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# Damascus University

## Faculty of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering

Electronic Engineering and Communication Department

Electronic Circuits 1
(Third Year)

## CH5: The Transistors as Electronic Switches

Lecture 5

Dr. M. SALHANI
Doctor in the CEA department
Content

## n CH5: Transistors as Electronic Switches

n CH6: Feedback Amplifiers
q Feedback definition
q Negative feedback
q Feedback types
q One stage feedback amplifiers
q Multistage feedback amplifiers

## n CH7: Ideal Operational Amplifiers

n CH8: Practical Operational Amplifiers

2
Voltage-Shunt Feedback
Voltage-
amplifier using an FET
:(Vo= -gm Vgs RD, Ii=Vgs/Rs) (If=0) ‫ﺑﺤﺎل ﻋﺪم وﺟﻮد ﺗﻐﺬﯾﺔ ﺧﻠﻔﯿﺔ‬

## Vo Vo I i 1 : ‫رﺑﺢ اﻟﺠﮭﺪ ﺑﺪون ﺗﻐﺬﯾﺔ ﺧﻠﻔﯿﺔ‬

Av = = = − g m RD Rs . = − g m R D
Vi I i Vi Rs :‫رﺑﺢ اﻟﺘﻐﺬﯾﺔ اﻟﺨﻠﻔﯿﺔ‬

## :‫رﺑﺢ اﻟﺠﮭﺪ ﺑﻮﺟﻮد اﻟﺘﻐﺬﯾﺔ اﻟﺨﻠﻔﯿﺔ‬

3
Av
‫‪Voltage--Shunt Feedback amplifier using an FET‬‬
‫‪Voltage‬‬

## ‫ﻣﺜﺎل ﺗﻄﺒﯿﻘﻲ ‪:1‬‬

‫اﺣﺴﺐ رﺑﺢ اﻟﺠﮭﺪ ﻟﻠﺪارة اﻟﺘﺎﻟﯿﺔ ﺑﻮﺟﻮد و ﺑﻌﺪم‬
‫وﺟﻮد ﺗﻐﺬﯾﺔ ﺧﻠﻔﯿﺔ إذا ﻋﻠﻤﺖ اﻟﻘﯿﻢ اﻟﺘﺎﻟﯿﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪gm=5mS, RD=5.1kΩ, Rs=1kΩ and‬‬
‫‪RF=20kΩ‬‬

## ‫‪Ans: Av= -25‬‬

‫‪25..5, Avf= -11‬‬
‫‪11..2‬‬

‫‪4‬‬
‫‪Voltage-Shunt Feedback‬‬
‫‪Voltage-‬‬
‫‪amplifier using an FET‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎل ﺗﻄﺒﯿﻘﻲ ‪:1‬‬
‫اﺣﺴﺐ رﺑﺢ اﻟﺠﮭﺪ ﻟﻠﺪارة اﻟﺘﺎﻟﯿﺔ ﺑﻮﺟﻮد و ﺑﻌﺪم‬
‫وﺟﻮد ﺗﻐﺬﯾﺔ ﺧﻠﻔﯿﺔ إذا ﻋﻠﻤﺖ اﻟﻘﯿﻢ اﻟﺘﺎﻟﯿﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪gm=5ms, RD=5.1kΩ, Rs=1kΩ and‬‬
‫‪RF=20kΩ‬‬

## ‫رﺑﺢ اﻟﺠﮭﺪ ﺑﺤﺎل وﺟﻮد ﺗﻐﺬﯾﺔ ﺧﻠﻔﯿﺔ‪:‬‬

‫‪5‬‬
‫‪Voltage--Series Feedback‬‬
‫‪Voltage‬‬

‫ﻣﺜﺎل ‪:2‬‬
‫ﺣﺪد ﻗﯿﻤﺔ اﻟﻤﻘﺎوﻣﺔ )‪ (Rf‬اﻟﻼزﻣﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮل ﻋﻠﻰ رﺑﺢ ﺟﮭﺪ ﻟﻠﺤﻠﻘﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻐﻠﻘﺔ ﻗﺪره )‪.(-100‬‬

‫‪6‬‬
‫‪Voltage--Series Feedback‬‬
‫‪Voltage‬‬

‫ﻣﺜﺎل ‪:10‬‬
‫ﺣﺪد ﻗﯿﻤﺔ اﻟﻤﻘﺎوﻣﺔ )‪ (Rf‬اﻟﻼزﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺤﺼﻮل ﻋﻠﻰ رﺑﺢ ﺟﮭﺪ ﻟﻠﺤﻠﻘﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻐﻠﻘﺔ ﻗﺪره )‪.(-100‬‬

‫ﻛﻤﺎ وﺟﺪﻧﺎ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺎً أن رﺑﺢ اﻟﺠﮭﺪ ﻟﺪارة اﻟﻤﻜﺒﺮ اﻟﻌﺎﻛﺲ ﺗﻌﻄﻰ وﻓﻖ‪:‬‬

‫‪Rf‬‬
‫‪Avf = −‬‬ ‫‪; Rf = − Avf × Ri = 220kΩ‬‬
‫‪Ri‬‬

‫‪7‬‬
‫ﺗﺬﻛﺮة ﺑﻌﻼﻗﺎت اﻟﺘﺮاﻧﺰﺳﺘﻮر ‪BJT‬‬

## ‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﯾﻌﻤﻞ ھﺬا اﻟﺘﺮاﻧﺰﺳﺘﻮر ﻓﻲ اﻟﻨﻤﻂ ) ‪(active mode‬‬ ‫‪n‬‬

‫ﯾﺠﺐ أن ﯾﻜﻮن )‪ (VC‬أﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ )‪.(VB-0.4‬‬

‫‪VBE‬‬
‫‪VT‬‬ ‫‪IC‬‬
‫‪IC = I S e‬‬ ‫= ‪, IE‬‬
‫‪α‬‬
‫‪IC‬‬
‫= ‪IB‬‬
‫‪β‬‬
‫‪VC = VCE = VCC - I C RC‬‬

‫‪8‬‬
The Collector Current and the Transconductance (1)

## :‫ﺑﺘﻄﺒﯿﻖ إﺷﺎرة دﺧﻞ ﻣﺘﻨﺎوﺑﺔ ﺻﻐﯿﺮة ﻓﻲ اﻟﺪﺧﻞ ﯾﻜﻮن ﻟﺪﯾﻨﺎ ﻣﺎﯾﻠﻲ‬ n

v BE = VBE + vbe
v BE (VBE +vbe ) VBE vbe

iC = I S e VT
= IS e VT
= IS e VT
e VT

vbe

iC = I C e VT
, Now if vbe << VT ⇒
 vbe  IC
iC ≅ I C  1 +  = IC + vbe
 VT  VT
IC ∂iC IC
ic = vbe = gm vbe ; gm = |iC = IC =
VT ∂v BE VT

9
The Collector Current and the Transconductance (2)

‫( ﯾﻌﻤﻞ ﻛﻤﻨﺒﻊ ﺗﯿﺎر ﻣﺘﺤﻜﻢ ﺑﮫ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل اﻟﺠﮭﺪ‬BJT) ‫( ﻓﺈن‬vbe<< VT) ‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﯾﻜﻮن‬ n
.(voltage-controlled current source)
‫( ھﻲ‬transconductance of the controlled source) ‫ﺣﯿﺚ ﻧﺎﻗﻠﯿﺔ ﻣﻨﺒﻊ اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ ھﺬا‬ n
.ً‫( و ﺗﻜﻮن ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻟﺨﺮج ﻋﺎﻟﯿﺔ ﺟﺪا‬gm)

10
The Base Current and the Input Resistance at the Base (1)

:(‫ﺣﺴﺎب ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻟﺪﺧﻞ ﻹﺷﺎرة دﺧﻞ ﺻﻐﯿﺮة )ﻣﻄﺒﻘﺔ ﺑﯿﻦ اﻟﻘﺎﻋﺪة و اﻟﺒﺎﻋﺚ‬ n

iC I C 1 I C
iB = = + vbe
β β β VT
IC 1 IC IC gm
i B = I B + ib ; I B = , ib = vbe , gm = ⇒ ib = vbe
β β VT VT β
vbe β β VT
By definition : rπ ≡ = = =
ib gm I C IB
VT

11
The Base Current and the Input Resistance at the Base (2)

## :‫( وﻓﻖ‬iE) ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﺤﺪﯾﺪ ﺗﯿﺎر اﻟﺒﺎﻋﺚ اﻟﻜﻠﻲ‬ n

iC I C ic
iE = = +
α α α
IC ic 1 I C IE
i E = I E + ie ; I E = , ie = = vbe = vbe
α α α VT VT
vbe VT IC VT α 1
By definition : re ≡ = , gm = ⇒ re = = ≈;
ie IE VT IC gm gm
α
ie
vbe = ib rπ = ie re ⇒ rπ = re = (β + 1) re
ib
12
Voltage Gain
:‫ﻟﻨﺤﺪد رﺑﺢ ﺟﮭﺪ دﺧﻞ ﺻﻐﯿﺮة ﺑﺘﺸﻜﯿﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﻣﺸﺘﺮك‬ n

vC = VCC - iC RC
vC = VCC - (I C + ic ) RC
vC = VCC - I C RC - ic RC
vC = VC - ic RC = VC + vc
vc = -ic RC = -gm vbe RC = (-gm RC )vbe
Thus the voltage gain of this amplifier Av is
vc I
Av = = -gm RC ; gm = C
vbe VT
I C RC
Av = -
VT
13
‫‪Separating the signal and the DC Quantities‬‬
‫ﻛﻤﺎ وﺟﺪﻧﺎ ﻓﺈن ﻛﻞ ﺗﯿﺎر أو ﺟﮭﺪ ﻓﻲ دارة اﻟﻤﻜﺒﺮ ﯾﺘﺄﻟﻒ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺮﻛﺒﯿﺘﯿﻦ )ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮة و ﻣﺘﻨﺎوﺑﺔ(‪.‬‬ ‫‪n‬‬
‫ﺣﺘﻰ ﻧﻤﺜﻞ دارة اﻟـ)‪ (BJT‬ﻧﻘﻮم ﺑﺈﻟﻐﺎء اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺑﻊ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻤﺮة‪ .‬ﺣﯿﺚ ﻧﺒﺪل ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ اﻟﺠﮭﻮد ) ‪VCC and‬‬ ‫‪n‬‬
‫‪ (VEE‬ﺑﺪارة ﻗﺼﺮة و ﻧﺒﺪل ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ اﻟﺘﯿﺎر ﺑﺪارة ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ وﻓﻖ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺴﻤﻰ اﻟﺪارة اﻟﻨﺎﺗﺠﺔ ﺑﻤﻮدﯾﻞ دارة اﻻﺷﺎرة اﻟﺼﻐﯿﺮة اﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺌﺔ ) ‪an equivalent small-signal‬‬ ‫‪n‬‬
‫‪ (circuit model‬و اﻟﺘﻲ ﻟﮭﺎ ﺷﻜﻼن )‪.(π and T‬‬

‫‪iC = I C + ic‬‬
‫‪v BE = VBE + vbe‬‬

‫‪14‬‬
Small-Signal Model –Hybrid- π Model
:(BJT)‫ﻣﻮدﯾﻼت اﻟﺪارة اﻟﻤﻜﺎﻓﺌﺔ ﻟﻠـ‬ n

vbe β
rπ = = ; βib = g mvbe
ib gm

## Transconductance Current Amplifier

Amplifier current-controlled
voltage-controlled current source
current source
15
Small-Signal Model –Hybrid- π Model

vbe β
rπ = = ; βib = g mvbe
ib gm

## vbe vbe gm vbe = gm (ib rπ )

ie = + gm vbe = (1 + gm rπ )
rπ rπ gm vbe = (gm rπ ) ib
vbe vbe vbe
ie = (1 + β) = = gm vbe = β ib
rπ rπ re
(1 + β)
‫( ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺮاﻧﺰﺳﺘﻮر‬π) ‫ ﯾﻤﻜﻦ ﺗﻄﺒﯿﻖ اﻟﻤﻮدﯾﻞ‬:‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬
.‫( ﺑﺪون ﺗﻐﯿﯿﺮ اﻟﻘﻄﺒﯿﺔ‬pnp)

16
‫)‪Small-Signal Model –T Model (1‬‬

## ‫ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺾ اﻷﺣﯿﺎن ﻗﺪ ﯾﻜﻮن اﻟﻤﻮدﯾﻞ )‪ (T‬أﻧﺴﺐ ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻮدﯾﻞ )‪.(π‬‬ ‫‪n‬‬

‫‪17‬‬
Small-Signal Model –T Model (2)
vbe vbe
ib = - gm vbe = (1 - gm re ) gm vbe = gm (ie re )
re re
= (gm re ) ie = α ie
vbe vbe β
ib = (1 - α) = (1 - )
re re (1+ β)
vbe
ib =
(1 + β) re

18
‫اﻟﺘﻐﺬﯾﺔ اﻟﺨﻠﻔﯿﺔ اﻟﺜﻼﺛﯿﺔ ‪Feedback Triple‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎل ‪:1‬‬
‫ﯾﻮﺿﺢ اﻟﺸﻜﻞ ﺗﻐﺬﯾﺔ ﺧﻠﻔﯿﺔ ﺑﺜﻼث ﻣﺮاﺣﻞ ﺗﻜﺒﯿﺮ ﺑﺸﺒﻜﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺘﻐﺬﯾﺔ اﻟﺨﻠﻔﯿﺔ )‪ . (RE1 RF, and RE2‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻓﺮض أن ﺗﯿﺎرات اﻻﻧﺤﯿﺎز )‪ (IC1=0.6mA, IC2=1mA, IC3=4mA‬و أن )∞=‪ ،(hfe=100, ro‬أوﺟﺪ‬
‫اﻟﺮﺑﺢ )‪ (A‬و ﻋﺎﻣﻞ اﻟﺘﻐﺬﯾﺔ اﻟﺨﻠﻔﯿﺔ )‪ (β‬و رﺑﺢ اﻟﺘﻐﺬﯾﺔ اﻟﺨﻠﻔﯿﺔ )‪ (Af=Io/Vs‬و اﻟﺮﺑﺢ اﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﺠﮭﺪ‬
‫)‪ ،(Vo/Vs‬ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻟﺪﺧﻞ )‪ (Rin=Rif‬و ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻟﺨﺮج )‪.(Rof‬‬

‫‪19‬‬
‫( ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﻟﻔﺼﻞ اﻟﺪﺧﻞ ﻋﻦ‬π) ‫ ﻧﺴﺘﺨﺪم دارة‬:1 ‫ﻣﺜﺎل‬
:(Vf=0) ‫ رﺑﺢ اﻟﺠﮭﺪ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ اﻷوﻟﻰ‬.‫اﻟﺨﺮج‬
V − α1ie1 ( RC1 // rπ 2 )
A1 = C1 =
Vi ie1re1
Ic1=0.6mA, re1 = VT/IE1=25mV/0.6mA
re1 =41.7Ω,
Ic2 =1mA, rπ2 =hfe/gm2,
gm2=IC2/VT =1mA/25mV =40mA/V,
rπ2=100/40=2.5kΩ ,
α1=IC1/IE1=hfe/(1+hfe)=0.99
VC1 − 0.99 ×1.95
A1 = = = −46.29
Vi 0.0417
Vo
VA α ie 3 Rc 3
Vi α ie1 +
R c1 V g mV π Rc 2 re 3
rπ 2
π2

re 1 −
Vc1 Vc2 Z 22
Z 11 Z 22 = RE 2 //( RF + RE1 )
20
:1 ‫ﻣﺜﺎل‬

## Vc1 = Vπ 2 :‫ ﺣﯿﺚ‬:‫رﺑﺢ اﻟﺠﮭﺪ اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﯿﺔ‬

A2 =
[
Vc 2 − g m 2Vπ 2 × Rc 2 //(1 + h fe )( re 3 + Z 22 )
=
]
Vc1 Vπ 2

gm2=40mA/V,
re3=VT/IE3=25/4=6.25Ω

Vo
VA α ie 3 Rc 3
Vi α ie1 +
R c1 V g m 2V π 2 R c 2 re 3
rπ 2
π2

re 1 −
Vc1 Vc2 Z 22
Z 11 Z11 = RE1 //( RF + RE 2 )
Z 22 = RE 2 //( RF + RE1 )
21
‫ﻣﺜﺎل ‪:1‬‬
‫رﺑﺢ اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺜﺔ‪:‬‬

## ‫اﻟﺮﺑﺢ اﻟﻜﻠﻲ ھﻮ ﺟﺪاء رﺑﺢ اﻟﻤﺮاﺣﻞ اﻟﺜﻼث‪:‬‬

‫‪A = A1 × A2 × A3 = −46.29 × −131.2 ×10.6‬‬
‫‪A = 64.37 S‬‬
‫‪Vf‬‬ ‫‪RE1‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬
‫=‪β‬‬ ‫‪= I o RE 2‬‬
‫‪Io‬‬ ‫‪( RE 2 + RF + RE1 ) I o‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫× ‪β = 100‬‬ ‫‪= 11.9Ω‬‬
‫‪100 + 640 + 100‬‬
‫‪1 + βA ≅ 767‬‬
‫‪RE2‬‬ ‫‪Io‬‬ ‫‪A‬‬
‫= ‪Af‬‬ ‫=‬ ‫) ‪= 83.92 mA / V (mS‬‬
‫‪Vs 1 + βA‬‬
‫‪IoRE2‬‬
‫اﻟﺮﺑﺢ اﻟﻜﻠﻲ ﻟﻠﺠﮭﺪ‪:‬‬
‫‪Vo − I c RC 3‬‬
‫= ‪Avf‬‬ ‫=‬ ‫‪= − Af RC 3 = −50.352‬‬
‫‪Vs‬‬ ‫‪Vs‬‬ ‫‪22‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎل ‪:1‬‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻟﺘﻐﺬﯾﺔ اﻟﺨﻠﻔﯿﺔ‪:‬‬

## ‫‪Ri = (1 + h fe )re1 = 4.213kΩ‬‬

‫‪Rif = 3.23MΩ‬‬
‫ﻻﯾﺠﺎد ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻟﺨﺮج )‪ ،(Ro‬ﻧﻘﻮم ﺑﻜﺴﺮ اﻟﺪارة ﺑﯿﻦ )‪ (Y‬و‬
‫)’‪ .(Y‬و اﻟﻤﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻟﻤﻨﻈﻮرة ﺑﯿﻨﮭﻤﺎ ھﻲ ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻟﺨﺮج‪:‬‬

‫‪Vo‬‬
‫‪V‬‬ ‫‪A‬‬ ‫‪α ie 3‬‬ ‫‪Rc 3‬‬
‫‪Vi‬‬ ‫‪α ie1‬‬ ‫‪R c1‬‬
‫‪+‬‬ ‫‪g mV π‬‬ ‫‪Rc 2‬‬ ‫‪re 3‬‬
‫‪Vπ 2‬‬ ‫‪rπ‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬
‫‪Ro‬‬
‫‪re 1‬‬ ‫‪−‬‬
‫‪Z‬‬ ‫‪22‬‬
‫‪Z 11‬‬ ‫‪23‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎل ‪:2‬‬
‫اﺣﺴﺐ رﺑﺢ اﻟﺠﮭﺪ )‪ ،(Vo/Vs‬ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻟﺪﺧﻞ )‪ (Rin‬و ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻟﺨﺮج )‪ (Rof‬ﻟﻠﺪارة اﻟﻤﺒﯿﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺣﯿﺚ )‪ .(β=100‬اﻋﺘﺒﺮ ﻧﻤﻂ اﻟﺘﺸﻜﯿﻠﺔ ھﻮ )‪.(voltage-shunt‬‬

‫‪24‬‬
VCC − VC
VC = VBE + I f R f ; I Rs = VBE / RS = 0.07mA; I R c = = I f + βI B :2 ‫ﻣﺜﺎل‬
RC

25
:2 ‫ﻣﺜﺎل‬
‫( و‬Rin) ‫ ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻟﺪﺧﻞ‬،(Vo/Vs) ‫اﺣﺴﺐ رﺑﺢ اﻟﺠﮭﺪ‬
.(β=100) ‫( ﻟﻠﺪارة اﻟﻤﺒﯿﻨﺔ ﺣﯿﺚ‬Rof) ‫ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻟﺨﺮج‬
.‫( ﻓﻲ اﻟﺪﺧﻞ‬Rf)‫( أي ﻻﯾﻮﺟﺪ أﺛﺮ ﻟـ‬If=0) ‫ﺑﺪون ﺗﻐﺬﯾﺔ ﺧﻠﻔﯿﺔ‬
Vπ = I i rπ
Vo = − g mV π ( R f // RC )
Vo = − g m I i rπ ( R f // RC )
V
A = o = − g m rπ ( R f // RC )
Ii
IC β
gm = = 0.06 S ; rπ = = 1.67 kΩ
rπ =β/gm VT gm
gm=IC/VT A = −428.13kΩ
Ri = Rin = rπ = 1.67kΩ

Ro = RC // R f = 4.27 kΩ
Vf 1
β= =− = −0.0213mS
Vo Rf

26
‫ﻣﺜﺎل ‪:2‬‬
‫اﺣﺴﺐ رﺑﺢ اﻟﺠﮭﺪ )‪ ،(Vo/Vs‬ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻟﺪﺧﻞ‬
‫)‪ (Rin‬و ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻟﺨﺮج )‪ (Rof‬ﻟﻠﺪارة اﻟﻤﺒﯿﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺣﯿﺚ )‪.(β=100‬‬
‫‪1 + βA = 9.12‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫= ‪Af‬‬ ‫‪= −42.31kΩ‬‬
‫‪1 + βA‬‬
‫ﻟﺤﺴﺎب رﺑﺢ اﻟﺠﮭﺪ )‪:(Vo/Vs‬‬

## ‫‪Vo‬‬ ‫‪V‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬

‫= ‪Avf‬‬ ‫‪= o = Af‬‬
‫‪Vs I s Rs‬‬ ‫‪Rs‬‬
‫‪Avf = − 4 .23‬‬
‫‪Ri‬‬
‫= ‪Ri f‬‬ ‫‪= 165 Ω‬‬
‫‪1 + βA‬‬
‫‪Ro‬‬
‫= ‪Ro f‬‬ ‫‪= 468.2Ω‬‬
‫‪1 + βA‬‬

‫‪27‬‬
‫ﻃﻠﺒﺎت إﺿﺎﻓﯿﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﺴﺄﻟﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪ .1‬ﻣﺎ اﺳﻢ ﺗﺸﻜﯿﻠﺔ اﻟﺘﺮاﻧﺰﺳﺘﻮر؟ ھﻞ ﯾﻌﻤﻞ اﻟﺘﺮاﻧﺰﺳﺘﻮر ﻛﻘﺎﻃﻊ؟ ﻣﺎ اﺳﻢ اﻟﺘﻐﺬﯾﺔ اﻟﺨﻠﻔﯿﺔ؟‬
‫‪ .2‬ﺣﺪد ﻧﻘﻄﺔ اﻟﻌﻤﻞ )‪ (Q-point‬ﻟﻠﺘﺮاﻧﺰﺳﺘﻮر‪.‬‬

‫‪If‬‬
‫‪Ii‬‬

‫‪28‬‬
‫ﻣﺜﺎل ‪:3‬‬
‫أوﺟﺪ اﻟﻘﯿﻢ اﻟﺘﺎﻟﯿﺔ )‪ (Iout/Iin, Rin, Rout‬اﻓﺘﺮض أن ﻟﻠﺘﺮاﻧﺰﺳﺘﻮر‪ :‬ﺟﮭﺪ ارﻟﻲ ) ‪voltage Early:‬‬
‫‪.(β=100), (VA=75V‬‬

‫‪29‬‬
1.DC analysis
VB 2 ≈ I B1 = I E1 /(1 + β ) = 1 / 101 = 0.0099mA
I B 2 = I E 2 /(1 + β ) = 0.4 / 101 = 0.00396mA
IC 2
I
g m1 = C1 = 40mA / V g m2 = = 16mA / V
VT VT
VT
V
rπ 1 = T = 2.525kΩ rπ 2 = = 6.3kΩ
I B1 I B2
VA 75
ro = = ro1 =
75
= 75kΩ ro 2 = = 187.5kΩ
IC I C1 IC2

30
31
Vπ1 Vb2

Vπ 1 = I i ( RB // rπ 1 ) = 2.12 I i
[ ]
Vb 2 = − g m1Vπ 1 {ro1 // RC1 // rπ 2 + (1 + β )( R f // RE 2 ) }
Vb 2 rπ 2
Io ≅ ; r = ∞ ; r = = 0.062 kΩ; Vb 2 = Vbe + Ve
(1 + β )
o2 e2
re 2 + ( R f // RE 2 )
io
A = ; vb 2 = vc1
ii
vb 2 − g m1vπ 1 { ro1 // RC1 //[ rπ 2 + ( β + 1)( RE 2 // R f )]}
io = =
(re 2 + RE 2 // R f ) (re 2 + RE 2 // R f )
RB = 13.1kΩ; RB // rπ 1 = 2.12kΩ rπ 2 + (1 + β )( R f // RE 2 ) = 262.52kΩ ro1 // RC1 = 8.82kΩ
[ ]
RE 2 // R f = 2.53kΩ (re 2 + RE 2 // R f ) = 2.59kΩ ro1 // RC1 // rπ 2 + (1 + β )( R f // RE 2 ) = 8.53kΩ
io
A = = −279.28
ii 32
Ri = RB // Rπ 1 = 2.12kΩ
( RC1 // ro1 r
Ro = ( RE 2 // R f ) + re 2 + ); re 2 = π 2
(1 + β ) (1 + β )
Ro = 2.69kΩ
If RE 2 3.4
β= =− =− = −0.254
Io RE 2 + R f 13.4
1 + βA = 70.94
Ri
Ri f = = 29 .88 Ω R o f = Ro (1 + β A ) = 190 .83 kΩ
1 + βA
A
Af = = −3.93
1 + βA

33
I out I out RC 2 I c RC 2 I o RC 2
≈ = ≈ = Af
I in Is RL + RC 2 I s RL + RC 2 I s RL + RC 2
I out
= −3.49
I in

34