005). Innovation is recognised as a key driver of growth and hence one of the main contributors to a prosperous region. Industry growth, job creation, and new technology applications have roots in innovative practices. Innovation plays a significant role in delivering solutions for regional development and increasingly, as a means of addressing sustainability issues (Krockenberger 2000). The shift towards a knowledge focus has grown in parallel with the recognition of sustainability as a key element of regional policy (Beer et al 2003). The 'Natural Advantage' is a means of integrating innovation and sustainability in the regional development context. It refers to the advantages and benefits that an organisation, community or government can obtain by applying innovation and sustainability principles and processes to its operations. This paper explores the potential for the 'Natural Advantage' to develop new industries, jobs and markets, promote civic innovation, reduce environmental impact and improve ecological systems. The Natural Advantage manifests in three integrated areas: Policies and initiatives for ecological efficiency, cleaner production and ecological modernisation in industry and government Monitoring and restoration of natural systems and policies contributing to natural capital Innovation, knowledge transfer and partnerships between public and private organisations, communities and the region. A need has emerged for policy innovation in developing knowledge systems and capacity for the development of sustainable industries and business (Hawken et al 1999). This study builds on recent research (MartinezFernandez & Potts 2005) focused upon the Macarthur region in south-west Sydney and highlighted the role of environmental issues in driving regional innovation strategies. The role of the 'innovation ecosystem', consisting of the knowledge economy, socio-economic and environmental dimensions (Martinez-Fernandez & Potts 2005) provides a useful framework to approach the Natural Advantage concept at the regional scale. It is clear that a fresh approach is needed to engage with local stakeholders, provide clear information on the relationships between sustainability and innovation, and progress action at the regional scale. Regions are diverse entities with unique conditions and socio-economic activities; to be relevant the research must fit local and regional contexts. The results from this pilot aim to directly engage with local government and small to medium enterprises (SMEs) to facilitate the natural advantage within regions. This paper highlights the results of a 1 year study on the natural advantage, applying the concept to a case study on the NSW Central Coast region in Australia. What is the Natural Advantage? The Natural Advantage is a recent term that has evolved to capture the mix of strategies, tools, policies and market based approaches that allow the concept of sustainability to be implemented within an organisation or geographic entity and the resulting outcomes and benefits that accrue to the entity and society as a result of this approach. Hargroves and Smith (2005), in the book 'The Natural Advantage of Nations', define the Natural Advantage as: "The multiple advantages a nation can achieve through a whole of society approach to the pursuit of sustainable genuine progress."

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What are the advantages that can accrue to nations? Broadly speaking this can include such issues as improved quality of life and standard of living, improved social services, investment in knowledge and innovation, conservation and restoration of natural capital, productivity gains from maximising resource efficiency, and new industries, jobs and markets in eco-innovations. At the centre of the Natural Advantage concept is the merging of the concepts of sustainability and competitiveness, in particular using the principles of sustainability to drive innovation, design and ecological modernisation through firms and organisations. Partnership is a central feature of the Natural Advantage as success requires a whole of society approach. Partnerships between governments, business, and civil society are required to achieve reforms to make markets work better. The idea for the Natural Advantage was initially conceived at the scale of the nation-state and the firm with a top down approach. This scale is useful because the task of implementing the natural Advantage will require national vision and policy. The application at the firm scale has generally focused on large companies with the capacity to develop broad sustainability strategies. Neglected in the discourse has been the critical role of the region and municipality and small to medium enterprises. For Natural Advantage to succeed across the national scale it must apply strategies that directly relate to regions and SMEs. In developing the markets and demand for sustainable services and products, change must occur at the local level. The top down national and firm approach must be matched by a bottom up local and regional process for success. For small to medium firms and local authorities the Natural Advantage brings a specific set of benefits such as resource productivity across energy, water, inputs and waste, new markets, high quality processes and products, support of local communities, integration of local business needs and local policies, increased social capital, local environmental restoration, increased local branding and identity and leveraging of resources for sustainability strategies and actions. Natural Advantage: A Conceptual Model In order to frame the discussion on applying the Natural Advantage to regional development this discussion paper has developed an explanatory model (Figure 1). The use of a conceptual and explanatory model enables the principles embedded within the natural advantage to be integrated within a local case study, examine the process behind implementation, frame the debate and encourage review and analysis. The model should be refined and changed over time on the basis of the research into the application of the Natural Advantage. The conceptual model has been drafted based on the literature on Natural Advantage and environmental innovation literature. The model has a temporal basis, outlining a series of key drivers and a transformative process over time resulting in Natural Advantage outcomes for a region. The drivers for developing regional Natural Advantage include policy and governance, markets for products and services, environmental innovation and knowledge capacity. The drivers can be seen as the baseline conditions that need to be put in place to initiate the Natural Advantage through a region and engage organisations in capacity building and development. The baseline conditions integrate (over time) through a series of transformative measures. These measures build capacity, share knowledge, and create new opportunities for growth. Sharing of information, expertise and resources and increasing the understanding of the role of different sectors (e.g. community, business, government) leads to new initiatives and outcomes. The outcomes include cleaner production, ecological modernisation, environmental innovation, and industry development the development of regional identity and sustainable regions. The drivers of the Natural Figure 1. The Natural Advantage Model Advantage process, as identified 30

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Tavis Potts: The Natural Advantage of Regions

in the literature, represent the integrated issues that must be considered for success in developing Natural Advantage initiatives. Policy, regulation, innovation strategies and 'know how' refer to the actions and instruments that drive integrated sustainability and innovation outcomes for a region and encourage business to invest in the Natural Advantage. Instruments manifest at the local, state and Federal scale and can take the form of regulations, policy, market based instruments, or general advice and strategy. Many existing policies do not target or are not relevant to the needs of SMEs. This paper investigates what is being used (and what could be useful) at the local and regional level to initiate Natural Advantage initiatives. The development of policy instruments to encourage sustainable business and innovation is a critical driver of the Natural Advantage concept. Just as it is important to get the 'carrots and sticks' right in the policy and regulatory environment it is critical to encourage the development of markets for sustainable products and services. This is one of the key challenges facing sustainability and the development of sustainable business. Creation of new markets requires a 'whole of society approach' with the involvement of civil society, business and government, innovation and education. Hargroves and Smith (2005) comment that 'necessity is the mother of invention' and that the increasing pressure upon the planets natural resources is driving innovation in global business. Firms, sectors and nations that miss the next waves of innovation to achieve sustainable development and the natural advantage may risk significant market share and loss of competitiveness (Hargroves and Smith 2005). These issues come together in the transformative measures phase of the model while recognising the 'messy reality' of moving towards the Natural Advantage outcomes. It is not clear (at this stage of the research) what the precise role, extent and influence each of the drivers has in delivering the outcomes. Future research may recast the model as new information and knowledge comes to light. The Natural Advantage: Case Study on the NSW Central Coast The Central Coast region is well placed to initiate a regional Natural Advantage strategy. It is a rapidly growing coastal area on the northern fringe of the Sydney metropolitan region, located 90km north of Sydney and 100 km south of Newcastle in NSW Australia. The region consists of the local governments of Wyong Shire and Gosford City Council, the most populated local government authorities in NSW. The region is characterised by rapid residential growth, sensitive coastal catchments and water resources, and predominantly commercial, retail and service industries (Central Coast ACC, 2004). The Central Coast is recognised for its significant natural ecosystems including coastlines of beach and estuary systems, coastal lowlands with significant wetlands, waterways and forests, valleys and highland systems this representing a significant attractor of residents and business. In 2002 the estimated population was 305 000 with an annual growth rate of 2.1%, higher than the NSW average (Central Coast ACC 2004). By 2021 it is estimated that there will be 368 000 people living on the coast. This growing population has placed pressure on the coastal ecosystems and infrastructure with pressure from land clearing and development leading to problems with eutrophication of estuaries, acid sulphate soils and biodiversity impacts on ecological communities. Recently the Central Coast has experienced a significant water shortage driven by an increasing population and lack of rainfall in the reservoir. The six largest sectors of the economy and percentage of total employment from the 2001 census are retail (17.1%), manufacturing (13.2%), property and business services (11.3%), health and community services (11.1%), construction (11.0%) and government and education (9.2%). Statistics show that industries such as retail, manufacturing, construction, education, health services, business services and accommodation and cafes are on the rise while traditional primary industries such as forestry and mining are on the decline. Employment remains a significant issue on the Central Coast. The total regional labour force was 146 585 in 2003 of which 134 683 were directly employed (ACC 2004). Unemployment in the region was 8.1% compared with a State average of 5.9%. Wyong Shire has an unemployment rate of 10.2% for the period (ACC 2004). A feature of Central Coast employment patterns is that 35 000 workers commute over 2 to 3 hours on a daily basis to Sydney. This creates a range of social, economic and environmental problems. There is a significant opportunity for the Natural Advantage to develop employment opportunities through sustainable industries while minimising the ecological footprint on the central coast. As the demand for employment grows parallel with keeping the natural capital of the region intact, the role of business opportunities in sustainable industries is significant. This has been highlighted in a recent report by the Central Coast Community Environment Network (2005) identifying the key sustainable industries for future development. 13 in-depth interviews were conducted with firms and organisations over the period December 2005 to March 2006. The interviews ranged across a number of industries and small businesses and aimed to answer three questions, based on the Natural Advantage Model: What is the role that the Natural Advantage can play in building local and regional sustainable development?

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What are the activities, drivers and barriers to local business relating to environmental innovation and sustainable business? What are the tools and opportunities that can drive environmental innovation and the Natural Advantage through regions? In terms of the role that Natural Advantage can play in building regional sustainable development, the interviews revealed that local firms from diverse sectors consider themselves as 'sustainable businesses' and recognise that sustainability forms a core part of their day-to-day operations. The majority of participants thought sustainability was 'very important' for their operations. Businesses identified that while sustainability was important, their prime operation was to conduct a successful business and survive in the business. Responses suggest that entry into a sustainable business comes from many sources: traditional trades and small business, concerned citizens, and entrepreneurs. Policy and strategy should be diverse and targeted to encourage the growth sectors into developing sustainability outcomes. The interviews revealed that sustainable business contributes to regional Natural Advantage in several ways. This includes community education, knowledge transfer between business, university and community and the development of markets, products and services. Respondents felt that their impact ranged from minimal to considerable, and most discussed that sustainable business opportunities were emerging but required support, resources and policy development. Some businesses saw themselves educating consumers and the community to make choices towards sustainable products and directly acting as 'agents' for developing markets for sustainability products and services. Other businesses felt their role was limited or the sector did not have critical mass. Several respondents felt that 'something was happening' in the community and in the market in terms of sustainability and that the publicised issues concerning conservation and climate change were partly responsible for this change. Firms and organizations revealed they pursued a variety of cleaner production and eco-efficiency strategies. Some businesses were comprehensive in their approach while others had clear gaps. Firms and organisations developed a variety of products and services (sometimes both) and engaged in activities outside their immediate businesses, e.g. community education and university partnerships. Strategies were driven by regulation, awareness within the firm or organisation, and the perceived benefits of competitive advantage for the business. The key barriers were identified as cost to implement, lack of adequate funding and lack of time. Accessing resources for R&D was cited as a source of difficulty for further development of innovative products and services. In terms of the tools and opportunities that can drive the Natural Advantage through the region, interviewees identified key issues. These included resources and tools for innovation and R&D, development of more effective networks and partnerships between government, businesses, community and universities, closer involvement of local government in the development of sustainable business initiatives, recognition of the role and value of sustainable business as a part of the broader knowledge economy and recognition and support of the role of regulation and policy (including particular initiatives concerning green building) in delivering cleaner production and ecological modernisation across all sectors. All respondents noted that partnerships were a key element of developing business activities and would like to invest more time in the future into partnerships despite their stated time constraints. References
Beer, A., Maude, A., Pritchard, B. 2003. Green Regions, In: Developing Australia's Regions: Theory and Practice. UNSW Press, Sydney. pp218-244. Central Coast Area Consultative Committee (ACC). 2004. 3-Year Strategic Regional Plan. Central Coast ACC Inc. 14pp. Central Coast Community Environment Network (CCCEN) (2005) The Central Coast Sustainable Industries Project: Identification and development of sustainable industries for the Central Coast of NSW. 62pp. Hawken, P, Lovins, A., & Lovins H. (1999) Natural Capitalism: Creating the Next Industrial Revolution. Little Brown and Company, USA. Hargroves, K. and M. Smith (Eds.) 2005. The Natural Advantage of Nations: Business Opportunities, Innovation and Governance in the 21st Century. Earthscan/James&James. 525pp. Krockenberger, M 'Natural Advantage: A Blueprint for a Sustainable Australia' Australian Conservation Foundation. Available from: http://www.acfonline.org.au/uploads/natural_advantage.pdf Martinez-Fernandez, M.C., & Potts, T. 2005. Innovation at the Edges: The Role of Innovation Drivers in South West Sydney. Sydney, University of Western Sydney: AEGIS.100pp. Available from: http://aegis.uws.edu.au/innovationedges/main.html

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Sustainability concepts and indicators' reflections in the intermediatesized city of Limeira, So Paulo state, Brazil1
Gilda Collet Bruna1, Eunice Helena Sguizzard Abascal1, Anglica A Tanus Benatti Alvim1, Arlindo Philippi Jr2
1

Presbyterian University Mackenzie, 2University of So Paulo gilda@mackenzie.br

Acknowledgments to Mackpesquisa Abstract This paper discusses the transformation of the industrial processes and small and medians enterprises organized on the territory in a flexible way, the Local Productive Groups. It analyzes these Groups forming industrial clusters that are scattered in the urban tissue. Local governments try to control and organize them, proposing structuring industrial districts. But in many cases, public power fails in this goal. The work intend to study this phenomenon through the cases of Franca and Limeira, in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, and objectives to show that is possible to do indicators to measure impacts of these clusters on territory and then know more and better about process, and contribute to planning in the sense of gain sustainability. Introduction With the transformation of the industrial processes, the small and median enterprises organized themselves on the territory in a flexible way, forming Local Productive Groups known as industrial clusters in the international literature. These clusters molded the intermediate-sized cities' urban territories, generating work and income to the local population. The Local Productive Groups were scattered in the urban tissue and the local governments tried in many cases to organize their development master plans, proposing the structuring of industrial districts to receive these Groups. Limeira city is located in the hinterland of the State of So Paulo, Brasil, counting nowadays on a Local Productive Group linked to a growing jewelry and knicks-knacks, which in certain way is being transformed in a very significant sector for the city economy. In this specific case, in contrary position of the city urban policy, the firms didn't want to leave their original locations in the city center to go to the industrial districts both of the public and public sector. As a resulto of this process, the conflicts related to the environment a very visible, mainly em relation to the environmental pollution in reas where the enterprises are located, affecting the population and demanding significant contributions to the urban policy. Based in this specific case, this article objective is to discuss the concept of urban sustainability in cities that count on the presence of Local Productive Groups, thorough some indicators measuring some effects of this relation industrial cluster versus sustainability. Limeira: general indicators The municipality of Limeira lies some 154 km of So Paulo and counts of about 250 thousand inhabitants, occupying privileged position at the main State roads and railways junctions, near the International Aiport of Viracopos in Campinas. Due to this privileged location the municipality is stimulated by the development its industries generate, as well as it receives influence of the Campinas and So Paulo metropolitan regions that impact on the intermediate cities and do condition their urban quality. In the Limeira agriculture sector is peculiar by the sugar-cane production. Since the 1940' s due to the force on the import substitution process of the development national policy, the industrial park developed providing industries of the mechanical sector, paper and cardboard, chemical industries, furniture and jewelry, which specialized labor force give berth to other jewelry industries. Between 1960 and 1970, due to the industrial deconcentration policy promoted by the State Government, the municipality of Limeira starts a process of this industrial park transformation and consequently of its urban environment. Allied to the wideness and diversification of the industrial park, on one side there is a dislocation process of the industries that before were located in the center and near the railway, toward the areas served by the road axes and, on the other side an intense urban area expansion accompanied by the industrial location logic. Also due to this productive structure transformation, the population growth was very intense n the 1970's, at a population median growth rate of 5% a year. It is important to understand that this was not a Limeira particular process, and it was a phenomenon that reached part of the Campinas administrative region municipalities (where Limeira is insert), Santos, Sorocaba and So Jos dos Campos, in a radius of about 150 km of the So Paulo metropolis.

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Nowadays the municipality of Limeira counts on a relatively diversified industrial park with many branches of activities, like paper, packing, agriculture facilities, machines-tools, wheels, systems of brakes and exhaust pipes, among others, marking the presence of large industries like Ajinomoto Interamericana, CTM Citrus S.A., Company Union of Refiners of Sugar and Coffee, Brakes Vargas, Light Metal S A and Ripasa S A Cellulose and Paper, and also the branch of jewelry and knick-knacks. Its population grows in a more moderate rythm (See Table) inclusive due to the own city consolidation in the regional space. Considering this frame some data are fundamental to the understanding of the Limeira position in the State context. In the education item, Limeira counts on an unit of the Campinas State University (UNICAMP), on the SENAI and SENAC (industry and commerce services respectively), contributing to the technical formation on the national industry and commerce services. And in the sector of Health, counts on the services of the Health Unique System and its Basic Units, with four hospitals - two philanthropic and two private ones - working at the epidemiologic and sanitary monitoring, offering integral services to health. The captation and treatment of water in Limeira are done by the enterprise Waters of Limeira, a concession of 30 years, with the supervisiono f the Autonomous Service of Waters (ETA), and the potable water supply reaches 100% of the municipality. The sewer collection reaches 99% of the Limeira municipalities neighborhoods (Plano Diretor de Limeira, 1998), and the city treats partially these wastes. Although the Tatu little river counts on an interceptor in its left edge that takes the sewers until an existing Sewer Treatment Station (ETE), one of the big problems is the dejects quantity that are still laid in the water flow that crosses the city urban area. In other to decrease this problem there is a project to a new Sewer Treatment Station that goes to receive biologic treatment before the flow be conducted to the little river, together the construction of an interceptor at its right edge. With the conclusion of the Tatu ETE the probable reduction of the sewer charge will be of 80%, devolving the water quality to the little river. In relation to the service of garbage collection, this is of about 100% of the dwellings of the city, and the hospitals wastes collection is realized separated from that of the dwellings, searching the land infill as destiny. The industrial waste is on the enterprises responsibility, being 5% treated or stocked by the own generators and 95% disposed in land infills. One indicator considered fundamento to measure the quality of the development is the Human Development Index -IDH, that since 1980 is growing from 0.726 to 0.781 in 1991 and reaching 0.814 in 2000, and indicator equal to median of the State. In a general way this indicator demonstrates that Limeira excel in the items of education, health, and income, being positioned among those urban areas of high human development. Nevertheless as this is an indicator of wide scope, it is not possible to measure the main aspects that are related to sustainability of the environment of Limeira city conditioned, in the specific study, by the presence of the Local Industrial Production Group of jewelry and knick-knacks. The Local Productive Group of jewelry in Limeira and the public policies running Looking at the city urban development it is seen that the industrial transformation processes had influenced the small and media enterprises. If in the past the fordist production type had centralized and made operational all the production in the enterprise occupying huge urban areas and generating a significant quantity of jobs, recently the transformation of this productive sector leaves place to the flexible industrialization, in which the production comes to be done in a very decentralized way. Therefore the urban land occupation comes reorganizing itself and as soon as new industrial groups are taking form, other impacts effects are being felt. In this new model the industries fire their workers (spin-off) and diminishes the contract of the labor force, stimulating each time more the establishment of median and small enterprises (National Government Association, 2002 e Paladino, 2005 apud Bruna et al., 2006). Part of this new production process, the Local Productive Groups characterize themselves by enterprises that are organized within the same productive chain or complementary productive chains and their relations in form of cooperation generate positive synergy to the entrepreneurial environment, so that they contribute to an improved insertion in the global market, worldly competitive. Theoretically it is supposed there is a partnership between the public and private sectors, innovation and technological diffusion that are, by their turn fundamental elements to the formulation of sustainable strategies. Thus it constitutes a collective identity and of expectations of social and economic development in the local influence. It is seen that this new production process comes to have strong influence in the market, both local and international, providing the more flexible and innovators firms development, and, therefore, more quick facing the new need of a global world (Galvo, 2000, apud Bruna et al., 2006). Accompanying the reorganization of the Local Productive Groups process in the urban areas the attention turned to the implementation of measures to minimize the impacts of these groups and other configurations as well as toward the own degradation of the obsolete industrial structures. In parallel, related to the impact of the productive in the environment, specific legislations of air, water and soil pollution control are being imple34

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Gilda Collet Bruna et al.: Sustainability concepts and indicators' reflections

mented, more in the sense of remedying the conflicts due to these impacts than to develop programs for rehabilitation and control of the total community environmental quality. In Limeira the production of jewelry and knick-knacks since the end of the 1990's becomes an important sector, because it generates work as well as increases the local population income and the city visibility in the international market. Such enterprises organized in Local Productive Groups or not, are located, preferentially, in the central areas, or residential neighborhoods of median and low pattern, employing part of the population that lives there. Besides, as this is a new alternative in the work market, informal enterprises are organized in the backyards without a minimum of control of their impacts. Linking to this, the 1998 zoning law even with its restrictions allows in some places to build enterprises of this sector, contributing, in the case of the popular neighborhoods, to stress the impacts. Due to this process, conflicts related to the environment are very well visible especially in relation to the environmental pollution; mainly the soil and river pollutions resulted of the emission of the industrial wastes in the sewer or in the curb of the sidewalks. The enterprises of the jewels and knick-knacks have their impact as they are sprawled in the central areas and their surroundings, and at the same time they bring urban vitality, however they consume energy and water and their residues are toxic and the dejects are out of control, affecting the local sustainability: the galvanic residues are highly pollutants and if not handled correctly can bring serious environmental risks. And the firms of coating are responsible for the water pollution, consuming big volumes of water, with toxic effluents containing copper leave, silver, nickel, cadmio and gold (REQUENA, 2006). These processes are related to the soil pollution, air and rivers, energetic expenses, emission of dejects and galvanic residues, visible presence of these dejects in the curb of the side walks and in the urban landscape constitute reality that needs to be evaluated, and so it would be possible to generate indicators for the analysis of the sustainability problems of the municipality in focus. The elaboration of these indicators, in this specific case, should then constitute a consistent base of argument favoring the occupation of the Industrial Districts, which function is to concentrate the activities, and thus controlling the effects of their location. The construction of the industrial districts is a recent policy of the Municipality Public Power that starts the implementation of a process f control of the polluted agents. This local urban policy has been incentivated through the reduction of 75% of the Urban Territorial Property (IPTU) Tax during ten years, in any location, be at the six industrial districts proposed by the private sector, be at 3 proposed by the municipal power, all of them strategically located near the state roads. Nevertheless this alternative was in vain, once the sites for this purpose had not been occupied. Then, there was only a Technological Park implemented at the edges of dos Bandeirantes road, in partnership with the state universities - UNICAMP and UNESP - that should count on a structure of enterprises incubator. Two of these industrial districts had been proposed for the location of the jewels and knick-knack cluster, notwithstanding they didn't have success, as these industries don't want to leave out their own occupation now strongly spread in the urban tissue. There is thus, a misunderstanding with the local urban policy that regulates and controls the land uses. The location of this industrial sector in industrial district would facilitate the environment control once the public power would take care of the residues treatment, as they are pollutant material. The municipality Master Plan searches to formalize the share of the jewels and knick-knack sector on the municipality economy, as an issue of legalization, in relation to the water resources management system, reinforcing the need of an environmental management integrated in the region. Concerning the public power control, the State counts on controller's agencies like the Enviromental Sanitation Technology Company (CETESB), THE Chemical Regional Council (CRQ), the Brazilian Institute of the Environment and Renewable Resources (IBAMA), the The Firemen Agency. Nevertheless, even this type of control finds difficulties due to the existence of many informal firms that participate in this productive process. Aiming to control these productive processes, the CETESB administrates in Limeira a pilot project in order to implement the Clean Production, in partnership with some voluntary industries. With this program it searches to control the pollutants production and reduce the consumption of resources, sending back to the public water network that water used in the process of coating, and after treatment, reuse the resources like copper and provide final destination to the pollutant residues, trying to teach the smaller firms the techniques utilized. Discussion and final considerations In a general way, new productive configurations are generating various opportunities to the population that suffers even more with the uncertainties of the industry and the economic market. Mainly they generate opportunity of insertion in the work market and the formation of new entrepreneurs who see in the Local Productive Groups the reason of a better articulation to face concurrence. In the specific case studied, the crafts activities of the jewel and knick-knack industry allow to employ a less qualified labor force besides widening the opportunities for the small entrepreneurs.

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Considering the above mentioned, it is important to strengthen the Local Productive Group, as it is generator of jobs and also makes concentrations in the city, involving a significant population part in the productive process. The informal level of services still is elevated and this is due to the fact that part of these workers is of women who don't leave their houses and domestic works and accumulate both, arriving thus to improve the family income. In environmental terms, the presence of a productive process highly polluter demands more control being done by the entrepreneurs and the public power, what shows the advantages of the industrial districts location, offering systems of treatment of pollution and avoiding its spreading. Therefore, the projects to these areas need to balance the organization of the territory through the Municipality Master Plan, according to the legislation in vigor, but also balance and evaluate with precision the environmental problems, i.e., include the industrial residues treatment in its actions, enabling access and monitoring. Therefore it is important to acknowledge the need of local urban projects supported by analysis of indicators. In summary it is possible to say that the cooperation among entrepreneurs and the public power action to help the informal firms to regulate their work - what is being done through the state agencies and municipal secretariat, with the application of public policies of location and land use and occupation control - can contribute to improve the environmental sustainability indicators in relation to the Local Productive Groups of Jewel and knick-knack in Limeira. Finally, these new processes of production structured on the territory are of most importance to face the economic crisis of today, as na improvement of the population income. Nevertheless, it is detached that this processes should be better articulated to a wide vision of the environment and to a group of policies, in special the environmental urban and the economic development ones, that together should contribute to the improvement of the life quality in the cities. Bibliographical references
ALVIM, A. A. T. B. ; KATO, V. R. C.; BRUNA, G. C.. A Influncia dos princpios Modernos nos Planos Urbansticos Recentes: o caso de Limeira no estado de So Paulo. Anais do III Seminrio Docomomo Estado de So Paulo. So Paulo, 2005. BRUNA et al. Estruturao Urbana e Arranjos Produtivos Locais: identificao e anlise das relaes entre processos sociais, efeitos espaciais e polticas urbanas atravs de estudo dos casos das cidades de Franca e Limeira no Estado de So Paulo. So Paulo: Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Pesquisa realizada na Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo, auxlio financeiro do Fundo Mackpesquisa, 2006. CAMPAGNONE, M. C. 1999. Gerente municipal: um profissional da gesto local. P. 25 - 38. In CEPAM. O Municpio no Sculo XXI: Cenrios e Perspectivas. So Paulo: Cepam. GALVO, O. J. de A. 2000. Clusters e Distritos Industriais: Estudos de Casos em Pases Selecionados e Implicaes de Poltica, in Planejamento e Polticas Pblicas N 21. Disponvel em www.ipea.gov.br acesso em 08/03/05. IGLIORI, Danilo Camargo. Economia dos Clusters Industriais e Desenvolvimento. So Paulo: Iglu: FAPESP, 2001. NATIONAL GOVERNMENT ASSOCIATION. A Governor's Guide to Cluster-Based Economic Development. Washington D.C: NGA, ISBN: 1-55877-356-8, 2002. PALADINO, Gina G. e MEDEIROS, Luclia Atas (Organizadoras). Parques Tecnolgicos e Meio Urbano. Artigos e Debates. Braslia: ANPROTEC, 1996. PID. Programa de Incentivo ao Desenvolvimento. Prefeitura Municipal de Limeira, SP. Secretaria Executiva de Governo e Desenvolvimento. Mover as Peas com Sucesso nos Negcios Escolher um Local Adequado para sua Instalao. Limeira. SP: Prefeitura, 20042004. REQUENA, Wendie Piccinini. O papel do APL de jias e bijuterias no desenvolvimento urbano de Limeira - SP. So Paulo: Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Pesquisa realizada na Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo, auxlio financeiro do Fundo Mackpesquisa, 2006. SAMPAIO, S. E. K. Sistemas locais de produo: estudo de caso da industria de jias e bijuterias de Limeira (SP). Trabalho de Iniciao Cientfica. Universidade Estadual de Campinas - Instituto de Economia. 2002. SASSEN, Saskia. As cidades na economia mundial. So Paulo: Nobel, 1998.

________________________________________________ 1 Part of the research "Urban Structure and Local Productive Groups: identification and analysis of relationships between social processes, spatial effects and urban policies trough cases' study of the median cities of Franca and Limeira, in Sao Paulo's state", realized in Presbyterian Mackenzie University, Architecture and Urbanism School, with financial help of Mackpesquisa Found, between 2005's January and 2006's February.

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The Principles of Environmental Substainability Applicable to Urban Design Settlements: condominium located in the Federal District of Brazil and inside the Paranoa Environmental Protection Area
L.M.S Andrade & M.A. B. Romero
University of Braslia, Brazil lizaandrade@uol.com.br

Abstract This study aims to contribute to the development of sustainable environment principles which could aid in settlement design in environmentally sensitive areas based on data obtained from environmental impact studies in order to coherently meet current legal requirements. For this, the study investigated how ecological principles can become guidelines for the construction of sustainable communities, appropriate for the design of urban settlements through the principles of environmental sustainability, for example, features of sustainable community development. by Dauncey and Pecky: ecological protection; density & urban design, urban Infill; village centres; local economy ; sustainable transport; affordable housing; livable community; sewage & stormwater, . water; energy and the 3 'R's political. Afterwards, a method and procedure was established for the design of a condominium located in the Federal District of Brazil and inside the Paranoa Environmental Protection Area (APA do Parano). This method and procedure had been developed in the Urban Design Studio course at the School of Architecture and Urban Planning of the University of Brasilia. Considering that urban design is part of the planning process, the environmental sustainability principles should be considered together with strategies and specific recommendations as techniques, in a dynamic interrelationship. Introduction The urban settlements are inducers of global alterations, thus, the way they have been developing will entail the instability of the human habitat once they are areas of low productivity of food, recycling of water and minimal inorganic materials, which provokes pollution of air, soil and water. However, at the same time, they also function as a very attractive center of opportunities for people, tending to grow unsustainably, especially in developing countries which haven't yet solved the social inequities with the environmental sanitation. According to Wackernagel and Rees (1996) the current level of consumption of the human beings seems to reach the maximum level of Earth's support capacity, already exceeding in 30% the ecologically productive area available. Also according to Dias (2002), the cities occupy approximately 2,5 % of the planet's surface, but consume 75% of its resources. In this context, according to Rueda (2000) and later worked by Romero (2006), there is the need to visualize the cities as a system, where all the parts are not only interconnected and interdependent, but also dependent on life support systems, such as the natural ecosystems, because of the flow of energy and natural cycles within a biophysical structure. The direct application of the ecological principles outlined by Capra (2002) in the reformulation of the fundaments of our communities is a way of overcoming the barriers which separates the human ecosystems from the ecologically sustainable systems from nature. Another alternative is Mollisson's principles of Permaculture (1998) which, derived from the application of ecology and ethics, stimulate the creation of evenly productive environments, rich in food, energy, shelter and other needs (material or non material), that include social and economical infra structure. It is a new way of developing life standards based on nature standards, used by communities that live sustainably, the Ecovilas. However, according to Andrade (2005), although they contribute to the establishment of basic principles for the human settlements, most of these Ecovilas are located in the country side, where the problems and challenges are quite different from those in the urban space because of the density. The model that best fits to take advantage of the entropyis the compact and diverse city. The proximity of the structural spatial elements such as housing, work place, services and equipments, favors the optimal use of space, the rational use of the natural zones and the efficient organization of the public transportation. Register (2002) believes it is by comprehending the city anatomy, that meaning, the land use and the urban infrastructure, that one can find the path to design and organize Ecocities, associating the urban design to the impact reduction strategies of the infrastructure systems. The same way the definition of environmental quality standards is usually translated in norms/rules, in this specific situation, it can be listed in sustainability principles applicable to the urban design, developed by Dauncey and Peck (2002) and later worked by Andrade (2005) such as: ecological protection (biodiversity), increasing urban density; urban revitalization; implementation of neighborhood centers and development of

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local economy; sustainable transport implementation; economically; affordable housing; communities with a sense of neighborhood; alternative sewage treatment; natural draining; integrated water management; alternative energy sources; policies based on the 3 Rs (reduce, reuse and recycle). The procedures developed and adopted at the "Ateli de Desenho Urbano " (Urban Design Studio) from the Post Graduation program at the Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo (Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism) from the University of Braslia, in 2003, aimed to apply the environmental sustainability principles to the amplified planning of the Sub basin of the Ribeiro do Torto, resulting in a urban settlement in the region. Methodology: Application of Principles The reason for choosing the place was the potential of the region to become one of the significant points for polarizing the regional services and commerce, due to the increase in urban density foreseen to the central north portion of the federal district. This is a result of the regularization and urbanization of the middle class condominiums, as well as the increased density proposed to the lower class irregular settlement called Vila Varjo. The main objective of the urbanistic interventions was to create a sustainable condominium which acted as a space for spreading the conjectures of the sustainable urban development to its surrounding areas, playing a relevant role in the process of social-spatial integration of the region. An incentive to the sense of neighborhood and communitarian alliances was proposed by means of public spaces which propitiated the social interaction. Although it is known that the spatial configuration is by no means a determinant of the social relations, it is also understood that it isn't a neutral and passive instance. Based on the collected information - having as planning focus the hydrologic unit of the sub-basin of Ribeiro do Torto, located in the proximities of the Chapada da Contagem - an environmental diagnosis of the place was carried out, along with an analysis of the conflicts or the problems of the physical, biotic and anthropic environments, followed by the proposition of guidelines. Ecological strategies were established before reaching the sustainability principles applied to the urban design. They were based, firstly, in the ecological principles of Capra (2002): nets, cycles, solar energy, alliances, diversity and dynamic balance. Later, the environmental resources and the necessary (urban conception) strategies were assessed so that the sustainability principles could be translated into design techniques according to Dauncey and Peck (2002), in order to reduce the significant and long reaching impacts in the economical, social and environmental aspects. Considering that urban design is part of the planning process, the environmental sustainability principles should be considered together with strategies and specific recommendations as techniques, in a dynamic interrelationship. (Table 1) The proposed urban land division presented controlled dimensions and typological diversity as, for example, economically feasible housing - unifamiliar and twin houses - as self sufficient as possible in terms of energy, water, recycling and feeding. Displacements on foot and by bicycle were incentivated in the project to reduce the use of private automobile. Public spaces destined to the treatment of rainwater and sewage by means of Anaerobic Reactor of Ascending Flow associated to a cultivated bed of superficial flow (wetlands) are also part of the urban design. Final Considerations After analyzing some studies of environmental impacts for the area, it was observed that they were only a gathering of data about the place to be implanted and mitigating solutions, distant from solutions applied to the urban design. One would expect that, from the interface of information from physical, biotic and anthropic environments, alternative solutions would appear for the urbanistic projects proposed for the area. As the urbanistic projects were developed before the evaluation of impacts, there is a tendency to maintain the traditional forms of design, many times due to lack of knowledge of ecological solutions, or even to the option of adapting solutions, seeking to accelerate the approval of the process for the entrepreneur - which many times is meaningless, given the slowness of the approval processes. In this sense, if the impacts were studied and analyzed prior to the urbanistic projects, they could contribute with the establishment of strategies and principles, once socio-environmental characteristics are diagnosed by multidisciplinary professionals. It was also verified that, when the unit of urban planning is considered a hydrologic unit (as it was the case of the sub - basin of Ribeiro do Torto), The immediatist view of the problems is surplaced by one of the long term, once immediate punctual measures may compromise the efficiency of the hydrographic basin. In conclusion, the sustainability principles associated to the urban morphology can guide directly the design of implantation and recovery of urban communities in several levels, even if those principles are not relevant to the overall enterprise, once they form a systemic and integrated structure, and contribute to the implementation of sustainable urban assentamentos. 38

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Table 1 - Sustainability Principles used in the application of the urban land division (Andrade, 2005)

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Tab1: cont.

Bibliography
ANDRADE, Liza Maria Souza de. Agenda verde X Agenda marrom: inexistncia de princpios ecolgicos para o desenho de assentamentos urbanos. Dissertao de Mestrado PPG-FAU/UnB. Braslia, 2005. Disponvel em < http://www.unb.br/fau/pesquisa/sustentabilidade > CAPRA, Fritjof. As conexes ocultas, cincia para um vida sustentvel. So Paulo: Pensamento/Cultrix, 2002. DAUNCEY, Guy e PECK, Steven. 12 features of sustainable community development: social, economic and environmental benefits and two case studies in susteinable community development in Canada. Disponvel em < http://www.peck.ca/nua/ > Acesso em: 15 de novembro de 2002. DIAS, Genebaldo Freire. Pegada ecolgica e sustentabilidade humana: as dimenses humanas das alteraes ambientais globais - um estudo de caso brasileiro (como o metabolismo ecossistmico urbano contribui para as alteraes ambientais globais). So Paulo: Gaia, 2002. MOLLISON, Bill. Introduo permacultura. Braslia: Fundao Daniel Efraim Dazcal,1998. REGISTER, Richard. Ecocities, building cities in balance with nature. Berkeley: Berkeley Hills Book, 2002. ROMERO, Marta. O desafio da construo de cidades. Revista arquitetura e urbanismo - AU, Ano 21 n 142, janeiro de 2006. RUEDA, Salvador. Modelos de ciudad: indicadores bsicos y las escalas de la sostenibilidade. Barcelona: [s.n.]. 2000. Quaderns - D'arquitetura e urbanismo - Collegio D' Arquitetos de Catalunya. WACKERNAGEL, Mathis e REES, William (1996) - Our Ecological Footprint - Reducing Human Impact on the Earth -, New Society Publishers, Gabriola Island, British Columbia, Canada

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The significative value of protected areas for the sustainable urban planning: a case study in the metropolitan region of Campinas/So Paulo
Maria Helena F Machado
Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo da Pontifcia Universidade Catlica de Campinas, Brazil lenafm@uol.com.br

Introduction: Campinas Metropolis The metropolitan region of Campinas - RMC, is today one of most important in the national scene from the point of view of its insertion in the current economic dynamics. The Campinas Metropolis, regulated by law in 2000, is formed by 19 cities, counting with 2.3 million inhabitants, being responsible for approximately 10% of the National Gross product. Interconnected with the metropolis of So Paulo (100 km away) and other developed southeastern vectors of the country by the means of its complex highway system, it is an extremely industrialized region. The strategical localization of the RMC in the state urban net in such a way differentiates itself from other areas of So Paulo State, both for the diversity of its industrial park and the intense agroindustrial activity - especially sugar, alcohol and citrus production - of its surroundings. Its modern tertiary has a regional influence as important scientific and technological centers, medical complex and wholesale business. Despite the polarization exerted by the city of Campinas - with approximately one million inhabitants -, the RMC is composed by a group of cities with different degrees of urbanization and industrialization, very uneven life quality indexes and different types of environmental risks. The existing conurbation --mainly in the road axles of regional connection-is being modified in its landscape and territorial configuration. In this region, agricultural areas have been absorbed by urban and industrial activities where the environment is quickly transformed by the construction of horizontal high-class condominiums, social housing, and illegal human settlements. Also, along the main road axles we can find: shopping centers, industrial districts, leisure parks, etc...The lack of adequate treatment of urban sewage endangers the quality of fluvial waters used to supply the entire region. The precariousness of public transportation system to attend metropolitan scale stimulates the use of automobiles and increases air pollution. Added to these factors one may also notice the absence of municipal or metropolitan parks and scarcity of urban vegetation, green belt or natural vegetation. Finally, it is a distinguishing fact that this region has been developed from the steppingstone of fertile lands and abundance of water; these resources are currently compromised by the lack of protection mechanisms and the excess of domestic littering and by the urbanization pressure onto rural areas. Moreover, despite the presence of a great concentration of skilled and specialized workmanship, the technological changes in the industries have increased the level of unemployment and urban violence1. It is in this context that the creation of the EPA - Environmental Protection Area of Souzas and Joaquin Egdio, in Campinas municipality is something to be considered as remarkable. As it will be mentioned further on in this paper, this category of protected area can be used as an instrument of territorial planning. For better understanding, it is necessary to briefly describe the National System of Protected Areas where the EPA category is included. The Brazilian National System of Protected Areas The National System of Protected Areas is an institutional landmark in the context of increasing urbanization and industrialization processes which have taken place since the late 1950's decade. Between the fifties and the eighties, the territory occupation prompted by the government privileged the great enterprises in order to integrate the national territory. The continental dimension of the country, its regional disparities, the diversity of its ecosystems, the rarefied human occupation in some of its regions were the main challenges in the long path towards modernization. There was resistance to this process within the society and since the end of 1970 decade social movements have steadily arisen to fight against what was considered by many a predatory mode of territorial appropriation. It is also necessary to point out the importance of the environmental movements and its pressure for the establishment of a National Agency and the National Environmental Policy. Although unable to count on broad human and financial resources and posing limited political influence in the economic development policies in the late 1970's, the Special Secretary of Environment was strategic for the advance of the conservation in Brazil, creating new modalities of protected areas that would be consolidated decades later. The first steps to organize the National System of Protected Areas - NSPA were built under the International Union for Conservation of Nature -IUCN's influence. This agency published in 1979 the first version of a Plan for the Brazilian System, defining the national objectives and the criteria for implantation of new protected areas. It also considered the different degrees of protection and the possibility of population's maintenance (traditional, indigenous, quilombolas) in some of those areas. In 1981, the National Policy of Environment was

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Indicators and concepts for sustainable life in cities

finally instituted to formulate instruments and rules for the governmental action and to guarantee to the Brazilian society "the right to a balanced environment", that would be consolidated, later on, in the Brazilian Constitution of 1988. Among others, one of its main instruments2 was the creation of protected areas. Since de 1990's the main changes have occurred in relation to the management of the protected areas, most of them under governmental trust. It is common sense nowadays that the participation of the involved communities directly in the protected areas and also that governmental funds be applied in order to create, support and supervise the conservation goals are necessary to the main objectives of sustainable development. The NSPA was finally approved in 2000, twenty years after its first formulations. There were many social groups, political parties and governments opposing this law, in special the ones with economic interests (such as land owners, wood and mineral explorers, the agribusiness sector, etc.). Thus, those were the reasons for the long time spent in accomplishing all these interests. In this sense, the postponement of its approval has allowed the incorporation of contemporaneous visions on heritage at the same time that has set up the peculiarities of Brazilian reality. They are relative to the size of the country, to the amazing biodiversity, to the population mobility and the enormous differences of income between the poor and the rich, to the conflicts of land use and land property, to the soil mineral resources and flora riches, etc. The Brazilian System included all kinds of protected areas that had been already instituted along time and also created some new ones. It is divided in two groups: a) the Strict protected group and b) the Sustainable use group3 that can be instituted by Federal, State and Municipal governmental level. As one can notice, the first group is related to the public areas specially related with scientific research, environmental education, historic meanings and unique sites and landscapes' preservation. The second group gathers public and private lands and population occupation, under rules, depending of the objectives of which category4. The EPA - Environment Protection Area of Souzas and Joaquin Egdio's characteristics. The EPA of Souzas and Joaquin Egdio was created in 1993 by a municipal decree as an instrument of Campinas City Environmental Policy. Its main objectives are: "1) the protection of the used water sources for public supplying, specially the contribution basins of the rivers Atibaia and Jaguari; 2) the conservation of the natural, cultural and architectural heritage of the region, aiming at the improvement of population's life standards and regional ecosystems; 3) the control of the urbanizing pressures and 4) to restrain any economic activity that may knock against the conservation goals (Law n 10.8950/2001). Located in the northeast quadrant of Campinas City, its area is predominantly agricultural and corresponds to 27% of the total area of Campinas, where about 30.000 inhabitants are distributed in two districts: Souzas and Joaquin Egdio. The EPA presents a dense drainage net, whose springs and water courses feed the main rivers of the region - the Atibaia and the Jaguari - which, besides delimiting the territory of the EPA, are the main sources for supplying about 90% of Campinas City population and other cities of the metropolitan region. Important route for the penetration into the interiors of Brazil by the bandeirantes in the XVIII century, this region was initially occupied by large sugar cane farms that later were transformed in coffee fields. With the arrival of the railroads in the XIX century for the draining of the agricultural production, two railroad branches were built, as there is only one - which cuts the EPA in the northwestern direction - which is still in operation for touristic purposes. From the point of view of the historical process of territorial occupation we distinguished the strong presence of the Italian migration during the Coffee golden period, whose marks in the religious and social traditions can be seen until today. Its innumerable farmhouses still well preserved can identify the colonial past of this region. They compose a unique rural architectural heritage and thus a testimony of the agricultural production that projected Campinas in the national scene. Beyond this rural architectural heritage of the old farmhouses and the railroad stations, bridges and tracks, we can highlight the urban nucleus of the districts of Souzas and Joaquim Egdio which, despite the magnifying of the urban perimeter and the raising of innumerable land divisions for high income condominiums since the 70's, it keeps, in its original nucleus XIX century constructions, some restored and put under governmental trust. The dismemberment of old farming lands into allotments for leisure ranches and housing, later transformed radically the landscape of this area, which reinforced the governmental proposal to transform it into an EPA, whose rules for urban development will be detailed further on. It is necessary to point out the significance of the forested covering still remaining due to the characteristics of rural land uses. In the context of development and urbanization of Campinas's metropolis where the original vegetation of Atlantic Forest was nearly totally devastated, the importance of this region must be detached. Of 2,5% of original vegetation that still remains in the city of Campinas, 60% is found in this EPA. Even though they are distributed in a discontinuous form, most of the important and significant remnants are within private farms but doubtless they represent an enormous heritage value for the maintenance of good standards of life for the entire population of Campinas municipality.

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Maria Helena F Machado: The significative value of protected areas for the sustainable urban planning

EPA - Environment Protection Area as a sustainable planning instrument As we pointed above, the EPA - Environment Protection Area is one of the categories of the current National System of Protected Areas5. However, though its objectives are wide enough, there are rules and restrictions related to the use of its territory such as: 1) the implementation and the operation of potentially polluting industries, capable to affect water sources; 2) the accomplishment of embankment and the opening of canals, which may cause sensible alteration of the local ecological conditions; 3) activities capable of provoking land erosion or accumulation of sand in the hydrographic web; 4) the implantation of activities that threaten to extinguish rare species of regional biota. EPA category does not necessarily imply in land expropriation, being able to enclose the set or part of one or more cities. After National System of Protected Areas' regulation, it turned out compulsory to all EPAs to have a Management Plan and a Managing Committee. The Management Plan shall contain the zoning of the area forbidding or limiting economic activities - in the rural as much as in the urban ones - that may promote alterations in the local environmental conditions. Therefore, it must preserve the natural, historical, cultural and landscape attributes that originated its implantation6.The Managing Committee of the EPA is based on a shared and participative approach as it has the responsibility to implement the management plan. Therefore, it has to be constituted by the representation of the public institutions, landowners, NGOs - non governmental organizations, universities that develop scientific research, that is, all the social segments that make use of that territory. Its attributions, beyond the supervision of the general rules (determined by the instrument itself, as seen above) are: the elaboration of programs and projects that aim at the sustainable development of the EPA, the hierarchizing of problems and their solutions, and also, the management of financial resources (when existing) to work out the defined programs or raise funds to achieve them. Hence, the EPA can be considered an instrument of planning as it estimates rules for land uses considering both environment limits and potentials, to promote sustainable development. Also, considering the enlargement and renewing of state planning nowadays, this instrument comes near to the new approaches of integrated conservation of assets related to the urban planning and urban renewal, facing sustainable strategies for restoring historic heritage. Both approaches -based on either environmental or historic revitalization concepts - differ basically from the emphasis on economic values that have priority in territorial planning - urban and regional - in the 1960's and 1970's decades. Therefore, those approaches admit that the territory is configured historically by its environmental and socio-cultural characteristics that transform landscapes. Conclusions The creation and the implementation process of EPA Souzas and Joaquin Egdio are very significant and show out the potentials of this instrument to preserve this area and to experiment new tasks for planning the Campinas metropolis. The peculiar and unique characteristics of this area, as shown, keep important testimony of the colonial period and at the same time of the natural resources and rural activities that need to be conserved for the sake of the sustained development of Campinas and surroundings. The Managing Committee of this EPA, with its representations (NGOs, public universities, agencies, land owners, etc...) is an example of the recent changes that lead to the empowerment of local communities. As it is a recent process, one can foresee all the dissimilarities among social agents represented in the Committee, such as the predominance of consolidated economic and political interests. The scarcity of public funds for supervision and programs aiming the preservation of environmental resources, cultural heritage and projects to rehabilitate the historic architecture as well as to promote the conservation of the water sources is also remarkable. At last, it is never too much to point out that, despite the increasing and necessary participation of the civil society in the management process, the important role of the governmental institutions in the decision to implement and manage the protected areas. After all, environmental protection is a public policy and, moreover, the Government's main goal should be the public interest. It is imperative that the Government plays its preponderant role by leading the implementation process, fixing clear rules and supervising its enforcement as well as applying public funds for its effective settlement. Bibliography
1 - Mattos, C. O (1997) - Caracterizao da Situao Legal do Uso das Terras como Subsdio Gesto da APA Municipal de Campinas, S.P. In Anais do Congresso Brasileiro de Unidades de Conservao. Curitiba, P.R., Brasil. 2 - Mattosinho, M. (2004) - Nosso Municpio e seus potenciais, dentre eles a gua. Texto sobre a rea de Proteo Ambiental de Campinas, para o encarte e publicao da Campanha da Fraternidade 2004. Campinas, S.P., Brasil. 3 - Ministrio do Meio Ambiente, Recursos Hdricos e Amaznia Legal/ IBAMA (1997) - Marco Conceitual das Unidades de Conservao Federais do Brasil. DIREC - Diretoria de Ecossistemas. Braslia, D.F., Brasil. 4 - Prefeitura Municipal de Campinas (1996) - Plano de Gesto da rea de Proteo Ambiental da Regio de Souzas e Joaquim Egdio - APA Municipal SEPLAMA - Secretaria de Planejamento e Meio Ambiente. Campinas, S.P., Brasil.

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________________________________________________ 1 The dynamics of the RMC can be evidenced by the rhythm of its population growth in the period of 1991 the 2000. It was 2.54%, superior to the growth of So Paulo's metropolitan region, which was 1.65%, in the same period. 2 The main objectives of the National Environmental Policy are: environmental zoning, environment licensees, environmental impacts evaluation reports, environmental patterns to water and air pollution, the disciplinary or compensatory penalties to environmental degradation and the creation of protected areas. 3 The Strict Protected Group is composed of: 1) Biological Reserve, 2) Ecological Station, 3) National (State or Municipal) Park, 4) Natural Monument, 5) Sylvester Life Refuge. The Sustainable Use Group encloses: 1) EPA Environmental Protection Area, 2) Relevant Ecological Interest Area 3) National Forest 4) Extractive Forest 5) Fauna Reserve 6) Sustainable Development Reserve and 7) Private natural Heritage Reserve. 4 The System also included the Biosphere Reserve as a special model, internationally adopted to accomplish integrate, participative and sustainable management of natural resources to enhance the population's life quality. 5 The EPA is defined as "a in general extensive area, with certain degree of human occupation, endowed with biotic, non-biotic, aesthetic or cultural attributes especially important for the living standards and the welfare of the populations. Its main goals are: to protect the biological diversity, to discipline the occupation process and to assure the natural resources sustainability"(art.15/NSPA Law). 6 . Concerning the urbanization projects that come to be approved by the government they will have to follow some rules such as: 1) adequacy to the environmental zoning of the area; 2) plantation of green areas with native species in at least 20% of the area; 3) tracings of adequate ways and lots to the topography with inferior inclination 10%, respecting the compatible curves of level and with the draining systems; 4) adequate system of collection and treatment of sewers.

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The adoption of environmental management systems in Portugal: a strategy towards urban sustainability
D. Gonalo1, A. G. Brito2
APCER Associao Portuguesa de Certificao, Portugal IBB Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre for Biological Engineering, Universidade do Minho, Portugal dora.goncalo@apcer.pt
1 2

Abstract Environmental Management Systems (EMS) can be considered powerful tools to use in the strategic planning of the cities' development, improving their environmental quality due to the fact they contribute to reduce the environmental impacts, the risks and the wastes created by the companies' performance, saving natural resources. EMS are expected to promote an efficient integration between the urban environment and economical development. Therefore, the main targets of this work were to identify the motivations for the environmental certification and the corresponding benefits and difficulties concerning the implementation of EMS. In order to accomplish these targets, a survey to collect data was performed and a SWOT analysis to integrate the results was done. The results showed that Environmental performance, Legal requirements and Image improvement correspond to the main motivations for achieving the environmental certification and to the benefits of the EMS implementation. However, the fulfilment of the legal requirements is the major difficulty founded in the implementation of the EMS. On the other hand, the SWOT analysis concluded that the environmental certification is improved by a previous experience in other management systems. The results of the survey point to the importance of the adoption of EMS to the design and eco-efficiency of the cities because they can be used to minimize the environmental impacts created by the companies' activity and to promote the cities' sustainability. Introduction and objectives A strategy towards the urban sustainability must be concerned with the environmental impacts generated by the constructions and activities being performed in the cities. Thinking about this strategy, it s important to consider the role of all the interested parties, such as the companies located in the urban perimeter, and the activities they perform, as important players for the cities' development as long as the companies manage to find the right balance between the life quality's improvement they allow and the expected environmental preservation promoted by the EMS implementation. The ISO Survey 2005 confirms that the environmental certification over the world has been growing consistently and we can find several studies concerning this subject. However, in Portugal, it was not possible to find any deep study related with this matter. So, the aim of this work was to analyse the EMS adoption at the Portuguese companies, identifying the motivations for the environmental certification and the corresponding benefits and difficulties concerning the implementation process, and to use these results to determine the importance of the EMS to the design and eco-efficiency of the cities. In order to accomplish these targets, it was developed a survey which lead to characterize the adoption of EMS, and it was also done a SWOT analysis to integrate the results. Methodology The study was designed to present the global characterization of the companies, the motivations for their EMS's certification and the benefits and constraints identified during the implementation's process. It was also possible to evaluate the companies' satisfaction with the environmental certification service and, finally, the companies could indicate their specific suggestions in the survey's last group. In May 2006, the survey comprising 32 questions distributed by 6 groups was sent directly to the Environmental Manager of a sample of 240 Portuguese companies certified according to the standard ISO 14001.These companies were

Costs reduction Access to new markets Other motivations Improvement of the relationships and communication with the community Access to financial incentives programs Factors Competencies continuous improvement Requirements from Customers and other interested parties Efficiency increase Fulfilment of legal requirements Image improvement Environmental performance improvement 0

0,6 1 2,4 4 3,0 5 3,0 5 4,9 8 7,3 12 7,9 13 19 23 23 31,1 10 20 30 40 50 51 60 Percentage Number

11,6

14,0 14,0

Figure 1: Motivations for environmental certification

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Factors

Other benefits 0,0 0 Improvement of the relationships and 0,0 communication with the community 0 1,2 Access to new markets 2 Access to programs of financial 1,8 3 incentives 3,0 Costs reduction 5 4,2 Competencies continuous improvement 7 7,9 Efficiency increse Improvement of practices and documentation Satisfaction of Customers and other interested parties Image improvement

Percentage Number

all clients of Associao Portuguesa de Certificao (APCER), a certification body member of IQnet The International Certification Network. As result, it was obtained 82 valid answers, which means a 34% answer rate. The data were processed in a data base from the SPSS Program (version 13.0).

Results and discussion The main motivation for the environmental 23 certification is the "Environmental perform16,4 Fulfilment of legal requirements 27 ance improvement" with 31% of the answers, Improvement of environmental 32,1 followed by the "Image improvement" and the 53 performance "Fulfilment of legal requirements", both with 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 14% (Figure 1). Comparing this data to the results of the ISO/TC207/SC1 Strategic SME Figure 2: Benefits from the EMS implementation Group (2005)'s Study we can confirm the coincidence in two of the most relevant motivations: "Environmental performance 5,5 Other areas 12 improvement" and "Fulfilment of legal requirements". 20,2 Risks reduction 44 The main benefits of the EMS implementaEnvironmental 26,6 tion are the "Improvement of environmental 58 impacts reduction Percentage performance" (32%), the "Fulfilment of legal Number 21,6 Wastes reduction 47 requirements" (16%) and the "Image improvement" (14%) (Figure 2). These results confirm 13,3 Water savings 29 the conclusions of Hillary (1999) who states Electrical power 12,8 that companies get benefits from the environ28 savings mental performance improvement, the fulfil0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 ment of legal requirements, the image improvement, and the relationships estabFigure 3: Areas with more evident benefits lished with the interested parties. Besides the appointed benefits, we also Discomfort to present the fail of legal 0,6 study the companies' areas where the envi1 requirements fulfilment ronmental certification increased their opera1,9 Others difficulties 3 Lacking of comprehension of ISO 14001 tional efficiency. The data showed that the 3,1 5 requirements areas allowing more representative benefits 5,0 Top management involvement 8 Market's indifference to the company's are the "Environmental impacts reduction" 6,3 10 environmental performance (26.6%), the "Wastes reduction" (22%) and Percentage 6,3 Lack of human resources 10 Number the "Risks reduction" (20%) (Figure 3). The 6,9 Lack of time 11 importance given to the "Wastes reduction", Internal resistance against the change of 13,8 22 procedures partially confirms the opinion of Arimura, Hibiki 15,0 Additional amount of work required 24 e Katayama (2005), who points that ISO 20,6 Costs related 33 14001 helps to reduce the consumption of 20,6 Fulfilment of legal requirements 33 natural resources and the wastes generation to the long one of the time. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 The main difficulties connected with the Figure 4: Difficulties from the EMS implementation EMS implementation's are the "Fulfilment of the legal requirements" and the "Cost related", both with 21%, followed by the "Additional work required" (15%) (Figure 4). The relevance of the "Costs related" also confirms the opinion of Hillary (1999), Edwards et al. (1999) e Delmas (2002) that considers that the costs are a relevant or serious constraint in the process, including several factors (the EMS conception costs, the certification process costs and the system' s annual maintenance costs). Often, the SWOT analysis is used to establish strategic development perspectives for a specific organization starting from its Internal and External Analysis. In this work, the SWOT was applied to the adoption of EMS (Figure 5), identifying its Strengths and Weaknesses (Internal Analysis) and its Opportunities and Threats (External Analysis) as result of the survey's data. The SWOT analysis concluded that the environmental certification is improved by previously experience in other management systems and that the EMS implementa18 13,9

13 8,5 14 10,9

Factors

Areas

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D. Gonalo, A. G. Brito: The adoption of environmental management systems in Portugal

Strengths - Previously experience in management systems - Availability of human resources - Improvement of environmental performance - Image improvement - Fulfilment of legal requirements - Obtaining of the expected benefits with the EMS implementation - Relationship between the costs and the benefits related to the EMS implementation Opportunities - Consultancys experience and competence - Answer capacity from the governmental authorities - Valorisation of EMS by the governmental authorities - Certification bodies action near the governmental authorities - Technical support (guides or manuals and seminars) and training provided by the certification bodies to support the EMS implementation - Added value from the certifications audits Weaknesses - Fulfilment of legal requirements and others requirements - Costs related to the EMS implementation - Additional work required - Internal resistance to the change of procedures - Lobby over the governmental authorities Threats - Existence of auditors few oriented for the development of audits with added value - Price of the certification service - Weak action form the certification bodies near the governmental authorities - Lack of technical information (guides or manuals and seminars) and training to support the EMS implementation

Figure 5: SWOT Analysis

tion is related with the human resources available in the company due to the additional amount of work needed. Nevertheless, and besides the expected benefits, that include the improvement of environmental performance, of image and the fulfilment of legal requirements, the process can be complicated due to the internal resistance against procedures changes, the costs associated and the difficulties related with the fulfilment of the environmental requirements. The results also point to the importance of the adoption of EMS to the design and eco-efficiency of the cities. Indeed 50% of the companies with EMS certified are located in the cities and only 17% in industrial areas. The remaining 27% are located in other different places (isolated places, small population areas, near traffic roads,). As result, the EMS can be considered powerful tools to use in the strategic planning of the cities' development, improving their environmental quality due to the fact they contribute to reduce the environmental impacts, the risks and the wastes created by the companies' performance and to save water and electrical power. So, they are expected to promote an efficient integration between the urban environment and economical development because they can be used to minimize the environmental impacts created by the companies' activity and to promote the cities' sustainability.

Conclusions The main conclusions of this study showed that the "Environmental performance improvement", the "Fulfilment of the legal requirements" and the "Image improvement" correspond to the main motivations for achieving the environmental certification and match with the benefits expected for the EMS implementation. However, the "Fulfilment of the legal requirements" is also the major difficulty founded in the implementation of the EMS. The results also point to the importance of the adoption of EMS to the design and eco-efficiency of the cities. The EMS can be considered powerful tools to use in the strategic planning of the cities' development, improving their environmental quality due to the fact they contribute to reduce the environmental impacts, the risks and the wastes created by the companies' performance and to save water and electrical power. So, they are expected to promote an efficient integration between the urban environment and economical development. References
Arimura, T.; Hibiki, A.; and Katayama, H. - Is a Voluntary Approach an Effective Environmental Policy Instrument? A Case of Environmental Management System, 2005. Available from http:/zeus.econ.umd.edu./cgibin/conferencee/download.cgi?db_name=ACE2005&paper_id=268 [Accessed on 2006/08/11]. Delmas, Magali - Environmental Management Standards and Globalization. UCIAS, Vol. 1 - Dynamics of Regulatory Change: How Globalization Affects National Regulatory Policies, Art. 6, 2002. Edwards, B.; Gravender, J.; Killmer, A.; Schenke, G. e Willis, M. - The Effectiveness of ISO 14001 in the United States. Group Project thesis. School of Environmental Science & Management; University of California, 1999. Available from http://www.bren.ucsb.edu/research/1999Group_Projects/iso14k/iso14k_ final .pdf; [Accessed on 2005/12/27]. Hillary, R. - Evaluation of Study Reports on the Barriers, Opportunities and Drivers for SME's in the Adoption of Environmental Management Systems; Network for Environmental Management and Auditing - Paper submited to the Department of Trade and Industry, Environmental Directorate, 1999. The ISO Survey - 2005. Available from http://www.iso.org/iso/en/iso9000-14000/pdf/survey2005.pdf, [Accessed on 2006/09/08]. SME Group (2005) - The Global Use of Environmental Management System by Small and Medium Enterprises: Executive Report, 2005. Available from http://www.iso.org/iso/en/iso9000-14000/pdf/iso14001survey_2.pdf, [Accessed on 2005/12/27].

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Urban Nature Habitat and anthroposphere from the view of nature conservation
Matthias Herbert & Torsten Wilke
Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Leipzig, Germany Torsten.Wilke@BfN.de

Nature conservation and landscape management in urban areas ?! Art. 1 of the Federal Nature Conservation Act (BNatSchG) names the aims of the nature conservation and the landscape management in Germany as follows: "In view of their own value and as a human life support, considering also our responsibility towards future generations, nature and landscape both inside and outside the areas of human settlement, shall be conserved, managed, developed and, where necessary, restored, in order to safeguard on a lasting basis 1. the functioning of the ecosystem and its services, 2. the regenerative capacity of the natural resources and their sustained availability for human use, 3. fauna and flora, including their natural habitats and sites, 4. the diversity, characteristic features and beauty of nature and landscapes, as well as their intrinsic value for human recreation." From it arises at first that in Germany a comprehensive order exists for the protection of the nature and to the preservation of the biodiversity which stops not on the outskirts. The legal order applies explicitly also to the settled area. Importantly for the nature conservation just if it is about the realisation of the formulated aims immediately in the residential sphere of the persons is the purpose to conserve, manage and develop nature and landscape not only in the view of their own value, but also as a human life support. But nature conservation in urban areas takes place under other basic conditions than in open landscapes. Consequently the main focuses of the action have to aim especially at this situation. The nature conservation authorities are called on here to develop guidelines for nature conservation in built-up areas. This requires different values and targets from open landscape. In settled areas and the direct environment, the main focus is not only on elements of habitat and species conservation. Nature conservation strategies for settled areas must take sociological and social economic factors into account because nature conservation in towns and cities is in a special state of tension with the demands which people place on their living environment. Thus, nature conservation in settled areas is closely linked with human leisure usage. Safeguarding open spaces in towns or cities is thus not only an ecological task for nature conservation, it also promotes acceptance and can be supported by economic arguments. Also the legislator has recognised the need of this special orientation. In the principles of article 2 BNatSchG it becomes clear in different formulations that there are special focal points for the nature conservation in settled areas or in the settlement sphere. Article 2 para. 1 subpara. 10 BNatSchG demands that, within the areas of human settlement, too, still existing natural stocks such as forest stands, hedgerows, baulks and other ecotones, brooks and streamlets, ponds and other ecologically significant smaller landscape structures shall be preserved and developed. Beside these rather classical measures for conservation of species and of their biotopes, nature conservation and landscape management in settled areas focus especially on the provision of sufficient space for recreation (Art. 2, para.1, subpara.13 BNatSchG). Before the background of the increasing problems of the demographic change and shrinking cities on the one hand, persistent suburbanization, on the other hand and the topical strategies and measures for the reduction of landscape consumption for settlement and transport a special meaning also comes to Art. 2, para. 1, subpara. 11 BNatSchG: "In view of their significance for the ecosystem and for recreation, non-builtup areas shall be preserved, the individual and overall expanse and the properties and functions of which enable them to fulfill their purpose in this context. Sealed surfaces which are not required any longer shall be restored to a more natural state ('renatured') or, where de-sealing is not possible or excessively expensive, they shall be left to the natural development/ succession." Nature in the city offers the most different facets and should be limited by sides of the nature conservation not only on nature of a certain kind. Already green and open spaces in itself regardless of her special orientation by nature take over important ecological functions in the strongly polluted living space of the people. Open spaces stamp the appearance of the cities and reflect the history of development of the cities. They are important social meeting places, places of communication and fulfil varied claims of the leisure activities. Near to the front door they offer possibilities of nature experience, in particular for children. 48

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Matthias Herbert & Torsten Wilke: Urban Nature Habitat and anthroposphere from the view of nature conservation

In this respect it is our task to strive towards the preservation and development of green structures and open spaces in cities and urban areas. If then other nature conservation demands still succeed from the planning about the realisation up to lasting preservation and management, for example in relation on interlinking of open areas, plant use, extensification of cultivation, succession or also general public and local resident participation, then nature conservation and landscape management can produce a big contribution to the rise of the quality of life in cities. Here, before the front door of the people the big chance insists that the people come to appreciate these qualities and exert themselves stronger for these interests in the future. With it nature conservation is able to get more acceptance because it becomes clear to everybody that the qualities are protected for the people and not against them. This is a task not only for nature conservation authorities bur for all planning agencies. Communes, too, are required by the Federal Nature Conservation Act (BNatSchG) and the Federal Building Code (BauGB) to take nature and landscape into consideration in their urban development measures. Even the Federal Building Code (BauGB) as the determining professional law on whose basis settlement development is pursued in Germany demands in Art. 1 the consideration of the nature conservation issues. It takes relation on the essential precautionary-instruments of the Federal Nature Conservation Act like landscape planning, impact mitigation regulation and assessment of implications for Natura 2000 sites. Using existing instruments The two above mentioned laws, BNatSchG and BauGB, contain the essential legal regulations which are supposed to guarantee an appropriate consideration of nature conservation and landscape management issues in urban areas in the Federal Republic of Germany. For an consideration of these issues in the planning practice there are various instruments of nature conservation and local development planning at hand with there appropriate tasks. Apart from the protection of nature and landscape by setting up protected areas, nature conservation in Germany has an impact mitigation regulation as contained in the articles 18 to 21 BNatSchG. This is a further legal instrument witch is supposed to guarantee the efficiency of the balance of nature and landscape scenery, including its biological diversity, also outside protected areas.The objective of this regulation is to conserve the efficiency of the balance of nature and of the landscape scenery on its present level if possible when building projects are realised. The intervening party responsible for an impact on nature and landscape shall be obligated to refrain from any avoidable impairment of nature and landscape, and to offset any unavoidable impairment through measures of nature conservation and landscape management. For building projects in settled areas the impact mitigation regulation has to be already did within the framework of local development planning and not only when concrete permissions for the buildings are given.The impact has to be assessed and already then appropriate measures to avoid impairment as well as compensatory measures have to be fixed. In these cases how ever communities have a certain leeway of weighting concerning the requirements of a complete compensation for them. Apart from the instruments already mentioned above nature conservation and landscape management in Germany disposes of landscape planning on three or even four levels, which run parallel to outline spatial planning respectively to local development planning. Here we focus on the registration and assessment of the balance of nature as well as on the working out of prepositions for a lasting protection and development of nature and landscape. The municipality can do justice only to the requirements for an adequate consideration of the interests of nature conservation and landscape management, while she finds out within the scope of her precaution tasks about these interests. Knowledge of ecological factors and correlations is required as a basis for making the right decisions even in the framework of development planning. Mastering existing environmental stress and preventing new impairments make it necessary to possess information on the state of nature and landscapes as well as past and foreseeable developments, current and expected adverse effects, and opportunities to restore lost qualities in nature and landscape. This professional preparation and locality decisions is procured by landscape planning. On the level of land use plan especially the landscape plan is the adequate instrument. With it, in Germany exist basically enough instruments to pursue nature conservation also in the settled area. But it requires continuing discussions and approaches to use these instruments also for the solution of topical problems and challenges. Normally today less complete new plannings are asked, than rather clever reaction to topical developments in existing settlements. Hence, the realisation of nature conservation issues can not be limited to the classical legal instruments, but it is asked a management, which also utilised informal and up to now in this context not well known action possibilities, as it is shown for example by the way property owners in Leipzig allow the municipality to replant open spaces.

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Development- and Action-Strategies The esteem for green areas and open spaces just in the residential sphere seems to increase further. The socially, social and also the economic dimensions of these areas in the city marketing and with location questions become more and more clear and deliver additional arguments to handle these areas with care. Before the background of the objective from the national sustainability strategy to reduce drastically the land consumption for settlement and transport purposes, is a one-sided strategy, which puts down only on the postcompression and inside compression of existing districts and is not flanked from a suitable preservation and development of internal-urban green, open space and natural qualities, surely contraproductively. Numerous investigations show that the people move just on account of these qualities to the outskirts and engage here new unsettled areas. Therefore only a strategy we called "dual inside development" ("doppelte Innenentwicklung") can be successful. That means, an internal-urban compression can counteract only against an additional landscape consumption in the outskirts if at the same time a suitable open space supply and usability make the city as a residential location attractive. In the draught for a national strategy to the biological diversity of the Federal Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety the following purposes were formulated in 2005 for urban area with the time horizon in 2020: Up to 2020 the residential near green is doubled in the cities (for example plants on roofs, claddings and courtyards). Publicly accessible green is available within walking distance. Up to 2015 nature-orientated areas (as little and bigger parks, unused brownfields, agricultural and forestry land, courses of rivers ) are connected up to a green system. The green system connects cities and their surroundings and it offers for at least 10% of its area to spontaneous, natural vegetation. Living spaces for endangered, city typical species (as bats, sparrow, swift, kestrel, chicory, wall-fern) are preserved and extended till 2020 significantly. The strategy is aiming at concrete actions: Assembly of communal goals and acting concepts for the development of "urban greens", habitat- and green-space-connectivity until 2010 and their realisation until 2020. Upgrade of city interiors and communes by a temporarily use of fallow grounds / brownfields and gaps between buildings as green spaces Design and maintenance of open spaces and tilled areas to conserve the ecosystem Development of public open space in consideration of the cities historical character and structure, as well as the gender- and age-specific aspects. Use of all existing possibilities to improve the direct living environment until 2020 (e.g. street deconstruction, planting vegetations on the roofs etc.) Just before the background of increasing bottlenecks in municipal house holds are also asked new, cost-effective solutions for the management and the maintenance of urban green spaces, which open chances for more nature conservation in cities. The Federal Agency for Nature Conservation supports this search for intelligent solutions for more nature conservation and a management for urban open spaces protecting the quality of life in the cities. Topically the competition "federal capital city in the nature conservation" of the Deutsche Umwelthilfe (DUH) runs within the scope of our association support (see: http://www.naturschutzkommune.de ). The municipalities are called on for applying with her strategies and actions for this title. We hope to get a row of solution attempts which stimulate to the emulation and also show under topical basic conditions usual ways to succeed with nature conservation in settled areas. In Leipzig a testing and development project promoted by BfN treats the special question of the development of wood in the settled area.The Question is whether forest can be an alternative green space utilisation also on smaller urban areas in future which is ecological, economic and also socially attractive. The ecological, cost-efficient green space management is also in the focus of an other BfN supported DUHproject "Urban green space chance for a wider appreciation of nature". In the international frame, we are at pains to bring the urban areas back into the concepts for the preservation of the biological diversity, as the aforementioned abridgements of the national strategy to the biological diversity have shown. We will support the conference "Urban Biodiversity and Design" in forefront of the COP 9 from the 21st to the 24th May, 2008 in Erfurt and bring the results of this conference directly to Bonn to promote the subject also in this connection. You are very welcome to take part in this conference.

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Potentials and Limits of Multifunctional Landscapes: A Case Study of the Kronsberg district of Hannover, Germany
C. von Haaren & M. Rode
Institute of Environmental Planning, Leibniz University of Hannover, Germany rode@umwelt.uni-hannover.de

Abstract Multifunctionality of landscapes must be interpreted and implemented differently according to the spatial scale referred to and the level of integration of various landscape functions on the same site. The concept of multifunctional land use was tested by a research and development project at the Kronsberg, a city district at the urban fringe of Hannover, Germany. An integrated design for coordinated nature conservation as well as agricultural and recreational use of open space in the suburban landscape was created to alleviate conflicts among the three types of land uses. To achieve the project goals, a large number of measures were implemented, including field to grassland transformations, planting and building operations and environmental education activities. The results of the project suggest that at landscape level, multifunctional land use can be achieved almost without dispute between proponents of different land use types on the basis of a comprehensive plan. To a large degree, such integration is possible in a mosaic of monofunctional sites within the landscape (tessellated multifunctionality) and in partial multifunctionality on the same site with clear priority to one of the land use types. In contrast, the equal integration of different land use types at one site is very difficult (total multifunctionality). This proves especially true for agriculture when a profitable income shall be generated from the land. Introduction Multifunctionality of landscapes has been stressed by many authors as an overall concept for landscape development (s. Brandt, Tress, Tress eds. 2000). Due to high demands on landscapes from multiple actors and growing land pressure combined with environmental problems, a paradigm of complete multifunctionality has emerged in the scientific and political discussion. Landscapes are supposed to simultaneously serve various ecological, economic and recreational functions as well as purposes of cultural identity. However, what is meant by the term multifunctionality differs vastly. Its definition varies between - different, basically segregated land uses being arranged in a given area in a way that avoids conflicts between them, to - radical multifunctionality in which different land uses and functions are optimised in one single area without spatial segregation. At the urban fringe, the need for good organisation of multifunctional landscapes is especially high because of strong demands for using the landscape in different ways (Antrop 2004). The co-ordination of multiple environmental protection interests among each other and with proposed and existing land uses promises to be an effective way to organise and realise sustainable, multifunctional landscapes. However, as systematic research about this issue so far is scarce, a better understanding about how multifunctionality can be implemented on varying scales and in different contextual situations is required in order to facilitate decision making processes concerning the multipurpose utilisation of landscape resources. Against this background, the objectives of this paper are: - To shed more light on the concept of multifunctionality as representing different degrees and ways of integration - To explore the potential for integrating multiple land uses in varying contextual situations - To present some results about the possibilities and difficulties of multifunctional land use in the urban fringe. The findings presented in this paper are primarily drawn from a research project accompanying the redesign of a suburban landscape the "Kronsberg" district, lying to the southeast of the city of Hannover,Germany (Rode, v. Haaren eds. 2005). The reshaping of this landscape with the purpose of creating a multifunctional landscape, suitable for suburban land uses, was part of aWorld Exposition 'EXPO 2000' initiative of the city of Hannover and the German Ministry of the Environment. The theoretical background (differentiating concept of multifunctionality) of the here presented accompanying research was shaped by several previous research projects focussing on different perspectives and on various scales of the organisation of multifunctional landscapes (s. Bathge et al 2003, v. Haaren et al 2005, v. Haaren et al 2004). Methodologies used for monitoring the effects of integrating various kinds of land uses (agriculture, recreation, nature conservation) in the landscape were: vegetation inventory and evolution, faunistic inventory and evolution (birds, butterflies, locust), soil inventory, questioning of visitors of the Kronsberg as well as inhabi-

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tants of the nearby Kronsberg residential area about their recreation preferences, interviews with farmers working or owning land in the Kronsberg area as well as an economic analysis of the profitability of farming under "multifunctional" conditions. The monitoring was carried out over a period of five years from 2000 to 2005. Reshaping the Kronsberg landscape for Multifunctionality The Kronsberg is a rather flat hill at the southern urban fringe of Hannover. The area has been intensively farmed until the end of the 1990s and in consequence, very few landscape structures like hedgerows and trees were present before the start of the project. Beginning in 1996, part of the area was developed for residential housing (6000 units) and for enlarging the site of the Hannover fair for the 'EXPO 2000'. The open space authority of the city of Hannover declared 'creating a multifunctional landscape' the priority for the remaining area and Swiss landscape architect D. Kienast prepared a landscape planning and design concept. Key elements of this concept were a model farm with organic farming and a farm shop; the so called "Allmende", a common land of 3km length and 50 - 350m width which stretches along the transition zone between the developed residential area and the open landscape. Here the most radical integration of agriculture (sheep grazing), recreation and nature conservation on the same site with none of these demands dominating over the others was to be tested; 13km of trails (suitable for pedestrians, bicycling and agricultural traffic) accompanied by 10-15m wide margins (with grassland, trees and shrubs) and extensively farmed field stripes in order to develop rare field plant communities; two artificial hills which offer a spectacular view over the city of Hannover; they are built up from limestone material originating from the 'EXPO 2000' construction site; the lime soil was supposed to foster the development of calcicole plant societies. Different ways of initiating this development were tested in the accompanying research; Reforestation of 60 hectares of former cropland on the less fertile soils at the ridge of the Kronsberg-hill with the purpose of developing a forest that should serve recreational and biotope conservation purposes as well as forestry. Results of the accompanying research Objectives of the accompanying research were to evaluate whether and to what degree the intended synergies of the project could be realised. Along these lines, the potentials and limits of multifunctionality in a suburban situation should be ascertained. The main finding of the research was that many synergies can easily be obtained on the landscape scale when the concept of 'tessellated multifunctionality' is applied. In this sense, either a mosaic of segregated mono-functional sites or partially multifunctional sites with clear priorities to one of the landscape functions is created (Fig. 1).

Figur 1: Types of multifunctionality (modified, based on Rode & v. Haaren 2005: 158)

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C. von Haaren & M. Rode: Potentials and Limits of Multifunctional Landscapes

By contrast, the equal integration of different types of land use on the very same site (total multifunctionality Fig. 1) is very complex, especially if one of these functions is agriculture striving for a profitable generation of farm products. The development of new trails with margins and hedgerows produced synergies between the different land use types on the margins and in the entire landscape. Recreational aspects increased through improved aesthetical quality, direct use of broad margins for picnicking, and a better accessibility of the landscape. Agriculture experienced advantages in terms of better accessibility of fields, improvement of biological pest control, and prevention of soil erosion. Species and biotope conservation was enhanced since plant and animal species richness increased considerably both on the margins and the entire landscape and the connectivity of the habitat network was strengthened (Rode, Reich 2005; v. Haaren, Reich 2006). Furthermore, the maintenance cost efficiency was favourable compared to the costs of maintaining a park for 6000 users (Rode, v. Haaren 2005). Questioning of users (inhabitants of the new residential area or visitors from other parts of the town) showed that the created landscape was very well accepted even though recently planted trees had not yet grown to their full visual impact. People from the Kronsberg residences clearly preferred the open landscape to small open spaces closer to their dwellings. Especially successful were the artificial hills in terms of species conservation and recreation. The hills were frequently visited for recreational purposes and rare plant communities and butterflies as well as locust species could be documented on the slopes, especially on those with southern exposition. Not quite as successfully could synergies be established between nature conservation and forestry on the reforestation sites. Nature conservational quality was reduced since foresters considered it necessary to use also non native species. Moreover, the forest plots were designed too narrowly to produce a forest microclimate suitable for the development of a typical beech forest's biocenosis (which had been the declared aim). In contrast to the successful implementation of synergies on the landscape scale, much more conflict occurred on the 'Allmende'. Though sheep grazing on this site was financially supported to a large extend, it could not be successfully managed by the organic farmer. The reasons were primarily that the farmer did not have enough spare time to spend on the management which was more complicated than usual due to the need to consider recreational and nature conservation demands (i.e. mobile fencing of the sheep was necessary). In addition, some sheep or fencing gear was stolen and the succession parcels produced too little biomass to build a sufficient nutrition base for sheep grazing, especially during the first years. Therefore, nature conservation had to step back from its originally ambitious goals and allow adaptations. Partly due to the intensive grazing but also as a consequence of soil conditions, the emerging species diversity (plants and animals) could not fulfil the initial expectations and did not meet the level of biodiversity reached at other examined sites in the Kronsberg area. The recreational use of the Allmende was not as intense as projected. Because of ongoing sheep manure, people did not dare to enter the partly fenced sites via the gates and refrained from resting on the grass. However, they appreciated the visual effects of the animals. Conclusion Especially in conditions of multiple demands on land coming together with limited space like at the urban fringe, the integration of as many land use types as possible on the same site is often inevitable. The results of the case study clearly suggest that the creation of mono- or bi-functional landscape structures for recreation and biotope conservation is successful and will create considerable synergetic effects, also for agriculture. If potentially conflicting functions are spatially segregated but interwoven in a mosaic-like structure, different ecological functions can be combined easily and with benefits to all sides. A precondition for this strategy is that land, or money for purchasing land, for habitat conservation and recreational purposes is available. As "tessellated multifunctionality" needs more space than total integration, this concept is suitable for implementation on the landscape scale. On the contrary, the integration of recreational or habitat functions into the management of farmed sites seems to be combined with considerable disadvantages for one of the related parties. There are many overlapping benefits particularly in the prevention of soil erosion and flooding, the conservation of habitats, and human recreation, and these benefits can be combined on the very same sites by harmonising the measures taken. However, it is more difficult to include agricultural land in such a plan. As a rule, farmed areas can only be enjoyed by their aesthetical value and can not be used for walking. As a consequence, it is not always possible or advisable to achieve radical multifunctionality. The findings of the research also shed light on the question of potentials of the concept of multifunctional agriculture as supported by the EU to justify agricultural subsidies. There seems to be almost inevitably a trade-off between profitable farming and "on-site" nature conservation and recreation demands. If the farmer does not voluntarily accept income cut-backs in the name of land stewardship, compensation is necessary.

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However, it became obvious that financial support cannot compensate for all additional difficulties in farm management: Time as well is a crucial factor that has to be taken into consideration. As the Kronsberg example showed, organic farming may be even disadvantageous in this respect because it is more time-consuming than conventional farming. The organic farm had more difficulties managing rare field plant societies than the conventional farmers. As a consequence, it is highly recommended that management options are worked out in collaboration with farmers to best incorporate them in the farm management. References
Antrop, M. 2004: Landscape change and the urbanization process in Europe. - Landscape and Urban Planning 67: 926. Bathke, M., Brahms, E., Brenken, H., v. Haaren, C., Hachmann, R. & Meiforth, J., 2003: Integriertes Gebietsmanagement. Neue Wege fr Naturschutz, Grundwasserschutz und Landwirtschaft am Beispiel der Wassergewinnungsregion Hannover-Nord. Margraf Verlag, Weikersheim: 214 p. Brandt, J., B. Tress, and G. Tress 2000: Multifunctional Landscapes: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Landscape Research and Management. - Conference material for the conference on "multifunctional landscapes", Centre for Landscape Research, Roskilde, October 18-21, 2000. Rode, M. & Reich, M. 2005: Die Entwicklung des Kronsberges fr den Arten- und Biotopschutz. In: Rode, M., v. Haaren, C. (Hrsg.): Multifunktionale Landnutzung am Stadtrand. Naturschutz und Biologische Vielfalt H. 15: 35-76. Rode, M. & v. Haaren, C. (Eds.) 2005: Multifunktionale Landnutzung am Stadtrand. Naturschutz und Biologische Vielfalt H. 15 Hrsg. BfN: 188 p. v. Haaren, C. & Reich, M. 2006: The German Way to Greenways and Habitat Networks. Landscape and Urban Planning 76: (1-4): 7-22. v. Haaren, C., Brenken, H. & Hachmann, R. 2005: Integriertes Gebietsmanagement Fuhrberger Feld. Modell fr ein multifunktionales Landschaftsmanagement der Zukunft. In: Naturschutz und Landschaftsplanung Jg.37, H.9: 261-268 v. Haaren, C., Oppermann, B., Friese, K.-I., Hachmann, R., Meiforth, J., Neumann, A., Tiedtke, S., Warren-Kretzschmar, B. & Wolter, F.-E. 2005: Interaktiver Landschaftsplan Knigslutter am Elm. Naturschutz und Biologische Vielfalt 24: 296 p.

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Reflections on urban metaphors


Evangelia Athanassiou
Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki evathan@uth.gr

Introduction The Green Paper for the Urban Environment (1990) was the first European Community document to associate local and global environmental problems with the function and development of cities, as well as with dominant planning theories that influenced their formation to date. It sought to illuminate the 'root causes' of the urban environmental crisis and suggest new directions for the management of European cities. Notwithstanding its much discussed western European bias, which neglected prominent features of south European Mediterranean cities, the Green Paper was important in its urban focus and even prescient. Published in 1990, it heralded the birth of the sustainable cities discourse before the Earth Summit in Rio (1992) and the widespread acknowledgement of the urban dimension of the environmental crisis. It, thus, represents a significant shift in European environmental action: from defensive protection of an untouched, scientifically measurable natural environment to the management of a complex, socially mediated, urban environment. During the 1990s, a similar shift occurred at the wider environmental movement, which relinquished the idealism of the 1970s, which rejected cities and called for small scale self-governed settlements in harmony with an idealized nature, and adopted a more pragmatic stance which accepts growing urbanisation in the planet and views cities as a geographically specific means to promote global sustainable development. The EU's efforts for a concerted spatial policy for its territory, which would also promote sustainable development, emerged much later than its environmental concerns. This paper examines metaphors explicitly employed to describe the city in European Union documents relevant both to its wider spatial policy and to efforts towards sustainable urban development. Environmental sustainability and the potential borne by global economic processes and digital networking can be identified as two dominant discourses shaping the rhetoric of European spatial and urban policy, setting the norm of urban planning in member states. Both discourses employ metaphors, which stress global interconnectedness, whether material (environmental) or immaterial (economic, digital), while understating local and global differentiation. They are examined also as testimonies of underlying allegiances and inherent contradictions in the theoretical construction of the relatively new discourse that emerged at the intersection of spatial, urban and environmental policy, within the EU. 1. Metaphors that homogenise Flows of capital: the city as business Economic restructuring and the emergence of the global market have changed the economic base of cities and have had overwhelming impact on cities north and south. Within the EU, the tight relationship between industrial manufacturing and urban growth has been shattered along with the traditional model of the urban core surrounded by sprawling residential suburbia. This is true, not only for the hard industrial core of west European cities, but also for cities of the south European periphery, whose development was not causally linked to the industry. In the new urban landscape, described by different terms by different scholars metapolis (Ashcer, 1995), postmetropolis (Soja, 2002), city a? la carte (Fishman, 1995), generic city (Koolhas, 1995), digital city sprawling continues in unpredictable directions and forms, hosting a variety of uses not the residential monoculture many of which are relatively new in the peripheral scene. Koolhas (1994) has celebrated this 'generic city' that has no particular identity, related to place or history, as its archetypical elements can be found anywhere. Flows of global capital facilitated by flows of information are difficult to pin down, yet they give concrete shape to the new metropolis. In many attempts to represent its emerging character, the new city is seen more as a-topic and fluctuant and less as physical. Transformations appear be dictated, in an almost deterministic manner, by processes which operate beyond physical space, at a level that is beyond anybody's reach or understanding and, hence, beyond control. Urban planning can only facilitate the materialisation of the above. In what appears as the return of urban planning to pragmatism, the city is often celebrated as it is. There is an underlying paradigm creating the agenda in urban planning, as expressed in the spatial and urban policy of the EU. 'Global cities', as well as cities peripheral to the global economy, have to compete for survival in the same inevitable context. The mandate for each city is to become competitive in the fierce world of globalisation, by becoming attractive to investment. Urban planning, as practised by national policies becomes an aid to this unavoidable path, in which social and environmental differentiation between cities and within cities is not an issue. Deregulation and flexibility, the dicta of globalisation, translated into urban form,

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are signified by more highways, hotels, 'technological parks' and airports and also by attractive gentrified city centres, 'iconic' corporate architecture and international art museums. Within this diversified and discontinuous terrain, residential areas also diffuse in suburbs and ex-urbs. The metaphor of the city as a business is predominant in the rhetoric of European urban policy. The European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP) is an attempt to co-ordinate spatial polities in EU member states towards 'common objectives for spatial development' (EU, 1999, 7). Environmental protection and diffusion of innovation and knowledge are seen as aspects of a policy aimed inter alia to increase the 'economic attractiveness' of cities and regions within the unequal European territory. A 'more balanced competitiveness' is one of three aims of spatial development, as set out at the document's introductory chapter, the other two being economic and social cohesion and conservation of cultural and natural resources. The European spatial policy appears as an aid to increase 'investment incentives' for each European city, thus making it more competitive in the unregulated global market. The ESDP, as a major document reflecting the nature of European spatial policy, almost contradicts itself. Appearing as an effort to confront inequalities on European territory, it accepts the tenet of an uncontrollable global market and, hence, the inability of planning, or any other policy, to confront its forces. ESDP does not suggest a transformative framework. It is rather a pragmatic guide to increased competitiveness of European cities within the global market. The city as a business that seeks to attract investment is a metaphor that obscures internal urban boundaries, social and environmental presuming that the benefits of increased competitiveness, may evenly diffuse within the physical and social fabric of each city. Nevertheless, as investment is not evenly distributed in space, uneven development occurs in all spatial scales, most tangibly at the urban. The concrete conditions that are experienced by different people within each city vary dramatically, and are not fluctuant or intangible as the global market is. Diffusion of the urban fabric is coupled with social and environmental inequality, which is materialised in very physical, and disturbingly unchanging ways and is delineated by, often, impenetrable boundaries on the shifting urban territory. Focus, nevertheless, is on the global, the abstract and the fluctuant, while the local, the concrete and the tangible remains blurred. Globalisation, the uncontrollable forces of an unregulated global economy form the deterministic context for the city; a context that, although not visible, is taken face value. Many commentators (Hirst and Thompson, 1999, Vergopoulos, 1999) have argued that globalisation is not a fact, but a myth, that it is not a reality, but a rhetoric, chosen to legitimise specific policies. The market, global as it may be, is not free, but facilitated and controlled by national and international laws. Nevertheless, dominant urban discourses choose to adhere to 'a myth suitable for a world without illusions, but one that robs us of hope' (Hirst and Thompson, 1999, 6). Flows of information: The city as a network Combined with the flows of global capital, networks of information and communication create the potential for new organisation of production and work, new experience of public domain, more flexible understanding of urban space (Graham & Marvin, 1994). Investigating the shaping forces of the new city, dominant urban discourses place focus once more on worldwide flows and the eminent dematerialisation of the city. In the new metropolis, dense networks of infrastructure facilitate a limitless sprawl, while telecommunications and information technology reduce the need for physical proximity, realising the 1960s utopia. The city is registered as a superimposition of networks of roads, railways, information and telecommunications itself linked with cities across the globe through other networks of capital, information, transport and telecommunications. Each city relinquishes its relationship with its natural hinterland and seeks to become part of a global network of cities. Innovation is the password to the network and geographical propinquity has shrinking significance in the shaping of new partnerships. Living in a city that forms part of a global network and consists of ubiquitous networks itself can potentially liberate its citizens from boundness to specific physical places. Networks of transportation give urban people the freedom to create and experience their own personal city. 'The new city is a city la carte' (Fishman, 1990, 38). The city appears as a neutral and socially undifferentiated substructure on which individuals chart freely their own independent itineraries. However, networks are neither ubiquitous, nor democratic. Right of access to networks is extremely eclectic. At the same time, lack of access is one of the constituents of urban poverty. Boundness to physical space maybe indeed nearly abolished for the financial and technological elite that forms the minority of the population even in those cities that are registered as global. Their freedom of choice makes their urban environment flexible and extendable to the globe. The airport is indeed the emblematic gate of the 'generic city' as Koolhaas would have it, but only for the footloose corporate elite. Ever expanding highways connect different spots on the map, but are bound to leave others unconnected, or barred from the city by those very roads. Next to the footloose lives another, bigger, part of the urban population, which is bound to specific places, and is not positioned on, or served by, networks. The very nature of transport networks organized hierarchically in hubs and distributing lines reinforces some people's boundness, while and arguably because it facilitates oth56

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Evangelia Athanassiou: Reflections on urban metaphors

ers' mobility. When access to information networks is considered, inequalities in access are huge, between different parts of the world, as well as between different parts of the same city. 'Inequalities in physical and electronic spaces tend to be mutually reinforcing' (Graham and Marvin, 1996, 191). The universal and democratic 'nature' of the worldwide web is practically negated by the social, geographical and cultural specificity of those who can actually use it. The immaterial city, the digital city, the city of flows and superimposed networks, interacts with the physical, the concrete and the everyday, sometimes producing more difference and sometimes reinforcing, rather than obliterating physical boundaries. The city a? la carte of open choices, of great mobility and of global access is superimposed to and interacts with a city of unchosen boundness, of limited choices and no access. The effect of this superimposition is neither deterministic, nor liberating in its own right. It is dialectic. Flows of energy and materials: The city as an ecosystem 'For virtually every issue that cities confront, nature has an answer' (Sorkin, 2005, 233) Within the sustainable cities discourse, cities on 'a small planet' become the means of promoting the goal of sustainable development. The dominant metaphor here is the city as an ecosystem. The city's 'metabolism', its vital flows of energy and materials, is linear, unlike that of a natural ecosystem, which is cyclical, and produces no waste. In order to become sustainable, the city needs to simulate the cyclical 'metabolism' of a natural ecosystem and, thus, reduce its impact on the planet (Girardet, 1992). In this metaphor emphasis shifts to the material, the physical. The ecosystem metaphor is used in EU documents regarding the future of European cities. The European Sustainable Cities Report (1996) recognised different 'interrelated strands' at the 'ecosystems approach'. The first views the city as, literally, a physical ecosystem in order to analyse its physical metabolism. The second strand borrows terms from ecology, such as niche, parasitism and symbiosis (EU, 1996, pp58-59) to study social differentiation within cities. The document seems to imply that such differentiation is an intrinsic 'natural' property, common to all urban ecosystems. Thus explained, uneven development at the urban level is disconnected from the spatio-temporal processes that produce it and reproduce it (Harvey, 1996, Smith, 1996). The city is reified. The use of the ecosystem metaphor evokes biological commonality of problems among cities of the world, apparently oblivious to the well-recorded fact that cities of the world, and of the EU for that matter, form different cases of urbanisation, materialised into different physical environments. In strictly physical terms, the unsustainability of poor cities of the developing world is more a matter of addressing the immediate environment, rather than its effects on the global ecosystem. Conversely, addressing the problems of the mega-cities of the developing world, be they environmental or social, maybe more related to global power relations than to urban planning and management. Moreover, environmental conditions within each city, be it of the 'developed' or 'developing' world, vary dramatically. Atmospheric and water pollution, soil erosion, lack of basic infrastructure of hygiene, water or transport, and increased risk (due to adjacency to industrial areas, landfills, highways, et.c.) are the environmental conditions of urban poor. In the same city, citizens of higher income, inhabit healthier and safer environments, insulated from local environmental degradation and social misery. This upper class may contribute more to local and global environmental problems through more wasteful lifestyles and longer automobile journeys. As Swyngedouw and Hayden (2006) put it 'there is no such thing as an unsustainable city in general. Rather there are a series of urban and environmental processes that negatively affect some social groups while benefiting others'. Summing up, although set in a natural context and continuously reproduced through natural 'metabolic' processes the city is not a natural ecosystem and its internal differentiation cannot be explained or accounted for in ecological terms. The city is both social and natural, as all its natural processes are socially mediated (Harvey, 1996, Hayden, Kaika and Swyngedouw, 2006). In both rich and poor cities, assigning a 'biological basis' to urban problems and their solutions allows for 'loss of social thinking' (Beck, 1992, p25). 2. Metaphors that disempower Public participation, community involvement and empowerment are mentioned in several international and EU documents as tantamount for the pursuit of sustainability at different spatial levels, most notably, at the urban. The urban 'community' is a heterogeneous and transient entity. This is not particular to the 'metapolis' of the 21st century, but has characterised cities in history. In the multiethnic, multi-cultural and multilingual 'metapolis', it has become increasingly obvious that the constituents of 'community' are diverse and constantly changing, and have to be re-examined in the wake of global economy and digital networks. Castells (1997, 60)) suggests 'local environments per se do not induce a distinctive identity'. Nevertheless, 'a general feeling of belong-

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ing and, in many cases, a communal, cultural identity' may still occur through a process of social mobilization, that touches upon shared life and interests. As previous sections of this paper suggested, dominant urban discourses, ones that are reflected in the EU rhetoric about the city, present homogenising views of contemporary cities, obscuring or 'naturalising' both differences between cities and, mostly, internal differentiation within each city. Moreover, urban change is seen as triggered by processes, which operate at a global level and facilitated by worldwide networks of information. The macroscopic level of reference of current urban planning discourses undermines the potential for community building and public participation. Global economic forces, planetary environmental problems and world wide digital networks are invisible: no-one can trace the global flows of capital, feel the mean temperature of the world rise or bits flow in networks of information. Focusing on global flows, the tangible everyday lives that people different selves, communities, 'others' live, the air they breathe, the houses they inhabit and the roads they travel stay out of focus. More important, the context, which such discourses present for the city, is deterministic, in economic, technological or ecological terms. Forces that create the new urban landscape appear too complex, intractable and unavoidable for anyone to be able to suggest an alternative. This inevitable context appears to be robbing urban planning of its transformative potential, even more so of its socially transformative role, thus reducing it into yet another guarantee to the well functioning of the global market. When a new direction for cities is being outlined, by the sustainable cities discourse, it refers more to the overall reduction of the city's detrimental effects to the planet and less to the diversified environmental and social, living conditions of urban people and the alleviation of urban miseries. Environmental urban planning needs to resolve the apparent contradiction between the homogenised, fluctuant and a-topic city that dominant discourses present and the diversified, concrete and physically bound city that most people experience. The urban environment is both natural and social, both globally networked and locally rooted. Most of all, it is not one, but many environments in each city. References
Beck, U (1992) Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity, London: Sage Publications (first published in German 1986, translated in English by Mark Ritter). Castells, M. (1997) The Power of Identity, Oxford and Malden: Blackwell Publishers. Commission of the European Communities (CEC). 'Green Paper of the Urban Environment', COM(90) 218 final, Brussels,1990. European Commission (1996) European Sustainable Cities, Directorate General XI, Brussels. European Commission (1999), European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP), Luxembourg. Graham, S. Marvin, S. (1996) Telecommunications and the City, London: Routledge. Fishman, Robert (1990) 'America's New City: Megalopolis Unbound' Wilson Quarterly, 14,I, pp 25-48. Haughton, Graham and Hunter, Colin (1994) Sustainable Cities, London: Regional Studies Association. Heyden, N., Kaika, M. and Swyngedouw, E. (eds) (2006) In the Nature of Cities: Urban Political Ecology and the Politics of Urban Metabolism, London and New York: Routledge. Koolhaas, Rem, 'The Generic City' Reprinted in office for Metropolitan Architecture, Rem Koolhas and Bruce Mau, Small, Medium, Large, Extra Large, ed Jennifer Sigler, 010 Publishers, Rotterdam, 1995. Satterthwaite, David (1999) The Earthscan Reader in Sustainable Cities, London: Earthscan. Smith, N. (1996) The New Urban Frontier: Gentrification and the Revanchist City, London: Routledge. Soja, E W. (2002) 'Six Discourses on the Postmetropolis'. In G Bridge and S Watson (eds.) Blackwell City Reader (pp188-196), Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. Girardet H (1992) The Gaia Atlas of Cities: New Directions for Sustainable Urban Living. London: Gaia Books. Harvey D (1996) Justice, Nature and the Geography of Difference, Cambridge MA: Blackwell Publishers. Hirst P and Thomson G (1999) Globalization in Question: The International Economy and the Possibilities of Governance. Cambridge, Oxford, Malden: Polity Press (second edition, first published 1996). Sorkin M 'From New York to Darwinism: Formulary for a Sustainable Urbanism'. In Esther Charlesworth (ed) (2006) City Edge: Case Study of Contemporary Urbanism, (pp226-233). Burlignton: Elsevier. Vergopoulos, C, (1999) Globalisation: the Great Chimera, Athens: Nea Synora (in Greek).

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Designing and Using Sustainability Indicators Lessons from the Sustainable Seattle Project
Donald Miller
University of Washington, Seattle, USA, millerd@u.washington.edu

Introduction In 1990, Sustainable Seattle, a non-governmental organization, initiated an open public process to develop a set of sustainability indicators to be used to monitor and report on progress toward sustainable development in the Seattle, Washington urban region. These indicators were the basis of reports in 1993, 1995,1998 and subsequently, that drew public attention to improving or declining sustainability with respect to these factors. This project has been widely recognized as a pioneer in developing and using sustainability indicators, and has received several awards. A critical assessment of this experience can provide lessons for other communities pursuing a similar project, both in the organization and process used in developing these measures, and the content and intent of the indicators themselves. Many of the indicators developed by Sustainable Seattle have influenced the design of measures employed in the region to monitor growth and the effectiveness of plans. A brief discussion of the nature and purposes of sustainability indicators provides a useful framework for investigating the work and results of Sustainable Seattle. What are Sustainability Indicators? Indicators are measures of quantities and qualities that are useful in gauging the current or changing condition of something of interest. Sustainability indicators focus on the elements that contribute to the long-term viability of human activity. As stated by the World Commission in 1987, and by others, this means not only concern for natural environmental features, but also for the economy and for features of society are important over time. Environmental features include resources that provide important inputs for production, disposal of wastes, and the function of ecological systems. This is often spoken of in terms of assuring that a set of physical stocks and conditions are available to future populations that will accommodate economic and evolutionary development comparable to current levels. The economic dimension of sustainability includes careful use of renewable and non-renewable resources in a way that supports continued employment and income, balanced with the other needs of society and the environment. Social features of sustainability include the institutional arrangements that advance the welfare of residents of an area, and the justice or fairness with which resources and opportunities are distributed. Planning for sustainable development requires balancing these three sets of features so that they somehow complement rather than conflict with each other. Achieving such a balance is a complex undertaking that we only partly understand, and thus is more than a technical exercise. In the context of urban development, these three dimensions of sustainability have their counterparts in the different perspectives commonly used in viewing land: exchange value, use value, and environmental value. Exchange value focuses on how land can be developed to produce the greatest net income; sometimes stated in terms of 'highest and best use.' This market approach tends to cause owners to view land as a commodity and to exercise a short time horizon in their decision making. Use value, on the other hand, refers to the social utility of land in accommodating human activities of all sorts. These social purposes include residence and communal features such as recreation and assembly and cultural values. Finally, environmental value of land regards this resource in terms of its role in supporting natural systems, providing habitats, and even in providing environmental services to humans. How Are Sustainability Indicators Used? A major value of sustainability indicators is to translate abstract statements of goals or a vision of a desired, long-term future into concrete, operational terms. These purposeful measurements can play important roles in designing and evaluating courses of action in a plan-development process, in monitoring and reporting on the effectiveness of these courses of action once they are implemented, and more simply in reporting on the changes taking place over time in the built and natural environments. These indicators can provide guidance in preparing plans in that they are derived from goals or objectives to represent qualities sought, thus providing focus in designing planning options, and then serving as criteria useful in evaluating these options to assist stakeholders in making choices. In this role, a set of these measures can provide an information basis for public deliberation and agreement on an agenda for planning. Sustainability indicators can also be used in monitoring the performance of plans and programs. Just as private sector firms are required to develop and release performance information on a regular basis, govern-

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mental agencies and public institutions are more and more expected to do the same. These measures of progress toward goals and targets are useful in adapting plans as conditions change, and additionally in providing accountability to the public concerning the effectiveness of these plans and their implementation. In another form of monitoring, these indicators can be used to provide stakeholders with reports on changes that are taking place, whether or not these changes are improvements over earlier conditions, and even the rate of progress toward goals. This function can be provided by public agencies or non-governmental organizations. A final use of indicators, that combines some of the earlier purposes, is to provide a basis for a development management strategy. In this role, each indicator is designed as a measurement of a related policy, and then these are used as performance metrics in selecting and adjusting actions to implement these policies. If these indicators measure outputs or outcomes, this approach does not presuppose the design of programs or projects, as might happen with a formal plan, and can encourage creativity in designing effective ways of implementing policies. As a management strategy, this is similar to performance contracting, and can support incremental decision making within the framework of adopted policies. An example of this is the green development program for commercial properties in Berlin, where a specific set of design parameters is not prescribed, but rather the design is developed within a set of incentives and requirements. Sustainable Seattle The case of Sustainable Seattle is interesting for a number of reasons. This non-governmental organization set out to develop a set of indicators that could be used periodically to assess whether a number of features thought as important in contributing to sustainability were improving or getting worse, and by how much. The process set in motion in 1990 to develop this set of measurements involved informal workshops, a civic panel, and public forums over a period of three years. Several hundred representatives from business, residents' and citizens' groups, and public officials were involved. At one stage in this process, ten teams organized around major topics had drafted 99 indicators. By the seventh draft iteration, this list had been reduced to the following 40 items. Environment - Wild salmon runs through local streams - Biodiversity in the region - Number of good air quality days per year, using Pollutant Standards Index - Amount of topsoil lost in King County - Acres of wetlands remaining in King County - Percentage of Seattle streets meeting 'Pedestrian-Friendly' criteria Population and Resources - Total population of King County (with annual growth rate) - Gallons of water consumed per capita - Tons of solid waste generated and recycled per capita per year - Vehicle miles traveled per capita and gasoline consumption per capita - Renewable and non-renewable energy (in BTUs) consumed per capita - Acres of land per capita for a range of land uses (residential, commercial, open, etc.) - Amount of food grown in Washington, food exports, and food imports - Emergency room use for non-emergency purposes Economy - Percentage of employment concentrated in the top ten employers - House of paid employment at the average wage required to support basic needs - Real unemployment, including discouraged workers, differentiated by ethnicity, gender - Distribution of personal income, with differentiation by ethnicity and gender - Average savings rate per household - Reliance on renewable or local resources in the economy - Percentage of children living in poverty - Housing affordability gap - Health care expenditures per capita Culture and Society - Percentage of infants born with low birth weight (including by ethnicity) - Ethnic diversity of teaching staff in elementary and secondary schools - Number of hours per week devoted to instruction in the arts for elementary, secondary schools - Percent of parent/guardian population that is involved in school activities - Juvenile crime rate - Percent of youth participating in some form of community service 60

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Donald Miller: Designing and Using Sustainability Indicators Lessons from the Sustainable Seattle Project

- Percent of enrolled 9th graders who graduate from high school (by ethnicity, income, gender) - Percent of population voting in odd-year (local) primary elections - Adult literacy rate - Average number of neighbors the average citizen reports knowing by name - Equitable treatment in the justice system - Ratio of money spent on drug and alcohol prevention, treatment vs. incarceration for related crimes - Percentage of population that gardens - Usage rates for libraries and community centers - Public participation in the arts - Percent of adult population donating time to community service - Individual sense of well being These indicators were used in reports published every two or three years for the Seattle/King County area, titled Indicators of Sustainable Community. Each indicator is described, discussed in terms of its relationship to other measures and to sustainability, and historic data is presented graphically to illustrate whether positive progress has been made. These publications are regarded as report cards on this fast-growing region of about 1.8 million population. While scientific validity was a major criterion used in enumerating and specifying indicators by participants in this process, the meaningfulness of these indicators to non-technical parties was of even greater importance. This led to major effort throughout this process to choose the most important features of sustainability for the final list, and to choosing measures for these that residents could relate to on the basis of their own experiences. For example, the size of wild salmon runs returning to spawn in regional rivers is used as a measure of water quality and the condition of riparian habitats. Experts on water quality find this to be a crude index since it does not distinguish between pollutants that may be present, and marine scientists argue that decline in salmon stocks may result from problems other than habitat degradation. On the other hand, because wild salmon have such important cultural meaning in this region and because most people here have observed salmon returning from the sea to spawn in the streams of their origin, this indicator has intellectual and emotional appeal that translates into political support for efforts to improve their return rates. In addition to aiding in identifying popular concerns, the broad public involvement used by Sustainable Seattle resulted in participants taking ownership of their contributions and developing a sense of advocacy for the final set of items that are measured. Other examples of similar effort to balance technical with popular concerns can be seen in the list of the categories and the 40 indicators used in these reports. The open public process that contributed to this balance and the resulting indicators have drawn wide attention to the work of Sustainable Seattle. In a survey of over 170 sustainability projects in the U.S., Redefining Progress found that at least 90 of them used Sustainable Seattle as a model for their own efforts, and in 1996 the U.N. Center for Human Settlements gave this program its excellence in performance award. In addition, the Washington State Growth Management Act (GMA) requires local governments to design and operate monitoring systems as part of their planning programs. This was not previously a routine activity of city and county planning agencies. Because sustainable urban development is the major principle of local plans under the GMA, and because both elected officials and many citizens had been involved in developing the indicators used by Sustainable Seattle, most of the local jurisdictions incorporated many of these measures into their monitoring activities. This unintended development has given a kind of legal standing to much of this non-governmental program, and has contributed to addressing these concerns through public policy and implementing activities. In December 2004, Sustainable Seattle resumed the process of reviewing and revising its earlier set of indicators, again using a broad participatory process. A diverse steering committee of 24 members met monthly to develop a framework, goals and criteria for this new project. Beginning in 2005, about 100 civic leaders began to meet to review and prioritize a new preliminary list of indicators, and a technical advisor panel met several times in 2006 to assess the scientific soundness of this emerging list. Local foundations are supporting this effort. The result that will be published later in 2007 will include more items than the earlier set, but will identify a subset of these that will guide a program to interest local governments and non-governmental organizations in undertaking specific projects intended to improve the performance of this region on these measures. This case illustrates how an open, grass-roots process can succeed in engaging the public in structuring and specifying a set of sustainability indicators for an urban area. It also illustrates how a process of this sort can balance technical validity with citizen interests and concerns. And as indicated by evidence of the influence that Sustainable Seattle has had on other communities, these experiences can encourage and usefully inform efforts elsewhere.

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Developing Sustainability Indicators to Water Resources Management in a Basin in Brazil


Michele de Almeida Corra & Bernardo Arantes do Nascimento Teixeira
Graduate Program in Urban Engineering Universidade Federal de So Carlos (UFSCar); Brazil miacorrea@hotmail.com, bernardo@power.ufscar.br

Abstract This paper describes the development of Sustainability Indicators (SI) to water resources management (WRM), applied to a watershed (Tiete-Jacare) located in the center of the State of Sao Paulo Brazil. The set of SI proposed was structured by consultation process that privileged participation of basin committee members, water resources users and technical specialists. This set aims to diagnoses current situation and to evaluate future conditions, evidenced by tendencies and changes searching sustainable means to overcome difficulties. The evaluation and analyses from SI could assist stakeholders to propose stratiogies to deficient areas, identified by the indicators, and to prioritize goals and actions. Introduction The sustainability concept appeared as a concern from natural resources exploration and the recognition that many of these resources are finite. The concept has been discussed in several international conferences that culminated in documents as Brundtland Report and Agenda 21. The indicators are tools used to planning and to manage a resource. They are instruments of accompaniment; whose objective is data join and compound information to facilitate comprehension. The main indicators characteristics are: capacity to evaluate existent conditions and tendencies; possibility to make comparisons in both temporal and local scales; possibility to evaluate the accomplishment of goals, as well as ability to supply warning information. The development of SI for WRM is justified by the importance of water for human survival as well as for environmental quality. The sustainable management of this multiple use resource is essential and makes possible the reduction of conflicts and other problems. Objectives The present article aims to brief describe the development of SI to WRM applied to a Basin Committee context. The SI selected from national and international experiences were studied and adapted to the empiric object, Basin Committee Tiete-Jacare (CBH-TJ), located in the State of Sao Paulo Brazil. Methodology The methodology used in this research can be divided in three main parts: Concepts and Context about the associated themes; Rising of proposition and use of indicators experiences; and Development of SI by consultation processes. First, sustainability concepts and definitions survey was elaborated. In parallel was searched WRM structure in Brazil and specifically in the State of Sao Paulo. These discussions resulted in a set of sustainability principles that were identified in literature and adapted considering several aspects (economic, social, ecologic, political and cultural) and multiple uses of water. In this interim, the empiric object was characterized under relative aspects to WRM. This characterization used the Water Resources Situation Report in the Tiete-Jacare Basin (2000) and the Sao Paulo Water Resources Plan (2004-2007). Second, experiences about proposition and use of indicators in Brazil (POMPERMAYER, 2003) and others countries (ANZECC, 2000; EPA, 2003; FBC, 2000; PATTERSON, 2002) were investigated. The indicators were filtered to WRM and a preliminary set of SI was obtained. Third, a list of possible problems was submitted to committee members, asking to prioritize these problems in agreement with the reality observed in the whole basin or in their municipal districts. SI were associated to prioritized problems, reducing the preliminary SI for the wanted context. A second consultation process was accomplished by experts and technicians to evaluate the indicators, culminating in a set of SI more consistent and concise. Finally, the modified set of SI was also submitted to Committee members to verify possible gaps or overlaps. The final set of SI will be adopted in a collective process to be conducted in parallel to the elaboration of the Watershed Management Plan, in course nowadays.

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Michele de Almeida Corra & Bernardo Arantes do Nascimento Teixeira: Developing Sustainability Indicators

Results and Discussions The first result obtained in this research is a set of specific sustainability principles applied to water management. The main principles that compose this set are: universal access to water, responsible use, decentralized and participative management, economic value of water, environmental education and conflicts solutions considering multiple uses. The studied experiences on SI applied to WRM in different countries (presented in CORREA & TEIXEIRA, 2006) were used to compose a preliminary set of SI, after an adaptation to local context (Tiete-Jacare Basin). The main result presented here is the set of SI obtained by successive consultation processes. In the first consultation, indicators were related to problems prioritized by committee members. The main problems pointed out were: absence of riparian vegetation; occurrence of erosive process; small society participation in decision processes; problems in water supply system; irregular occupation in protected areas (margins, hillsides, riparian); pollution sources (wastewater and solid waste); necessity of environmental education; and lack of planning to WRM. In the second and thrird consultations, the set of SI (based on studied experiences and classified according problems) was evaluated and the results are showed in Table 1. The indicators were related to respective problem, and the numbers indicate their priority (number 1 is most important).
Table 1 Set of Sustainability Indicators to Water Resources Management

Associated Problem 1 Riparian vegetation absence 1 Riparian vegetation absence 2 Occurrence of erosive processes 3 Small society participation in decision process 6 Excessive groundwater withdrawal 8 Pollution in collection of water points 9 Losses in water supply system 10 Solid Waste (SW) inadequate disposition

Sustainability Indicator Ratio between vegetation area and total basin area Ratio between streamlength with riparian vegetation and total streamlength Number of significant erosion process Number of civil society entities registered in the committee Number of wells with significant water levels falling Index of water supply quality Index of physical losses in water supply system Ratio between amount of SW without correct destination and total amount of SW

Unit % % Un. Un. % 0-100 % % % % Un. 0-100 % 0-100 %

13 Absence of management instruments Ratio between licensed outflow and total (license and payment) outflow susceptible to license Ratio between payed outflow and total outflow susceptible to payment 16 Occurrence of problems in stormwater drainage (SD) 19 Water resources Pollution and contamination 22 Insufficient wastewater system 23 Groundwater pollution and contamination 24 Insufficient water surface availability Number of occurences of significant problems in SD Index of water quality Ratio between population assisted by wastewater system and total population Index of groundwater quality Ratio between demand and water surface availability (domestic, agricultural and industrial uses) Ratio between population assisted by water supply system and total population Number of occurences of diseases related to WR Number of conflicts manged by basin committee

25 Insufficient water supply system 26 Occurrence of diseases related to water resources (WR) 29 Conflicts due water resource multiple use

Un.

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Some discrepancies between opinions of committee members and specialists were observed and resulted in: priority problems whose indicators were classified as subindicators, and problems that were considered secondary whose indicators stood out by specialists. The concept of "significant" present in some indicators should be discussed and decided by the committee in the context of the Basin Plan. The development indicators based on previous identificated problems that were pointed by society and basin committee members allowed inclusion of important aspects, addressing to priorities areas. It could be observed that the main sustainability principles defined in the first step of the research were also considerd in the set of SI. Society participation as a whole in the decision process of basin committee aims to leave then aware and to involve all segments in sustainability quest: technicians, specialists, users and managers. One problem to be faced is lacking of available data necessary for the proposed indicators composition. When this lack is verified, actions should be foreseen to obtain and to render available requested data. It is recommended that the set of SI be applied in Tiete-Jacare Basin context to evaluate its capacity to monitor management aspects and to give bases to diagnose situation of water resources. The application of SI should be a committee routine, allowing stakeholders to know how conditions are developing along time, and compare conditions and evolution with other basins. This set of SI makes possible to diagnoses WRM in the Tiete-Jacare Basin. Through application of these and subsequent analysis of data obtained, SI could to address actions to deficient areas, as well as to prioritize goals already proposed. The set of SI should compose the Basin Plan and should be available to the society, acting as a subsidy in environmental education and as a guideline in changing water users behavior. Bibliographical References
ANZECC, Australian and New Zealand Environment Conservation Council. Core Environmental Indicators for Reporting on the State of the Environment. State of the Environment Reporting Task Force, 2000. Disponvel em www.deh.gov.au/soe/publications/coreindicators.html. CORREA, M. A & TEIXEIRA, B.A.N. Uso de Indicadores de Sustentabilidade na Gesto de Recursos Hdricos: algumas experincias internacionais. (in portuguese). In: V SIMPSIO INTERNACIONAL DE QUALIDADE AMBIENTAL. Porto Alegre, 2006. EPA's Draft Report on Environment: Technical Document, 2003. United States Environment Protection Agency. Office of Research and Development and the Office of Environment Information. www.epa.gov/indicators/. acesso 28/09/2005. FBC - Fraser Basin Council, Canada. Sustainability Indicators for the Fraser Basin Workbook, October 2000. www.fraserbasin.bc.ca acesso em 06/10/2005 PATTERSON, M. Headline Indicators for tracking progress to sustainaibility in New Zeland. Massey University, Palmerston North and Ministry for the Environment ahd previously release as Technical Document n. 71. Signposts for Sustainability. 2002. POMPERMAYER, R. S. Aplicao da Anlise Multi-critrio em Gesto de Recursos Hdricos: Simulao para as bacias dos Rios Piracicaba, Capivari e Jundia. (in portuguese). MSc Thesis Universidade de Campinas, 2003.

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Indicators for Sustainability in an Urban Watershed in Baltimore, Maryland, USA


E. McGurty
Johns Hopkins University, United States emcgurty@jhu.edu

Introduction The environmental movement aims to improve environmental quality for the equal benefit of everyone. Since we all depend on the same earth system, traditional environmentalists contend that protection of that system will accrue benefits to all people. However, the environmental justice movement challenged the universalist thinking of traditional environmentalism by demonstrating that many attempts at universal improvements resulted in improving the quality of the environment for some people more than others. Further, the new policies actually led to worsening conditions for people of color and the poor. The environmental justice movement in the United States gained power by showing how the legislative and regulatory infrastructure designed to ameliorate environmental problems contributed significantly to the inequitable distribution of risks. The idea that environmentalists spoke for everyone by advocating for policies that reduced risks on a universal basis was no longer tenable. [1] The focus of environmental justice advocates on inequity in the distribution of environmental risks begged the question: Should the risks be redistributed evenly across all segments of society so that middle class whites increase the risks they now face so that their burden can be equal with the poor and people of colour? Activists insisted that redistribution of risk was not the logical solution to the problem of inequity. For example, Ben Chavis told delegates and observers to the First People of Colour Environmental Leadership Summit in 1991 that "[w]e are not saying 'take the poisons out of our community and put them in a white community.' We are saying that no community should have these poisons." [2] The challenge for environmental justice is to advocate for the reduction of overall risks without undermining the civil rights approach that emphasizes the inequities in risk distribution. The tension between these two impulses infuses the movement. For example, Jesse Jackson's keynote address to the Summit stressed the universality of environmental issues and underscored the impacts of the current environmental protection paradigm on everyone: "You can't say it's just a black thing, or a brown thing, or a red thing. For they may dump toxic waste on the poor side of town today, but as surely as the wind blows, as surely as it's one planet Earth, what affects any of us in the morning affects the rest of us by sundown. " [3] However, Robert Bullard, the sociologist who spearheaded much of the scholarly interest in environmental justice, emphasized racial inequity of risks rather than universality: "We can clearly document that the environmental problems that confront our communities cannot be reduced solely to class; it is not just a poverty thing. Racism cuts across class. And we have to understand that and drive that point home every time some white media person tries to spin it into 'it's a class thing.'" [4] While it seems the movement embodies contradictory perspectives, the promise of environmental justice lies in its ability to simultaneously engage both the universal/equal and the local/unequal aspects of the environmental consequences of development decisions. Planners are well positioned to take up this challenge. Watershed 263 Restoration Project The Urban Watershed Restoration Project in Baltimore, Maryland attempts to integrate these ideas from environmental justice into urban regeneration through ecological restoration. The project approaches environmental issues from the multi-scale approach that environmental justice demands. The traditional environmental problem of poor water quality of the Chesapeake Bay is addressed by focusing the poor environmental quality in a distressed, low-income, predominately African American section of Baltimore. By simultaneously considering both the universal and the inequitable perspectives on environmental problems, the project promises to improve environmental conditions that effect many (water quality) while also reducing the environmental risks borne by the few and improving the quality of life for residents of this distressed urban area, as well. Watershed 263 (WS 263), one of 355 storm water catchment areas in Baltimore, is a 930-acre drainage area which includes portions of 12 neighbourhoods in predominately low-income, African-American sections in historic West Baltimore. The WS263 project aims to improve water quality of the outflow into the Middle Branch of the Patapsco River, a part of the Chesapeake Bay, while simultaneously improving social and economic conditions in distressed city neighbourhoods. The project involves extensive community participation in the implementation and maintenance of a variety of non-structural Best Management Practices (BMPs) and strategic restoration projects. Techniques that improve water infiltration will be employed in addition to offsetting impermeable surface with increased green infrastructure. Examples include rain gardens, strategic place-

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ment of new urban tree canopy, diversion of runoff to street tree pits, the use of advanced technology street sweeping, clean-up and plantings in vacant lots, construction of green roofs, and development of a 6 mile greenway through the urban streets and parks. In many ways, the project is similar to myriad of water quality improvement or urban greening projects in cities throughout the United States. For example, community organizations in various cities routinely use community greening gardening and forestry as a method of addressing the problems of vacant properties. [5] Also, structural and non structural BMPs are regularly employed by cities in storm water management plans and programs. [6] However, the project has two unique characteristics that enable the integration of environmental justice sensibilities into a mainstream environmental problem. Using Ecological Boundaries for Urban Planning First, the planning area is defined by ecological boundaries, not the normal way of thinking about central cities, particularly economically distressed parts of cities. Planning in inner cities is most often organized around either political or social boundaries. For example, in Baltimore, the recently developed comprehensive plan focuses on traditional neighbourhood designations. Neighbourhoods are areas in the city that facilitate interactions among residents and creating a geographic identity for residents. Usually, neighbourhoods have some degree of education, income and ethnic homogeneity and have a primary school at the centre. In many ways, neighbourhoods, as socially functioning areas, offer an ideal scale for planning. For example, because residents have a strong affinity with their neighbourhood, active citizen participation in the planning process is more likely at the neighbourhood level. Also, citizens experience the positive and negative impacts of urban development policies and city programs and services on the neighbourhood level. A third benefit of the neighbourhood approach to planning is that citizens can define spatial boundaries and can change those designations, depending on the context. [7] Using ecological boundaries for improving economic and social qualities in distressed city areas contradicts many currents in planning. However, ecological spaces offer an opportunity to examine impacts of environmental problems on two scales, the "universal/equal" and "local/unequal." The traditional environmental objective, addressing universal aspects of environmental risks, involves the Clean Water Act (CWA); a federal level law that aims to improve the quality of the surface waters of the United States with the goal of making all of them meet the "fishable or swimable" criteria. The CWA assumes that improving the water quality of a body of water will decrease the environmental and health risks for all Americans, no matter what their income, education level, race or ethnicity. The underlying assumption is that inequities, civil rights, poverty, and social marginalization have nothing to do with water pollution. The law and its related regulations do not deal with people and their life circumstances at all but focus exclusively on the physical environment. Regulators examine data on contamination and create parameters for both point and non-point sources of contamination in order to improve water quality. The permits that are issued, the regulations that are promulgated and the rules that are enforced only take water quality standards into consideration. The purpose is to clean the waters of the nation, not to reduce poverty or ameliorate racism. [8] As mandated by the CWA, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identified Baltimore Harbour as impaired by bacteria (fecal coliform), toxics (PCBs), metals (chromium, zinc and lead) and suspended sediments. As a result, Section 303 (d) of the Clean Water Act mandated the State of Maryland to establish "Total Maximum Daily Loads" (TMDL) for nutrients and metals for the Harbour and enforces these through the State's issuance of National Permit Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits. In addition, under a consent order with the EPA, the City has agreed to major capital improvements in its sewer system, designed to eliminate raw sewerage entrance into the Harbour from the outdated and ill maintained combined overflow sewers and the illegal sewer connections. The capital improvements for the storm sewers are underway in the city and will continue for 12 years and will require at least $900 million. [9] While these actions spurred by the CWA may result in an improvement in the water quality of Baltimore Harbour, it is difficult to see how the residents in West Baltimore would be impacted. What difference would it make to the daily life of the average resident in these neighbourhoods if the pollution in the Harbour waters was decreased? However, if the idea of community is conceptualized in ecological terms, the direct connections between the quality of the water in the Harbour and the lives of residents in West Baltimore can be drawn. The contaminants flowing into the Middle Branch of the Patapso River (part of the Baltimore Harbour) from the outflow pipe of sewer shed 263 come from aspects of the area that have direct bearing on the quality of life of residents. Land use, tree canopy, open space, abandoned buildings, vacant lots, impervious surfaces, trash and sanitation service, traffic, diesel buses and trucks are implicated in both the contaminated Harbour and the poor quality of life experienced by residents. The ecological boundary makes the high levels of environmental burdens borne by residents in WS 263 a vital aspect of implementing the CWA. This approach transforms a traditional environmental solution into an environmental justice remedy: improving the 66

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conditions of poverty and oppression in concert with ameliorating environmental problems. The solution for the Harbour, which has a universal implication, is rooted in restoration of the urban landscape in ways that also addressing the economic and social conditions of the urban poor. Indicators for Social and Economic Improvements The second aspect of the project that enables an integration of the universal and local aspects of environmental justice is the development of metrics to assess the impacts of restoration on not only environmental parameters, but also economic and social qualities of the community. The environmental parameters can follow standard methodology and protocols. The project's specific water quality goal is to use strategic restoration and BMPs to decrease both nutrients and heavy metals in the outflow by 25%. The goal was established after preliminary SWMM models that with implementation of BMPs, 27% of storm water can be reduced and or treated. The model further suggested that by increasing tree canopy alone, up to 15% of precipitated water can be intercepted by urban tree canopies. By focusing efforts in one a sub-sewer shed, as an experimental site along with a control sub-sewer shed where no restoration projects will be implemented, the team can determine the impact of the restoration and BMPs on improvements in the outflow. Toward that end, in both the experimental and control drainage areas, sampling equipment has been installed to collect flow rates and volumes, and sample to test for heavy metals, nutrients, E. coli and other pathogens, and temperature. In addition, 85 plots were analyzed for vegetation, using UFORE methodology and 45 of these 85 plots had soil analyses for heavy metals and nutrients. The baseline data indicates that WS263 has very poor water quality in comparison to other watersheds in Baltimore City and County. For 19 storm events, water quality in WS263 exceeded EPA criteria for Cu, Pb, and Zn up to 90%, 80%, and 25% of the time, respectively. Concentrations of nitrate-N were as high as 6 mg/L during low flow periods, which is comparable to agricultural watersheds in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. The soils of WS263 are moderately contaminated. Approximately 17% of plots sampled had Pb concentrations that exceed EPA soil screening guidelines. The majority of these plots were located on abandoned lots. Tree canopy in WS263 is 5.9%, compared to the city-wide canopy of nearly 20%. Species are mostly naturalized invasive species (e.g., Tree of Heaven), not planted and managed trees. The measurement of the expected social and economic benefits is a complex problem for three main reasons. First, if the goal is to improve the quality of life of residents living in the area, then traditional measures of the urban development benefits are not appropriate. For example, increasing property values are often viewed as a primary benefit of urban redevelopment projects. However, in this context, where the goal is to improve the quality of life of the current residents, increasing property values might only serve to displace the current residents with wealthier ones. Increasing socio-economic status of a particular place is also often used to indicate the success of urban redevelopment schemes. However, an increase in income of residents of an area could simply be an indication of wealthier people replacing poorer people in a specific place, not the increase in income of the current residents of the area. History is replete with examples of both urban and environmental problems that are unintended consequences of solutions to other problems. The WS263 project asks: How do we create "green" cities that don't push out low income people as an unintended consequence? Using an ecologically defined space creates a second challenge to measuring the social and economic benefits from the restoration projects and BMPs. Most data is collected using census geography, city boundaries, or other socially defined spaces and will require significant manipulation in order to make it reflect the reality in the watershed. Since another primary goal of the project is to create community stewardship over the restoration projects, the data manipulation must be available in fairly "user-friendly" fashion so that ongoing data collection and analysis can continue to assess trends over time. The third challenge for developing social and economic indicators for the project is that some of the information that could indicate success needs to be collected, which is costly and time consuming. Researchers conducted phone surveys to learn about resident's knowledge of watersheds and their satisfaction with the environmental quality of their neighbourhood. Baseline data indicates that residents in WS263 are about as knowledgeable about watersheds as their counterparts in the city and region. Results of the survey show that 33% of the people living in the region know that they live in a watershed, in contrast to 22% in the city and 28% in WS263. However, two indicators show that WS263 residents show deep dissatisfaction. First, only 9% of the people living in the region are dissatisfied with the environmental quality of their neighbourhood, in contrast to 17% in the city and 34% in WS263. A second indication of dissatisfaction is that 41% of the people living in the region would move away if they could, in contrast to 54% in the city and 74% in WS263. While these measures, instituted by researchers, offer some insights into the impact of the restoration projects on the quality of life of residents, they do not necessarily reflect the characteristics of a neighbourhood that are important to residents. To capture these measurements, the Watershed 263 Community Stakeholders

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Council formed, as an outcome of the community capacity building and outreach efforts of the project. The Council developed, through community fora and consultation with project partners, a list of potential measurements that could indicate project success, based on goals for each dimension of the project. There are 10 social, 10 ecological, and 8 economic goals deemed important by residents, and the Council identified several metrics that could be used as proxies to determine if the project was fostering these goals. (See Table 1). Conclusions Since most of these parameters have not been measured on any level of scale, baseline data sets need to be established. The next steps for this project include the development of a data base management system that the Council can use for future collection and organization of the indicator data. If trends are to be determined, long term data collection will be necessary. Since the information will be coming from myriad sources, the Council will need an organized structure for obtaining each data set, a system for quality control/quality assurance, and an easily implemented method for parcelling the data into the WS263 boundaries. After establishment of the database system, preliminary assessments need to be conducted. While time-sensitive analysis can not be conducted because the restoration efforts have just begun, the indicators could be compared to other locations at various geographic scales (within Baltimore, in the Baltimore region, other cities educational and motivational purposes. While the baseline data could easily be shown with graphs and charts, the Council will need to adjust the graphs and charts to incorporate the future data, so flexible and user friendly tools for representing the data need to be developed. Environmental justice has challenged urban practitioners to reconsider the impact of their work and to conceptualize their vision of liveability. The WS263 project has the potential to demonstrate that universal goals of improving environmental quality for everyone can be addressed while simultaneously improving the quality of life for residents in poor, distressed city neighbourhoods. In 1970, Richard Hatcher, the first black mayor of Gary, Indiana said, "The nation's concern with environment has done what George Wallace was unable to do: distract the nation from the human problems of black and brown Americans." The situation was exasperated when it came to light that the laws and regulations designed to improve the environment for all citizens actually led to decrease in environmental quality for the poor and people of color while allowing whites and the middle class to escape the worst of the environmental burdens. However, the WS263 project has the potential to model an approach to environmental problem solving that avoids the redistribution of risks onto the marginalized and takes the problems of black and brown Americans seriously.
Table 1: Sample of Community Identified Goals and Indicators for WS263
Selected from Social Goals and Indicators Goals Indicators Greater community involvement and stewardship teams # of people involved in the WS263 Council # of people identified as willing volunteers # of people who feel neighbours are supportive of community improvements (sense of community unity) Safer neighbourhoods and travel ways connecting # of traffic accidents involving pedestrians schools, parks, community centres, commerce, and # of schools, parks, and community centres, etc. linked to institutions designed safe pathway Selected from Ecological Goals and Indicators Goals Indicators Reduce impervious surface and improve groundwater # acres impervious surfaces converted to green space and infiltration other previous surfaces Reducing the ratio of alleys to roads to sidewalks Open space # of vacant acres converted to green space, community gardens, other green uses # of acres of open space per person # of open space acres that function as an ecological unit (connectivity) Selected from Economic Goals and Indicators Goals Indicators Community micro or informal economic enterprise # of new community run businesses Dollars spent in locally owned businesses Community based weatherization programs, rain barrel Establishment of locally owned business specializing in storm installation, cool roof programs, housing code water reduction technologies improvements # of rain barrels, green roofs, and energy saving appliance installations

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References
[1] Eileen M. McGurty, Transforming Environmentalism: Warren County, PCBs and the Origins of Environmental Justice, (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007). [2] Charles Lee, ed., Proceedings: The First National People of Color Environmental Leadership Summitt(New York: United Church of Christ, 1991): 8. [3] Ibid., 73 [4] Ibid., 30 [5] Diane Englander, New York's Community Gardens: A Resource at Risk, (New York, NY: Trust for Public Lands, 2001) [6] Bell, W., et. al., "Targets of opportunity: an innovative urban BMP retrofit program," Public Works (July 1999) 130: 8 [7] David S. Sawicki and Patrice Flynn, "Neighborhood indicators," Journal of the American Planning Association (Spring 1996) 62: 2. [8] United States Environmental Protection Agency, Introduction to the Clean Water Act, http://www.epa.gov/watertrain/pdf/IntrotoCWA.pdf, viewed 11 April 2007. [9] USA and State of Maryland v. City of Baltimore, Consent Decree, 26 April 2002, http://www.epa.gov/compliance/resources/decrees/civil/cwa/baltimore-cd.pdf, viewed 11 April 2007.

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System of Indicators for Municipal Sustainability: Santo Andr So Paulo Brazil


Glria Regina Calho Barini Nspoli1, Paula Raquel da Rocha Jorge Vendramini2, Tadeu Fabrcio Malheiros3, Gilda Collet Bruna4, Arlindo Philippi Jr2
Mato Grosso Stade Government, 2School of Public Health University of So Paulo, 3So Carlos Engineering School University of So Paulo, Mackenzie Presbiterian University So Paulo gilda@mackenzie.com.br
1 4

Abstract The city of Santo Andr belongs to So Paulo Metropolitan Region, and it is located on the fountainhead that partially supplies the region. It is divided by part of Billings lake which is not internally transposed. It is necessary to pass by other cities in order to get to the other side. This geographic division constitutes a peculiar physical situation and distinguishes the way the territory is occupied. The northern part is more occupied and dense while the other part, which is the Paranapiacaba district, much less dense and with different urbanistic characteristics. This part of the city is managed by the only sub-city hall of Santo Andre, which embodies Paranapiacaba and Parque Andreense. Santo Andr started its industrialization in the end of the 19th century with the arrival of European immigrants (mostly textiles industries) and there was a change in the profile of these industries in the 1950's, when it started to have many auto parts industries. The city has been the target of many governmental intervention projects and it has been one of the pioneers in the participative management, in the implantation of the participative budget as well as in the integration of environmental sanitation policies. The concern with the sustainable development is present in their policies and projects. As consequence of the adoption of management measures, different from most Brazilian cities, Santo Andr has systematized data and published part of this data in a city data year-book. Besides that, the city counts with a geographic information system (GIS) which is in process of consolidation. But, even being an exception among the cities in the country, Santo Andr could count with a more efficient tool for public management in case it adopted a system of indicators of municipal sustainability, modeled on the existing ones, already used in some Brazilian cities, or developed its own indicators system, that could monitor systematically its development. The objective of this work is to approach the public policy of environmental sanitation in Santo Andre and discuss the necessity of an indicator system for its management. Introduction The issue related to environmental conservation in urban areas has deserved special attention because the cities have in their territories most people and economic activities with antropic impacts more and more expressive, reflecting in texts of international conventions and national governmental planning. It is necessary to identify how these concerns are present in the municipal legislation and what kind of indicators that cities like Santo Andr have availabre. Located in the State of So Paulo, Brazil, Santo Andr was chosen because it has an environmental sanitation policy directed for urban sustainability which is still inexistent in great part of the Brazilian cities. These concerns are present worldwide in the Global Agenda 21, produced in Rio-92, and in the eight Development Objectives of the Millennium, defined in 2000 by the UN Millennium Summit UN, where government representatives, among them, Brazil, agreed on reaching them until 2015. Among these objectives there is the environmental sustainability (UNESCO, 2000). In Brazil, the National Agenda 21, concluded in 2002, contemplates in its axis "Strategy for rural and urban sustainability" the urban issue, more specifically treated in the objectives 10 to 14 (CPDS, 2002). The tenth objective of this Agenda is about the management of urban space and the metropolitan authority, understanding that the urban sustainability depends on federal policies directed to the national development, but favoring the decentralization, respecting and strengthening the local government and incentivating the comanagement among different social segments. For the redirection of policies and urban development, we propose a significant reorganization of municipal, metropolitan, state and federal management systems in a way that the cross-sector planning and implementation of territorial order programs, housing, transportation and job generation is stimulated. It is necessary to promote changes in the objective of development policies and urban environment conservation, mainly the ones related to irregular occupation and industrial activities. This change intends to replace punishment and restrictive instruments to others of negotiation and incentive, privileging the ones of economic nature, understanding that they are more suitable because they generate additional resources that propitiate the implementation of urban sustainability projects (CPDS, 2002). 70

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Recently, the Federal Law number 11.445 of 01/05/07 established national guidelines for basic sanitation services, focusing as principles to be observed in its rendering, that are universalization and integration. this means to serve everybody and integrate actions directed to water supply, sanitation, urban draining, and wastes handling, besides its articulation with environmental protection policies, water resources and health protection. In relation to the management it is expected the institutionalization of decision processes, information systematization, transparence in the actions and social control (MINISTRIO DAS CIDADES, 2007). The participation of environmental sanitation in the salubrity of natural and built environment is expressive, and it should not be isolated. There is the necessity of cross-sector articulation with social policies, in a way that the sanitation of urban environment is made possible and the environmental quality of the cities becomes a reality. In order to reach the socio-environmental results from the execution of the actions mentioned, which refers to urban environment, the municipal administration need to have their reality represented by a system of socioenvironmental indications that subsidizes the formulation and management of urban policies, as well as the proposal of a municipal urbanistic legislation. The city of Santo Andr The city of Santo Andr, a component of the Metropolitan Region of So Paulo, was separated from So Bernardo do Campo in 1953, its population is approximately 664,000 people (IBGE, 2000). The city has an area of 175 Km2 it is located in a fountainhead region, which partially supplies the city of So Paulo, the most populated city in the country. The water from this fountainhead contributes for the formation of Bilings lake, which divides the city in two parts and there isn't an internal crossing to the city. Its economy is based on industrial sector. Social indicators built for the Brazilian cities rank Santo Andre in the 76 place nationally, referring to municipal social situation. It shows in a scale of 0 to 1, the last one represents a better position, the following social indicators: Poverty 0,816; Youth 0,825; Literacy 0,921; Education 0,754; Formal employment 0,209; Violence 0,792; Inequality 0,390; Social exclusion 0,637 (POCHMANN e AMORIM, 2003). As the city is contiguous with its neighbors, So Paulo, So Bernardo do Campo, So Caetano do Sul and Diadema, its road mesh are continuous with these cities'. Its structure is radial, a result of disordered occupation, a characteristic of most Brazilian cities. The Santo Andre 2020 planning aims to work on the specificities of the city and aims to go toward the maintenance and enlargement of its economic potential, in the social inclusion perspective, conserving its environmental asset, with quality of life in the urban space point of view, culture, leisure, education, sports, accessible to everyone, with no exception. Concerned that this journey must be done together with the citizens who live, work and contributes to build a better future, the project received the name City of Future and it has a participative design. Santo Andr participates in the Intermunicipal Consortium and in the Economic Development Agency of Geat ABC and in Regional Chamber of Great ABC. Great ABC is the name given to part of the Metropolitan Region of So Paulo composed by the following cities: Santo Andr, So Bernardo do Campo, So Caetano, Diadema, Ribeiro Pires, Rio Grande da Serra and Mau. There has been initiatives to apply sustainability indicators in Santo Andr as the GEO-Cities, but because of lack of resources they haven't been built. A project called "MEGA Strategic Evaluation of the Implementation Process of Development and Environment Policies in the city of Santo Andr SP" is under development with partnership with the City Hall and the University of So Paulo, which will develop an evaluation methodology for public environmental policies and as one of its products will be an indicators system. Municipal Policy of Environmental Sanitation and Management The city of Santo Andre innovates when it establishes, since 1998, a Municipal Policy of Environmental Sanitation and Management, which is an integrated environmental sanitation model. It considers as environmental sanitation actions the ones that aim to reach ascending levels of environmental salubrity by: potable water supply, sanitary and liquid waste disposal, water draining, control of transmitting diseases vectors and other specialized services constructions (Unique Paragraph of Article 1 of Municipal Law 7.733/98). Besides these attributions, the civil defense actions that aims the management of environmental risks are also responsibility of the managing organ of this policy. The ongoing improvement of environmental quality, the universalization of environmental sanitation actions, the multidiscipline attitude when treating environmental issues, popular participation in the decision processes having the environmental education as a mobilizer, the inter-sector integration, the adoption of pub-

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lic health and environment improvement criteria for the use of financial resources managed by the City are some of the principles of this policy (Art. 2). A Municipal System of Environmental Sanitation and Management was instituted. Institutional agents that are integrated in an articulated and cooperative way (Art. 5 and paragraphs) to formulate policies, define strategies and execute actions of environmental education compose it. The Municipal Council of Environmental Sanitation and Management and the Municipal Service of Environmental Sanitation of Santo Andr SEMASA, as technical and executive agency and collaborator, participate in the system as consulting and deliberative agency. To evaluate and follow the implementation of the sanitation policy, as well as the publication of Environmental Salubrity Reports of the City are responsibility of the COMUGESAN, a collegiate of twenty-two members on the same level composition. The system is composed by collaborating agencies and the government departments responsible for the urban and housing development areas, municipal services, education, economic development and employment, citizenship, health, culture, sports and leisure, municipal police besides the Popular Participation Nucleus. It is assigned to SEMASA competences to implement the objectives and the instruments of the instituted policy, with responsibilities to plan, propose, execute and coordinate the actions to be taken, as well as control and inspections. Among other competences for the agency are the elaboration of the Environmental Sanitation and Management Plan PLAGESAN; the establishment of norms, criteria and stands of environmental quality and pollutant emission; the management the Municipal Fund for Environmental Sanitation Management resources and coordination of the elaboration and revision of director plans related to its competence (Art. 6). The legal orientation for the use of the indicators in the policy is noticed in two moments. First, as an element to compose PLAGESAM, in which "sanitation, epidemiologic and environmental, use and occupation of the soil indicators and others of regional impacts" must compose the city socio-environmental diagnoses. Second in the elaboration of the City Environmental Salubrity Situation Report, subsidize the evaluations of the policy and the programs in execution. These indicators must be built from an Environmental Information System, one instrument of the Policy (Art. 12, incise XVI). Urban Socio-environmental Indicators Systems The institutional apparatus that guides the Environmental Sanitation Policy of Santo Andr has, in its context, actions related to infra-structure and sanitation services, environment, urban development, health and environmental education. Because of the way that the system is conceived, it can be understood as propitiate to the construction of a socio-environmental indicator system build from the urban sub-basin, which bases all the actions articulated by the public policy. There is a summary of data compiled annually by SEMASA that works more like an instrument to publish the data than an articulator of it. The city notices the necessity of an indicator system for the improvement of local management, but its initiatives haven't been successful. It would be interesting that in the conception of the indicators for the city there were the concern of relating social and environmental indicators in a way to be possible to evaluate the size of urban improvement impacts in terms of infrastructure and public services in the social indicators improvement. The advances of the national policy of development and the advances reached by Santo Andr, as the fact of having done a mobilization to establish vision of future (City of the Future) and having prepared a director plan which contains goals, creates a propitious moment with adequate environment for the implementation of the municipal system of information aiming the sustainable development. Bibliographic Reference:
CPDS - Comisso de Polticas de Desenvolvimento Sustentvel e da Agenda 21 Nacional. Agenda 21 Brasileira Aes Prioritrias. Braslia: MMA, 2002. IBGE - Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatstica. Censo Demogrfico. Rio de Janeiro, IBGE, 2000. MINISTRIO DAS CIDADES. Lei Federal No 11.445 de 05/01/2007. Disponvel em: <http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato2007-2010/2007/Lei/L11445.htm>. Acesso em: 28/03/2007. POCHMANN, Mrcio e AMORIM, Ricardo (orgs). Atlas da Excluso Social. So Paulo, Editora Cortez, 2003. SEMASA, Saneamento Ambiental de Santo Andr. Disponvel em: <www.semasa.com.br>. Acesso em 25/03/2007. UNESCO. UNESCO and The Millennium Development Goals. Paris, 2000. Disponvel em: <http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals >. Acesso em: 28/03/2007.

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Construction Residues in Goinia


T.M. Melo, L.R. Rezende & E.H. Carvalho
Federal University of Gois UFG, Brazil txmmelo@yahoo.com.br

Abstract The civil construction chain of production is an important economic activity that contributes significantly to the extraction of natural resources and indiscriminate production of residues. The present work deals with the elaboration of a panorama about the construction and demolition residues produced in Goinia. It aims to contribute to the possible plan that can be carried out with convergent actions to reach a form of sustainable management of such residue. Therefore, the interaction between the residue produced and the environment were observed. The legislation, the data concerning the quantity of residue produced, collected, transported, its final destination, the initiatives of use and recycling as well as the administrative and fiscal aspects were studied. The study was based on the collection of data through the application of questionnaires, photographs, and oral interviews during visits to several municipal and state agencies as well as private companies. During the writing of this paper there was participation in events such as seminars, congresses, public hearings and technical meetings. The analyses verified that the municipal data, when they exist, are precarious due to a lack of control and management in all of this chain of production. The city of Goinia is facing a great challenge in the elaboration and management of efficient public policies that are capable of managing this type of residue correctly. Introduction The lack of effectiveness or even the inexistence of public polices directed toward the correct management of the residues of construction and demolition in the municipalities, is mainly caused by a complete lack of knowledge about the various factors related to it, such as: the volume produced, the costs involved in non-preventive and emergency management, the possibilities for the utilization of these residues and other factors. Some data show their significance in the environment, such as: Schneider (2003) who states that civil construction consumes from 14% to 50% of the natural resources extracted from the planet. In addition, Andrade (2001) explains that this sector produces about 50 kg of residue for each m2 of construction. According to Pinto's (1999) research carried out in some municipalities in Brazil, it was detected that there is an estimated production of residue from 230 kg to 760 kg per inhabitant per year. Prior to any action it is necessary to diagnose the principle occurrences of these solid residues, which would make it possible to see the current situation in Goinia in relation to this type of residue, thereby contributing to the coordinated acts of sustainable management. In the Brazilian economy, John (2001) affirms that construction industry corresponds to 14%. Methodology The search for data was based on qualitative research in the field (visits in various public agencies: City Department of Environment SEMMA, Union of the Constructors of Gois SINDUSCON-GO, Association of the Rubbish Carriers of Gois ASTEG, City Cleaning Company of Goinia COMURG; private companies: local constructor companies, and transporting enterprises and participation in technical meetings, public hearings and various events related to the theme) as well as bibliography. The residues from construction and demolition still did not have an official place other than the city landfill at the end of 2006. It was supposed that there was some control of the quantity of residue from civil construction by COMURG since this control existed over the other residues received there (hospital and domestic). That's why initially a questionnaire was developed specifically for ASTEG and COMURG. The intention was to identify the quantity that was transported by the private companies and by the public company. With these data in hand, we intended to identify and list the quantity that arrived at the city landfill being transported by the private companies and by the public company. With this information we would compare the data from the public company with that from the private company. During the visits we discovered the lack of available data in public agencies, which contributed to a change in the methodology in oral interviews in various public agencies in an attempt to find the information and later compile the data. Results In 2005 an average of 30,000 m3 of residue were transported monthly by the 3,000 dumpsters of the 36 private transporting companies in Goinia, added to that of the COMURG and other informal carriers. In this period an average of 10% to 15% of dumpsters was stopped in rendering of services. The data referring to the amount transported by the private companies was obtained by sampling. The president of the ASTEG has a

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company, that according to him controls 10% of the market and based on this information the data were projected into an universe of 100%. This analogy was justified because of the lack of control over the official data of the association. One needs to consider that the transportation is carried out in dumpsters that vary from 3 m3 to 10 m3 and there is no detailed control over the exact amount in each dumpster. Using this information we obtained the results of the data presented in Table 1, which esimated for each dumpster the average volume of 4.5 m3 and weight equivalent of 4 tons. There one can see that in the years 2001 and 2002 the quantity of residue collected was about 236,000 tons. For each year from the year 2003 there was an increase in the quantity to about 322,000 tons. In 2005, the quantity of residue transported by the private companies reached the level of 354,000 tons. At the end of this period of observation, we verified an increase of 50% in the quantity of construction residue in Goinia. In Figure 1 one can see that for all of the years considered there was an increase in the production of residue in the period between the months of May and October. This fact may be related to the dry season in this region, which is the period when there is more construction. We tried to relate the obtained data of each period with the increase of the civil construction activity of SINDUSCON-GO, which indicated the Association of Real Estate Market, however the related agency clarified that it doesn't make this type of control either.
Table 1: Annual quantity of construction waste carried by enterprises

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Total

2001 Dumpster 4230 3730 4819 4807 4230 4807 5010 6380 5832 5902 5216 4032 58995

Tons 16920 14920 19276 19228 16920 19228 20040 25520 23328 23608 20864 16128 235980

2002 2003 2004 2005 Dumpster Tons Dumpster Tons Dumpster Tons Dumpster Tons 4200 16800 4560 18240 4560 18240 6930 27720 3383 13532 4410 17640 4410 17640 6200 24800 4220 16880 5830 23320 5830 23320 7680 30720 4532 18128 5607 22428 5600 22400 8010 32040 5029 20116 6690 26760 6690 26760 8530 34120 4220 16880 7830 31320 8010 32040 7820 31280 5470 21880 7822 31288 8015 32060 7440 29760 6022 24088 7630 30520 7905 31620 8600 34400 5230 20920 8210 32840 8316 33264 7910 31640 6110 24440 7760 31040 7460 29840 7380 29520 5832 23328 7570 30280 7570 30280 6090 24360 4702 18808 6590 26360 6590 26360 5970 23880 58950 235800 80509 322036 80956 323824 88560 354240

Origin: ASTEG, 2006

In 2002 there was a register in the city landfill that showed the deposit of 35,400 tons of domiciliary residues, 140 tons of hospital waste and 60,615 tons of civil construction residues. It shows that the civil construction waste makes up 63% of the total garbage received at the city landfill. So, Goinia is within the average of the national production of construction residue identified by Pinto (1999), in which he mentions that the ratio of construction and demolition residue within the urban solid residues produced nationally vary from 41% to 70%. This type of residue has always been partially deposited in the city landfill (ASTEG, 2006). This behavior is contrary to article 4, paragraph 1 of the Conama Resolution 307/2002, which prohibits these residues from being dumped in city landfills as well as irregular dumping on roadsides, river banks, vacant lots and protected areas. At the same time that the agencies responsible for protecting the environment prohibit the use of city landfill sites for dumping civil construction residue, they have not provided an alternative, a legal place for such dumping. The government, construction companies and the transportation companies have reached an impasse and have not been able to find a solution. Much of the construction residue continues to be dumped in inadequate places. It is estimated that 70% of construction residue is deposited outside of the city landfill. The impasses in relation to the dumping of construction residue have been constant in all municipal governments, because the category of civil construction has never been challenged to accept their responsibilities in relation to these residues. Until February 21th, 2007 no solution or proposal had been found. In the year 2003, there was in Goinia the Program of Management of Materials, where it was verified that in 2002, Goinia spent approximately U$1 677,966.10 a month with the removal of 727,374 tons of rubbish deposited irregularly on the roadsides of the municipality. That is an average of 60,615 tons a month, or 2,020 tons a day (BLUMENSCHEIN, 2003). With these data we inferred that the monthly cost in that year was U$ 3.81 for each ton removed. Comparatively, one can see that the transportation companies removed the total of 235,800 tons, with a cost of U$ 74,866 a month and U$ 10.85 each ton (ASTEG, 2006). It needs to be con74

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Annual quantity of construction waste carried by enterprises


45000 40000 35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0

2001 2002 2003 2004 2005

m3

Ja n Fe b M ar Ap r M ay Ju n

Months
Figure 1: Annual quantity of construction waste carried by enterprises. Origin: ASTEG, 2006

sidered that the garbage trucks are not hired to remove only construction residue, and the percentage of the other types of residue transported is not calculated. Having the data in hand one can infer that during the whole year of 2002 a total of 963,174 tons of residues was removed with the average total cost of U$ 752,832. The public administration spent 74% of the total spents on the transportation of construction residues in Goinia. Moreover, it spent of 193% more than the private carriers for the transportation of construction residue. These public costs are repassed to the taxpayer through the Urban Territorial Land Tax IPTU, but it isn't specified how much of the IPTU is used for this service neither how is calculated the value for each ton if there aren't any control about the quantity of residue transported. In 2005 the private carriers had 81 multiple hoist trucks, traveling an average distance of 45km (round trip), having as their base the central area of Goinia. In this year the transportation for each dumpster cost the private companies U$ 27,74, while the rent for a dumpster was U$ 30,51 per week. In 2002 the rent of a dumpster per week cost U$ 18.85 and the cost for the company was U$ 15.25. The expenses from the two periods are distributed in the following way: 4.3% in office expenses, 52.5% with employees and taxes and 43.2% with the expenses with dumpsters and trucks. It is estimated that of the residue transported 45% is concrete and mortar, 15% ceramic residue, 20% of recyclable residue (wood, plastic, glass, paper) and 20% of non-recyclable residue. However there has not been a specific study of the exact measurement of the characteristics of each type of residue (ASTEG, 2006). The impasses concerning the dumping of construction residue have always existed in all of the municipal administrations and recently have been in the news, especially in the year 2006. In January 2006 there was an article concerning the dumping of tons of residue into the rivers and creeks of the city. That article mentioned that from the Macambira Creek the equivalent of 1.2 million m3 of residues was removed. Much of that residue had been washed into the river from the edges where it had been dumped. This residue was causing the blockage of the creek bed. The operation of removal took 32 hours of work by the Department of Highways and Roads of the Municipality (O POPULAR, 2006). Conclusion With these analyses one can see that during the chain of production in urban construction there has never been any concern about the management of the final destination of this type of residue, even after being regulated by Conama in 2002. Thereby the city has inherited an environmental passivity, whose consequences are socialized with the community, while the discussion of a solution is only taken up with each new headline in the newspaper. Because the quantity of residues transported increases from year to year we are concerned about when there will be public policies capable of impeding indiscriminate production of these residues. There has also been no public or private discussion about the cost of the adequate administration of construction residue. The public data obtained are deficient and precarious and show the need for a data-base upon which

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urban planning can be developed. Such conduct is indispensable for the development of a modern methodological base. With this, there arises the concern about when public policies will be created that are capable of resolving the problem, requiring that the participants involved be held responsible. Therefore one can see how urgent it is to develop actions that will provide efficient service to meet the needs of the city. It must be emphasized that the huge amount spent by the public administration is 193% higher than the costs of private transportation of these residues, not counting the expenses such as: costs relative to the correction of irregular dump sites; final dumping in landfills or irregular dump sites; inspection activities; pest control; environment polluted and the bad quality of life. References
ANDRADE, A. S. U; Paliari, J. C; Agopyan C. Estimativa da Quantidade de RCD Produzido em Obras de Construo de edifcios. In: IV Seminrio "Desenvolvimento Sustentvel e a Reciclagem na Construo Civil -0 Materiais Reciclados e suas Aplicaes". 05 e 06 de junho de 2001. Universidade de So Paulo. So Paulo. 2001. p. 65-74 ASSUNO, M. Mananciais recebem toneladas de entulho. O Popular, Goinia, 15 de jan.2006. Cidades. Vida Urbana, p. 5. ASTEG - Association of the Rubbish Carriers of Gois. Goinia, 2006. BLUMENSCHEIN, N. R. CREA - GO. Programa de Reduo de Desperdcio e Gesto de Materiais. In: CREA - GO. Prmio CREA Gois de Meio Ambiente - Compndio dos trabalhos premiados / 2003. Goinia. Safra Grfica e Editora Ltda, 2004. JOHN, V. M. Avaliao da vida til de materiais, componentes e edifcios. Porto Alegre, 1987. [Dissertao de Mestrado da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul] PINTO, T. P. Metodologia para Gesto Diferenciada de Resduos da Construo Urbana. So Paulo, 1999. [Tese de Doutorado da Escola Politcnica da Universidade de So Paulo] SCHNEIDER, D. M. Deposies Irregulares de Resduos da construo Civil na Cidade de So Paulo. So Paulo, 2.003. [Dissertao de Mestrado da Faculdade de Sade Pblica da Universidade de So Paulo]

________________________________________________ 1 The value of the dollar corresponds to the average exchange rate during the years of the research (2002 to 2005): U$ 2,95.

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How to Measure the Quality of Urban Life: The Tale of Istanbul Metropoliten Area
Gulsen Yilmaz1 & Serkan Gunes2
1 Gazi University, Ankara,Turkey, 2Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey gulseny@gazi.edu.tr

Introduction Quality of life (QOL) is of interest to environmental psychology, social psychology, health sciences, sociology, anthropology and social geography and urban planning. In the context of urban planning, ssustainable development increased significantly during the last decade of the twentieth century. So it is necessary to improve the quality of urban life to gain sustainable urban areas. Measuring life quality in housing areas and to calculate suitable indicators are important issue. The focus of this study is to assess the quality of urban life study in Istanbul case about an environmental and spatial sustainable development strategy to support sustainable development in the globalization process. The analytical measurement study of QOL in Istanbul encloses the physical attributes of residential areas and survey of QOL with individuals as well as the data gained from municipality's data base. In this context, the study aims to identify the difficulties of measurement in QOL and discusses the possible solutions. What is the Quality of Urban Life: Short Overview Definitions of quality of life are as many and inconsistent as the methods of assessing it. Stemming from a larger piece of work looking at the definition and measurement of quality of life this paper highlights the lack of a consensus definition of quality of life by means of taxonomy of definitions that emerge from the literature. In recent years, in an attempt to secure conceptual clarity, various researchers have produced typologies of QOL definitions. An assessment of Quality of Life (QOL) has been a topic of growing concern on a global scale. Although the concern is said to have originated in the 1930s (Wish, 1986). As "quality of life" represents more than the private "living standards", indeed several disciplines assigned different meaning to the QOL. Although there is consensus on the meaning of the term quality, implying a sense of satisfaction of the people within an environment in which they live, the specific set of attributes (indicators) and the measurement (methods) have drawn notable criticism from many quarters (Wish, 1986). If one analysis the QOL depending on space; space will be questioned whether it can satisfy the demands or the needs of humans. In such a case, in defining QOL, the space becomes one of the major variables to observe humans and their activities with the complex interaction over itself and time. On the other hand, if one threats the QOL under satisfaction dimension, then the individual subjectivity stands in the forefront. Space based characterization of QOL is constituted by combining the objective conditions of space and individual subjective responses (Marans, 2003). Spatial QOL is formed by the accumulation of these variables. Space based objective conditions are constant where the individual subjective responses differs. Since, in the measurement of QOL, the individual becomes a continuous variable of quality in an inextricably manner (Rogerson, 1997). Another dimension in spatial QOL is the variety in spatial scale in the perception of individuals. The overall QOL experience of space is the collection of different subjective responses of individuals in different spatial scales as city and community, macro and micro neighbourhood and house (Marans and Rodgers, 1975). As a result, forming QOL over space differs in individual level, however all individual subjective responses creates a total QOL experience with the combination with the objective conditions the space offers. One of the main indicators of QOL on urban scale is the quality and characteristics of residential areas. Because yet the residential areas threats the natural resources of the city; residential areas also offers healthy environment to improve QOL. Istanbul Istanbul is the one of the most important cities in Turkey. From 1980 to 1990, the population of the Istanbul grew from 4.7 million to 7.3 million, and reached approximately 10 million in 2000. Today, the macro form of the Istanbul metropolitan area was determined by the dispersion of housing areas towards the periphery by reflecting on the provision of transportation network. The city is more and more big so the problems relationship between city growth and quality of life. Rapid population growth by migration and unplanned urbanisation process causes increasing demand to natural resources. In this respect not only natural resources are destroyed and exhausted but also the structure of the built environment has become unhealthy. So, Istanbul faces many persistent planning problems such as lack of adequate infrastructure in squatter areas, the gap between incomes, etc. The problems per-

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sist partly because planning has not been enough responsive to local peculiarities. This lack of responsiveness is in turn because of the gross scale at which problems are conceived and attacked. One of the most important and persistent problems is the poor urban and environmental quality. Up to now, the location selection of industrial, commercial and mass housing areas have not put down to a defined planning policies. In this way, these selections are limited by the individual preferences and speculative interests. The Tale of Istanbul Metropoliten Area The Istanbul Study on Quality of Urban Life is undertaken as part of the Istanbul Strategic Plan prepared by the Greater Istanbul Municipality and by Istanbul Technical University together. The method of the research consists of three main data sets: 1. Face-to-Face 1635 Interviews with Residents 2. SSI1 population data 3. GIS data. From this data set, a model which defines the quality of urban life indicators is established. At the end of the study, some measures have been developed to increase the quality of urban life especially for the residential domains environment2 (Figure 1-2). The data is collected by environmental inventory3 and producing GIS data. In the study, the main attribute of the QOL is defined as residential areas. One of the main focuses of the study is justified according to the relationship between healthy environment and residential areas. In order to assess the quality of urban life by measuring both community and environmental conditions and residents' evaluative and behavioral responses as part of Istanbul Strategic Plan. The intent is to work with municipality in establishing an appropriate set of indicators which not only reflect the quality of life in Istanbul at the beginning of the millennium, but which can be measured regularly throughout the 21st century. Quality of life is analysed according to residential areas in this study quality of neighbourhood in residential areas includes public services and facilities, commercial facilities, environment and conservation of open land, residential history, mobility and preferences, travel behaviour, community involvement and participation, neighbouring, fear of crime, parks and recreation services, family health status, physical activity, etc.

Figure 1: Examples from the results of the study. IMP, 2006.

For the measurement of QOL, population and building density and land values are determined in district scale. However, direct correlation between population density and QOL is not identified. Therefore, the correlation between high population density and unhealthy environment is accepted. The building density is defined according to physical conditions that are served by residential areas (Figure 1). The study concluded with taxonomy of 9 different housing patterns. Quarters were then analyzed via land values. Initially, a total of 740 quarters were identified across the city of Istanbul. Third the quarters were then divided into 9 sub categories of 1: Low Density/Low Land Value, 2: Low Density/Medium Land Value, 3:Low Density/High Land Value, 4:Medium Density/Low Land Value, 5: Medium Density/Medium Land Value, 6:Medium density/High Land Value, 7:High Density/Low Land Value, 8:High Density/Medium Land Value, and 9:High Density/High Land Value. (Trkoglu, 2006) According to the housing patterns, each housing areas differs from the others by density and land values (Figure 2). The main characteristics of patterns are observed as irregular distribution. In this study the terminology about distribution pattern is defined regular versus irregular. With the help of the data, Istanbul Metropolitan Area and relationship between subjective evaluations and objective environmental measurements are analyzed to identify neighborhood profile and differences between communities. But its not succeeded because of data generalization of indiviual subjective responses. 78

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Figure 2: Taxonomy of different housing patterns in Istanbul: IMP, 2006.

Conclusion The case study in this article shows that the QOL in terms of satisfaction should refer both the subjective and objective aspects concerning necessary conditions for satisfaction in Istanbul. It is recommended that planning administration in Istanbul must be decentralized, if it is to be more responsive to intra-city environmental eccentricities and improve the quality of life. The study does not clarify the relationship between the environment and the city dwellers. The environmental objective conditions and individual subjective responses should be integrated according to interrelation basis. The recommendations of the study are inadequate due to descriptive analysis. The empirical evidences are increased due to the scale. However, the study resulted with lack of legible profiles of city dwellers and recommendation to improve life quality. To handle this problem, correspondence analysis4 is offered to clarify relational dimension and Bertin Graphics5 should be introduced for the sake of legibility. Correspondence analysis (has also been called correspondence mapping, perceptual mapping, social space analysis, correspondence factor analysis, principal components analysis of qualitative data, and dual scaling) (CA) is a method of factoring categorical variables and displaying them in a property space which maps their association in two or more dimensions (Greenacre, 1993). The purpose of the method was permuting the subjective individual responses and objective environmental condition of a matrix for the purpose of revealing hidden structure in data matrix. In abstract terms, a Bertin matrix is a matrix of display. Bertin matrices allow rearrangements to transform an initial matrix to a more homogeneous structure. The rearrangement of QOL indicators are realized latent and concurrent structure of urban quality which gives clues for urban planners to interventions. References
Greenacre, M. J. (1993) Correspondence Analysis in Practice. London: Academic Press. IMP, (2006) Istanbul Metropolitan Planning Department Studies, Istanbul. Marans, R.W. and W.L. Rodgers. (1975) Toward and Understanding of Community Satisfaction, In Hawley, A. And V. Rock (Eds.) Metropolitan America in Comtemporary Perspective. New York: Halsted press. Marans, R.W. (2003) Modelling Residental Quality Using Subjective and Objective Indicators: Opportunities Through Quality of Life Studies, Paper presented IAPS Methodologies in Housing Research Conference, Stockholm, Sweden. Maupin P., Apparicio, P. Lepage R., Solaiman B. (2000) Multiple Correspondence Analysis for Highly Heterogeneous Data Fusion. An Example in Urban Quality of Life Assessment, http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel5/6940/18648/00859867.pdf

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Rogerson, R. (1997) Quality of Life in Britain (Quality of Life Research Group, Department of Geography, University of Strathclyde Glasgow) Wish, N. B. (1986) Are We Really Measuring the QOL?, American Journal of Economics and Sociology 45, p. 93. Perver K. Baran, Handan D. Trkoglu Fulin Bolen, Robert W. Marans, Conflict Between Growth And Quality Of Urban Life: Initial Findings From An Ongoing Study In Metropolitan Istanbul , Paper presented at EDRA37, Atlanta, May 37, 2006. Turkoglu, H., Bolen F., Korca P., Marans, R., (2006) Measuring Quality of Urban Life: Findings from Istanbul Metropolitan Study, http://enhr2006-ljubljana.uirs.si/publish/W13_Turkoglu.pdf, Paper presented at the ENHR conference "Housing in an expanding Europe: theory, policy, participation and implementation" Ljubljana, Slovenia,2 - 5 July.

________________________________________________ 1 State Statistical Institution. 2 Physical Characteristics of Residential Environments: 200 meters around respondent's home 3 Environmental Inventory: Visible environment around respondent's home 4 Benzecri, J. P. (1992). Correspondence analysis handbook. Paris: Dunod. 5 Bertin, J. (1977). Graphics and Graphic Information Processing. New York: De Gruyter

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Economic Valuation of Urban Forestry Environmental services valuation for the efficiency and maintenance of urban environmental resource
Luiza Helena Nunes Laera1 & Peter Herman May2
1Universidade Federal Fluminense PGCA,Brazil, 2Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro CPDA, Brazil llaera@gmail.com

Abstract The present urban forest policy in the city of Rio de Janeiro shows a greater priority of public budget resources to plant trimming, through periodic pruning. Based on that fact it is possible to demonstrate that preservation measurements must be more efficient than those designed to meet individual needs for space, as a way to guarantee the continuous environmental services provided by the trees. The exploratory study of economic valuation of trees, based on hedonic value, has confirmed that community trees provide economic benefits on real state prices. Thus demonstrating that each additional unit on the variable "public tree" correspond to an additional R$399.967 in the variable "real state unit price", placed in the neighborhood of Recreio dos Bandeirantes. This estimated value should be taken as a parameter for encouraging the development of public forestry plan, based on carbon measurement, still not established in Rio de Janeiro. This initiative will certainly guarantee significant environmental, economic and social benefits to society. Introduction Within the city of Rio de Janeiro, urban forestry sets a link between the natural phytogeographical elements and its urban sprawl, with crucial significance for life quality improvement and the city landscaping. Worldwide concern for "global warming" suggests increasing interest in trees for sequestering carbon and reducing carbon dioxide emissions. (DWYER et al, 1992). Due to its efficiency, urban forests have been playing an increasingly significant role in reducing carbon levels in the city atmosphere, not only in sequestering carbon but also in affecting CO2 emission on those areas (NOWAK e CRANE, 2002). Approximately 90% of the terrestrial carbon storage is placed within the world forests, both in biomass and soils. Forests sequester 1 Gt C annually through the combined effect of reforestation, regeneration and enhanced growth of existing forests (PANDEY, 2002). Urban trees' contribution may be even more significant if fast-growing species are given good growing space and favorable light, fertilization and moisture conditions (SAMPSON et al. 1992). Additionally, a growing necessity for managing urban green areas for all community's benefit comes from its special capacity to controlling many of the adverse effects of the urban settlement, thus contributing for a significant improvement in life's quality (JONHSTON, 1985). The confirmed urban forestry's benefits of environmental order logically take us to consider the existence of additional economic and social gains. This paper proposes the discussion and identification of the economic value of urban forest. Thus being an efficient indicator for application of a wider environmental policy with priority for both control actions (planning, maintenance, protecting the urban forest) and behavioral motivation towards public trees. Both economic valuation and carbon quantification methodologies were used to make possible the inclusion of environmental functions of the urban forestry in the discussion of its economic value. Public forestry management in the city of Rio de Janeiro The public forestry management in Rio de Janeiro depends on the city administration and it is carried out by Parks and Gardens Foundation (FPJ), an institution controlled by the Municipal Secretariat of Environment. Even though it depends on public agencies, the control and management actions are not coordinated by these agencies, therefore there's no program or management plan for the city's urban forestry. The lack of a previous management plan on urban forestry implies the necessity of an adequate insertion of vegetation on the spaces they have been set. The pruning routine is motivated by citizen's inquiries through registration through a taxpayer advocate service. The trees are specific and individually evaluated by FPJ technicians in order to determine the need for pruning or removal. Once the services are defined, the city administration hires a company to accomplish the intervention following criteria referring to crown volume that needs to be removed, with specific values according to the residue from pruning or removing. Only expenses related to forestry maintenance (pruning and removal) are included on the annual budget of the city that is directed to FPJ, there is no budget foresees the maintenance of trees already planted in the city. Most of the tree planting in the city is based on legal construction licenses. It is required to plant tree seedlings inside the land area or in a public area, according to the total area and destination of the construction. The number of seedlings corresponds to a portion of the total construction area, meaning that for every

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150m built it is necessary to plant one seedling within that land. If it is not possible to plant on the construction site this number doubles when it comes to public area. These new trees are planted by the construction companies following FPJ's determinations, being responsible for the costs referring to seedling acquisition and planting services. With the purpose of analyzing the economic aspects of the plan and control actions by Rio de Janeiro Urban Forestry an analysis was conducted in an area of the city where public urbanization investments are considered a priority. This area called AP4 include the neighborhoods of Barra da Tijuca and Jacarepagu where approximately 60,000 community trees were quantified in the period between 2002 and 2004, summing the total number of pruned trees, the number of planted seedlings and the number of tree removal. The monetary value analysis of urban forestry management and control on AP4 (Table 1) showed expenditures are usually greatest for pruning activities, when compared to maintenance and inspection costs. In the same way, the private resources showed on accounting for planting costs are only short term effective due to planted seedling loss by lack of maintenance on medium and long term. Table 1: Costs / Collections Interventions in Ap4 Forestry 2002/2004
AP4 2002 to 2004 Forestry interventions Pruning Planting Planting management Report evaluation Fines ( for killed trees) * Evaluation costs ** Dead trees removal costs Number of Trees 18540 13841 203 121 TOTAL Municipal Private Costs (R$)*** Costs (R$)*** 1,244,290.04 0 188,154.55 812,340.00 423,534.60 0 105,007.03* 0 62,033.88** 0 2,023,020.10 812,340.00 ***US$1=R$ 2,1 Collections 0 0 0 5,670.00 0 5,670.00

This model that focus on pruning practices indicates a possible decline in tree development and a possible reduction in the number of trees in the city. The absence of budget assurance for tree planting management might lead to a reduction of the current number of public trees. This fact indicates the necessity of evaluating the current management plan and its consequences to the urban environment quality, defining an urban forestry plan based on carbon measurement. It is necessary to define management action and goals in order to guarantee the continuous environmental services provided by public tress. An urban forestry management plan, based on carbon measurement, would represent the necessary changes on the stewardship plan to optimize complementary benefits. Through a quantification of biomass alteration on public forests it is possible to evaluate the positive effects of public forestry when related to tree carbon sequestration. On the other hand, the additional carbon benefits from urban forestry expansion and a restrict stewardship plan would only become significant on a long term basis. In order to calculate the total carbon sink from the expansion of urban forestry, it is necessitous to measure the biomass asset, year after year, to obtain a biomass exponential curve that would indicate the actual profit to the carbon stocking from community trees. The quantification of phytomass alteration on public forests has been one of the evaluations of the positive effect of public forestry related to biomass stocking alteration, in the context of calculating the balance of greenhouse gas emissions. On the other hand, the additional carbon benefits from urban forestry expansion as well as a stewardship plan would only become significant on a long term basis where the measurement of this growth to the stock would indicate the biomass exponential curve, year after year. Besides the proposal of an urban forestry plan definition for this city, it is also necessary to analyze other sources of values and benefits of trees to the society that would enable the population to achieve a better perception such as the additional real state value due to the presence of community trees. Exploratory study on the economic valuation of urban forestry The Hedonic Pricing method application The theory and methods in economic valuation have been used to estimate the portions of economic value of urban green areas, including the direct use, the environmental services value and physical and mental human health besides the economic value of these areas. The economic valuation model based on hedonic pricing used on this research considers an heterogeneous good as an attribute and estimates the economic value for each attribute based on the analysis and 82

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quantity of the characteristics related to them. The hedonic pricing method is used to estimate the value of a good or service that affects prices of marketed goods or services when associated with them (FREEMAN, 1993). The basic premise of the hedonic pricing method is that the price of a marketed good is related to its characteristics, or the services it provides. Thus, prices will reflect the value of a set of characteristics associated with the good purchased. This way, for each good attribute there is an implicit value that defines it. If characteristics are identical, it is possible that the remaining differences in price are associated with environmental aspects such as: green space and coastal area proximity, air pollution, noise, etc. The analysis took place on the neighborhood of Recreio dos Bandeirantes, where the physical characteristics of property and neighborhood were considered. This neighborhood was chosen due to the great number of property registered on the city administration and also, because this region has been receiving public investments for urban forestry services. The aim of the methodology was to find a factor of impact on property prices and consequently the relative valuation of a considered externality (public forestry). The research area was defined as polygon with approximate are of 1.48km, consisting of 27 streets, excluding streets that surpassed the polygon limits the same way as streets and avenues located on the polygon limits. On each street the properties for sale that were negotiated on the period between October 2004 and November 2005 were identified. The structural variables features (number of rooms, bathrooms, garage and total area) and the unit market price were supplied by local real state agencies. The value unit used on the analysis was the average m cost, both for built and under construction sites, mainly located on the public streets. For neighborhood data, related to presence or absence of urban forestry, one sheet was elaborated for each street with individual information about locality and type of property, presence or absence of aerial net area and individual tree characteristics related to species and age located on the front sidewalk of properties. Tree age determination was based on planting data carried out by FPJ. The individual tree with maximum 2 year from planting were identified as "small", those with ages between 2 and 5 years "medium" and from 5 years on "large". The localities (streets) were distributed according to the level of forestry defined basically by classification and qualification of forestry and presence period of trees on those streets. There were 27 streets analyzed, with 338 residential buildings, 395 houses, 62 commercial units, 172 empty lands and 40 buildings under construction. The studied area presented 2,297 trees distributed in 110 species. From the total street trees, 316 were denominated "small" with maximum 2 year from planting period, 632 "medium" between 2 and 5 years, and 1,349 "large" trees, fully grown, over 5 years from planting period. Properties (apartments) negotiated in the period between October 2004 and November 2005 was identified on each street, as well as each unit price. One hundred and four (104) residential units were identified and negotiated in the period, with value per street indicated on each analysis sheet. Data was analyzed with the aim of relating the impact of tree presence on property value. The data collect was organized in sheets organized by forestry type (small, medium and large) and according to property square meter value. On the elaborated sheets 4 multiple regressions were applied, in a linear functional form, using the software Microsoft, Excel OFFICE XP. For each analysis the dependent variable "property price" was maintained as well as the independent variable "total m2", with the individual inclusion of four neighborhood variables ("total number of trees" "number of large trees" "number of medium trees" and "number of small trees"). Each regression result indicated the variability proportion between property price (dependent variable "y") that can be clarified by property square meter value, and the presence of trees on the streets. On the regression analysis the results obtained for the t-test demonstrated that the ratio between property price and presence of full grown trees is statistically significant. This evidence was demonstrated by the Pvalue obtained from the variable, that allows discarding a void premise and accept the positive impact hypothesis of community trees on the real state price. In order to test the magnitude of the ratio between the real state price and the presence of trees on a street, a test was suggested, forcing the linear coefficient (interceptive) to a zero value (Table 2). The results demonstrate that each additional unit on the variable "total tree number" (which represents the urban forestry present on the street) correspond to an additional R$399.967 in the dependent variable "real state price". This result is confirmed by the P-value application, near zero, that encourages us to accept the hypothesis of the positive effect of street tree presence on the real state prices, within the polygon. Based on the residential building number within the polygon, there is an estimative of 3,380 properties (apartments) such as the ones analyzed on the regressions. Considering the value R$399.96 related to additional individual total property value by the presence of trees in streets, it is predictable that this value corresponds to public forestry in the area of Recreio dos Bandeirantes, when related to the real state price, showing a total of $ 1,351,898.86. Forestry maintenance on the analyzed streets, calculated based on public expenditures, corresponds to approximately 13% of the total estimated value. To estimate this result the following

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Regression statistics Observations R-Squared Adjusted R-squared Stat t Intersection Variable X 1 Variable X 2 Coefficient Intersection Variable X 1 Variable X 2 valor-P Intersection Variable X 1 Variable X 2 Where: VARIABLES
Dependent variable -Y Independent variable X1 Independent variable X2

R1 101 0.635449658 0.621666321 R1 #N/A 39.11729327 10.48351337 0 2145.368603 399.9672233 #N/D 5.1058E-62 9.66657E-18 R1
Real State Price TOTAL M Total number of trees

R2 101 0.902286916 0.891198905 R2 #N/A 77.13914595 25.85704106 0 2061.786456 867.4224686 #N/D 3.13004E-90 7.98939E-46 R2
Real State Price TOTAL M Total number of Large trees

R3 101 0.295151197 0.277930502 R3 #N/A 37.0359412 3.007645115 0 2476.788221 469.0086312 #N/D 8.1268E-60 0.003337849 R3
Real State Price TOTAL M Total number of Medium tree

R4 101 0.268887085 0.251401096 R4 #N/A 48.43572924 2.272563424 0 2560.742208 364.982768 #N/D 9.45766E-71 0.025214556 R4
Real State Price TOTAL M Tota l number of Small tree

Table 2: Result of multiple regression applied to linear zero coefficient

actions were taken into consideration: annual necessity of tree monitoring, annual pruning and planting following necessary determinations analyzed on this study. Conclusion The present urban forest policy in the city of Rio de Janeiro shows a greater priority of public budget resources to plant pruning services. Based on that fact it is possible to demonstrate that preservation measurements must be more efficient than those designed to meet individual needs for space, as a way to guarantee the continuous environmental services provided by the trees. This efficiency should be established through effective expansion actions on urban forestry and preservation of existence trees. The exploratory study of economic valuation of trees, based on hedonic value method, has confirmed that community trees provide economic benefits on real state prices, including the environmental economic value of trees. The analysis results demonstrated that each unit increase on the variable "total tree number" (representing urban forestry presence) corresponds to an increase of R$ 399.97 on the dependent variable real state price, for an area of the neighborhood Recreio dos Bandeirantes. Based on this data, it was possible to determine the value of R$ 1351,898.86 to urban forestry on the studied area. Therefore, to avoid alterations on this value it is necessary to create efficient management and control actions, followed by continuous environmental services monitoring, which can be achieve by quantifying the phytobiomass alterations. The annual necessary management cost, described on the study site, corresponds to approximately 13% of the estimated value, calculated by the hedonic price method. This estimated value should be taken as a parameter for encouraging the development of public forestry plan, based on carbon measurement, still not established in Rio de Janeiro, which will guarantee significant environmental, economic and social benefits to the society. References
DWYER, J.F., MCPHERSON E.G; SCHROEDER H.W;.ROWNTREE R.W. Assessing the benefits and costs of the urban forest. Journal of Arboriculture. 18:227-234, 1992 FREEMAN III, A. M. The measurement of environmental and resource values: theory and methods. Washington, D.C.: Resources for the Future, 1993. JONHSTON, M. Community forestry, a sociological approach to urban forestry. Arboriculture Journal. 9:121-126, 1985 NOWAK, D. J ; CRANE D. E. Carbon storage and sequestration by urban trees in the USA. Environmental Pollution 116, 381-389, 2002. PANDEY, D. N. Global climate change and carbon management in multifunctional forests. Current Science 83, 593602, 2002. SAMPSON, R. N ; MOLL, G. A ; KIELBASO J. Opportunities to increase urban forests and the potential impacts on carbon storage and conservation. In Forests and Global Change Volume One: Opportunities for Increasing Forest Cover (Dwight Hair and R. Neil Sampson, eds.), pp. 51-72. American Forests, Washington, DC, 1992.

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Perception of Environmental Quality in Aveiro, Portugal: an environmental map based on public claims
Daniela Salgado Carvalho & Teresa Fidlis
University of Aveiro, Portugal carvalhods@gmail.com

Abstract The increase of citizens' environmental perception and the consequent demand for higher urban environmental quality standards has been working, among other issues, as a mobilization factor for public claims over local governments. These claims may constitute a relevant media to characterize and evaluate citizens' environmental concerns, their degree of activism, as well as, the responses given by local authorities to their expectations. The interpretation of this type of data allows the construction of environmental maps, where the relationship between the triangle constituted by "citizens environment and territory local governance" can be assessed. This paper shows an environmental diagnosis based on public claims on environmental matters and discusses its potentials for local environmental and planning management. The paper is structured into three parts. The first part reviews the most recent challenges regarding urban environmental quality within the European context and the main features of the associated political and legal framework in Portugal highlighting the place for public claims on urban environmental problems. The second part presents the case study objectives, methodology and results obtained after studying public environmental claims submitted to the Local Council of Aveiro, Portugal, between 2000 and 2005. Finally, the third part, critically analyses an environmental map resulting from data analysis, bringing to the fore likely interpretation regarding citizens environmental concerns and local environmental problems. The research brings evidence about the diversity of claims and associated environmental problems, including issues such as noise, sewerage and solid waste management or water. The associated spatial pattern also provides a useful instrument to visualize and to evaluate consequent local government performance in terms of environmental planning and management. Introduction The environmental problems resulting from urbanization processes have constituted an increasing focus of attention by population, organizations and government authorities in general. Air pollution, noise, urban solid waste management and sewerage are the most common examples of problems referred to by the population. Due to the fact that environmental quality is intrinsically related with quality of life, public health and even environmental sustainability [see for example van Kamp et. al. (2003) and Pacione (2003)], the solving of its problems is more and more associated with local management and planning programs. The existence of environmental problems, the environmental perception of population and its increasing demand on this matter allow, partially, the interpretation of thematic territorial pattern of the claims submitted to the governmental authorities, especially the local ones, which are in charge (and accountable for) of maintenance and improvement of local public goods and compliance with environmental rules. The theoretical framework of formal public claims related to environmental problems at local level is not widely studied in the specific literature. It is however well explored at the basis of grassroots movements as approached with the labels NIMBY (Not In My BackYard) and LULU (Local Unacceptable Land Use). The NIMBY label, that came into use in the 1970s (Jamison, 2003), is considered as a characteristic of the environmental grassroots movements (Figueiredo & Fidlis, 2003). The LULU label has its roots in the critical analysis of these movements, in which the territorial component, associated with the environmental problems, becomes more relevant. Despite the fact that the claims on environmental matters analyzed on this study do not consist on organized grassroots movements, the NIMBY and LULU features are pointed out since the claims mostly reveal unpleasant situations resulting from local problems sources. The claims on environmental matters submitted to local governmental authorities are formal and non-organized demands that do not properly constitute grassroots movements. Nevertheless, these claims hold potentialities to put into evidence current environmental problems, the environmental perception of citizens or even the authorities' responses. The European Union has been playing an important role on proposal of strategies and instruments which promote the prevention and solving of urban environmental problems. Amongst other documents that propose guidance on this matter, the 5th Environmental Action Programme of the European Community, the European Sustainable Cities and Towns Campaign and the 6th Environmental Action Programme of the European Community and, as a result of the last one, the Thematic Strategy on the Urban Environment (2006), are to be highlighted. The implementation of this strategy is considered an important contribution to the improvement of urban environmental quality and reduction of negative environmental impacts of cities. Some other relevant guidance at international and European level, as Local Agenda 21 (Chap. 28 of Agenda 21) and the Aalborg

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Charter, must be pointed out as they have strongly influenced local strategies for sustainability throughout the world. In Portugal, the legal framework for urban environmental quality can be found in a dispersed set of documents which includes the Framework Law of Territorial and Urban Planning Policy and corresponding regulation, which determines the main rules for land-use planning, as well as the sectorial environmental legislation, in which air and water quality, noise levels and waste management control measures are established. Despite of its coherent evolution and consolidation, the fact is that this vast and dispersed legal framework can not be easily operationalized by local authorities nor assimilated by public in general, hindering an effective local environmental management and urban problems prevention. Case Study and Methodology Based on a research project in course, this brief article presents the preliminary results of the study concerning the claims on environmental matters submitted to the Environmental Department of the City Council of Aveiro, Portugal, between 2000 and 2005. The municipality of Aveiro, with approximately 75.000 inhabitants, is located in the central part of Portugal' Atlantic coast. One third of its territory is classified as Nature 2000 under the European Birds Directive. The empiric research methodology consists on the identification and critique analysis of these claims. After the identification of the cases , these were integrated on a table divided into six thematic items (i) identification, (ii) administrative proceeding, (iii) location, (iv) typology of environmental problem, (v) solving and (vi) results. "Remarks" are included in the table as well. The typology of environmental problems considered in the claims were classified on the following groups water and sewerage; air; fauna damage; vegetation damage; solid waste; noise; abandoned residence/lots; illegal activities/explorations; vectors/insects; abandoned vehicles/objects; and "others". This classification adapted from Nucci (2001) allows the assessment of the protest factors, and consequently the factors of incommodity associated with environmental problems, their location, the local authority's reaction towards the causes of protest as well as the pro-active role they assume to solve the problems. Furthermore, the data's location analysis enables the analysis of the spatial pattern of the claims and associated typology of environmental problems. Preliminary Results In order to show the data treatment carried out up to now, the temporal evolution of the number of claims presented to the City Council, the sorts of environmental problems which significantly disturb citizens (and which lead them to present a formal protest) as well as their territorial distribution throughout the county are presented. The research allowed the identification of the total number of claims, which is 364, presented between 2000 and 2005. The temporal evolution of the presentation of these claims reveals a significant annual increase that has slightly decreased in 2005. Thus, 15 claims were presented in 2000, 30 in 2001, 36 in 2002, 80 in 2003, 105 in 2004 and 98 in 2005. The data found out show a good linear correlation concerning the number of claims, since R2=0,91. The analysis of the claims by typology of environmental problem, showed in Fig.1, reveals that in the five years of analysis, the environmental problems that raised more incommodity were solid waste with 98 claims, followed by water and sewerage with 80 claims, protests regarding abandoned vehicles or materials on the public area with 49 claims and noise with 36 claims. The environmental problems which have led to a low number of claims were air, vegetation damage, fauna damage and illegal activities or explorations. The distriOthers Illegal act./explorations Vegetation damage Fauna damage Vectors/insects Abandoned veh./objects Noise Air Abandoned res./lots Water and sewerage Solid waste 2,20% 7,42% 21,98% 26,92% 9,89% 1,37% 0,55% 1,10% 8,24% 13,46% 6,87%

Fig. 1: Typology of Problems Referred in the Claims - 2000 to 2005

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Daniela Salgado Carvalho & Teresa Fidlis: Perception of Environmental Quality in Aveiro, Portugal

bution of the claims per parish shows that there is a close relation between the number of claims and the resident population within the parishes. This behavior is predictable since the effects of the urban pressure over the environment tend to be more concentrated where there is a higher urban density. The spatial pattern of the claims was analyzed based on the indicator "[(number of claims/resident population) x 100]". Fig. 2 depicts the six most frequent claims and their per capita distribution (each 100 inhabitants) in the parishes of Aveiro municipality, between 2000 and 2005. Globally, and on a decreasing order, the parishes of "Vera Cruz", "Oliveirinha", "Glria" and "Esgueira" concentrate most of the claims per capita that may indicate either more sensibility and perception of the existing environmental problems or, in fact, more concentration of environmental problems. The parishes closer to the urban center Esgueira, Glria and Vera Cruz which enclose about 42% of the municipality' population, present the highest levels of the six most frequent typologies of the environmental problems. The highest number of claims within these parishes is focused above all on water and sewerage and waste management, which is something curious since in these areas the environmental infrastructure are more consolidated. The parish of Oliveirinha, despite the absence of noise claims, constitutes together with Esgueira, Glria and Vera Cruz the parishes with the greatest diversity and the highest number of claims. These four parishes comprise 232 of 364 claims, which represents 63,7% of the total. In the peripheral parishes the typology of evinced problems tends to be less diversified and to present lower intensity of claims per capita.
Per capita distribution of the main claims in the parishes of Aveiro - 2000 a 2005

0,3 0,2 0,1

0,3 0,2 0,1 0,0

0,3
0,0

0,2

0,3

Cacia
0,1 0,0
0,2 0,1

So Jacinto

Vera Cruz

Esgueira
0,3 0,2

0,0

0,3 0,2 0,1 0,0

0,1 0,0

0,3 0,2

Glria

Santa Joana So Bernardo


0,3 0,2

0,1 0,0

0,3

0,3 0,2 0,1

Aradas

Eixo

0,2 0,1

0,1
0,0

Eirol
0,3

0,0

0,0

Caption
Abandoned vehicles/ objects Solid waste Water/Sewerage Abandoned residences/ lots Noise Vectors/insects

0,3

Oliveirinha
0,2 0,1 0

Requeixo
0,2

0,3 0,2 0,1 0,0


0,3

N. Sra. Ftima

0,1 0,0

Nariz
0,2 0,1 0,0

Source: Cartographic base of county of Aveiro - 1:10.000 Proceeding from City Council of Aveiro

Fig. 2: Per capita distribution of the main claims in the parishes of Aveiro - 2000 a 2005

Conclusions The environmental quality is seen as an indicator of quality of life as well as the social-economic factors. As it is an indicator of quality of life the environment has been a focus of attention and protest by the populations, especially at local level. Formal claims on environmental matters submitted to the city councils, who play an important role in the management of environmental quality, hold potentialities to indicate local citizens perception as well as the existence of problems requiring urgent solutions. The claims can monitor perception, existing problems and local council governance. The European, national and local initiatives and recommen-

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dations, such as the Thematic Strategy on Urban Environment of the European Commission, the challenges of the territorial planning on the Portuguese context brought by the most recent legal spatial planning framework, or the National Strategy on Sustainable Development create conditions for a new way to develop and implement public policies of environmental management at local level and the necessity of evaluating and giving responses to the citizens claims, assuring high levels of environmental quality. The data collected and briefly presented show a set of relevant aspects regarding the time evolution of claims on environmental matters, the typology of environmental problems that have led to protests, the prevailing location of these protests and the necessity of intervention by the City Council to solve them or to warn the private initiative if problems are of their responsibility. The data showed a higher concentration of environmental problems in the parishes with higher urban densities, where, surprisingly, organizational schemes and infrastructures for environmental management are more developed. This result calls for the local council to consider the evaluation of local solid waste and sewerage management systems in order to identify improved proceedings in the future. The data also showed an increase of claims over the last years, despite the evolution of the legal framework associated to urban planning and environmental management. In the future a comparative analysis of these results with (i) the responses given by the local council, (ii) the specific features of the urban tissue and its relation with major infra-structures and hydrological system, as well as with the (iii) results revealed by the Local Environmental and Sustainable Development plan will bring to the fore new insights into this brief characterization of environmental problems in Aveiro. References
Figueiredo, E. & Fidlis, T. (2003) Movimentos ambientais de raiz popular em Portugal (1974 - 1994), Revista Crtica de Cincias Sociais, No. 65, 151 - 173. Jamison, A. (2003) The making of green knowledge: the contribution from activism. Futures. Elsevier, Vol. 35, 703 - 716. Nucci, J. (2001) Qualidade ambiental e adensamento urbano: um estudo de Ecologia e Planejamento da Paisagem aplicado ao distrito de Santa Ceclia (MSP). Humanitas - FFLCH-USP, So Paulo. Pacione, M. (2003). Urban environmental quality and human wellbeing: a social geographical perspective. Landscape and Urban Planning. Elsevier, Vol. 65, 19 - 30.

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Structural aspects of academic information networks and their impact in the process of developing urban public policies
Sonia Maria Viggiani Coutinho, Tadeu Fabrcio Malheiros, Maria Luiza de Moraes Padilha, Arlindo Philippi Jr., Maria Sulema Pioli
University of So Paulo (USP) School of Public Health and So Carlos Engineering School scoutinho@usp.br

Abstract This paper has the overall objective of presenting structural aspects and pros and cons of academic networks of research and teaching in environment and sustainable development. Special attention is given to networks that focus on research, access and release of information through indicators. With respect to this study, academic networks mean both, purely teaching institutions networks, as well as mixed networks that are formed by other institutions beyond teaching entities. Networks are known as a combination of people and organizations, generally placed on different locations, far away from each other, that use appropriate communication technologies to interact. These networks leverage, jointly, the ability to generate changes in policies and practices related to sustainable development and environment management to a high level when compared to their individual/ isolated actions. This higher level of combination/aggregation generates advantages regarding commutating knowledge and experiences among the participants, optimizes efforts in time spent in research as well as financial resource invested and required infra-structure to allow the network to properly operate. It is equally important to evaluate the synergies that the network can create among the participants and its impact in the process of developing urban public policies. Introduction The willingness of the international community for achieving the issue of the natural resources maintenance for the future generations culminated in the Environment and Sustainable Development Conference in 1992, in Brazil, where representatives of many countries gathered to develop instruments with only one target: the sustainability of the development. According to the United Nations Worldwide Commission of Development and Environment, sustainable development means to supply the needs of the current population without compromising the needs of the future population. Therefore, a sustainable community should try to balance its economic growth with the maintenance of its natural resources, its culture and people's quality of life, so that its population can benefit from the development achieved. The 21 Global Agenda is a document that aims to materialize the objectives of the sustainable development. One central topic of Agenda relates to the need of consistent information for the decision making process, information backed by sustainable development indicators. These indicators must be used by everyone who needs information. Be it for public policies orientation, to monitor projects implementation or for environmental management, especially in local levels. Additionally, this information also serves to feed the global databases and to grant information to general public and communities. Academic networks Inside of this global context, the academy represents an institutional space; with the objective of teaching and researching deepen the knowledge of the science as well as to enable the link to the society. . The word academy comes from classic Greek. It meant the Academo`s garden Athenian hero in which Plato taught. The academy provides an interdisciplinary contribution for the understanding of the sustainable development. One of its major concerns is to make possible to people the exchange of experiences. Thus, in extremely global world, leveraged by technological progress in communicating, the construction of networks is practically a demand within the academies. In summary, it is crucial to evaluate the synergy that a network can create between the several participants and its impact in the process of urban public policies development (COUTINHO 2006). The etymologic means of the Latin word retis (translation of net to Latin) is a type of mesh to arrest birds, small hunting or fish. So, the notion of network relates originally to capture, to hunting. By transposition, the network is thus an instrument to capture information. This reference to the mesh is more evident in English (network), literally a "net that works", dynamics. The networks are known as a combination of people or organizations; usually geographically disperse at distant places that use appropriate communication technologies (CREECH and WILLARD 2001). The types of networks, found in CREECH and WILLARD 2001, are:

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1. Internal networks of knowledge management Its main objective relate to gather individual knowledge to reach organizational goals. They can surpass the national borders. 2. Strategic alliances Adopt a model used in the private sector to keep or to get competitive advantage outside of the network. 3. Communities for practices They are informal and attract individuals that want to exchange experiences. The main objective is more the desire to fortify individual capacities for their own objectives than to generate a work aiming at common objectives. 4. Specialists Network formed by individuals or organizations that are chosen by the experience they hold at specific areas. 5. Information Network Supply access to information added by its members in an organized form. They are passive. The users only benefit by the capability of the network in supplying information. 6. Formal Network they have more focus and use more restricted database than the information networks. They are trans-sector and trans-regional and their vision is wider than in the communities for practices networks and enrolls more participants than the Strategic Alliances networks. Their strongest point is the productivity and their impact to the decisions makers. Their weakness point is the lack of ability to communicate the information. Another classification of the nets: 1. Informal Networks they are numerous and have an important role regarding knowledge creation. 2. Information Networks as a university library, that allows access to the information, but do not create new knowledge. 3. Open Networks with well-defined subjects, they are created for diffusion of the research and the knowledge. They are formally constituted, and the participation takes place through invitation. 4. Development Networks with well-defined subjects and criteria of participation. They aim at creating knowledge and speeding up its application to the economic and social development. They are formally constituted and have strong governance (CLARK HC 1998). Given the difficult to establish a landmark between the many types of existing networks, this paper proposes the following clusters: 1. By the form of its constitution (formal and informal) the networks can be formally or informally constituted. 2. By the geographic scope of action (national, regional, international) the networks can be formed by people or institutions from only a specific country, region or, they can enclose several countries and regions. 3. By the content (general, specific) the networks can focus in a specific subject (for example Sustainable Development indicators), or they can enclose wider subjects (environment and sustainable development). 4. By its composition (academics, non-governmental organizations, research institutes, mixed organizations, etc) the networks can exclusively be composed by education institutions, non-governmental organizations, research institutes, among others categories. Alternatively, they can be mixed, composed by education institutions, Ngos (non-governmental organizations), research institutes, among others. 5. By its objectives (research, education, informative, practical, mixed) the networks can have as unique objective the research and education, they can focus only in the spreading of information, or they can involve practical activities. They also can be mixed, composed by some or all the above objectives. Therefore, the academic networks, for the purpose of this article, comprehends the networks formed by educational institutions, as any mixed networks that have among other forms of institutions and organizations, educational institutions in its composition. The activities of the research and environmental and sustainable development awareness networks, mainly the academics ones, facilitate the interaction, the cooperation and the transference of knowledge and technology among groups with this common interest subject.Thus, they can develop activities of capacity building, exchange programs, mobility and scientific interaction, with the objective to keep the network institutions in excellent position in relation to the subject in question They have the potential to generate relevant changes in public policies and practices that could help the environment and the sustainable development management well beyond the point that could be reached if they acted individually. Besides the advantage of adding knowledge and experiences among the several participant institutions, the synergy generated also reflects in the effort and time consumed in the research, as well as optimizes financial resources and infrastructure requirements for the network functioning. The intended collaboration within the networks allows the establishment of connections of different perspectives: the relationship between the participants, the joint responsibility of the decisions, the collective responsibility for the results and the support to address complex problems. The mission of a network is not 90

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Sonia Maria Viggiani Coutinho et al.: Structural aspects of academic information networks

necessarily to get tangible results, products or services, but to have as a proposal, the creation of a collaborative landmark of work that allows, in the future, the arising of new joint actions The experiences described ahead in the case, illustrate that potential. Samples of academic information networks As an experience of existing information networks with the participation of the academy, we can mention the Center for International Earth Science Information Network1 (CIESIN), U.S.A., the Canadian Sustainability Indicators Network2 (CSIN), Canada, and the Red de Indicadores de Desarrollo Sostenible3, of the Economic Commission for Latin America and Caribbean (Eclac, Chile), among others. The Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), established in 1989 as an NGO (non-governmental organization) under the Earth Institute at Columbia University U.S.A. aims to promote the access and to strengthen the use of the information by the scientists, decisions makers and general public, contributing for a better understanding of the human interactions in the environment. The mission of Canadian Sustainability Indicators Network (CSIN), of Canada, is to speed up the progress in direction to sustainable development, supplying information concerning best practices in indicators of sustainability in Canada, allowing the exchange of ideas, experiences, data and methods among new and experienced practitioners. The objectives of the Red de Indicadores de Desarrollo Sostenible of the Environment and Human Settlements Division of the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (Eclac), of Chile, relate to the support for developing capabilities and relevant information supply for the evaluation of the progress towards sustainable development. The "Red" provides through its web page, a directory of academic institutions, state-owned companies, non-governmental organizations (national and international) that develop a series of activities related to monitoring, promotion and consolidation of the sustainable development in Latin America and Caribbean. The "Red" is supported by a group specialized in methodologies and sustainable development indicators application in Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico. Conclusion Those networks provide elements to governments to define or to strengthen a sustainable development agenda through using relevant information to elaborate public policies in a more efficient way. That is possible by considering, with the same weight, social, economic and environment questions, besides favoring the assessment of the implementation process of these policies, making possible to establish, in a systematic way, self adjustment mechanisms in the proper set of policies results monitoring expectations. At the same time, the networks can provide inputs to develop and implement sustainable development indicators, promoting the exchange of information among the participant countries, as, for example, the Red de Indicadores de Desarrollo Sostenible assisting countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. In this way, the research group SIADES Environment Information System for Sustainable Development coordinated by the Public Health School and the Engineering School of So Carlos of the University of So Paulo is a network in implementation. Up to now, the group is in the process of initiating a research to evaluate positive aspects, difficulties and opportunities of research academic networks and education in environment and sustainable development, as well as the synergy that a network can create among the several participants and its impact in the process of public policies development. Bibliography reference
COUTINHO SMV. 2006. Anlise de um processo de criao de indicadores de desenvolvimento sustentvel no municpio de Ribeiro Pires - SP. So Paulo [Master of Sciences Dissertation - School of Public Health - University of So Paulo] CLARK HC. Formal Knowledge Networks A Study of Canadian Experiences. Canad: IISD; 1998. Disponvel em http://www.iisd.org/networks/research.asp Acesso em 25/10/2006 CREECH H. Strategic Intentions: Principles for Sustainable Development Knowledge Networks. Canad: IISD;2001 http://www.iisd.org/networks/research.asp Acesso em 25/10/2006

________________________________________________ Canadian Sustainability Indicators Network (CSIN) - http://www.csin-rcid.ca/ Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) - http://www.ciesin.columbia.edu/ Red de Indicadores de Desarrollo Sostenible da Divisin de Desarrollo Sostenible y Asentamientos Humanos do CEPAL http://www.eclac.cl/dmaah/proyectos/rids/index.htm

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The Possibilities of revitalizing Physical Activity in Urban Parks for Human Health with special reference to Daegu, South Korea
H. S. Moon, S. B. Kim & J. H. Shim
Dept. of Environmental Planning, Keimyung Univ., Daegu, South Korea hyeshick@detec.or.kr

Introduction As a rapid growth and urbanization over the past several decades, Green spaces in have literally disappeared in South Korea, and urban health has declined to cause serious many physical and mental health problems among urban residents. In addition, cardiovascular diseases, epidemic obesity, and other major public health problems are strongly associated with physical inactivity. While increasing awareness that individual health is very important and it can be improved by doing physical activity, studies on improvement of fitness through the built environment, like urban parks, have not been carried out. This paper is a case study with an empirical investigation into the possibilities and the potential bentfits of physical activity in urban parks. The changing concept of health The concepts and definitions of health have evolved with the changing standards and goals of human well being. Traditional medicine has focused on pathogenesis, defining health as "an absence of diseases." Health, in modern society, is a much broader and holistic concept, and the preventive and promotional aspects of healthcare are increasingly important. A broader definition of health as "a state of physical, mental, and social well-being," first introduced by World Health Organization (WHO) in the 1980s, is now widely accepted. WHO (1986) states that health has to be considered as a resource for everyday life, not an object of living; it is a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources as well as physical capabilities. Health does not dependent on medical care alone, but instead, includes access to food, shelter, work, education, income, a stable ecosystem, sustainable resources, social justice and equity (Hancock, 1993). Much of this modern concept of health has to do with the quality of the built environment in which people live, work and play. Barton and Tsourou (2000) claim that the quality of the environment and the patterns of developments themselves are the major determinants of health. Especially, city parks are the important built environments for citizens to do physical activity for free or at low cost. And the recent research suggests that exercise is more beneficial-leading to enhanced tranquility, and more relif of anxiety and depression-when it occurs in natural settings, like parks, rather than along urban streets (Bodin & Hartig, 2003). The benefits of parks Parks give us health benefits in several ways. First, parks provide people with contact with nature, known to confer certain health benefits and enhance well-being. Ulrich and Simons (1986) found that natural scenes facilitate recovery from stress more effectively. Ulrich (1991) states that natural environments are highly beneficial for stressed individuals because they hold attention and block unpleasant thoughts. He also claims that contact with plants, water, and other natural elements can calm anxiety and help people cope with stress. Second, physical activity opportunities in parks help to increase fitness and reduce obesity. WHO (1995) warned that obesity is a kind of maladies and has influence on various kinds of adult diseases. Active park users were healthier than passive users and non-park users on a number of measures, such as body mass index (a ratio between weight and height), diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure, depression score and perception of general health (Godbey et al., 1998). Finally, parks resources can mitigate climate and air pollution impacts on public health. Urban heat island effect is a significant public health risk nowadays. Tree canopy in parks reduces air temperature by about five to ten degrees (Kim, 2002). Trees in parks also help improve air quality by removing pollutants from the atmosphere. Methods [Figure 1] shows the study sites: Daegu, South Korea. Datas were collected through person-to-person interview with 400 randomly sampled residents, twenty and over twenty years old, visiting urban parks to do physical activity. The interviews were conducted during September of 2006, and yielded a response rate of 98%. The questionnaire included three parts: the awareness of health, the actual conditions of users doing physical activity, and the considerable factors to revitalize physical activity in urban parks.

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H. S. Moon et al.: The Possibilities of revitalizing Physical Activity in Urban Parks

Figure 1: Study Sites

All response items for the perception, attitude and considerable factors were dichotomous or nominal categorical variables. Data analyses included descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were performed using SPSS software.
Table 1: Types of parks for physical activity

Findings The awareness of health Only 8.1 % of the respondents did not care about health, but 91.9 % of them were interested in health more than 'commonness'. Meanwhile, 95.2 % of the respondents knew that obesity has influence on various kinds of adult diseases, and 93.1 % of them cognized that it is possible to prevent obesity from being serious by doing physical activities.

Item

Variance

Person (No.)

Rate (%)

The actual conditions of users doing physi- Table 2: Types of physical activity Person Rate cal activity Item Variance (No.) (%) According to the [Table 1], over half of the respondents replied that the type of park used for physical activity was 'Small-scale Neighborhood Park and Mini(Pocket) Park'. Another 17.6% used 'Neighborhood Park'. 'Playground (12.8%)', 'Waterside Park (10.5%)' and 'City Natural Park (7.9%)' come after them. This finding shows that people use commonly parks which are easily accessible from homes. [Table 2] shows types of physical activity that occur in parks. Many (67.0%) active users usually walk in parks. All of the remaining variances are less than 10%. This finding shows that users, want to do physical activity in parks, prefer doing low-intensity physical activity, like walk, rather than high-intensity one such as running, biking and etc.. Over 50% of the respondents reported using parks for physical activity once or twice a week, and 25.2% using over three times a week. Most experts encourage people to do physical activity at least three times a

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week to get health benefits. But, the respondents who have been doing physical activity like that are only about 25 %. Meanwhile, many (56.7%) users responded that they used parks for thiry minutes or an hour. Another 35.1% used for over an hour and the other for under thiry minutes. In fact, many experts insist that lipolysis is possible when users do physical activity for over thirty minutes. Therefore, it is the sufficient finding to expect health benefits that 91.8 % of the respondents continued doing physical activity for over thirty minutes. The considerable factors to revitalize physical activity in urban parks According to the [Figure 2], 'Walks' is the most important considerable factor which is needed to revitalize physical activity in parks and 'Good access' which means how easily users visit parks was ranked as the second most important one. The survey showed 'Exercise facilities' and 'Amenity' are also significant factors that ought to be considered.

Table 3: Frequency and Hours of park use


Item Variance Person (No.) Rate (%)

Conclusion This paper reported findings from the survey examining the concern about health, actual condiFigure 2: Consierable factors tions of physical activity in parks and considerable factors to revitalize physical activity. The survey revealed that a) respondents have positive opinions about necessity of physical activity to keep or improve their fitness, b) they commonly use near parks from home and generally enjoy walking, c) hours of park use are enough for expecting health benefits, but frequence is not enough, d) significant considerable factors are the following: walks, good access, exercise fercilities and amemity. Therefore, in order to make more people do physical activity for their health in parks, we ought to apply those factors to the park design. When it is done, it would be possible to expect health benefits through physical activity in parks. Refereces
Lee C, and Moudon AV. Physical activity and environmental research in the health field: Implications for urban and transportation planning research and practice. J Plan Lit. 2004;19(2):147-181. Frumkin H. Healthy places: exploring the evidence. American Journal of Public Health. 2003;93(9):1451 Hancock T. The evolution, impact and significance of the healthy cities/healthy communities movement. Journal of Public Health Policy. 1993;Spring:5-18.

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Landscape planning and environmental sustainability in areas of urban and natural conflict in Rio de Janeiro: The private condominiums case in Barra da Tijuca and Jacarpagua
Flavia Teixeira Braga, Denise da Costa Pinheiro, V. Andrade Andrade
Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil flaviatbraga@gmail.com

By analysing the results processed by the constructed landscape in Rio de Janeiro city, on the boroughs of Jacarepagu and Barra da Tijuca along the last ten years, the provided data unfold a contraditory logic on Real State sales in areas of private condominiums. There is an estimation that new models of artificial landscape have been set based on a inside out preservation, conservation and susteinability ideology for, at the same time they are linked to the final user (dweller), the idea of a commitment to a quality of life pattern and ecosystemic maintenance of the region. On the other hand, taken actions point to a wrong direction, because what is put in practice on the relation between existing landscape and entrepreneurs/constructors favors the creation of an abyss between the discussion/practice of the landscape construction once the systematization practiced on the creation of private condominiums present barriers and problems whose main symptoms are: 1) a segregating spacial occupation; 2) predatory actions that remove original characteristics from the environmental and landscaping unit of the region composed by an area which is rich in fauna and flora (lakes, swamps, vegetation and animals).The usage perspective of the respective areas used in study cases show the construction of private Real State endeavors that propose patterns that are not alike the original structure of the ecosystem but, on the contrary, destroy the region progressively, damaging the quality of life of the people who have settled down in this region. Furthermore, aiming to bring up questions about different evaluating parameters of environmental quality in private Real State endeavors, the intention is to understand the ownership process of these lands, seeking to evaluate the implementation of green area concept, quality of life, and the relation between natural landscape and constructed landscape. Over this proposal, the importance of the discussions proposed by the landscape planning, specially the way how projects produce artificial landscapes that become one of the fundamental elements for the Real State sales. Key words: landscaping and landscape, environmental impact, Barra da Tijuca Controversies on the practice of the conception and construction of a socioenvironmental landscape at Barra da Tijuca area In order to understand better the main aspects that will be dealt from this moment on, it is necessary that for the reader to have references of the Barra da Tijuca area. This data will be useful for us to understand the quantity of changes caused on the landscape specially from the 1980s on. These processes started out intense spacial changes as well as deep disturbances in the environment and its ecosystems, predicting that in a period of 20 years this area would be going through one of the greatest urban modifications and growth in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Covering an area of nearly 16.500 acres and located between the rocks of Tijuca and Pedra Branca, this area reveals itself as a complex combination formed by the integration of hydrographic basins, ocean shores and lagoons. They present in their area specific characteristics that define the patterns of connectivity between fauna, flora and socioenvironmental usages (fishing, nautical sports, etc.) that are part of it. The hydrographic structure, definer of its space is formed by the Camorim, Vargem Grande and Vargem Pequena rivers. These last ones flow to canals which head to Sernambetiba Canal. The Camorim river flows to Jacarepagu Lagoon, and its flux is vital to the local aquatic life. The group of lagoons that compose the system of the Baixada de Jacarepagu and Barra da Tijuca is another element of analysis of this area due to the fact that, besides the appearance of a significant number of them, when it is taken into consideration the urban level of the area, they still have a considerable area of water depth. The lagoons in order of greatness are: Lagoa da Tijuca, Lagoa de Jacarepagu, Lagoa de Marapendi and Lagoinha. There are two other basic geographic parameters for the understanding of this area. The first one relates to the extensive area of restinga and sand (formed for the sand accumulation proceeding from the ocean), this condition is basic, according to environment specialists, for maintenance of the ecosystem quality of the area as a whole1. As the known area is mentioned to as Pedra Branca where in its interior it is possible to detect considerable green spots formed by Atlantica and transistion forests, characterized for species of restinga and fen. These sets if extend until the bottom of the Rocks that, had its geomorphological characteristics formed by the high declivity of its hillsides, become possible the establishment of great fertile valley areas and forests that act directly in the process of draining of the e region assuring the maintenance of the life of the lagoons.

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Barra da Tijuca is part of the Area of Planning 4 AP 4 part of the XXIV Administrative Region of Rio De Janeiro XXIV RA2. Due to its importance for the growth of the city and for being detainer of great landscaping potential, it was subject, in the years of 1970 of urban studies that defined the use of its territory and urban structure, for which was hired the architect and urbanist Lucio Costa to design the Directing Plan of the region3. When, however, we consider the process of occupation of the area from the new molds that had almost redefined the region in a period of thirty years, it is perceived that the parameters delimited for the plan urban total had not been taken care4 of had the diverse factors, among which if they detach: the pressures accumulated for the sped up process of competitive occupation of lands, proposal for the real estate market, and the great and increasing urban concentration of low income communities. Both the factors had not only subordinated use standards and division of the land but also determined the segmentation of parts of the urban plan, powering a summing of impacting vectors that had resulted in the urban resetting of the area, where new space, urban uses, architectural and landscaping had been gradually incorporating the landscape of the region. As indicated above, the problematic implication of the urban one and uses of the landscape especially generated successive crises that appear currently in the region, represented by forms and differentiated approached of the original Managing Plan, regarding to its morphologic configuration, to the socio-spacial forms of occupation e, over all, to the fruition of its ecosystems, in special the hydric structure of rivers, lagoons and shores. The relevance of the question can easily be conferred on the basis of recent data gotten in the reports of the Secretariat of Urbanism and City department of Environment of 2005. Although the results represent only one side and must be taken as relativized data, to be enrolled to an ampler analysis of the facts, still they are important subjects that base part of the assumed rhetoric on our speech. The numbers registered for the research disclosed that the region presents one of the highest rates of urban growth, accumulates the biggest concentration of income of the city among its inhabitants, constitutes the biggest longevity among its inhabitants besides bigger education level, establishes the lesser rate of demographic density e, finally, congregate a great concentration of free areas5. Still inside the logic statistical of the searched data, it has other parameters that are related to this question. For example, we have in the region one of the biggest losses of natural environments in the city, with approximately 2,675 acres that, added to the area of the Planning Area/AP-5, they result in 92% of the total loss for the occupied areas in Rio de Janeiro. This relation reflects in fens and restinga, arriving at a total decrease of 30% of the spot. According to data evaluated in the period of 2000 the 2005, the growth of the urbanization of the Planning Area/AP-4, established for the same period, were of 41%, generating the loss of the quality of the system to lake and coastal ecosystems. Due to this aspect, the AP-4 becomes the second bigger impacting area in the environment quality of the city, representing a critical case of degradation. The influence of the real estate market and chronic poverty, that characterizes great percentages of the population that has settled in recent years in the region, justifies the actions and the products contradictorily materialized on the natural and constructed environment. In this process it is possible to observe distinct scales of performance and social spheres that discuss predatorily on the landscape. The differences are variable issues and, in this in case that specific case, can be exemplified by the frequency, forms, scale and degradation level/disintegration which the environment, or, ecosystem, has been submitted. The dichotomy disclosed here through the argumentative context and the percentages of field research discloses, among others things, that the environmental indicators that today invigorate in the State of Rio de Janeiro and in the domestic territory6, do not portray the reality of the impact caused in natural environment e, through the environment legislation, not only obtain fluidity as they gain flexibility when they are subject to the actors who act on the production of the landscape of this region. However, if we have, on the other hand, classes that grow disorderedly in the form of great salaried masses, or even in the formal housings that unchain multiples processes of embezzlement of the environment and accumulate socio-economic problems, including the marginality and the crime, on the other hand we evidence that the same effect suffered for the environment are gotten by the real estate speculation and the concessions endorsed and technically presented in the state responsibility. In fact, both appear with one of the agent great delimiters of this landscape that, exactly using a differentiated routine, it contributes for the same end: the degradation of this environment. The differential in this as context are the form of operation and assembly of the process of destruction of the natural environment. Although the rhetoric full of philosophical conceptions7 of the ecocentrism and the biocentrism, it is patent that the operation of actions diverge in number and degree when we come across them with the real data of the landscape and the nature. It is clear, in the logic of program methods of architectural programs and landscaping coated and integrated to the concerns of environment order, that the necessity of creating one simulacro of "a naturalistic" landscape, becomes the final objective. Objective this, whose intention is the illusion production optics material96

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ized in an environment syntonized to the aspirations of a society, that longs for the inside life of high standard of quality of next life and the nature, reliving perhaps, a romantic dream of a new Eden in a throrough Rio de Janeiro of the 21century The reproduction and maintenance of the designated ideal assume that the enchantment can not be broken by the disturbances to the nature and must be prescribed to all the resources that lead a modern and luxurious life for the cascade presence and artificial lakes, exotic current vegetation, square for practice of tennis, fields of golf and bocha, and so on. In our point of view this is one of the main forces that advance in contradiction and set themselves up in an untouchable way on the imagination of our society. The conceptive logics of some subjects that act on the landscape construction, besides giving visibility to a small environmental speech, yet it ignores the first ecosystem of the region, for it not only develops conceptive ideas with out of tune background but also uses a modus operandi that deducts to progressively to fundamental ecosystem elements (fauna, flora, hydric resources). There is, as follows, the creation of a new landscape that prefers providing aesthetics tendencies and stereotyped models to really understand and interact with the forms given by the status quo of the region. Bibliographic References
ACIESP. Glossrio de Ecologia. Publicao ACIESP n. 57. ACIESP - Academia de Cincias do Estado de So Paulo. So Paulo: 1987. COELHO, Maria Clia Nunes. in: Impactos ambientais urbanos no Brasil. Org. GUERRA, Antnio Jos Teixeira, e CUNHA, Sandra Baptista da. Rio de Janeiro: Bertrand Brasil, 2001. p. 19-45. IPP. Indicadores ambientais da cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Brasil. 2005/Instituto Municipal de Urbanismo Pereira Passos - IPP, Secretaria de Urbanismo, Secretaria Municipal de Meio Ambiente- Rio de Janeiro: IPP, 2005. HARVEY, David. Espaos de Esperana. So Paulo: Ed. Loyola, 2000. FEARO. Revised guide to the Federal Environmental. Assessment and Rewiew/process. FEARO - Federal. Environmental Assessment Review Office Environ. Asses. Rev., Canad. 1979. LEFF, Enrique. Epistemologia ambiental. So Paulo: Cortez editora. 2000. LONDON, Marcos Zanetti. A circulao de idias urbansticas no meio profissional e acadmico: um estudo comparativo entre as trajetrias de Donat Alfred Agache e Atlio Corra Lima. Dissertao de mestrado: PROARQ FAU/ UFRJ. 2002. SPIRN, Anne Whiston. O jardim de granito. A natureza no desenho da cidade. Traduo: Paulo R. M. Pellegrino. So Paulo: Editora da Universidade de So Paulo, 1995. VILLAA, Flvio. Espao intra-urbano no Brasil. So Paulo: Studio Nobel: FAPESP: Lincoln Institute, 2001. ________________________________________________ 1 It is clarified, that for its geologic characteristic the areal possesses a good draining, however, it has considerably diminished for the sped up process of urbanization. The basic infrastructure lack and the waterproofing of the ground, next to the eathing of its dunes and of the extensive areas of fertile valleys, caused for the real estate enterprises of the region, intensify the problem of the pollution of the lagoons and canals and, consequently, diminish the number of species of the local ecosystem. 2 The AP-4 is considered by the City hall of Rio De Janeiro as the most important area of expansion for the city, with expressiva amount of natural, tourist areas and of leisure little explored. 3 The plan considered for the architect was intitled immediate Pilot for the Bar of the Tijuca and Baixada de Jacarepagu, and was initiated in 1969, praising the predatory process of the urbanization, and thus, trying to direct the possibilities of use and preservation of the area, through the creation of reserves and points of preservation of the landscaping interests. 4 The plan considered for the architect was intitled immediate Pilot for the Bar of the Tijuca and Baixada de Jacarepagu, and was initiated in 1969, praising the predatory process of the urbanization, and thus, trying to direct the possibilities of use and preservation of the area, through the creation of reserves and points of preservation of the landscaping interests. 5 The taken data as base of the affirmations had been harvested in the Ambient Pointers of the City of Rio De Janeiro, produced for the Municipal Institute of Urbanism Pereira Passos - IPP, Secretariat of Urbanism/City department of Environment - Rio De Janeiro: IPP/PCRJ, 2005. 6 In Brazil the study and evaluations carried through in the domestic territory if they had initiated from the decade of 1980 with the creation of the CONAMA - National Advice of the Environment (23/01/1986). The Resolution in the 001 defines "ambient impact as any alteration of the physical, chemical and biological properties of the environment, caused for any form of substance or resultant energy of the activities human being, etc." Soon after in 1988, had an agreement come back to the implantation of the ambient questions that would act in the planning of the cities, established of form to become participative. The Protocol of San Salvador (extension of the Conference of Estocolmo) des-

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cribes in its art. 11: "All person has right to live in a healthy environment and to count on basic public services." e still "the State-parts will promote the protection, preservation and improve of the half-environment". Another important consequence for the problems of the environment questions in Brazil had representation in the Federal Constitution of 1988, present one in art. 225, "All have right to the environment ecologically balanced, public easement of the people and essential to the healthy quality of life, imposing themselves it the Public Power and to the collective the duty to defend it and to preserve it for the gifts and future generations". Art. 225, incorporation IV prescribes that it charges to the Public Power "to demand, in the form of the law, for installation of works potentially .causing activity of significant degradation of the environment, previous study of ambient impact, the one that will give advertizing", still in this way, interpolated proposition V: "to control the production, the commercialization and the job of techniques, methods and substances that hold risk for the life, the quality of life and the environment. See HARVEY, David. Spaces of Hope. So Paulo: Ed. Loyola, 2002. Chapter 11. Responsibility before the nature and the nature human being.

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Indicators for environmental quality assessment in the urban parks: Case study Bucharest city (Romania)
Cristian Ioja, Maria Patroescu, Annemarie Ioja
University of Bucharest, Centre for Environmental Research and Impact Studies, Romania cristi@portiledefier.ro

Abstract The paper deals with a subject of a high relevance for Bucharest, a city dealing with an accelerated decreasing of the green areas surface (about 50 % between 1989 and 2005) and quality. The assessment of the environment quality in the urban parks from Bucharest included the delimitation of four categories of indicators and factors: positioning, state, pressure and administrative - financial. For the qualitative and quantitative indicators and factors, four categories of quality were established: 1st class - very good state, 2nd class - good state with degradation trends, 3rd class - bad state and 4th class - really bad state. Through the application of environmental quality assessment, we have noticed that the most important parks in Bucharest are to be included in the 2nd and 3rd categories, with a constant trend of qualitative and quantitative degradation. Key words: urban park, threats, environmental quality, Bucharest, Romania 1. Introduction The perception of urban green areas as available for built areas with diverse functions (parkings, terraces, buildings, commercial units etc.) is a dangerous case law in the context that the current area no longer covers the need for green areas in Bucharest. In Bucharest there is an accentuated trend of decrease (with about 50 % between 1990 and 2003) and of degradation of green areas. Thus, the area per Bucharest citizen decreased between 1989 and 2002 from 16,79 m2 to 8,89 m2 [1]. The situation is concerning if we take into account that only 18 % of the green areas are parks and public gardens, meaning 1,62 m2 per inhabitant. In Bucharest they have an uneven distribution, as the southeast, northwest and central parts have problems [2], [3] (Figure 1).

Figure 1: Spatial distribution of the urban parks in Bucharest city

In this context the knowledge of environmental quality in parks is a priority to maintain the attraction degree of the urban spaces [4], [5], [6]. They are areas where the urban environment is rebalanced and where services of leisure and recreation are ensured for inhabitants [7], [8], [9], [10]. 2. Description of method for evaluation of environmental quality in parks The evaluation of environmental quality of large green areas assumed the delimitation of four classes of indicators and indexes: location, state, pressure and administrative-financial indicators. Out of these, five were considered to have a key role in defining the quality of environment in parks and public gardens: air quality, noise pollution, waste management, security and degradation sources [1].

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2.1. Categories of indicators and indexes a. Location indicators (8) show conditions characterizing green areas that have influence on the quality and on maintenance costs. Location indicators refer to favourable elements (diversity of land forms, climate, presence of natural ecosystems), and restrictive elements (natural risks). Indicators show the environment's characteristics and the way they are used and improved by facilities within green areas. b. State indicators (25) show the quality of environmental components, and the way some problems are administered within the green areas (waste, water). c. Pressure indicators (15) evaluate the size of human pressure factors acting inside or outside the green area. d. Administrative and financial indicators (8) show the interest of local administrations and of inhabitants for the green area, and the efficiency of actions promoted in the green areas. 2.2. Quality of classes For all these indices and indicators four quality classes were established (Table 1): a. First class - very good state, defined by: *high favourability of environment for function of green areas and valorisation of natural elements. *insignificant areas affected by natural risks (under 0,1 % of total) *efficient waste and water management, *adequate quality of vegetation (lack of drying or destruction of vegetation, presence of spaces with roses and flower arrangements), *low number of degradation sources inside and outside the green areas, *low projection of dysfunctions specific for urban environment (air, water and soil pollution, improper waste management, etc.) in green areas, *favourable perception for the population and local authorities, *maximal valorisation of green area functions without exerting high pressure on environment (especially of education, culture, sport and leisure), *flexibility of administration, noticed by the balance of the budget. b. Second class - good state, defined by: *punctual problems determined by degradation sources, *trend to accentuate the problems caused by uncontrolled waste disposal sites *good quality of vegetation *slightly unbalanced maintenance costs, because of useless investments, exaggerated personnel costs, prodigality *balanced distribution of land use c. Third class - bad state defined by: * increasing number of small degradation sources, * slight tendency of decrease of green areas in the last 15 years, * elements favourable for the environment that are not valorised, * existence of expenses unrelated to the state of the green areas, * low degree of collection of waste generated in the green areas * bad perception of the green areas by local inhabitants or by local administration, especially because of high maintenance costs and low security, d. Fourth class - very bad state defined by: * presence of degradation sources inside or outside the green areas, with significant projection on the quality of environment. * low attraction degree of the space for visitors because of insecurity, lack of facilities, lack of attractive elements and improper waste management, *lack of interest of local administration and public for green areas, manifested by vandalism, uncontrolled waste disposal, reinstate of green areas property to their old owners etc. * high prodigality, observable by lack of relation between funds spent and the situation of the green area, by high quantity of water consumed, * low security influenced by infractions, * advanced degradation of vegetation, * tendency to decrease the green areas and to increase the built areas. * frequent overpass of legal limits for noise indicators, or quality of air and water indicators

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Table 1. Quality categories for some indicators used to environmental quality assessment in the parks
Class of indicators LOCATION INDICATORS Indicators Fourth Class Third Class Average diversity not valorised Very reduced areas (under 5 %) 0,1-1 ha Drought in hot season, 1-3 cases hail / year 20-50 % Second Class Average diversity well valorised Moderate areas (10-20 %) 1,1-5 ha 1/3 of the vegetation season with drought, under 1 hail / year Sub 20 % No overpasses, with local problems 60-70 dB(A) 10-50 % Semiweekly 2 50-90 years 75-99 % One street or side railroad 1000020000/500010000 1-10 % 1-5 5-10 % 10-25 First Class

Diversity of land forms and their valorisation FAVORABLE ELEMENTS Terrestrial or aquatic natural ecosystems Areas with natural vegetation

Monotonous

High diversity High areas, predominant Over 5 ha Low incidence of climatic risks

No 0 Long droughts, over 3 cases hail / year Over 50 %

RESTRICTIVE ELEMENTS

Frequency of climatic risks

Weight of areas affected by geomorphologic risks in total STATUS INDICATORS AIR QUALITY NOISE POLLUTION WATER MANAGEMENT WASTE MANAGEMENT Concentrations of powders and nitrogen oxides Level of noise in park Weight of water volume in urban consume Frequency of salubrity works Points with uncontrolled waste disposal sites

Over CMA Over 80 dB(A) 100 % Monthly Over 5 Under 10 years/ over 100 years Sub 50 % At least one road or railroad Over 50000/20000 Over 20 % Over 10 Over 20 % Over 50 Over 2/ha or under 0.1/ha Under 10 /ha /day or over 50 /ha/day No No Decrease of over 20 %

Over the alert threshold 70-80 dB(A) 50-100 % Weekly 2-5 10-20 years or 90-100 years 50-75 % One road with low traffic 2000050000/1000020000 10-20 % 5-10 10-20 % 25-50 0,1-0,2 / ha or 1-2 / ha 10-20 /ha/day No No Decrease 10-20 %

No Under 60 dB(A) Under 10 % Adapted for number of visitors 0 20-50 years 100 %

QUALITY OF Age of tree vegetation VEGETATION ACCESSIBILITY OF Weight of spaces with VISITORS unlimited areas PRESSURE INDICATORS FRAGMENTATION Transport infrastructure DEGREE splitting the park PEDESTRIAN TRAFFIC SECURITY OF PARK BUILT AREAS SOURCES OF DEGRADATION ADMINISTRATIVE Number of visitors / day in weekend and during week Weight of isolated areas Number of crimes in daytime /year Weight of built areas Small sources of degradation within the park AND FINANCIAL INDICATORS Number of employees per surface Expenses of park per ha Existence of PUZ and PUDs Projects for arrangements Dynamics of area in the last 15 years

No Under 10000/sub 5000 Sub 1 % 0 Sub 5% Sub 10

0,5-1 ha 30-40 /ha/day Yes, only PUD Yes Decrease 5-10 %

0,2-0,5 ha 20-30 /ha/day Yes Yes Stationary or increasing

ADMINISTRATIVE EFFICIENCY

3. Results and discussions The evaluation of indicators on quality class for parks in Bucharest was made on the basis of information resulted of mapping and measurements made by the Center for Environmental Research and Impact Studies, University of Bucharest, and of information provided by the park administrators. By applying this method, most Bucharest parks are included in third class, the causes of the bad environmental quality being the high number of degradation sources within the parks and in their proximity (especially for noise), the decreasing area, the improper waste management (presence of uncontrolled waste disposal sites at the limit with other functional areas), high maintenance costs and uncertain property rights (parts of parks that were given back to the old owners). The exception are the municipal parks (Herastrau, Cismigiu, Carol), included in the second quality class. Despite these problems, parks are still very attractive areas for Bucharest inhabitants, their overcrowding is frequent especially during summertime.

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4. Conclusions The improvement of Bucharest's parks' management must become a priority for their administrators, as their diminuation as value in Bucharest's urban ecosystem is more and more obvious. The perception of costs needed for maintenance (50-60 per hectare per day) [2] and the problems raised by parks (insecurity zones, habitat for some pests, etc.) [10], without balancing the direct and indirect benefits (less costs for leisure, increase in value of urban ecosystem, improvement of living standards, behavioural and esthetic education of members of community, satisfy of their needs etc.) is very dangerous in the context of the artificial crisis of space that Bucharest is confronting. The integrated monitoring of park quality is imposed as an imediate administrative necessity to appreciate the real dimension of Bucharest's green areas crisis, and to define the best measures in order to solve the problems identified. References
[1] Patroescu, Maria, C. Ioja (2004), Disfunctionalitati n gestiunea spatiilor oxigenante. Studiu de caz spatiile verzi din municipiul Bucureti, Analele Universitatii din Craiova, Seria Geografie, VII, pag. 5-15 [2] Ioja, C. (2006), Metode i tehnici de evaluare a calitatii mediului n aria metropolitana a municipiului Bucure?ti, teza de doctorat, Universitatea din Bucureti, Bucureti [3] Ioja, C., Maria Patroescu (2004), The role of parks in the Bucharest City Urban Ecosystem. Case study Herastrau Park, Lucrarile Seminarului geografic Dimitrie Cantemir, nr. 25, Pag. 235-242, Iai [4] Dwyer, J.F., E.G. McPherson, H.W.Schroeder, R.A.Rowntree (1992), Assessing the benefits and costs of the urban forest, Journal of Arboriculture, 18(5), pag. 227-234 [5] Rowntree, R.A., D.J.Nowak (1991), Quantifying the role of urban forests in removing atmospheric carbon dioxide, Journal of Arboriculture, 17, pag. 269-275 [6] Mc Pherson, E.G., D. Nowak, G. Heisler, S. Grimmond, Catherine Souch, R. Grant, R. Rowntree (1997), Quantifying urban forest structure, function, and value: the Chicago Urban Forest Climate Project, Urban Ecosystems, I, pag. 49-61 [7] Rowntree, R.A. (ed.) (1988), Ecology of the urban forest - part III: Values, Urban Ecology, 15, pag. 1-200 [8] Bernatzky, A. (1982), The contribution of trees and green spaces to a town climate, Energy Building, 5, pag. 1-10 [9] Rowntree, R.A. (ed.) (1986), Ecology of the urban forest - part II: Function, Urban Ecology, 9, pag, 227-440 [10] Lam, K.C., Ng, S.L, Hui, W.C., Chan, P.K. (2005), Environmental quality of urban parks and open spaces in Hong Kong, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 111, pg. 55-73

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Betwixt and between: on land-use regeneration at the urban fringe as an asset for sustainable development
Mattias Qvistrm
Department of Landscape Architecture, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden Mattias.qvistrom@lpal.slu.se

Introduction "According to a common view, nature starts where the city ends. Here, on the edge of the city, lies the boundary between nature and culture, between red and green, that is: between the built environment and untouched landscape. the city is the enemy of nature and the front-line is the edge of the city." (Tjallingii 2000, p. 105) The divide between rural and urban areas is one of the reasons why the city edge has been submerged in spatial plans and public policy considerations for a long time (Allen 2003). As in many other countries, the rural-urban divide described in Tjallingii (2000) is prominent within Swedish planning; in general, only densely built areas can be incorporated in the legally binding and detailed plans, leaving the countryside and the urban fringe with strategic and advisory plans without any legal power to affect land-use changes. The ruralurban divide is mirrored in the administrative structure on local, regional and national levels, whose decisions materialise in the landscape. The divide is not only increased by administrative structures, but is also sanctioned by disciplinary interests (Tjallingii 2000, Corner 2004). For instance, there are plenty of academic journals on urban or rural studies respectively, but only a few that pay any attention to rural urban interfaces. According to Allen (2003, p. 135), the rural-urban divide is one of the main reasons for the difficulties handling the urban fringe, "a distinction that (mis)informs not only the setting up of institutional arrangements but also, and more broadly, the deployment of planning approaches and tools." To accomplish a sustainable development, or indeed a comprehensive understanding of the environmental impacts of urban growth, we need to overcome this divide. In this paper, I will argue that a greater awareness of landscape transformations at the city edge within spatial planning will offer such a bridge.

Illustration 1: Lund and the south-western part of Scania in southern Sweden. Major highways and municipal borders are marked on the map. The case-study area is indicated with a circle.

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In the paper, the neglect of the city edge is illustrated in a minor case study of land-use transitions at the urban fringe of Lund in southern Sweden (see illustration 1). The study is based on field studies in 1997 and 2007, an analysis of the local spatial plans (from the 1960s and onwards) and of cartographic material revealing land-use changes. The material is partly based on Qvistrm (unpublished) and has been a part of the interdisciplinary research project Ephemeral landscapes: exploring landscape dynamics at the urban fringe (see e.g. Qvistrm & Saltzman 2006). The case study aims to compare the (utopian) plans for future city developments with actual landscape transformations at the urban fringe. Landscape changes at the city edge of Lund In the spring of 1997 I witnessed the bulldozing of a decayed hose and an abandoned garden on the northern city edge of Lund (illustration 2). Beside the dirt road next to the house, vast arable fields surrounded the garden and every hundred metre or so another garden was scattered on the vast plain. A beautiful pear tree was just about to be crushed when an old couple who lived in the neighbourhood paused to watch the demolition. They told me they frequently passed the house by bicycle, and they expressed how much they had enjoyed the flowering pear tree during the years. In a landscape dominated by large arable fields, a lush garden means a lot, not only to humans. There is a deficit of green areas in the vicinity of Lund, a city located in a region comprising some of the most productive arable fields in Scandinavia and with no hills, rivers or other hindrances for a large scale and monotonous agricultural landscape. A week after the event, the house was gone and the only thing left was the odd mark on the ground, indicating the position of the water-pipe. Lund encompasses one of the largest universities in Scandinavia as well as rapidly expanding high technological industries, which causes the city to grow out of its former boundaries. The number of inhabitants of the city has increased steadily since the 1950s, and today the population (ca 100 000) is more than twice as big as fifty years ago (Lunds kommun 2005). Still, no matter how expansive a city is, there are always places supposed to be developed which are not utilised. Almarcegui (2005) provides a number of colourful illustrations of such derelict sites in the central parts of Lund, which are presently being used for informal activities. Furthermore, one part of a city might be expanding whereas other parts are lingering. The northern edge of Lund is one of these areas. Considering the postponement of plans for urban expansion, the northern fringe of Lund might be compared with the situation in a shrinking city; in the shadow of future developments, the landscape has been paralysed rather than utilised for development (see Oswalt 2005 for a discussion on Shrinking cities). The northern city edge of Lund had been designated for urban development since the early 1960s, although the highly productive arable land made the city expansion problematic. Although the city did expand to the north in the early 1970s, vast areas allocated for development were not utilised at the time. One of these areas, between Norra Fladen (the northern part of the city) and Stngby (a village two kilometres to the north of Lund), is the topic of this paper (see illustration 1). The entire case-study area, approximately two square-

Illustration 2: the demolition of a house and a garden at the urban fringe of Lund in 1997. Ten years later, the place is still not utilised for urban development. (Photograph: Mattias Qvistrm)

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kilometres in size, was the subject of large scale plans for city expansions in the early 1970s as well as in the 1980s. For instance, in 1986, a plan, presented to the public, contained settlements for 15000 inhabitants and 6000 working places at the northern fringe. However, the city has mainly expanded in other directions, partly due to conflicts with the interests of agriculture (Qvistrm, unpublished). In order to prevent land speculation and to secure the possibilities for the city to expand, vast areas at the fringe of the city were bought in the 1960s by the municipality of Lund (as in many other municipalities in Sweden at the time). These areas have been leased ever since (primarily to farmers), while waiting for the expansion to come into being. In 2005, 59 hectares of land were designated for urban development in the near future, however, as a complement, the municipality of Lund owned 1200 hectares of land which is called the "land reserve". The land reserve is land which is supposed to be used for urban development in the future, and which is managed accordingly. Agriculture in "land reserve" areas is dependent on short term contracts (usually one-year contracts), which fosters a short term use of the land. However, 80% of the land reserve had been part of the land reserve for more than 30 years (Tekniska frvaltningen i Lund 2005). The city expansion to the north has been delayed time after time, although some minor areas have been developed into settlements. The rest of the landscape has been affected by thirty years of short term leasing contracts in the shadow of future city expansions. As far as a visual analysis of ten year of landscape changes can tell, the short term agriculture seem to have fostered an economically sound activity where recreation values, biodiversity or the interests of the neighbours in the city is disregarded. Short term contracts are likely to endorse short sighted land-use. In a landscape dominated by arable land, abandoned gardens (as well as small biotopes along roads and railways) are important for the biodiversity as well as for recreation. In the comprehensive plan of Lund, the importance of such biotopes is clearly stated, and the need to preserve and develop green structures at the urban fringe is mentioned in the plan. In particular, the need for clumps of trees in the open landscape, and vegetation along roads and boundaries, are brought forward in the plan (Lunds kommun 1998). However, as mentioned before, the comprehensive plan is a weak planning instrument, and the case-study tells a different story with regards to the last decade of landscape change. Prior to the visions of a city expansion, there were no abandoned gardens in the case-study area. In 1970 - 1997, thirteen settlements (primarily small farmsteads) were abandoned in the area, possibly due to the threat of city expansion. Nine of these were still there in 1997 (Qvistrm, unpublished). Visiting the area in 2007, I find locating the place of the bulldozed garden difficult; the land has been ploughed, but is now uncultivated, and I am not able to detect any difference between the arable field and the former garden. Two of the abandoned gardens mentioned above have been bulldozed and replaced with new settlements, a third one has been covered with excavated material and yet another one is partly used as a dump for garden waste. After decades of utopian plans for city expansion, the major part of the studied area was labelled as a valuable cultural landscape to be protected, in the local comprehensive plan of 1998 (Stadsarkitektkontoret i Lund 1998). However, recent plans for a golf course and a school in the area illustrates how weak this "protection" is. In reality, urban expansion is still a threat, and unless the municipality decides to act in a different way, the landscape will probably be even more monotone and even more dominated by large scale agriculture in a few years time. Conclusion " urbanization provides a crucial opportunity: to create living patterns harmonized with nature's rhythms as people continue to create urban habitat." (Lee 2007, p. 6) Lee's notion of urbanisation as an asset for a sustainable development stands in stark contrast to the introductory quote by Tjallingii, in which urbanisation is regarded as a threat to an untouched landscape. Expanding cities as such are not a threat to sustainable development, but the expansion needs to be adjusted to the demands of a sustainable society. I would like to argue that one of these demands should be to acknowledge the urban fringe as an asset within planning. Today, the urban fringe is generally looked upon as a phase about to be developed into urban settlement, and therefore the intermediate landscape is treated as less important within planning. Furthermore, landscape changes taking place at the fringe while waiting for the city to expand are far from easy to understand. An analysis of the interplay between spatial plans and everyday actions in these landscapes will, however, reveal some of the processes shaping the land. In Qvistrm & Saltzman (2006), this interplay was studied in an area at the city edge of Malm (Sweden), illustrating the development of a green area in the shadow of city expansion. The new settlements were postponed time after time, and finally the area was discovered by the planners and protected as a nature park. Conversely, the plans for a future development can also threaten a varied landscape at the fringe, as has been illustrated in this paper. In contrast to Malm, the case-study area in Lund was dominated by short-term land-use contracts. The importance of such contracts for the development of the landscape at the urban fringe has so far not been

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studied, at least not in Sweden. There is a need for further landscape studies exploring the gap between utopian dreams of city expansion and the present day situation at the city edge, if we are to fully take advantage of the possibilities for a sustainable development of the city. Allen (2003) argues for a combination of methods within urban, rural and regional planning to be able to handle the fringe. In Sweden, however, regional planning is almost absent, and rural planning is only advisory. Here, a different gap seems to be even more important to bridge in order to be able to handle the urban fringe: the gap between management and planning. For instance, while the old biotopes (or gardens) have decreased in number in the case-study area in Lund, a new walking path has been developed by the municipality not far away from the area, to increase the access to the landscape for recreation. It seems as if developing new objects is far more easy for planners than to deal with the management of existing features; to handle a dynamic landscape waiting for a future development seems to be very difficult within planning, unless the municipal divisions dealing with land-use management are involved. Today, leasing contracts are not integrated with planning, despite being a very effective tool with which to manage land owned by the municipality at the fringe. Such a co-ordination is, however, dependent on a new way of seeing within planning: the urban fringe must be considered an asset for the development of "urban habitats". Acknowledgements The paper results from the project Ephemeral landscapes: exploring landscape dynamics at the urban fringe, funded by FORMAS, the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences, and Spatial Planning. The author wishes to thank Lisa Larsson for helpful language revisions and Lars G B Andersson for GIS support. References
Allen, A. 2003. "Environmental planning and management of the peri-urban interface: perspectives on an emerging field", Environment & urbanization, vol. 15, pp. 135 - 147. Almarcegui, L. 2005. Guide to the undefined places of Lund. Lunds konsthall, Lund. Corner, J. 2006. "Terra fluxus", in: Waldheim, C. (Ed) The landscape urbanism reader. Princeton architectural press, New York. Lee, K. 2007. "An urbanizing world", in Stake, L. (Ed) State of the world: Our urban future. WW Norton & Company, New York & London. Lunds kommun. 2005. Lunds statistik 2005. www.lund.se/templates/Page____1363.aspx Oswalt, P. (Ed). 2005. Shrinking cities, vol 1: International research. Hatje Cantz, Ostfieldern-Ruit. Qvistrm, M. 1998 (unpublished). Om frloppslandskapet. Qvistrm, M., Saltzman, K. 2006. "Exploring landscape dynamics at the edge of the city: spatial plans and everyday places at the inner urban fringe of Malm, Sweden", Landscape research, vol 31, pp. 21-41. Stadsarkitektkontoret i Lund. 1998. versiktsplan fr Lunds kommun. Stadsbyggnadskontoret i Lund. 2004. Program till detaljplan fr ladugrdsmarken 5:9 m fl (Golfbana) och del av 5:8 m fl (Rekreations- och idrottsomrde). Tekniska frvaltningen i Lund. 2005. Markpolicy fr Lund. Lund. Tjallingii, S.P. 2000. "Ecology on the edge: landscape and ecology between town and country", Landscape and urban planning, vol. 48, pp. 103 - 119.

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Identify Attributes of the Landscape in the Basin of the Claro Brook (Rio Claro SP Brazil): a Periurban Park Components
A. C. Sarti & M. A. Lombardo
Universidade Estadual Paulista "Jlio de Mesquita Filho" UNESP Rio Claro / SP / Brazil acasarti@unimep.br

Abstract This article proposes to identify attributes of the landscape in the hydrographic basin of Claro brook, in the city of Rio Claro SP Brazil. There have been changes in the use of the space, whether in the agricultural environment or in the urban one. Such changes have been speeding up since the last decades of the 20th century up to the beginning of the 21st century. During this period natural resources, cultural and landscape management have been set up and initiatives have been taken leading to a bigger stability of some landscape attributes. Laws have been established due to the setting of different management tools, getting to the tourist patrimony. The coffee cycle defined and determined the composition of the landscape with the formation of big farms in "plantation system" and their large houses. The railroad came and as a consequence of it, the expansion of the coffee farms and the creation of Horto Florestal of Cia. Paulista de Estradas de Ferro S. A. (Nursery Tree of Paulista Co. of Railroads S. A.) known nowadays as State Forest subaltern at Environmental and Water Resources State Secretary. It shows the beginning and the development of the conservatism thought. The applying of the Brazilian Forest Code implies in the setting of permanent preservation areas and legal reserve areas affecting the maintenance capacity of the sources. The research of archaeological sites (litho and ceramic) allows using this status for the creation of protected areas. At the same time the impact of the Cultural Inventory provides shelter to the establishment and its surroundings. This Environment Protected Area (EPA) implies in a bigger control on the laws of doing or not doing. The articulation of such laws identifies the attributes that can bring people motivated by cultural, environmental, historical and patrimonial content, diversifying the possibilities of the multiple uses, the management of the landscape hydrographic basin, the possibilities of such multiple uses, the environmental and continued education. The area as an urban park gets its importance. Key words: tourism resources, public parks and areas, landscape analysis, environmental management Introduction One of the most important points of the visiting shows the meaning of the object which makes and intensifies the feeling of connection with the place (Santos, 1988, p.64). There is an exchange between the visitor and the visiting object where the recent past and the far one get together, bringing information and understanding related to the physics sphere and met physics, in dizzily synapses. From this, exchange life experiences can come, the reality perception gets bigger and the concept of citizenship is consolidated. New opportunities of economic activities can appear linked to the work generation, income and wealth transference among regions. The education has a rich space to develop itself when considering the informality one to continuous process even self managed. Therefore, such visiting can also have a possibility of a destructive aggression of the frustrated living which is able to be misunderstood and do not bring really the true information. In this view, the hydrographical basin analysis allows the management of the space and the integration of the landscape, making them coherent to the principles of social equity, ecological prudish and economic viability. The water is focused as the base of the system, organizing the flux on the other factors. The human society defines management tools (laws), showing its wishes, mobile ones, as the objectives to be reached. They must be applied and recognized as authentic. Their objectives must be clear and the values which they are subordinated must be a mirror in the society which raises them. The study of the hydrographic basin of Claro brook allows to check that the making and spatial distribution of the landscape attributes, has base in the geological, morphological and soil types together the economical and social factors characterized by different historical phases. What did act as such changes were the environmental settings from the conception of the natural resources settings, giving the material base to the cultural movements' development. After the stational semidecidual forest domain due to the cyclic process made by the sugar cane from XVII to XIX century, and by the coffee plantation expansion (DEAN, 1977) from the end of XIX century to the mid of XX, and the industrial process which begins on the 50`s and intensify later, the attributes of the landscape impact as domestic and industrial sewage, in the increasing of low income population and in the absence of preservation politics in the county level. Even so, the high level of life in cities has been shown while opportunities for the formal and informal education has been arisen, articulating the periurban interface.

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EPA Environmental Protection Area The Environmental Protection Areas (EPA) are tools of the Environmental National Politic used to protect and keep the environmental quality and the natural systems with the goal to guarantee the life quality of the populations near them and to protect the regional eco systems based on the Resolution CONAMA n 10/88. The juridical base is given by the Law n 6.902/81 which says: The Executive Power sets rules limiting or forbidden: a) the setting and the potentially polluted industry working, able to affect water sources; b) the realization of moving leveling and the opening of canals; c) activities able to speed up the soil erosion or shallow level of the streams; d) activities devoted to endanger the regional fauna. It can be set up by the Union, State and County. EPA has a juridical regime which interferes in the owner law dividing in occupation zones. It does not demand the expropriation but it demands edict soil occupation and natural resource control (SILVA, 1997, p.178), determining the law of doing or not doing. Around of Claro brook basin has been subordinated to the Protection Environmental Area EPA Piracicaba Perimeter I, set by the law n 7.438, on July 16, 1991. However, urgently actions are needed due to the critical panorama checked. Cultural Inventory Area It is a historical, landscape, archeological, paleontological, ecological or scientific site which makes the cultural heritage patrimony of the Nation. As it has a public interest, such site is protected through inventories, certificates, watching, registers and even expropriation. The cultural inventory making is ruled by the law n 25/1937 mainly which determines "The cultural inventory in any case could be destroyed, demolished or mutilated" (MACHADO, 1998, p.568). In Sao Paulo state, the object cultural inventory has a surrounding area of 300 m from its limit, where any project which can interfere in the environment, must have been under CONDEPHAAT(Council of Historical, Artistic, Archeological and Tourist Defense Patrimony of Sao Paulo State) approval. Such norm is also validity in the counties. The classical applying of the cultural inventory making has been getting touchable and untouchable objects which have artistic, aesthetic, documental, landscape and tourist value. So, the law allows applying the forest areas too, as the "Edmundo Navarro de Andrade" State Forest. On the Claro brook basin have been registered as cultural inventory monuments: 1) The Rock House of Grao-Mogol; 2) The Railway Station built by Paulista Co. of Railroads; 3) Corumbatai Hydroelectric Power Station is the pioneer and 4) Nursery Tree and the Museum "Edmundo Navarro de Andrade", in totum. Archeological Site When the Brazilian Constitution BC, in 1988 defines the cultural inventory making, (art. 216) as "all the material and immaterial objects taken alone or in group, linked to the identity, the action, the memory of the different groups of the Brazilian society, in which there are: () V the urban group and historical, landscape, artistic, archeological, paleontological, ecological and scientific sites (BRASIL, 1988, p.120). In this way, "urban groups" and "sites" are placed on the same level, related to spaces which have relevant objects for the culture and memory of the Brazilian citizen, in their multiplicity of origins. When urban groups are taken as reference, the protection of the urban steam where the objects of preservation interest are concentrated is possible. On the same way, it can be understood the archeological sites as they have the same importance. So, the law of the inventory making becomes the archeological sites analogs, implying as well as in the enlargement of the social property function. On the other hand, the law n 3.924, July 26, 1961 was not revoked by the BC of 1988, keeping their legal tools on the archeological and pre-historical monuments determining that all of them on the National Territory as well as all the elements found on them are kept under control of the Public Power. The inclusion of archeological or pre-historical lode, and the objects which can have on them, does not prevent the ground property. Permanent Preservation Area PPA There are two kinds of preservation area: one made by the forest law and other made by the Public Management. Both of them, have been foreseen on the Brazilian Forest Code BFC. The first, made by the law effect n 4.771/1965, not only have an economic value but also it has tuition due to its function to protect the water and the soil. They are protection bands and vary according to the length of the river and include the river side forest. The second is the result the Public Management declaratory act. In the area studied, the broad of the PPA is 30 m in each river side due to the characteristic of Claro brook and its tributaries which identifies it with the first kind of preservation area. The Mayor Plan of Rio Claro Urban Development adopted the criteria of the mayor river bed, e.g., the band of land occupied by the river water on

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A. C. Sarti & M. A. Lombardo: Identify Attributes of the Landscape in the Basin of the Claro Brook

its over flooding, as usual set up a landmark by terraces from where the measure of 30 m is made. This one is the second kind of preservation area. Legal Reserve The base of the Legal Reserve LR is also the BFC, changed by the law n 7.803 on July 18, 1989. It is defined as a native vegetal covering of the property in proportion of its total area. It varies from region to region and, in South on the Meridian East and part of the Central West, the minimum limit is 20%, no matter if they are native, primitive or regenerated. There is the owner's obligation in registering the area in the Official Office of the County, but the law does not establish a length of time for such action. By the law effect the adding of the portions of LR of all properties should keep a minimum of 20% of the area covered with forest. What is shown in the studied area is the covering or native forest in 4,25% of the total area, measured through air photos made in 1995 (SARTI, 2001, p.223) demonstrating the distance of the law from the effects of the market invisible hand. Landscaping Attributes with visiting potential The objects and process related to the geological history with the process of vegetal covering formation, with the indigenous culture registers and pre-indigenous, as well as the more recent economic development dynamics due to the industrialization, shows that such resources must be mobilized in a way that the citizen can take the information, building new meanings that can identify it with the place, making the affection feelings stronger and creating opportunities to increase the quality inside of the social exchange. The service which attends the population becomes essential mainly the ones to the adjacent and periurban to Claro brook. This population has no perception of the multiplicity of happenings in a far past, recent past, present and in the one to come, which determine their life condition. Conclusions The results gotten through the studies of the hydrographic basin of Claro brook, establish a meaning among the historical events that context the process which occur on the territory occupation, making objects that had already had a determined meanings. Today, there are others and when potential of visiting is identifying on them, other possibilities are valorized transcending the present. The multiply articulation between time and space distinctively overlay the courses, bringing to a present an interlaced time. The coffee Baron history, is on the same importance level to what happened on the pre-history time with the archeological sites which certifies the indigenous occupation. The study identify that the cultural objects valorized by the community and better preserved, are those produced by the economic, social and politic elite from the recent past while the witness of the first people are let to the abandon and unknown. They live in a impressible imaginary, certifying a far dimension, a far way time too difficult to be noticed. They take to a time to come, occlusioned and obliteraterated. These results also permitted to prove that the natural resources have been taking to the exhaustion. The water attack, is also catastrophic, transforming Claro brook from a diversified ichthyfauna into a sewer. The domestic sewer flux as well as some industrial effluents, take the brook to collapse. The natural covering mainly the native, is reduced to proportion which makes difficult the hydrological natural cycle to occur, interfering in the quantity and quality of the water collected to supply the population. The fragments of the native vegetation, are isolated among themselves having just the brook as element of linking. To get a better genetic changing, the forest linking among the fragments is recommended. The improvement in the quality indicators of the environment, will get on the quality of the visiting experience and its effects will be noticed in the hydrographic basin as a whole. It was noticed that the superposition among the different modalities of management tools, submitting territorial portions to rules edited in different levels of the Public management. It could have been concluded, such event drives to a bigger efficacy. However, it is much more probable that the lack of information about the object to be preserved makes difficult or even makes impossible to obey the most simply rules, mainly in a conjuncture where the rural or urban owners have a patrimonial vision of the nature, placing them far away of the sustainable paradigm. "The landscape and the environmental patrimony, urban or not, are naturally raw material of the leisure and tourism, but, before that, they are inside of the same population quotidian. In this condition, the discussion of vandalism, no place and the democratic process of planning, must be proposed" (YAZIGI, 1996, p.57). "The city needs to have equipments to supply the social demands. It is not more a work place and dwelling, built by economic interest and needs to offer alternatives accessible to everybody, no matter the income level, social class, schooling, skill, ability, age, sex, health, means of transportation and others" (SARTI, 2001, p.116).

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There is a big diversity of information available on the space, at the same there is a lack of access to such information. As the places can get a transformation power, when it is used as educational resource, continued, formal and informal, a visiting program can offer opportunities of appropriation of the place by the citizen, meeting the space (SANTOS, 1988). Bibliography
BRASIL.Constituio da Repblica Federativa do Brasil. So Paulo: Atlas, 1988. 180 p ________. Ministrio da Cultura. Instituto da Patrimnio Histrico e Artstico Nacional. Lei n 3.924 de 26 jul 1961. Dispes sobre os monumentos arqueolgicos e pr-histricos. Disponvel em <www.iphan.gov.br>. Acesso em 3/11/2006. DEAN, W. Rio Claro: um sistema brasileiro de grande lavoura - 1820-1920. Rio de Janeiro: Paz e Terra, 1977. 205 p. MACHADO, P. A. L. Direito ambiental brasileiro. 6 ed. So Paulo: Malheiros, 1998. 782 p. SARTI, A. C. Propostas para delimitao de um parque periurbano para a cidade de Rio Claro (SP). 2001. 283 f. Dissertao (Mestrado em Conservao e Manejo de Recursos) - Centro de Estudos Ambientais, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rio Claro. SANTOS, M. Espao e mtodo. So Paulo: Nobel, 1988. 88 p. SILVA, J. A. da. Direito ambiental constitucional. 2 ed. So Paulo: Malheiros.1997. 243 p. YZIGI, E. Turismo: Espao, Paisagem e Cultura. So Paulo: Hucitec, 1996. 238 p.

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Urban Environmental Quality of Life: Franca intermediated-sized city in the State of So Paulo, Brazil
Gilda Collet Bruna, Las Raquel Muniz Bomfim & Cristina Kanya Caselli
Presbyterian University Mackenzie, Brazil laisbomfim@netsite.com.br

Our acknowledgement to MACKPESQUISA Abstract In Brazil the intermediate-sized cities offer better quality indicators, urban mobility, shorter travel distance (home to work), small pollution levels; offer green areas and smaller cost of life. Does all this happen in Franca? How the urban and environmental legislations have influence (or not) upon this urban space? In order to answer these questions, this research results1 about Franca, an intermediate sized city in the So Paulo state hinterland, are discussed. Introduction The discussion about environmental urban quality in the beginning of this millennium is strengthened due to the fact that at the first time the Earth urban population will be larger than the rural (DAVIS, 2006). This subject has been target of investigations and proposals, mainly in the poor population concentrations. In Brazil, the rapid urbanization process doesn't happen only at the metropolitan regions and urban agglomerations. A new reality is seen within the cities of the hinterland of the State of So Paulo, particularly, those denominated: intermediate-sized cities, which are presenting problems that before had been exclusive of large centers. This dynamic of today calls attention to the need of new planning instruments and territorial management in a regional scope. As a matter of fact, during the last decades the intermediate-sized cities had been responsible for the positive balance of the State of So Paulo migration that still growths at higher rates than the metropolitan regions. There is a process of undo the metropolises, or a concentrated de-concentration of population, or still the growth of peripheral areas that are pointing out to the reconfiguration and modernization of the metropolis role, as a result of federal programs that had invested in the infrastructure of towns with more than 100 thousand inhabitants, turning dynamic the industrial in the hinterland, what leveraged the economic development of these areas that since then receive population and developed themselves in an accelerated process. It was the period between 1970 and 1985 marked by the Developer State actions. This article goal is to contribute to the reflection about the urban quality concept in an intermediate-sized town of Franca, through the evaluation of urban indicators that are able to promote Public Policies aiming the Municipality Planning and Management. In order to subsidize the research the main urban indicators had been analyzed, through the selection of the main parameters relevant to local implementation. The local legislations that contribute to the urban space quality had been surveyed and it is possible to say that in the case of Franca, the municipality's norms effectively contribute to the urban quality, although there is a huge interval of time between the legislation process and these instruments implementation. This work is part of Las Bomfim the master research being developed at the Presbyterian University Mackenzie at the graduate program in architecture and urban planning, with the financial support of the Mackpesquisa Fund. Indicators of urban quality In the 1980 decade the importance of the towns as centers of local power had been established, as they are places with the larger part of the economy, police and culture. It is within the towns that the majority of the population lives and where the larger natural resources renewable and non-renewable consumption impacts are produced generating the most of the pollution. Therefore it is important to understand the regional and local urban dynamics and the environment existing quality, as well as to study the possibilities that the urban policies promote or not in terms of sustainable development. The territory knowledge demands a high degree of information, thus needing to expand its capability to promote diagnostic, from which it is possible to obtain information for planning and lead local development actions (DAWBOR, 1995). In order to implement these local development actions the performance indicators are utilized in various aspects of the human activities in the territory. These are environmental quality indicators because they should allow to evaluate how the environment is being occupied, if there are negative or positive impacts, affecting or not the quality of an urban area. The indicators can be of quantitative as well as of qualitative order and they can be used in the decision taking process in different levels. For instance, in order to improve the population health levels it is important not only to count on basic sanitation, as well as that the water flows be sided by non-occupied areas green ones in a ribbon of 30 m minimum of width (Law n 7,803); the housing should be isolated or adequate

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grouped in order to enable ventilation in hot climate locals; the public spaces should have places to throw away garbage, potable water to the population and restrooms allowing that the rivers don't carry residues and pollutants; the population should receive sun not only in its dwellings but are can be on a solar envelope during some hours per day, and also have public spaces to leisure and recreation; the flow of motor vehicles should be free so that it won't accumulate toxic gases, and so it is necessary to count on an adequate road dimensioning, forecasting flows in different periods of the day, and also this vehicle circulation should be permeated by green areas of transition, using materials to absorb or reflect and dissipate the urban noises. It is possible thus describe the urban tissue components of an urban sector and measure the impacts, considering the results in terms of quality of urban life. Besides, these qualities so measured can be of different degrees, better or worse, reflected in the indicators of environmental urban quality. Indicators in Brazil: discussion The "National Development Plans" stimulating the hinterland's development as above mentioned, according to Sabia (apud MARTINELLI, 2004), had structured by the first time the use of indicators in Brazil, and this happened due to the demand that these national programs generated, what resulted in the creation of the department of social indicators of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Other authors had elected the 1990's as the mark of the indicators' use in the country, and these have shown themselves as important instruments of territorial management, helping the decisions taking. The increased use of the indicators in Brazil is due to the democratization process of the last decades, also to the non-governmental organization's actuation, and to the historic social problems of social unbalance and poverty, as well as due to a wide diffusion through the communications' means newspapers, magazines and TV. The urban quality indicators are social ones and can be classified in two large groups: (1) those of housing and infrastructure and (2) those of environment and quality of life, which can be listed as follows: dwellings' quality of life proportion; urban services rate; transportation infrastructure; subjective indicators of quality of life; criminality and murders indicators; time sharing; and environmental indicators (JANUZZI, 2003). In construction the main objectives of these indicators are: (1) financing programs reliability and international projects foment; (2) public policies acceptation; (3) and democratization of the information, widening the dialogue between the civil society and the public power, favoring the popular participation in the processes of monitoring, and evaluation of the public policies (KAYANO; CALDAS, 2002). In Brazil the indicators' construction like the one done for Vitria, in Esprito Santo State, that for Curitiba in Paran State, and Belo Horizonte in Minas Gerais State have as their main source the data collected by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics and for this reason they are surveyed each 10 years, involving that way more than two governmental periods, what makes impossible to make the diagnosis for shorter periods of time, so that society could evaluate the public management in one period of government. As these indicators' contribution the first step to their construction should be the territorial regulation, in terms of organization and information, as it is fundamental that the results should be geo referenced. These indicators in general work with the visualization of areas of worst conditions, so that it would be possible to revert these problems found. In terms of the town qualification the indicators reach beyond the measurable physical issues, like Lynch shows about the performance dimensions and the quality of the urban form and environments, looking at the concept of vitality, sense, congruence, access, control, efficiency and equity; His studies are related to subjective evaluations and also constitute an important method of analysis. The urban size, according to Jos Eli da Veiga (2002) doesn't work as indicator of quality, because it is related to the Municipality Indicator of Human Development (IDHM,1998) that as parameters of the Program of Unites Nations for Development (PNUD) they are linked to the offer of health conditions, education and income that not necessarily are found into the intra-urban space. And, among the 50th IDHM first positions (1998), what means half of the small towns based in a rural economy, located in the States of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, contrasting to the large towns like Curitiba (18th position) and Rio de Janeiro (45th position). These little towns without shopping centers, cinemas and universities had shown that the criteria involving the urban quality have to consider the regional scale. It is necessary then, to study the municipality of Franca in terms of its political administrative and geographic region through its hydrographic basin area, inserting it in the urban network of the State, in order to make a diagnosis more detailed of its polarization attributes. The case of the municipality of Franca Franca is a municipality of the State of So Paulo, Brazil, well known as an isolated urban center of about 100 to 500 thousand inhabitants, in a non-metropolitan region far from So Paulo, sharing 1.7% of the total State

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Population. According to Feldman (2005) it polarizes 5 towns in the Minas Gerais State and 9 in the State of So Paulo, reaching an influence area of 70 km radius. Franca is well known by its industrial sector of leather and shoes that constitute its economic base structuring an industrial cluster. It is the greatest Brazilian exporter of masculine shoes. This industrial sector is part of the urban structuring, collaborating with the housing construction through partnerships with the public sector through financing for the acquisition of the "own house". This industrial sector participated also in the implementation of the Industrial District in the 1980's when the leather industry was located outside the central area, thus contributing to decrease the rivers' pollution and eliminating the strong smells. Recently it is contributing with the public power to build the solid waste infill construction that started working out at the 2nd semester of 2006. Franca has high sanitation indicators as 99.54% of its urban surface has potable water; 99.03% of the town is served by the sewer network and from these 98% are treated; 98.8% of the urban area is served by litter collection; 99.8% of the dwellings count on electric energy; the urbanization rate is of 98.42% (SEADE, 2007). It's IDHM of 2000 is 0.82 what according the PNUD shows that the municipality reached the high level of human development. All of these indicators show that the municipality is in a high position among the urban system of the country. Nevertheless the intra-urban issues deserve better detailing, mainly in relation to the environmental problems aggravated by the urban drainage that accelerates the soil erosion process. High-rise buildings do not characterize Franca (Fig. 1), and there are no slums. Its urban occupation done in a diffuse way reflects in the low densities levels, as more than 35% of the properties remain vacant, despite the majority of the land parcels be insert in the urban tissue and have public services. The problem is that there are many houses are located in risks areas although they had been approved by the municipal public power. This problem is aggravated by the accidents of the drainage: erosion, flood, and landslide (Fig. 2) (GODI, 2006). This happens in a diffuse way all around the urban territory. Other factors to consider are the lack of the urban tissue organization that is troubled by the large vacant areas and affected also by the main rivers' canalization and also by the lack of tress in the peripheral areas. Related to the urban policies, law n 5,022/98 deals with the Social Housing Plan counts on 3 programs: Our House; Easy land parcel, and Housing of Solidarity aiming the acquisition of lots and the building of housing units to the low income population, through construction material financing, technical assistance to houses upon 70 sqm through the sub-program Safe Hoof and the organization of cooperatives (MENDES, 2003). In Franca there is no specific indicator at the municipality level in order to promote public policies, although in a non conventional way there are studies to elaborate indicators, like the Chart of Potential Erosion Risk done by the Technological Research Institute of So Paulo (IPT) in 1990. From this study was approved law n 4240/1992 instituting the areas of environment interest Canoas river basin and Pouso Alegre river that are important for the supply of potable water. In 1996 it was created the Canoas river protection area, by the Environment Code of the municipality of Franca, which regulates this area land use. After that these legislations had been incorporated by the Master Plan of 2003, defining the macro zoning that divides the urban area in four types: macro zone of preferential urban occupation; macro zone of restrict urban occupation; macro zone of urban expansion; and macro zone of rural occupation. Decree n 7419/1997, according to Godi (2006) had shown there was a significant reduction of the drainage and erosion accidents, because after this decree the public power became responsible to offer parameters to projects and public works of pluvial water, according to the peculiarities of each region of the town, based on the Map of Erosion Potential Risk elaborated by the IPT. Concerning the urban mobility, in 1998 it was done a structural modification, changing the mass transportation system, so that it started to count on electronic ticket and with the possibility of terminals exchange with the same ticket. Besides, it was re-structured the urban route changing from the system neighborhood to neighborhood with diametric lines to the integrated system linking centers, sub centers and neighborhoods counting on radial and circular lines, thus decreasing the period of wait and increasing the system efficiency, besides optimizing the costs for the passengers (BOARETO,2001). Another legislation aiming to increase the urban accessibility is the complementary law n 57/ 2003 that instituted norms to the urban road system defining its hierarchy with the due technical specifications for dimensioning. It treated also of the elements of urban signalization, the sidewalks, and cycle's ways. In 2006 it was built the first part of this urban bicycle way linking the industrial district to the Chico Julio Avenue, what is of much interest to Franca population because industrial workers usually travel by bicycle, even in a difficult topography. There are still two other indicators, which take care of the intermediate-sized towns in So Paulo State. They classify the municipalities, one considering the environmental urban management capability, and the other evaluating the environment urban quality, which survey is from 2000 and 2001. This indicators had been applied only one time, taking care thus of a reality that cannot any more be that of today. Mainly the indicator

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elaborated by Toledo (2005) who considers these as factor of enormous variation, like the public expenses on the environment that depend essentially of the administration in vigor. These studies are: Indicator of Capability of Environment Urban Management in Intermediate-sized cities of the State of So Paulo (IGC), and Indicator of Environment Urban Quality (IQAU). By the IGC indicator Franca had been classified as median pattern, reaching the 16th position in relation to the 28 cities analyzed. By the Martinelli (2004) classification that considers Housing, Safety and Sanitation, Franca had been classified in the group I meaning the higher indicator, with an indicator of 8.37, reaching the 12th position among the intermediate-sized towns of So Paulo State. The worst indicators had been concentrated near the metropolitan regions. Conclusions Franca is noted within the network of Brazilian towns by presenting high social, urban and environment indicators. The higher quality of urban mobility, smaller time from residence to work, low pollution levels, offer of green areas and reduced costs of living nevertheless are not permanent as reality is dynamic and there is an accelerated urban growth process, and also an urban degrading process. For those reasons it is important to preserve these quality parameters in order to guarantee the local attributes. Besides these parameters should be implemented to offer equity of the population access to goods and urban resources, being either in social aspects, or in spatial ones. Relating to the legislative aspect in Franca, it has been searched solution to the local environment problems, what took to the evolution of the legal instruments. Nevertheless it is important to accelerate the dynamic of management shared between the normative and executive spheres. In this term planning, project and management should be based on intra-urban indicators. References
BOARETO, Renato. A evoluo da integrao do sistema de transporte coletivo de franca atravs da bilhetagem eletrnica. Artigo. Evento ANTP. 2001. Disponvel em < http://portal.antp.org.br/Eventos/Congressos/13_ANTP/Trabalhos/121/html/121.html>. Acesso em fevereiro, 2007. CHIQUITO, Elisngela de Almeida. Expanso urbana e meio ambiente nas cidades no-metropolitanas: o caso de Franca, SP. Dissertao de Mestrado em Arquitetura e Urbanismo apresentada USP - EESC. So Carlos. 2006. DAVIS, Mike. Planeta Favela. Traduo de Beatriz Medina. So Paulo, Boitempo, 2006. DOWBOR, Ladislau. Requisitos para um Projeto de Desenvolvimento Local: artigo 1995. Disponvel em <http://federativo.bndes.gov.br/dicas/D/053.htm>. Acesso em maio 2006. ELI DA VEIGA. Cidades Imaginrias: O Brasil menos urbano do que se calcula. Editora Autores Associados, Campinas, So Paulo, 2002. FELDMAN, Sarah. O crescimento das cidades no metropolitanas: a indstria do lote legal em Franca. Artigo. Disponvel em:<www.worldbank.org/urban/symposium2005 /papers / feldman.pdf> Acesso em julho de 2006. GODOI, Alexandre Artioli de Camargo. Desempenho de Equipamentos de Drenagem Urbana da Cidade de Franca. Dissertao de Mestrado em Transporte apresentada Escola de Engenharia de So Carlos. 2006 JANUZZI, Paulo de Martino. Indicadores Sociais no Brasil - Conceitos, Fontes de Dados e Aplicaes. Campinas. Editora Alnea. 2003. KAYANO, Jorge; CALDAS, Eduardo de Lima. Indicadores para o dilogo. GT Indicadores, Srie Indicadores. N8. So Paulo. 2002 MARTINELLI, Patrcia. Qualidade Ambiental Urbana em Cidades Mdias: Proposta de modelo de avaliao para o Estado de So Paulo. Dissertao de Mestrado em Geografia apresentada Unesp. Rio Claro. 2004. MENDES, Rita de Cssia Lopes de Oliveira. Organizao Comunitria em busca da qualidade de vida: dinmicas e lutas (Franca/SP 1991-2002). Dissertao de Mestrado em Servio Social apresentada Unesp. Franca. 2003. TOLEDO, Silvia Rodrigues Bio de. Indicadores da capacidade de gesto ambiental urbana dos governos locais nas cidades mdias do Estado de So Paulo. Dissertao de Mestrado em Geografia apresentada Unesp. Rio Claro. 2005. Sites http://www.seade.gov.br/produtos/perfil/

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Workinggroup 2 Land management and geo information

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Interdisciplinary Information Management for the IT-based Assessment of Plans and Programmes related to the Environment
Frank Iden1, Bjrn Dejoks1 & Dietrich Bangert2
1

SRP / Gesellschaft fr Stadt und Regionalplanung mbH, 2Senatsverwaltung fr Stadtentwicklung Berlin, Germany Dietrich.Bangert@SenStadt.Verwalt-Berlin.de

Abstract Sustainable management of natural resources in metropolitan regions urgently requires actions to avoid and to minimize disadvantageous influences of human activities on the environment. In order to reach this goal potential consequences of these activities have to be analysed and assessed systematically during the early phases of planning processes and preparations of decision-making. This is particularly true for spatial planning of all kinds and on all levels, because in this early stage of the process decisions and even measures are pre-determined which can hardly be rectified at a later state of project. Considering these facts, the so called Strategic Environmental Assessment -Directive (SEA Directive 2001/42/EC) was launched in the European Union to ensure that environmental consequences of certain plans and programmes are identified and assessed during their preparation and before their adoption. All member states of the EU were obligated to transpose the directive into national law. As a consequence today also most of the plans an programmes in the administration of Senate Department of Urban Development Berlin, for example, have to run through the process of the "Strategic Environmental Assessment" (SEA; in German: SUP) whenever new plans have to be established or existing plans have to be changed. The Senate Department of urban developement took these challenges as a chance to develop new and innovative standardised evaluation methods as well as a comprehensive IT-based environmental evaluation support system based on new internet technologies and interoperability standards to integrate and process the distributed and heterogeneous data and information sources. The concept and the developing system for SEA in Berlin may be an example also for other metropolitan areas how to organise department-spread and interdisciplinary geospatial information flow for an effective and more sustainable management of planning processes on the urban environment. Introduction One of the most important challenges caused by world-wide urbanization is the preservation of natural resources in spite of all the inevitable impacts. This can only be reached by monitoring the conditions of the environment and by recognizing possible negative responses at an early stage of planning. The european directive 2001/42/EG on strategic environmental assessment and its adaption to national legislation have created an instrument which allows to take into account environmental issues right from the start of programmes or projects so that decisions can be influenced in time. The instrument which shall be applied in Berlin, its intentions, its methodology and assessment procedures are described in detail by HERBERG, 2007 (contribution to this congress). As the availability of geo-information is very important for the application of this instrument, this aspect is discussed here more intensively. In Berlin, the Senate Department of Urban Development is in charge of the protection of the environment, and it is this administration, too, which has to organise most of the planning projects subject to a strategic environmental assessment. The Senate Department of Urban Development has at its disposal a comprehensive collection of geospatial data, but it have to be complemented with data which is held and stored by several distributed providers in the whole metropolitan area. These data however, is not only distributed, it is also structured very heterogeneously and has to be upgraded for an environmental assessment. For this purpose the city has developed a specific "Information System City and Environment" which can be characterised as an infrastructure for thematic data, which allows for standardised and interadministrative access to heterogeneous sources of data. Methods A certain catalogue of conservation resources (men, animals, plants, biodiversity, soil, climate, air quality, water, landscape, cultural and economical goods) has to be observed obligatorily during the SEA. In order to simplify and to standardize the complex evaluation procedures of all these conservation resources they are pre-evaluated in five steps which are described and discussed by HERBERG (2007). The specific combination of sensitivity and environmental influences resulting from impacts is a major objective of the assessment and is calculated according to rules which allow for easy application of IT-methods. The resulting model-based procedure is illustrated in Fig. 1.

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Fig. 1: Steps of the model-based SEA-evaluation process: Acquisition, preparation and integration of raw data, rule-based processing based on formal evaluation methods for each resource to be protected.

The evaluation procedure in its single steps as shown in the left part of fig. 1 is accompanied by corresponding (geo-)information and data processing models. The main idea behind this theory is to directly and immediately transfer the interdisciplinary and multiple evaluation of environmental influences caused by planning into the process of decision-making and so to integrate environmental assessment into planning continuously and at early planning stages. It is, of course, an important precondition for success of this kind of planning to have reliable and well-prepared information bases provided by the responsible administration branches. This requires a holistic management both of availability of geo data and of permanent assurance of data quality. This applies to input data from various sources and for derived data such as for SEA. Workflow aspects and resulting requirements for IT are shown in fig. 2. Infrastructure For economic and cost effectiveness reasons it is completely impossible to provide or re-establish the necessary availability and quality assurance of data individually in each case of new planning. Instead it is necessary to create a comprehensive infrastructure which allows for repeated use of services, software tools and data in any case of environmental planning. New web-oriented technology and new solutions for organizing data management within the framework of so-called "Public 118

Fig. 2: Steps of workflow and IT-requirements related to the evaluation of the environment.

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Sector Geo Data Infrastructure" are suitable means for connecting the interests of providers of geo data and the specific requirements of data users. In Berlin a powerful infrastructure developed by the Senate Department of Urban development is available for this purpose named "FIS-broker". "FIS" means "interdisciplinary information system", and the connected "broker" provides access to data from various sources and allows their processing independently and neutrally from the source systems by introducing special methods. The FIS-broker has been developed far enough to provide quality assurance modules, models adapted to typical workflows and routines for updating. For example, a dense combination of various environmental information can be shown in a map with three levels, which can be read like a traffic light: A (red): Attention! Planning highly restricted by ecological and legal constraints; B (yellow): Be careful: areas of ecological importance could be affected; C (green): Areas with less importance concerning ecological aspects. The principles of integration of SEA-tools into the superior IT-infrastructure of the Berlin Senate Department of Urban Development are illustrated in Fig. 3.

Fig. 3: Integration of SEA tools into the IT-infrastructure of the Department of Urban Development

Meta Data The description of original data is supposed to stay under the responsibility of the administration in charge, and it should remain connected with the respective original data. This regulation has to be taken into account for IT-application purposes in any case of professional planning. As a great number of internal and external data sources have to be used for SEA, a particular model for meta-data management has been developed. The following categories of attribute are contained in this model: - importance, purpose of contents - data structure - consistence of data - up-to-dateness of data - quality of data - schedule of availability (if applicable: period of renewal of data) - data format Any technical, organizational or legal restrictions on the availability of data are presented by an integration model in such a way that approaches to overcome those difficulties and solutions for compatibility problems can be recognized. The workflow of integration and processing of data is designed for flexibility and repeated procedures and permits modifications of evaluation scales and methods.

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The evaluation results are presented for the whole of the city of Berlin, and all the conservation resources are recorded there. Presenting the spatial information on these resources as maps allows for the use in a varying context and -if needed- by any external information systems too. The FIS-broker can be applied for public information purposes (platform owned web applications) or as standardized web services (fig. 4).

Fig. 4: General information service by FIS-broker

Maintenance of the Infrastructure Data quality, persistence of data structures and constant conditions for geometry and topology have continuously to be assured. This information is stored separately from the range of data processing. For SEA purposes a great number of data sources has to be used. This is due to the tremendous range of indicators which have to be calculated in order to cover all protection resources. Not only maps, but also tables, files, observations and measurement have to be managed and maintained for use with the FIS-broker. It is a big task to provide up-to-dateness, permanent quality and availability for these manifold data bases. Technical Aspects After the complexity of data handling was described the even more complex steps have to be discussed which lead from a variety of factual data-based statements to the resulting ranking of values by predefined scales. This procedure has to be performed automatically along with predefined rules. This framework is subdivided and stored as modules. Thematic maps which are generated automatically do not necessarily have to be accepted as final results, but may be a matter for further crosschecking and validation procedures in order to further upgrade methods and results by experts. In any case the IT-based components are most important for the whole of the assessment procedure. It is not the main purpose of the strong role of IT-components to replace legal or informal planning actions and participation of citizens and organizations. but resulting thematic maps which are generated at early stages of planning and which are designed in such a way that problems or restrictions can be recognized immediately and easily allow for the introduction of a web-service and various kinds of feedback. Results and recommendations Beside the planning problems which are dealt with by SEA the comprehensive and integrative handling of multi-source spatial data originates an important incentive for a combined and open geospatial-data infrastructure to be applied in the two German Federal states of Berlin and Brandenburg. It is one of the most important aspects of this development to successfully overcome the gaps in availability of data and the het120

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erogeneity of data models, data quality and evaluation procedures by management and converging methods, also beyond SEA. In detail the following questions open up favourable aspects for the future: - Where do the single administrative branches based on the described framework define their tabooareas, valuable areas and less important areas? - Which spatially determined ecological risks can be predicted for a certain planning project? - Which one of two alternative planning projects will cause more severe ecological risks? - Is the present land-use plan more (less) favourable to the environment in comparison to a previous status? - Which locations are not suited for a particular project (negative mapping)? - Which locations are particularly favourable for a certain kind of land use? - How do ecological or other potentials of areas develop in space and time ("permanent and automated spatial monitoring") - When and where have critical stages been reached, or rather, when and where are thresholds for warning exceeded? - Which additional space-related knowledge is available by participants of planning and the local population? Literature
DEJOKS, B.; BAGANZ, G. (2007): DV-supported Evaluation Procedures for the Strategic Environmental Assessment in Berlin, Berlin. HERBERG. A. (2007): Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). A Contribution to Sustainable Urban Design the Berlin Approach. Proceedings of 2nd International Congress on Environmental Planning and Management, Berlin. HERBERG, A.; BRANDL, H.; KPPEL, J.; SCHNEIDER. T. (2006): The Environment Atlas as source for the Strategic Environmental Assessment in Berlin, Berlin. HERBERG, A.; KLLER, J. (2006): Designing a methodological framework for the Strategic Environmental Assessment according to SEA-law for the Comprehensive Community Development Plan - Abstract, p. 4, unpublished. NAGEL, R.; EICHSTDT, W. and EMKE; R. (2006): Qualitative Land-Use Management with Standardized Evaluation Procedures, Berlin. Internet Sources SenStadt online: FIS-broker (http://fbinter.stadt-berlin.de/fb/index.isp) SenStadt online: Digital Environmental Atlas: (http://www.stadtentwicklung.berlin.de/umwelt/umweltatlas/edua_index.shtml)

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A comparison of biotope mapping and assessment method in Korea and Germany


Kyong-Jae Lee, In-Tae Choi, Jin-Woo Choi, Kyung-Suk Kee
Institute for Eco-Plan, Landscape architecture, University of Seoul, Korea ecology@uos.ac.kr

A Introduction 1. Background and study purpose The study of urban ecosystems started with the development in 1973 of the biotope concept through biotope mapping in Bavaria, Germany, when a survey was conducted on biotopes selected as being valuable for protection. Later the scheme grew into a mapping method covering the whole region within the city in order to protect the urban environment and landscape. As an index which reflects indigenous ecosystems and relations between a certain area and the surrounding nature, biotope mapping is certainly a standard for environmentally friendly space planning. Biotope mapping in urban regions in Korea has been influenced by the German mapping technique which integrates such factors as land use, soil surface, and actual vegetation. In 2000, biotope mapping was introduced for the first time in Korea in Seoul and other medium and small-sized cities in the metropolitan area. The purpose of the scheme is to draw up environmental conservation and restoration plans by evaluating the potential of urban ecosystems, and to develop ecological solutions to environmental issues in urban areas. Since the 1990s, German biotope mapping has been standardized by introducing simpler and more clarified assessment methods for uniform application of the Regulation to Intervention of Nature. Against this backdrop, this paper aims to compare Korea's biotope type assessment and individual biotope assessment with Germany's in terms of purpose, considerations, and evaluation procedure, and thereby to contribute to the development of biotope assessment in Korea. 2. Research Area and Methods In order to analyze the German system, the study separately looks at the purpose, procedure, and considerations of assessment and generalized evaluation. As for Korean cases, the study analyzed the purpose, system, considerations, and assessment procedure by categorizing them into either urban planning scale or development project scale. The assessment targets of the urban planning scale were Seoul(Seoul, 2000), Sungnam(Sungnam, 2004), Hanam(Kim, 2005), Goyang(Goyang, 2006), and other provincial capitals. The target regions of the development project scale were the Jukjeon district in Yongin city where biotope mapping-based ecological planning methods were firstly adopted in Korea, the Dong-ji district in Hwaseong city(Korea Institute of Construction Technology, 2002), the Dongbaek and Yeongsin districts in Yongin city, the Bongdam district in Hwaseong city (Kweon, 2003), and Daejang-dong in Seongnam city(Korea National Housing Corporation, 2005). B Theoretical consideration of biotope assessment of Germany In Germany, environmental and ecological planning is an important tool in environmental conservation. As part of such planning, biotope examination introduces physical realities on a factual level, including space-related data to value level (Plachter et al., 2002). In other words, by implementing the scheme we relate natural conditions and development level to social norms and values and physical procedure to normative procedure. This enables the ecological conditions, impacts, and relations to be interpreted from the perspective of social values and, as a result, the policy decisions and specific targets to be set. As one of the essential factors for ecological planning and evaluation, the vision (Leitbild) must be announced in advance in biotope mapping. Here, the vision refers to the general status and direction of development which is pursued within a certain time and space. The vision must be agreed upon by all members through various procedures to make it more concrete. In evaluating the biotope, it is important to set the assessment scale and consideration. The commonly adopted scales are type, complex, and individual unit. Using type-assessment shortens the time to evaluate a vast area. In addition, it is cost-effective to determine some areas which deserve to be protected to preserve biotopes and species inside. However, the distinctiveness of each biotope of a certain type is not taken into account. Complex assessment on a small size area supplements type assessment. As biotope complexes are apparently defined based on wildlife animals and links between their habitats, they are considered distinctive areas for evaluation. However, a small-scale map used for complex assessment shows only outlines rather

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than details and, consequently, the evaluation method can not be applied to the Regulation to Intervention of Nature. Individual unit assessment is the most reliable in that examination considerations are determined on-site. However, this option is expensive due to the variety of small biotopes in urban regions and the similarity in which they are repeatedly affected by human activities. Therefore, it is not efficient to describe and assess hundreds of biotopes per one square kilometer when establishing environmental and ecological planning (Plachter et al., 2002). Evaluation considerations which place value on data are determined according to the recognized problems, social value system, and conditions of the target space. It is impossible to consider all together. For type assessment, several considerations are useful after their availability has been proven: endangered status, rarity, legal protection, environmental features/responsibility from the perspective of world heritage, naturalness, replacement, period of development, reproductivity, potential for development, and representativity. For individual biotope assessment, completeness of typical species of the biotope, diversity unique to the site, size of habitat, biotope connection, naturalness, reproductivity, and potential for development are available. For any assessment, it is essential to incorporate a variety of considerations and to change their combination according to the main issues to be examined. Nevertheless, sometimes they may not be combinable at all. The final assessment outcome should be convincing to any examiner based on the basic data. C. Examination of Korean cases of biotope assessment 1. Urban planning scale Biotope assessment of urban planning scale began in Seoul in 2000, followed by other provincial capitals. The assessment in Seoul consisted of two kinds: type evaluation and individual unit evaluation of natural biotope types and biotope types close to nature. Seongnam city carried out individual unit assessment in order to preserve wildlife habitats and pursue environmentally friendly urban development in 2004. Kim Jung-ho conducted value assessment on each watershed in Hanam city in 2005 to form an ecological plan for land use. The city government of Goyang established an evaluation system based on a decision-making tree by type to reduce the complexity of existing biotope assessment in 2006. Evaluation considerations were naturalness, variety, rarity, water circulation, and potential. In Germany, biotope types are concretely established and evaluation considerations and indexes are clearly set due to the long history of nationwide biotope mapping research. However, this is not the case in Korea, where mapping research is still in its infancy and biotope types are determined by on-site raw data. In addition, evaluation considerations and indexes which are related to assessment purpose are not clearly defined yet. Currently, Korea is at the stage of nationwide biotope mapping research to establish biotope types, and consequently, needs to develop an appropriate biotope assessment system. 2. Development project scale Biotope value assessment of development project scale began in new cities in the capital region Korea. In 2002, when individual biotope unit evaluation was introduced, type assessment was mainly adopted in the Jukjeon district in Yongin city and the Dongji district in Hwaseong city. Afterwards, studies on assessment techniques proposed new concepts including the evaluation of small-scale stream basins which were dominant in Korea, wildlife habitat assessment, and water system examination. Kwon Jeon-Oh emphasized the importance of watershed in ecosystem value assessment and suggested the introduction of a watershed assessment system. The biotope assessment on Daejang-dong in Seongnam city looked at not only biotope type based on flora ecosystem but also wildlife habitats and water system to comprehensively evaluate the value of biotopes there. Also considered in the assessment were naturalness, variety, water circulation, and potential. The evaluation system and considerations varied according to the ecological characteristics of each development area. In Germany, biotope types are clearly established and evaluation is completed at a nationwide urban planning level, which enables a clear and objective assessment when evaluating development projects and understanding the relations between a certain project and broader-scale urban planning. In Korea, however, biotope mapping and assessment remain unavailable at urban planning level. The only source of information available is biotope data independently collected in each project. When evaluating biotopes, the purpose should be established in clear terms and assessment considerations and indexes should be set in relation to the purpose so that the assessment system is easily understood.

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Reference
Goyang City(2006) A Study on Environment-friendly Urban Construction(Landscape Ecological Management, Ecological Mapping). Goyang City, 412p. Kim, Jung-Ho(2005) Ecological Land Use Planning Considering the Characteristics of Urban Ecosystem -A Case Study of Hanam, Kyeonggi Province-. University of Seoul, Graduate School, Dissertation for the degree of doctor, 271p. Korea Institute of Construction Technology(2002) A Study on the Development of Core Technology for Eco-city. Korea Institute of Construction Technology , 338p Korea National Housing Corporation(2005) Ecological Landscape Planning for The 21th century Next Housing Pilot Project. Korea Institute of Construction Technology, 208p. Kwon, Jeon-O(2003) A Study on the Application of the Ecological Evaluation for the Nature-friendly Residential Site Development Planning. University of Seoul, Graduate School, Dissertation for the degree of doctor, 281p. Plachter, H., D. Bernotat, R. Muessner, U. Riecken(2002) Entwicklung und Festlegung von Methodenstandards im Naturschutz. BfN. Schr. R. f. Landschaftspflege u. Naturschutz 70, 566p Seongnam City(2004) A Study on GIS Building of Biotope Grade Valuation and Urban Biotope Map. Seongnam City, 283p Seoul Metropolitan City(2000) The investigation into the present conditions of Biotope and the establishment of guidelines for Eco-city in Seoul for application of the concept of urban ecology into the urban planning. -1'st year Reserch-. Seoul Metropolitan City, 245p.

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Monitoring of uncontrolled urbanization in the metropolitan Istanbul


Hlya Yildirim1, Mehmet Emin zel2, Alpaslan Aka3, Roman Radberger3
1

Kocaeli University, Turkey, 2anakkale University, Turkey, 3Gttingen University, Germany

Abstract We aim to monitor uncontrolled fast urbanization by means of remote sensing and spatially explicit prognosis of land use patterns, using topological and topographical variables. Our study area is part of the Istanbul metropolitan area, located on Kocaeli peninsula, Turkey. Special emphasis is given to the methods that can be operationalized in terms of obtaining area-wide, up-to-date information at minimal costs. Previous attempts at spatial modeling of land use changes clearly show how the model complexity increases from the simpler Markov-type statistical models via regression models towards the recent dynamical (system) models. Our analysis starts with the selection of an appropriate remote sensing technique on the basis of Landsat TM images. From two alternative approaches of digital change detection and post-classification comparison, the latter is chosen because (a) the necessity of major radiometric corrections with most digital change detection techniques and (b) the more comprehensible land use change in a post-classification comparison. For the research area, an increase in urban-industrial land use of about 10 % has been observed for the period 1994-1998. Roughly half of that increase consists of industrial/commercial plants built according to regional plans. The multitemporal mapping is validated by using reference maps, derived from the delineation of aerial photos. The spatial-statistical modeling approach regards the spreading of urban-industrial land use during 1994-1998. On the basis of survey of previous spatial modeling, the following variables are the explanatory ones: land use in 1994, distance to urban-industrial land use in 1994, distance to main roads, altitude, and slope. All variables have been derived from the satellite images and digital terrain model. The multivariate, non-parametric model yields a prediction success of 87 %. However the model does not answer the questions of "why?" and "where?" regarding future land use. We recommended that knowledge-base for the spatial-statistical model is extended to socio-economic data, as opposed to relying on data from remote sensing and cartography. Keywords: Remote Sensing, GIS, Land Use, Image Classification, DEM, Urbanization. Introduction Land-use forms and their concentration levels in rural areas mostly depend on economical and usually short term benefits. These trends are hard to redirect by ecological and/or social planning efforts. Further, especially in countries where the threshold of development is passed or nearly passed by, there is another effect: the migration of population from less developed parts of the country to faster developing parts. Migrants can quickly developed, new, unplanned peripheral industrial and dwelling areas in the region. These developments result in the unplanned transformation of natural forest and agricultural lands into new settlement and small-industry type usage. There is no place for the ecological and environmental concerns in these developments. These short-term economical developments may reach at the proportions where the resultant environmental and other damages are out-of control and can not be compensated by any countermeasures. Controlling and re-directing these developments by administrative measures are difficult, not only due to lack of will-power in the local and central administrations, but also due to the lack of knowledge about the nature, size, form and location of the developments. For controlling and directing land-use forms, there is urgent need for the information and educated-guess work about which areas may become the target of which type of unwanted developments and which parts of the land to be preserved for ecological needs. For large and unregistered areas, such information can not be obtained in a short time by classical ground work. Such tasks can practically and successfully completed only by modern remote sensing techniques supported by geographic information systems and some ground work needed to validate them. Target Area The environment, consisting of bio-, antropo- and geo-systems, can be represented by geo-referenced information obtained by ground work and remote sensing methods. To these added the existing thematic-cartographic maps for social, economical and ecological information, all in the form of a geographic information system, placed in the memory of a computer system. Various mathematical and logical operations are used to feed data to simulation models in the computer and available information is transformed into land-use development and forecast scenarios. Different scenarios provide administration, a basis for various planning options and application possibilities.

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Data in Use and their Analysis In a joint project by Marmara Research Center's (Gebze-Kocaeli) Space Technologies Department and Gttingen University's Institutes for Forsteinrichtung und Ertragskunde, in Kocaeli Peninsula (administratively divided by Istanbul and Kocaeli provinces), we studied the land-cover/land-use changes between 1994-1998, retrospectively. 1994 and 1998 Landsat TM images plus aerial photos (black & white) dated November 1994 and February 1998 were used as the remote sensing material for the GIS system. For the classification of satellite images, ERDAS Imagine is used. They are evaluated by standard methods and used to obtain the resultant land-cover maps (Fig. 1). The evaluation of aerial photos was carried out by 'the soft plotter' system of Institute fr Waldinventur und Walswachtum in Gttingen. For this, an initial digitization of aerial photos was carried out by a high density scanner. This system is capable of very easy and efficient orientation and evaluation with several automatic land-modeling routines. The resultant digital landuse map from the softplotter system was used for ground-truthing device for the satellite images.

Figure 1: Land-Use of study area in 1994 and in 1998

Analysis Early results were indicative of the fact that land-use change trends were in the direction of change of agricultural land into settlement and unplanned industrial type usages. The factors that effect the change -if known- could have been used for forecasting modeling and determination of areas under such treats. When the classification results of 1994 and 1998 images are compared, one can easily see that land-use changes are affected by the newly built autobahn. This new transportation vein helped the carriage of raw materials to the area and helped the development of industry in the region. This is the main reason of new industrial zones between Sultanbeyli and Gebze (Fig-2). Development of dwelling and industrial areas was always at the expense of pastures and agricultural areas. Forest areas were left same in area and in location. They were in hilly areas and are under legal protection, which forbid their usage for ant other purposes. For the settlement locations, most important factors are the distance to another settlement or to the main road and also the slope of hill or the area. Future Trends The autobahn under construction by the Black Sea cost, to the north of the Peninsula will most likely cause similar developments in the near future. Fast population increase in the area and inspection of land-use change trends between 1994-1998 period (i.e., distance to main roads and settlements, land slope, legal restrictions -for example, on forest areas- ) can be modeled and existing models can be parameterized by use of the GIS at hand (Fig. 3). Such an analysis will allow the localization of future

Land Use Agriculture Forestry Urban/Ind.

Area of Cahnge from 1994 to 1998 in Hectares -3120.1 -165.9 +3520.2

Percentage of Area in 1998 compared to 1994 95.3 99.9 109.6

Fig. 2: Development of settlement and industrial areas (in red).

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Fig. 3: Position referenced mathematical statistical modelling system (GIS) used for the analysis.

land-cover land-use change areas. Results of such an analysis are shown in Fig. 4. Here, we used non-parametric discrimination method. This method does not allow us to define the weights of different factors. Results here are in the sense of statistical modeling of land-use changes rather than the foreseeing the future. In the present map, all pixels were given a value of 0 or 1 by an equal probability distribution. In the first round, pixels which has value less than 0.5 were considered as the training areas, while those with larger than 0.5 were test areas. For training areas, a non-parametric discriminant analysis using the nearest 5 pixels was applied. Depending on the result, a new value of 0 or 1 was defined for each pixel. This way, the future

Fig. 4: Results of modelling by discriminant analysis from 1994 to 1998.

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values of test area pixels were re-defined, i.e., 'foreseen'. In the second round, training and test pixels were changed, i.e., those with a probability value larger than 0.5 were training areas and those less than were the test areas. This way, possible future use of all the pixels was defined with the proviso that training and test pixels were made independent of each other. References.
1H. Yildirim, M.E. Ozel, et al., 2001, "Creation of a Three-Dimensional View of Soil Use Capability Classes of Amasya Province Through Digital Elevation Model", Fourth International Symposium "Turkish-German Joint Geodetic Days", Berlin. "Monitoring urban/industrial land use in the Greater Metropolitan Area (Istanbul, Turkey), utilizing the Tasseled Cap transformation and RGB-clustering', 2000, in Proceedings of ASPRS Annual Convention (CD-ROM), Washington, DC, p.12. H.Yildirim, C.Feldktter, A.Akca., 1996, "Monitoring der Landnutzung im Groraum Istanbul mit Fernerkundung and GIS. Fernerkundung und Geo-Informationssysteme in der kologie der Landoberflche, p. 211-224. Devlet Istatistik Enstits (State Statistical Institute), 2000, 'Ekonomik ve Sosyal Gstergeler' (konomische und Soziale Indikatoren)- Auszge aus der amtlichen Statistik fr Kocaeli und Istanbul, published in Ankara. (CD-ROM) Ky Hizmetleri Genel Mdrl, 1987, Istanbul Ili Arazi Varlii (Bodenkarte der Province Istanbul), Ankara. T.M.Lillesand, R.W. Kiefer., 1994, 'Remote sensing and image interperation'. Wiley. New York. 750 p.

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Virtual 3D City Models Flexible User Interface Technology for Complex Urban Information
Jrgen Dllner
Hasso-Plattner-Institut, University of Potsdam, Germany doellner@hpi.uni-potsdam.de, www.hpi.uni-potsdam.de/3d

Abstract Virtual 3D city models become an essential and flexible framework to analyze, integrate, and present complex urban information. In a growing number of application areas such as urban planning, city marketing, homeland security, disaster management, and e-government portals, virtual 3D city models are successfully applied as effective user interface technology. This contribution reports on concepts, implementation, and experience of virtual 3D city models as planning and communication platforms for urban geoinformation. Introduction: About Virtual 3D City Models Virtual 3D city models represent urban spatial data and geo-referenced data under a common metaphor, the virtual city. Their fundamental components include digital terrain models (DTMs), building models, street-space models, green-space models as well as models of city furniture and infrastructure. In general, virtual 3D city model are composed of geo data from a multitude of sources and types. With virtual 3D city models, we can visually represent complex urban information, explore and analyze geoinformation, and manage city model components. Virtual 3D city models, therefore, constitute a major concept in 3D geoinformation systems (3D GIS) and geodata infrastructures (GDI). Virtual 3D city models are used within 3D geovirtual environments (GeoVEs) that serve as the interactive interface between city model contents and the users; for a general introduction to geovisualization we refer to Dykes et al. (2005). Virtual 3D city models are particularly useful to integrate heterogeneous geoinformation. We can represent thematic and application-specific georeferenced data jointly and related to the objects of virtual 3D city models. For example, a real-estate portal can visualize vacancy, year-of-construction, and average monthly rent of buildings by mapping the data onto faade color, faade texture, and roof colors used as visual variables. In this case, virtual 3D city models serve as a tool for urban data mining (Buchholz 2005). Principle Research Directions in the Scope of Virtual 3D City Models The actual development directions are carried out in different disciplines such as geoscience, information systems, computer graphics, and scientific visualization. There are at least five major directions that can be recognized: Towards Automation: One main barrier in developing and applying virtual 3D city models represents the time and cost inefficient creation of model data (Ribarsky & Wasilewski 2002). Manual geometric modelling can be accepted in small-scale virtual 3D city models but fails if virtual 3D city models are required for large urban areas or if they should be managed in the long run. Therefore, virtual 3D city models need to be based on automatic and semiautomatic acquisition methods wherever possible (Frstner 1999). Recent advances in remote sensing and data processing are about to overcome this limitation providing a high degree of automated capturing and processing of geodata such as for detailed building geometry including roofs as well as for vegetation. Towards Integration: Weak integration of maintenance and update processes in administrative workflows represents another bottleneck in developing virtual 3D city models. If the model generation and updating processes are not seamlessly integrated into administrative workflows, then the model's quality lacks with respect to its legal correctness, completeness, and up-to-dateness. Without seamless integration, virtual 3D city models tend to remain isolated and may become rapidly obsolete artefacts. Towards Semantics: Besides Geometry and Graphics: In recent years, most virtual 3D city models have been realized as purely graphical or geometrical models, sometimes represented by virtual "3D worlds". These models focus on presentational tasks and, therefore, aim at a photorealistic resembling of visual urban objects the ultimate goal was "veri-similarity", that is, a virtual 3D city model that comes as close as possible to its physical counterpart, in particular, to its visual appearance. However, if semantic and topological aspects are neglected, these models can almost only be used for visualization purposes but not for thematic queries, analysis tasks, or spatial data mining. Towards Application-Specific Visualization: An increasing number of applications and systems incorporate virtual 3D city models as essential system components in the last years. Examples are IT solutions in the fields of telecommunication, disaster management, homeland security, facility management, real estate portals, logistics, as well as for entertainment and educational purposes. In general, these applica-

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tions and system provide specific functionality on top of the virtual 3D city model, e.g., the PegaPlan-3D network planning system of T-Mobile Germany visualizes and manipulates the configuration of radio network servers and antenna systems. Therefore, virtual 3D city models should be understood as the "3D components" of general-purpose geodata infrastructures. Towards Standardization of Virtual City Models: Since the limited reusability of models inhibits the broader use of 3D city models, a more general modelling approach had to be taken in order to satisfy the model requirements of the various application fields.

CityGML: A Potential Standard for the Interchange of Virtual 3D City Models With CityGML, a first open data model and XML-based format for the storage and exchange of virtual 3D city models becomes available (Kolbe 2005). It is implemented as an application schema for the Geography Markup Language 3 (GML3), the extendible international standard for spatial data exchange issued by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the ISO TC211. CityGML is intended to become an open standard and therefore can be used free of charge.CityGML does not only represents the graphical appearance of city models but especially takes care of the representation of the semantic and thematic properties, taxonomies and aggregations of digital terrain models (DTMs), sites (including buildings, bridges, tunnels, ), vegetation, water bodies, transportation facilities, and city furniture (including traffic lights, traffic signs, billboards, ). The underlying model differentiates five consecutive levels of detail (LOD), where objects become more detailed with increasing LOD regarding both geometry and thematic differentiation. CityGML files can but don't have to contain multiple representations for each object in different LOD simultaneously. Case Study: The Virtual City Model of Berlin For the virtual 3D city model of Berlin a system for integrating, managing, integrating, presenting, and distributing complex urban geoinformation has been developed recently. It has been initiated by the Senate Department of Economics and the Senate Department of Urban Development in order to extend Berlin's geodata infrastructure by a novel, flexible, and state-of-the-art geoinformation technology. As first applications, the virtual 3D city model forms core part of the investor information system hosted at the Berlin Business Location Center, and it represents the basis for ongoing projects in city planning at the architecture working group of the Senate Department of Urban Development. The virtual 3D city model of the city of Berlin acts as an integration platform for 2D and 3D geodata and georeferenced data instead of being only a 3D geometry or graphics model. Its system architecture is modelled by a collection of interrelated subsystems. The architecture ensures that individual subsystems can grow independently and communicate through explicitly defined data interfaces. Its main objectives encompass the management of the underlying geoinformation and its integration into administrative workflows by a central 3D geo-database; the on-demand, on-the-fly integration of georeferenced thematic data with (parts of) the virtual 3D city model, and the dissemination and distribution of the virtual 3D city models through a number of digital media such as Internet, imagery, video, and DVD. The overall architecture of the system is outlined in Fig. 2 and is constituted by the following principal subsystems: 3D Content Management System: It is responsible for creating, integrating, editing, and versioning of the virtual 3D city models and its components, e.g., importing, exporting, grouping, and annotating buildings, vegetation plans, landscape plans, etc. Technically, it provides an interactive access to the 3D geo-database. It is based on LandXplorer (3D Geo 2006), a CityGML-based content management system for virtual 3D city models. 3D Geo-Database System: The database for storing and managing virtual 3D city models is based on the logical structure of CityGML. The database also supports semantic and thematic properties, taxonomies, and aggregations. Its principal object, the city object, represents geo-referenced, geometric entities. Specialized classes of city objects include buildings, green-spaces, street-spaces, transportation networks, water bodies, vegetations, and plants. 3D Editor Systems: The editors are responsible for creating, editing, and geometric modelling of specific 3D objects such as architectural building models or 3D landmark models. For example, in the Berlin project, we apply the ArchiCAD editor for architectural models, whereas 3D Studio Max is used as general-purpose 3D modeller. This approach allows us to support a broad spectrum of digital 3D contents and to fulfil 130

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specific editing needs of applications and users. In addition, a specialized editor for the ad-hoc creation of 3D building models, called Smart Building Editor, can be applied (Dllner 2005). 3D Presentation System: It provides real-time visualization of and interaction with the virtual 3D city model and is targeted at specific user groups (e.g., general public, experts, and politicians). In the Berlin project, one presentation system has been developed for the Business Location Center, which supports companies considering relocating to Berlin-Brandenburg by presenting all key decision-making factors within the virtual 3D city model. In a showroom, a large-screen projection gives impressive presentations tailored to the specific needs of clients. The presentation system is based on LandXplorer Studio. Content Transformation and Export System: As a complementary functionality, this system is applied for gathering, enclosing, compressing, encrypting, and controlling digital contents of the virtual 3D city model on different media. For example, part of the Berlin 3D city model can be automatically exported to GoogleEarth compliant formats. The implementation is based on a content transformation system provided by (3D Geo 2007).

Conclusions This contribution has outlined the concepts and system architecture of the virtual 3D city model of Berlin, an interactive system for the management, integration, presentation, and distribution of complex urban geoinformation based on a uniform communication metaphor, the virtual city. In our experience, the decoupling of the system's functionality into subsystems for content authoring, editing, storing, and presentation leads to an open, extendible, and transparent geoinformation system. As a fundamental concept, CityGML as well as a number of identified standard GIS formats provide a high degree of interoperability. Innovative visualization techniques beyond photorealism, such as information visualization and illustrative visualization, allow us to address new application areas and improve the quality and usability of the information display. As an essential component of a modern geodata infrastructure, the virtual 3D city model of Berlin seamlessly integrates key information of the cadastral database but keeps the 3D geo-database separated and, therefore, operation and updating processes independent. In our current activities, web-services for the model's contents are under development to further extend the ways the city model can be accessed by third-party applications and systems by industry, administration, and sciences.

Fig. 1: Snapshot from the visual presentation of the Berlin 3D city model.

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Fig. 2: Architecture of the Berlin 3D city model system.

References
3D Geo (2006): LandXplorer Studio Software System, www.3dgeo.de 3D Geo (2007): GoogleEarth Content Transformation, www.3dgeo.de Buchholz, H., Dllner, J. (2005): Visual Data Mining in Large-Scale 3D City Models. GIS Planet 2005 - International Conference on Geographic Information, Estoril, Portugal. Dllner, J., Buchholz, H., Brodersen, F., Glander, T., Jtterschenke, S., Klimetschek, A. (2005): Ad-Hoc Creation of 3D City Models. Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Next Generation 3D City Models, EuroSDR. Dykes, J., MacEachren, A., Kraak, M.-J. (2005): Exploring Geovisualization. Elsevier Amsterdam, Chapter 14, pp. 295312. Frstner, W. (1999): 3D City Models: Automatic and Semiautomatic Acquisition Methods. Proceedings Photogrammetric Week, University of Stuttgart, 291-303. Kolbe, T. H., Grger, G., Plmer, L. (2005): CityGML - Interoperable Access to 3D City Models. To appear in: Proceedings of the first International Symposium on Geo-Information for Disaster Management, Springer Verlag. Homepage of the CityGML initiative: www.citygml.org Ribarsky, W., Wasilewski, T., Faust N.(2002): From Urban Terrain Models to Visible Cities. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 22(4):10-15.

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Integrated assessment of land resources and land consumption in city regions


Henning Nuissl1& Dagmar Haase2
Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research UFZ, Leipzig, Germany, 1 Department for Regional and Environmental Sociology, 2Department of Computational Landscape Ecology henning.nuissl@ufz.de

The problem Recent scholarly effort has gathered strong evidence that urban sprawl has serious environmental impacts such as the degradation of soils, disturbance in water cycle, habitat fragmentation and loss in biodiversity (e.g. Johnson 2001). The conversion of natural or agricultural land into urban land hence poses a major challenge to environmental planning and management worldwide. In many parts of Europe and the world this problem is exacerbated by the fact that the population is no longer growing while the amount of land used for settlements and traffic infrastructure is still on the increase (cf. Figure 1). This development contrasts sharply with the aim to protect natural resources (e.g. Kasanko et al. 2006). Consequently several attempts and efforts are undertaken to restrain the cur140 rent dynamics of land consumption. The 130 German Federal government's declaration of intent to reduce the current rate of 120 conversion of non urban to urban land by around 80% within the next 15 years ("30 110 ha goal") is but one example here (Rat fr Nachhaltige Entwicklung 2004). However, 100 it is a major problem of most attempts to preserve land resources and prevent land 90 consumption that they are rather general land consumption population and make only a rough distinction 80 between urban and non-urban land use, thus neglecting the heterogeneity of different types of urban land use (cf. Siedentop 2005). Likewise, the general concern Figure 1: Land consumption (decrease in greenfield land) and populaabout land consumption tends to overlook tion development in the administrative district of Westsachsen that some areas are particularly sensitive ("Leipzig region") 1993-2005 (1993 = 100 to urban development whilst elsewhere land conversion may be less critical. What seems to be required against this background is more sophisticated strategies of urban land use management that are based on a scientific understanding of the various assets and impacts related to a particular land use pattern. However, even though the ongoing research on urban sprawl and its many aspects has in principle led to such an understanding. It is rather difficult to pull the different pieces of knowledge and expertise together so as to come up with an overall evaluation of changing land use patterns at a regional scale. The reason is that analyses and studies on the consequences of how society makes use of its land resources are mostly sectoral, i.e. dedicated to a particular impact of land consumption, and also rather sophisticated. In the following two steps will be made towards an integrated assessment of land resources and land consumption at the city region scale. Firstly, the conceptual distinction between two levels of land use change impacts will be introduced. Secondly, the general layout of a methodology for an integrated assessment of land use change impacts that draws on the expertise from many disciplines, that is manageable in planning practice and that could be applied to specific city regions will be presented.
1999 2000 2004

Levels of land use change impact assessment In order to assess the value and the problems related to land resources and land consumption in urban regions we deem it necessary to distinguish between two analytical "levels" at which these values and problems must be observed. (Here, the notion of "level" does not signify a geographical scale but stands for a particular analytical perspective). Firstly, the change of land use on a particular plot may affect environmental features of this very plot. For instance, the development of formerly agricultural land usually goes along with partly or even entirely seal-

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1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

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ing the surface of the respective plot. This leads to an increase in evapotranspiration and a decrease in groundwater recharge under this surface (cf. Haase & Nuissl 2007). Likewise this kind of land use transition may lead to an increase in the economic value of the land. Such consequences of land use transition occur directly on, i.e. below, above or adjacent to, the transformed plot of land this is what we call the land unit level of land use transition. Secondly, land use transition may have an impact on the neighbouring areas of where it is actually taking place, i.e. on its broader surrounding; and, vice versa, its impact may depend from the characteristics of these areas. This is the case, for example, if the construction of an industrial estate or the building of a new road cuts an existing habitat in two (e.g. Mehnert et al. 2005) or if the establishment of a new out of town retail facility that attracts many consumers from more or less far away leads to a sharp increase in car traffic in its surroundings (e.g. Cervero 1998). It is obvious that these consequences of land use change do neither occur on the very piece of land the use of which has been transformed, nor can they be understood by just having an eye on what is happening on this particular piece of land. Instead, they are determined by the context in which the transformation of land use is taking place (e.g., the quality of habitats in the area). Therefore, these examples represent the pattern or context level of land use transition. Table 1 provides some examples how land use pattern effects may be attributed to the "unit-" and the "context-level" respectively.
Table 1: Levels of impact assessment for some typical impacts of land use transition

Environmental effect of land use change (impact dimension)

Unit level Neighbourhood effect x x x x x x (x) x x x (x) (x) (x) (x)

Context level Pattern effect Regional effect x

Surface run-off Groundwater recharge Evapotranspiration Filter capacity (of soils) Soil organisms Biodiversity (endangered species) Habitat Integrity Noise Generation of (municipal) tax Maintenance costs Land values; rents Traffic (increase) Quality of life Loss of agricultural land

(x) x x

x x x x

A methodology for the assessment of land resources and land consumption A methodology for the assessment of land resources and land consumption that is both comprehensive (in that it takes account of the effects of land use patterns in many different areas) and applicable in practice (in that it could be used to provide decision makers in land use policy and planning with information on the specific consequences that have to be expected from possible future land use patterns in a particular city region) must be somewhat straightforward. Hence, it is a challenging task to reduce the complexity of scientific knowledge from various disciplines concerning the effects of land use patterns so as to allow its integration into a manageable evaluation procedure. The following aspects should be considered in particular: (1) The amount of data needed to establish a particular effect of land use change should be as small as possible (since in practice it will usually be impossible to gather a broad range of empirical data before decisions on land use policies or plans are made). (2) Correspondingly, the methods for the assessment of the individual effects of land use patterns should apply to different contexts and situations. (3) Likewise, these methods should reflect whether the effect under scrutiny belongs to the "unit-" or the "context-level". Figure 2 illustrates the general elements of the planned methodology: - The starting point is the available land use data. - This data allows calculating the actual amount of different types of land use transition in a particular (case study) area. Note that the typology of land uses which is underlying the calculation of land use transitions 134

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Land use data

Land use transition

Recommendations for land use policy

Quantitative / qualitative assessment of impacts Impact 1 Impact 2 Impact.. Impact n Assessment of the overall impact

Integration of information on impacts


Figure 2: Flowchart of an integrated impact assessment of land consumption

Type of land cov er

Example

Structure Pattern (floor and site space)

Mean degree of sealing (%)

Compact multistorey housing stock

60-80

Single and semidetached housing estate

60-80

Prefabricated large scale housing estate

40-60

Figure 3: Characteristic features of three selected types of (residential) urban land use (according to and modified after Haase & Magnucki, 2004)

must be chosen carefully and has to take account of the specific features of the region under scrutiny. Figure 3 shows a part of the urban land use typology developed at UFZ and gives an example of some relevant land use types for urban regions in Eastern Germany. The transfer of such typology to other areas, i.e. regions, might require a modification of classes or the consideration of additional land use types which could not be found in the region where the original typology was set up.

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The resulting data on actual land use transformations serve as the basis for the calculation of the various impacts of these land use transformations. Hence, certain rules (i.e. equations, algorithms) will be applied to the land use transition data in order to derive the respective impact. The next step pulls the information on these impacts together for instance by filling this information into a common matrix (synopsis). This opens up the opportunity for an integrated impact assessment across the different impact dimensions that were calculated for instance by standardizing the impact values according to a common ordinal scale or by applying a cost-benefit analysis. Finally this will allow recommendations for land use policy concerning for instance particularly sensitive areas or particularly questionable types of land use transition.

References
Cervero, R., 1998. The Transit Metropolis, Island Press, Washington DC Haase, D., Magnucki, K., 2004. Die Flchennutzungs- und Stadtentwicklung Leipzigs 1870 bis 2003. Statistischer Quartalsbericht 1, Amt fr Statistik der Stadt Leipzig, 29-31. Haase, D., Nuissl, H., 2007. Does urban sprawl drive changes in the water balance and policy? The case of Leipzig (Germany) 1870 - 2003. Landscape and Urban Planning 80, 1-13 Johnson, M.P., 2001. Environmental impacts of urban sprawl: a survey of the literature and proposed research agenda. Environ. Plann. A 33 (4), 717-735. Kasanko, M., Barredo, J.I., Lavalle, C., McCormick, N., Demicheli, L., Sagris, V., Brezger, A., 2006. Are European Cities becoming dispersed? Landscape and Urban Planning 77, 111-130 Mehnert, D., Haase, D., Lausch, A., Auhagen, A., Dormann, C.F., Seppelt, R., 2005. Bewertung der Habitateignung von Stadtstrukturen unter besonderer Bercksichtigung von Grn- und Brachflchen am Beispiel der Stadt Leipzig. Naturschutz und Landschaftsplanung 2, 54-64 Rat fr Nachhaltige Entwicklung, 2004. Mehr Wert fr Flche: Das "Ziel-30-ha" fr die Nachhaltigkeit in Stadt und Land. Empfehlungen des Rates fr Nachhaltige Entwicklung an die Bundesregierung. texte Nr. 11, Berlin Siedentop, S., 2005. Urban Sprawl - verstehen, messen, steuern : Ansatzpunkte fr ein empirisches Mess- und Evaluationskonzept der urbanen Siedlungsentwicklung. DISP 160, 23-35

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Comparison of Different High Resolution Remote-Sensing Data and Approaches for Mapping the Urban Environment
T. Lakes1, H.-O. Kim2, M. Bochow3, B. Kleinschmit2
Humboldt Universitt zu Berlin, Institute of Geography, Berlin, Germany Technische Universitt Berlin, Institute of Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning, Berlin, Germany 3 GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Section Remote Sensing, Potsdam, Germany Tobia.Lakes@geo.hu-berlin.de
1 2

1. Introduction An increasing number of people are living in urban areas. According to the last UN/DESA report (2003) the urban population will soon exceed half of the world population. This makes the urban areas some of the most rapidly changing places in the world. The consequences of worldwide urbanization awaken people to the resulting environmental problems and urgent need for urban environmental management (EC 2006). To deal effectively with the pressing state of the urban environment, first of all detailed geo-data collection on a large scale is needed. For this purpose, remote-sensing data has been used for a long time. Particularly, recently developed sensors with very high spatial as well as spectral resolution show new benefits and potentials for mapping the urban environment on a large scale. An overview of different remote-sensing data and approaches is needed to help planners to assess the possibilities in their specific context. In this paper the authors intend to give an insight into their experiences with different remote-sensing data and methods in environmental mapping of urban areas. As application examples urban land-use/land-cover, sealed surfaces, biotopes as well as the distribution of vegetation are addressed. The results are derived from three case studies in Berlin, Dresden, and Seoul. 2. Sensors and study areas In this paper different types of very high resolution remote sensing data are investigated and compared; multispectral airborne scanner data (HRSC-AX), hyperspectral airborne scanner data (HyMap), and satellite data (IKONOS, QuickBird). The technical details are summarized in Tab. 1. Potential applications and methods as well as benefits and drawbacks are discussed in the following.
Tab. 1: Characteristics of the applied remote-sensing data
HRSC-AX Airborne Pan/MS: 0.20 DSM: 1.00 Spectral Res. (nm) R: 642-682 G:530-576 B:450-510 IR:770-814 Radiometric Res. (bit) 8/11 Swath Width (km) 0.8 (Orbit) Height (km) Varying (4.1)* Repetition Rate (days) Varying Type of sensor Geometric Res. (m) Suited for Map Scales Available since Starting from (/km) Provider Up to 1:500 2000 Unknown DLR** HyMap Airborne 3.0 450-2500 nm 128 bands with intervals of 15-20 nm 12-16 1.8 Varying (1.5)* Varying 1:25 000 1:5 000 1996 Unknown DLR-DFD** IKONOS QuickBird Satellite Satellite Nadir: Pan: 0.82 Nadir: Pan: 0.61 MS: 3.20 MS: 2.44 R:450-520 R:450-520 G:520-600 G:520-600 B:630-690 B:630-690 IR:760-900 IR:760-890 11 11 11 16.5 681 km 450 km 3 5 (off-nadir) 1 3 (off-nadir) approx.. 144 (nadir) 1:25 000 1:5 000 2000 2001 ? 28 ? 24 Digital Globe SpaceImaging

* Flying Height in the case studies (HRSC: 4120 m, HyMap: 1500 m) ** DLR-DFD: Deutsches Zentrum fr Luft- und Raumfahrt, Deutsches Fernerkundungsdatenzentrum

The study sites are situated in Berlin, Dresden, and Seoul. These three cities have their own characteristics on the one hand but, at the same time, they all show typical features of urban areas such as a high amount of sealed surfaces and a heterogeneous land use and land cover. Berlin the formerly divided capital of reunited Germany shows development structures ranging from old block development "grnderzeitliche Bebauung mit Hinterhfen" to modern socialist housing "Plattenbauten" and single family homes in the suburbs. Berlin also provides a lot of green space unlike other big cities. Since the fall of the wall large-scale and fast changes have taken place. Dresden situated in the eastern part of Germany was heavily destroyed in the Second World War. It has been rebuilt with predominately socialist building structures in the era of the German

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Democratic Republic, while only a few monumental buildings have been reconstructed. Large parts of the city are characterized by block development and detached house development or by city mansions and single family homes with a varying degree of green space. Seoul the capital of South Korea represents an extremely fast-changing and complex metropolitan area characterized by very high-rise and dense building districts, a large portion of sealed urban surface and only few urban green spaces but forest surrounding the municipal area. Due to rapid changes and a lack of up-to date information on the urban environment, area wide mapping methods have been of great significance in all three of these cities in the last years. 3. Results of the case studies The case studies presented in this paper focus on the mapping of urban environment e.g. sealing, biotope types, development structures and land-use. The applied analysis approaches range from visual interpretation to automated classification methods including pixel- or segment- as well as knowledge-based approaches. In the following data and methods are briefly explained and compared. For a more detailed explanation the reader may refer to the authors' publications in the reference list. 3.1 Comparison of high resolution remote sensing data types The very high geometric, spectral, and radiometric resolution of HRSC-AX, HyMap, IKONOS and QuickBird (see Tab. 1) have extended the applicability of modern remote sensing on extremely heterogeneous as well as compact urban areas providing an alternative to traditionally used aerial photos. The high resolution aerial scanner HRSC-AX data, with a spatial resolution of up to 20 cm, offer a possibility to map at large scales of up to 1:500, similar to the spatial resolution of aerial photos (Lakes 2006; Lakes & Pobloth 2005; Kim et al. 2005a). The high data position accuracy within the range of cm enables the overlaying of auxiliary geodata (e.g. cadastral data) and therefore allowing first-time data acquisition, updating, as well as monitoring. An additional benefit of HRSC-AX data is the digital surface model (DSM, see Fig. 1a). The user-friendliness of the digital and pre-processed format is another advantage because there is no need for film developing, digitizing, aerotriangulation, mosaicking, and georeferencing. Even though the problems with digital scanner data have been substantially reduced within the last years, a few remain, such as insignificant edges and colour fragments at moving objects (see Fig. 1a).

a) HRSC-AX - Exploring the high spatial resolution of aerial scanner. (left: Digital Surface Model, right: multispectral data)

b) HyMap data - Mapping the urban environment with high thematic detail. (left: HyMap, right: spectral profile of a red tile, wavelength from 500-2500 nm)

c) IKONOS - High resolution multispectral satellite data

Fig. 1:. Comparison of different high-resolution remote-sensing data.

Compared to HRSC-AX, the hyperspectal airborne HyMap data offers a lower spatial resolution of about 3 m but provides a very high level of thematic detail by covering a wide spectral range with narrow-separated spectral bands. This offers new opportunities for urban applications such as producing land cover classifications by identifying different surface materials (e.g. roofing materials or vegetation types). From these, surface sealing maps can be directly derived (Heiden et al. 2003; Roessner et al. 2001; Herold et al. 2003). The spatial resolution of up to 3m of airborne hyperspectral scanners like the Hyperspectral Mapper (HyMap) is sufficient for detecting most geo-objects in an urban environment although it is to coarse to derive their geometric shape and boundaries accurately. Here, a combined analysis of high resolution and hyperspectral data is recommended like in Greiwe et al. (2004). Furthermore, the limited availability of hyperspectral scanner data in Europe has prevented its commercial usage until now which will significantly improve with the operation of the ARES scanner (GFZ & DLR) starting in 2007/2008.

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IKONOS and QuickBird satellite data have a lower geometric resolution than HRSC-AX and compared to HyMap the spectal bands of IKONOS and QuickBird from red, green, blue to near infrared cover a relatively narrow spectral range. Different data products of IKONOS and QuickBird are offered by the companies, from which the user can choose. The main advantage of satellite data is commercial availability and regular recording of the same area. In addition the systems of IKONOS and QuickBird are able to turn their sensors up to about 30 in every direction (off-nadir mode) and to take pictures beside their orbit, resulting in very short revisiting frequencies of up to a few days. This provides the opportunity for constant updating of geo-data and monitoring of fast-changing urban areas. But the off-nadir recording also causes problems in urban areas, since particularly in high and densely developed metropolitan regions, tilting of high-rise buildings recorded with their facades and very dark shadows occur, which leads to a high amount of information loss (Fig. 1c). In order to avoid these effects true-nadir recordings are needed, which in turn means a much lower repetition rate of e.g. 144 days for IKONOS (extended e.g. by improper weather conditions during recording). The comparatively narrow recording stripes force the user to merge different scenes with specific angles, recording time as well as data quality, which makes the standardized analysis of large urban areas diffcult. 3.2 Comparison of different analysis approaches These recently available very high resolution remote sensing data products obviously offer possibilities when the users interprets the data visually. Now the challenging research topic is the development of automated mapping approaches for the complex urban environment. A combination of a visual and knowledge-based pixel-oriented classification is proposed by Lakes (2006; Lakes & Pobloth 2005) for the optimal exploitation of the possibilities of the HRSC-data to map urban sealing and biotopes. With a pixel-based multispectral classification initially urban land-cover classes could be separated. The additionally used digital surface model (DSM) enabled to separate different surface classes according to their height, which was particularly helpful for sealed areas (sealed soil vs. building) and vegetation (grass vs. shrubs vs. trees), however the information is limited by smooth edges of high objects and the geometrically lower resolution of 1 m (see Fig. 1a). These results could only be used for a rather coarse study of the environment. Nonetheless due to the limits of the data and the large shadows within in the study area, the additional visual interpretation proved to be a significantly larger source of more detailed information. The developed method can be used for large-scale mapping of land-use and sealing as well as biotopes. Bochow et al. (2006, 2007) developed an automated segment- and knowledge-based approach for the HyMap data, using additional vector data (biotope borders), and a normalized digital surface model (nDSM). The algorithm is conceived to take the boundaries of urban biotopes from an older biotope map or generates them from a vector street layer (i.e. street blocks). The types of the biotopes are then determined by an automatic analysis of different types of input data that were generated from hyperspectral images and a nDSM. The automatic analysis is based on the calculation of numerical features (see Fig. 2) that are designed to numerically capture the characteristics of different biotope types. For each biotope type characteristic features are selected and incorporated into a fuzzy logic model. Such a model has the capability of calculating a so-called similarity value that expresses the similarity of a biotope to the biotope type of the model. For the classification of a biotope all models are applied. The model with the highest similarity value wins the biotope. Up until now, the method was successfully applied for six selected biotope types of the interpretation keys of AG Methodik (1993) and BfN (2002) in this ongoing study. In Seoul, a combined pixel- and segment-based method was developed to classify vegetation-covered areas. Since fallow or denuded land rarely exists in Seoul, the amount of sealed area can be estimated by substracting vegetation-covered area from the total area of a mapping unit like a construction block (Kim et al. 2007). In addition urban green spaces are characterized by certain ornamental trees or plants for aesthetical reasons on the one hand and by typical development corresponding to their uses on the other hand. This enables the automated mapping of urban biotope types as well as vegetation types by using spatial context information to identify typi- Fig. 2: One out of about 2900 computed features for the characterization of urban biotope types. They are cal planting forms (e.g. the green space within the resicomputed on three different levels: for all biotope pixdential areas particularly in apartment districts represent els, all pixels of a certain class, and the segments of "interspace green", which can be normally characterized a certain class. Here an example for the class level is by lawn, ornamental shrubs and trees (Kim 2007)). In given. Input raster data for this example is an unmixorder to classify the vegetation-covered areas automati- ing layer of the class 'deciduous trees'.

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cally with IKONOS and QuickBird satellite data the various urban land cover types are first classified by a pixel-based approach and the result is then used as a thematic layer in the segmentation process. The further classifiation processes follows object-based rules (Kim et al. 2005a). 4. Discussion The initial comparison in this paper showed the general potential of the range of current high resolution remote-sensing data products for a number of environmental planning applications in cities. In the following we want to discuss implications for the selection of suitable data sets and issues of transferability. The main advantage of high resolution remote-sensing data is, compared with the mapping by field surveying or analogue aerial photos, a quick working process through simultaneous recording the of wide-range areas, digital formatting and the direct integration into GIS. The decision of which kind of remote sensing data should be used always depends on the mapping purpose under certain circumstances. HRSC-AX scanner data or comparable scanner data can be recommended for acquiring geometrical precise data for event-based mappings at a specific time or for very detailed interests. HyMap could be used for detailed thematic data, however it cannot be assured to gather the data regularly and also it is still very research-dominated. For the purpose of monitoring the whole urban environment on a smaller scale using satellite data is clearly the most advantageous approach. Another important criterion to consider when chosing suitable remote sensing data and analysis methods is the local urban structure e.g. high-rise built metropolitan areas restrict the applicability of remote sensing data by shaping large shadows and tilted building facades. So for the mapping of urban areas a limit for the off-nadir-recording angle of satellite sensors is needed e.g. not more than about 5 oblique angle in Seoul and about 7 in Berlin are suggested (Kim 2007, Kleinschmit et al. 2006). Apart from sensor characteristics, the operational availability of satellite data is one, perhaps the most, decisive advantage. A defined price for the satellite data exists, in contrast to HRSC- and HyMap-data which are very much research-focussed sensors. This needs to be seen in the wider context of market development in the remote-sensing sector; satellite data has already been operationally available for a number of years, whereas multispectral aerial scanner data (such as the ADS 40 which sensor characteristics can be compared to the HRSC) has only recently been available and hyperspectral data is and will continue to be very much research-dominated for the next years. Furthermore the huge demand for up-to-date information sources in planning and the fast development of remote sensing technology will increase the competition within the market and possibly result in lower prices for both the satellite and airborne sensors in the near future. For an individual application not only the best type of data but also an application-specific method has to be chosen. As was pointed out in the three case studies, the best results were achieved by combined approaches in order to compensate existing disadvantages and at the same time to ensure the optimal exploitation of the very high resolution remote sensing data. Combined methods can be conceived in different ways depending on the objectives of the study, the state of available remote sensing data, the auxiliary geodata available as well as the specific characteristics of the study area. Object-based approaches offer opportunities by using not only spectral information but also object and context related characteristics such as shape, size, texture, of neighbourhoods as well as their hierachical relationship. Above all the inclusion of auxiliary geo data and specialized knowledge in the classification procedure leads to improved results (Frick et al. 2005) and a complete intergration of GIS and remote sensing (Blaschke et al. 2002, Frster & Kleinschmit 2006). The more complex the classification process will be by using auxiliary data and scene- and site-specific characterics, the more accurate, detailed and reliable the classification results will be in this study area. On the other hand it will become increasingly difficult to transfer these methods to a larger area or another study area (Hostert et al. 2005). After all a completely automated method in urban areas can not be realized at present. To map urban areas needs the provision of data on a large scale, which is generalized and is heavily based on context information. Therefore an additional visual interpretation is still and in near future will remain to be of high importance for the spatially high resolution remote sensing data. 5. Conclusions and Outlook In this paper an initial overview was given to prove the potentials of recently available remote-sensing data with very high spatial resolution for the mapping of urban environment. With the increased availability of spatial and spectral resolution data new methods need to be developed; as was shown in the case studies. To support environmental planners in their choice of remote-sensing data and approaches some decisive issues have been identified, such as the level of thematic information, the operational availabilty, the scale of application and the need for regular updates of the mappings. Possibilities and drawbacks of the different data and methods now need to be discussed in more detail. A more comprehensive systematic approach is needed to help urban planners to choose the appropriate data and approaches for a certain application.

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Acknowledgements We want to thank Hartmut Kenneweg who has been involved in a number of projects as a driving force for mapping urban areas with remote-sensing, such as within the graduate program "Perspectives on Urban Ecology the Example of the European Metropolis of Berlin". We would also like to thank the Institute of Planetary Research, DLR Berlin-Adlershof, and the Senate department of Urban Planning, Berlin for the geodata, the DLR-DFD Oberpfaffenhofen, the Umweltamt Dresden, the Seoul Development Institute, and Korea Space-Image Technology for their data and support. References
AG Methodik der Biotopkartierung im besiedelten Bereich (1993): Flchendeckende Biotopkartierung im besiedelten Bereich als Grundlage einer am Naturschutz orientierten Planung. Natur und Landschaft 68: 371-389. Blaschke T., Gler, C. & Lang, S. (2002): Bildverarbeitung in einer integrierten GIS/Fernerkundungsumgebung Trends und Konsequenzen. In: Blaschke, T. (Ed.): Fernerkundung und GIS - Neue Sensoren, innovative Methoden. Heidelberg: Wichmann. p. 1-8. Bochow, M., Peisker, T. Segl K. & Kaufmann, H. (2006): Modelling of urban biotope types from hyperspectral imagery using a fuzzy logic approach. eProceedings of the 2nd workshop of the EARSeL SIG Remote Sensing of Land Use & Land Cover. Bonn, Germany. 25-29 September 2006. Bochow, M., Segl, K. & Kaufmann, H. (2007): An update system for urban biotope maps based on hyperspectral remote sensing data. In: Proc. of the 5th EARSeL SIG IS Workshop on Imaging Spectroscopy, 23rd-25th April 2007, Bruges, Belgium (in press). Bundesamt fr Naturschutz (2002): Systematik der Biotoptypen- und Nutzungstypenkartierung (Kartieranleitung). Standard-Biotoptypen und Nutzungstypen fr die CIR-Luftbild-gesttzte Biotoptypen- und Nutzungstypenkartierung fr die Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Schriftenreihe fr Landschaftspflege und Naturschutz (73). Bonn-Bad Godesberg. European Commission/EC (2006): Communication from the commission on to the council and the European Parliament on Thematic Strategy on the Urban Environment. 12 pp. Fster, M. & Kleinschmit, B. (2006): Integration of ancilliary information into object-based classification for detection of forest structures and habitats. In: Lang, S., Blaschke, T. & Schpfer, E. (Eds.): 1st International Conference on object-based Image Analysis. ISPRS (XXXVI-4/c42): 1-6. Frick, A., Weyer, G., Kenneweg, H. & Kleinschmit, B. (2005): A Knowledge-Based Approach to Vegetation Monitoring with QuickBird Imagery. Proceedings of ISPRS Workshop 2005: High-Resolution Earth Imaging for Geospatial Information. Hannover, Deutschland. 17-20 Mai 2005. Greiwe, A., Bochow, M. & M. Ehlers (2004): Segmentbasierte Fusion geometrisch hoch aufgelster und hyperspektraler Daten zur Verbesserung der Klassifikationsgte am Beispiel einer urbanen Szene. PFG 6/2004: 485-494. Heiden, U., Segl, K., Roessner, S., & Kaufmann, H., (2003): Ecological evaluation of urban biotope types using airborne hyperspectral HyMap data. Proceedings of the 2nd GRSS/ISPRS Joint Workshop on Remote Sensing and Data Fusion over Urban Areas in Berlin: 18-22. Herold, M., Gardner, M., & Roberts, D. (2003): Spectral resolution requirements for mapping urban areas, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 41(9): 1907-1919. Hostert, P., Damm, A., Diermayer, E. & Schiefer, S. (2005): Characterizing Heterogeneous Environments: Hyperspectral versus Geometric Very High Resolution Data for Urban Studies. In: Proceedings of 4th EARSeL Workshop on Imaging Spectroscopy. Warsaw, Poland. 27-29 April 2005. Kim, H.-O. (2007): Beitrag sehr hochauflsender Satellitenfernerkundungsdaten zur Aktualisierung der Biotop- und Nutzungstypenkartierung in Stadtgebieten - Dargestellt am Beispiel von Seoul. Dissertation. Berlin: Berlin University of Technology (submitted). Kim, H.-O., Lakes, T., Kenneweg, H. & Kleinschmit, B. (2005a): Different approaches for urban habitat type mapping the case study of Berlin and Seoul. In: Mller, M. & Wentz, E. (Eds.) The international Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information sciences, Vol. 36, 8/W27. Kleinschmit, B.; Horstert, P.; Coenradie, B. & Haag, L. (2006): Konzeptstudie "Entwicklung eines hybriden Verfahrensansatzes zur Versiegelungskartierung in Berlin". Abschlussbericht. Lakes, T. (2006): Beitrag des Informationsmanagements fr den Einsatz neuer Fernerkundungsdaten in der stdtischen Planung - am Beispiel der Stadtbiotoptypenkartierung mit Flugzeugscannerdaten in Berlin. Dissertation. Berlin: Berlin University of Technology. Lakes, T. & S. Pobloth (2005): The Evolution of Aproaches to Create Urban Habitat Networks - a case study in Berlin. In: Die Erde 136/2005(2): 23-33. Roessner, S., Segl, K., Heiden, U., & Kaufmann, H. (2001): Automated differentiation of urban surface based on airborne hyperspectral imagery. Proceedings of IEEE TGARS 39(7): 1523-1532. United Nations (2003): World Urbanization Prospects: The 2003 Revision. 195 pp.

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Geo-processing in the Study of Irregular Deposits of Civil Construction, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Carla A. Simes, Ana Clara M. Moura, Ilka S. Cintra, Maria das Dores P. Nogueira, Cludia P. Lessa, Maria Teresa P. Aguilar, Maristela S. Palhares
Federal University of Minas Gerais - Dept. of Cartography, Brazil caicasimoes@yahoo.com.br

Abstract The development of this study relied on Geo-processing techniques that would assist in the management of civil construction residues in the capital of Minas Gerais. Thus it becomes a strategic tool in environmental planning through which it was possible to realize predictive studies, with the objective of minimizing the occurrence of clandestine waste deposits and permit interventions concentrated in preventive actions, instead of the corrective measures practiced today.

Map 1

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Map 2

Introduction and Objectives The intense production of solid residues associated with the saturation of sanitary fills and the appearance of clandestine deposits are problems that public administrators currently face. In this context, the generation of residues of civil construction merit special attention, since they represent a considerable volume of the total residue produced by a city. In Belo Horizonte, beyond the significant quantity of material generated, these deposits in inappropriate locales grow in number and in volume, even given the availability of infrastructure appropriate to receive such waste. In an attempt to contribute to the combat and prevention of this type of deposit, this research1 has as an objective the investigation of the principal physical aspects which lead to their appearance. To this end, three questions were posed: 1) Which areas show propensity to receive clandestine deposits? 2) Which areas present physical obstacles for the carts? 3) What is the area of influence of equipment appropriate to receive waste (URPVs e PREs)? Are these in fact accessible to the carts? Methodology A methodological routine was created to make it possible to obtain answers to these questions. The first stage of this routine was restricted to definition of the area of the study. The entire study was developed respecting

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Map 3

the delineated administrative district of the northeast region keeping in mind the availability of a complete, updated geographical database, in addition to presenting the critical problems of clandestine waste deposits. Thirty-four irregular deposits were identified (all of small to medium size), located before 4 already overloaded pieces of equipment, installed to receive just such material: 1 Small Volume Reception Unit (URPV) the only locale in which all deposited material is sent to Recycling Facilities and 3 Waste Reception Points (PRE), as presented in map 2. The second stage consisted of the selection, collection, and posterior treatment of the data to be analyzed using the GIS (Geographical Information System). The data analyzed were: lot occupation; situation of lot front; occurrence of construction; favelas (slums); green areas; squares; declination of land; non-channeled water; declination of stretches of roads; road type; road pavement type; critical clandestine deposit points; equipment URPV and PRE; geo-technical risk areas; and property type. For collection of data, field work was realized using GPS equipment, which registered the localization of determined occurrences, such as clandestine waste deposits. For data which had no spatial references, procedures such as geo-referencing were performed, through a system of projection, and coordinates of the data, and through definition of the initial representation of the data in a vector format. These 15 variables were selected by specialists, who affirmed their influence, in distinct proportions, on this process. In order to quantify the degree of interference of these variables, it is necessary to quantify them, through a attribution of weights and grades, such that a hierarchy of importance could be established.This was made possible by the application of questionnaires given to the specialists, in conformity to the Delphi Method. This represents the third methodological stage developed. In the fourth step a method of cross-referencing the weighted data was developed organized in a manner to respond to the questionnaires utilizing the free software SAGA/UFRJ, assisted by models of spatial analysis (multi-criteria analysis). Finally, the fifth step consisted of the real world validation of obtained results. 144

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Map 4

Obtained Results Four cartographic sub-products were obtained. Map 1 "Propensity of the construction waste deposited" sought to identify the most likely areas for the appearance of temporary and irregular waste deposits through the recognition of their inherent physical characteristics. Thus, it was possible to observe that the areas with medium to high propensity were near to "favelas" (slums) which do, in fact, present risk factors for these illegal practices, as observed in the field. In map 2 "Environmental attrition" it was possible to perceive the accessibility of the URPV's and PRE's to carts, keeping in sight the physical obstacles that could impede the ease of transit for these transporters. In accord with the map, within the principal degradation factors encountered were highly inclined routes or routes with high traffic density. In maps 3 and 4, entitled "Adequating Installations Area of Influence of Equipment" and "Adequating Installations Simulation", the main concern was to evaluate, respectively, the areas of influence of each piece of equipment in the Northeast region and identify locales ideal for their installation such that they become easily accessible to carts. Observing map 3, it is noted that the UPRV does not adequately fulfill its role as a waste receptor, keeping in mind its small area of influence, when compared to alternate reception points. In this way, it is seen that the installed UPRV is badly located, as it does not concentrate the material, and therefore doesn't recycle the majority of residues, contributing to the over saturation of landfills. Using the simulation verified in map 4, it is possible to prove the deficiency in location, considering the significant increase in the area of influence of the UPRV. Validation of Results: Three situations were validated: the first consisted of evaluating the degree of coincidence between the areas of propensity with areas in which appear clandestine waste deposits: nearly 60% of the areas of low to medium propensity coincide with areas of mapped deposits. This low correspondence is due to the fact that the comparisons were done to distinct time scales. The estimated data of propensity portray a future scenario, and events which will occur given the reality in which the research was developed. The data proven in the field reflect distinct present processes, which influenced other factors in the appearance of these irregular deposits.

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The data indicate, in this case, the coincidence of these estimates with clandestine deposits which will be established in the future. The second situation evaluated the correspondence between the estimate presented in map 1 and current risk areas: more than 50% of the areas of medium to high propensity coincide with risk areas. This result signaled the necessity to demand increased attention through preventive measures in these areas of medium and high propensity, considering the possibility of worsened environmental impact. Finally, the third situation evaluates the correspondence between types of private property and areas of propensity: nearly 50% of the areas of low to medium propensity coincide with public property: in relation to private property, 90% of the areas of low propensity coincide. Contrary to previous thought, this low correspondence indicated that no direct relationship between the type of property and the establishment of clandestine waste deposits in the Northeast region can be affirmed. Conclusion The research revealed a new point of view surrounding the management of waste in the Northeast region until now unperceived: all infrastructures both planned and installed (URPV's) do not fulfill their roles as required to receive waste generated and recycle it. Despite attenuating the occurrence of clandestine deposits with the installation of PRE's (alternative installations), maximum recycling was not achieved. Reutilization of material was not done in a satisfactory manner since there is a polarization of waste reception by the PRE's (locales where triage of recyclable material is not done) and therefore, consequently, is buried. There is, therefore, a network of disconnected infrastructure that does not perform in an integral manner its purpose, which is the correction of clandestine waste deposits and recycling. Thus it is possible to prove once again that the utilization of the tools of geo-processing in the management of civil construction waste are of fundamental importance, keeping in view the possibility of the development of predictive studies for adequate positioning of infrastructure to receive and recycle generated waste. Bibliographical references
BELO HORIZONTE. Resoluo CONAMA n307, 2000. Disponvel em http://www.mma.gov.br. Acesso em maio/2006. BELO HORIZONTE. Resoluo CONAMA n004, 1985. Disponvel em http://www.mma.gov.br. Acesso em maio/2006. BELO HORIZONTE. Lei n7165 de 27 de agosto de 1996. Institui o plano diretor do municpio de Belo Horizonte. Belo Horizonte, 1996. Disponvel em http://www.pbh.gov.br/procuradoria/index.htm. Acesso em maio/2006. BRASIL, Congresso. Senado. Resoluo n.307, de 2007. Disponvel em: http//www.mma.gov.br/port/conama. Acesso em maio/2006 CINTRA, I. S.Estudo da Viabilidade de Tratamento dos Resduos Slidos Enviados Estao Ecolgica da UFMG In: 18 Congresso Nacional de Engenharia Sanitria e Ambiental, 1997, Foz do Iguau.Anais do Congresso. , 1997. p.360 - 370 MENDONA, Francisco. Geografia e Meio Ambiente. So Paulo, 1993. MOURA, Ana Clara Mouro. Geoprocessamento na gesto e Planejamento Urbano. Belo Horizonte, 2005 RODRIGUES, Arlete Moyss. Produo e Consumo do e no Espao - Problemtica Ambiental Urbana. So Paulo, 1998. SUPERINTENDNCIA DE LIMPEZAS URBANAS. Plano de Gerenciamento de Resduos Slidos de Belo Horizonte Perodo: 2000 - 2004. Belo Horizonte, 2000. SILVA, Paulo Jos. Polticas pblicas e gesto ambiental: Um estudo das prticas de administrao pblica de resduos da construo civil na cidade de Belo Horizonte. Lavras, 2005 VIANNA, M.D.B.; VERONESE, G. Polticas ambientais empresariais. Revista da Administrao Pblica. Rio de Janeiro, 1992. XAVIER-DA-SILVA, Jorge. Geoprocessamento para Anlise Ambiental. Rio de Janeiro, 2001 XAVIER-DA-SILVA, Jorge. Geoprocessamento e Anlise Ambiental. Aplicaes. Rio de Janeiro, 2004

________________________________________________ 1 This research is the result of a joint venture between SLU (Superintendncia de Limpeza Urbana), UFMG/Departamento de Cartografia and VINA Equipamentos e Construes LTDA. Additionally, collaborators include: Maria Teresa Paulino Aguilar, Prof. Dr. Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais,teresa@demc.ufmg.br; Maristela ; Silveira Palhares, Prof. Dr.Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, maristela_palhares@hotmail.com; Maria das Dores Pimentel Nogueira, MSc.,Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais mdnogueira@ufmg.br; Sandra Fiuza, Prof. Arq. MSc., Superintendncia de Limpeza Urbana/ Prefeitura de BeloHorizonte sandramfiuza@yahoo.com.br; Cladia Pires Lessa, Publicitria., VINA - Equipamentos e Construes Ltda. claudiaplessa@hotmail.com.

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GIS Assessment of Environmental Impacts on Urban Forests


Richard Snow & Mary Snow
Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, Florida, USA Richard.Snow@erau.edu

Abstract For many species of vegetation, climatic changes resulting in a temperature difference of a few degrees or a slight variation in rainfall pattern may determine whether a particular species survives or becomes extinct. Unlike earlier climatic events, such as that following the last Ice Age, which slowly took place over long periods of time, forecast climate changes are expected to occur suddenly. Because climate and vegetation are so strongly associated, it is assumed that such rapid changes in climate will affect plant distributions and result in altering the makeup of natural communities. An intensive study was recently completed to determine the effect of climatic change on 15,000 known native vascular plant species found in North America. The analysis assumed that a doubling of carbon dioxide would lead to a 3 Celsius degree increase in global temperatures and based the study on the climatic envelope or maximum and minimum mean annual temperature that each species experiences in its current distribution. The results suggest that with a 3 Celsius degree increase in temperatures, approximately 7 to 11 percent or 1,060 to 1,670 of the species under investigation would be beyond their climatic envelope and at risk for extinction. Rare species, which make up approximately 27 percent of North America's flora, were especially at risk with 10 to 18 percent threatened with extinction. Because climate plays such an important role in the distribution of plant species, the predicted global and regional climatic changes will likely affect a variety of existing vegetation patterns. Some species will migrate forming new associations while others will be lost completely. While environmental impacts are difficult to quantify, this research demonstrates how Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can be used to examine proposed scenarios including rising seas, severe droughts, rainstorms, heat waves, and floods and the associated negative effects on urban forest sustainability. Introduction The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) recently revealed that the warmest years of the past century have taken place since 1990 as the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide has increased from a pre-industrial value of about 280 parts per million (ppm) to current levels of nearly 380 ppm, against the backdrop of the natural range of carbon dioxide concentration during the past 650,000 years, which is between 180 to 300 ppm according to ice core data [1]. Based on a global warming scenario consisting of 1 to 3 Celsius degrees by the year 2100, the IPCC concludes that such change will put the most stress on those systems, such as forests and woodlands, already affected by pollution, thus increasing resource demands, and nonsustainable management practices. Urban forests supply numerous benefits for society, such as carbon sequestration, conservation, and biodiversity as well as research, recreation, and relaxation. Because forests are major components of the biosphere, negative impacts on these ecosystems could have damaging effects on other associated goods and services [2], and research indicates that climate change will be accompanied by significant socioeconomic repercussions [3]. In light of these findings, a GIS assessment of the environmental impacts on urban forests seems essential. Climate Change Scenarios If global warming continues as the IPCC and others have suggested, locations from the equator toward the poles will begin to experience higher temperature profiles which ultimately could lead to rising seas and more severe droughts, rainstorms, heat waves and floods [4]. Locations in the arctic and temperate latitudes are likely to experience warmer and stormier winters. Summers might be hotter with less precipitation, and summer rains will be the result of thunderstorms rather than showers. Of course, there a number of regional factors such as variations in hills, lakes, coastlines, and soils that will affect local climate, so that some areas could experience higher or lower temperatures than the mean global changes [5]. Factors such as groundlevel air temperatures, relative humidity, dew concentrations, exposure to winds, persistence of snow, length of frost-free growing season, and duration and intensity of sunlight vary considerably. However, an increase in temperature of 1 to 3 Celsius degrees over the next century would be equivalent to shifting isotherms pole ward 150 to 550 km [6]. Thus, higher latitude locations can expect to be exposed to higher increases in temperature. Among the most publicized impacts of global warming are rising sea levels. It has been reported that during the past century, sea levels rose by 5 to 10 inches [7]. Although estimates are highly variable, a recently published paper in Nature suggests that by 2100 sea levels will be about 500 mm higher than today as result

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of global warming, with thermal expansion of seawater accounting for over half of this rise [8]. Global warming is most likely to contribute to a 6-inch increase in sea levels by 2050 and an increase of about 14 inches by 2100 [9]. Besides rising seas, there is also the threat that wetlands could dry up in an expansive mid-continent warming [10]. Such potential changes in wetland hydrology and vegetation could result in a dramatic decline in the quality of habitat for breeding birds [11]. A rise in global temperatures would also increase the number and intensity of tropical storms along the coasts. The result might be severe outbreaks of violent weather, which could potentially damage coastal forests through heavy winds and flooding, possibly resetting ecosystems to early successional phases. With 40 percent of the population in the U.S. living within 50 miles of a coastline, such impacts could have a negative effect on the economy as well as coastal ecosystems. Climate change could cause regional wind patterns to shift, which would be accompanied by an increase in wind speed intensity. Such shifts could impact existing rain shadow effects in some regions causing more precipitation on the windward side of mountain ranges while creating even drier conditions on the leeward sides. Fire patterns are likely to be altered as well, which could affect a variety of plant species, even those that are fire resistant or require the presence of fire to regenerate. A study based on a doubling of carbon dioxide levels reveals that wildfires in Canada would undergo a 46 percent increase in seasonal severity [12]. There are unique species such as the bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva) and the giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum), which have maintained their present locations for thousands of years despite substantial climatic change, indicating that some species have a high degree of physiological tolerance to climatic fluctuations. In fact, some stress-tolerant species could benefit from extreme climates if competitors are locally depleted or eliminated. However, for many species of vegetation, climatic changes resulting in a temperature difference of a few degrees or a slight variation in rainfall pattern may determine whether a particular species survives or becomes extinct. Forests Impacts Unlike earlier climatic events, such as that following the last Ice Age, which slowly took place over long periods of time, these forecast variations are expected to occur suddenly with the average rate of warming probably greater than any seen in the last 10,000 years. Because climate and vegetation are so strongly associated, it is assumed that such rapid changes in climate will affect plant distributions and result in altering the makeup of forest communities [13]. History has shown that most species respond individually to climatic change and not as communities. Those individuals that have the ability to migrate likely will do so, resulting in a number of new associations. In addition to differences in migration rates, community types will be altered and new associations will be created due to changes in disturbance regimes and competition. Many species attempting to adapt to this rapidly changing climate will be forced to migrate at rates of speed beyond their abilities, which may be the greatest of all potential threats to biodiversity. Evidence from the fossil pollen record reveals the migration rates of various species since the end of the last glacial period. According to a benchmark study by the Environmental Protection Agency, beech and maples migrate at a rate of 10 to 20 km per century, hemlock migrate at 20 to 25 km per century, and pine and oak species migrate at 30 to 40 km per century [14]. Other research suggests that within the next century plant species may be forced to shift as much as 500 km, which is well beyond the migration rates of many species [15]. Due to temperature increases, the limited availability of water, and other environmental factors, entire forests may disappear, and new ecosystems may take their places. Also, a global average of one-third of the existing forested area could undergo major changes in broad vegetation types with the greatest changes occurring in high latitudes. Both plant and animal communities at high elevations and in high latitudes may have no place to migrate and could be lost completely. Alpine ecosystems are thought to be particularly sensitive to climate change largely due to their low productivity, tight nutrient cycling, and their position at a limit for many plant processes [16]. Research that spanned a 125,000-year record of the forest/steppe border along the eastern Cascade Range of the northwest United States, reports climatic variations are the primary cause of regional vegetation change [17]. Additionally, a study analyzing 19 isolated mountain peaks in the U.S. Great Basin, predicts a loss of 9 to 62 percent of the species currently found at these locations based on a temperature increase of 3 degrees Celsius [18]. The Nature Conservancy Report An intensive analysis to determine the effect of climatic change on 15,000 known native vascular plant species found in North America was conducted by the Nature Conservancy. The researchers assumed that a doubling of carbon dioxide would lead to a 3 Celsius degree increase in global temperatures and based the study on the climatic envelope or maximum and minimum mean annual temperature that each species experiences in its current distribution [19]. The climatic envelope of each of the 15,000 species was compared to the projected rise in average annual temperatures. The researchers found that approximately 7 to 11 percent or some 1,060 148

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to 1,670 of the species under investigation would be beyond their climatic envelope and at risk for extinction. States in the southeast are projected to have the greatest loss with 25 percent of Florida's flora at risk. This may be due to the number of Appalachian Mountain species in these states that are already at their southern range limits. To put these finding into perspective, during the last two centuries in North America only 90 plant species are believed to have become extinct. Rare species, which make up approximately 27 percent of North America's flora, were especially at risk with 10 to 18 percent threatened with extinction while only 1 to 2 percent of the more common species were considered endangered. In order to determine the potential for migration in the event of global warming, a dispersal-ability scale was calculated based on full data availability for 8,668 species. The scale takes into account factors such as pollination by wind, dispersal by birds and insects, and generation time with most species having an intermediate dispersal potential. The analysis reveals that in a 3 Celsius degree global warming scenario those species with characteristics that limit long-range dispersal would suffer the greatest risk. Additionally, plants that require specific habitat such as wetlands would also be threatened. While the Nature Conservancy's model relies primarily on temperature and does not take into account a number of other environmental factors, it does represent a general picture of the impact climatic change could have on the flora of North America and should give us cause for concern GIS Assessments The principal advantage of a GIS is its ability to allow the user to perform a spatial analysis, which can be described as the investigation of the locations and shapes of geographic attributes and the interactions between these features. Spatial analysis is essential for determining site suitability and potential, for approximating and calculating geographic relationships, and for deducing and comprehending the problems of place. In short, spatial analysis allows one to address those issues associated with location. GIS is a highly effective information and communication technology due to its power to graphically convey knowledge through the universal language of maps. The first modern GIS, the Canadian Geographic Information System (CGIS), was developed in the early 1960s to inventory Canada's natural resources and is acknowledged as a milestone in the development of GIS. The CGIS classified land according to its capability for forestry, agriculture, recreation, and wildlife, and many of the GIS terms and concepts used today originated with the CGIS [20]. The Canadians understood that in order for the CGIS to be an effective environmental tool, accurate and relevant data must be incorporated into the system. The success of the CGIS is evidenced by its continued operation today in mitigating pollution, managing resources, and in land-use planning [21]. For example, in order to examine detailed spatial environmental data, satellite imagery was integrated with a GIS for a region in northern Wisconsin, which allows an assessment of changes in the forest landscape over time [22]. Another GIS was developed to assess the response of alpine plant species distribution to various climatic and land-use scenarios and found that alpine plant species with restricted habitat availability above the tree line will experience severe fragmentation and habitat loss [23]. In Munich, Germany, a GIS was utilized to examine the spatial pattern and environmental functions of the urban forest linking environmental planning and urban forestry with general land-use and structure planning [24]. A GIS analysis of vegetation structure with forest functions and value in Chicago, Illinois, revealed that local urban forests remove 5575 metric tons of air pollutants and sequester approximately 315,800 metric tons of carbon annually [25]. In Chattanooga, Tennessee, a practical GIS was created to map tree locations, and track the type and size of every tree along city streets and in downtown parks in order to maintain a database of tree size and health conditions [26]. And in a unique approach to GIS-based modelling, researchers found that the future threat to the forests of Europe due to climate change is predicted to increase in Scandinavia and Eastern Europe [27]. GIS is generally acknowledged as an influential instrument for modelling and simulation. However, there are a number of factors related to GIS visualization that must be considered. Foremost among these are the spatial data required to generate an accurate forecast. Longitudinal data are necessary to establish past and future long-term patterns and trends. Yet, appropriately extensive climate records might not be available for a given location, which is one of the problems associated with trying to resolve the effect of global warming on urban forests. Although GIS is a proven tool for assessing environmental impacts on forests and woodlands, numerous challenges remain. For instance, when developing GIS models urban forests tend to be treated as isolated elements, which can lead to miscalculations in predicting landscape changes. And while there has been substantial improvement in simulating disturbances within landscapes, it is presently difficult to model global vegetation change at the landscape scale. Despite these and other shortcomings, a well designed GIS can serve as a frontline defence against environmental impacts and is an invaluable instrument through which communities can profit by joining in a process to incorporate spatial information into shared governance for sound and sustainable urban forest management and planning.

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References
[1] Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2007. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. [2] Woodwell, G.M. and F.T. Mackenzie, eds. 1995. Biotic Feedbacks in the Global Climatic System: Will the Warming Speed the Warming? New York: Oxford University Press. [3] Winnett, S.M. 1998. Potential Effects of Climate Change on U.S. Forests. Climate Research. 11, 39-49. [4] Stevens, W.K. 1998. If Climate Changes, It May Change Quickly. New York Times, Jan. 27, p. 1. [5] Schwartz, M.W. 1992. Modelling Effects of Habitat Fragmentation on the Ability of Trees to Respond to Climatic Warming. Biodiversity and Conservation. 2, 51-61. [6] Kates, R.W. 1997. Climate Change 1995: Impacts, Adaptations, and Mitigation. Environment. 39(9), 29-33. [7] Stipp, D. 1997. Science Says the Heat Is On. Fortune. 136(11), 126-129. [8] Gregory, J.M. and J. Oerlemans. 1998. Simulated Future Sea-Level Rise Due to Glacier Melt Based on Regionally and Seasonally Resolved Temperature Changes. Nature. 391(6666), 474-476. [9] Edmonson, B. 1997. What if ... the Oceans Rose Three Feet? American Demographics. 19(12), 44. [10] Van Putten, M. 1997. Conservation and Climate Change. International Wildlife. 27(6), 7. [11] Poiani, K. A. and W.C. Johnson. 1993. Potential Effects of Climatic Change on a Semi-permanent Prairie Wetland. Climatic Change. 24(3), 213. [12] Flannigan, M.D. and C.E. Van Wagner. 1991. Climate Change and Wildfire in Canada. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 21(1), 66-72. [13] Graham, R.W. and E.C. Grimm. 1990. Effects of Global Climate Change on the Patterns of Terrestrial Biological Communities. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. 5(9), 289-292. [14] Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1989. The Potential Effects of Global Climate Change on the United States. Washington, D.C.: EPA. [15] Russell, C. and L.E. Morse. 1992. Plants. Biodiversity Network News. 5(2), 4. [16] Walker, D.A., J.C. Halfpenny, D. Marilyn, and C.A. Wessman. 1993. Long-term Studies of Snow-Vegetation Interactions. Bioscience. 43(5), 287. [17] Whitlock, C. and P.J. Bartlein. 1997. Vegetation and Climate Change in Northwest America During the Last 125 KYR. Nature. 388(6637), 57-61. [18] McDonald, K.A. and J.H. Brown. 1992. Using Montane Mammals to Model Extinctions Due to Global Change. Conservation Biology. 6, 409-415. [19] Kutner, L.S. and L.E. Morse. 1996. Reintroduction in a Changing Climate. In Restoring Diversity: Strategies for Reintroduction of Endangered Plants. D.A. Falk, C.I. Millar, and M. Olwell, eds. Island Press. [20] Crain, I.K. 1985. Environmental Information Systems: An Overview. Environment Canada, Ottawa. [21] Heywood, I. 1990. Monitoring for Change: A Canadian Perspective on the Environmental Role for GIS. Mapping Awareness. 4 (9), 24-6. [22] He, H.S., D.J. Mladenoff, V.C. Radeloff, and T.R. Crow. 1998. Integration of GIS Data and Classified Satellite Imagery for Regional Forest Assessment. Ecological Applications. 8(4), 1072-1083. [23] Dirnbck, T., S. Dullinger, and G. Grabherr. 2003. A Regional Impact Assessment of Climate and Land-use Change on Alpine Vegetation. Journal of Biogeography. 30 (3), 401-417. [24] Pauleit, S. and F. Duhme. 2000. GIS Assessment of Munich's Urban Forest Structure for Urban Planning. Journal of Arboriculture. 26(3). [25] McPherson, E.G., D. Nowak, G. Heisler, S. Grimmond, C. Souch, R. Grant and R. Rowntree. 1997. Quantifying Urban Forest Structure, Function, and Value: The Chicago Urban Forest Climate Project. Urban Ecosystems. 1(1), 49-61. [26] J. Brown. 2003. Saving the Urban Forest. Government Technology. September 3. [27] Cassel-Gintz, M. and G. Petschel-Held. 2000. GIS-based Assessment of the Threat to World Forests by Patterns of Non-sustainable Civilisation Nature Interaction. Journal of Environmental Management. 59, 279-298.

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Optimizing ecological landscape functions in urban areas using GISdatabases and remote sensing: Urban forestry as an example
M. Kersting & H. Kenneweg
Institut fr Landschaftsarchitektur und Umweltplanung, Technische Universitt Berlin, Germany Michael.Kersting@tu-berlin.de

Abstract Both due to legislation and to the shortage of land resources in densely populated urban and suburban areas of Germany, multiple use of land resources is a traditional issue of urban planning. Restrictions on land use for the protection of the environment have in general been accepted by investors and the public for a long time. However, the locally decreasing urban population connected with nevertheless increasing land consumption have created new strong challenges to urban land management which require special procedures of optimizing the spatial allocation of conflicting land-use forms and landscape functions. Urban forestry is well suited to represent both the new challenges and new GIS-based approaches to solve resulting problems of urban land management. This contribution emphasizes aspects of data acquisition and data handling in order to support planning which aims at converting conflicts to acceptable compromises. Typical conflicts and the necessity to solve them will be discussed under the view of available versus desirable data bases along an example which is represented by a test area in an Eastern suburb of Berlin. Introduction More than 15 000 ha of urban forest, situated within the city boundaries of Berlin, indicate a high quality of life. Its composition of tree species and age classes is well documented by inventory data within the framework of the forest management plan (to some part obtained by remote sensing methods) and can be analysed by GISmethods. The urban forest is expected to serve multiple requirements. At least three of the resulting ecological forest functions (beside utility functions) superimpose each other on all forest locations, on some locations there can be many more. These forest functions, however, have not yet been defined and recorded in sufficient detail for multipurpose urban planning; they are often conflicting among each other and with the respective local situations. Better coordination and more precisely designed measures are needed which, however, have to be based on sufficiently detailed interdisciplinary information. The research project "Optimizing forest functions under urban conditions", funded by the German Research Council (DFG), aims at models and methods for finding optimum conditions and optimum coordination of forest functions which, particularly in urban areas, are partly antagonistic. This research part is an attempt at a synthesis, and it is based on comprehensive analytical work using GIS data bases, supported by remote sensing. The results are supposed to be transferable to different land-use problems and tasks in other urban areas. Available and desirable data bases Environmental planning and urban planning in many parts of the world is suffering from insufficient or even completely missing spatial information. This is not true for the city of Berlin. The availability of too many different data bases, however, can cause problems as well, if all this information, on the one hand, is dedicated to strongly varying objectives and, on the other hand, is documented under heterogeneous rules and conditions, both in terms of standards/technology and in terms of administrative responsibility. The research project mentioned above firstly has to make a choice among altogether 500 existing different shape files under various topics in order, secondly, to take advantage of as many as 116 selected sources of spatial data. Although the city administration of Berlin has combined most public environmental data as a digital planning device, named "Environmental Information System" (UIS), and it has developed a toolbox to facilitate the use of heterogeneous publicly available data on varying subject matters, called "FIS-broker", the remaining problems are remarkable and can be pinpointed under the following key words: Necessity to use data bases which are neither contained in the UIS nor recorded by in the FIS-broker; Varying and not in any case well defined topicality; Varying map scales and resulting differences of accuracy and detail, either due to the conditions of data acquisition or due to requirements for cartographic presentation purposes; Varying borderlines for identical sites in different data bases, due to different definitions and nomenclatures; Errors due to incomplete or missing control of data acquisition and data validation. Some of the resulting difficulties and approaches to overcome them will show up in the field of urban forestry, particularly illustrated in the specific demonstration site to be discussed below. Neither all of the data bases to be used nor all forest functions can be listed and discussed there, but a typical choice will be presented.

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Utilities for securing sustainable forest management both in terms of forest products and in terms of ecological and recreational functions Forest management plans, guided by sustainability directives, have been developed for more than 200 years in central Europe, primarily aiming at forest products. Today detailed GIS-based digital maps (scale in most cases 1:10 000) containing up to more than 200 information layers (shape files) on soils, vegetation, moisture, tree species, type of mixture, age classes, spatial delineation of long term planning decisions etc. are standard for many forest enterprises, both public-owned and private ones. During the last decades multi-purpose, respectively "multifunctional" forestry, more and more emphazising protective functions and recreation-oriented objectives, has increased its importance in Germany (HUSLER and SCHERER-LORENZEN, 2001). Sustainability, however, is much more challenging and difficult in this context, whereas supporting planning tools are available only at a much less sophisticated small-scale level as compared to traditional utility functions. The procedure of "Forest Function Mapping" has covered almost all forests in Germany since the early seventies of the last century. Multiple functions of one and the same area, which are common for German forests as a rule, can be recognized on the resulting maps, and priority functions and planning measures can be derived from them. An updated version of the directive on forest function mapping has been edited in 2003 (VOLK and SCHIRMER, 2003). For some parts of the country a special master-plan, regarding interdisciplinary aspects and multi-functions of forestry has been worked out. For the city of Berlin and parts of the surrounding German federal state of Brandenburg such a plan, called "Forstlicher Rahmenplan", was developed, but not finally completed and decided on. However, since the forest function maps are produced for a scale as small as 1 : 50 000, it is hardly possible to recognize important details. Moreover, even by the recent directive, some of the functions to be mapped are defined in a very general way as a combination of several functions. As an example, the forest function dedicated to "water protection" contains different sub-functions such as "groundwater-recharge" and "minimizing hazards of floods", which to some extent can contradict each other and can be evaluated independently. In urban areas the existing small-scale forest function maps are not sufficiently well suited to fulfil the planning requirements which are typical and normal under the conditions here. On the one hand, a map scale of at least 1 : 10 000 is needed in order to clearly identify possible conflicts and planning needs. On the other hand, some broadly defined forest functions have to be subdivided into several sub-functions in order to avoid internal incompatibility . As an example, "recreation forest" which in the standard forest function map is only subdivided according to its intensity (i. e. number of visitors per km2) should better be separated according to the requirements of the visitors; visitors who quietly want to enjoy undisturbed nature and scenic landscape must be kept separated from other visitors who noisily want to have game and sports activities, and, in addition, the respective two kinds of recreation forests should be managed in different ways. Furthermore, some new forest functions have been introduced recently and have to be taken into account. Large parts of the forest, even in urban areas, have been chosen to primarily serve the biodiversity directive of the EU and the Natura 2000 network programme. The administration of Berlin has acquired a certification for its forest according to the requirements of both FSC and "Naturland" in order to prove sustainability standards and silviculture in harmony with an undisturbed ecology. Reference areas on close to 10 % of the total forest, which must be taken out of management, are required as a condition for these certificates. New conflicts and planning needs will require new and more restrictive forest functions. Optimizing spatial allocation of all required demands and functions and avoiding or at least minimizing conflicts is an important issue for the multifunctional forest management, and this is a particularly difficult challenge in urban forests. The existing forest-function map has to be improved by additional content, more precision and more detail in order to meet the new level of requirements. Additional information taken from the forest management plan, from the UIS, from special programmes such as urban biotope mapping or from external surveys have to be included in the analytical procedure. Some typical conflicts and needs will be illustrated by the following comparison of two GIS-based maps showing a test area in the Eastern part of Berlin. Why and how to improve forest-function analysis an example aiming at planning purposes and GIS challenges The two map sections to be compared show the same area at the same scale and under the same topic. Map 1 is composed of shape files taken from the forest function map 1 : 50 000, enlarged to the scale of map 2 (in the original: 1 : 10 000). This map, published in 1997, is still valid. Map 2 under the title "More detailed Forest Function Map" is the improved, updated and up-scaled map-version for the same purpose, however, it has been corrected in terms of geo-coordinates, additional and more precise contents and some icons pinpointing conflicts. The necessity of improvement and how it is carried out will be discussed at 6 spots which are marked by figures in both maps.

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(1) Close to this spot a hotel and restaurant is situated at the lake shore, surrounded by forest. A part of the forest is dedicated to the function "noise prevention". The hotel has to be protected from noise caused by the busy road. Any human settlement in this position is in conflict with the strongly restricted land use both in the drinking water conservation area, level 2 and neighbouring protected biotopes. Map 2 shows that there are even wells which are under even more severe restrictions. The restaurant is marked as a recreational centre. In map 1, however, the symbol for this is at a wrong position, due to the small scale of the

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source map. The same is true for the car park which is placed more than 200 m away from its correct position. The trail for horseback-riding which is still shown in map 1 has been closed due to severe conflicts on its further course. (2) Forest edges, particularly along lake shores, are important for drinking water conservation, nature conservation, and they are most attractive for visitors. So a connecting axis for recreation is in conflict with several other forest functions. This is clearly visible only on map 2. An additional severe conflict at this spot rises from the standard area of certification, which has to be taken out of management which means that dead trees have to remain, causing liability problems for the forest service if visitors become injured. (3) Another severe conflict which was additionally included on map 2 is caused by the illegal lakeshore beaches. There is a high pressure of visitors who may bring pets, garbage or chemicals without control directly beside the drinking water wells. Moreover, valuable forest and lakeshore biotopes can be destroyed. (4) Wrong position of recreation centres which can neither be found in the field nor be understood from map contents characterizes the poor quality of map 1. Map 2 contains much more information for analytical purposes: an illegal lakeshore beach, biotope areas in the forest, the real position of trails. (5) Forest edges towards human settlements very often are connected with conflicts. Housing areas tend to invade the forest. Remaining splintered forest lots, surrounded by private homes, loose much of their value in terms of ecological forest functions (they may gain economic value instead). Forest boundaries on older maps rarely represent the real situation along "invasive" edges of the city. On the other hand, forest can spread towards the city in some cases, one of which is shown on map 2. Old deposit of unknown, but possibly dangerous materials gradually develop towards forest. The mixture of private and public property of forest land in this kind of situation complicates all kinds of planning and forest management. (6) Beside another standard area for certification soil protection conflicts with intensive recreation at this spot. Conclusion and perspective Multiple-function land use (here: forestry) does not grow automatically, but requires intensive planning and evaluation processes. These can only succeed, if they are based on complete, correct, sufficiently detailed and up-to-date information. Today in most cases this means GIS-based data. GIS, however, and the existence of many data sets do not necessarily contribute to easy analytical work. Many of the problems according to the German phrase "The devil hides himself among the details!" could not be mentioned in this short paper. Better standards for data and new tools to handle them will help to facilitate work even in challenging conditions. References
HUSLER, A. and SCHERER-LORENZEN, M., 2001: Sustainable Forest Management in Germany: The Ecosystem Approach of the Biodiversity Convention reconsidered." BfN-Skripten 51. German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, 65 pp KENNEWEG, H. and KERSTING, M., 2005: Zur Weiterentwicklung der WFK in Ballungsrumen. Tagungsband, Tagung der Projektgruppe Forstliche Landespflege, Dresden 27. u. 28. Juni 2005, 12 pp. VOLK, H. and SCHIRMER, C. (editors), 2003: Leitfaden zur Kartierung der Schutz- und Erholungsfunktionen des Waldes (Waldfunktionenkartierung), Projektgruppe Forstliche Landespflege. Frankfurt, 107 pp.

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Environmental monitoring and urban development: using modern remote-sensing methods


A. Frick1, B. Coenradie2, H. Kenneweg3
1 LUP GmbH, Potsdam, 2 Digitale Dienste Berlin, 3 Institut fr Landschaftsarchitektur und Umweltplanung, TU Berlin; Germany annett.frick@lup-umwelt.de

Abstract The importance of remote sensing for the monitoring of urban areas is steadily increasing, especially with the new generation of high resolution (HR), very high resolution (VHR) and hyperspectral sensors. The main objective of this paper is the presentation of different approaches to gain information from VHR multispectral imagery for the monitoring of settlement structure on large scales and the transfer of those methods and results to smaller scales and medium resolution imagery. A special focus lies on the evaluation of surface sealing and urban indices like site-occupancy-index and floor-space-index. Three different applications ranging from knowledge-based classification over modelling to a hybrid mapping approach are presented. Advantages and remaining problems are discussed. Introduction One of the major environmental concerns of the German Government is to reduce the loss of unsealed surfaces from currently 93 to 30 hectares per day in 2020. Up-to-date information about surface sealing is one of the basic facts for federal, Federal State and local authorities in Germany. These data are used as an input for modelling (urban climate, water balance) as well as for evaluation processes (soil protection). For the synchronous mapping of large areas satellite remote sensing is a powerful tool. But measurements and categorisations of surface sealing in the urban environment still represent a special challenge. Among different reflections of surfaces made up of natural or artificial materials, often mixed up on a small scale, the existence of buildings often complicates an exact analysis of the ground (e.g. through shadows or side looking sensors). Those effects have to be taken into account in the course of developing new applications. As far as additional geo-data are available and suitable they should thus be integrated into the analysis process. The choice of satellite imagery depends on the objective and the designated level of accuracy. With the increasing geometric resolution of modern sensors also the range of potential applications for urban areas broadened. Further development in (hyper-)spectral resolution will follow and thus induce hope for the next higher step in quality. The satellite sensors used for the studies had different geometric, radiometric and spectral characteristics (see table 1). Knowledge-based extraction of urban indices from VHR imagery (QuickBird) The main objective of the first application was the development of semi-automated methods to gain information from QuickBird imagery for the monitoring of settlement structure on the large scale. Pixel based classification methods were used in a hybrid classification scheme to keep the highly detailed information and to allow for the derivation of quantitative indicators as described in FRICK (2006). Since the transferability of those procedures is essential for an objective and repeatable monitoring, the classification system was built upon a knowledge base. The knowledge base was mainly used to create training areas and signatures for the final classification process. Three different classes of rules were taken into account: formalised experience of the human interpreter (e.g. buildings have shadows) spectral characteristics derived from a large set of samples (e.g. tarmac is very dark) 'old' land-use data (e.g. CORINE) The computation of urban indices depends on appropriate reference areas (e.g. blocks, land parcels etc.). The German topographic information system (ATKIS) includes streets and settlement borders. Those features were combined to form blocks of similar urban structure and serve as reference areas. Three different indices were of interest in this study: surface sealing, site-occupancy-index (GRZ) and floorspace-index (GFZ). For the last, the area and number of floors of single residential or industrial buildings are essential. Only buildings with an area > 50m were considered, smaller buildings were regarded as garages or shacks. The determination of the number of floors is quite difficult to realise with remote sensing and can be estimated only roughly. Since the exact time of scene capture is known, the shadow length can be converted to object height with appropriate ratios depending on the sun inclination. This is of course a coarse approximation but can be used to estimate the height of a building fairly well, as validation with cadastral data has shown.

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Table 1: characteristics of the different sensors

Sensor

Geometric resolution Spectral resolution PAN/MS QuickBird 0.61/2.44 blue: 450-520 green: 520-600 red: 630-690 NIR: 760-900 Pan: 450-900 IRS-1D LISS-III 5.8/23.5 green: 520-590 IRS-P6 LISSred: 620-680 III/LISS-IV NIR: 770-860 SWIR: 1550-1700 Pan: 500-750 SPOT 5 5/10 (SWIR:20) green: 500-590 red: 610-680 NIR: 780-890 SWIR: 1580-1750 Pan: 480-710

Radiometric resolution 11 bit

Urban indices studied surface sealing site-occupancyindex floor-space-index surface sealing site-occupancyindex floor-space-index surface sealing

7 bit

8 bit

For every reference area the indices were calculated after the classification process (see figure 1 for a subset of results). In order to validate results a visual analysis was conducted simultaneously. Compared with the visually examined indices the mean error for the calculation of the GRZ was 2.6%. The mean error for the extraction of the GFZ amounted to 9.4%. The validation for surface sealing was performed with randomly scattered points and reached an overall accuracy of 91%. The potential of VHR satellite data for urban monitoring is very high for the investigated indices surface sealing and site-occupancy-index. The floor-spaceindex can only roughly be estimated with remote-sensing methods. The automated derivation of building outlines and building heights works very well Figure 1: Left: subset of the study area Schwedt, QuickBird (RGB: 3,2,1). for simply formed buildings. For Right: Results for the automatically derived GRZ (on reference blocks). complex buildings and buildings overgrown by trees manual interaction is needed. Since the first applies to most buildings, the discussed approach can strongly reduce manual work. The knowledge-based classification scheme proved to be transferable to different study areas and settlement types. The transfer of those highly accurate and detailed results in smaller scales, and thus larger areas will be described in section 2. Regression tree modelling of urban indices with IRS imagery Highly detailed urban monitoring in the classic way demands remotely sensed imagery with an appropriate geometric resolution (VHR). The acquirement of those data at short intervals for large areas often exceeds the financial means of environmental administration. Satellite images with medium geometric resolution as, for instance, the Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) are much cheaper and more easily available. The information on highly detailed urban indices is still present in those data though only implicitly, thus a modelling approach is necessary. Regression tree modelling (for a detailed description see BREIMAN et al., 1984) can be a very effective data mining tool to represent complex relationships between parameters as for instance texture within satellite imagery and surface sealing on the ground. A simple linear equation often is not suitable to describe those relations. Instead a hierarchically nested regression tree can be of much higher predictive power and accuracy. Thus a lot of interesting and promising studies on modelling urban indices, especially the surface sealing, with remote sensing data and regression trees have been conducted, e.g. by SCHULER & KASTDALEN, 2005; HEROLD et al., 2003a; YANG et al., 2003; HEROLD et al., 2003b. The objective of this study was to model urban indices for the whole state of Brandenburg (30 000 km) with ATKIS-blocks serving as reference areas (see section 1). A regression-tree model was built with the help 156

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A. Frick et al.: Environmental monitoring and urban development: using modern remote-sensing methods

of six small test sites. QuickBird imagery was available for those test sites and with the methods described in section 1 urban indices for 7679 test blocks were extracted. IRS imagery from the same year was then used to build a regression-tree model. Over 470 indices, ratios and texture measures were examined, 329 were finally used for the model. Accuracy assessment was conducted in two different ways. First a 10-fold cross validation of the models was performed. The results show a good relationship for surface sealing and site-occupancy-index whereas the relationship is much weaker for the floor-space-index. Additionally 1665 randomly selected blocks were examined and compared with airborne orthophotos. The results show a mean error of 5.7% for the site-occupancy-index and a mean error of 23.4% for the floor-space-index. The bad results for the floor-space-index have several reasons, firstly the radiometric and geometric resolution of IRS is not sufficient to model a parameter that depends highly on the accurate mapping of shadow, secondly the number of floors can differ very much with the housing style, thus additional information on the settlement type and age is necessary to improve the model. The indices surface sealing and site-occupancy-index were modelled with a good overall accuracy and serve within the regional administration as an important input for analytical questions. Hybrid mapping of surface sealing with Spot5 imagery A new hybrid mapping approach was developed for Berlin with the objective to produce a homogenous and reproducible surface sealing map for the entire city. Therefore SPOT 5 data as well as geo-data from the Berlin Digital Environmental Atlas, the information system "Stadt und Umwelt" (ISU), and the digital cadastral map ("Automatisierte Liegenschaftskarte" ALK) were integrated into the classification process (COENRADIE et al. 2006). The automated and cost-effective

Figure 2: Hybrid approach to the mapping of surface sealing in Berlin - Results for the rule-based classification (subset).

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approach derives information about the degree of sealing for census units of the Berlin Digital Environmental Atlas. Since precise measurements on a 'm-level' were not required, HR satellite data (4 m up to 10 m) represent an excellent source of information. The classification process is based on three major steps. Firstly, different degrees of vegetation as well as object-classes like bare soils and artificial surfaces were distinguished using operational methods in a hierarchical spectral classification scheme. Furthermore buildings of the ALK were added to that spectral differentiation to fix built-up areas. Also, shadowed surfaces were separated to reduce classification errors. Secondly, during a rule-based classification, the classes were re-classified to categories of degrees of sealing (figure 2). Geo-data of the ISU that subdivide the entire city into differently structured area types were integrated to a rule base and were found very useful for stratification. In the next step the output of the pixel-based classification was aggregated to census units by means of GIS. Shadows were classified through contextual analysis. The final result is composed of the degree of sealing for each unit: total, non-built-up and built-up. The method was evaluated concerning the reliability, repeatability and transferability by analysing a second SPOT5-scene. An extensive accuracy assessment was performed to estimate the absolute accuracy of the derived map. Due to the fact that high accuracy levels were reached the new sealing information will be integrated in the ISU of Berlin for updating the present one. Conclusions Urban sprawl around a metropolis like Berlin and shrinking cities in rural areas require the control and action of the German regional Administration. Not only within the framework of landscape planning extensive urban monitoring tasks have to be fulfilled, also for disaster management, e.g. the risk assessment for floods. But up-to-date information on urban structure is often missing. Remote sensing represents a very helpful tool to monitor urban structures and changes over long periods of time. Remaining issues, as the improvement in accuracy for some indices, could be addressed with the availability of new sensors especially with the new hyperspectral satellite EnMap and with the further improvement of models through the integration of other sources of information, e.g. cadastral data. The combination of VHR and hyperspectral data for extracting more detailed object features will be a main focus within future research. References
Breiman, L., Friedman, J., Olshen, R. & C. Stone: Classification and Regression Trees. Chapman and Hall. New York. 1984. Frick, A. : Urban Monitoring with QUICKBIRD Imagery through a knowledge-based extraction of indices. Proceedings ISPRS Workshop - Fifth International Symposium. Turkish German Joint Geodetic days. Berlin. 2006. Coenradie, B, Kleinschmit, B, Hostert, P., & L. Haag: Ein hybrider Verfahrensansatz zur Versiegelungskartierung. In: Seyfert, E. (Hrsg.): Publikationen der Deutschen Gesellschaft fr Photogrammetrie, Fernerkundung und Geoinformation (DGPF) e.V., Band 15. 2006 Herold, M., X. Liu & K. C. Clarke: Spatial Metrics and Image Texture for Mapping Urban Land Use. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing. 69 (9). 2003a. Herold, N. D., Koeln, G. & D. Cunningham: Mapping Impervious Surfaces and Forest Canopy Using Classification and Regression Tree (CART) Analysis. ASPRS 2003 Annual Conference Proceedings, Anchorage, Alaska. 2003b. Schuler, D. V. & L. Kastdalen: Impervious surface mapping in Southern Norway. 31st International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, St. Petersburg, Russia. 2005. Yang, L., Huang, C., Wylie, B., Homer, C., and M. Coan: An approach for mapping large-area impervious surfaces: Synergistic use of Landsat 7 ETM+ and high spatial resolution imagery. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing, 29 (2). 2003.

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European directives, environmental planning and geographic information: The need of standardisation
Torsten Lipp
University of Potsdam, Institute for Geoecology, Germany tlipp@uni-potsdam.de

1. Introduction The INSPIRE Directive, which should come into effect until 2013, aims to harmonise digital spatial information on European level. Investigations on the monetary advantage of this harmonisation estimates a benefit of 200 - 300 m per annum for more efficient EIA (Environmental impact assessment) and SEA (Strategic environmental assessment) processes (FDS 2003). Within the same study the Habitat Directive (92/ 43/EEC) and the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC, WFD) are mentioned as directives, which will profiteer from the aims of INSPIRE, without naming precise amounts. The programmes of measures which are to set up following the WFD are again obligatory to SEA at least in Germany (UVPG, Appendix 3). The following text describes the influence of these directives (Habitat and WFD), the similarities and needed data for the implementations of both directives as well as the main activities of INSPIRE to support the use of spatial data for environmental planning. 2. European directives, influencing environmental planning Within the last years, mainly the Habitats Directive and the Water Framework Directive influenced European environmental planning activities. The Habitat Directive aims to establish a network of valuable natural habitats (Sites of Community Interest, SCI) across Europe. The WFD reaches to establish a good water status for all waters by 2015 by elaborating superior river basin management plans and more detailed programmes of measures. There are several cross-references within the directives to each other, e.g.: The Habitat Directive mentions plans and projects, which could influence the SCI negatively (Article 6); potentially also the programmes of measures can have negative effects The WFD names several directives and policies supporting the programmes of measures; among them are also the management plans of the Habitat Directive (Annex VI) The river basin management plans due to the WFD have to inquire and represent conservation areas like the SCIs (Article 6, appendix IV) Article 4 of the WFD determines, that within 15 years all objectives in these conservation areas (e.g. SCI) have to be full filled Article 8 of the WFD states, that monitoring programmes in the conservation areas should consider the binding statements of the relevant directives; one of them is the Habitat Directive. As both directives influence one another, the use of similar or at least easily exchangeable data would be of great advantage (Table 1). The main topic of the WFD is water quality, but it also takes into account the morphology, structural aspects and the surrounding land use influencing the water bodies. Correspondingly, the Habitat Directive is mainly focused on the SCI, but considers plans and projects disturbing these areas from surroundings, too. Further more, both directives are cross border orientated. The Habitat Directive aims to establish a European wide, transnational network of habitats within bio-geographical regions. The WFD is dedicated to river basins which extend national borders, too. Therefore the management plans following both directives must fit to each other and also to other plans within the involved countries. As nowadays environmental planning is elaborated by using digital data, a European wide standard for digTable 1: Comparison of WFD and Habitat directive (WENDLER 2007) ital, mainly spatial data sets is Habitat Directive: WFD: necessary. Thus, there are variAssessment parameter Assessment components of aquatic Assessment components of water bodies species and natural habitat types ous different data standards Natural habitat types Surface water within countries, and even more bodies: eco-logical Area, distribution, structure and chemical state within Europe (MLLER 2006, Water biology: typical Typical species, indicator species BERNARD 2004). There is not Species composition aquatic species and Ground water: Population structure indicator species only the need for horizontal intechemical state and Species abundance amount Population structure gration of information (e.g. Chemical, Groundwater level, Quality of habitats Quantity physiochemical, conductivity, between administrative districts (area, distribution of habitat parts, Quality morphological quality pollutants habitat structures) Quality of structure components, or states) but also vertical one dangerous ingredients (e.g. from river basin level to Disturbance of species and natural Punctual diffuse matter imports, Disturbance of Water bodies local level), as for downscaling habitat types change in the amount of water, other anthropogenic pressures a harmonised data standard is

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crucial, too. While the WFD gives explicit hints to use Geographical information systems (GIS) for producing maps, storing data and elaborate monitoring procedures (EUROPEAN COMMISSION 2003), the Habitat Directive does not. But never the less, the process of declaration of the SCIs can only work, using spatial digital data sets. Therefore the standard data forms for each SCI have to be submitted digitally to the commission, while they where validated by the European Topic Centre for Nature Conservation (ETC/NC). That this is still in ongoing process with some problems is stated e.g. by BRUNS (2006) and LFU (2005). Also and even more for the monitoring and reporting procedures harmonised spatial data are necessary. 2.1 Data needs for complex plans and programmes To elaborate management plans due to the Habitat Directive, not only information about the protected species is needed, but also for there ecological environment, including soil, vegetation, water and air. To recognize conflicts and aspects which could disturb the habitats, human activities must be known either. The specification of SCI conservation aims is based on the information of the standard data forms, which exist for each site. The standard data forms contain the following information: Site identification (e.g. typ, code), Site location (e.g. coordinates, area, altitude, administrative and biogeographic region)

Coordination district River Havel basin

Natura 2000 Sites within the River Havel basin

Figure 1: Wide parts of the river Havel basin consists of Natura 2000 Sites (Senatsverwaltung fr Stadtentwicklung et al., n.d.)

Ecological information (e.g. habitat types and species including assessment, Site description (e.g. character, quality, importance and vulnerability) Site Protection status and correlation with CORINE biotopes Impacts and activities around the site Attached maps and slides (e.g. aerial photos) For the WFD there is a need to describe the following (EUROPEAN COMMISSION 2003b): General conditions of the river basin district that should include the establishment of reference conditions for surface waters; Register of protected areas; Identification of significant pressures and assessment of their impacts; Economic analysis of water uses. Also the WFD uses CORINE Landcover data sets to identify biotopes and land use systems influenced by groundwater. Thus, this data may be sufficient for river basin management plans, but they are to coarse for the programme of measures or Habitat management plans. The minimum extension of the mapping units of the CORINE data is 25 ha (STEINNOCHER et al. 2006). The following example from the river Havel basin (23860 km) is showing that this resolution is not sufficient for Habitat management plans. 160

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There are about 450 SCIs, covering wide areas of the catchment area. Most of them are very small (< 10 km), but some of them extend about 90 - 130 km. The largest is the "Oberlausitzer Teiche" (131 km). Especially the explicit water depending sites like "Unter Havel" or "Mittlere Havel" force the harmonised elaborating of management plans and programmes of measures and the use and exchange of spatial data. But also small sites like "Weies Fenn and Dnen Heide" (3441-301) which comprises only 1,8 km contains sites depending on (ground) water, e.g. 3160 (Dystropical lakes), 4010 (Northern Atlantic wet heaths with Erica tetralix), 7140 (Transition mires and quaking bogs), 91D1 und 91D2 (Bog woodland with petula or pinus), according to the standard data form. Recent accurate stock taking in the SCI 3441-301 discovers (LPR LANDSCHAFTSPLANUNG GBR, 2006), that some of the expected habitats do not exist within the area, like 3160 (Dystropical lakes) and 4010 (Northern Atlantic wet heaths with Erica tetralix), others do exist, without being mentioned in the standard data form (e.g. 3150 Natural eutrophic lakes with Magnopotamion or Hydrocharition type vegetation, 4030 European dry heats). This actual information should be used for updating the standard data form but also for the elaborating of the programme of measure. Further more, the ecological experts who did the habitat mapping of the site, give advice to investigate hydrologic circumstances, to proof the possibilities of ground water rising. This important information should be taken into consideration for the programme of measures, too, remembering that the WFD is asked to contribute to reach the SCIs targets. As this example shows there are strong relationships in the elaborating of plans and programmes due to WFD and Habitat Directive. The exchange of data would be helpful and explicit rules for data exchange are necessary, to facilitate transdisciplinary elaboration. The upcoming INSPIRE directive aims to deliver such rules. 3. The INSPIRE approach The INSPIRE directive sets the legal and technical rules to harmonise European data standards and enable the common use and exchange of spatial data sets. The main focus of the directive is environmental infor-

The SCI 3441-301 in the map of Natura 2000 Sites of the B-report (Berliner Senatsver-waltung et al., n.d.). (see Beetzsee as location refer-ence)

The landuse information based on CORINE data sets consist of only 10 categories. Within this extract one could identify arable land, sparsely settled zone, coniferous forest, deciduous forest and grassland

The precise stock taking for the similar sites due to the Habitat directive discovers about 80 biotopes (LPR LANDSCHAFTSPLANUNG GBR, 2006

Figure 2: Examples for similar information with different levels of detail due to WFD and Habitat Directive

mation. It does not demand to produce new data, but will give a consistent framework of standards, to allow the European wide use and exchange of environmental data with spatial reference. The basic principles of the INSPIRE Directive are (BERNARD 2006): To support distributed geodata and geodata services for effective geographic information processing Semantic and technical interoperability for the integration of distributed geographic information Re-utilisation of geographic information, also between different institutions Provision of geographic information for comprehensive use of all levels Good discovery and usability of geographic information To reach the aims of the directive, mainly three components are important. These are metadata, interoperability of spatial data and spatial data services and network services. Metadata should contain information e.g. about the rights to use spatial data sets, about quality and validity of spatial data and the responsible authority handling such data (Article 5). To guarantee interoperability, the directive demands among others a common framework for the unique identification of spatial objects, the relationship between spatial objects and the

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key attributes and the corresponding multilingual thesauri commonly required for policies which may have an impact on the environment (Article 7). Further more, INSPIRE demands to install a network which contains the following features (Article 11): Discovery services View services Download services Transformation services and Services to invoke spatial data services. These components should lead to a common use and re-use of spatial data, especially in the spatial data themes listed in the annexes, which contains in annex I Hydrography including river basins and sub basins according to the WFD and protected sites including SCIs. In annex II elements like elevation, geology and land cover are mentioned which are important for management plans, too. In annex III soil, land use, utility and governmental as well as environmental monitoring facilities are mentioned as spatial data themes. 4. Discussion As described in the text, environmental planning is very much influenced by European directives mainly by the Habitat Directive and the Water Framework Directive (and also the Directive of Strategic Environmental Assessment). These directives aiming for similar goals, like sustainability and conservation of biological diversity. There are quiet a lot of cross references but the important question of the spatial data handling is not very much in focus. Thus, a new approach, the upcoming INSPIRE Directive, aims to deliver a framework for the use and exchange of spatial, especially environmental data sets. It addresses to the topics of the discussed directives, too, but does not force to create new data sets. It mainly focus on organising harmonised standards for data description (metadata), the free use of different software products (interoperability) and the technical feasibility to exchange data (network services). As today there are still a lot of problems in data exchange within only one country and much more between countries, there is an essential need for such a framework in Europe. European environmental planning therefore should use the advantages of INSPIRE for the harmonization of data formats. As nature and landscape stay still unique and demands of the actors are from a great variety, this will not lead to uniform plans, but to a better planning. The programmes of measures, which have to be set in force until 2009, will profiteer, when INSPIRE is already adopted and the cross references between Habitat Directive and WFD come to live. References
BERNARD, L., ANNONI, A., KANELLOPOULOS, Y. & P. SMITS 2004: Towards the implementation of the European Spatial data infrastructure - getting the process right, 7th AGILE Conf. on Geographic Information Science BERNARD, L. 2006: Europische Geodateninfrastrukturen - Status, Herausforderungen und Perspektiven, Vermessung + Geoinformation 1+2/2006, 83 - 86 BRUNS, S. 2006: Natura 2000-Data Management in Saxony, NaturProtection GIS, proceedings of the international symposium on Geoinformatics in European nature protection, Dresden, 55 - 62 EUROPEAN COMMISSION 2003: Common implementation strategy for the Water framework directive. Guidance document No. 9. Implementing the geographical information systems (GIS) elements of the WFD EUROPEAN COMMISSION 2003b: Common implementation strategy for the Water framework directive (2000/60/EC). Guidance document No. 11. Planning process EUROPEAN COMMISSION 2003c: Interpretation manual of European Union habitats FDS (INSPIRE FRAMEWORK DEFINITION SUPPORT WORKING GRPOUP, MAX CRAGLIA 2003: Contribution to the extended impact assessment of INSPIRE, available online: http://www.ec-gis.org/inspire/(30.03.2007) LPR LANDSCHAFTSPLANUNG GBR 2006: Terrestrische Biotoptypenkartierung- und Lebensraumkartierung in FFHGebieten im Naturpark Westhavelland (FFH-Gebiet mit der Landes-Nummer 478) LFU (BAYRISCHES LANDESAMT FR UMWELTSCHUTZ) 2005: Umsetzung von Natura 2000 in Bayern abschlieende Gebietsmeldung 2004, www.lfu.de MLLER, H., 2006: Spatial Data Infrastructure in Germany - Principles and Initiatives, in: Schrenk, M., (ed.): CORP 2006 & Geomedia06, Proceedings, 75 - 82 SENATSVERWALTUNG FR STADTENTWICKLUNG BERLIN, ET AL (ed.) n.d.: Bericht ber die Umsetzung der Anhnge II, III und IV der Richtlinie 2000/60/EG im Koordinierungsraum Havel (B-Bericht) STEINNOCHER, K., BANKO, G., KSTL, M. & F. PETRINI-MONTEFERRI, 2006: European Spatial indicators - temporal development and quality aspects, in: Schrenk, M., (ed.): CORP 2006 & Geomedia06, Proceedings, 201 - 207 WENDLER, W. 2007: Bewirtschaftungsplanung nach WRRL versus FFH- Managementplanung, Naturschutz und Landschaftsplanung, 39. (3), 73 - 78

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Remote Sensing and GIS Contribution to Natural Hazard Assessment in the Vienna Area
B. Theilen-Willige1, H. Wenzel2, B. Neuhuser2 & M. Papathoma-Koehle2
1 Technical University of Berlin, Germany 2VCE Consult GmbH, Vienna, Austria Barbara.Theilen-Willige@t-online.de

Abstract The assessment of potential natural hazards in urban environments is fundamental for planning purposes and disaster preparedness, especially with regard to supervision and maintenance of extended lifeline facilities. GIS techniques are already in common use for regional vulnerability analysis. This paper presents an application that utilises geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing tools to evaluate the potential of natural hazards in the Vienna area. Satellite imageries and digital elevation data of the Vienna area are investigated for detecting sites prone to natural hazards. Digital image processing methods are used to enhance satellite data and to derive morphometric maps from digital elevation data in order to contribute to the detection of causal factors for example related to landslides or to local site conditions influencing earthquake damage intensity and to earthquake induced secondary effects such as liquefaction, soil amplification or compaction. Maps visualizing the potential natural hazards sites are produced for urban development planning in the area of Vienna. 1. Introduction This contribution is concerned with natural environmental factors, especially with improving the understanding of the influence of environmental factors and of natural hazards on civil infrastructure and on damage accumulation prognostics in the urban areas, in this study of the Vienna area. It addresses problems caused by extreme geologic processes and hazards as earthquakes, flooding and landslides. The use of GIS integrated remote sensing data in the scope of environmental studies has been a continuous process taking place over the last decades (GUPTA,2003). 2. Methods In order to establish a cost effective method for getting a quick overview of determining factors influencing environment and potential damage intensity in hazard prone areas it is recommended to start analysing those causal factors and their complex interactions first based on remote sensing and GIS methodologies and later step by step, going into details. The goal is to develop a multi-sensor and multi-risk approach in a GIS environment to assess the potential for natural hazard on a regional basis. This approach enables to asses the geo-hazards in respect to their complex dependencies. The various data sets as LANDSAT TM data, topographic, geological and geophysical data from the investigation areas are integrated as layers into GIS using the software ArcGIS 9.1 of ESRI. The GIS integrated evaluation of the georeferenced satellite imageries allows the storage of the results in a standard form such as vector-formats (point-, line- or polygon shape-files). Various digital image processing tools delivered by ENVI Software/ CREASO were tested, as for finding the best suited LANDSAT Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) band combinations or contrast stretching parameters. The imageries were merged with the panchromatic Band 8 of LANDSAT ETM to get the spatial resolution of 15 m. Standard approaches of digital image processing with regard to the extraction of natural hazard relevant information used for this study are methods like classification for land use and vegetation information, and processing of the thermal Band 6 for deriving surface temperature information. For the investigation of vegetation anomalies that might be related to subsurface structures and landslides the NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) was calculated based on the available LANDSAT ETM Bands 3 and 4. The evaluation of digital topographic data is of great importance as it contributes to the detection of the specific geomorphologic/ topographic settings of hazard prone areas. Data of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, Febr.2000) are used to provide accurate digital elevation information. A systematic GIS approach is recommended extracting geomorphometric parameters based on Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data as part of a multi-hazard information system. Fig.1 shows how the causal factors influencing natural hazard susceptibility in the Vienna area are extracted systematically: From slope gradient maps are extracted those areas with the steepest slopes and from curvature maps the areas with the highest curvature as these are more susceptible to landslides, from height maps the lowest areas susceptible to flooding, from flow accumulations maps areas with highest flow accumulations. Height maps help to search for topographic depressions, which are often linked with water accumulations and wetlands. Linear morphologic features (lineaments) visible on hillshade maps and LANDSAT imageries are often related to traces of faults and fractures in the subsurface.

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Figure 1: Extraction of causal or preparatory, geomorphometric factors influencing natural hazard susceptibility based on SRTM and LANDSAT data demonstrated by the example of the Vienna area, Austria

3. Evaluations of LANDSAT and SRTM Data For Detecting Areas Prone To Natural Hazards 3.1. Earthquake Damage Amplification due to Local Site Conditions One important factor that must be accounted for in local hazard studies is the site response caused by the surface conditions. Earthquake damage may vary locally, being a function of the type of structures in the subsurface and/or soil mechanical ground conditions, as for example of faults and fractures, lithology or ground water table [Gupta, 2003]. Evaluations of remote sensing data can help considerably to identify vulnerable areas, to enhance mapping, and to improve evacuation planning. Remote sensing data can be used to map factors that are related to the occurrence of higher earthquake shock and / or earthquake induced secondary effects: factors such as liquefaction or landslides. Previous earthquakes have indicated that the damage and loss of life are mostly concentrated in areas underlain by deposits of soft soil and high ground water tables as for example the Mexico City earthquake in 1985 (Steinwachs,1988). Soft soils amplify shear waves and ,thus, amplify ground shaking. The monitoring of urban development is of great importance for disaster preparedness as buildings constructed on former lakes and wetlands have a higher damage potential during earthquakes due to longer and higher vibrations. Another approach to detect the influence of local site conditions on earthquake damage intensity is the lineament analysis based on SRTM derived morphometric maps and on LANDSAT data. The lineament analysis based on satellite imageries can help to delineate local fracture systems and faults that might influence seismic wave propagation and influence the intensity of seismic shock. As ground movements such as surface fault rupture, liquefaction, landslides, lateral spreading, soil amplification and compaction are important with regard to extended lifeline systems of Vienna, a most detailed study of subsurface structures is necessary. Intersecting fault zones could cause constructive interference of multiple reflections of seismic waves at the boundaries between fault zones and surrounding rocks. Seismic waves travelling in the subsurface might be refracted at sharply outlined discontinuities as faults, and, thus, arrive at a summation effect that influences the damage intensity. Fault segments, their bends and intersection are more apt to concentrate stress. The highest risk must be anticipated in junctions of differently oriented ruptures, especially where one intersects the other. Those areas can be considered as being more exposed to earthquake shock due to amplification of guided seismic waves along crossing fault zones and to soil amplification. Therefore special attention is focussed on precise mapping of traces of faults on remote sensing data, predominantly on areas with distinct expressed lineaments, as well as on areas with intersecting / overlapping lineaments and on areas with unconsolidated sedimentary covers. 164

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Fig.2 summarizes some of the causal factors by presenting the lowest areas with higher groundwater tables, unconsolidated sedimentary covers, steeper slopes with higher curvatures, and lineaments that might be related to subsurface structures.

Figure 2: Causal factors influencing damage intensity and secondary effects during stronger earthquakes such as high ground water tables (potential of liquefaction), intersection of distinct visible lineaments and higher density of lineaments (potential of soil amplification), high slope degrees and curvatures (potential of landslides)

3.2. Detection of Areas Prone to Landslides Usually the same factors and/ or similar factor combinations can be stated in relation to landslide phenomena, although not with the same weight, because each single case has its own peculiarities . Some of these causal factors as steep slope gradients, high curvature, critical lithologic units and high fault and fracture density can be extracted and visualized as layers in a GIS. The maps in a GIS environment allow the delineation of areas susceptible to slope failure and the better understanding of the complex interaction among the different factors (Fig.3). 4. Conclusions Satellite observations can help considerably to show vulnerable areas, enhance mapping and ameliorate the understanding of hazards. The main advantages to be outlined refer to the spatially extending information collection and the monitoring capabilities. Thus, the path of integration of satellite data analysis results into hazard zone mapping in urban areas and demonstrates that it can be easily adopted for other urban environments. Acknowledgements The support of the European Community, Project funded by the European Community under the 'Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development Programme', Contract N : EVG1-CT2002-00061, Project N : EVG1-2001-00061, Brussels, is kindly acknowledged. References
DECKER,K., PERESSON,H., & HINSCH,R. (2005): Active tectonics and Quaternary basin formation along the Vienna Basin Transform fault.- Quaternary Science Reviews 24, 307-322 FH,D., H. Bachmann, F. Bay, D. Giardini, P. Huggenberger, F. Kind, K. Lang, S. Sellami, T. WENK, FUCHS, W., GRILL, R. (1984). Map: geologische Karte von Wien und Umgebung (1:200:000). Geologische Bundesanstalt (GBA), Vienna.

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GUPTA,R.P.(2003): Remote Sensing in Geology.- Springer-Verlag, Berlin- Heidelberg-New York HAMMERL,Chr.&.LENHARDT W: Erdbeben in sterreich. Leykam Verlag, 1997. HINSCH,R. & DECKER,K.(2003): Do seismic slip deficits indicate an underestimated earthquake potential along the Vienna Basin Transfer Fault System?.- Terra Nova, Vol 15, No. 5, 343-349 HINSCH,R., DECKER,K. & WAGREICH,M.(2005): A short review of Environmental Tectonics of the Vienna Basin and the Rhine Graben area.- Austrian Journal of Earth Sciences, Volume 97, Vienna 2005, 6-15 MAYER-ROSA,D., RTTENER,E.,FH,D. et al.(1997): Erdbebengefhrdung und Mikrozonierung in der Schweiz.- NFP 31- Schlussbericht, vdf, Hochschulverlag an der ETH Zrich SCHMID, H.P. & WAGREICH, M. (2001): Simulating the stratigraphic architecture of the Lower to Middle Miocene central Vienna Basin (Austria). - Abstr. EUG 2001, Strasbourg SCHNEIDER,G.(2004): Erdbeben - Eine Einfhrung fr Geowissenschaftler und Bauingenieure.- Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Elsevier, Mnchen SPEIGHT, J.G. (1980): The role of topography in controllong throughflow generation: a discussion, Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Bd.5, S.187-191 STEINWACHS,M.(1988): Das Erdbeben am 19.September 1985 in Mexiko - Ingenieurseismologische Aspekte eines multiplen Subduktionsbebens. in; Steinwachs M. (ed). Ausbreitungen von Erschtterungen im Boden und Bauwerk. 3.Jt. DGEB, Trans Tech.Publications,1988, Clausthal THEILEN-WILLIGE,B.(2002): Beitrag der Fernerkundung zur Erdbebenvorsorge - Fernerkundungsmethoden bei der Erfassung von durch Erdbeben und durch Erdbebenfolgeschden gefhrdeten Bereichen.- in: FIEDLER,F.(2002),Hrsg.): Naturkatastrophen in Mittelgebirgsregionen, Verlag fr Wissenschaft und Forschung GmbH, VWF,Berlin, 245-270 WOOD,J. (2004): The Geomorphological Characterisation of Digital Elevation Models.- Thesis, http://www.soi.city.ac.uk/~jwo/phd/ Satellite data: SRTM DEM: ftp://e0srp01u.ecs.nasa.gov/srtm/version1/Eurasia/, http://srtm.csi.cgiar.org/SELECTION/inputCoord.asp LANDSAT ETM Daten: http://glcfapp.umiacs.umd.edu:8080/esdi/index.jsp

Figure 3: Causal factors influencing landslide susceptibility derived from satellite and geologic data as slope degree and curvature, height, and the lithologic and tectonic setting
Landslides are concentrated were following factors overlap: steep slopes, high curvature, high lineament density, heights between 250 and 350 m, and outcrop of Molasse sediments. Landslide data: Geologischen Bundesanstalt Wien,2007

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Thinking about Crime and Space: The Case in Istanbul


Gulsen Yilmaz
Gazi University, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Ankara, Turkey gulseny@gazi.edu.tr

Introduction Crime is spatial fact as much as it is social fact. Crime is not random. Any crime (form burglary to murder) consists of four dimensions, the law, the offender, the target and the place. Crime consumes space, therefore it is embedded in to the space, and crime makes a mark while existing in space. There is situations like that you may see the mark also crime or incident disappear. While handling crime concept, time and space are accepted as symmetrical. However, if crime space is defined on establishing relations, there may exist time and space congestion. Crime exists with the appearance of spatial inequality like unemployment and poverty. Crime as being a socio-spatial fact (Farooq, 1999), displays that the distribution is related with both social and physical structure. The aim of this paper is to examine the neglected connection between space and crime. Firstly the types of representation of "crime" fact defined by different approaches, advantages and disadvantages stated in these approaches and the transformations in the new world are discussed comprehensively. And then, the analysis in Istanbul will be handled according to the local dynamics which are embedded in space and crime characteristics as a new identity of city. Crime, Space and Built Environment Location is the basic and necessary feature to clarify the crime distribution and characteristics of offenders, should be on a place that affects the crime probability (Wu, 2001). Displayed here is to describe two "location" concepts including awareness space and activity space that is known that criminal person or suspect have, within the concept of "spatial behaviour of offenders theory" aiming to search offenders. Known space is the mental map that belongs to the offender's living area. This map is based on personnel observations, friends' advices or similar information resources and shows how a person will find a certain shop, restaurant or train station. Benjamin emphasizes the importance of cognitive and perception maps in space representation (Gregory, 1991). Subject crime is the area in which these maps are used; human behaves rational according to his map. In known space there is activity space and the house of criminal person, working place, entertainment, shopping areas etc. are the routine activity areas of the offenders. In nodal point within this activity spaces, it is observed that the criminal person commits a crime far from the places he is known. Another analytical approach that arises in crime distribution theories is "hot spots". Hot spots are described as sensitive areas or spaces in which crimes in certain level concentrates during certain periods (Canter,1998; Anselin et al, 2000'de Sherman and Weisburd,1995). Hot spots theory aims to analyze the place and time changes of crimes. Most appropriate spatial description type is possible with the use of point representation. With point representation it is aimed to find the specific points to be intervene by explaining crimes in cities. Representation of characteristics special to location (Massey, 1994) is important in the world experiencing transformation (in the global-local context). Hot spot in the representation of crime may be seen as an advantage by reason of to ensure the characteristics of crime special to location. Crime facts with proactive local (Cooke, 1989) can be brought into light with different characteristics in local of global. Crime geography and maps are changing in the world in relations and it come into existence the necessity of to be described on fluids. Maps formed on flow can be used for representation of crime for the space representation. In the analysis in relations, both graphic and non graphic data entries may be realized in layers. Layer is total of details owning same geometrical features (point, line, area) and common descriptive features, for example building layer, road layer, crime layer etc. In this situation by assessing in layers graphic and non graphic data which belongs to certain area relations are tried to be exposed. Another problem of world in relations is that crime can be committed on network by computer technology. Everything became electronic including information as times ago crime is also electronic. Assessed economically, with the changes in bank accounts burglary can be committed. Or assessed politically, affects of terror crimes may cause cross border results. All this examples explicitly displays the advantages of representation of crime (flow on network) with fluid space. Crime space is the space that is described on nodal points and paths. Parallel to this vision controlling the network centre is controlling the structure (Offner, 2000). In this context controlling the crime center can be seen as the first phase to decrease the crime or intervene to the crime. If it is assessed according to this vision defending that equal distribution of networks as space is not in question, crime also does not spread equally and that causes creation of inequality in space. As to Offner, spaces involving homogeneous flows frustrate to do analysis based on inequalities. Relative to that, crime will take place on space dynamics changed with the

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different interest groups strategic games and economic realities instead of spaces including homogeneous flows. There are localities with advantageous in the regions in which there is no crime or few. Importance of crime point was determined with the geographical position in the past but now it is determined on flow. According to Berger space has more important influence than time to constitute personal experience. Starting from this vision it can be thought that we may perceive crime on space. For example if my house got burgled I do not think that I live in 21. Century but I think the security problem of my district. In this event, my perception on space overbalances I have the chance to intervene the space, I may move more secure district as I thought. This example supports the vision of representation spaces related to daily path (Gregory, 1994). In this theoretical context, Crime is embedded in space. There is a important question. That is "Does bad urban planning lead to higher crime and violence?" Not on its own, since there are many badly-planned places in the world that have low crime rates. But, if one asks, "can urban planning help reduce urban crime and violence?" then the answer is, yes. How planners create safe districts? Lets we discuss in Istanbul case. The Impact of Urbanisation Historically, Istanbul has developed along the Sea of Marmara, the Bosporus and the Golden Horn. Today Istanbul has grown as the largest city of Turkey it is following the trends in other cities of the world since the beginning of 1980. Istanbul has a new face in the process of E.U. Istanbul underwent a population explosion in the post 1950 period by the migration from rural to urban areas The city's population which was only about a million in 1950 reached 2.2 million in 1970. According to the 1990 census, the city has about 8 million inhabitants and. Istanbul is the largest city of Turkey in terms of population (approximately 13 million people) and economic activity. When we analysed urbanization process, it is easily seen that Istanbul has a dual spatial and organizational structure Istanbul has include not only squatter settlement, but also, mass housing areas, and street venders and shopping malls etc.( Figure 1). The gini coefficient -the indicator of inequality- in Istanbul was inclining (Iik; Pinarciolu, 2001) and triggering the polarization. As a result of this, the rate of crimes is in Istanbul has been steadily increasing without planning.

Figure 1: Existing Land use Source: derived from the JICA data base, 2004

Crime in Istanbul Istanbul receives an estimated 500,000 migrants each year from the rural areas of the country, most of whom become squatters (Tekeli, 1994). As squatter developments become organized so the crime. The old city is surrounded by squatters, which include sixty-five percent of all buildings in Istanbul. In these areas the dominant economic activities are as informal as the housing. In these areas crime rate is the higher than the other part. Istanbul never witnessed a social crime as it is in South Africa or Brazil cases but there is a fear of others. The consequence was two-fold; "hiding" behind the rising walls of the settlements in the city and "diverging" from the urban centre to the new settlements constructed at the periphery. "Others" are mostly the immigrants who live in bad conditions without any health, education or dwelling security; mostly unemployed or working for illegal sectors and living in the derelict areas at the urban centre. Additionally, as the social and spatial privileges of the new elites inclined, the differences crystallized triggered the new elites' feel of "under threat". No doubt this fear is exaggerated and canalized by a shepherd's pipe to "secured lands"; whether at 168

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the urban centre -stressing the walls, digital security systems and security guards; or at the periphery- emphasizing the distance to the urban violence. As a result there are many projects for the new elites, since a life in Bosporus, the forestry areas or water basins can only by afforded by this class. These housing projects exchange the city values into capital by the promise of "privileged life"; relying on the lack of planning tradition in the city. Crime in Istanbul is analyzed in two different scales, one is general urban planning and the second is environmental planning. Firstly at an urban scale, crime in Istanbul is analysed but terrorism related crimes were not included. The most common crimes are robbery, burglary and assault in Istanbul. There are 24000 policemen in Security organizations and approximately 1 policeman correspondence to nearly 400 persons. Analysis result shows that police district are distributed evenly (Figure 2). According to General Directorate of Security Crime has increasing due to differentiation in the income levels, lack of efficient urban infrastructure, rapid urbanization, increasing informal structure.

Figure 2: Security Facilities and Police District in Istanbul Source: derived from the JICA data base, 2004

Planned environments in Istanbul have produced unforeseen criminogenic side-effects. Especially after the second bride, the traffic/pedestrian segregation schemes are boomed which have provided more opportune locations for street crime and offender escape routes. Land use and circulation patterns are effected crime structure in Istanbul. The spatial distribution of crime and crime structures are investigated and their links with the local characteristics of districts (32 district municipalities in Istanbul Metropolitan Area) are investigated in this paper. There are important findings according to spatial analysis based on General Directorate of Security data (2005) these are mainly as follows: There is a relationship between crime in Istanbul and the level of education and age. The crime ratio was high where the ratio of the young age group was high. High crime rate triggered the emergence of gated communities, more protected Eminn, Beyoglu, Beyolu, ili, Beikta, Kadiky, defined as a Central Business Districts crime rate Is higher than other parts of the city. In CBD and its surroundings are lively and busy areas during the day and people feel safe because they can be seen and heard by others. However, once the shops are closed the activity ceases and the fear of crime has risen. Not only in squatter areas but also in regular housing areas crime rate has become high Considering cultural diversity and subcultures in Istanbul, crime prevention is important issue both planners and mangers In mix use areas especially in new sub centres crime ratio are lower than other parts. Despite high ratio of population increase due to migration, the difference between the expectations of the migrants and what they really face and the low number of policemen per person due to the facts that the population is still attached to its traditions and customs and that face to face communication has not yet ended. Secondly, in terms of environmental planning, the design of city center, green areas and public spaces in housing areas have the important nodes in the crime pattern. There are isolated and unsheltered areas in areas behind of the city centers in Istanbul. There is no enough enlightenment in parks generally especially in housing districts. It increases the fear of crime and crime rate.

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The design and management of the environment influences human behavior, Security criteria was not undertaken in the design of urban park, for this reason design and also urban furniture did not provide secure environment. Conclusion Istanbul is a city with a positive outlook for the future. Among the world's leading cities, Istanbul will be offer one of the most secure urban environments, if planning become more efficient. Historically, Istanbul's crime rate has registered significantly below that of most large metropolitan areas. Although the Turkish population is made up of 26 different ethnic and religious groups; including the Muslims, Christians and Jews and their various denominations; these groups have lived together harmoniously for centuries. But now the rate of crime has been an alarming rate. Because there are different communal mental maps stemmed from discrete subcultures in Istanbul. Crime scenes are generally located in centers. The studies are inadequate because of lack of individual profile and individual dependent crime. Yet the general statistics about Istanbul do not represents the crime, they render an opinion. The crime analysis of spatial distribution in Istanbul shows that urban areas in Istanbul is not planned and regular , it is spontaneous and intermittent. Crime is the main contributor to the decline of quality of life in Istanbul. Crime should have been a leading of concern of the planners. Planners and the planning process can provide valuable components in effective approaches to preventing crime and improving community safety, which almost inevitably require long-term, strategic and multi-disciplinary interventions for Istanbul. In sum, it is clear that, efficient urban and environmental planning on a broad scale crime can be reduced and also cut out. To prevent crime it is important to describe congruent and different localities, specifities of sites. References
Cooke P., (1989) The Contested Terrain of Locality Studies, Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 80, 1422. Canter, P. R. 1998, "Geographic Information Systems and Crime Analysis in Baltimore County, Maryland", Crime Mapping and Crime Prevention. Crime Prevention Studies, Eds. D. Weisburd and T. McEven, Vol: 8, Monsey, Criminal Justice Press, New York, pp. 157-190. Farooq, A. 1999, Social and Spatial Implications of Community-Based Residential Environments on Crime in Urban Settings, Ph.D. Thesis submitted to Georgia Institute of Technology. Finke, R. A. and J. Battle, 1996, Chaotic Cognition: Principles and Applications, Lawrence Erbaum Associates, Marvok. Pp. 1-64, Gregory, 1991, "Interventions in the Historical Geography of Modernity: Social Theory, Spatiality, and the Politics of Representation", Geografiska Annaler, 73 B (1), pp. 17-44. Wu, T. 2001, Analysing Crime Spatial Patterns Using Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System Technologies: Investigating the Urban Opportunity Structure Model of Jackson, Mississippi, Ph.D. Thesis submitted to Lousiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College. Seidman, S. B. 1987, "Relational Models for Social Systems", Environmental Planning B. Planning and Design, Vol: 14, pp. 135-148. Massey, D. 1994, "The Political Place of Locality Studies, Space Place and Gender, Polity Cambridge", Environment and Planning A 23, pp 267-281. Offner, J. M. 2000," 'Territorial Deregulation': Local authorities at Risk from Technical Networks", International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Vol: 24.1. JICA data base, 2004 Istanbul Metropoliten Planning. GDS, (2000), General Directorate of Security, Archive Data GDS, (2002), General Directorate of Security, Su ve Sulu Profili, APK Yayin No:162, Ankara. Iik, O. and Pinarciolu, M. (2001) Nbetlee Yoksulluk: Sultanbeyli rnei, Iletiim yayinlari 1. baski, Istanbul; Iik, O. and Pinarciolu, M. Melih (2001) Poverty in turn: Sultanbeyli case, Iletiim, 1st press, Istanbul IPD, (2005), Istanbul Police Department, Archive Data. Tekeli, I., ( 1994 )the Developent of the ?stanbul Metropolitan Area: Urban Administration and Planning, IULA-EMME Yayini.

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Hybrid Approach for the Mapping of Sealing with High-Resolution Satellite Data in an Urban Environment
B. Coenradie3, L. Haag1, A. Damm2, P. Hostert2, B. Kleinschmit1
Technische Universitt Berlin, Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning Humboldt-Universitt zu Berlin, Geography, Geomatics Department Digitale Dienste Berlin Leilah.Haag.1@TU-Berlin.de
1 2 3

Abstract An operational and cost-effective approach was developed to map the degree of sealing in the urban area of Berlin. Therefore multi-spectral SPOT 5 data in addition to geo-data were integrated into the classification process. The area types of the information system "Stadt und Umwelt" of the Digital Environmental Atlas of Berlin were categorised by remote sensing related criteria to initialise the analysis process for the satellite data. These categories were an important input to perform stratification and knowledge-based decisions during the classification process. Additionally, a grid of reference areas was sampled to ensure that the approach is reproducible and to enable future monitoring. In a first step, different vegetation coverage and other relevant object-classes (i.e. sand, artificial material) were separated in a spectral classification. Subsequently, these classes are re-classified into sealing categories using a rule-based classification including information from additional geo-data. Finally, the pixel-wise mapping results were aggregated into reference units. An extensive accuracy assessment was performed to estimate the absolute accuracy of the map. Furthermore, an alternative SPOT 5 satellite scene was used to evaluate the repeatability and reliability of the developed approach. The quality assessment exhibited high accuracy levels. The method is general enough to work with different satellite data with a spatial resolution of 4 m to 10 m. The high level of automation guarantees a fast operation, even for large datasets. The derived map will update current information on the degree of sealing in the Berlin Digital Environmental Atlas. Introduction In Germany, sealing data are regularly used by authorities at the federal and state level. Such data are required to support a wide range of administrative decisions and spatially explicit, environmental applications (Arnold & Gibbons, 1996; Lu & Weng, 2006). At present, there only exist heterogeneous and inaccurate data sets for Berlin (Haag 2006). Therefore a hybrid mapping approach was developed for the Berlin Senate, Department of Urban Development. In the context of the Digital Environmental Atlas, that provides digital information on the environment and ecology of Berlin, the map of soil sealing is presented in the internet (Senate Department of Urban Development 2007). The method is based on high-resolution satellite images and geo-data with the objective to provide a homogeneous, accurate, and reproducible sealing map for the entire city (Harris & Ventura, 1995). Through a combination of existing geo-data and high-resolution SPOT 5 data a high accuracy as well as the determination between the non-built-up and built-up degree of sealing is achieved. Moreover, the possibility for a monitoring of sealing was an important aspect in the development of this approach. Methods Land-use data from the information system "Stadt und Umwelt" (ISU) of the Berlin Digital Environmental Atlas, the digital cadastral map ("Automatisierte Liegenschaftskarte" ALK) and the 1:5.000 scale map of Berlin ("Karte von Berlin 1:5.000") were integrated into the classification process. The census blocks derived from the ISU were used as spatial reference units. The overall degree of sealing of a reference unit is defined as the sum of built-up areas and non-built-up but sealed surfaces. Satellite remote sensing represents one source of information among others. In the study, all the advantages like up-to-dateness and simultaneous mapping of large areas were used by analysing a high-resolution SPOT 5 scene from September 2005 (Ehlers, 2006; Phinn et al., 2002; Small, 2003). In a first step, the builtup areas were extracted from the cadastral map. Up-to-date data is available for the entire area of Berlin and for nearly all land-use types. The analysis of remote-sensing data is thus exclusively focused on the non-builtup areas. The land-use types of the ISU were categorised by remote sensing related criteria to initialise the analysis process for the satellite data. These categories were an important input to perform a stratification and to define knowledge-based decisions during the classification process.

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In the context of a hierarchical spectral classification scheme, surfaces with different degrees of vegetation coverage as well as other relevant object-classes (i.e. bare soils, sand, artificial materials) were separated. For this purpose only approved methods were selected and combined with each other (figures 1 and 2). Subsequently, these classes were re-classified into sealing categories using a rule-based classification including information from the above mentioned geo-data. Finally, the pixel-wise mapping results were aggregated for the spatial units. The result is composed of the degree of sealing for each unit: total, non-built-up and builtup.

Figure 1: Hybrid mapping approach - classification scheme A

A grid of reference areas was sampled for future monitoring and to ensure that the approach is reproducible. To prove the possibility of using the method again for monitoring aspects, a sensitivity study was additionally carried out to evaluate the repeatability and reliability of the developed hybrid approach. For this purpose, an alternative SPOT5 scene from 2006 was used. The scene parameters were set entirely differently compared to the dataset from 2005 to illuminate the effects of different phenology and varying shade fractions. Both scenes were processed in the same way and subsequently compared. Results and Discussion The results of an extensive accuracy assessment allow statistically secured statements on the level of area types as well as blocks. The calculation of independent sealing data for verification is based on current digital aerial photographs. A stratified random sample of one percent or at least five blocks per area type was extracted. Due to information on the built-up environment from the digital cadastral map, the verification is only accomplished on non-built-up surfaces. In the sensitivity analysis the good agreement between the sealing information for 2005 and 2006 should be highlighted (figure 3). An averaged variance of 3.8 percent of sealing can be observed for all validation points which represent non-change areas. This result shows the suitability of the approach for monitoring tasks. The approach is sensitive to changes above 5 percent of sealing. Effects of illumination conditions and different phenological states of vegetation are the main reason for scattering. Sealing information cannot be derived in shaded areas. Accordingly, the information was estimated considering surrounding values. The fractions of shaded surfaces vary extremely between both scenes; in 2005 the shaded area sums up to 9.5 km, whereas in 2006 the shaded area was only 1.9 km. Hence, the shadow variation affected the derivation of the sealing information. 172

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Figure 2: Hybrid mapping approach - classification scheme B

Conclusions The intention of developing an operational and cost-effective approach to map the degree of sealing in the urban area of Berlin has been achieved. The method is based on high-resolution satellite images and geodata with the objective to provide a homogeneous, accurate, and reproducible sealing map for the entire city. The repeatability and reliability of the developed approach enables future reapplications for monitoring aspects in Berlin. Furthermore the hybrid approach is assignable for other cities, if comparable geo-data is available. Acknowledgment This study was financed by the Senate Department of Urban Development in Berlin. We also kindly acknowledge the support and constructive remarks by the staff of the Senate Department of Urban Development in Berlin. References
Arnold, C. & Gibbons, C.J. (1996): Impervious surface coverage: The emergence of a key environmental indicator. In: Journal of the American Planning Associations, 62(2), pp. 243-258. Ehlers, M (2006): New developments and trends for urban remote sensing. In: Weng, Q. & Quattrochi, D.A. (eds.) (2006): Urban Remote Sensing. CRC Press Inc. Haag, L. (2006): Wie hoch sind die Versiegelungsgrade in Berlin wirklich? - Ein Methodenvergleich. Diploma thesis TU-Berlin (unpublished), Berlin. Harris, P.M. & Ventura, S.J. (1995): The integration of geographic data with remotely-sensed imagery to improve classification in urban area. In: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 61(8), pp. 993-998.

Figure 3: Comparison of the degree in sealing for 2005 and 2006 for 305 block areas

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Figure 4: Extract of the spectral classification, the rule-based classification and the final map of the degree of sealing in Berlin Lu, D. & Weng, Q.H. (2006): Use of impervious surface in urban land-use classification. In: Remote Sensing of Environment, 102(1-2), pp. 146-160. Phinn, S., Stanford, M., Scarth, P., Murray, A.T. & Shyy, P.T. (2002): Monitoring the composition of urban environments based on the vegetation-impervious surface-soil (VIS) model by subpixel analysis techniques. In: International Journal of Remote Sensing, 23(20), pp. 4131-4153. Senate Department of Urban Development (2007): Berlin Digital Environmental Atlas. http://www.stadtentwicklung.berlin.de/umwelt/umweltatlas/edua_index.shtml, Berlin. Small, C. (2003): High spatial resolution spectral mixture analysis of urvan reflectance. In. Remote Sensing of Environment, 88, pp. 170-186.

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Land cover change by rapid industrialization over a decade and its impact on environment
Mehmet Emin zel1, Hlya Yildirim2 Alparslan Aka3
1 anakkale OM University (OM) anakkale,Turkey; 2Kocaeli University(KOU), Izmit,Turkey; 3Universitt Gttingen, Germany hulya.yildirim@kou.edu.tr

Abstract The rapid uncontrolled industrialization and population growth in an area requires fast assessment for the actual land-cover/land-use (LC/LU) maps in order to avoid overuse and damaging of the landscape beyond sustainability. Modern remote sensing and information technologies fit well for long term monitoring of such effects. In the present exercise, a region of Gebze County 50 km east of metropolitan Istanbul is considered, as a pilot site for analyzing such rapid change and its effects on environment. We considered LC/LU maps of the region over the years starting from 1986 for a number of years by satellite images.Comparisona are made between the observed patterns and the land-use patterns projected by the government planning offices in the region in 1986. It is observed that proposed LC/LU patterns are overshooting the planned areas in much less than a decade. Our mapping ends in 1999 just before the 17 August Marmara Earthquake devastating the area to a large extent. Present results may also be used for before-and after-earthquake-inventory comparisons in many areas. Key words: Remote Sensing, Geographic Information Systems, temporal changes in LC/LU, Image Classification. Introduction Since several decades, multi-temporal high resolution satellite images and their analysis have become a strong tool for monitoring environment for urban expansion, vegetation cover, soil degradation, and several types of land-cover/land-use (LC/LU) changes (Aka 1989; Yildirim et al., 1995). Uses of space based techniques allow one to obtain valuable knowledge in relatively short time intervals and cost-effective ways. Satellite image classification and resultant LC/LU maps with proper specifications serve as an essential database for planning and administrative actions. The integration of such remote sensing data into a geographic information system (GIS) offers a wide range of new perspectives for the monitoring analysis, evaluation and interpretation, in combination with auxiliary digital information such as digitized maps (zel et al., 1999). The pilot study area chosen is in the area of county of Gebze, in Kocaeli Peninsula, in north-western Turkey. The county is situated on the immediate eastern border of Istanbul Province. Recently, uncontrolled and unregulated construction and industrialization activities with parallel urbanization efforts have presented difficult problems for planning and presumably sustainable development efforts. Present work aims at the digital documentation of LC/LU changes resulting from such activities. By use of multi-temporal satellite images, a comparison will be made between the land-use patterns at different and the land-use projected by the regional administration for the same area. Material And The Analysis The study area is an area of 85 km2 centered at coordinates of (41 N, 29 E) including Gebze (Figure 1), a county (pop.270.000 in 2005) It is in the half-way between Istanbul (pop.10 million) and Izmit (pop.300.000). 3 satellite images covering the interval 1986-1998 and existing planning map of the area are used for the analysis. Resultant figures are obtained through the use of ERDAS Imagine software and a Maximum Likelyhood (ML) was the main tool of classification. Main image classes and subclasses used were (1) Industry/Roads (INDUSTRY), (2) Urban areas (URBAN and URBAN GREEN), (3) Forest (DENSE FOREST and OPEN FOREST), (4) Agriculture and Pastures (PASTURE) and (5) Water surfaces (WATER). ARC/INFO was used as the geographic information system (GIS) to integrate and jointly analyse all the images and maps brought to same scales. Analysis were carried out by comparing the classification results for years 1986, 1993 and 1998 with each other and with the 1/25.000 scale planning/forecasting map of the Gebze county dated 1986. Results And Discussion (1) LC/ LU Statistics for 1986, 1993 and 1998 In Table 1 is summarized the areal size of resultant LC/LU classes for 1986, 1993 and 1998 for the entire project area of A=105.5 square kilometers. The coverage in the region at the beginning is overwhelmingly (70%) NATUREL, i.e., (FOREST and PASTURE) while artificial (MAN MADE) surfaces (INDUSTRY and URBAN) are 30% only.

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Table 1. LC/LU classes in the area in 1986, 1993 and 1998 (*)

Years LC/LU classes URBAN INDUSTRY DENSE FOREST OPEN FOREST PASTURE T O T A L Combined classes MAN-MADE covers NATURAL covers FORESTALL

1986 2 Area ( km ) 28.3 3.2 2.8 29.9 41.2 105.5 31.6 73.9 32.7

1993 2 % Area (km ) 26.9 3.1 2.7 28.3 39.0 100.0 30.0 70.0 31.1 39.3 12.3 9.4 27.5 17.0 105.5 51.6 53.9 36.9

1998 2 % Area( km ) 37.3 11.6 8.9 26.1 16.1 100.0 48.9 51.1 35.0 37.9 19.7 20.8 16.3 10.7 105.5 57.6 47.9 37.1

% 35.9 18.7 19.7 15.5 10.1 100.0 54.6 45.4 35.2

(*)Percentages refer to the total size of the study area, 105.5 square kilometers.

In 1993, we see that natural coverage, has decreased by about 1/3 of their area so that only 51% can be collected under NATURAL umbrella. The MAN-MADE classes however, increased by as much as half of their earlier sizes, reaching 49%. Within this, the INDUSTRY increased by ~4-fold indicating a strong pressure over the NATURAL areas. (2) Comparison of Actual and Projected Land Uses during the interval Although 1986 distribution of LC/LU classes are quite in line with planning, classifications observed in 1993 and in 1998 show larger and larger deviations (Table 2).
Table 2: Comparison of 1986 LC/LU planning to actual LC/LU in 1993 and 1998.

(A): Comparison of 1986 planning to 2 main actual LC / LU classes in 1993. Actual Land Use: Actual Land INDUSTRY Use: URBAN 2 2 % Area(km ) Area (km ) 2.6 21.8 1.7 4.9 40.6 18.5 0.1 0.8 0.1 3.0 24.8 8.5 1.4 5.9 12.0 12.0 100.0 34.7

(B):Comparison of 1986 planning to 2 main actual LC / LU classes in 998. Actual Land Use: Actual Land INDUSTRY Use: URBAN 2 2 Area(km ) % Area (km ) % 4.0 20.5 4.0 1.5 4.7 55.7 22.0 21.1 0.4 0.7 1.0 0.4 6.2 31.5 7.7 20.3 4.6 7.2 23.3 18.0 19.7 100.0 37.9 100.0

Projected Land-Use Industry Urban Dense Forest Open Forest Pasture Total

% 4.8 53.4 0.4 24.4 17.0 100.0

There are also problems of location of INDUSTRY and URBAN classes within the region, not clearly seen in Table 2. While the URBAN class is somewhat in alignment with planning, only about one-fifth of INDUSTRY were found in regions which were spared for such use in the planning. There is also a further mixing: 40 % of INDUSTRY lies in regions designated for future URBAN use. This decreases to 22 % in 1998, meaning that INDUSTRY started invading the natural areas (such as PASTURE) during the 1993-1998 interval. As a summary, no single LC/LU classes were correctly predicted even for the next 5-6 years, let alone for and above a decade, except for FOREST areas, for which strong legal protection. Actually the DENSE FOREST area in 1998 goes even, to the positive side, not far from the originally planned boundaries in 1986. All this brings again, use and necessity of proper tools for timely monitoring, which will also timely revisions. (3) Contingency Table for 1998-Classification Results Classification errors are usually evaluated by a so called 'contingency table' (Lillesand and Kiefer, 1994). We give such a table for 1998 for which a high resolution (6m) multicolor image from Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) image, at about the same time as 1998 LANDSAT TM image. This was used as the 'ground truth' to estimate the 'incorrect class assignments'. against the 'actual' IRS class values. It may not be a full substitute for an actual ground truthing and results will only be indicative of general mixing trends among the LC/LU 176

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Mehmet Emin zel, Hlya Yilirim Alparslan Aka: Land cover change by rapid industrialization

classes. However, due to compensating nature of 'omission' and 'commission' errors, the 'overall accuracy' (80 %) is rather reliable. Results of this analysis are presented in Table 3.
Table 3: Contingency Table for 1998 LC/LU classification results.

Urban Urban Industry Dense forest Open forest Pasture TOTAL Producers accuracy 41.8% 2.6% 1.5% 0.4% 1.1% 47.7% 88%

Industry 5.5% 15.8% 0.5% 0.4% 0.7% 22.9% 69%

Dense forest 0.9% 0.3% 15.4% 3.0% 0.2% 19.8% 78%

Open forest 0.5% 0.3% 1.0% 4.2% 0.2% 6.2% 68%

Pasture TOTAL 0.2% 0.2% 0.0% 0.4% 2.6% 3.5% 77%

Users accuracy

85% 49.0% 82% 19.2% 83% 18.5% 51% 8.4% 54% 4.7% 100% 100% 100% Overall ac-. curacy: 80%

In Table 3 a number of noticeable differences in individual class behavior are observed. The reported overall accuracy (80 %) is well above the producer's accuracy of PASTURE and OPEN FOREST classes. They may be incorrectly assigned to each other by the ML algorithm. For INDUSTRY, mixing with URBAN is also quite significant (up to 25 %), while, for URBAN, the confusion with INDUSTRY is not high (only 5 % or so). This is probably due to the fact that, for a newly growing (uncontrolled) industrial 'seed area', some housing near (or within) the same region develops, helping to the increase of confusion. Conclusions We can draw the following conclusions from the above analysis: (1) Despite some mixing, (NATURAL vs MAN-MADE), the work reveals that, within < 10 years, LC/LU developments changes: change is predominantly farming (PASTURE) and forest utilization to that of URBANINDUSTRIAL use. Fig 3 indicates LC/LU classes over the years as a bar chart for Graphical inspection. It clearly show that, the pace of change (i.e., rate of industrialization and urbanization) has accelerated during 1993-1998 interval. Conversion of LC/LU classes into FOREST, URBAN, and INDUSTRY from 1986 to 1998 is given by Fig 2. (2) Planning and timely monitoring of MAN MADE classes are definitely 'problematic'. Both classes were 'out of control' in a short time ( 5 years), in area coverage, as well as in their geographical distributions. One reason in this quick and unchecked deviation is the lack of modern monitoring techniques (i.e., satellite images and GIS) for the control of the planning. After this study, Gebze County decided to initiate a program for creating and using its own GIS system (Yildirim et al., 2000). (3) As present exercise indicate, satellite remote sensing, digital image processing combined with information management systems form a strong and effective tool for monitoring and assessment of changes and deviations from actual plans in an economic and timely way. (4) 1999 Marmara Earthquake which occured 1 year after the 1998 TM image used here, can be taken as a new start for a more controlled urbanization / industrialization process in line with sustainable development and efficient planning principles; i.e., the earthquake may have had its own unexpectedly 'positive' pressure on the use of modern and effective techniques for LU / LC planning, management and monitoring of large areas for the regional administrations. (5) Although the differences are rather minor, European Union LC/LU classification standards (Perdigo, 2002) known as CORINE does not fully overlap with the present classification classes. The main reason for this difference is the fact that very rapid industrialization and fast population growth in the area have dictated their own specific classes. If need arises, these classes can be converted into CORINE classes, with some minor modifications. References
Aka, A. 1989. Permanente Luftbildistichprobe. Allg.Forst-u. Jagd-Ztg. 160(4), 65-69. Huss, J. (ed.), 'Luftbildmessung und Fernerkundung in der Forstwirtschaft', 1984,Karlsruhe:Qichmann, 406 pages. Lillesand, T. M. and Kiefer, R. W., C., 1994. Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation, 3rd edn., New York, Wiley & Sons. zel M.E., Yildirim H., Alparslan E., Aydner C., Elita S., Divan J., Daci M., Dnerta A., Erkan B.,1999."Development of a GIS Data Base of Yeilirmak Watershed Using RS and GIS", 3rd Turkish German Geodetic Days,Berlin, proceedings, Germany, 2,589-598.

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Perdigo, V., Steenmans, L., 2002, 'Corine Land Cover: Latest Developments', http: // www. desertification. Yildirim H., Alparslan E. & zel M.E.: 'Temporal Change Detection by Principal Component Transformation on Satellite Imagery', presented at IEEE, 1995, Int. Geosci. & Rem. Sensing, Firenze, Italy, 2, 1227-1229. Yildirim H., zel M. E., ztrk Y.& Gafarov, R.; 'Gebze County GIS Infrastructure', MRC Space Technologies Group, Project number 24.2.004, Final Report, March 27, 2000.

Fig 1: Location of study area (frame).

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Time and Space Geographical Readings in the Bragantina Region Water Basins So Paulo/Minas Gerais Brazil
Almerinda Antonia Barbosa Fadini1, Joo Luiz de Moraes Hoeffel1 & Pompeu Figueiredo de Carvalho2
1

Universidade So Francisco, Universidade 2 Estadual Paulista; So Paulo Brazil

joaoluiz@saofrancisco.edu.br Abstract The construction of D. Pedro I Highway, the Cantareira Water Supply System, and of additional lanes for the Ferno Dias Highway intensified many social and environmental impacts in the diverse water basins of the Bragantina Region (southeastern Brazil). Standing out among these are those that directly affect water resources and local biodiversity, in addition to cultural changes. In this context, two water basins were studied Moinho Creek, in the State of So Paulo (SP) and Cadete Stream in the State of Minas Gerais (MG), both in the Bragantina Region. The Moinho Creek Water Basin located in Nazar Paulista-SP had a considerable part of its fertile lands flooded by the Atibainha River Reservoir which integrates the Cantareira System; however this area still maintains some rural aspects that can be seen mainly in the local population's way of life. This district's mountainous area with hilltops covered with Atlantic Forest, the presence of the reservoir, ease of access, and overall scenic beauty are provoking a change in the geographical arrangement of land use in the Moinho Basin, mainly due to increasing tourism. The Cadete Stream Water Basin located in the District of Monte Verde, Camanducaia-MG, is characterized by the presence of established tourism activities and which have created serious environmental problems due to the absence of appropriate basic sanitation and by use of areas that are very steep and inappropriate for urban expansion and the development of tourism facilities. Social and environmental transformations in both water basins are not being accompanied by appropriate environmental planning or effective involvement of the local population. Considering this picture, this research work's objective is to characterize social and environmental changes and impacts that are taking place in these two water basins through interpretation and temporal analyses of thematic maps of land use made through geoprocessing technology. This cartographic work has made it possible to identify and interpret the main environmental impacts in the study areas. These results are contributing to the elaboration of a proposal for participatory environmental planning and environmental education programs. The Bragantina Water Basins and their environmental problems The water basins located in southern Minas Gerais and in northeastern So Paulo State belong to the Bragantina Region and have experienced a series of socioenvironmental changes in the last decades due to construction and further widening of important regional highways and creation of the Cantareira of Water Supply System. Standing out among these are intense cultural changes and impacts affecting water resources and local biodiversity (HOEFFEL, MACHADO & FADINI, 2005). In this context, two water basins were selected and their socioenvironmental problems studied. These basins were those of Moinho Creek, in the State of So Paulo, and Cadete Stream in the State of Minas Gerais. The Moinho Creek water basin located in the municipal district of Nazar Paulista, So Paulo, Brazil, had a considerable part of its fertile land flooded by the construction of the Atibainha River Reservoir, part of the Cantareira Water Supply System. Nonetheless, this district still maintains some rural characteristics which can be seen mainly in the local population's way of life. This mountainous landscape, with hills still covered with remnants of Atlantic Forest, the presence of the lake created by the dam, easy access, and the landscape's scenic beauty are determining a change in the geographical arrangement of land uses in this basin, mainly due to an increase in tourism (FADINI & CARVALHO, 2004). The Cadete Stream water basin located in the District of Monte Verde, municipal district of CamanducaiaMinas Gerais State, is characterized by the presence of established tourism activities which have resulted in serious socioenvironmental problems from the absence of appropriate sanitation and by the use of very steep areas located in the Mantiqueira Mountain Range for urban development and the expansion of tourism. In both water basins, these socioenvironmental transformations are not being accompanied by appropriate environmental planning or effective involvement of the local population. In this context, the objectives of this research are to analyze on-going socioenvironmental changes and impacts and to contribute to the development of a participatory environmental planning proposal for these basins, using interpretation and temporal analyses of thematic maps and appropriate maps of land uses for the years 1972 and 2004 (Figures 1, 2, 3 and 4), created through geoprocessing technology (FADINI, 2005).

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Legend for all figures: 1 - Limits 2 - Hydrography 3 - Hydrography outside the water basin 4 - Highway 5 - Appropriate 6 - Underused 7 - Overused 8 - Urban Area

Methodological procedures Temporal diagnoses of land use transformations for Moinho Creek and Cadete Stream water basins were obtained by methodological procedures in three phases. This process resulted in critical analyses of thematic maps created from topographical maps, aerial pictures, satellite images, and from field Figure 1: Map of area in appropriate, underused, and overused land uses work (with the support of GPS) and Moinho Creek Water Basin - 1972 through digital processing with a Geographic Information System (GIS). In the first phase, the following maps were produced: hydrography, Areas of Permanent Preservation (APP), soil type, declivity (slope), and land use for 1972 and 2004. The second phase involved GIS analyses of declivity and soil layers to generate mapped classes of land use capacity. In the third phase, analyses that took into consideration both the maps of different land uses for the years 1972 and 2004 and maps of land use capacity classes led to maps showing areas that were in environmentally appropriate land use for the respective years. This last phase of our methods allowed for a diagnoFigure 2: Map of area in appropriate, underused, and overused land uses sis of land use transformations, Moinho Creek Water Basin - 2004 relationships to the location of Areas of Permanent Preservation (APP), and analyses of appropriate land use (FADINI, 1998; 2005). Geographical Changes in the Water Basins It was verified that land uses considered appropriate those being explored inside the limits imposed by the classification of use capacity and respecting Areas of Permanent Preservation are increasing in the Moinho Creek water basin. This is due to a natural restoration of forests in high declivity areas. However, the importance of eucalyptus forestry in these areas was also verified. It is recommended that future conversion to this land use be avoided and that current eucalyptus plantations be replaced by native species so that an integrated restoration of these important potential preservation areas can be obtained. In the Cadete Stream water basin, a high increase in urban area was verified for the study period, demonstrating that over the last 33 years an intense spatial dynamic happened in the Monte Verde District. Uses considered appropriate in this basin generally did not show a significant change during the study period. Nonetheless changes to the most appropriate land use were associated with recovery of forests in high declivity areas. In this basin, it is also recommended that eucalyptus forestry should also be avoided and restoration of these lands with native species be undertaken. 180

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A. A. B. Fadini et al.: Time and Space Geographical Readings in the Bragantina Region Water Basins

The areas classified as underused those that could support agriculture with a more intensive use of the soil, as they have both low declivity and fertile soils both in the Moinho Creek as well as in the Cadete Stream water basin are increasing, although in a minor way. It was observed that these areas are being used mainly for pastures, even though they could support annual and perennial crops, provided conservation practices were respected. Regarding areas that are being overused areas with uses above their environmental capacity, occupying high declivity, fragile soils, APP's and so generating degradation at critical levels, it was verified that such overuse stands out in the Moinho Creek water basin.. Although these uses decreased over the analyzed years, they continue to dominate the landscape, representing for more than half of the whole area. In the Cadete Stream water basin, the data demonstrate a drop in overuse areas. These data should nonetheless be considered in environmental planning because these uses, especially for pastures and urban expansion, are occupying areas of low use capacity and APP's and could generate serious soil erosion and water conservation problems.

Figure 3: Map of area in appropriate, underused, and overused land uses Cadete Stream Water Basin - 1972

Time and Space Brief Considerations One relevant aspect that emerges from this research is the recognition Figure 4: Map of area in appropriate, underused, and overused land uses that the Bragantina Region suffers Cadete Stream Water Basin - 2004 the dynamics of an external time (external temporal context), specifically that of great metropolises, which demand huge infrastructure and expansion projects, in contrast with the region's internal time. This situation provokes profound impacts on the environment and to local communities. It is indispensable that we consider these social time contexts in the planning of great spaces which command the accumulation of capital. As pointed by Harvey (2000), "capitalism is always under the impulsion to accelerate turnover time, to speed up the circulation of capital and consequently to revolutionize the time of horizons of development. All sorts of mechanisms exist for coordinating between capital dynamics working to different temporal rhythms. Capitalism thereby produces a geographical landscape (of space relations, of territorial organization, and of systems of places linked in a global division of labor and of functions) appropriate to its own dynamic of accumulation at a particular moment of its history, only to have to destroy and rebuild that geographical landscape to accommodate accumulation at a later date". In this context, it is expected that our environmental diagnosis can be used to support planning and environmental management of both water basins studied. Such time-space analyses can form a basis for regionally integrative efforts to adopt corrective and preventative measures. However, it is recommended that this process be followed by a study that involves local communities, in order to identify the perception and expec-

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tations of these social actors and to establish, through a participatory action, the environmental sustainability of these water basins. References
FADINI, Almerinda A. B. Impactos do Uso das Terras na Bacia Hidrogrfica do Rio Jundia (SP). Dissertao de Mestrado. Rio Claro-SP: UNESP, 1998. FADINI, Almerinda A. B. e CARVALHO, Pompeu F. de. Os usos das guas do Moinho - Um estudo na Bacia Hidrogrfica do Ribeiro do Moinho - Nazar Paulista-SP. II Encontro da ANPPAS. Indaiatuba: ANPPAS, 2004, p. 01-20 (CD ROM). FADINI, Almerinda A. B. Sustentabilidade e Identidade Local - Pauta para um planejamento ambiental em sub-bacias hidrogrficas da Regio Bragantina. Tese de Doutorado. Rio Claro-SP: UNESP, 2005. HARVEY, David. Spaces of hope. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000, p. 58-9. HOEFFEL, Joo Luiz, MACHADO, Micheli K. & FADINI, Almerinda A. B. Mltiplos olhares, Usos conflitantes Concepes ambientais e turismo na APA do Sistema Cantareira. OLAM - Cincia & Tecnologia. Percepo, Interpretao e Representao do Meio Ambiente, Rio Claro, v. 5, n. 1, Maio/2005, p.119-45. (CD-ROM).

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Reality-based virtual 3D city models for urban planning


K. Ulm
CyberCity AG, Switzerland kulm@cybercity.tv

Introduction Reality-based 3D city models generated using airborne data (i.e. stereo aerial imagery or laserscanner data) are predominantly used in urban planning, architecture and marketing (e.g. tourism, real estate promotion). The demand to use real-time virtual reality to improve the understanding of complex project information and also to communicate this complexity to the public is growing. 3D visualization, instead of 2D maps and drawings, reflects a virtual image of the environment, which is what people are used to seeing. Intelligent measurement and semi-automatic procedures by CyberCity AG reduce labor costs and turnaround time, while ensuring geospatial accuracy and photo-realism. CyberCity generates textured 3D city models of large areas semi-automatically from stereo aerial images or laserscanner data and developed the specialized software CyberCity-Modeler (CC-Modeler). The 3D building data fulfills format (e.g. SHP, MDB, DXF, FLT), technical (e.g. Level-of-Detail, texture optimization) and quality (e.g. accuracy, up-to-date) requirements for the use within Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Visualization. The interactive and web-based 3D visualization with the professional tool TerrainView-Globe respectively TerrainView-Web (ViewTec AG) enables planners, engineers and decision makers to test, view and evaluate the spatial and visual impacts of changing project conditions and parameters in real time within a detailed, spatially accurate, georeferenced computer environment. The understanding of the complex project information can be improved and a successful community-outreach program including visualization, multi-media and web-streaming of huge 3D sceneries containing high-resolution landscape and city models can be achieved. Semi-automatic generation of textured 3D city models from airborne data By using photogrammtery it is possible to determine the three-dimensional coordinates of the building roof points by measurement in two photographic aerial images taken from different positions during an aerial flight campaign. CyberCity developed its own software CyberCity-Modeler to cost-efficiently create 3D city models using photogrammetry but also using laser scanner data (LIDAR: LIght Detection And Ranging). Generally, different Level-of-Details (LOD) can be derived from various input data. We differentiate between (see Figure 1) buildings with flat roofs (so called block models), buildings with main roof structures and buildings with detailed superstructures like dormers, chimneys etc. If cadastral data like planimetric building footprints from terrestrial surveying are available, even roof overhangs can be created easily by extruding the 2D polygon to the 3D roof structure. By being flexible in the creation of different LODs from the same source data, it is always possible to tailor the 3D data to be produced to the customer project needs and to its budget range.

Figure 1: Level-of-Details (A: Block model with flat roof, B: Main roof structures, C: Main roofs with detailed superstructures, D: Roof overhangs).

The accuracy of the final 3D data output depends on the source data. For detailed roof structures it can be approx. 0.2m when using stereo aerial images of a representative fraction scale of 1:5'000 with forward overlap 60% and side overlap 30% or digital imagery with a ground sample distance of approx. 0.1m. On the other hand, if main roof structures are derived from stereo satellite scenes (e.g. Quickbird, IKONOS) with a resolution of approx. 0.6-1m, an accuracy of approx. 1.5m can be achieved. To get photo-realistic virtual building models, different kinds of textures (representative facade picture) may be applied. Large areas can be textured easily using generic textures chosen from an available library of sample regional textures, which brings along the advantage that large areas can be textured with low costs and the disadvantage that specific walls do not appear as they do in reality. To meet the requirement of most customers and industries to have the real appearance of the actual wall, CyberCity developed a procedure to semi-automatically apply facade textures using oblique aerial images. CyberCity markets the 3D model,

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Figure 2: 3D model of Zurich International Airport, Switzerland, derived from stereo aerial images by CyberCity AG and used for GIS, planning, engineering and visualization in ArcGlobe (ESRI). Courtesy of Unique (Flughafen Zrich AG).

Orthophoto and Digital Terrain Model of Hamburg, Germany, and applied this texturing procedure for the inner city of Hamburg (Figure 3) as well as for the 3D model of Salzburg (Figure 4).

Figure 3: 3D City Model of Hamburg, Germany, with semi-automatic texturing using oblique aerial images. Left: St. Michaelis Church. Right: City Hall Hamburg. Courtesy of the State Office for Geo-Information and Survey (LGV) of the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg.

Figure 4: 3D City Model of Los Angeles, USA. Photo-realistic textures in the Little Tokyo district. Courtesy of CyberCity AG.

The most photo-realistic textures are obtained when acquiring terrestrial digital photographs of the buildings on site and the cleaning of the images from disturbing objects such as trees or cars etc. These high quality textures are mostly required when simulating the view of a pedestrian or from a car in simulation and urban planning applications (Figure 2 and Figure 5). 3D city models by CyberCity AG are exported to GIS formats like shapefile and geodatabase for analysis in ArcGIS 9 (ESRI Inc.), to standard CAD formats (e.g. DXF) and to the real-time format OpenFlight support184

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K. Ulm: Reality-based virtual 3D city models for urban planning

ing multiple Level-of-Detail (LOD) for interactive visualization e.g. in TerrainView-Globe. This variability in formats increases the value of the 3D data for customers not only from the local government by allowing the use in several departments by several users in a number of different systems, which legitimates the initial investment in the production of such data.

Figure 5: 3D Model along the COS path, Los Angeles, USA. Videos of the internal inspection of the sewer were integrated as hyperlinks into the real-time visualization with TerrainViewGlobe (ViewTec AG).

The Need for 3D in urban planning The demand to use real-time virtual reality to improve the understanding of complex project information and also to communicate this complexity to the public is growing. The added value provided by a three-dimensional environment compared to a 2D plan is significant. 3D visualization, instead of 2D maps and drawings, reflects a virtual image of the environment, which is what people are used to seeing. One currently available visualization solution is TerrainView-Globe, which combines the obvious advantages of virtual planning in a software tool tailored to these challenges. It enables the display of immense geodatasets like digital terrain models textured with orthophotos and huge textured 3D city models in an interactive mode and includes functionality to combine the existing virtual environment with planning alternatives. Therefore, the future situation of a planning hot spot is visualized and several visual impacts can be taken into account during the planning process when comparing several alternatives. This powerful solution was also used in the Central Outfall Sewer (COS) project of the city of Los Angeles Department of Public Works Bureau of Engineering, which is a part of a larger effort to rehabilitate the entire city sewer system. The project included the creation of a geospatially accurate 3D terrain and city model along the COS path. The model included maintenance-hole structures, connecting sewers, street names, proposed construction sites and 3D buildings to name only a few. The model enables planners, engineers and decision makers to test, view and evaluate the spatial and visual impacts of changing project conditions and parameters in real time within a detailed, spatially accurate, georeferenced computer environment. Videos of the internal inspection of the sewer were integrated as hyperlinks to the corresponding location in the sewer. The understanding of the complex project information was improved and a successful community-outreach program including multi-media and web-streaming was achieved. The availability of the model helps the engineers to reduce the amount of time needed for field visits, which also reduced internal costs. Local governments find themselves often confronted with complex decision processes about larger restructuring projects of Old Town areas and investment projects (e.g. a new shopping center, commercial area, industrial site). To discuss the Pros and Cons of the project, many meetings with the local citizens have to be hold. Using a web-based interactive visualization (e.g. with TerrainView-Web), all parties involved in the decision-making process can fly via internet interactively through the virtual 3D city model. When a new road construction was planned, TerrainView-Web helped to demonstrate and visualize the possible alternatives (variant planning) on the Internet. The impact on the natural landscape becomes most clear in the 3D virtual representation of the situation. Besides the terrain, image data and 3D city models it is also possible to show various 3D objects like bridges (Figure 6). Once an investment project like a commercial area is realized, it is important for the operator of the site to acquire customers, e.g. companies searching for a new office location. The operator may be a real estate com-

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pany or a local government. As it is not only the price that governs the decision making process but also aspects like connectivity to public transport, local infrastructure and the location of the site in a larger context, TerrainView-Web is an excellent web-based platform for business development and business location marketing. The Benefit of 3D Being able to use standard airborne data such as stereo aerial/satellite imagery or laser scanner data to create accurate, detailed and textured 3D city models efficiently, the next step into the third dimen- Figure 6: 3D Scene with planned highway with bridge. Courtesy of CyberCity AG, FMM GmbH, ViewTec AG. sion for a number of applications like urban planning, GIS analysis, engineering, architecture and also city marketing, tourism can be taken. Besides the cost-efficient data generation feasibility and availability, software solutions like TerrainView-Globe (ViewTec AG) and ArcGlobe (ESRI Inc.) as well as web-based solutions like TerrainView-Web allow the visualization of 3D datasets combined with further information and its analysis to fulfill the requirements of GIS users and to set the foundation for 3D in a number of industries. This makes 3D not only highly beneficial in urban planning, but also for applications in tourism, telecommunication planning, engineering and architecture, homeland security, game design, real estate management and lots more.

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GEOkomm: Network Activities for Urban Research and Planning of the Urban Environment
P. A. Hecker
GEOkomm networks, Potsdam;, Germany peter.a.hecker@geokomm.net

Abstract Urban planning, particularly environmental planning, has to be based both on precise and reliable spatial data bases and on professional services for data processing and deriving meaningful information from multiple data sets for the respective planning purposes and preparing decisions. City administrations in many cases are unable to provide all these required data and services by their own capabilities; they have to cooperate instead with scientific institutions and with commercial planning bureaus. As in many cases complex analyses and solutions are required instead of the specific narrow-band services which in general are offered by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) or scientific institutions, it can become quite complicated to arrange well-suited service-teams. GEOkomm networks is introduced by this contribution as an example for optimizing cooperation and the required services. Regional cooperation for international services All kinds of data to be applied to spatially related planning purposes, nowadays on the one hand are derived from geo information (such as remote sensing data) and, on the other hand, are developed to new digital data sets; online digital maps or even 3D-animations have developed to the most common form of presenting planning contents. Therefore a wide range of specialized software empowering so called GIS-technology is used. All kinds of data processing and management of voluminous datasets are developed and performed by GIStechnology. Predominantly small and medium enterprises (beside some research institutes) are active in this field. SMEs, in general, are too small for successfully offering their specialized services on their own on the market which is dominated by big complex projects on the international level. The resulting problem can be overcome by two approaches: - Cooperation with the existing research institutions in the region; - Cooperation of several SMEs which are able to support each other by offering complementary services of different profile and thus covering the whole chain of value adding contributions to the final product or complex service. In the most complex environment of metropolitan districts and other forms of urban sprawl all kinds of planning procedures require rapidly changing, in some parts very particular, in other parts most comprehensive or most accurate and detailed information in order to meet specific planning objectives, to enable participation of citizens and interest groups and thus to support political decision finding. The resulting challenges are sometimes surprising and often their handling has to take place under extreme pressure of schedules. An administration run by the state or a municipality, only based on its own capacities, normally cannot cope with such requirements. It will need support both for rising research need and for coping with large unexpected workloads. Under the given economic restrictions individual small research institutions or planning enterprises can neither keep prepared to offer the required knowledge and experience as comprehensive and as well managed as demanded at any time, nor are they sufficiently flexible to cope with larger assignments, if they are coming in surprisingly and have to be carried out under pressure of time and towards very specific solutions. The possible problems as reported above may be solved quickly and flexibly by a coordinating centre which is funded by a certain number of individual institutions and enterprises, if this coordination centre is in possession of comprehensive information on the available technical and knowledge capacities in the respective region. This centre is able to work without much staff of its own. The GEOkomm networks, as an example, claim the ability to coordinate and manage all geo information requirements at least in the metropolitan region of Berlin. Common access to geo information, which is standardized among the network members, defines the most important connecting element between the member institutions. As a combined and connected framework or team GEOkomm networks are strong enough to even compete on the international market (HECKER, 2005). Network partners and their profiles Under the umbrella of GEOkomm networks enterprises and research institutions have joint together in order to cover the whole chain of value adding contributions from data acquisition by satellite, aircraft or field suvey

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up to the final product or service which meets all the requirements of the customer or the final user of the provided services. At present most important customers are public administrations in Germany in charge of planning tasks such as urban planning or landscape planning. Another group of final users of the offered services are big companies in the real estate business, power or water supply etc. The profiles of the cooperating enterprises, guided by GEOkomm, are characterized predominantly by remote sensing, data analyses and development of software to be applied for optimizing geo data infrastructure. The four most important highlights of competence are advertised under the slogans "geotainment", "remote sensing", "GALILEOTM" (navigation) and "SDI" (spatial data infrastructure). Internal working groups are active in these fields (GEOKOMM, 2006). Research activities Although GEOkomm networks does not exist longer than 2 years, member firms successfully performed joint research projects. At present one more ambitious project has to be emphasized which is at its starting point and which will investigate the use of hyperspectral remote sensing data for planning purposes. Together with the big research institutes GeoForschungszentrum Potsdam (GFZ) and Deutsches Zentrum fr Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) some participating SMEs are developing methods to be used for environmental monitoring purposes in urban areas. More detailed information on GEOkomm, its intentions and its work will be presented in the introduction poster to the Urbenvironcongress and its joint exhibition. Some of the GEOkomm member institutions will present papers on the typical application of geo information for urban research and urban environmental planning purposes during the congress. References
P. A. HECKER (editor), 2005: Wertschpfung in der Geoinformationswirtschaft. Berlin/Potsdam, 104 pp GEOkomm networks, 2006: Knowledge - Experience - Ideas. Information leaflet, 15 pp

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The Use of Geomatic Techniques in the Management of Land Partitioning and Occupation
E. U. Rosa1 & L. Pimentel da Silva2
1

City of Rio de Janeiro Council, Brazil, 2 University of State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil erosa@pcrj.rj.gov.br

Abstract The urban process over the last decades has been characterized by the growth in population and the number of new buildings. In the 50s, one third of the world population dwelled in cities. Nowadays, half of this population resides in large urban centers and in Brazil it has not been any different from this. Presently, about 80% of the Brazilian population lives in cities. The growth of impermeable areas and their influence on urban environment, specially on hydrologic phenomena has led to increasing likelihood of floods and the dissemination of diseases carried by water, thus increasing the demand for technologies that can solve the new paradigms on land occupation. This paper presents a contribution to the management of urban occupation with the aid of geomatic techniques. The methodology used involves the application of "overlay" techniques and the establishment of topologic relationships between the basic information levels such as urban zones, lots, public places and buildings. The use of these basic information layers has enabled us to survey the number of pieces of land that do not comply with the urban legislation. The methodology presented here consists of a tool for the management of land occupation and optimises the use of conventional methods of command and control. The water basin of Jacarepagu Lowland, a peripheral urban area and Rio de Janeiro's expansion area, has been chosen as case study. The results indicate that 70,27% of the lots in the Rio Morto catchment are not in compliance with the legislation for the area. The methodology developed in this study has objectively and clearly stated operational aspects, thus enabling its use in other areas. Introduction Since mid XX century, there has been a steady increase in the world's population, nowadays estimated in 6,5 billion people with about 48.7% living in urban areas, in contrast to 29% in 1950. It is expected that by the year 2008, 50% of the world's population will be living in urban centers (UN, 2005). When analyzed as a whole, 11 countries house about 4 billion people (61.5%), and all of them have at present high urbanization rates in their territories. They are: China, India, the USA, Indonesia, Brazil, Pakistan, the Russian Federation, Bangladesh, Nigeria, Japan and Mexico. In this group, eight countries are considered developing countries. In Latin America, the average urbanization rate is of 76.14%, and in Brazil this process has affected the whole country, since 80% of it is population now resides in urban centers, in comparison to the 36.2% in 1950 (MINISTRY OF CITIES, 2006). Urbanization disturbs the ecological balance causing qualitative and quantitative environmental changes, mainly to the water resources. In this context, the imperviousness resulting from urbanization leads to a sensible reduction in the infiltration rates, thus decreasing water storage in the aquifers and consequently affecting the baseflow. Runoff is intensified, increasing in speed, frequency and magnitude the stream peek flow, occasionally resulting in floods. The uncontrolled population growth may contribute to qualitative and quantitative water resources exhaustion. Urbanization also implies changes to river courses and the bottoms of valleys which are gradually covered by roads and other urban equipment, leading to the siltation of plains and the higher frequence of floods. Additionally, urbanization contributes to a change in the precipitation amount, a rise in temperature, changes to the micro-climate and to the spreading of some diseases (SCHUELER, 1994; PIMENTEL DA SILVA et al., 2005). Although the legislation that regulates land partitioning and occupation has existed in the city of Rio de Janeiro since mid XIX century, this legislation has been inefficient, due to the dynamic character of the urbanization process. Despite the body of rules prescribed by the government that regulates over various aspects of urbanization configuration process with preventive measures (urban plans, master plans, urban development plans, etc.), corrective measures (re-ordainment-programmes such as Favela-Bairro [turning slums into districts]) and effective measures (policies to provide housing and infrastructure), these often reveal the contradictory complexity of their norms and regulations, involving conflicting planning concepts and thus being systematically disrespected by social agents. They also show a historical lack of social concern clearly expressed in the several models of urban management carried out in the city. Only recently has this issue begun to be addressed. Therefore, it is absolutely essential that, not only in Brazil but in the world, the demand for efficiency in urban planning and management processes, takes into consideration the different social, economic, political and environmental vectors. On the other hand, the success of this process is closely related to the possibility

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of capturing, assessing the consistency, classifying, storing and analysing spatial-time data derived from the process itself, as well as the correct availability of this information and, if necessary, its immediate correction, to maximize the efficiency of the planning process and management. In this context, the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are in line with the new paradigm. The GIS's are interactive computer based systems that use data and models to identify and solve spatial-time problems. Additionally, as the GIS's analyse and cross the compiled data to graphically represent the spatial-time phenomena, they provide greater accuracy in the decision making process (MALCZEWSKI, 1999). To this purpose, this article aims to present a methodology that encompasses the systematic assessment of the urban zoning and occupation, integrating it to the environmental planning and management, particularly that of water resources. The methodology presented allows for the monitoring of the urban process, with constant data supply and update, as well as fast combination, analysis and spatial visualization of the available data, so as to contribute to the decision making process in the urban environment. Additionally, this methodology allows interface with other similar urban systems, such as IPTU1 and licensing systems. Methodology The methodological approach suggested here uses digital cartographic basis on cadastral scale of the area under study, stored in a database, and includes: (i) a representation of the urban zoning plan and its respective sub zones; (ii) a representation of the information plan on the lots, as well as the building plan with its respective polygons designed, that is, with identification and area attributes; (iii) the creation of access route plans, such as highways, roads and streets. The determination of the value of the lot areas and buildings has been made based on the respective digital representations projected on the horizontal plan. Based on the information plans it is proceeded to establish the relevant topographic relationships between the lot plans and the urban building plans, in accordance with the zoning legislation. After establishing the relevant relations, the next stage is to enter the data in the data bank with the records related to the buildings in each lot, together with the total area projected for each building in its respective lot. As this is a computer based operation carried out in the database, when relating the area occupied, expressed in the horizontal projection of the buildings, to the area in each lot, an occupation rate is calculated, thus producing a theme based information plan representing the lots in the area under study according to their occupation rate. This plan is classified according to the occupation percentage rate in relation to the zone/sub zone where the lot is located, thus allowing for a spatial visualization of the lots which are not in accordance with the indices established in the legislation. Results The methodology presented here was applied to the case study of the Morto River catchment with 9,4 km of drainage area in Jacarepagu, an area in expansion in the city of Rio de Janeiro (Figure 1). Currently, about 12% of the catchment area is occupied by dwellings, restaurants, recreational areas and a water park. There are also some industries in the area, especially pharmaceuticals. Regarding the zoning (Law n 322 of 3rd March 1976 Partitioning and Occupation in Jacarepagu), there are special zones 1 and 5, or ZE-1 and ZE5, in the catchment area. The legislation for ZE-1 does not allow for the parcelling or route planning, except in the case of subdividing lots which have at least 1000 m and are abutting existing public places. In the case of the ZE-5, there is a subdivision in A-23, A45A, A-45B2 . The legislation regulates the application of index-based criteria, such as Minimum Recommended Lot Area, Area Usage Index (AUI), Total Building Area (TBA) and also Occupation Rate (OR). The Occupation Rate (OR) index directly reflects the percentage of the lot area occupied by the building in the horizontal projection and is, therefore, an important tool for the zoning management and occupation of urban areas. This index can also be used as an indicator of the imperviousness of the catchment area. The digital mapping in a 1/2000 scale was adopted for these studies (IPP, 2004) and ArcGis (ESRI) system, together with Microsoft Access were used to generate and manipulate Figure 1: Localization of Morto River Catchment, Jacarepagu City of Rio de Janeiro - Brazil the plans of information. After applying the pro190

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posed methodology, a total of 156 out of 222 lots were identified, or 70,27%, presented OR values not complying with urban legislation for the study area. In Figure 2, the non-complying lots were represented in red. A greater percentage of irregular lots is found in the zone/sub zone ZE-5/A-45B, where there is a greater number of residential lots, as well as middle class condominiums. The lots located in the sub zone A-23 were not taken into consideration because the area related to this zoning is very small in comparison to the total catchment area, and does not have any lots. Conclusion This paper presented a methodology based on geomatic techniques to control urban occupation integrating it to water resources management. The methodology involves mathematical operations from digital thematic maps that result in the information plans about the occupation rates in the lots. Furthermore, a final thematic map can be generated pointing out the lots, which are not complying with the urban legislation. This methodology was demonstrated through its application in a case study on Morto river catchment area in Jacarepagu, an area in expansion in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It was identified that 70,27% of the lots located in the Morto River catchment area were not complying with the current urban legislation. It Figure 2: Lots Not in Compliance with the Occupation Rate is important to emphasize that this methodology (OR) for Morto River Catchment Area does not intend to replace the existing mechanisms of command and control, but to act as an extra tool to increase the precision in the decision making process, integrating both urban and water resources management. The proposed methodology does not only present the catchment as an area of integrated urban and water resource planning, but also allows for scenario simulations concerning both urban occupational growth and water resource studies, especially by simulating the effects of imperviousness on the stream flow chart on the urban flood control studies. Finally, the methodology created enables a greater interface with other similar urban systems such as IPTU and licensing systems. References
UN - United Nations Department of economic and Social Affairs. Population Division (2006). World Urbanization Prospects: The 2005 Revision. Working Paper No ESA/P/WP/200 MINISTRY OF CITIES, National Environmental Sanitation Secretary - Territory Management and Integrated Urban Waters. Cooperation Brazil-Italy in Environmental Sanitation. Braslia, 2005, 270 p (in Portuguese). IPP - Municipal Urban Institute Pereira Passos. Database (armazm de dados). Socio-economics and mapping information for City of Rio de Janeiro. Available in: http://www.armazemdedados.rio.rj.gov.br/princ_int.htm, Acess in: 14 set. 2000. MALCZEWSKI, J.,GIS and Multicriteria Decision Analysis. New York, John Wiley & Sons, 1999. PIMENTEL DA SILVA, L; KAUFFMANN, M. O. & ROSA, E.U. 2005. Urban Growth and Life Quality: Application of Indicators in Integrated Water and Urban Planning. In: Seventh IAHS Scientific Assembly-Sustainable Water Management Solutions for Large Cities - Red Book. Foz do Iguau, PR, Brazil. SCHUELER, T.R. 1994. The importance of imperviousness. Watershed Protection Techniques, 1(3):100-111.

________________________________________________ 1 IPTU - Urban Housing and Land Tax. 2 In the specific case of the OR for sub zone A-45A, the same values apply for residential areas, regardless the fact that they are for one or more families, as well as for commercial areas, that means 30% of the lot area. However, for the sub zone A-45B the use is also residential, again, for one or more families, but the value is 10% of the lot area. Still in the same context, for the sub zone A-23, it is established a 30% lot area occupation rate for residential and commercial use.

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Evaluation Model for Socio-economic Sustainability


Eduardo Ercolani Saldanha, Liane da Silva Bueno & Marcus Polette
Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil lianebueno@gmail.com

Abstract One of the biggest difficulties related to environmental assessment is understanding the dynamics of the environment in which one is working. Many studies are currently being carried out in the field of sustainable development, including those which deal with tools and methodologies for evaluating the sustainability of land occupation processes. However, data available on the social, economic, ecological, political, environmental and institutional realities of Brazilian municipalities show a low correlation with the principles of integrated management. This has made it difficult to formulate environmental plans and programs which address the most urgent priorities of local communities. For this reason, extensive research was carried out on the sustainable development indicators used by the United Nations, as well as on corresponding indicators used at national, state and municipal levels. This research served toward understanding the meaning and application of such indicators for the stakeholders involved in configuring the new master plan for the city of Garopaba, A town located in the state of Santa Catarina Estate, south Brazil. The practical result of this process was the creation of an evaluation model for socio-environmental sustainability, presented in this paper. The model is based on what is effectively measured through the identification of "pressure", "state" and "response of governance" causality factors, which best represent the circumstances observed in the municipality. It is hoped that this initiative will promote the intersectorial and institutional integration of the municipality of Garopaba, and guide the decision-making process in the quest for common objectives. Key words: Sustainable Development; Socio-environmental indicators; Decision-making. Introduction The study of natural and social dynamics and the processes of socio-environmental degradation makes it plain to see that understanding the environmental management of urban spaces and regional development needs to be expanded and reconstructed. This includes: the re-evaluation of the actual concept of urban management; the power structures of local stakeholders engaged in the process of searching for adequate solutions; the public policies in force; techno-scientific interventions; the use of communication tools; the role of social institutions; and community experience in relation to the social and economic use of natural resources. To this end, a common reference system is required which is able to interpret a series of measurements according to their level of significance for the system as a whole; which in turn would make it possible to determine their degree of sustainability. However, given the size and complexity of this objective, a denominator must be created in order to obtain the degree of vulnerability of a situation in the most simple and objective way. The work presented in this paper purports to structure quantitative and qualitative data within a context of analysis that takes into account economic, social, environmental and institutional aspects in relation to a determined geographical space. The creation of an evaluation model for socio-environmental sustainability should be grounded on the principles of participative management methods, the integration of environmental concerns with political economics, the promotion of appropriately directed public policies, and the mitigation of land use conflicts. This will enable the making of fundamental decisions and the promotion of actions which will guide a given locality, city or region in the definition of its strategic and sustainable goals and objectives. Methodology In order to reach the proposed objectives, enable the reader to undertake a critical analysis and apply our evaluation model of socio-environmental sustainability, an inductive, descriptive exploratory delimitation was chosen, via qualitative analysis of transdisciplinary empirical data. The proposal for this model was constructed upon the requisites established in Chapter 40 of Agenda 21, "Information for Decision-Making", as guide for identifying the principal socio-economic characteristics and related problems of a given geographical space. This type of identification facilitates the analysis of environmental aspects and the relation these have to institutional issues. Due to the need to use scientifically valid parameters adjusted to the political system and relevant to the management process, we adopted the "dimensions of sustainability" approach used by the UN Commission for Sustainable Development. This approach was adapted to: the principal causal factors identified in the municipality of Garopaba (pressures caused by humans as well as by nature); the state of the environment;

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Eduardo Ercolani Saldanha et al.: Evaluation Model for Socio-economic Sustainability

Figure 1: Application scheme of the evaluation model of socio-environmental sustainability.

the state of reference as proposed by national and international literature and identified by the local community; and the respective responses of government institutions. In order to adhere to the principle of legitimacy in environmental planning, a participatory process was applied In local meeting addressing the municipalitys urban master plan. The issues raised for discussion were analyzed according to their category within the scopes of pressure, state and or response, as perceived by community representatives and specialists from Garopaba City Hall. Figure 01 to follow illustrates the application of the model. Table 01 below shows the indicators proposed. For each causality factor, there should be a specific group of environmental indicators that correspond to its characteristics, or is related to its two neighboring factors. The "pressure" indicators provide a measurement of the causes of change in the state of sustainable development, be it positive or negative. We can group as pressure indicators all of the human activities that affect ecosystems and generally are not under control. Examples of these are the impacts of tourists during summer holidays, and real estate speculation. "State" indicators provide a synthesis of the status or the health of the environment in question. They are a measurement of the situation of sustainable development or a particular aspect of it, at a specific point in time. Qualitative and quantitative indicators such as security and sewage treatment can be grouped into this category. "Response" indicators (also called governance response indicators) provide a measurement of the willingness and efficacy of society to be able to come up with solutions to the "pressure" indicators and their respective impacts. This can be done via policy options, interventions and other responses that attempt to correct the changes in "state", in efforts to achieve sustainable development. Conclusion We highlight that, as a fundamental means to achieving the intended objectives, the diagnosis conducted should be adjusted to specific demands and should focus on necessity and sufficiency, as well as on time and resource limitations. In this light, the use of the data modeling method proposed in this paper was based upon the information obtained through research conducted in conjunction with Garopaba's City Hall, the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), the Institute of Applied Economic Research (IPEA), as well as the analysis of national and international publications. This research can be considered to present a review of the state-of-the-art of the topic being analyzed, because it proposes a methodological structure for socio-environmental evaluation associated with a group of selected indicators based on their relevance to the local, state or national context. Although the degree of participation is limited, the proposed evaluation model of socio-environmental sustainability can be classified as a so-called "mixed approach", since the concept of the model is oriented predominantly by specialists. However, the level of significance attributed the indicators of pressure, state and response of governance can be observed directly in this instrument by the stakeholders involved in the decision-making process, and these stakeholders also ponder the results. It is hoped that the model presented and the selected socio-environmental indicators will be suitably used in the analysis of the current situation and future tendencies of the municipality of Garopaba. It is also hoped that this model could help to guide the government in its management of public policies at all levels of man-

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agement and social participation, including the techno-scientific community and the diverse levels of political representation of Brazil. References
BRASIL. Programa Nacional de Amostra Domiciliar. Censo Demogrfico. Disponvel em http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/estatistica/populacao/pnad>. BELLEN, H. Van. Indicadores de sustentabilidade. Ed. FGV. Rio de janeiro, 2005. DAHL, Arthur. Sustainability indicators. International Institute of Sustainable Development. <http://www.iisd.org/cgsdi/members.asp> HAMMOND, A. Environmental indicators. World Resources Institute. http://www.wri.org/pubs/pubs_description.cfm?pid=2516>. UNITED NATIONS. Commission of Sustainable Development-CSD. <http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/natlinfo/indicators/isd.htm. WORLD BANK. World Development Indicators. <http://devdata.worldbank.org/wdi2006/contents/Section3.htm>. Table 1: Proposal of indicators of socio-environmental sustainability
PROPOSAL OF INDICATORS OF SOCIO -ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTENTABILITY ACCORDING TO PRESSURE-STATE -RESPONSE CRITERIA

<

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Workinggroup 3 Water in the urban environment

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A decision support system for planning decentral rain water management measures in urban zones of Korea
Kyung Ho Kwon and Heiko Diestel
Technical University of Berlin, AquaEcoMundi Germany kwonkhberlin@hotmail.com

Abstract A decision support system was developed with the program language "Visual Basic 6" consisting of two simulation packages. The first package assists in identifying the appropriate water management strategy for a given region under the given natural and infrastructural conditions. The following items are dealt with in this package: climatic, soil water, energy and radiation balances, quantitative balances of rain water use, of the urban waters and of the infiltration structures as well as the calculation of the peak discharge and of the corresponding dimensions of sewage conduits. The second package assists in determining the specific combination of technical measures and in dimensioning the relevant engineering structures for settlements in the different regions of Korea. A combination of the following measures was chosen here: the use as well as the infiltration of water from rains, the retention with a supplemental cistern for water use and buffer capacity, properly timed evacuation of the cisterns with pumps in connection with weather forecasts and provision of energy saving discharge procedures. Two modules for finding the best dimensions and characteristics of the engineering structures are available in the decision support system: with the dimension/effect-module one can simulate the hydrologic effects of engineering structures with predetermined dimensions and characteristics. With the effect/dimension-module one can define the desired objectives and determine those combinations of engineering structures with various properties with which the defined aims can be achieved, evaluated by a cost/benefit analysis. 1 Introduction For the development of urban areas the implementation of decentral water management measures with the aims of more sustainable water balances, reduced sewage discharges and improved city climate is of high significance(Diestel.2004, Diestel and Schmidt, 1998). In this context, adequate reactions to the water inputs from rain storms are essential. The traditional "pipe-and-filter" planning philosophy is too weak a basis for tackling the issues of water supply and disposal of megacities and smaller settlements. A decision support system ("DSS") is offered here to assist in the complex task of finding the optimal combination of decentral rain water management measures ("drwm"). It consists of two simulation packages and allows, in the second package, the operation with two modules, depending on the planning objective. 2 Description of the decision support system 2.1 Simulation package I: Identification of the appropriate water management strategy This package operates on a daily data basis and has six components with which an optimal combination of drwm-strategies as well as the potential water use, evaporation and percolation can be identified (Tab. 1). 2.2 Simulation package II: Determining the specific combination of technical measures and dimensioning the relevant engineering structures In most areas of Korea very high precipitation depths and intensities as well as long rain storms occur in the summer, often accompanied by typhoons. Water scarcities frequently prevail during spring. Thus, there is an urgent need for saving potable water by adequate water use strategies and for reducing peak flows by retention and infiltration measures. Simulation Package II, which works on a one-hour time interval, simulates scenarios of installation and use Fig.1) Combination of different drwm-structures designed to achieve these aims. The technical drwm-system simulated consists of two cisterns (A and B) and a per- Fig. 1: Combination of different drwm-structures

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Tab. 1: Simulation Package I: Components and description

Component Input data Climatic balance Precipitation., air temperature. (min/max), relative humidity, wind speed, radiation, catchment and green area Data for climatic balance, soil texture, rooting depth Processing FAO Penman-Monteith method to estimate ETo (reference evapotranspiration)

Output data and Application (Determination resp. estimation of: ) Monthly climatic balance for the catchment /green area ratio. (the water balances resulting with different vegetation types and covers) Daily ETc under soil water stress conditions, water content and percolation in the root zone (the required soil textures for greened areas under given water balance situations) Daily net radiation and latent heat (the modification of the energy balance by vegetation) Daily and monthly water balance, sum of the used rainwater and supplementary potable water supplied (the water balances of rain water use facilities) Daily Ew, overflow and amount of supplementary potable water supplied (the areal demand for urban waters and their catchments) maximum volume, dimensions and quantity of overflow (the optimal volumes and dimensions of infiltration structures for the purpoe of disposal of runoff through retention and infiltration)

Soil water balance

daily soil water balance models of ATV-DVWK and FAO

Energy and radiation balances Quantitative balances of rain water use

Data for soil water balance

Quantitative balances of the urban waters

Precipitation, Rainwater,requirements for the households, number of connected households, catchment and green area Precipitation, data for climat. balance, water surface area, catchment area Probable precipitation, infiltration rate of soil, dimensions of the structures

Calculation of radiation balance, which is equivalent to evapotranspired water. Time distribution of required rainwater, quantitative balances of rain water use with optional number of households, catchment area and tank size Ew Penman: Evaporation from water surface

Quantitative balances of the infiltration structures

Calculation of necessary volume for disposal of runoff, which arises in each duration and return period of rainfall

colation block (see Fig.1). Cistern A is combined with the rain water use installation and has an overflow into cistern B. Cistern B has an outflow at the lower edge, through which rain water exits into the canal, so that potential retention volume can be provided without energy input. The diameter of this exit outflow can be varied. When also cistern B is full, rain water flows onto the percolation block, where it can infiltrate. In order to avoid over-dimensioning of the structures and thus to reduce construction costs, two emergency pumps are integrated into both cisterns which are connected to the flood alarm system. They start pumping at the alarm level which corresponds to expected precipitations of 80 or 120 mm within 12 hours. Further components of the system are sketched in Fig. 1.
Tab. 2: Input data: Dimensions of the structures

Structure Siltation tank Cistern A Cistern B Daily storage tank Percolation block of exit outflow Setting of the emergency pump Flood warning system

Width (m) 2 4 4 2 4

Length (m) 2 6 6 2 6

Depth (m) 1 3 3 2 3
3

Vol. (m3) 4 72 Minimum depth:0.4m 72 8 Minimum depth:0.3m 64.8 Pore vol.0.9 4 mm 3 Cistern B: 6 m /hr

Cistern A:

6 m /hr

Alarm level I :more than 80 mm within 12 ho urs

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Kyung Ho Kwon and Heiko Diestel: A decision support system for planning decentral rain water management

2.2.1 The dimension/effect-module In this module the hydrologic and hydraulic effects of differently dimensioned structures are simulated on a one-hour time basis. The dimensions of structures given in Table 2 serve as input. The results for August 24, 2003 are shown in Fig. 2: water level changes in cisterns A and B, percolation block as well as intensities of in/outflow. Tab.3 shows the simulation results for the whole year 2003.

Fig. 2: Simulation results: dynamic responses in the technical structures Tab. 3: Simulation results: values for the year 2003

Rainwater balance Total precipitation water use Infiltration Outflow into sewage Through emergency pump Exit outflow 2461.02 m /a 1676.05 m (68%) 3 111.4 m (5%) 3 673.57 m (27%) 3 451.42 m (18%) 3 222.15 m (9%)
3 3

Water use balance The total demanded 3 Water except 5429.64 m /a drinking Used rain water Potable water input 1676.05 m (31%) 3 3753.59 m (69%)
3

2.2.2 The effect/dimension-module From Table 4 it can be seen that with few variants of the dimensions of four technical elements and of the warning system, a large number of system variants arises.
Tab. 4: Combination of technical variants with different dimensions for simulation scenarios

Structure Dimensions

Cistern A Depth (T: m) Cross sectional 2 area (Sj: m ) S1,,S5 =1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3% of A E

Cistern B Depth (T: m) Cross sectional 2 area (Sj: m ) S1,,S5 =1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3% of A E

Percolation block Depth (Ti: m) T1 , T2 , T3 Cross sectional area (Sj: m2 ) S1,,S5 =1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3% of A E

Variants 5 (T x Sj) 5 (T x Sj) 2 AE : Catchment area(1223.3 m ) Dimensions of the structures (one example) 3 3 Nr. 6750 110.1 m 110.1 m 2 2 (3m x 36.7m ) (3m x 36.7m )

Flood warning system Alarm level I und II: within 12 hours more than 80 or 120 mm precipitation. Emergency pump settings 0, 7.2, 14.4 m 3 /hr 15 (Ti x Sj = 3 x 5) 3 2x3 Total variants : 5 x 5 x 3 x 5 x 3 x 2 x 3 = 6750 184.5 m 2 (5m x 36.7m )
3

Exit outflow Diameter 4 mm 8 mm 12 mm

12mm

Alarm level II: 3 14.4 m /hr

The simulation of the effects of these 6750 variants is carried out consecutively.

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Fig. 3: Evaluation of the effects of technical variants

The hydrologic and hydraulic effects of these variants are classified and plotted according to criteria which can be recognized on the ordinates and abscissas in Fig. 3. For the year 2003 (total water demand except potable water 2938.99 m3, annual precipitation 2461.29 m3 , maximum inflow intensity 78.9 m3/h) the variant Nr. 6750 demonstrates that a technical system with a high degree of rain water use can have an unacceptably low proportion of yearly percolation. But this variant can have a quite satisfactory capacity to achieve a low maximum outflow intensity relative to a high inflow intensity. From the data base, lists of systems with specific characteristics according to the three criteria mentioned can be extracted. Listings based on the cost/benefit analysis can be produced (Fig.4). The data base required can be produced by the user of the DSS. References

Fig. 4: Listing of the variants according to the cost/benefitanalysis

Diestel, H.. 2004. Dezentrale Abflussbewirtschaftung- Eine wichtige Aufgabe der Gegenwart. In Space and Theories: eInterviews with Distinguisched Scholars. Hrsg. KRIHS (Korea Research Institute for Human Settlements). ISBN 89460-3350-9 93300. Seoul Korea. Diestel, H. und M. Schmidt. 1998. Wasserwirtschaftliche Vision: Die abflusslose Innenstadt : ein richtiger Ansatz? In: Senatsverwaltung fr Stadtentwicklung, Umweltschutz und Technologie: Zukunft Wasser, Tagungsband zum Symposium zur Nachhaltigkeit im Wasserwesen vom 17.-19.6.98. This project was financed by the Korean Institute of Construction Technology.

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The Environmental Impacts of Decentralized Wastewater Treatment: Mitigation Measures and Applicability in Developing Countries
May A. Massoud1, Joumana A. Nasr1,2, Akram Tarhini3,4, Jawaria Tareen1
Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, American University of Beirut, Lebanon Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg, Germany Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Beirut Arab University, Lebanon 4 Council for Development and Reconstruction, Beirut, Lebanon mm35@aub.edu.lb
1 2 3

Abstract Decentralized wastewater treatment is based on the concept of treating, disposing or reusing the wastewater near the generation point. The failure of such systems is probable if not well designed and maintained. Any failure will cause negative environmental impacts. This paper sheds light on the common environmental impacts of decentralized systems. Moreover, it discusses some mitigation and more precisely preventive measures that could be taken to avoid such failures. In addition, the applicability of such systems in the developing world taking Lebanon as a case study is assessed. Decentralized Wastewater Treatment Wastewater treatment, in general, varies between an entirely centralized system to an entirely decentralized system with the cluster system in between. The centralized systems are usually publicly owned. They serve large communities and collect and treat large volumes of wastewater. The decentralized systems, more precisely the on site systems, are considered as alternatives to the conventional centralized systems (USEPA, 2004). They serve individual homes and buildings. Contrarily to the centralized systems, the decentralized ones treat and dispose or reuse the wastewater near the generation point (USEPA, 2004). As for the cluster systems, these can be considered as either centralized or decentralized. They serve more than one household and up to a 100 or sometimes more (USEPA, 2004). They are mostly used where the soil conditions are not favorable for On-Site treatment. Wastewater is transported from the households to the common treatment and disposal facility (Wilderer and Schreff, 2000). Environmental Impacts, Mitigation and Preventive Measures The failure of any type of decentralized wastewater treatment system is probable. Any deficiency in the treatment system, especially the conventional decentralized system such as septic tanks and subsurface infiltration systems may lead to various environmental impacts. These impacts are commonly related to the leaching of any of the typical wastewater pollutants. The Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), if not well removed, can cause low dissolved oxygen concentrations in surface water, taste and odor in well water and leaching of soils and rock into ground and surface water (USEPA, 2002). The Total Suspended Solids (TSS) can clog the soil infiltrative surface and if discharged in surface water, it can harm the aquatic life through the formation of sludge layers (USEPA, 2002). Nitrogen in raw wastewater is in the form of organic matter or ammonia (USEPA, 2002). The bacteria transform the ammonia into nitrites and then nitrate. The nitrates are major groundwater pollutants and can cause, if greater than 10 mg/l, methemoglobinimia in children and pregnancy problems (USEPA, 2002). Moreover, nitrogen being an important nutrient can cause excessive algal growth that can block the sunlight and thus affect aquatic life. As algae die, the bacteria decomposes them using oxygen, thus reducing the available oxygen in surface water. Phosphorous, is another pollutant of concern from onsite wastewater treatment system. Being an important nutrient, alike nitrogen, phosphorous can cause eutriphication and oxygen depletion in surface water (USEPA, 2002). As for the pathogens, different bacteria, viruses, protozoa and parasites can be present in wastewater effluent. Various health problems may result from these pathogens through ingestion, respiration or contact. Mitigating the problem is such a hard issue because it usually requires design or site adjustments, if minor repairs would not serve the purpose. For example the problem of nitrates in groundwater could be solved through denitrification and denitrification relates mainly to the site soil characteristics and the location of the system in the soil profile (USEPA, 2002). As for the phosphorus in groundwater, the solution could mainly be through retardation of phosphorus contamination. This retardation is related to the site soil characteristics and the distance between the discharge point and the water. The pathogens are of no difference. Reducing pathogens in groundwater is affected by the site soil characteristics and designed hydraulic rate (USEPA, 2002). As such, avoiding such a failure through preventive measures is much more efficient than any mitigation measure. Preventing the pollution caused by any treatment system could be done through a proper technology and design selection process as well as a proper management strategy (USEPA, 2002). Deciding on a

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good technology is deciding on the "Most Appropriate Technology". The pillars of the "Most Appropriate Technology" are the affordability and the appropriateness (Grau, 1996). The former relates to the economic conditions of a community while the latter relates to the environmental and social conditions. From the affordability point of view, the community should be able to finance the implementation, operation and maintenance of the system. Moreover, the efficiency of the technology in relation to its cost is a major factor (Ho, 2005). From the appropriateness point of view, environmental as well as social factors should be considered. Environmentally, the system and design chosen should conserve the environmental quality and resources (Ho, 2005). This could be quite guaranteed through a thorough evaluation of the carrying capacity of the receiving environment and a study of the wastewater itself (Jantrania, 1998). In what concerns the receiving environment, the surface and groundwater should be checked, this is in addition to the ecosystem, the geology, and the soil quality. As for the wastewater parameters, the source should be known, in addition to the daily average flow, the peak flow, the characteristics and the seasonal variability in terms of quality and quantity (Jantrania, 1998). Socially, the system should be convenient to the skills and knowledge of the local community, especially when dealing with developing countries and small communities. For a better management and maintenance of any system, the local habits, lifestyle, and cultural heritage should be fully respected and the public acceptance considered (Tsagarakis, Mara and Angelakis, 2001). An appropriate management strategy is another vital preventive measure. The main elements of a successful strategy are the clear specification of goals, public education, dissemination of technical guidelines for the people responsible for the site, record keeping, periodic program evaluation, effective legal enforcement and continuous funding and regular maintenance (USEPA, 2002). Maintenance should mainly focus on avoiding hydraulic failure of the system, especially in the case of onsite systems. As such, mainly the system's holding capacity should be respected. The pumping of the tank should be scheduled or else the sludge may accumulate and clog the absorption field. The haphazard alteration of the landscape of infiltration field should be avoided (USEPA, 2002). Applicability in Developing Countries Billions of people all over the world lack access to adequate sanitation. The majority of these are in the developing countries (Ho, 2003). In fact, both centralized and decentralized wastewater treatment systems coexisted over the past years (Wilderer and Schreff, 2000). Despite the fact that the decentralized systems are much more suitable for the developing countries, their use is still very limited (Bakir, 2001). Their applicability in such countries is directly related to the institutional and technical suitability (r). The institutional suitability mainly relates to the managerial and financial aspects. In the developing world, successful planning and management are most often inexistent leading to a high probability of treatment system failure. For decentralized systems the environmental impacts of failure are minimal as compared to centralized systems because of the low population density served by one unit. Moreover, any failure would not affect the whole community as is the case with centralized systems (Bakir, 2001). As such, adopting the decentralized methods for wastewater treatment is more suitable for such weakly planned countries especially if proper planning and management are out of question for a reason or another. As for the cost, the centralized wastewater treatment and management is quite costly. Both the investment and the maintenance costs are relatively high. Therefore, it is unaffordable and consequently unsuitable or inapplicable for low income developing countries (Bakir, 2001). On the other hand, decentralized systems do not require large amounts of money to be installed and maintained. They are systems that do not put a burden on the community because the investment could be gradual. It can take the form of response to demand. Moreover, the most costly component in centralized systems, the network, is less costly for cluster systems and even inexistent for onsite systems. The technical suitability relates mostly to the choice of technology. The choice of technology is one of the very crucial factors that affect the success of the project. All over the world in general, and in developing countries in particular, the choice of technology is not site specific (Volkman, 2003). Many systems are not successful simply because they are copied from Western treatment systems without any consideration for the appropriateness of the technology to the climate, geology, culture and technical skills (Volkman, 2003). Decision makers, engineers and the people are not much comfortable with the implementation of decentralized systems because of the lack of enough knowledge in the fields. As a result of the lack of technical and institutional suitability, many wastewater treatment projects in the developing world were not successful. Untreated wastewater is being discharged to water bodies and agricultural fields (Volkman, 2003). The health and monetary cost of such practices is very high (Volkman, 2003). For example, the Plague epidemic in India, because of wastewater, during the year 1994, resulted in $200 million loss from touristic revenues (Volkman, 2003). In Peru, the government spent on the Cholera epidemic caused by wastewater much more than all what was spent on water and sanitation over the preceding 10 years (Volkman, 2003). 202

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May A. Massoud et al.: The Environmental Impacts of Decentralized Wastewater Treatment

The case of Lebanon Wastewater management is one of the biggest challenges to the Lebanese government. Up to 1998, only about 59% of the housings are connected to a sewerage network (Balamand University/Lebanese University/gGmbH, 2004). Traditional pits which end up discharging wastewater in the groundwater are used in many cities and villages. As such, many groundwater resources are already contaminated. Some improvements have been made regarding the sewerage network and wastewater treatment in some places, but still little is being achieved. It is to be noted that in many cases the network is there but the treatment plant is not and vice versa. The only centralized large scale wastewater treatment plant exist in "Ghadir" (Balamand University/Lebanese University/gGmbH, 2004). The treatment is primary treatment and the discharge goes immediately to the Mediterranean Sea. In recent years some small scale decentralized wastewater treatment plants in rural areas have been constructed and still the majority of the untreated wastewater is being discharged to water bodies. Out of these plants only few are operational. The rest of the plants are either operational but ineffective or abandoned or incomplete or constructed but not commissioned. The failure in the sector is mainly due to the inapplicability of the advanced decentralized systems applied to the managerial and financial situations in the villages as well as the technical suitability. The wastewater management as a whole in Lebanon is very weak and unorganized. Theoretically, the plan of the Lebanese government is based on two fundamental considerations. The first relates to the compliance with the signed convention of protecting the Mediterranean Sea from pollution and the second protecting of inland water sources from pollution. Practically, a lot of bodies are responsible for the wastewater sector and little work is being done. The responsibilities and tasks are vaguely and unclearly divided between the Ministry of Energy and Water, the Ministry of Environment, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Public Health, the Council for Development and Reconstruction, and the municipalities. What adds on the managerial problem is the regulatory issue. No one comprehensive environmental law exists in the country. Specific issues are addressed in sector laws and regulations with no enforcement. As for the standards, minimum water and wastewater standards exist with no guidelines for wastewater reuse in the country (Balamand University/Lebanese University/gGmbH, 2004). Based on the study conducted in three villages of the Al-Chouf Caza in Lebanon, the lack of laws and their implementation was clear. In one village getting rid of wastewater takes place through septic tanks. Unfortunately, no laws concerning emptying the tanks are being implemented. Many tanks infiltrate their content into the soil and others seep on the streets. As for "Mazraat El Chouf", the wastewater is transported to 3 successive ponds far from the village. The raw sewage enters the first pond and follows continuous treatment in successive ponds. The process is natural and is carried out by the action of algae and bacteria. Seepage into the soil and then to the river takes place without any regulatory penalty. These ponds are used simply because the money for a treatment plant is not available. Moreover, unfortunately the use of such system is considered better than the conventional decentralized systems simply because the wastewater is removed from the houses' vicinity. The money for implementation, operation and/or maintenance is not available most of the times. The study conducted in the "Chouf" area assures the issue. A functioning treatment plant exists in "Bchetfine" village. Despite that, the plant suffers from intermittent electrical supply with no stand by generator because of lack of money. Moreover, the money for maintenance is not easily available and the road to the plant is not easy. The municipality is having hard time to get the money needed especially that many villagers are not paying the municipal taxes because of the financial situation in the country as a whole. Moreover, some houses are still not connected to the plant mainly for financial reasons. Furthermore, the technologies used are most often beyond the capabilities of the local people to operate and maintain effectively and efficiently. Instead of using well organized and maintained conventional decentralized systems decision makers go for more complicated decentralized systems such as activated sludge, extended aeration or anaerobic digestion. Moreover, often the NGOs responsible for the project have a low capability to choose the design and supervise the builders. Despite that they do not seek technical advice from an engineer thus leading to a choice of technology which is not successful. As for the maintenance, when the execution is ended, the maintenance role is given to the municipalities which do not have the fund and expertise to do this job. Acknowledgement Special thanks are extended to the Lebanese National Council for Scientific Research (LNCRS) and the American University of Beirut Research Board for funding this research project. References
Bakir, H. (2001). Wastewater management services in water stressed countries: guiding principles and options for sustainable development. The 2nd Asian Conference of Water and Wastewater Management. Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran, 8-9 September.

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Balamand University/Lebanese University/gGmbH, 2004. Prospects of Efficient Wastewater Management and Water Reuse in Lebanon.Country Study Lebanon, Prepared within the Framework of the EMWater Project. Grau, P. (1996). Low cost wastewater treatment. Water Science and Technology, 33 (8), 39-46. Ho, G. (2003). Small water and wastewater systems: pathways to sustainable development? Water Science and Technology, 48 (11-12), 7-14. Ho, G. (2005). Technology for sustainability: the role of onsite, small and community scale technology. Water Science and Technology, 51 (10), 15-20. Jantrania, A. 1998. Integrated planning using on-site wastewater systems. Division of On-Site Sewage and Water Services, Virginia Department of Health. Tsagarakis, K.P., Mara, D.D. and Angelakis, A.N. (2001). Wastewater management in Greece: experience and lessons for developing countries. Water Science and Technology, 44 (6), 163-172. USEPA (United States Agency for International Development), 2004. Valuing Decentralized Wastewater Technologies, A Catalogue of Benefits, Cost, and Economic Analysis Techniques. USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). (2002). On Site Wastewater Treatment Systems Manual (EPA/625/R-00/008). Volkman, S. (2003). Sustainable wastewater treatment and Reuse in urban areas of the developing world. Retrieved December, 2006, from Michigan Technological University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Master's International Program Web Site. Wilderer, P.A and Schreff, D. (2000). Decentralized and centralized wastewater management: a challenge for technology developers. Water Science and Technology, 41 (1), 1-8.

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Sustainable water and sanitation systems in existing housing estates of international cities
Thorsten Schuetze1 & Kyung-Ho Kwon2
1

Technical University Delft, Faculty Architecture, Netherland, 2 Technical University of Berlin, Faculty of Architecture,Germany t.schuetze@tudelft.nl

Keywords: architecture, urbanism, decentralized water systems, ecological sanitation, recycling, remodelling, existing housing estates, Europe, Asia 1. Introduction Beside the well known advantages of central water supply and waste water management systems they also include a lot of disadvantages. The main handicaps of conventional central systems for waste water treatment are that sewage streams with different characteristics and noxiousnesses are mixed and nutrients are eliminated. Leakages in the sewage system, overflows of mixed sewers but also the discharge of treated sewage are leading to the pollution of ground- and surface waters. Sewer systems incur high costs and the lockup of capital for long periods of time even decades and they are not safe against catastrophes. Furthermore, adapting to changing demographic structures, user behaviour, changing precipitation patterns as well as new technologies for sanitation involves high constructive and financial effort. The supply of drinking water also bears significant disadvantages because drinking water only is supplied and a complex system of mains is required. This can lead to high water losses due to leaking pipelines and has a negative impact on the quality of the supplied water, because of pipeline materials, leakages and long holding time. Decentralized systems for sewage treatment and ecological sanitation (ecosan) provide manifold advantages and the possibilities of changes for the positive. They allow the separation of waste water streams with different characteristics (see figure 1), which allow for an efficient treatment and high-quality utilization of nutrients [2]. The protection of ground- and surface water is achieved by the avoidance of waste water, the decentralized treatment of different substances and waste water streams. Figure 1: Disposition of nutrients and percentages of specific The freshwater demand can be reduced by the material flows in relation to the total volume of domestic waste reuse of recycled waste water as service water. water. The percentage is calculated with the average water conBy saving majorly on canalization the construc- sumption of household in Hamburg/ Germany, 117 l per resident tion of alternative water systems only incurs and day and nutrients per resident and day [1]. [3] capital lockup for relatively short periods (<30 years). The systems are adaptable to changing demographic structures, changing precipitation patterns as well as new sustainable technologies for sanitation, and are insusceptible to catastrophes and malfunctions. Furthermore they have the advantage of short pipeline lengths, minimized water losses and close water cycles. [3] The potentials for the application of decentralized sustainable water and sanitation systems in existing buildings for domestic use in the cities Hamburg in Germany and Seoul in Korea are investigated and a sophisticated evaluation according to social, economic and ecological criteria is conducted in the framework of the described research. The results are compared with the common procedure of remodel- Figure 2: Water consumption of standard households and of ling and renovation works and also with the water saving households with different toilet types in Seoul with characteristics and effects of the existing central information about the quantity of specific sewage flows. [3

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systems for drinking water supply and sewage treatment in cities; the differences as well as the potential are shown. To allow the transferability of the results of investigations the housing estates have a high inhabitant density which is above average. In Hamburg it is 13.7 m per inhabitant and 72,774 inhabitants per km, in Seoul it is 15.67 m per inhabitant and 63,797 inhabitants per km. Compared with the average density of the city areas the density in Seoul is 3.2 times higher and in Hamburg is 32 times higher. The floor area ratio (FAR) of the housing in Hamburg is 3.6 (only 10% of all buildings in Hamburg have a FAR which is above 1.2). [3] 2. Materials and Methods The method of this research is the qualitative and as far as possible quantitative analysis of approved decentralized ecological water management and sanitation systems on the bases of recent research results and of investigations by the author. Their applicability in the framework of remodelling and renovation works of existing urban housing estates as well as the user acceptance has been examined in Germany and the Republic of Korea. 3. Results and Discussion The starting basis for the design of sustainable water and sanitation systems in existing housing etsates is the minimization of the water demand in private households. A comparably low water consumption in households without loss of comfort and without changing behaviour of the users can be ensured by the application of water saving fittings (so called flow rate delimiters), household appliances (e.g. washing machines and dish washers) and water saving toilets (with cleaning flow rates of about 2 litres (for flushing after urination) and respectively 3 litres (for flushing after defecation)). With these measures the water consumption can be reduced with minimal investment costs, minimal operating costs and without loss of comfort by approx. 1/3 in Hamburg (from 117 l per resident and day to 81 litres per resident and day) and in Seoul by 38% (from 208 litres per resident and day to 129 l per resident and day). An advanced reduction of the drinking water consumption can be achieved by the substitution of drinking water with so called service water (e.g. rainwater or purified waste water) which can and may be used for toilette flushing, laundry, cleaning and watering purpose, according to the legal basic conditions in Germany and Korea. The proportion of the service water demand in relation to the total water demand of these water saving households is estimated with 26% in Seoul (33 litres/r*d) and 38% in Hamburg (30 litres/r*d) for toilets. Measures for the recycling of gray water from bathrooms and the utilization of service water can cover the service water demand in the investigated housing estates in both cities by 100% (see below). Hence the drinking water demand compared to standard households can be reduced in Hamburg by 56% (from 117 to 51 litres/r*d) and in Seoul by 54% (from 208 to 96 litres/r*d). [3] The investigated alternative measures for the treatment of sewage can be assigned to two types: "decentralized rainwater conditioning" and "decentralized waste water conditioning", which include also the production of service water. The results for the application of different measures in the investigated housing estates are described below. Decentralized rainwater conditioning is the starting basis for the realization of decentralized water systems. It can be used for the sustainable development as well as for the redevelopment of rural and urban human settlements [4]: - Measures for rainwater utilization may not be counted as a credit for the calculation of measures for the retention of rainwater and flood control. The service water demand in Hamburg is covered maximum with 26% in Hamburg and 25% in Seoul, due to the natural and structural basic conditions (climate, high population density and comparable small rainwater catchment area). Due to the different precipitation patterns in Hamburg and Seoul the required inhabitant specific tank volume for the storage of rainwater has to be in Seoul almost 8 times higher (0,66m/inhabitant) than in Hamburg (0,09m/inhabitant). The amount is equivalent to 9% of the total water demand of water saving households. Rainwater catchments from greened roofs reduce the degree of efficiency. The related construction work for this purpose does not limit the utilization of real estate and buildings in the investigated housing estates. - Measures for extensive greening of roofs contribute substantially to the retention of rainwater and may be counted as credit for the calculation of infiltration systems. Together with intensive greening measures of roofs and buildings they contribute to an increase of the evaporation ratio thus approximating the micro climate to natural conditions. By irrigation with reclaimed waste water positive interactions can be achieved (e.g. decomposition of remaining nutrients, like Phosphorous). - Measures for infiltration of rainwater and reclaimed waste water with shallow pits and infiltration ditch systems out of plastic, allow the complete retention of precipitation events up to dimensioning precipitation events with a rainwater contribution frequency of 0,01/a. The related construction work for this purpose does not limit use of real estate and buildings in the investigated housing estates and are cheaper than rainwater utilization systems. Decentralized waste water conditioning can be also used for sustainable development: 206

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Thorsten Schuetze & Kyung-Ho Kwon: Sustainable water and sanitation systems in existing housing estates

- Measures for the recycling of gray water (with Sequency Batch Reactors or Membrane Activation Systems) from bathrooms and the utilization of service water can cover the service water demand in the investigated housing estates in Hamburg and Seoul by 100% (~ 37 and 26% of the total water demand). In Hamburg, the measures are linked to additional required space (0,06 m/resident), while in Seoul no additional space is required. - Measures for the conditioning of waste water (brown- and gray water) with Sequency Batch Reactors or Membrane Activation Systems can be utilized for the realization of waste water free real estates in Hamburg and Figure 3: Percentages of the retained nutrients in domestic Seoul. The purified and hygienically harmless waste water for the decentralized treatment systems 1 (with ferwater with bathing- or service water quality can mentation of black water), system 2 (with combined treatment be infiltrated, for artificial groundwater recharge, of black water and grey water from kitchen) and the described system 3 (with urine separation, brow, and grey water treator be used for irrigation, e.g. that of intensive ment). [3 greenings of buildings (as above). The required constructions can be integrated in Seoul in the area of existing septic tanks, and in Hamburg underneath a part of the courtyard and do not limit the degree of use of real estate and buildings in the investigated housing estates. The small amount of sludge will be treated in a pre-composting facility (retting container, see below) - Measures for the pre-treatment of brown- and gray water with pre-composting facilities (retting container) can be integrated in the housing estates in Hamburg and Seoul outside, below ground without additionally occupying space inside the buildings. With this measure, more than 1/3 of the contained nutrients can be separated and utilized, and the amount of sludge from the waste water treatment can be significantly reduced. The small amounts of retting (pre-composted faeces, solids and sludge) are removed from the filter bags in the holding tanks regularly, 2 - 1 times a year, for further treatment. - Measures for the collection of yellow water (urine) can be integrated in the housing estates in Hamburg and Seoul underground, outside the buildings, without additionally requiring space inside the buildings and reduce the emissions of nutrients and micro pollutants in the environment. In the case of a country-wide application, the required amount of Nitrogen in agriculture could be covered by 32% in the Republic of Korea and to 11% in Germany. The demand of phosphorous could be covered by 13% in Korea and by 11% in Germany. Hence the collected urine could be used to substitute chemical fertilizers and support organically farming. The collected yellow water is removed regularly from the housing estates with trucks, with a capacity of 15 tons; In Seoul once in a week and in Hamburg once in a month. In the case of an area wide application, 480 trucks would be required in Seoul and 80 in Hamburg each making three trips per day 5 times a week. - Measures for the fermentation of black water, biogas production and utilization in a combined heat and power generator require comparatively much space, in relation to the small volume of the treated waste water. They can only be realized outside the buildings with additional construction effort. The expenditure for the transportation of the treated residues is also relatively high and is equivalent to 4.6-times that of the collected yellow water but the emission of nutrients and micro pollutants into the environment are reduced to the greatest possible degree. [3] In order to determine the transferability of the findings in the testing areas and to compare the existing central systems for drinking water supply and waste water treatment in Hamburg and Seoul a system (system 3) has been chosen, which can be used for both housing estates and is comprised of the following single measures: - Rainwater retention- and infiltration (with reclaimed waste water) with mould and plastic infiltration ditch systems - Recycling of gray water from the bathrooms and service water utilization - Waste water treatment (brown- and gray water) - Pre-treatment of brown and yellow water by retting in filter bags (retting holding tanks) - Collection of yellow water Collected rainwater is not utilized for the service water supply due to the low coverage ratio of the service water demand of 25 - 26% In Seoul and Hamburg.

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In the framework of the research also the application of two other systems were investigated which have not been chosen for the comparison. They also comprise rainwater retention and infiltration as well as the recycling of grey water but they are based on the combined treatment of brown and yellow water. The system based on the fermentation of black water, kitchen waste, biogas production and utilization in a combined heat and power generator (system 1) has not been chosen for the system, due to the layout of the existing housing estates, the comparatively high space demand as well as the large investment costs and working expenses. The combined treatment of black- and grey water from the kitchen (system 2) hasn't been chosen due to the high content of nutrients (see figure 3) and micro-pollutants in the treated sewage compared with the chosen ecosan based system. 4. Conclusions and Recommendations According to the findings of the investigations in two existing housing estates in Hamburg and Seoul, alternative water systems based on ecological sanitation are already realizable at present; with feasible constructive and technical effort as well as low additional cost compared to conventional construction costs. They can be implemented area-wide and allow the appropriate treatment of the specific material flows. Furthermore they do allow the reuse of nutrients which are in conventional systems either discharged with the sewage effluent or eliminated. Due to very different climate conditions and the transferability of the single measures which have been described in the framework of the described research, the basic conditions for a wide distribution can be fulfilled. Hence it may be expected, that alternative water systems and sewage free housing estates are realizable in many international cities with different natural and structural basic conditions. According to results from surveys in Seoul [5] and experiences in Germany and Europe, a high user acceptance of the system may be expected. At present admittedly, there are many barriers to realizing alternative water systems. For Hamburg and Seoul the main barriers are both the existing infrastructure, the structure of the fees incurred by implementing the alternative system and the institutional and legal framework. In Seoul there is the added problem of the present fees for drinking and waste water which do not cover the actual real costs. While decentralized rainwater management increasingly is recognized as a sustainable measure, the acceptance of ecological sanitation of stakeholders is low, especially in urban areas, because there is great doubt regarding its acceptance by end-users as well as its profitability and feasibility. According to stakeholder interviews in the Republic of Korea [6], 89% of the interviewees think that decentralized measures are not feasible yet, and 67% of them think that this will be still the case in 20 years. However decentralized environmental sound measures for waste water management are accepted by most stakeholders; presently in particular with regard to the optimization of the efficiency of central sewage treatment plants (regarding rainwater management).More than 50% of the stakeholders think that the feasibility for the decentralized treatment of urine and faeces will be good and very good in 100 years. Scientifically supervised pilot projects and additional research regarding the integration and service of decentralized environmental sound water and sanitation systems as well as regarding the optimization of institutional and legal frameworks can help to dispel the doubts and to mark the beginning of a paradigm shift in water management especially for areas which are not yet equipped with sewer systems or waste water treatment plants. References
[1] Otterpohl R. (2001), Design of highly efficient source control sanitation and practical experiences. In: Decentralised Sanitation and Reuse, p: 164 - 179 (Lens P., Zeemann G. and Lettinga G., Eds) IWA Publ. [2] Otterpohl, R. (2004). Innovative Technologies for Decentralised Water-, Wastewater and Biowaste Management in Urban and Peri-Urban Areas. In: Water Science & Technology, Vol 48 No 11 p: 23-32, Hamburg, Germany [3] Schuetze, T, (2005). Dezentrale Wassersysteme im Wohnungsbau internationaler Grossstaedte am Beipiel der Staedte Hamburg in Deutschland und Seoul in Sued-Korea. Dissertation, University Hannover, Department Landscape and Architecture [4] Schuetze, T, (2006). Decentralized Rainwater management - Solution for sustainable (re)development and independency. Proceedings IWA World Water Conference, Beijing, China, Rainwater Harvesting Task Force, "Rainwater Harvesting and Management" 11.09.2006; Beijing, China, p: 163-170 [5] Schuetze, T (2004). Survey in private households of Korea regarding sanitary behaviour and exposure to water. In: [3]; Seoul, Republic of Korea [6] Medilanski, E, Schuetze, T (2004). The potential of introducing measures at the source (MAS) on urban sanitation in Seoul, Korea. In: [3], Hamburg, Germany

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Environmental Degradation of Rivers in the State of Rio de Janeiro


Llian Alves de Arajo
Public Attorney's Office State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil liaraujo@mp.rj.gov.br

Abstract This work contains the results of research conducted on environmental degradation of rivers in the State of Rio de Janeiro. The database contained 305 environmental civil enquiries to investigate environmental damage caused to rivers, and carried out and headed by the Public Prosecutor's Office of the state of Rio de Janeiro. The geographic scope of the work included 70 out of 92 cities in the state, and covered rivers in urban and rural areas. Five categories of environmental degradation in relation to the rivers' natural elements were analyzed: (1) Water Degradation, (2) Riverbank Degradation, (3) Riverbed Degradation, (4) Riverbank and Riverbed Degradation, and (5) Water / Riverbank / Riverbed Degradation. The category that stood out was Water Degradation, totaling 198 incidents, followed by riverbank degradation (192); Riverbank and Riverbed Degradation (135); Riverbed Degradation (28), and Water/Riverbank/Riverbed Degradation (4). The criterion used for classification was to ascertain the river's element or elements that degradation activity identified had the most significant impact on. Twenty-five degradation activities were found, according to the degradation categories above, including a total of 557 incidents, with 365 (65.53%) related to urban rivers and 192 (34.47%) to rural area rivers. The deforestation of river FMPs (Marginal Protection Strips), in the Riverbank Degradation category placed first with 62 incidents, followed by domestic waste contamination with 58 incidents, and industrial waste contamination with 48 incidents, both part of the Water Degradation category. With 48 incidents, the different construction activities on the FMP, from the Riverbank Degradation category, also stood out. The other activities had a number of incidents ranging from 3 to 27. Introduction This work aims at giving a panoramic view of environmental degradation in urban and rural area rivers Rio de Janeiro, emphasizing the spatialization of the events, the quantitative aspect and the typology. Thus, the following specific goals are defined: (a) identifying and organizing into a hierarchy the kinds of river environmental degradation (b) identifying factors condition and cause environmental degradation in rivers; (c) identifying the spatial distribution for the environmental degradation of rivers, in urban and rural areas; (d) assessing the problems faced by rivers in the domain of the Law and of Environmental Management. Geographical Scope The research covers 70 out of a total 92 cities in the State of Rio de Janeiro, SE Brazil, with an area of 43,864.30km, which makes it the 4th smallest Brazilian state. However, it ranks 2nd in the Brazilian GNP and 3rd in population. Data from year 2000 found a population in the state of 14,391,282, where 96.04% (13,821,466) lived in urban areas and only 3.96% (569,816) in rural areas. (CIDE, 2004) Given the nature of the cases surveyed, characterized as being related to river degradation, our focus of interest, in every one of the 70 cities, it covers the local river systems, which form river basins, where we highlight the rivers and the APP Permanent Preservation Area along these rivers, which corresponds to the FMP Borderline Protection Strip (FMP). For systematizing the data researched and analyzed as regards the degradation of river environments we also considered river distribution, or sections of these rivers, in urban and in rural areas, classifying rivers as urban or rural, as a consequence of the location of the cases of environmental degradation that are reported and that form the sampling universe for the research work. It must however be said that identifying the kinds of river degradation is linked to the activities that cause such decay, and that, due to the fact that there are occurrences outside urban areas, these are not related only to land or animal farming, a characteristic of the rural scenario, but also to activities that are complementary to urban affairs (rubbish dumps, water collection for residential developments, sand extraction for civil engineering work, the construction of PCHs Small Hydro-electric Power Plants, etc.), or activities related to the structure of rural land ownership (dam construction, water course deviations, deforestation in FMP areas, impacts on rivers and water sources, water collecting, etc.). Urban rivers are those that go through consolidated urban developments, that is, those that satisfy criteria such as: (a) being legally acknowledged by the Government; (b) existence of at least four of the following urban infrastructure elements: roadways with pluvial collection networks; water mains supply; sewage networks; power supply and street lighting; solid waste collection and its treatment; (c) demographic density over 5,000 people per km.

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The references were then considered, which linked the watercourse to the urban nuclei in the cities, with the identification of what is urban and, similarly, the references that linked the watercourse or farms and orchards, and the locations that had predominantly rural features (including the use of photographic records), to classify them as rural. Materials and Methods The data was collected during Oct/Nov/Dec, 2003, in 305 ICAs Civil Environmental Enquiries on the occurrence of environmental degradation in rivers, started and headed by the Public Attorney's Office State of Rio de Janeiro (MPRJ), in the domain of its institutional actions aimed at protecting the environment. The inquests contain the description of the fact reported where a summarized account is given of the activities that, according to the report, would be causing the river degradation. This account usually identifies the activity or activities that would be affecting a particular natural element or elements that form the river, and causing environmental degradation. A definition was prepared, based on the preliminary reading of these inquests, of environmental degradation according to the natural elements that form the rivers: (a) Water Considered as a resource, covering the water and its fauna; (b) Riverbank FMP element, covering the soil and its topography, land flora and fauna; (c) River bed the minor river bed was considered, corresponding to the river trough, including the soil, its topography, (sides and bottom of the trough), and the water flora). Five categories of environmental degradation were set according to these natural elements, with the identification of 25 activities linked to them as they are pointed as the causing agents of degradation, where a certain number of these activities is associated to each category: 1) Water Degradation: As a result of Water Pollution this category stems from 6 activities: (1.1) Industrial waste release; (1.2) Domestic waste release; (1.3) Release of assorted effluents; (1.4) Accidental leak; (1.5) Rubbish and construction waste discharges; (1.6) Rubbish dumping. As a consequence of collection caused by the very activity of water collection: (1.7) Collection. 2) River margin degradation (FMP): This category stems from 6 activities: (2.1) Illegal Settlements; (2.2) Housing Developments; (2.3) Landfills; (2.4) FMP Deforestation around water sources; (2.5) Deforestation of river FMPs; (2.6) Assorted building work. 3) River Bed Degradation: This category results from 3 activities: (3.1) Landfill; (3.2) Dam; (3.3) Assorted Building work. 4) FMP and River Bed Degradation: This category results from 8 activities: (4.1) Changes to natural river course; (4.2) Channeling; (4.3) Landfill; (4.4) Assorted Construction Work; (4.5) Mining; (4.6) Waste Release and Silting; (4.7) Deficiency of Public Cleaning and Maintenance Services; (4.8) Dredging. 5) Water, River Bed and River Bank Degradation: This category results from 1 activity: (5.1) Construction of Small Hydroelectric Power Plants (PCH). Results In the 305 civil enquiries studied 557 occurrences of environmental river degradation were found, with 365 (65.53%) of them happening in rivers located in urban areas and 192 (34.47%) in rural areas. Of the 557 occurrences, 198 form the water degradation category, corresponding to 35.55%; 192 are in the river bank degradation category, corresponding to 34.47%; 135 are in the FMP and river bed degradation category, corresponding to 24.23%; 28 form the river bed degradation category, corresponding to 5.03% and 4 form the water, river bank and river bed degradation category, corresponding to 0.72%. Of the percentage of water degradation events, corresponding to 35.55%, 10.77% took place in urban areas and 24.78% in rural areas. For river bank degradation, a 34.47%, 22.62% were in urban areas and 11.85% in rural areas. For FMP and river bed degradation occurrences, at 24.23%, 15.80% were in urban areas and 8.43% in rural areas. For river bed degradation occurrences, at 5.03%, 2.34% were in urban areas and 2.69% in rural areas. The total percentage for water, river banks and river bed degradation was in urban areas. It is possible to see, therefore, the predominance of urban areas events, of 3 out of the 5 degradation categories. River margin degradation, represented by river bordering and water source FMPs, in spite of being placed second in number of events (192), presented the degrading activity that rook first place among the 25 activities classified, that is: river FMP deforestation had 62 events which, added to the number of deforestation occurrences in water source FMP areas, with 13 events, totals 75 deforestation events in Rio de Janeiro rivers. One should consider, however, that this figure refers only to events where deforestation was clearly mentioned in the enquiries or was what motivated its installation; one should also consider that other activities that 210

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Llian Alves de Arajo: Environmental Degradation of Rivers in the State of Rio de Janeiro

take place in the FMP always result in deforestation, or worsen scenarios for cleared areas as a result of previous deforestation actions, aimed at having the land for farming uses or settlement (Ex: illegal settlements, housing developments, assorted construction work, landfills, dams, channelling, etc.). In second place was the degrading activity of releasing domestic waste into river waters, with 58 occurrences, which belongs to the water degradation category (198), which was in first place in the summation of the events for the 5 classified categories. In third place were 2 degrading activities, each one with 48 occurrences: the release of industrial waste into river waters, contained in the water degradation category, and construction work in river and in water source FMPs, of the river bank degradation category. In the percentages related to the total number of events (557), river FMP deforestation represents 11.13% which, added to the 2.33% related to water source deforestation totals 13.46%. Domestic waste releases represent 10.41% and industrial waste releases, as well as assorted construction work in the FMP represent, each one of them, 8.62%. The 4 most important activities totaled 41.01% of the bulk of events. The 21 remaining activities represent a variation between 0.72% and 4.85%, totaling 58.99% of the events that form the sample. For triggering factors, the elements that cause Water Degradation (35.55%) were water pollution (32.86%) and water collection for mains supplying (2.69%). In relation to triggering factors for water pollution these were identified in the domain of water used for effluent dilution, made in an inadequate and irregular manner, which disregards the strict norms and standards on releases. It was also possible to identify pollution as a result of environmental accidents which lead to leaks and/or releases, casual or intended, of chemical and/or organic substances and other pollutants, liquid or solid, that affect river waters. In this context it was possible to identify industrial waste releases (8.62%), domestic waste releases (10.41%), assorted effluent releases (3.77%), accidental leaks (0.72%), rubbish and construction waste releases (4.85%) and leachate flows from dumps (4.49%). Such factors damage the multiple uses for the waters, in their social and economic aspects, when provoking an adverse change to their quality, with damaging consequences to the water ecosystem (fauna and flora) and to public health. Water degradation as a consequence of collection for water supplying has a triggering factor which is the very collection procedure, carried out in a technically inadequate and unlawful fashion (2.69%), by private companies, with no license from Government, causing adverse changes to the flow regime and to water availability. The triggering factors for River Margin Degradation (34.47%) are marked by the use of, and illegal occupation of, the land, given the private appropriation of the FMPs that border rivers and surround water sources, held by the Law as being Permanent Preservation Areas, collectively owned, and causing ciliary vegetation and soil degradation in river bordering areas, preventing environmental preservation of the river environment and harming the urban order. FMP use and occupation took place through illegal settlements characterized as slums (4.67%), housing development construction (4.13%), landfills (execution3.59%), deforestation, with alteration or removal of the ciliary vegetation around water sources (2.33%) and that which borders rivers (11.13%), and assorted construction work (8.62%). Triggering factors for river bed degradation (5.03%) were landfill execution on minor river beds (1.08%), dam construction (2.69%) and other construction work in river troughs (1.26%). FMP and river bed degradation (24.23%) was caused by a larger number of factors, such as: change of natural river course (4.31%), channeling (1,97), landfills (2.87%), other construction work (3.41%), mining (3.05%), waste release with subsequent silting (4.13%), inefficacy of public cleaning/maintenance services (3.95%) and dredging work (0.54%). The factors that produced interventions on the water body were marked by their irregular character and by the lack of licensing from the appropriate Government office (SERLA). The same took place with the mining activity, carried out in a clandestine way, with no recuperation for the degraded area, disregarding the regular environmental licensing process. Water/River Margin/River Bed Degradation (0.72%) was represented by the threat of relevant environmental damage which may arise from the implementation of projects to build Small Hydro-electric Power Plants (PCHs), of enormous impact on the river environment, with direct repercussions on the river basin. Such a threat was characterized by the lack of information and doubts people had regarding the environmental feasibility of the enterprise, the regular character of the environmental permit and the efficacy of the EIA/RIMA. In relation to conditioning factors (indirect causes) it was found that the environmental degradation of rivers results from the association of two factors, social-environmental and institutional. The social-environmental factor includes: several anthropic actions and activities carried out by the common citizen (individual taxpayers), that damage the river environment; extreme poverty, leading to illegal settlements and slum growth on river margins, and water pollution (social-environmental impacts); negligence in complying with urban and

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rural environmental control norms, on the part of industry sectors (commercial and industrial companies, and farmers) and several kinds of private interest bodies. The institutional factor includes: lack or inefficacy of structural and non-structural actions in the domain of public policies, resulting from the commitment of the city and state governments, in specific sectors, such as environment-friendly water and sewage services, and housing (low income); incipient interaction between the management of water resources and the Environmental and Urban Management; inefficacy in the exercise of police power by environmental control bodies in Rio de Janeiro (CECA, FEEMA, SERLA, IEF), related to inspecting the enforcement of protection norms that apply to water courses, to the prevention and repression of deforestation and to the use and occupation of FMPs that border rivers and surround water sources. It also includes: failures related to the SLAP Polluting Activity Licensing System, in relation to the enforcement of the obligations set by Environmental Licensing procedures, preparation of the EIA/RIMA and connection to the self-controlling PROCON-GUA programme, on the part of industries; lack of specific Environmental Education Programmes aimed at averting damage to river environments, and of Environmental Recovery Programmes; activities that are damaging to the river environment, carried out by the Government itself, be it when providing services as when implementing public works and, still, through omission in relation to fulfilling its role in protecting the environment. As regards the spatial distribution of the events, in urban and rural areas, in the 305 civil enquiries (IC) that formed the sample, it was possible to identify 114 rivers affected by degradation events. Conclusion The express frequency of Water Degradation and River Margin Degradation, presenting a difference that is of little significance, added to the considerable percentage of FMP and river bed degradation, results in a 94.25% event percentage, which shows that all the natural elements inherent to our rivers are being severely damaged. The different types of environmental river degradation in Rio de Janeiro, and their triggering factors, are not set or influenced by their location in the urban or rural area, being different only in the number of events, as these concentrate in urban areas, amplified by the degree of urbanizing and industrialization of the groups of cities studied. Recommendations 1. That the granting of the use of water for collection, or dilution and marking of river-bordering and watersurrounding FMPs (SERLA) become mandatory requirements for the Environmental Licensing (FEEMA/SLAP), an important factor to integrate the Water Resources Management System and the Environmental Management System; 2. Connection between FMP boundary setting to a re-forestation programme, associated to environmental education, with technical support offered to owners, and legal mechanisms so that they can assume the recovery of permanent preservation areas and enforce the principle of social responsibility in ownership. 3. Inclusion of the Water Resources and River Environment Protection Act into the Director Plans of the cities; 4. Implementation of the Polluting Activity Licensing Programme (SLAP) by City Governments under the monitoring of FEEMA; 5. As regards illegal settlements in the FMP, we recommend the registration and mapping of critical and risky areas, and removal and re-settling programmes that include housing solutions for low income populations, as well as preventive measures to avoid new invasions. 6. Programmes aimed at raising awareness of city Legislative and Executive Authorities, on the inclusion of environmental planning in city public policies, to adjust public works to Environmental Law, aiming at avoiding the implementation of projects in permanent preservation areas of river environments and avoiding omission in the execution of their institutional task of environmental protection. 7. River pollution cleaning programmes that include improvements to water and sewage infrastructure, and to environmental control bodies, in relation to inspection, with the creation of mechanisms that force the creation of Sewage Treatment Stations (ETEs) and Industrial Waste Treatment Stations (ETEIs). Bibliography
CIDE, Centro de Informaes e Dados do Rio de Janeiro. Anurio Estatstico do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Rio de Janeiro: CIDE, 2004. Page 623.

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The impact of the human activities from the Bucharest Urban Agglomeration on the quality of water in the Arges River Lower Watershed
Cristian Ioja1, Maria Patroescu1, Marius Matache1, Radu Damian2
University of Bucharest, Centre for Environmental Research and Impact Studies, Romania Technical University of Civil Engineering cristi@portiledefier.ro
1 2

Abstract The urban agglomeration of Bucharest represents the largest conglomerate of environmental degradation sources in Romania (industrial units, residential areas, mobile sources, hospitals etc.). The effects of the anthropogenic activities are affecting directly or indirectly by all environment components and have a direct correspondence in the population health state. The negative effects on the lower sector of the Arges River watershed are emphasised by the lack of functionality of the Bucharest wastewater treatment plant. For this reason, critical areas in terms of water quality were emphasised (4th and 5th water quality classes according to the Romanian standards) for the rivers Dambovita, Arges, Ciorogarla and Sabar. The main issues are generated by the organic compounds, nutrients, detergents, petroleum products, phenols and bacteriological indicators. Downstream of the Bucharest urban agglomeration, the use of freshwater and groundwater resources by the local communities is not possible, leading to a low-competitiveness economy. The degradation of water quality in the Arges River watershed lower sector represents a special concern for the expectant navigation channel Arges-Dunare, aiming to connect Bucharest with the 7th pan-European corridor. Key words: environmental quality, Arges River Lower Watershed, Bucharest urban agglomeration 1. Introduction The Arges River Lower Watershed is located in the southern part of Romania, overposing the Bucharest metropolitan area; it is part of the central sector of the Romanian Plain, characterised by altitudes between 80 and 250 m, low amplitude of the relief, low river slopes and intense deposition processes. The climate is temperate-continental with strong excessively accents from the Eastern part of the continent, characterised by annual average temperatures between 9 and 11 C, the amount of precipitations varied between 500 and 600 mm and the 4-seasons presence. From a hydrological point of view, the water flow varies during the year depending on the contribution of the upstream regions, with a maximum in May June and a minimum in September October. The riparian and aquatic ecosystems along the river have been strongly modified, only low surfaces of floodplain forests remaining intact today. Due to the water quality degradation for the two main rivers Dambovita (upstream of Bucharest) and Arges (after the junction with Dambovita River), the aquatic ecosystems were strongly simplified [1]. The anthropogenic factors are decisive for the water quality dynamic in the lower sector for the Arges River watershed, the releases of wastewater (without any treatment) resulted in the Bucharest urban agglomeration (the largest in Romania over 2 milions of people), enhancing the water degradation [2]. The assessment of water quality downstream of urban agglomerations has its fundament in several studies that emphasised their incidence in water quality and draw attention on the need to establish wastewater treatment plants in order to reduce their impact [3], [4], [5], [6]. 2. Methods In order to assess the water quality in the lower watershed of the Arges River, we quantified and established the hierarchy of the degradation sources. For this reason, a six sampling points network has been established: four sampling points on the Arges River (4), one on Dambovita

Figure 1: Distribution of environmental degradation sources in the lower sector of the Arges River lower watershed

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River (1) and one on Sabar River (1). In these six locations, between March 2006 and February 2007, we collected samples for the most important indicators for freshwater bodies. The results were compared with those obtained the Romanian Waters national company within the national programme for water monitoring. 3. Categories of water degradation sources The degradation sources of the water bodies are the set of anthropogenic activities that exceed the support capacity of the aquatic ecosystems and enforce significant changes in the functions and structure of the natural ecosystems and human communities. Depending on the sources nature, in the lower watershed of the Arges River identified industrial, municipal, agricultural, hospital-originated and other (municipal and industrial waste landfills, infrastructure etc.) categories of degradation sources [1] (Fig. 1). 3.1. Industrial sources The industrial sources are represented by units from the Bucharest urban agglomeration (having a high density) and from the urban centres from the metropolitan area that through their nature and dimensions, determine water degradation issues. The industrial sources are responsible for the presence in water of the special toxic compounds, but also other significant changes of the water quality parameters. Most of the industrial sources evacuate the wastewater in the urban sewerage system (those from the Bucharest urban agglomeration) or straight into the natural receptors (Arge, Sabar, Dambovita, Colentina, etc.). The amounts of wastewater is in some cases quite high (990 000 m3/month by Vitan thermoelectrical powerplant, 581970 m3/month by SICOMED SA, 170000 m3/month by FAUR SA) (CCMESI, 1999). From the qualitative point of view, the biggest problems appear for the units that involve hazardous substances in their production process (cyanide, bases, acids, heavy metals, oil compounds etc.), where the risk for additional charging of the wastewater and subsequently of the receptor rivers is maximum. Examples from this category are units from the: machine industry and metallurgical industry (URBIS SA, FAUR SA, TURBOMECANICA SA, METALURGICA SA, IFMA SA, GRIRO SA, CFR Grivia workshops etc.) where compounds such as cyanides, chromate, strong acids and bases etc.; chemical industry (Dudeti-Policolor industrial area, SC SINTOFARM SA, etc.), using high amounts of chemical compounds posing a high toxicity risk (hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, sulphuric acid, ammonia, oil compounds, detergents, alkaline compounds etc.; energy-producing industry (through the thermoelectric powerplants), where the oil compounds generate special problems in what concerns the wastewater quality. In addition to these mentioned above, several other industrial branches contribute to the degradation of the water quality, through the specific compounds they use in their technological processes: building materials industry (CESAROM SA, GRANITUL SA etc.), representing an important source of suspended matters, with negative impact on the sewerage system; food, textile and wood processing industry (SC GRIVIA SA, SC COM PLEVNEI SA, PIPERA SA etc.), evacuating important amounts of water with a high content of organic compounds. Most of the industrial units that use toxic compounds already have their own treatment facilities for water quality improvement, but due to the age of these installations or the improper manipulation, their efficiency is not the expected one. Thus, the units belonging to the machine industry and chemical industry hold stations for neutralising the acid and alkaline waters (SC METALURGICA SA, GIRUETA SA, POLICOLOR SA, PIPERA SA, SC DANUBIANA SA, SC FILAN SA, TURBOMECANICA SA, URBIS SA, UMEB SA etc.), most of them established in the '70s, but still being used. Some other industrial units hold settling tanks, separators or filters for holding the suspended matters, oil compounds or fatty compounds (SC GRANITUL SA, METALURGICA SA, PROGRESUL SA, POLICOLOR SA, PIPERA SA, GLINA SA, FLAROS SA, thermoelectric powerplants etc.). Very few units have their pre-treatment plants, most of them being constructed now (PIPERA SA, ICE FELIX SA, etc.), are being conserved (METALURGICA SA, CONECT SA, IEMI SA etc.) or they are not working properly (IFMA SA, PIELOREX SA, etc.). For the industrial sources, it is required to consider not only as a pollutants source, but also as the most important water consumer, several units from Bucharest being registered as high-consuming units (thermoelectric powerplants, SICOMED, SINTOFRAM, POLICOLOR, IMGB, PIPERA, etc.) 3.2. Agricultural sources Agricultural activities hold, as coverage area, the largest percentage of the economical activities in the Arges River lower watershed. Due to its intensive character of the cultivations (mechanisation, use of chemical fer-

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Cristian Ioja et al.: The impact of the human activities from the Bucharest Urban Agglomeration

tilisers, irrigations), the agricultural sources contribute to the degradation of the freshwater and groundwater quality. In what concerns the plants cultivations, the problems are determined by the improper use of the chemical fertilisers and pesticides (including DDT). By comparing the amount of chemical and natural fertilisers used, a special place is occupied by the vegetables and technical plants-cultivated areas, where the higher profitability allows additional costs related to the use of chemical compounds and mechanical maintenance (Colibai, Greaca, Adunaii-Cop|ceni, V|r|ti). For the livestock growth activities, the issues that appear are related to the improper positioning of the production units in relation with other functional areas or due the the improper use of the wastes reduction installations. Thus, as specific characteristics they have the high amounts of organic compounds that reach the natural aquatic receptors. The most important livestock growth farms from the lower watershed of the Arges Rive are SC Agricom Prod SRL Valea Dragului (3800 swine), SC Agronutrisco SRL Mih|ileti (217000 poultry), SC Golden Chicken SRL Mih|ileti (180052 poultry), SC GAT Ferme SRL Mih|ileti, SC Avicola Mih|ileti (153000 poultry), SC Mixalim Mih|ileti (89700 poultry), SC Avicola Buftea (105000 poultry), SC Avicola Frumuani (374000 poultry), Avicola Crevedia (450000 poultry). The livestock growth farms are influencing the quality of the receptors mainly in what concerns the oxygen indicators (dissolved oxygen, chemical oxygen demand COD, biochemical oxygen demand BOD) and nutrients (ammonium, nitrite, nitrate), where the maximum admitted concentrations are exceeded. 3.3. Municipal sources The municipal sources from the lower watershed of Arges River should be approached as a problem generator (wastewater) and consumers (cold water, hot water). In most of the cases, the wastewater are released in the receptors only with a mechanical treatment. Thus, the following localities have their own treatment plant or use those of economic agents: Buftea, Otopeni, Baloteti, Bragadiru, Br|neti, M|gurele, 1 Decembrie. The localities Popeti-Leordeni, Chitila, Pantelimon and Voluntari release their wastewater in the Bucharest sewerage system, which subsequently transfers them to the Dambovita River without any treatment. The other localities release their wastewater on a chaotic base, as they do not have a centralised sewerage system. 3.4. Hospital-originated sources Most of the hospital-originated sources are located within Bucharest, 31 of them having problems related to the wastewater management. Excepting the Bucharest hospitals, which release the wastewater in the city sewerage system, the other hospitals are using as receptors for their wastewater the neighbouring rivers (The Psychiatric Hospital from B|l|ceanca Dmbovia River, Domneti Hospital Sabar River, "Ana Aslan" Geriatrics Hospital Pas|rea River). The hospital-originated wastewater are characterised by frequent exceeding of the oxygen indicators, nutrients and detergents, being potential sources of biological contamination for the freshwater bodies. 3.5. Other categories of sources Important due to the effects they might generate at local level on the water quality are the wastes deposits (Glina, Vidra, Chiajna), the run-off resulting from precipitations (mainly in the urban communities) and abandoned infrastructure works (Arges Danube channel). 4. Water quality in the Arges River lower watershed Water quality in the lower watershed of the Arges River decreases once the river receives the wastewater from Bucharest urban agglomeration. Thus, when entering the influence area of Bucharest urban agglomeration, the Arges River water can be framed in the 1st and 2nd category of quality, with casual exceeding for COD, BOD, ammonium, nitrate. A first qualitative change is noticed after the junction with Sabar River, which collects the wastewater from Jilava and Vidra (chaotic waste depositing, area with industrial activities with impact on the environment). The changes appear for the indicators of organic load, heavy metals and nutrients, passing from the 2nd class of quality into 3rd and 4th class. But the most important change appears after the junction with Dambovita River, when the water passes from the 2nd class of quality into the 4th and 5th class of quality. The main issues are related to COD, BOD, dissolved oxygen, nutrients, anionic detergents, oil compounds and some pesticides. This fact draws attention on the stringent need to finish the Bucharest wastewater treatment plant, as a first step in the process regarding the ecological restoration of the lower watershed of the Arges River. In order to increase the attractiveness of the southern and south-eastern area of Bucharest metropolitan area, the ecological restoration of the Arges River lower watershed is a compulsory step, due to the lack of water resources of a good quality affecting the region. This aspect if very important for the future development of Bucharest,

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which strongly needs areas for transferring the environmentalimpact activities and spaceconsuming ones [7], [8]. Also important, if to be used for navigation, in order to connect Bucharest as part of the 7th Pan-European Corridor, an improvement in what regards the water quality is also required [1]. Acknowledgements The research has been funded by the Romanian Ministry of Education and Research through the CEEX programme as part of the project "Integrated environmental impact assessment of the anthropogenic factors on the water quality in the Arges River lower watershed as a premise for ecological restoration". References
[1] Ioja, C. (2006), Metode si tehnici de evaluare a calitatii mediului in aria metropolitana a municipiului Bucuresti, teza de doctorat, Universitatea din Bucuresti, Bucuresti [2] Ioj|, C. (2005), Metropolizarea i calitatea mediului, Comunic|ri de Geografie, Editura Universit|ii din Bucureti, pg. 279-284 [3] Bassand, M., N. Thai Ti, J. Tarradellas, A. Cunha, J.C. Bolay (2000), Metropolisation, crise ecologique et developpement durable: l`eau et l`habitat precaire a Ho Chi Minh Ville, Presses Universitaire Romandes, Lausannes [4] Bolay, J.C., Thai Thi Ngoc Du (1999), Sustainable development urbanization and environmental risks: the priority of local action in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, Journal of Urban Technology, vol. 6, no.2, pag. 65-85 [5] Lacourt, C., Sylvette Puissant (1999), La metropolisation: Croissance, diversite, fracture, Anthropos, Paris [6] Girija, T. R., Mahanta, C., Chandramouli, V. (2006) Water Quality Assessment of an Untreated Effluent Impacted Urban Stream: The Bharalu Tributary of the Brahmaputra River, India, Environmental Monitoring Assessment, DOI 10.1007/s10661-006-9391-6 [7] White, R. (2002), Building the ecological city, Woodhead Publishing in Environmental Management, London [8] P|troescu, Maria, Marta Cenac-Mehedini, (1999), Scenarii de restructurare ecologic| urban| specifice ariei urbane i metropolitane a Bucuretiului, Analele Universit|ii Spiru Haret, Seria Geografie, 2

Figure 2: Freshwater quality in the influence area of Bucharest

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Landscape Imperviousness Index: An Indicator of Water Conservation in Urban Areas


M.O. Kauffmann1, L. Pimentel da Silva2 & M. Kleiman1
1 Institute for Research on Urban and Regional Planning IPPUR/UFRJ, Brazil; 2Environmental Engineering Department, UERJ, Brazil marciakauf@gmail.com

Abstract The process of urban growth, one of the key features of modern reality, has led to the gradual increase of environmental impacts, especially on the water resources. The strategies used to understand, deal with and reverse this situation have been intensified, with the urban environmental indicators playing an important role. The Landscape Imperviousness Index (TI) presented in this paper, may be considered an excellent indicator of environmental impact related to urban planning and its integration to water resources. The immediate consequence of having this index simultaneously included in the urban legislation and in that of water resources, means recognizing the importance of the urban watershed as an unit for planning and management. This indicator contributes not only to the study of anthropogenic actions on the water resources and the environment, but also, to the issues of water quality and conservation in urban areas, as demonstrated in this study. Besides that, the TI is often used as a parameter in water models for the simulation and forecast of floods in urban basins. This index also includes in its composition several other parameters related to environmental impacts such as air pollution, a rise in temperature, the green areas per inhabitant ratio and lack of infrastructure services. The study of the historical development of TI in a given area, here represented by the water basin of Jacarepagu lowland, an area in expansion in the city of Rio de Janeiro, can, not only provide us with measurable evidence of the increase of the environmental impact and the degradation of the water resources, but also with qualitative aspects about the agents and their relations in the process of occupation of urban areas. It is believed that the historical analysis and the TI definition can contribute to the adoption of more immediate and pressing measures, as well as the formulation of future strategies for urban sustainability. This index can also be used for public information and, since it is directly related to the physical conditions of the water basin, it becomes a useful tool, easily identified. Introduction The process of urban growth has been marked by serious environmental impacts often associated with decline in the living standards. In the Brazilian case, the rapid urban growth and the swelling of several areas in the mega cities have, among other reasons, been associated with a lack of state planning and policies that could effectively respond to this dynamics, thus creating several social, economic and environmental problems. This model of land and water management (Kleiman & Kauffmann, 2006) has failed to deal with the problem of floods, which also result from the urban population growth and the increasing imperviousness of the soil in the catchment basins. This issue has been frequently mentioned in the urban legislation and in several studies including that of Hall (1984), which have warned that, an increase in the imperviousness of the watersheds has a direct effect on groundwater (aquifers) storage and on urban drainage, significantly changing the runoffs, and contributing to the increase in the frequency of floods. The advantage of using the Land Imperviousness Index (TI), first demonstrated in Kauffmann (2003), lies in the fact that among other reasons, this index can include a series of important parameters to limit and control urban growth, aiming at its sustainability. These parameters are population and housing density, availability of green areas, water quality and the existence of urban infrastructure services. The use of this indicator (TI) as a parameter applied to the watershed, the basis for the planning and management of water resources, may represent a new approach and an important strategy to directly linking the management of water resources to urban planning (Kauffmann & Pimentel da Silva, 2005; Pimentel da Silva et al., 2005; Kleiman & Kauffmann, 2006). Especially if included in the urban legislation, the (TI) indicator can minimize the flexibility caused by the distortions of some key parameters for the control and projection of urban growth. It can also be integrated to hydrologic modelling systems that simulate the effects of imperviousness on streamflow. Methodology Aiming at assessing the importance of using the TI as a parameter to measure sustainability and as an indicator for water conservation in urban areas, it was adopted in this study the same criteria applied in Kauffmann (2003). This methodology comprises the use of Equations 1 and 2, and classification standards to assess catchments water quality (Table 1) presented by Schueler (1994, apud Sleavin et al., 2000), resulting in TI(b in Table 3). In Equation 1, the imperviousness index is related to permeable area, availability of green areas

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per inhabitant (Ferrari, 1979 and Ferreira dos Santos, 1988) and to population density, resulting in TI(c) Table 3. Equation 2 relates the imperviousness index to urban legislation parameters, resulting in TI(a and d in Table 3). Table 2 presents parameters definitions used on the imperviousness index formulation. Then, comparing the actual catchment's imperviousness rate to the values of TI(a), TI(b), TI(c) and TI(d) Table 3, the catchment present condition can be assessed and, eventually, scenarios can be simulated and limits set for future catchment's imperviousness/occupation rates.
Table 1: Catchment Impact Classes and Imperviousness Index (adapted from Schueler apud Sleavin et al., 2000) - TI (b)
Catchment Degradation
Eroded Catchments Impacted Catchments Degraded Catchments

Imperviousness Index
10-15% 16-25% > 25%

Eq.1

Eq.2
i=n

TP = TZi (AVi D i ) and TI(c) = 1 TP


i=1

TI(a and d) = TZ i { (TIlotes i C i ) + TI vias i }


i=1

i=n

Table 2: Parameters Definition used in Equations 1 and 2


Parameters
TP TZi AV i Di N TI TIlotes i Ci Clotes i Ce i TIvias i TPlotes i

Description
Sum of permeable area rate (green) Parcel area rate, calculated from total catchment area (AT) and parcelling class or sector areas (AZ i): TZi = AZ i /AT Minimum recommended green area per inhabitant (area/hab) Recommended population density (hab/area) Total number of catchments or planning area parcelling types or classes Sum of impermeable area rates Lot area imperviousness index, which might be considered equal to the lot area occupation index (TO i) if not established on Legislation Ci is urban legislation allowed building area rate, equals the sum of rate for lot building (C lotes i) and for public building

(schools, nurseries, health care centers etc) (C e i), estimated from: C i = Clotes i + Ce i
C rresponding to the rate of total area for building site for lots and estimated according to the building site for public use (PU i) which is specified in urban legislation: Clotes i = 1 - PUi Rate corresponding to public area of building site for urb an public construction. Given by Ce i = PUi - TIvias i Index for streets (estimated based on lots index). Its calculation is based on PU i and Ce i: TIvias = PUi Ce i Permeable Lot rate

Follows results of applying this methodology to Morto river catchment, situated in Jacarepagu, an area of urban growth in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Results The area under study, the Morto river catchment, is situated in Lot 3 of Jacarepagu basin, in the district of Vargem Grande, Administrative Area of Barra da Tijuca (XXIV RA), Planning Area 4, an area in expansion in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Figure 1 shows the location of the Morto River catchment in relation to the drainage area of Jacarepagu, Administrative Areas and in Brazil. At present, catchment has a low urban occupation rate and remainig areas of lush vegetation, which stresses the importance of applying this methodolgy to assess the urban sustainabilty of the area. The zoning and parcelling of the Morto river catchment, regulated by the Municipal Ordinance n 3221 (please see the zoning of the Morto River catchment in Figure 2) , Decree 3.0462 ("Plano Piloto") and the Project for Urban Development of Vargem Grande and Vargem Pequena areas ("PEU das Vargens"3), was then applied to the area under study and the corresponding imperviousness index, for each assumption ((TI(a), TI(b), TI(c) and TI(d)) is presented in Table 3.
Table 3: Morto River Catchment Landscape Imperviousness Index Parameterization
Reference Index
TIlotes TItotal

Plano Piloto Legislation Adopting TIlotes = TO (a)


10 % 12.96 %

Water Quality TItotal = 25% (b)


53.69 % 25 %

Green Area per Inhabitant (c)


58.91 % 26.44 %

PEU das Vargens Legislation (d)


50% (sector C), 40% (sector E) and 20% (sector H) 18,74%

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M.O. Kauffmann et al.: Landscape Imperviousness Index: An Indicator of Water Conservation in Urban Areas

Figure 1 - Morto River Catchment, Jacarepagu, City of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Figure 2 - Morto River Catchment. Legislation Zoning - ZE 1 and ZE 5

The catchment landscape imperviousness index (TI) estimated for the Morto river catchment shown in Table 3 and the present landscape imperviousness estimated from 1999 air photos survey (equals 2.5%, calculated considering as impermeable the sum of projected roof areas, roads and sidewalks), were applied as the impermeable area parameter for IPH II hydrological model (Germano et al., 1998 and Tucci and Campana, 1993). In Figure 3, these simulations are presented. As expected, as catchment imperviousness index rises, so do both stream peak flow and time to peak. Therefore, as catchment impervious surface increases, so does the risk of urban flooding, demonstrating the importance of TI indicator also for urban flooding management.
35,00 30,00 Streamflow (m3/s) 25,00 20,00 15,00 10,00 5,00 0,00 1 4 7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34 37 40 43 46 49 52 55 Time (dt=30 minutes)
TItotal = 2.5% TItotal = 12.96 % TItotal=18.74% TItotal=26.44%

Figure 3: Stream Flow Simulations for Different Catchment Landscape Imperviousness Index (TI)

Conclusion Based on the example given, it can be noted the importance of TI, not only to confirm the use of the Basin as a planning unit, since TI is closely related to basin total area, but also to study the effects of increasing basin's impervious surface on water resource systems. This study emphasizes the need for thorough research into the effects of imperviousness on the hydrologic system and the importance of having mechanisms to control urban occupation included in the legislation on urban and water resources. To this purpose, it endorses the use of TI as an interesting urban-environmental indicator and as a parameter to assess sustainability and water conservation in urban areas. Additionally, the use of TI can incorporate the analysis of new quantitative and qualitative aspects, thus enabling the new added parameters to detect situations on the sustainability continuum. In TI calculation, the parameter related to the availability of infrastructure services in the catchment, may include the rate for streets weighed by factors that reduce the imperviousness index of streets due to the use of pavement surfaces that are more or less permeable to the infiltration of stormwater. In the same way, the different situations concerning urban drainage, both of private lots or public streets and areas, may be represented by a parameter that is adjusted by indexes expressing quantitative and qualitative aspects, including among others techniques to reduce outflow and to store stormwater. Also, the parameter on the availability of green areas may incorporate alternative solutions such as green roofs, suspended gardens, among others, that provide thermal, visual and emotional comfort. The TI indicator besides having in its calculation the above mentioned attributes, may also support planning decisions and actions by means of the historical analysis, relating the physical reality (the catchment) that

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is the target of the project to the projected results, the legislation and its objective application. It can also detect the dynamics of sustainability development and how it can be achieved, bringing to light the contradictions in the interests of the agents involved, thus supporting and giving the tools for a better understanding of this historic and collective process. References
Ferrari, C. (1979) Course on Integrated Municipal Planning. Town Planning (second edn). Pioneira, So Paulo, Brazil (in Portuguese). Ferreira dos Santos, C. N. (1988) The City as a Playing Card Game. Niteri, EDUFF - Editora Universitria de So Paulo, Projeto Editores Associados Ltda, Brazil (in Portuguese). Germano, A., Tucci, C. E. M. & Silveira, A. L. L. (1998) Estimating IPH II parameters for some urban Brazilian catchments. Brazilian J. Water Resour. (RBRH) 3(4), 103-120. (in Portuguese). Hall, M. J. (1984) Urban Hydrology. Elsevier Ltd, Belfast, Ireland. Kauffmann, M. O. (2003) Urban expansion and life quality: proposal for development of sustainability indicators applied to urban legislation. Masters Dissertation, Environmental Engineering, FEN/UERJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (in Portuguese). Kauffmann, M. O. & Pimentel da Silva, L. (2005). Land Imperviousness Index: A Resource to Implement the Watershed as a Unit for Urban Planning Integrated to Water Resources Management. In: ANPUR XI National Conference . Salvador, BA, Brazil (in Portuguese). Kleiman, M. & Kauffmann, M. O. (2006). Impacts of a Model of Land and Water Management in Paraba do Sul Shared River Basin: The Committee for Integration of Paraba do Sul River Basin - CEIVAP - So Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais, Brazil. In: 5 Iberian Congress of Water Planning and Management, Faro, Portugal. Zaragoza: Fundacin Nueva Cultura del gua (in Portuguese). Pimentel da Silva, L; Kauffmann, M. O. & Rosa, E.U. (2005). Urban Growth and Life Quality: Application of Indicators in Integrated Water and Urban Planning. In: Seventh IAHS Scientific Assembly-Sustainable Water Management Solutions for Large Cities - Red Book. Foz do Iguau, PR, Brazil. Schueler, T. R. (1994) The Importance of Imperviousness. Watershed Prot. Tech. 1(3), 100-111. Sleavin, W. J., Civco, D. L., Prisole, S. & Giannotti, L. (2000) Measuring impervious surfaces for non-point source pollution modeling. In: Proceedings of the ASPRS Annual Conference (May 2000, Washington DC), 11p. (in http://resac.uconn.edu/publications/tech_papers/pdf_paper/asprs2000wdsl.pdf).

________________________________________________ 1 Municipal Ordinance from March, 3rd 1976, regulates the zoning of the area establishing ZE 1 and ZE 5. 2 Municipal Ordinance from April, 4th 1982 details the Zoning of Jacarepagu Basin and is here related to ZE 5 of the basin. 3 PLC n 72/2004 also refers to ZE 5 of the Morto River catchment and revises existing ordinance.

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Development for the Biotope Assessment Method that Introduces the Watershed Concept in Urban Planning
Bong-Ho Han, Suk-Hwan Hong, Jung-Hee Bae, Jeong-In Kwak
Institute for Eco-Plan, Landscape architecture, University of Seoul, Korea hanho@uos.ac.kr

Introduction The division of space into ecological units and their assessment are important during urban planning. Freeman(1999) collected data on the countryside in suburban areas where the pressure for development is high, through which an ecological approach to urban planning was emphasized. Biotope mapping of the boundaries of certain plant or animal communities onto a map is an ecosystem assessment method applicable to space planning(Sukopp, 1990). Vegetation is often used as an ecological space division standard(Atkinson, 1985) as it reflects the topography, soils and artificial changes of a given area(Motwkin et al., 1999). Influenced by this trend, biotope mapping has normally been conducted based on a vegetation study as it has been found to be effective in environmental conservation and management. However, with respect to development, the method has had limited effects. The method has been useful in preserving good ecosystems, but not protecting wildlife habitats in land use(Rutledge, 2001) or maintaining aquatic environments. Wildlife tends to live in basins consistent with the watershed(Seo, 2000), which is influenced by a variety of factors, such as tree density, soil layers and water system structure(Morrison et al., 1999), other than just by certain kinds of plants. Sixty seven percent of Korean land is mountainous region; therefore, topographical changes on a local scale can result in diverse ecosystems. The diversity and complexity of biotope structures limits the collection of data using remote sensing. Besides, with the use of a biotope study and evaluation that focuses on plants, it is impossible to approach complex watershed biotope comprehensively. As a result, a growing number of large-scale development projects, which protect only good biotopes, are carried out without a comprehensive understanding of complex biotope. In order to pursue the environmentally friendly development of farm land and mountainous regions within suburban areas, the aims of this study were to propose environmentally friendly development planning method by using biotope mapping and considering the ecological characteristics of small watershed. Research Area and Methods This study was performed on an area of about 100ha in Daejang-dong Bundang-gu Sungnam city, close to the city of Seoul, planned for development into a residential area. Research and analyses for ecological planning was carried out on the entire basin area, including both the planned residential area and its ecosystems. Consequently, the total area of the study area with the watershed was about 232ha, i.e. 2.3 times larger than the expected residential area. Ecological planning was conducted to mitigate the ecological impact on the target region in Daejang-dong, which consisted of three stages: data collection and analysis, assessment and planning. In the data collection and analysis, both environmental factors and ecological structures were considered. The environmental factors included the topography, water system, small watershed and microclimate. The ecological structure was divided into vegetation and animal structure, with the former including actual vegetation, land use and the latter, wild birds, amphibians and index mammals. Based on the data collection and analyses in the first stage, ecological assessment and planning were carried out. The ecological assessment was performed on biotopes, wildlife habitats and water system, with the results integrated. To assess the biotopes, a biotope type assessment method was adopted, with a minimal area of vegetation structure used to distinguish the spaces. With respect to the wildlife habitats and the water system, where the limit of the boundaries are hard to define, the watershed of the primary water system was used (Table 1). In this study, both large and specific classifications were used, which reflected Bastian's(1994) biotope type assessment method. A total area of 32.9% was assessed as being grade 1, with most of this area situated in the upper portion and along the mountain ridges. For the wildlife habitat assessment, the research area was divided at equal intervals into six grades, based on the watershed in the primary water system, which was determined using the Horton-Strahler method, based on the diversity and rarity. In order to assess the water system, we compared the size and structure of streamlet and quantity of water within each watershed and length of the streamlet, with the highest and lowest scores attained. The gap

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between the highest and lowest points was divided at equal intervals into six grades, with the watershed system then assessed as one of those grades.
Table 1. Ecological Assessment by Biotopes and Basins
Means Target Index of Conditions Unit

? Type of vegetation structure Appearance of wildlife ? Site of appearance and Wildlife habitat animals-wild birds, mammals, egg-laying of wildlife assessment and amphibians animals Scale of water system-stream ? Water quantity and Water system order + water quantity + slope streamlet structure by assessment structure water system Biotope assessment Biotope type assessment General assessment Comprehensive assessment of biotopes, wildlife habitats, and water system

Minimal area of vegetation structure Area of first watershed

Area of first watershed Minimal area of vegetation structure + Area of first watershed

Ecological Condition and Assessment A microclimate analysis indicated that wet arable lands, such as paddy fields and forests with rich vegetation, had low temperatures. A topographical analysis indicated the land was mainly within a north-south valley, most of which had a southward slope. An aquatic study also showed the existence of a north-south valley. With respect to the vegetation, there were a number of wild oak trees(43.4%) and several woody plant communities in the wetlands(2.3%). Overall, the forest vegetation was in good shape, with wet grasslands in the lower part of the forests. Within the research area, 1,222 wild birds(22 species) and three kinds of mammals, as well as their traces, were found. Amphibian spawn and dead bodies were found at 41 spots around the paddy fields mainly on the eastside; especially, spawn of toads(Bufo gargarizars) and salamanders(Hynobius leechil) were found in masses. In other words, the study area exhibited the co-existence of mixed and diverse species within forests, rivers, arable lands and wetlands. It is important to preserve spawning places and habitats of amphibians. A biotope type assessment indicated that the oak forests and woody plant communities in the wetlands were in good conditions. A watershed-based wildlife habitat and water system assessment revealed high grade gentle forest slopes in the south and west. Due to the relatively large watershed, there was enough water in these areas. In contrast, in the north and east there were steep slopes, with a small watershed, which were assessed as being low grade. Figure 1 shows the comprehensive results of the ecological assessment of the research area, which describes the biotope, wildlife habitat and water system grades, and major amphibian and wild bird habitats, as well as the low-temperature areas. The figure shows the ecosystem of the upper parts of the ridges and slopes at the peripheries and of the entire basins in the south and east were in good shape. Therefore, ecosystem improvement projects, such as securing and restoring stable habitats, should be implemented, focusing on the southern and eastern parts of the study area. Ecological Planning Ecological planning consists of ecosystem preservation and development, the biotope network, habitat making and restoration, as well as green system plan. In ecosystem preservation and development planning, biotopes in good conditions were identified as needing to be preserved. Apart from this, and biotopes with the potential to be nurtured into habitats were also recognized. Sorting out biotopes revealed that the south eastern area, which was assessed as being high in terms of wildlife habitat, indicated a need for a high level of preservation. The ecological network was established based on the wildlife pathways, habitats and forest areas. The biotopes that have been destroyed by human activities need to be restored, with habitats formed to guarantee safe inhabitation and movement in the places where a variety of wild birds and amphibians live; the ecosystems also need to be connected. This study proposes parks and greens that are appropriate to the characteristics of each space. To this end, parks and greens were classified into two types: ecologically important connections, as well as cross zones between ecological corridors and forest belts.

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Bong-Ho Han et al.: Development for the Biotope Assessment Method that Introduces the Watershed Concept

Conclusion This study looked at biotope mapping based on the vegetation ecosystem and watershed, which reflected the animal ecosystem and aquatic environment for the development of areas of rich plants and animals in an environmentally friendly manner. Biotope mapping based on the vegetation ecosystem, the biotope assessment would have only limited effects in diffusing good ecosystems and preserving diverse ecosystems. As a result, development planning based on such an assessment is likely to isolate good ecosystems and undermine wildlife habitats. When combined with a watershed-based wildlife habitat assessment; however, ecologically valuable areas can be protected as wildlife habitats. Division of space in this manner results in the preservation of good ecosystems and the restoration of those that have been destroyed. Even though small areas are highly valued, they are relatively hard to protect due to their size. The applications of biotope mapping and space planning, which reflect the ecological features of a watershed, have been proven to be appropriate for regions with a complex topography. Reference

Figure 1. Overview of the ecological conditions and assessment

Atkinson, I. A. E.(1985) Derivation of vegetation mapping units for an ecological survey of Tongariro National Park North Island, New Zealand. N. Z. J. Bot. 23: 361-378. Bastian, O.(1994) Eine gestufte Biotopbewertung in der rtlichen Landschaftsplanung - mit Beispielen aus dem Modellprojekt Sachsen Landschaftsplan Stausee Quitzdorf bei Niesky/Oberlausitz -. Bund Deutscher Landschaftsarchitekten. Freeman, C.(1999) Geographic Information systems and the conservation of urban biodiversity. Urban Policy Res. 17(1): 51-61. Motwkin, G., P. Wilson, D. R. Foster and A. Allen(1999) Vegetation patterns in heterogeneous landscapes: The importance of history and environment. Journal of Vegetation Science 10: 903-920. Rutledge, D.T.(2001) Change in land cover and wildlife habitats in two watershed in the lower peninsula of Michigan, 271p. Seo, Chang-Wan(2000) Wild boar(Sus scrofa coreanus Heude) habitat modeling using GIS and logistic regression. Thesis of degree of doctor in Seoul National University, 104p. Sukopp, H.(1990) Urban ecology - plants and plant communities in urban environments -. SPB Academic Publishing.

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Seeking a Sustainable Design for Flood Area Occupation: The So Paulo, Brazil Case
D. F. Pessoa
Centro Universitrio Nove de Julho (UNINOVE) So Paulo, Brazil denisefpessoa@hotmail.com

Abstract This paper focuses on the Tiete River that crosses the metropolitan area of the city of So Paulo, Brazil, and makes a critical analysis of the implications of a deleterious growth pattern that has been established in the area. Most of the So Paulo urban fabric is located in the Tiete River basin. Its flood area is very extensive, and because it is difficulty to control the water level throughout the year, the basin was left unoccupied until the first quarter of the 20th century, when the city rose to a leading position in the country's economy. Urbanization occurred on the fringe of the flood area, which soon was viewed as a potential area for occupation. In the beginning of the 20th century, studies were made to straighten the course of the river and control the flood area. The Tiete is a meandering river. The straightening and channeling of its course was designed to open the region to urban settlement, and represented an excellent opportunity for real estate investment. The channeling of the river was carried out between the 1940s and the 1960s, coinciding with a new federal highway policy and the establishment of the car industry. The drained area also offered a possibility of constructing an expressway (the Marginal Beltway) to meet the increase in vehicle circulation triggered by the growing number of cars in the city. The expressway eventually suffocated the river, but once it was built, its shoreline could no longer be considered feasible for establishing a leisure area, as it used to be. The present work points out the faults of the occupation of the Tiete River flood area, and the urban design pattern followed by many cities in Brazil. It also presents an approach for sustainable recovery of the area and proposes urban design alternatives for recovering this kind of occupation. Introduction Until the last quarter of the 19th century, So Paulo was a small village. With the development of coffee plantations at the end of the 19th century and the industrialization occurring at the beginning of the 20th century, the city witnessed tremendous growth. The urban fabric spread out across the flood area of the Tiete, Tamanduatei and Anhangabau rivers. A number of studies have been made since this time to channel these rivers. The Tiete River begins 22 kilometers from the Atlantic Ocean. Although it is so close to the sea, its course penetrates the interior of the country. Carved by its geological formation, the river runs a course of moderate speed. In the rainy season, the water speed increases, swelling the volume of the river and consequently causing flooding, erosion of the river bed and recarving of a meandering course that slows the water speed (Ohtake, 1991). This process has taken place over millions of years. Each curve of the river was carefully sculpted by nature, and like everything else done by nature, it has a function. In the 1940s, a long process began to turn the portion of the river that crosses the city of So Paulo into a canal. The upshot was that the length of the portion crossing the metropolitan area was reduced to almost half. The original 46 km of the meandering river was turned into a 26 km canal. The works ended in the 1960s and the part of the drained flood area occupied by the curves of the river received two seven lanes expressways, one on either side of the canal, where 700,000 vehicles a day now circulate. After the works were concluded, the shore could no longer be used for recreation, fishing, walking, etc, because the expressways were too close to the watercourse and there was no pedestrian access to its banks. In the 1950s, the car industry was installed in So Paulo, after which the urban design decisions were primarily based on passenger car circulation. Most fast growing Brazilian cities adopted this pattern, which became a symbol of progress and modernization: expressways without traffic lights that allow nonstop driving. The idea of sacrificing contact with nature and quality of life for modernization was well-accepted at the time by planners and the overall population. This picture started to change from the 1980s onward, due to the chaotic traffic, air pollution and high cost of gas. Nevertheless, the car industry continued to invest in Brazil, and the status associated with owing a car still has very strong appeal. Meanwhile, the investments in public transportation, especially to build the metro system, have been very modest. The Strategic Master Plan of the City of So Paulo From the 1980's on, the concern for environmental protection has became a more recurrent topic on the federal, state and municipal government agenda. The Federal Constitution of Brazil, Articles 182 and 183 224

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D. F. Pessoa: Seeking a Sustainable Design for Flood Area Occupation: The So Paulo, Brazil Case

(Federal Law /88), triggered a ten-year-long discussion in the Brazilian National Congress, which strove to promote an adequate urban development plan. These Articles established the general direction for urban planning policies designed to organize the urban development, and gave rise to the "Statute of the City" (Federal Law 10.257/2001). The Statute established urban policy mechanisms to improve the quality of life in the cities and required that municipal governments develop a master plan. In 2002, the municipal government of So Paulo approved the Strategic Master Plan of the City (Municipal Law 13.430/2002). One of the main novelties of the plan was the recognition that environmental issues were of crucial importance. The municipality was divided into two macro zones of environmental protection. The main points addressed by the Strategic Master Plan of concern to this paper are those related to rivers and flood areas, as outlined below: Creation of linear parks in valleys, along with the community infrastructure needed to develop leisure and recreational activities Removal of communities located in risky flood areas and building of appropriate housing somewhere not far from where they were before Creation of legal instruments requiring large constructions and owners of large buildings (enterprises that consume large amounts of water) to install equipment to reuse the grey water for non-drinking purposes Introduction of sewage treatment systems Improving the urban drainage system by implementing the Municipal Drainage Master Plan of So Paulo, integrated with the Macro-Drainage Master Plan of the Alto Tiete Hydrographic Basin and establishing parameters for its flood area and for future damn construction Promoting policies, habits and actions to protect natural resources Reducing and controlling pollution of all kinds Enlarging the country's Green Belt Preservation of the ecosystem and landscape Considering that most of the city's urban area is located inside the Tiete River Basin and that the river has a severe level of degradation, the recommendations of the Master Plan are unfortunately very vague. They are general guidelines that do not address the Tiete River specifically or even rivers in general. The only specific guidelines concern the two watersheds that supply part of the city: Billings and Guarapiranga, which are threatened by serious degradation that affects the water quality. The goal of creating linear parks in valleys, along with the community infrastructure to support leisure and recreational activities may offer an opportunity to recover the Tiete River. However, the concept of a linear park should be clearly defined so that it is not misconstrued as any green strip with trees and some sort of vegetation. A linear park should at least restore the shrubbery that protects the water, but this would be absolutely impossible today because the Marginal Beltway runs too close to the river banks. In addition, this type of park should promote the use of the river not only by human beings but also by fish, birds, insects and the entire ecological order that supports it. The Widening of the Tiete River Bed In 1995, the Japan Bank for International Cooperation financed the works for widening the bed of the Tiete River. The first channeling project increased the river flow to 440m/seg, but this soon became insufficient. Many works followed to increase its flow. The last project boosted the flow to 1050 m/sec, which is supposedly enough to meet the current demand ("O Estado de So Paulo," 10/31/2002, C3). The project provided the banks with a sloped concrete wall. The ultimate goal of the work was to end the flooding of the river that occurs every year during the summer. Up to now, the flood control seems to have been successful. However, the concrete wall made the banks unfeasible for animal life because it cannot support the growth of plants, and consequently the existence of insects that feed frogs, fishes and birds, not to mention precluding its use for human beings. Because of the steep-sloped walls, people cannot walk to the water. The Recovery of the Tiete River Major changes will have to be made in the city in order to recover the river, especially in the transport system, because the maintenance of the Marginal Beltway precludes restoring and providing access to the river banks. With the imminent shortage of drinking water worldwide, this could be an opportunity to reconsider maintaining river degradation in detriment to an urban transport system based on passenger cars, as is the case today. In 1984 Oscar Niemeyer designed a project for the area, which would remove the south lanes of the Marginal Beltway to make room for a linear park, in an attempt to recover the river and give back to the city the tranquility it once enjoyed (Projeto Tiet, 1991). He was greatly criticized at the time on claims that he was ignoring the city's vital dependence on the expressway. It is true that the circulation system depended a great

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deal on the Tiete Marginal Beltway at the time, and even more so today. The importance of Niemeyer's project was to provoke a debate about the quality of life in So Paulo and to call attention to its relation to the deterioration of the natural environment. Conclusion Although the problems created by an urban pattern that is detrimental to the environment are well-known, its reversion is not simple. It would involve radical transformations in the city, such as building a subway network that meets urban transport demands (the city depends on only 5 metro lines today). Some of the needed changes reach beyond the So Paulo metropolitan area, such as the sewage system of neighboring municipalities that are served by the Tiete River waters, like Guarulhos, which has no sewage treatment system in place (O Estado de So Paulo, 4/9/2007). Such a recovery would also imply a change in the economic guidelines, which would cease to promote the car industry. This would obviously affect the industry and would have a strong impact not only on the Brazilian but also on the international economy. Of all the changes needed, those involving technology are the most feasible and can be done in a relatively short period of time. Those involving major changes in the economic prospects, however, are very difficult to accomplish. Life in So Paulo is very stressful, and this is greatly attributed to the deterioration of the environment. Recovering natural settings would improve the quality of life and make life more pleasant. For this to occur, humanistic needs must become a priority in detriment to economic interests. References:
AB'SABER, Aziz Nacib. Geomorfologia do Stio Urbano de So Paulo. So Paulo, Faculdade de Filoso?a, Cincias e Letras da Universidade de So Paulo, 1958. BRITO, F. Saturnino Rodrigues de. Notes sur le Trac Sanitaire des Villes. Paris, Impriperie et Librairie des Chemains de Fer, 1916. FERREIRA, Leila da Costa e Viola, Eduardo (orgs.). Incertezas de Sustentabilidade na Globalizao. Campinas: Unicamp, 1996. OHTAKE, Ricardo. O Livro do Rio Tiet. So Paulo, Estdio Ro Projetos e Edies, 1991. PESSOA, Denise Falco. Utopia e Cidades: Proposies. So Paulo, Annablume, 2006 SEABRA, Odete C de Lima. Meandros dos Rios nas Meandros do Poder: Tiet e Pinheiros (Doutorado) Faculdade de Geografia, Universidade de So Paulo, 1987. Estatuto da Cidade- Federal Law 10.257/2001 O Estado de So Paulo, 31/10/2002, C3 http://www.saopaulo.sp.gov.br/projetosestrategicos/pe30_calha_tiete.htm http://www.rededasaguas.org.br/nucleo/na_hidrografia.htm

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Ability and willingness to pay for drinking water in a peri-urban area in Ganga delta where the groundwater aquifer is contaminated with arsenic
S. Chatterjee and B. Sen Gupta
School of Civil Engineering, Queen's University Belfast. United Kingdom B.Sengupta@qub.ac.uk

Introduction Arsenic contamination in groundwater has been envisaged as a problem of global concern. The consumption of contaminated groundwater in the deltaic plain in India (West Bengal) and Bangladesh has caused adverse health effects amongst the population. Groundwater extracted from the various arsenic contaminated aquifers by shallow tube wells can no longer be considered safe for drinking and cooking purpose. Therefore, provision for treatment of the groundwater and proper distribution of the decontaminated water at an affordable price is the major concern of drinking water provider. Given today's emphasis on responsible fiscal planning, structural adjustments, and the disengagement of the government in all but essential sectors, it is vital to be able to predict with reasonable accuracy the financial and economic viability of any publicly funded project. Tariffs must be designed so that at least the operation and maintenance cost can be recovered. A key concept in such a planning methodology is that of 'willingness to pay' (Mitchell and Carson, 1989; Cummings et al., 1986). If people are willing to pay for the full costs of a particular service, then it is a clear indication that the service is valued and most likely to be used and maintained. Further, it may be possible to generate funds to sustain and replicate such projects. In other words, the idea is to ascertain whether the cost of such systems and their sustainability can be gauged in view of the consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) an appropriate price for the service. Objectives of the study The primary objective of this study was to determine the factors (variables) and their influence on consumers' WTP for arsenic free water in lower Bengal Delta near Calcutta. The factors expected to influence the willingness to pay were identified. The logistic regression analysis has been carried out using the factors as independent variables and WTP as dependent variable. The analysis leads to the probability of consumers' WTP more for water and reveals the influence of each factor on WTP. An additional objective was to test and validate a rapid appraisal method (CVM) as a potential tool for planner in designing peri urban water supply system and the information derived from it would help the water authorities improve their decision-making on appropriate levels of service, cost recovery policies, and water pricing. Study Design and methology In order to achieve the objectives of the study, the proposed research design was tested in a peri urban locality for a range of economic and environmental conditions. In this study that covered 50 households, consumers were provided with necessary information on the use of contaminated groundwater and its adverse ill effect. The consumer were presented with the hypothetical situation where they would be provided with arsenic free water and asked if they would be willing to pay for it. The study was conducted in North 24 Parganas district (Kasimpur), approximately 25 km from Cathe main city Calcutta in India. The total area of the study area is 2.0 km2, with the population of 3700 people. The average annual income of the families is US$ 800/annum.The main source of water in the area is 20 shallow wells and tube wells which are used for drinking as well as irrigation purposes. The area was chosen because it is known that 70% of the tube wells in the area had arsenic concentrations above 0.05 mg/l. An in situ treatment plant had been set up in the area for treating the arsenic affected aquifer with the financial assistance of the European commission. The questionnaire for the survey is designed to determine the maximum amount of money the household is willing to pay for a commodity or service. WTP studies are also termed "contingent valuation" studies because the respondent is asked about what he or she would do in a hypothetical (or contingent) situation. The interview questionnaire is designed and pre-tested, usually drawing on discussions with local families or community (Panchayat) leaders. Initially a draft questionnaire had been prepared and checked and was amended with a group of specialist before it took the final form. In each questionnaire, an explanatory letter was attached to explain the ethical considerations and to facilitate the questionnaire filling. Selection of the attributes The model used the following variables to ascertain the consumers' WTP for water:

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Consumers' perception and satisfaction about the present quality of water used for drinking and cooking family income household size water consumption in the family awareness about arsenic in the area age education of the head of the family who takes the decision means of getting the drinking water ( owned tube well or community) the health condition of the family members the value of the Start Bid (SBID) made Because of the dichotomous structure of the dependent variable (WTP), a non-linear probabilistic model had been used for estimation. Results and discussions Correlation analysis The correlation coefficient between each of these variables and WTP has been estimated to check their degree of association. In many cases, the correlation coefficients are found to be significantly high (Table 1). As expected, the correlation between WTP and income of the household, awareness about arsenic, dissatisfaction (no satisfaction) with respect to quality of water as perceived by the respondent, health condition of the family are significantly positive. On the other hand, the correlation coefficient with respect to age, education and occupation (agriculture=1) are found to be negatively correlated though they are not quite significant. Contrary to maintained belief, no significant association is observed between WTP and household size, education and water consumption. The correlation between start bid and willingness to pay is found to be significantly positive. Choice of appropriate econometric model The analysis was carried out category-wise with regression coefficients obtained as shown in Table 2. It was observed that Chi-square -values were quite significant, indicating the goodness-of-fit of models. Calculation of Willingness to pay Based on the awareness level and satisfaction with the present available water quality, the samples can be divided into sub groups (Table 3). For each of these sub-groups the regression equation can be written asWTP = a + b*(expense) + c*(SBid) For each subgroup equation, the regression equation is run to obtain the value of a, b and c. The alternative values of the Starting Bid (0, 10, 20, 30) and the average expenditure estimated for each sub-group are substituted in the above equation to get the estimated WTP (corresponding to each value of the SBID) for that particular sub-group. Estimated revenue and cost recovery potential The willingness-to-pay bids can be used to estimate the likelihood of connection to and revenue generated from the provision of supplying arsenic free water. Such a computation helps to determine whether the provision of such services would be economically sustainable. The connection frequencies and revenue estimates is plotted in Figure1. At Rs 20 per month the connection frequency is approximately 32 percent , while at Rs25 the figure is 22%. The plot of revenue against monthly tariff indicates that at Rs20/month monthly tariff, the revenue yield would be Rs680 per 100 family per month and connection frequency will be 34%. The same revenue yield will be Rs 540 per 100 families corresponding to 36% connection frequency and Rs 550 per 100 families corresponding to 22% connection. Therefore, any tariff in the range of Rs 20 per month should achieve the dual objectives of a reasonably high connection frequency and high cost recovery. Conclusion Arsenic contamination of groundwater is an issue of global concern. The objective of the study was to determine the willingness to pay for arsenic free groundwater in a rural setup and the factors influencing WTP. The analysis revealed the awareness amongst the people regarding the presence of arsenic in the groundwater significantly affects the odds of paying more for the arsenic free water. It has been observed that due to lack of awareness about the presence of arsenic in the groundwater and its harmful consequence amongst the people in the study area, the willingness to pay for better water quality is quite low.

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S. Chatterjee and B. Sen Gupta: Ability and willingness to pay for drinking water

Reference
Cummings, R.G., Brookshire, D.S., Schulze, W.D. (eds) (1986), Valuing environmental goods: a state of the arts assessment of the contingent valuation method. Totowa, NJ: Roweman and Allanheld. Mitchell, R.C., Carson, R.T. (1989), Using surveys to value public goods: the contingent valuation method, Washington, DC: Resource for the Future.

Table 1: Correlation matrix between WTP and socioeconomic values

Variables No of households Water consumption Occupation Income Age Awareness Satisfaction with present available water quality Education of the respondent Health condition of the family Initial Bid
** Correlation is significant at 0.01 level( 2 tailed) * Correlation is significant at 0.05 level( 2 tailed) Table 2: SPSS output
Variable NO_OF_HO WATER_CO OCCUPATI INCOME AWARENES HAPPY_WI AGE EDUCATIO HEALTH_C MEANS_OF SBid Constant B -.1604 .0013 -1.6269 .5288 2.9215 -1.6388 -.0741 1.4699 -.7392 -2.0798 0.1852 1.4689 S.E. 1.0434 .0187 1.4135 .3448 1.2595 1.0090 .0567 1.3004 1.1944 2.4473 1.6761 2.9491 Wald .0236 .0051 1.3248 2.3517 5.3804 2.6379 1.7070 1.2777 .3830 .7222 2.3121 .2481

Parametrics 0.011 0.024 -.052 0.292** -.123 0.469** -.295* -.044 -.301* 0.6**

df 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Sig .8778 .9428 .2497 .0251 .0204 .0143 .1914 .2583 .0360 .3954 .0267 .6184

R .0000 .0000 .0000 .0769 .2383 -.1035 .0000 .0000 .0000 .0000 .0235

Exp(B) .8518 1.0013 .1965 7.6969 18.5699 .1942 .9286 0.3488 .4775 .1250 3.415

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Table 3: Estimation of median WTP

Happy/ Unhappy with the present quality of water Happy

Aware/ not aware about arsenic Not aware Aware

No of samples

Coeff of Income

Coeff of bid

Constant

Bids

Avg Proj income WTP

Median WTP

2 6

0 1.41

0 -0.55

0 -0.37

Unhappy

Not aware

28

-0.04

0.97

0.05

Aware

-0.02

0.79

0.35

10 20 10 20 30 40 10 20 30 40 10 20 30 40

9000 10800

0 8.41 2.91 -2.59 -8.09 9.59 19.32 29.05 38.78 8.16 16.10 24.04 31.98

0 0.16

4900

24.19

6500

20.07

Connection frequencies and monthly revenue (per 100 households)


800 700 120.00 100.00 80.00 60.00 40.00 20.00 0.00 120

Revenues (Rs)

600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 20 40 60 Monthly tariff (Rs) 80 100

%Household connected

Figure 1: Revenue and Connection frequency vs monthly tariff (Indian Rs)

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Increasing the ability of water hyacinth for removing heavy metals


Medhat Ibrahim1,2 & Traugott Scheytt2
Spectroscopy Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt Technische Universitt Berlin, Fachgebiet Hydrogeologie, Berlin, Germany medhat.ibrahim@mailbox.TU-Berlin.DE
1 2

Abstract Increase of available water resource is an environmental challenge. In Egypt the reuse of treated sewage water could be a solution for increasing water demand. Accordingly this paper presents an approach to increase the ability for the aquatic plant water hyacinth to mediate heavy metals. The plant was treated with 0.1 N acetic acid, and then dried and its dry matter is used for mediation. A mechanism of metals uptake is described using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) as well as molecular modelling technique. FTIR proves the transport of acetate to the plant through the existence of C=O at 1740.4 cm-1. Modelling indicates that COOH is attracting hexahydrated divalent metals. Consequently, acetylated plant dry matter shows the ability to mediate metals. As an application example the treated plant could mediate cadmium from a synthetic solution containing 1 mg/l. Within 2.o hours 70.0 % of Cd could be removed from water. Introduction By the middle of 90s Egypt has already fully utilized its water resources. Furthermore, by 2025 Egypt is expected to suffer from water scarcity. That is why Egypt needs to manage the existing water on one hand and study other possible resources on the other [1]. One of the possible solutions is reuse of the sewage water, which could solve part of the water demand in Egypt and/or compensate for water shortage in the near future. One of the limitations is that some factories used to discharge their wastewater directly to urban systems without adequate treatment. This discharge contains several pollutants, mainly heavy metals. This in turn makes the process of sewage water treatment more expensive and needs extra efforts. Furthermore, one of biggest treatment stations is Abu Rawash, Giza has a unique problem such that although Cairo University and National Research Centre are treating their chemical waste some institutes are still disposing their chemicals without adequate treatment to the urban system, which affects the quality of treatment at this stations. Although two stages of treatments are used, heavy metals still make the reused water limited in its applications. One of the recommended methods to overcome this problem is utilizing the plant and/or bacteria for third stage treatment. The aquatic plant water hyacinth as seen in figure 1, is growing abundantly in Egypt as well as tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The phenomena of metals uptake by this plant were observed earlier by many researchers [2-4]. Nowadays, the plant is used extensively as a phytoremediation tool [5-8]. In our previous work heavy metals are assumed to hydrate in the aquatic environment as hexahydrated divalent metal ions [9]. Acetic acid as well as acetate group was subjected to Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Density Functional Theory (DFT) modelling study [10 -11] to describe the ge