Sie sind auf Seite 1von 406

ber dieses Buch

Dies ist ein digitales Exemplar eines Buches, das seit Generationen in den Regalen der Bibliotheken aufbewahrt wurde, bevor es von Google im
Rahmen eines Projekts, mit dem die Bcher dieser Welt online verfgbar gemacht werden sollen, sorgfltig gescannt wurde.
Das Buch hat das Urheberrecht berdauert und kann nun ffentlich zugnglich gemacht werden. Ein ffentlich zugngliches Buch ist ein Buch,
das niemals Urheberrechten unterlag oder bei dem die Schutzfrist des Urheberrechts abgelaufen ist. Ob ein Buch ffentlich zugnglich ist, kann
von Land zu Land unterschiedlich sein. ffentlich zugngliche Bcher sind unser Tor zur Vergangenheit und stellen ein geschichtliches, kulturelles
und wissenschaftliches Vermgen dar, das hufig nur schwierig zu entdecken ist.
Gebrauchsspuren, Anmerkungen und andere Randbemerkungen, die im Originalband enthalten sind, finden sich auch in dieser Datei eine Erinnerung an die lange Reise, die das Buch vom Verleger zu einer Bibliothek und weiter zu Ihnen hinter sich gebracht hat.
Nutzungsrichtlinien
Google ist stolz, mit Bibliotheken in partnerschaftlicher Zusammenarbeit ffentlich zugngliches Material zu digitalisieren und einer breiten Masse
zugnglich zu machen. ffentlich zugngliche Bcher gehren der ffentlichkeit, und wir sind nur ihre Hter. Nichtsdestotrotz ist diese
Arbeit kostspielig. Um diese Ressource weiterhin zur Verfgung stellen zu knnen, haben wir Schritte unternommen, um den Missbrauch durch
kommerzielle Parteien zu verhindern. Dazu gehren technische Einschrnkungen fr automatisierte Abfragen.
Wir bitten Sie um Einhaltung folgender Richtlinien:
+ Nutzung der Dateien zu nichtkommerziellen Zwecken Wir haben Google Buchsuche fr Endanwender konzipiert und mchten, dass Sie diese
Dateien nur fr persnliche, nichtkommerzielle Zwecke verwenden.
+ Keine automatisierten Abfragen Senden Sie keine automatisierten Abfragen irgendwelcher Art an das Google-System. Wenn Sie Recherchen
ber maschinelle bersetzung, optische Zeichenerkennung oder andere Bereiche durchfhren, in denen der Zugang zu Text in groen Mengen
ntzlich ist, wenden Sie sich bitte an uns. Wir frdern die Nutzung des ffentlich zugnglichen Materials fr diese Zwecke und knnen Ihnen
unter Umstnden helfen.
+ Beibehaltung von Google-Markenelementen Das "Wasserzeichen" von Google, das Sie in jeder Datei finden, ist wichtig zur Information ber
dieses Projekt und hilft den Anwendern weiteres Material ber Google Buchsuche zu finden. Bitte entfernen Sie das Wasserzeichen nicht.
+ Bewegen Sie sich innerhalb der Legalitt Unabhngig von Ihrem Verwendungszweck mssen Sie sich Ihrer Verantwortung bewusst sein,
sicherzustellen, dass Ihre Nutzung legal ist. Gehen Sie nicht davon aus, dass ein Buch, das nach unserem Dafrhalten fr Nutzer in den USA
ffentlich zugnglich ist, auch fr Nutzer in anderen Lndern ffentlich zugnglich ist. Ob ein Buch noch dem Urheberrecht unterliegt, ist
von Land zu Land verschieden. Wir knnen keine Beratung leisten, ob eine bestimmte Nutzung eines bestimmten Buches gesetzlich zulssig
ist. Gehen Sie nicht davon aus, dass das Erscheinen eines Buchs in Google Buchsuche bedeutet, dass es in jeder Form und berall auf der
Welt verwendet werden kann. Eine Urheberrechtsverletzung kann schwerwiegende Folgen haben.
ber Google Buchsuche
Das Ziel von Google besteht darin, die weltweiten Informationen zu organisieren und allgemein nutzbar und zugnglich zu machen. Google
Buchsuche hilft Lesern dabei, die Bcher dieser Welt zu entdecken, und untersttzt Autoren und Verleger dabei, neue Zielgruppen zu erreichen.
Den gesamten Buchtext knnen Sie im Internet unter http://books.google.com durchsuchen.

This is a reproduction of a library book that was digitized


by Google as part of an ongoing effort to preserve the
information in books and make it universally accessible.

http://books.google.com

't

"
'
5

'
.'

K-

'
"'

i
K
\

'

l
n

'

0
O

'

'

.
.

p
.
I

'

0
'
'

.
I

GRA'MMAR
OF THE

SANSCRIT LANGUAGJE,

BY H. T. COLEBROOKE, Eq.

VOLUME I.

Bayerische

Slczk; " = 'lSk


Main.

i!

CALCUT'TA:
PRINTED AT THE HONORABLE COMPANY's PRESS.
1805.'

0
0,

IF,

'

Lulu

'I

14

l'AIl-'n

Il

un'

a.

'nd

_._._,... .7.

>.lfl*!

nur

'

( viii )

ngularity o theiSaiz/'crit language may be noticed: its ads


mitting- both the ancient and the modern yems of gram
matical ructure.

It abOUnds in inections for caes and

genders; tenes and perons: and it alo admits a imple

conruction of indeclinable nouns with prepoltions, and of


participles with auxiliary verbs.

THIs remark anticipates on apart o the grammar, re


erved or the econd volume; in which compoition and
yntax will be explained, with other matters indicated in

the note ubjoined to the table of Contents of the r


Volume.

A comous table of corrections and emendations is


added.

Though coniderable attention was beowed on

the correction

o the work at the

pres, ome errors

unavoidably ecaped notice; for which the be apology is


to take the earlie opportunity of marking for emendation
uch o them as have been yet oberved.
i

HIS)
LIST or SAN'SCRIT GRAMMARS wmz
COMMENTARIES,

&c.

Su'tm by PA'N'iNi : rules of grammar in eight bdoks entitled Az\tdd'/zy.


a'ya ; compriing 3,996 aphorims.

Veirtz'ca by CAlTYActYANA, am'ending or explaining PA'N'im's rules.


Mahdb/za'hya by PATANJALI? interpreting or correcting CA'T Yn'YANA's

annotatlons.

Ma/zdbhahya-radza by CAIYYATU, annotating PA'i'AujALi's glas.


Biqihya-pradzo'dydta by NA'coctjt BHAT'T'A, commenting on CAXYYAT'A'S
notes.

Bqhya-mdia vivam'ia by l's'wARA'NANDA; anothexct' commentary on


CAIYYAT'A'S notes.
Ccijzica' vrftti by JAYA'mTYA or VA/MANA jAYAimTYA: a perpetual com

mentary on PA'N'iNI's rules.

Padanmnjarz' by HARADATTA Mis'RA t' an 'expoition Of the la [eh

tioned work.
dem or Cziiicd v-rFtti panjz'cd by JINE'NDRA: another expoition of the
ame* with explanatory notes by RACSHITA.

Vttz' Saszgralza by NAco'Ji BHAT'TCA; a Concie commentary on PAJN'iNi.


Bkej/zd w-Itti by PpRUSi-io'TTAMA ma'sz : a commentary on PA'N'LNI's

rules (omitting thoe, which are peculiar to the dialect of the Vedas),
Blzdha' vr'tyart'lm vivrfctzi by SaictSHTiD'HARA ; explaining?r Puausnoiruja
M'Ais commentary.
S'abda cau/Zub/La by BHAT'T'octJx' m'cs'm-r A, coning of Scholia on

PA'N'iNx (let incomplete by the author).


Pra/La' by BAmYANA'T'HA PA'YAGUNQA alo named BA'LAM BHAT'i'A;

a commentary on the Sabda' cauub/za.


Pracrz'ya' Caumudz' by RA'MACHANDRA A'CHA'RYA : a grammar in which
PA'N'xNi's rules are ued; buti his arrangement changed.
Prqa'da by ViT'T"HALA A'CHA'RYA : a commentary on the Pracrzrd
Caumudi.
Tatzpa chandra by JAYANTA: another dqmmentary on the ame, abride

ed from one by CRii'SHN'A PANDITA.


* I ate this with ome diru, not having yet een the book.

The Nyz is univerally

Wed 5 and the Bid'binyzzz is frequently o. VO'PADE'VA'S Ca'Wa Czimad'l'inu quotes the N (i a
delNl/NDRA and that oJLNE'NnRA Bunn'nt.

(x)
Szdhdnta Caumudi by BHA-r"r'o'Jt'm'csniTi-.: a grammar on the plan
of the Pracrz'yd ; but more correct and complete.
Maeramd or Pr'auW/za Mandmmd by the ame author; containing notes

on his own work.


Tatwa bdd'birzi by JNYA'NE'NDRA SArtAswart': a commentary on BHAT'
T'O'Jti's Sidd'lza'nta Caumudi.

S'abdndu Sc'c'hara by NA'Ge's'A BHAT'T'A (ame with NA'G o'JI BHAT'T'A)2


another commentary on the Sidd'lta'rzta Caumudz'.

Lag'lzu tabde'ndu &ed/ram : an abridgment of the la.


C/iz'da'ltimdld by BAtDYANA'T'HA PA'YAGUND A : a commentary on the

'abridged glos of NA'GE'S'A.


S'aba'arrztna by HARI DticsmTA: a commentary on BHAT'T'O'Jt"s notes on
the Mandramci.
Lag'lzu Sabdamtna: an abridgrnent of the ame.

B/zdvaracdkz'cd by BALDYANA'T'FA PA'YAGUND A : an expoition Of HAa


'
RiDt'csmTA's commentary.
Mad'lzya Caumudi by BARADA RA'JA: air abridgment of the Sidd'lzdrzts
Caumudi.

There is alo a Mad'byu Man67'amd ; beides other abridg

ments Of the Sidd'hdnta itelf, as the Lag'hu Ctzumudz' &C.

ParibhaJhd : maxims of interpretation from ancient grammarians, cited


in the Vdrticas and B/Lcjhya, as. rules for interpreting PA'N'iNt's slit-ws.

Parib/'zq'ha' witte' by S'riRA DE'VA : a commentary on the cited maxims of


mterpretation.

Lag'lru Parib/uz'ha' with; by BHA'SCARAjziiA'TiAt a uccinct commen


tary on the ame.

a;

Paribhajhdrt'hahngraha.* another commentary on the ame.

Chandrica' by SWAY AMPRACA's'A'NAant interpreting the la mention


ed commentary.

'_

Pan'blvq'hEndu kid/ram by NA'GE'siA BHAT'T'A: a brief expoition of the


ame maxims.

_ '

Parib/zq'hindu Se'c'ha'ra ca'fz'm by':-,,BA1DYANA'T'HA PA'YAGU-NDA; com

menting the glos of NAiczisQii:

i. p

Cd-rz'ca': metrical rules of grammar, citediTin the Mazibhahya, Cdiz'ca.


with' &C.

'

Vdcyzz'fradlia by BHARTRTHARL: metrical maxims chiey on the philoo


phy of yntax. Thee are often cited under the name ofH ARlC A'xrc A'.

Ftii )
L'E- Thefollowing belong to other Sjcms of Grammar,
de'awati mcrziyzi by ANUBHU'Tr sWARU'PA'cn A'RYA : a grammaz;
founded on even hundred rules or aphorims, pretended to have

been received by the author from the goddes SAR Aswujr'. This
grammar'is much ued in Hindulan proper.
A commentary on the ame 'by PLJNJARAiJA.

Another by MAHI'BHAT'T'A.
gidd'lzdnta that'erth : another 'commentary on the ame grammar.

Padac/zandrt'cg' : another, in which PA'N'iNr's aphorims are alo exhibiteg:

Haimazyticamria by. HE'M ACHANDRA or HB'MAsuinr'. A Sancrit gramz

mar is cited under this title, which is probably the ame with Ht'M A:
CHANDRA'S Commentary on the S'abddnusdsana, entitled Lag'lzuvtti;
compried in eight books, including. in the la the anomalies of the
fra'cht language as derived from the Sancri't. (The Crimad'zfnu cites

a S'abda'nusa'sana by ABHINAVA S'A'CAT'A'YANA beides He-'M Asu'iu's


Work',

This grammar is ued by. the inm.

A Commentary, without the author's name, is annexed to HE'MACH AN:


DRA'sgrammar.
Prdgrta manm-amd: an abridged commentary on the Pra'cia chandrz'ca'of

VAL Antient ; howing the anomalies QfPrdcrIt formed from Sarzct;

Qa'tantm or Cala'a: a grammar, of which the rules or aphorims are


acribed to the god CUM A'RA. It is much ued in Bengal.
i
Paurgaiz'zlzi : a commentary on the above by DURGASINHA ; but ated
in
the introductory
to be the Ca'mad'lzinu.
work o SARVA VARMAN,
who
is accordinle
cited couplet
in VolPADEiV-'S
I
A

Cdtantm witte' t'z'ca' by DURcAsmHA: an expoition of- the above men,


tioned commentary. (The Ca'mad'e'rzu quotes the Durga. fice' of Dun

GAGUPT A, and the Cdtantm m'a'm of VARDiHAMA'N A Mts'u).

La'tantra qnjiczi by TIthp'anNAn A'SA; a commentary on the ame


grammar.

Caldatatwa'rziava
commentary onby
theRAGHUNANDANA
ame grammar. A'CHA'RYA s'IRo'MAN'I; another
i
Ca'tantm c/zandrica' : another commentary on the ame,

( xiii )
Chaitracuti by VARARUCHi: another on the ame.

Pya'r'lzyda'm by HARLRA'M A CHACRAVAR'rii: another commentary.


Pydc'lzyda'm by RA'MADA'SA : another, under the ame title,
Other commentaries on the ame grammar by SUSHE'NA CAVIRA/j A,

RAMA'NA'T'HA, UMA'PATi, CULACHANDRA, and MunAm.


Ca'tantm purifizt'a by SiRi'PATIDATTA : a upplement to the Ccitantra.
Paritiht'a mbo'd'lza by GO'PL'N A'T'HA : a commentary on the above.

Parishfaidhdnta ratndcam by S'iVARA'M A CHACRAVA RTii: another


on the ame.
Ca'tantm gmia d'lza'tu: the roots or themes yematically arranng for
the Ca'tantra.
i
Manrama' by RAMA/N A'T'HA : a commentary on that li of verbs.

Many other treaties belong to this grammar; as the Ca'tantm S/zafcdraca


by RAHASANANDI', the Ca'tantm Unddzi with' by S'1VADA's'A, the Cd'

tantm chatuj/zt'aya mdfpa, Cdtantm d'lzdtug/'Lf/M, Ca'iantm tabula


ma'ld, &e.

Sanc/hztaa'm by CRAMADi'siWARA : a grammar, corrected by Jurm


RANANDI', and often cited under the title of Jaumam.

This gram

mar is in ue in Bengal.
A commentary on the above, by Go'YIiCHANDRA.

I/jra'caim dfpica by NYA'YAP ANCHA'N ANA : an expoition o'f GoiYi'cmm


DRA'S commentary.

Another expoition of the ame commentary by VANSI'VADANA.


Durg'kat'a gafana : another commentary on the Sancztaa'm..

Other commentaries on the ame grammar, by dierent authors, as


l

GOPALA CHACRAVAR'H' &e.

A upplement to JUMARANANDlos corrections of the Sang/hita'm by


Go'YictCHANDRA.
Other treaties appertain to this grammar, as Siabdagghd, D'lza'tu
glzczd &c.

Mugd'abo'd'ta by Vo'PADa'VA: a grammar of the Saazcrit language,


much udied in Bengal.
A commentary by the author of the grammar.

Another by DthGA'D A's A, entitled Subo'd'lzz'ni.

( xvi )
quently cites the Tarangin'i, A'oharan'a, Sidbdicdbbaran'a, Samantd, Pracrz'yzi

ratnzz and Pratx'pa.


The Vdrtica: of VYA'G'HRA BHUTI and VYA'G'HRA PA'nA are mentioned by

many authors; and o is the D'bdtupdra'jana.

Vo'PADr/va, in the Ceimad'binu, has

quoted the Panjiai pr'adipa of CusiALA, (belonging perhaps to the grammar called
Czitantm ,-) and the Sarawati mntaibbaran'a (acribed by ome to BHO/jA DE/VA).

The Pradda often cites the Rdmavya'camn'a, and eems to name Vo'PADE'VA as
the author of it.
The following. are, among others, noticed in the D'bdtudipica' o DuncA'nA'SA,
viz. BHAT'T'AMALLA, Go'ViNDA nuAT'r'A, CHATURBHUJA, GADASINHA, Goivaa
D'HANA, and SAR.\l*I,ADE/VA

( mit )
Page;
C.

5. Q.

5. Maculines in In,

6. Feminines in In,

6. Nouns in 3, 3 and I,

Y.

49

7. Feminine-Pronouns in In,
C.

1. Maculines in 'i and 3,

2. Feminines in 'Z and I,

50

..

51

5z

52

54,

3. Maculines in II,

..

55

4. Feminincs in I',

56

5. Ncuters in 3, 3' and II,

6. Numerals in 3,
..
.
7. Inection of Neuter Nouns, which are alo Macu
C.

line,
7. Nouns in 'is and I,

s.

1. Maculines in T? and I,

8. Nounsin II &e.

-.

..

3. Neutcrsctin i and I,

2. Feminines in 'Z and I,


C.

..

55

53
59
60

60

63

..

65

65

i'

S.

1. Nouns in II, 'Go and 55


2. Nouns in T,

3. Nouns in U,

*
-

*-

..

..

.. .

T,

5. Nouns in I,

66
67

..

67

4. Nouns in

C.

.
-

9. Pronouns and Numerals ending in Cononants.

s.

1. Pronouns,
-.
2. Numerals ending in Cononants,

1. Nouns in ZI, I, I and Uka

69

..

59
75

..

77

2. Nouns in a, II, I, [I'Land I,


C. 11. Nouns ending in Apirated Cononants,

68
-

C. 10. Nouns ending in Semivowels and Naals,

'A

57

77

.
.

79
83

(xix)
i

C. 11.

Page.

2. Nouns ending in II, T, T, 3: and 91,

3. Nouns endingin 51,


4. Nouns in I,

1. Nouns in a,

2. Nouns in I, TTN and


-

4. Nouns in V; ,

_ o

5. Nouns in Ft ,

C. 15. On Indeclinables,

C. 16. On Conjugation,
s,

..

_
.

..

I 08
120

..
'

loo

10;

1. On the Roots of Verbs,

98

2. On the Axes,

.
-

.
-

95
96

'-

95,

C. 14. Derivation of Feminine Nouns,

9z

90
92

d-

6. Nouns in I, 2ziand T,

87

C. 13. Gender of Nouns,

u-

3. Nouns in g',

86

5. Nouns in Ft,
'C. 12. Nouns ending in Unapirated Cononants,
s.

86

129

129

132

3. Permutations'of the Axes,


.
.
[37
4. Axes diinguihed by Fictitious Indicatory Letters, 143
5. Synopis of Conjugation,
_
.
,
144
C. 17. On Augments,

Q.

i -

r. The Prefix Zg,

2. The Prexes

Md TT,

3. Prexes of lnective Roots,

..

4. Final and Medial Augments,

C. 18. On the Permutation of Roots,

5.

..

149

153

..

149

- _

154

...

155

34..

156

r. Permutations of the Original Roots before A'rd'ha


d'ha'ttuca Axes,

156

2. Permutations of U; and UL with a and I,

3. Permutations of Orthography,
' 4. Reduplication ofa Syllable,

5.. Permutation of Semivowels,

a
-

157

..
a

15,
._.

162

9
[65

( XX )
Page.

C. 18. 5. 6. Permutation ofDiphthongs,


C. 19. Inective Roots,
s.

...

..

1. Permutation of lnective Roots,

,57
-

168

168

2. Permutations of Roots, and of their Terminations,

before A'rd'had'hatuca Axes,


169
3. Permutations of Roots, and of their Terminations,
before various Axes,
17 l
4. Subitution of Gun'a and Vridd'hi Letters,
174
'5. Permutations of Vowels,
5.

176

6. Permutations of R00ts before an Indicatory I,

178

7. Rejection and Inertion of Ft,


C. 20. Paradigma of the Verb N
s.

..

179

180

1. Conjugated in the Active Voice,


180
2. Conjugated in the Middle Voice as a Deponent Verb, 184.
3. 'Conjugated with the Ax ile in the Middle Voice. 188
4. Derivatives from TL,
5. Imperonal,

..

6. Paive,
.. _.7. Recipcoeal or Neuter Pave,
C. 2t. Verbs of the Fir Clas,
Art.

189

195

197
199
zoo

1. Verbs terminated by Dental Cononants with Indica

tory Vowels graver accented, and containing E


\ cient Vowels acutely accented,

20;

- i 3.
2. Verbs
With Indicatory
acutely
accented, with- In 209
terminated Vowels
by guttural
Cononants,

dicatoFy Vowels gravely accented, and containing


Ecient Vowels acutely accented,

4. With Indicatory Vowels acutely accented,

217

- _

22;

5. Verbs terminated by Palatial Cononants with Indi

catory Vowels gravely accented, and containing


. Ecient Vowels acutely accented,
225
6. With Indicatory Vowels acutely accented,

228

7. Verbs terminated by Cerebral Cononants, with In

dicatory Vowels gravely accented, and containing


Eicient Vowels acutely accented,
236

C H A P T E_ R

I.

ON THE ELEMENTS._
SECTION L
THE ELEMENTS or DEi/AN/ZGARIZ oa CHARACTER
IN wmcn THE SANSCRIT LANGUAGE Is WRITTEN.

awmaw.
V O 'W E L S.
Letters. Names.

Powers.

WNT

or e as e in her, i in ir, and u in un.*

as a in ball.

zzT

as i in t.

'SENT

as ee in feet.

IN?

as u in pull.

1'1

as oo in pool. '

ri

as ri in merrily.

rI

the ame long.

I;"

MWMMMMMMMM

Him?

HUT

Tail?

lri nearly as lry in revelry.

lri the ame prolonged.

Tail?
Tail?

as e in there.

a"i

as i in ne, and

Y in'my.

o This is the hort ound of the Greek Alpha and Latin a; as

[1227qu Ganges, Tf.

And

almo all European nations, concur in uing a or e to expres this ound, when the Roman character is

employed for Aiatick words.

'3

._ g'

*v"_* '4

[3]
CONSONANTS.
Letters. Namer.

Po'wm-L

as d in deal.

SENT

d'h as dh- in red-haired.

=
'Et

FWT
'TT-U?

n
P

WEET?

p'h as ph in hap-hazard.

'i

3]

Hail?

as n in noble.
as p in pen.

as b in ball.

bh as bh in abhor.

JT

as m in man.

as y in yet.

as r in run.

as l in lull.

H or

is;

'II

Hail;"

as v in valve.

Ell

Wa?

nearly as ih in hun.

a harher ound of the ame kind.

as s in in.

as h in hair.

UTYT

a
3

(at-ma-t;

lch asa ound


cti in partaking
ction, of 1 and r, peculiar to the

Veda. *
See conjunct cononants in a eparate Table.

SECTION II.
JUNCTI'ON OF LETTERS.
VOWELS WITH CONSONANTS.
C

ca ca

ci

ci

cu cu

cr'i cri clri clri

ce

cai

'\

55.

co cau can cah

tlatftaat Lzrzs-zg 3.: a; ctx 'ekeSt _:an To


cut
The vowels are imilarly conjoined with other cononants.

The r vowel, or imple element, being conjoined with a cononant,

is not marked by any pecial ign; but the abence of vowels, when the
* It occurs however in ome of the modern provincial dialect: 5 particularly in that of the Southern

part of the Indian peninula.

[5]
This pecimen of conjunct Cononants formed of two elements will
alo erve to make intelligible other compounds formed of two, three, or

more, elements: Ex. a? the moon, (where


and I are con.
junct); I? a camel; (where
and I are conjunct) WMaiq
or

the woman ows etds of eamum. [where

ZHKMI and q or

and 'ZL are conjunct]

S E C T I O N

I I I.

NATURAL ORDER or THE ELEMENTS WITH THE NAMES


OF THE SEVERAL SETS.

VOWELS an:
I!

3ill

II

MWSH-W

TQT
aairs!
CONSONANTS

00

Di-Ir

'altaria or

as

'er

si

WET-T?

'55

Earl:

a,

'I

Z'

Hair:

71

7'

nati:

t'

1!

I?

Hair:

T.

Fat:

'6

gz

w;
4

WET:

* I is he: : mute (C. 2. S. 2. Note q) and renders the letter a deignation of the homogeneous
elements (5. 5.), in the ame manner, in which a vowel, not rericted by a mute a; (S- 6,), is a de
ignation of homogeneous vowels, unles propounded as an ax (C. 2.
inection.

2.) for the purpoe of

[5]
S E C T I O N

I V.

AN ARTIFICIAL ARRANGEMENT or THE ELEMENTS WITH 'me


DENOMXNATIONS DEDUCED THEREFROM.

&Hast-lift'
an 2 an

WHEN:
am

a? TT:

Wz TT

ram e;

I?

T sti-a

a? Ya; viii

e a a T a:

Bag

'

U UL

But 7th auL

Ft a I m a' I

SILWLYIL

a: nt 'a
a 2; A Et

a a vr 2' 2; a

amazaaza
a r: a

man:

'e a

[T]

na
Wit-I TT

Wattis: But maaaaa

aa
na na 'Ji'ql'dil

a: arte-tra: ax

Karaaaramara

The ame UUIETUZ dierently enumerated.

am Sing IN; sua SEZLTL

WZL are;

zaz 'St an Ear Te: UL ii


'en SENT wi 7151 Wit a? tra aaz 'ter
V'Zl &TT-'t We Wit Wl T?
Wil an
UKWZSKVZFZEH

E 7 J
is any letter;

avowel;

aconoriant;

a gua diphthong;

a imple

vowel;

a diphthong;

a erdd'lzi diph

thong;

(1.) a imple vowel excluive of X and II;

a e

mivowel; IN'L (2d.) avowe] or emivowel including s; DE the


ame or a naal cononant;
cononant;

a emivowel or a naalj;

a hard

II aoft one; II an apirated oft conOnant; F A;

an unapirated one;

II a hard or a oft conona tu;

or a naal or a emivowel;

a ibilant;

any cononant except 3;

the ame or

the ame,

; al;

any vowel except V ; SQZLa vowel

or emivowel including ZQ' but excluding a; T either I or a .


The re may be underood from thee examples.
It is, obvious, that the nals of SiVA's Szitms are not comprehended in
this arrangement of elements, but erve for the denominations deduced

from it. The ue of placing '3 in two Stitms is evident from the Ta
tyd/ia'ms

and

The Prag/a'lia'm T, with a naal vowel, is de

duced from the vowel contained in the Szitm

. Cononants are

here exhibited with the imple element for the ake of the uttering of

them, but the cononants themelves 3 I &c. are intended.

SECTION V
HOMOGENEOUS AND CONGENIAL ELEMENTS.
N. B. A vowel and cononant cannot be homogeneous.

[3]
WWHTZUUFTZ or mode of articulation,
preparatory to the utterance of the ound.

w or UTHL or organ of WET, or contact

on?

peech (which the tip, middle, of the tongue with

or

or root of the tongue touches, the appropnate or- ight cow

or approaches, in pronouncmg gan of peech.

the everal letters).

tact_

t::::ht: 2:
th: organv if

peechut with

out Coma,

Throat

TT:

a; U in

Palate

are;

aaHIF

What-2

Teeth
Roofofthemouth z':
F-TRKi

2
H'ZIPZ'ZTW
3 g- '6 U

Ft If
nag

Lips

a m a' 11 a

stile?

3 Bil I'll

Lips and teeth

3I

Throat and palate

Throat and lips


HIFJZ UUFWZ

'q T

'Lia-5'

g Wa

or mode of articulation at the cloe of the utterance of

the ound.

Zlftilapi' NNW Kneaaazzmaaa'naaarea


sra Pl'- WBTWUzE-Ia
am?"o &C' or expan' i 'aim

at:

_,ce

as: not

I? T'TU THE and the twins * of the

ion of the throat, a-


1
l
a U z
.
.
cute articulatLOn,
&C.
3 ame ettcrs; a O Yf?
a v 9"

FHTTZ &C. or contrac- i "a, x

Woe

d
an

an

tion of the throat, ob--

and a
t

tue articulation, &C.


TVHS

and H'

Vowels accented with the acute accent, with the


grave, or with the circumflex.

* YVhen the fth letter ot a et (viz. a naal cononant) follows immediately after one of the four
r of the et, this is doubled; and the letter thus interpoed (or underood, for it is not uually inerte

ea) is called its twin.

E 9 3

Homogeneous elements are thoe which arc referred to the ame or

gan of peech, and-uttered by the ame mode of articulation; as'in the


fir part of this table. Congenial elements, not- homogeneous, arect"deter
mined from the econd part of it. , 3
. The naal cononants are I, FL, Ill," 'o and 71; but the emiVowe'ls

I, a and I are ometimes naal: and two of the emivowels, I and


I, are in ome circumances articulated with entire relaxation of every

part of the tongue; and this is denominated a hort utterance of them.

SECTION VL
LENGTHS AND TONES OF THE VOWELS.
N. B.

When a vowel is mentioned in a rule of grammar, the homo

geneous elements (that is, all the tones and lengths of it) are included in _

the rule, unles it be rericted, by the letter I ubjoined, to the parti


cular length exhibited

WElTZ or naal.

WaWsjeassaaazaWsHQ-a:
Lengths.

Accented

Accented with

Accented

with the a- the grave ac- with the circure accent. cent.

25i?
gie:
3 a 3 Continuous
Short
Long '

a-T
Fj'
Bil

Acute

cent.

ac-

Cixcumgcx
Grave accent.

accent'

cumex.

Bil-T
I'

Ill
Sal
I? 3

Fill
l
if 2 X i
in 3

Zl 2

The lengths and tones of the other vowels are imilarly ditinguihed.
But a is not long but continuous; and T, I, Sj, and U, are
never hort, but either long or continuous.

[14]
directed to be inerted, is an augment

(WTTTT),- whether. this be

initial, or nal, or ubjoined to the la vowel contained in the term

or ax.* Brain is a ubtitute, whether it be directed to be put inead


of the initial or of the final element; or take the place of the whole, or
ele o a particular letter in the term or in the axrl' Even the expung

ing Of letters is

fer this operation is conidered as the ubti

tution of a blank:
t

author of the grammar: and many axes are directed to be treated in certain circumances, as if
they contained certain-mate letters. Thee may be aid to be ictitiouy diinguihed by uch letters.
lt hould be noticed in repect of ams, that

the mot part, are a; and

T,

when initial in an ax, is mutc; and o, for

I, or any letter homogeneous with either of them, when initial of an


N

aix: and o always are a z , I, and any letter homrogeneous with the lat, being initial of

an axi other thancta

one. It mu be alo remarked, that TL) II and I, or any

letter hemogeneous with the lat, are never mute (even though originally nal) in
ax denoting cae or peron.
The ues of the mute letters will be hown in their proper places.

it may be here noticed, thata ll or

an

But as an example of their ue,

letter (though the ubitution of uch a letter

may have been directed by ome general rule) hall not be ubituted in right o that, which really

or ctitioully contains amute as or I:


'\

* That which is really or ctitiouy diinguihed by a mute I is initial; by a mute I,


'x
k

is nal; and, by a mute 71, is ubjoined to 'the la vowel. Whether this be, or be not, followed by a
cononant.
_
-_
T What is directed to be ubtituted in place of ome term indicatcd by the rule, hall be ubituted
for the nal letter only, unles the ubitute coni of more than one element, or be diinguihed by

a mute

for uch a ubitute hall be put in the place of the whole term: but one diinguihed

by a mute I ( even though it contain more than 'one element) hall be ubituted for the nal ; and,
onthe contrary, an alteration of the ubequent term, in right o the preceding one, is rericted to the initial.

To underand thee rules, it is neeelary to advert to the key for the conruction of the aphorims of
grammar: viz. when that, in right of Which an inection takes place, is exhibited in the eventh or

locative cae, the conequent operation aects a preceding term only; when it is exhibited in the fth
or ablative, it aects the ubequent term only: and what might haVe been uppoed to and, but mu

be altered, is exhibited in the ixth or poeive. Hence the ma'xirn that * the nominative cae diin
guihes the ubitute; the poeive, that, in place of which the ubitute is put; the ablative, that,
folliwing which uch ubiitution takes eect; and the locative, that in right of which, when it follows,

the ubitution mu be made)


I ln this ene a blank is denominated

which ignies, that the letter diappears, being

neither uttered nor heard, neither exhibited nor read.

When uch a blank is ubituted for an ax,

other operations, that depended on the ax, (for example a change o the inective root,) do never
theles take place: but

A and
0

are alo names for the expunging o axes ; and,

When-a blank is ubituted under one of thee denominations, the inflectiv'e root remains unaected by
the expunged ax.

Other purpoes of thee diinct denominations will appear in the proper places.

__-

__.__.,

_ 7..-

'LYM

__

E 21 I
*\

*\

orbot'n-'F Ex. sia) thoe here. WsEi OVihnu!


here

)_ 'l' For it is uual to inert this diacritical mark

g,

named half a, to denote the preence of the vowel; for the ake of avoid

ing the ambiguity which might arie; epecially when the vowel, which
thus merges in the preceding element, was the privative or negative a.

6. lf

a imple vowel, excepting a, be the nal of a word, and

be followed by aheterogeneous vowel ordiphthong

it may be

retained inead o ubituting the emivowel, and the hort vowel may
in this inance be ubituted for along one. Ex. Vaii Via, Of Hi-Hi
Ya', or

the god, that is armed with a dicus, is here.

But,

within the word, or in a compound term, no uch option is admitted:

Ex. I dual of

; Bile? for the' ake of Han'.

7. A continuous vowel is unalterable, though a vowel follow in com


poition; and o are certain vowels denominated
in certain cir
cumances.

Vz'z.

'LZ and 'T being nal in the dual number; '45 and

I following 71 in the inections of the pronoun

this, or termi

nating a word that bears the ene of the locative cae; a particle coni
* It hould be remarked, that a ingle letter, ubituted for tWO, is conidered as the nal o one term,
and the initial of the other.
1-

Th may be retained unaltcred when the diphthong is nal in the word, if the next term be

gin with a hort

or

may be ubituted for that nal, beore any


'N

Vowel: but this

mu be o ubituted when Ya, or Wa, follows.

a window (literally a hull's eyc); le'g chief of hulls;


abull's bide;

FIFTH

or

chief of bulls;

Ex. WITH:

nal a,

nal-U', Thu.

or

the bull': front.

The optionis allowed when aimple vowel

is followed by a hort

I'

and

,.
that, even in a compound term, but not within an inected word.

or
ages.

Brabm the holy age;

Er.

qglg,

of the even

_--\-

_-'-.

E 24 3
6. According to one authority duplication does not take place, if the
conjunct already coni of three or more cononants.

Ex. g the

moon. According to another ancient grammarian, it always mu be


omitted. Ex. U] O hides. And even thoe, who maintain the co
gency of the preceding rules, do not allow uch duplication after a long
vowel.

Ex.

a veel.

7. I, being contiguous to YL, or to a palatine cononant (HHTFL


is changed to 'XL The ame, being contiguous to I, or to acerebral
cononant
), is changed to ql. So a dental cononant (aai

being contiguous to a palatine (UHTii or preceding (not following) 'XL

is changed to the correpondent palatine

to I; A; to Z &c_);

and being contiguous to a cerebral ( ZHF ), or following (not pre


ceding) "T, it is changed to the correpondent cerebral

to ZL &c.), But neither I, nor FLScc. (Hafi

to Z\, K;

become cerebral

after a: &c. (ZHTU when thee terminate a word.*

Ex. TWIZ

who is the hero? THIS who is ixth? F that painting (31


+ij); g: a queion: HYU its commentary (+ja);

nag: being ixth; Hz'ag being ix.


8. When Qollows a dental cononant (HTl), a naal a hall be
ubituted for uch dental letter.

Ex.

writingrl'

the wie man is

(6

9. 3, following a hard or oft cononant

), may be changed,

into a congenial letter; (that is, into the oft apirated cononant, for this is
Ex.
' Except

however I
ninety-ix.
in the yllable WE,

and in the words


a

1'

to rie, and

others, are auomalous compounds, wherein

X;

and this is transformcd into

and
.

to erect, and ome

I is changed to a letter homogeneous to the preceding

'Hik regularly; and the medial

FL is expunged.

27 3

be ubituted for Fa'ari before the g'uttural and labial hard cono
nants*; and

mu be retained before ahard cononant followed

' This is ubject to numerous cxceptions; in ome of which


thee elements, or inead of I ,
r.

In

before the guttural and labial letters.

U who? and who"? and in certain other words,

ubituting
any emivowel,X or3 vowel
in certain
execpt others,
U.

2.

In generai

I is ubituted inead of

Ft

is retained, inead of

I is ubituted for

is ubituted for

following

before the guttural and labialcononants, when

early
thee are
lathe
not morning).
initial (Ex. Before the ax bad
mal,
milk). bExcept
it is particles
ubituted
(Ean
for the fame deduced

from

I,

'I

not fromanatural

(inead of

vowel except

(Ex.

Tg

deires elocution).

is ubituted in uch circumances, after

U (or

W),

Ear.

But

any femivovivel or

a little butter.

3. (I is ubituted for the ame in the prepofition (Ch. 2. 5. i. 2.) WITH, and in the
word

When o' denominated

(Exu

alutes).

is

3
4.

or

a:

(Ex.

But

before the guttural and labial cononants


U; is the ubitute in aterm, the penultimate of which

ill done),except axes; and excepting

is optionally ubituted for the ameinthe word

one who acts direpcctully), and


Et, a,

and
or

and

II,

(Ex.

or

I may be o ubituted in the numerals

employed in the acceptation of the ax

(Em

does twice); and o it may in the terminations

provided the following word, beginning with the guttural or labia] letter, be con

nectcd within
in ene
with that term,
which unles
is terminated
uch yllable.
But that
this ubitution
take
place
a compound
it containbyanother
word before
which dis o mu.
terminat

ed: and the ubitution of a after A


beforethe terms

(unles in an undeclinable word) mu take place,

I, I, TF, In, ma, IN,

or

Hint,

within acom

pound term; unles this alo contain another preceding term.


s.

The fame takes place in a compound term, formed of

or

with

WZ,

provided no other term precede.


.

Ex.

a upreme foot on the head.

a foot
__ .

on

the head;

[28]
by a ibilanti Ex.

who preads? 'gz or WIFE? who

is the hero? (For a: is changed to 'XL on account of the ubequen't


palatine.)

or

pears;

or

who does?

Ham-i ap

UZFBTSS which is the

handle (of the word)?


6; For U: Wheh it terminates a wOrd, TS (that is, I; fdr

is' here'

hall
mute;)
be ubituted
hall be ubituted.
for I; at theEx.
end of a word, re
if a ibilanf
here. And
or hard con

onant
WET:

fellow, or i a paue, or disjunfiion' of letter's, enue.


re;

Early.

Again, Ft is ubituted for

Ex.

inLthe '

circumances
but re); and I
mentioned
(being thein natural
the preCeding
termination
paragraph
o a word)
(Ex.hall be re

tained, when a vowel, emivowel, naal, or hard cononant, follows.

Ex. UTHQ'H early here. But I hall be ubituted for 'I (not fore
natural

after a hort 31, if a hort U', or if a oft cononant, a n'aal,

or a emivowel, including

follow (provided neither be

370. Ext H'g what is the meaning? Hip-la? who is gone? And '

q hall in like manner be ubituted for E- after Hi (or Am), if Fast)


a vowel (excluding for the mo part a hort Hi), or a emivowel includ

ing s (but excluding I), or a naal, or a oft cononant, follow; and


this may be expunged before vowels, and mu be o before cononants;
Ex.

or

Gods here;

Gods travel*.

i E, ubituted o? the nals of


tives of

thou,

and
God, and

In

(irregular voca

inful), is convertib'le into

a;

before the ame letters. This emivowel may be conidered as a hort one, when it is the nal
of a Word, and is followed by the" letters' abovementioned

(I or

is expunged after

But the emivowel

I,

T ;

as it is after

a,

and a hort emivowel

before the particle

(I)_

whether long or hort, is expunged in thoe three vocatives, before con

onants, in like manner as after U ( or My

[31]

CHAPTER

lV.

ON DECLENSION.
SECTION I.
TABLE or AFFIXES pon THE INFLECTION o'F NOUNS,

m SEVEN CASES, AND THREE NUMBER'S.

Hand Sand argued


Singular.

warn

Fir

If,

Plain]

Second
Third

' sti
ZT *

Dual.

'Ill
-

gnarr

Plural.

H
VZT

'WHAT

Fourth

wa

Fifth

ZTFH

sum

mit

Sixth

YZI

suer

AN:
W
Wl

U U:

TT,

Seventh

N. B.

Ft, I, ZN, If, and "I, are here mutc; and o is

in TT

but not in U.
N

' This is likewie named


the ve r, from

_ fteen, from a

m.
A

to

(or

The whole twenty-one axes are denominated


and the econd and fth,

to

0
the la

are called

Thee denominations are formed, like the Pratya/uira: deduced from \Siva': Szitrar (Ch. r. 5. iv.),
- by the rule', that a preceding term, with a ubequent mute element
m.nation of itelf, as well as of the intermediate terms.

T'

is a deno

[33]
joined in the ingular of the nominativ'e cae to mo nouns 'ending in
vowels.

2,

"a, reduced to a ingleelement (and that a cononant), is ex

punged after a.term ending in a cononant, or in a vowel deduced

from the feminine axes


be long (ee Ch. 6.

or

i. 5.).

(Ch. 14.), provided uch vowel

The ame is expunged in the vocative ingu

lar after a crude noun ending in I or

or in a hort vowel.

is ubituted for

. 3. A blank

and

following an inflective 'root in'the neuter gcnder; but

root ending in a hort 31; and

after uch a

after certain pronouns

(viz. thoe terminated by In? &C. Ch. 5.

4- gilt (lCdUCCd frOm

(rit ad. ing)

and

iv.)_

'
i

(1. ed. du.), is ubjoined in

the dual of the nominative, vocative and objective caes, to mo nouns;

but

is ubituted for thoe axes

ending in 5;" dcduced from


root.

following a noun

(Ch. 14.), or any neuter inective


'

5. WH, deduced from Fl and w (1 . 2d. pl.), is ubjoined in


the plural of the nominative, vocativeand objective caes, to mo nouns:*

but

(iO is ubituted for thoe axes following a neuter inective

root: and all is ubituted ot HFL following any Other inective root'
of a pronoun ending in U.

6. S, dcduced from

or

(3d. ing), is ubjoined in the m

gular of the cauative cae to mo nouns; but 'ZTT is ubituted fO this

' The final

a:

is, as uual, convertible into

is ubituted for the nal of

&e. but, in themaculine gender,

following along vowel, that has been meg ubituted for

the coalccing vowels of the root and ax (ee


il

iv.).

34 l
aix after an inective root ending in I; and U, aftcra term den0_

minated

v. 3.), unles in the feminine gender.


.

'\

7.

SO I, deduced from

,_

(4th. ing), is ubjoined in the ingular

of the dative cae to mo nouns, but Q is ubituted for that ax, fol

lowmg an mflective root ending in I, unles thlS be a pronoun; for U


is the ubitute in uch an inance.

8. WH, deduced from Y'and

'(5th. 6th. ing), -is ub

joined in the ingular of the ablative and relative caes, to mo nouns:?"

but

is ubituted for

ective root ending in

and Hi for
However

following an in

is the ubitute for' YFFI, _

if uch inective rootbe a pronoun.

9. X, deduced from

(7th. ing), is ubjoined in the ingular ofthe

locative cae to mo nouns: but

is ubituted for that ax fol

lowing the inflective root of a pronoun in U; and

is the ubitute

after il, and after an inective root ending in U deduced from Ii-I;
is
(Ch.
alo14.),
the ubitute
or whoe after
termination
3 or Iis denominated
denominated Via;
Wit but
(3. v. 3.).
A is the ubitute after the ame letters not o denominated, and after any

term denominated la

v. 3.); but here U hall be ubituted for the *

nal of the crude noun.

(4th.
10.5th. 6th. 7th. ing)
is prexed
when fubjoined
to an ax
to an
diinguihed
inective root,
by a'the
mute
termi

nation of which is denominated W

v. 3.); and

is pre- ,

xed to uch an ax ubjoined to an inective root terminated by M

3-

is ubituted for

(ee Ch. 6. and 7.)

m thee axes following the conjunct

< k

or

Pa;

[35]
ing? but excluding a), and (, l3,)guttural and labial cononants,

and

intervene. UL is in like, manner ubituted for I im

mediately following II. _so 'As ubituted for Ft, contained in an'
ax or a ubitute, and following (ZUJ any vowel. excePt '31(and
cm/ ound'

Ill), or a. emivowcl including F, or

a guttural element, even

though the augment T( =>7 or 'HTl, c7' a ibiiant

inter-v

VCI'lC.

15. a', deduced from

(7th. pl.), is ubjo-ined in the plural of

the locative cae to all nouns. The initial of this ax is convertible

into Tin many inances, by the rule above cited.

SECTION

IV.

PERMUTATIONS or THE INITIALS or AFFIXES TO'


GETHER WITH THE FlNAL or THE ROOT. '
,. 1 r?"

N. B.

The following rules are extracted from the i eaion of

PA'N'iNI's 6th lecture.


1.

If a hort U, not being the nal of a word (U{), be followed

by a guyia element, a ingle letter, imilar to the la, hall be ubi


tuted for both.

2.

But when a vowel

excepting diphthongs, is followed by

axes of the fir and econd caes beginning with


any vowel
or diphthong, a ingle long vowel, homogeneous with the r, hall
be ubituted for both: and I is ubituted in the maculine gender

for the inal of


two elements.

(2d. pl.) after a long vowel o ubituted for uch


i

a),
LZdJ

and becaue a; (l ing) is'expungedvafter a nal cononant, many


rules relative to the nals of inflected' words are applicable to the mals

of crude nouns

2.

7.).

'

Mo nounslare derived from verbs by means of-aXCs:-but in

ome derivatives, through axes containing the yllable FET, in which '
I is mute, fuch ax, thus reduced to a ingle letter, is expunged, and
the derivative remains a verbal rooti Many rules relative to verbs are
conequently applicable to uch derivative nounsi and mo of the crude
nouns, which end in cononants, are of this ort (Ch. io._-12.).

The

terminations,
among cononants,
deduced
andfrom
I, axes,
W, "i,are'2.for theK,
motand
part
3!I,
among
FI: and.
vacls.

3.

From nouns of other genders, feminine nouns are derived with'

the
(Ch.terminations
14.). A noun
U,ending
'i andinI,'45 deduced
or T, invariably
for WTX,
feminine,
33, and
is called

H; unles its nal be convertible into 'Zq and II (Ch.7.$. 114.)


except Bel. However uch a noun (ill excepting
nominated before

may be o de

(7th ing), and before axes diinguihed by

a mute I; and a noun in '3 and 3, that is invariably feminine, may


be o denominated before the la mentioned axes. - Other nouns in

'i and 3' are called , excepting. 'H' and t, unles in com

poition (Ch. 6.).

'SECTION VI.
PERMUTATIONS or INFLECTIVE ROOTS.

N. B. The following rules are extracted from PA'N'iNI's 6th and 7th
lectures; but thoe, which are lea general, are here transferred from
the text to the notes. *
i
* Several rules, which occur in the three r ections of the 6th lecture, are here omit
ted; and o are thoe, which relate to the peronal and other pronouns ending in Cor-onants'
(Ch. 9.). They will be noticed ii the ubequent chapterS'of this grammar; where alo the

rules, contained in this chaptor, will b: exemplied (ee Ch. 5. - 12.).

'

L' 41 i

-.

7, .

ter inflective root ending in a vowel, or in any cononant but a naal or

emivowel: and before any ax

beginning with airoWelJthe

ame is inerted after the la vOWel of a neuter inective root. tending ii)
an

vowel.*

8.

The long vowel is ubituted for the nal of an infleEtive root end

ing in U, when followed by an ax of declenion


of which is 35, II, or a naal, or a emivowel

), the injtial
).

9. But 7; is ubituted for the ame, when followed in the plural


number by uch an ax, the initial of which is (THE ) any cononant
but a naal or emivowel, or when followed by leH (Gth 7th du.).
* But, according to GA/LAVA (an ancient grammarian), a neuter noun, bearing the ame
imporfor which it may be ued in the maculine, may be inflected like amaCuline one, in the

3d and following caes (ee Ch. 6.

vii.).

may be ubituted for the nal of

before the axes

,;

and of certain other neuters in i 2,

of the 3d and following caes beginning with vowels.

but'rT
it may
is not
be inerted
o in the
in neuter
the termination
gender of uch an
following
inective
an inective
root o terminated:
root denominated
and o it may, when

Bel

(r 2d neut.), or a termination denominated

term ending in

U (or

TT or

as,

follows.

ubjoined. to a

and mu, when the ame follows a term ending in the ax

(Ch. 12.

v.4..).

I -js inerted after the he Vowel of Bj'zg, When

(l ingzy follost 'n'ilt

aft is ubituted for the nal of fix, and 3;" for the final of _H,
and

before the ame ax.

for

U,

is ubituted for

before axes denominated

(in the two'

la terms), and

but a

blank

for the la voWel and ubequent cononant of thee terms, when denominated

egg? (IIFQ is ubituted for the nal cf "gift, before the HZSH'TPTH
axes: and thee axes following
contain a mute

(or any noun in

Ul'in right of them, the

are imilar to thoe which

element is'therefore ubituted for the

nal of the inective root]; and o they are (excepting the voc. ing) when ubjoined to

at
I

but

is ubituted for the nal of this term, and of an inective root in


N

E 48' ]
noun

half, may be declined like a common noun in nd pl. and

UW r, FTTT la, w little, and 'UU few, and derivatives

ending in an, may be inected like pronouns in 2d pl. and ordinals


ending in

5.

may be inected like pronouns in 4th 5th and 7th ng.*

The pronoun TT, employed as a nuineral, is invariably ingular;

and In is invariably dual: but ENU, according to therbe autho


rities, has no dual.

SECTION III.
NEUTER'S

IN

an.

1. a? knowledge. i 2d Sing. HFWI Du.


PZ. 'ii
The third and following caes are formed as in the mac.

Other examples are I? wealth, a? fore, HB water, EfQT blood;


and here again hall be ubituted for fz, like
for THE',
after I or I, notwithanding the intervention of certain letters
(Ch. 4. iii. 14.)._T_
'i Inv ome orts of compounds, the prenouns are not treated as uch; in others they are
optionany o; in others again they are optionally o for zd pl. only; in the re, they are treated 33
pronouns (ee derivation of compounds.). But none of them are pronotms, when ued as proper
names, or in compoition as terms of econdary importance in the compounds.

1- The changes of the axes are


He:

Qwherin

is mute) ubituted for

in the neuter gender (ee Ch. 4. 5 vi. 6. note 1.)z

mute) ubituted'for

and

(wherein

and
a is again

in the neuter gender (but in right of this amended

ax,
ubituted
I for is a.
inerted
(l after
ing.)a after
vowel,a neuter
and thenoun
vOWel
ending
is lengthened
in II, before
and the hort vowel re

tained as in 2d ing. wherein alo


1;

aliundred, and

but om: admit another gener (Ch. 13.).

is ubituted-for the original

(ee Ch. 4 }.

a thouand, with other high numerals, are moly neuter:

-**-*

"r w

-v- ,_,__._-

w-wz- r=-r,___

[ 51- Il

ubituted throughout the declenion of this noun (and of its compounds


in all genders *) before terminations that begin with vowels.

the HOTC,

night, and In?" an army, may be

4
regularly inected; or WET, , and

may be ubituted for

them repectively, in 2d pl. and 3d &e. caes.

SECTION VII.
FEMININE

PRONOUNS

IN

am.

c A
c
'La-31, all. Sing. 4th F'ct
5th 6th 'ear-m:
7th' P'SWII
FI. 6th HdiiPV-t 'i'.
mon nouns in

The other inflections conform with thoe of com

deduced from Wilt


1

__.'_

* Thus, in the maculine gcnder,

exempt from decrepitude (viz. a God), may


e

be regularly inected, or it may ubitute

before vowels: and in like manner,

before
WET,
vowels;
voidhowever
of decrepitude,
the x may
ing. beo regularly
the ncutz inccted,
will be or it may ubitute
and the ad ing.

'This is ounded on a mnxim, which, though not o univeral cogcncy, is of extenive ue;
viz. that an operation cannot be admitted to deroy that union of elements on which itelf de

pends: thus a blank is regularly ubituted for


is ubituted for it after

(l ing) in the neuter gender; but

now

is ubituted for

vowels: but, i this be here admitted, the ubitution of

in right of

roys the concurrence o

and a final a,

a blank is ubituted for

(zd ing) in the neuter gender; but

for the ame ait after

ncw

before

de

on which it is itelf founded.

being ubituted or

a rule ubequent to the other bars the ubitution of

Again;

is ubtuted

b:orc vowelsby

and therefore a blank hould

be ubituted for the original SHTE, But, if this be admitted, the expunging or IPI
m right of

deroys the concurrence of

with that ubitute, on which its

being replaced was ounded.


1' Here

and U,

W,

inead of

m,

has been prexed to axes containing a mute

inead of T, has been prexedto

hort before the r mentioned prex (Ch. 4. @._iii. 10.)

*;

(6th pl.). The vowel has become

54 l
6,

a hakal is irregular in the r ve inections, and may 'be

o in the third and following caes before vowels. But in 2d pl. and
before cononants in the 3d &c. (including 6th pl.) it is regular (though
ome authors have admitted the optional irregularity in 2d and 6th pl.

a10). The irregularity conis in making the root terminate in I


inead of 3; and from this irregular root is derived the feminine
noun

a female hakal.

SECTION
FEMININES

IN

II.

AND

3.

i. Thee are declined nearly as the maculines in 'X and 3; but

'the termination of ad pl. is H; and the 3d and following caes alo vary'
in the ingular nUmber.*
z.

H' opinion. Sing. 3d WET 4th Hra or HH'ZI 5th 6th Wa:

'or TTFZ 7th

3.

or H PZ. 2d T? [al

acow.

Sing. 3d IN 4th

or

Sh 5th Qg

or FFPI: 7th ZVI or Bil Pl. I? [a]


4.

So

revealed law,

traditional law,

a rope, and

other feminine nouns in 'i and 3,


* In the feminine gender
,

and

is not ubituted for

a.

is prefixed to axes which contain a mute

as following (be analogy ofthat word (ee Ch. 4.

are optionally treated like

before thoe axes.

v. 3.).

But
I,

is ubituted for
after nouns denominated

Now feminines in X and

But the option aurhorizes the inecting of

them in 4th 5tb 6th and 7th ing- like nOuns denominated i (Ch. 4.),

E 56 I
K

4.

brother,

on in law,

huband's brother,

'II-'Jago an univeral acricer, are inected like"

and o are any

derivatives in I, from other axes but thoe abovementioned; and

any other noun in i.

5.

But 'i is irregular in 6th pl. for the vowel may remain hort.

Ex.

or

ofmen.

_L

SECTIONIV.

FEMININES IN it.
Mo crude nouns in a?

require a termination to be ubjoined

for the feminine: but even nouns, including the numerals


and Bag four (ee

three

vi.), retain the radical termination in I; viz.

huband's
ma; mother,
brother's wie, daughter,
declined like
Via;
ghuband's
3 and 'g
ier,
ier,anddeclined
like WH; oberving however, that thee dier from the maculine in
the 2d pl. for the ubitution of I for H in_ this cae is rericted to the

maculine gender. Ex. 2d PZ. HTLZ iers, FTIT'LZ mothers.

S E C T I O N V.
NEUTERS

IN

3, 3

AND

I.

1. U' water. Sing. i ad U Voc. Bil-T or a?" 3d Hlml

4th amid 5th 6th am: 7th al'n Du.1 2d 'an't 3d .


4th 5th

6th 7th

PZ. I 2d

4ch5< Luna: 6th amt 7th rie.

3d i:

E 58 3
wichvowels; for they are inflected in 'thee inances as i the roots had
ended i

(ee Ch. 10.).

6.
a cli may be regularly inected, or 'H may be ubituted
for it, in 2d pl. and in 3d and following caes.
ct

SECTION VI.
NUMERALS'IN
1. Vi how many.
6th

'2.

l 2d 3d Tlg 4th 5th I';

7th

This word is invariably plural, and is in

ected in the ame manner in the three genders.*

2. la' three (invariably plural). Mac. 1 all? 2d

Naut. L

2d eln Mac. and Neut. 3d Pa: 4th 5thflti'; 6th Zl' _


7th

ch. 1 2d lHZ *3d

4th 5thHL-UZ

6th

aw: 7th aw.


*

twenty is declined like feminine nouns in 3, and o are 'Ezl ixty,

H'g eventy, W'X eighty, Wa ninety; but, like the high numerals, they
are rericted to the ingular number, I'nlcs many twemles, &e. be meant.

+ In the maculinc and "cum, HU' is ubituted for Ya in 6th pl. but

is

ubituted for it throughout the inections of the ame word in the feminine gender; the nal vowel cf '

this ubitute, vlike that o


be preXed as uual to
So in compoitlon
maculine nouns in 3 ,

for

four, remains hort in 6:h pl. (though a:

and is changed to I before VOWcls.


3

.
a man who has three favourite'things, is regulurly lull-acted hke

But this, and imilar derivatives, form the 6th pl. as in the imple numeral

(though ome authors have thought otherwie). Ex.


who has three favourites, is inectcdlike common feminine nouns in' I ,

So

a wcmm,
But

is

the crude form of the compound ignifying a man, who has three mlirctsz and is inectcd by ub;
\

'I 60 ]
2.. But when employed in the neuter- for a dierent purport from

what it bears in the maculine, it is inected in the neuter gender rigidly


like other neuter nouns.
fruit. Mqc. 4th Sing.

(mac.) a tree o called, (neut.) its


Neut. 4th Sing.

CHAPTER

AVIL

NOUNS I'Nx a, AND e.


SECTION I.
MASCULINES IN 'i AND 15..
4th1. E'
H'Ei'l fortunate.
5th 6th Sing. l7thEEFZ
'
2'd Du. I 2d 3d

3d

4th 5th
5th EWllF-ll6th
6th 7th E
7thPl. ill 2d' 'Qlg 3d

2.

cutter.

Sing. i A? zd

3d Q'q'l 4th

5th 6th

Ya: 7th Qr Du. I 2'd Qa 3d-4th 5th' Bl 6th 7th air:


Pz. 12d Fiat: 3d'Qt: 4th 5th U: 6th Wall-mat?
3.

Tttll the un.

Sing. 2d'qt

3d 'qml

4th rid 5th 6th

um: 7th mit Du. in 2d frail 6th 7th WET: Pz. nt. um: 2d
6th 'JUWL The other inflections-conform with-thoe of

'

it

i.

7__

[63]

SECTION U.
FEMININES IN '3 AND
i.
.

Goddes. Sing. i Ya? Vocf


NA

'ith

2d

3d. ZQI

*\

'

5th 6th IN: 7th

Du.12d

X'c 6th 7th IN: PZ. i

3d 4th 5th

2d Z'SlZ 3d Hlth 5th

-\
*\
*_\.
Egaseth
az'c
7th zing.
so 'vTla river,

peech, Flfi awomah,

aherdm'an's

wife, and other nouns terminated by 'i (deduced from

tion denoting the feminine gender.*

a termina

2. Nouns invariably feminine, ending in "i, but not deducing that


termination from a feminine ax, dier in the rit ing. Ex.

God;

des' ofproperity. l Sing. 'a-3. So 'act aboat; and

alute

or other ringed inrument. _

3;
i

'

Twoman.
.

'

Sing. 1 ask?

T o

'

Voc. a? 2d

3d

4tlt

'

a? 5th 6th Tale 7th Hgt Du. i 2d a? 3d 43; 5h agz-WI


6th 7th

Pl. l

WJM 7th PISESo

2d

3d

4th 5th HUZ 6th

tree (the Eugenia) and other nouns in

that are invariably

feminine.
* Here

a (r ing.) is expunged after the termination

analogous to

In the voc. ing. the hort vowel is ubituted for the long one. U] lus,

been prexed to the axcs containing a mute


for

gi

for U:

but not after other root!

and

The other inections are analogous to the maculine: but


in 2d pl. of the feminine gender (ee Ch. 4-).

has been ubtituted


I is not ubituted

[67]

II. NOUNS IN 'A


\

TT (compounded ofU, for He with, and 'Z'_love, or 'i properity),

*\

l Sing. g Voc, Ft' i Du. nal 'ed Pz. 'am 3d Du. nant: (5th
*\
Gth Sing. g) 7th Pl. '63 .
"\

So Ya, and other maculmes and e'minine's in 'Cct when any uch oc.
cur; for there are no imple and common nouns with this termination.
I

III. NOUNS IN an,


Tll a bull or cow. Sing. it and Vac. THE 2d Tilz 3d TT'JT 4th TTZ

5th 6th ; 7th TrT Dun 2d Wi 3d 4th 5th &tyme-T an; 7th
m: PZ.1 ma: ad m: 3d rtz 4th 5th 3?ng 7th rg
2. This word, imilarly declined in both genders, erves as a paradjg
ma for nouns in In; as

heavensl

But in the

hort vowel is as uual ubituted for 'the diphthong.

nently celeial.

neuter,

the

Exj UZJ emi

IV. NOUNS IN T,

T" a thins- Sing- I Wed WH- sd 'run 4th w? 5th6th


m: 7th

Du. i 2d Ui 3d 4th 5th Ul 6th 7th UZZ

P1.1 zd TW: 3d T: 4th 5th TIZ: 6th Tl'zn 7th Tl'g.


,__-*

* They are inected regularly, except 5th and 6th ing. in which they are analogous to nouns

terminated by

1- The maculincs and feminines in

6th ing.

are anomalous in the [it and 2d caes and in the sth and

being ubituted for the radieal diphthong together with the Vowel o the ax in the

nd pl. and in the ad ing. and the [Girlde element being ubituted for the diphthong before the other
T

axes denominated

and the diphthong

ther with the vowel of the ax in sth and 6th ing. (See Ch. 4. ).

being ubituted for itelf toge

E 53 I
.

*\

_ .

'_

This noun, the only common one ending 1n T, lS irregular m both


A

genders; for W'I is ubituted for the nal of T before cononants.


But the diphthong is changed

before vowels regularly.

In the neuter, the hort vowel is as uual ubituted for the

diphthong. Ex. of;" wealthy. l zd Sing. u? Du. uqt Pl.


gii.

But

is ubituted for the nal, even in the neuter gen

der, before cononants.* Ex. 3d 4th 5th Du.

Zd P1

4tli 5th NNW: Yet the fith pl. is

(though ome authors

have here alo ubituted In Ex. HUUIPI),


V. NOUNS IN sti,
33' the moon.

6th THE: 7th

Sing. 1 leg 2d

Du. i 2d

3d Him 4th

3d 4th 5th

5th 1

6th 7th

Wah: Pl. l 2d Wax 3d Y: 4th 5th Is 6th grain;

So TT' a boat, and other maculines and feminines in

But, in

the neuter gender, the hort vowel is ubituted for the diphthong; and
the nOun is conequently declined, as if the hort vowel had been radical.
Ex.

a thing diembarked.

:L
* This fubitution of

for the nal of

even in the neuter ender is founded on the max


g

im, that the identity of a term continues, though a portion of it be altered : and upon the rength of
this maxim, ome authors admit, in the inance of diphthongs, the option ofinecting in the third and
following caes a neuter noun like a maculine one, if the import be the ame in both genders. But
that is deemed erroneous by the bE grammarians
1- This declenion of mafculines and feminines in IN is rictly regular.

The terminations, ex

hibited in the table of axes, are ubjoined to the root, which remains unaltered before confonants;

and changes the diphthong into

(Ch.eg. iii. 144.

before vowels. But in 7th pl. H is changed ton;

'

'

[70]
3. 33: that (which had been mentioned) MASC. l Sing. '88 D-u. FFI'
PZ. &c.

FEM. l Sing.
.

Du. 'R PZ. m: &c.

'\

NEUT. L 2d Singe

a; or HFL Du. a PZ. ar &e.


4, UZZ who or which (relative). MASC. l Sing. 'as Du.

PZ. 'a

. .

*\

&c. FEM. lSz'ng. I" Du. U Pl. a &c. NEUT. 12d Sing,

or

'II Du. '3 PZ. m &c.


&c.
5. FEM.
'THE1thisSing.
(very
T
near),
Du. MASC.Pl.'lY'
Sing. &c.
qu NEUT.
Du. l ad
PZ. Sing.

err-4: or Wax Du. a PZ. 'car &a.


6.

this (indeinitalyi

MASC. Sing. x

2d THE DM

l zd V P'- l TT? zd W'T Fm- Sa'ng. m 'um 2d zm


Du. L 2d
ga-v

L,

Pl. l 2d THIS NEUT. 1 2d Sing. ZZFE Du, 21?

tuted for the medial I c

and in the jd and following caes

'II before vowels, and a blank when cononant: follow.

before cononants, and

is ubituted (at

Coneqt'xently the inectivc root is W

before vowds in 3d &e. caes, but

in l 'nd zd except

x ing. (vi.)-

.\

The Pronouns

and

les they have taken the ax

do not admit the ubiitution of

for

( um

ee x.),

3 is ubituted for the hort vowel, and I for the long vewei or dihtbcng, after the Medial
Iof

when this pronouh has no: preerved its nal H (ee vil. neur- I and zd ng.);

and II is ubituted for that

but 'i for 'T after the 'ame

in the plural number.

ln

3d ing. all Is employed, 'though in other inances the inectiv: root and notmzhgom
.

to nouns denominated "is,

Y'et 'I is ubituted for

(eth ing. &c.) a' uual after I

and on the cont'ar


'
'
Y q
bth 7 th d U . &e. ) *'s Te tiin ad > K h OUgh 3 be ubhtuted
for a.
hort the wcr'd is 'r inected through mo c'aes, 'as 'i it Were terminated by A' 5
are then ubituted for the voWels U &e. 'and
'for Y

&9..
In

and I &9.

E 71 ]

Pl. 'swift MASC. and NEUT. Sing. 3d WITH' 4th In? 5c113qW1F
6th WET 7th IlTT FEM.Sng3d WHAT 4th SIR? 5th 6th WET:
7th IIWH. MASC. FEMct. and NEUT. Du. 3d 4th 5th 'ii-THE 6th 7th
J'Ffg Masc. and Nrur. PZ. 3d 'THIS 4th 5th THIS 6th TEWI 7th'

e'g m. PZ. 3d ant: 4th 5th sun-'as 6th swain: 7th BITE.
7. Was; that (mediate). MASC. Sing. l II'FFT 2d WIFE 3d

I 4thl WEET 5th WHNTFL 6th THE! 7th Sil

Du. in gd swim 4th 5th azmrt 6th 7th WIFE: PZ.1 Writ
2d KIZL 3d swithe 4th 5th K 6th Infiqu 7th suits
m. Sing. in me? 2d snYt 3d gnat 4th WEET 5th 6th waxen:
7th WHENH (Duaz as in the maculine.) Pz. l 2d smit 3d Wr:

[a]
4th 5th Du,
sang:
ma6thPz.WITH:
Wa-TT, 7thThe re as Neur.
in theimafculine.
2d Sing.

8, '5le and '(HZZ, when repeated, in a econd pereccptive fen


tence, vaty in certain inections, by fubituting T? for the Mary

Masc. 2d Sing. '('Ff' Du.

Pl. T'TFE Fm. zd Sing. Frm pm

M.
'II &Pl.N. 3'd Sing.
Near.
&r.
2d Sing.
3d Sing. 'Frm
or
M. F.
Du.& N. 6th
Pl. 7th Du.

Wah.
which
9. Thee
admits prOnouns
it.
(THE &C.) have no voc. cae; except

* Path? ainzmnzii In Sit s am me saw has been num-a by


this peron, teach him proody.
thee two perons is chent, and their wealth va.

the family of

'I 72. 1
l-l-Od Panuns, andindeclinables, admit the interpoition of 'the ax
itak

bcforc 'their la vowel, to denote contempt or dubious

i'elation.* '
_ 11.

Pronouns are not treated as uch, when they are proper names,

or econdary terms in compoition. Ex.


rUFL 01'

DU

a proper name (Ilii Sing,

PZ

exceeding that

(l Sing-na: or -Fi?: Du. -HZ\\T IJZ. -H{3).


12. 'From thee 'pronouns

&C.) with the verb

deriva

tives are formed, with the import of unknown, by the axes

and

&Iz and with the ax II in the ene of meaure. vIn all thee.
uch
derivatives
(ee nouns isinubituted
Ch. 5.);
oror
the nal of or
the gee
pronoun. Ex.
nouns in 'II

Ch.

13.

iii.)

o much (ee nouns in

v.).

For the peronal pronoun NHQ , which varies with the gender,

ee nouns in Ft (Ch. 12.


'_Bu[;_

Ch. 12.

v. 4.).

aivis nevertheles ubituted for

follows.
, Iiithe pronoun

together with this

ax, when an nx

Ex. I: who? (poken contemptuouy or dubiouily).


the ubitution o NT, and of a blank, for

ilig oaes,.does not take plnhe before

but

i
in 3d and fullow;

is ubituted for this pro.

noun together with that ax, in 3d and following caes, when the word is repented (viii.)
.'.>......;..-.

x Sing.

4.

'.

__-\.u

Ex. MASC.

_'.\

WEET Du. ZHHZ' Pl. THE; 3d Sing. ZIT'JFT Du.}1?l"aiall[

.
FLZHROo (but,i
repeated,

Ylg).

(A
u ing)
Whenmu''be hrhed,
has taken
and'the aix
Will be ubitutedanforoptional
the vowel
exception
following
o the ubitute
3" but not o, i

W be ubituted for the nal.

This, not being expresly directed by the emen'dntory rule here

cited, is deddced from the maxim, that, where. two or more operations are directed by tLe ame pre
cept; all thu'it'thke place, or *all be omitted.

Therefore, if the exception of

do not tnke eect,

ths ibzituxiqn'To'f Figure alo'bie' neglected. Ex. MAse. in ting. SFT- or Wax;

on. armed; pl.' aing &a.

L 74 ]
4th
17.andThee
6th caes.
pronouns
Sing.are
2d occaionally
m 4th 6th inected
H Du. 2dotherwie,
4th 6th * in FL
the zd

4th 6th '38

Sing. 2d TT] 4th 6th

Du. 2d 4th 6th ' PZ. 2d

4th 6th =z [a].


In compoition, thee pronouns are inected as in the paradigma, when they are principal terms of
O

the compound._ Ex.

you upreme oncs_


r\

But, when they are econdary terms, the inections are intricate.

For, i, from thee pronouns,

being ingular or dual, (and ubordinatc,) a compound term be deduced, the ubitution of a and
U, or
number.

and

takes place, even when the compound term is employed in a dierent

If, from the ame pronouns, being plural, uch a compound term be deduced, neither

and WH, nor a and TT, are ubituted, when the compound is ingular or dual. 'But in all

thee compounds the ubitution of a and

'ab-a and

(4thing.), of

Thus

(l ing), of

and

and

lpl.), of

(6th ing), takes eect as uual.

is x ing. of the compound term, Whether it ignify urpaing thee, or

urpaing you (two 01' moreh but


thee, and

is l du. of the compound, ignifying urpaing

I du. ignifying urpaing you (many) ; but

the

ad ing. of uch a compound term ignifying urpaing you two.


* In place of the regularly inected pronouns, following an inectcd word within the ame entence,
and anding in the 2d 4th and 6th caes,

and H are ubituted repectively in the dual


'\_

number;

and

'\

in the plural, and a and If in the ingular: but

and

in

the ad ing.

Thee ubitutes are not ued at the beginning ofa entence or o a vere; nor (in compoition)
inead of the uninected root. Ex.

may he cherih thee !

o ays my on.
A preceding noun in the vocative cae does not authorize the ue of thee ubitutes, unles an
epithet, agreeing with it, intervene.

They mut be employed, when the pronoun is repeated in a econd preceptive entence; other
wie even the authorized ue of them is optional: and it is likewie optional, even where the pronoun
is o repeated, ifit ood in the nominative cae in the preceding entence.

They mu not be employed, when .he pronouns are contiguous to the particles a, a, a
,

HIS, Of Ya, being immediately connected in ene with thoe particles: nor when they are

contiguous to veibs ignifying to ee (but employed metaphorically), whether they be mediately or

immediately connected with the verb.

'SECTION II.
NUMERALS ENDING IN CONSONANTS.
i.

four. MASC. 'I WTZ 2d HZTZ NEUT. i 2d

Ham? M. & N. 3d Hz 4th 5th id: 6th Hurx 7th Hgg


FEM.1 2d Hast: 3d Va'gg 4th 5th HH'FPI: 6th Eran

7th 'FIFTH
2.

ve.

F. N. l 2d' WET 3d

6th

4th Sth UZWZ

'

3. an; ix. MiF.N.12d He: or a; 3d esz 4th 5th egg:


Gthqizr 7th

or HZQ.

4. AN even. M.

N. t 2d UH 3d WHEN; 4th 5th FIFTH

6th VHFWI 7th WITH.


*

is inerted after the la voWel of

hrvandma'hdna (r pl.) is ubjoined; and I

and
forv

numerals called

and inected like

(ee

when an ax denominated
is prexed to

(6th pi) after

(ix.). In the feminine gender

is ubituted

6.

Vl. 2. .

HT may be ubituted' he the nal o


before axes beginning with cononants 301
its nal may be expunged like that of the other numerals and of all nouns ending in
and an
blank

is ubtituted for
and w (r and zd'pIJ after numerals denominated
a
HZ
The change
(ix.); of
butthe nal in the inections
for theofame after is analogous(ubituted
to that ofother
for nouns ending in

A; except 6th pl. which is irreguiar.

E 96 J
3_

one, who cuts much or repeatedly.

NEUT. i 2d Sing.

*\
.
afrm-I Du. Yfl Pz. 'J'

SECTION IV.
N 0 U N s 1 N a
N

1.

peech.

FEM. 1 Sing. UZZ,-FL 1 Du.

2d PZ.

'ame 3d Du. HVHWT 7th Pz. "4133. So mith (mac.) a cloud,


and other maculine and feminine nouns in Wi,

2. U, derived from the imilar verb (which ignies, 1. to move


erookedly, and 2.'to become mall), is formed upon the ax

retains 'the naal by pecial rule.

FRYS 3d Du.

3.

'
I Sing.

7th Pl.

'u-

1 Du.

, and
A.

2d PZ.

or

The derivatives of

to cut, are irregular; for, in this verb,

'Ell is ubtituted for the nal cononant

(Ch. 4. s. vii. 4.).

" Here, and in imilar derivatives, I is not interpolated (x 2d pl.): becaue the blank, ubi
tuted for the nal vowel of the derivative verb, inherits the powers of the original, and prevents an

operation dependcnt on the roots ending in a

dononant; but does not authorize its beincr

treated as one ending in a vowel.

I)

't For a 7 becoming the nal of a conjunct, is exPunged at the end of a Word
. and

before
(Ch. 4.a

vii. 6-).cononant; and the guttural element is ubituted in right of the ax

L g and

arc mutc; and H being the r element of the nal conjunct is expunged at

the end oa word and before


conommts exce t nal-als and .
em r- vo wes
'I . Ex . is converted.
(for the vowel is ubituted for the IemiVOWCl; alld
2 a:P before the palatine
element

into

Ill: Sing.

P1,_?."P
-ZH=[_
did)
A

nt Du.

zd Pin-V: zd Du.-:_:Ql 7th

lot'
2. But girt (fem.) water is irregular: for it is invariably plural; and

makes the penultimate long before an ax denominated UJJUFWY


and ubitutes Ft for the nal before an ax beginning with TL. Pl.

In sum: 2d In: 3d. SHFQ: 40] 5th any: 6th sn 7th sung.
3. Nouns in (i or I, when any uch occur, will be inected re
gularly, oberving the general maxims for the ubitution of the oft
cononant, &C.

' '

C H Act-Pi

"

R XIII;

GENDEROF "NOU'st
'1. The elder grammarians left the genders of nouns to be learnt from
practice. Later authors have reduced them to rules; but there is au

thority of claical writers for many deviations from thee rules, which
mu be therefore conidered as admitting of divers exceptions not h'ere
noticed.
'
2. Indeclinablcs (Ch. 15.) do not vary with thegender; nor" the pro
nouns TALE; and

thou andl; nor ' how many; nor nu

mcrals ending in U; or in T (viz. 6. and 5. 7. 8. 9. 10.).


3. The nurnerals from 20 to

are feminine; and thoe from 100 u

o But a compound, ending in this term, will be inected in the three numbers.

'

Ex. HTL

m ad are-ar an ere: o, ere.

For the inertion of I does not prevent the lengthening of the vowel; ince this permutation is

directed by a 'pecial rule aecting a ingle term: but, if the maxim, here alluded to, be rericted
.to rules which would otherwie become wholly ineectual, the inertion of a: does precludeth.
lenglhcning of the vowel.
tions of that maxim.

Concquently this inection varies according to the dierent interpreta


.

wards are neuter; but 'Lia IOO,


[ 102HFQ 1,ooo,
Ug 1,ooo,ooo, are alo maculine; and
and

lo,ooo, and

100,000, is alo feminine;

10,ooo,ooo, is feminine only.

4. The re of the numerals (viz. 1. 2. 3. and 4.) vary with the gender
of the term, with which they are connected: o do (adjectives, or) terms
denoting qualities;* and alo prOnouns (Bat &c.); and the participles

&e.
denoting
denominated
the inrument
Ya; or
andthederivatives
ite of the terminated
action. 'l' by the crit aix

5. Derivatives, terminated by the ax

denoting the condition

or mode of being,+ are neuter: o are thoe terminated by the axes


denominated
ubjoined in that ene; I and by the tadd'hita

axes a and WET-Lin that ene," or ubjoined to terms ignifying a


quality to mark the object; s and by the axes U, II, a, Ya,

Skull,

, and I ubjoined in either of thoe enes. If

6. Derivatives terminated by the ax U'lf'x' (denoting the condi


tioh or mode of being), by WTLl'i' by &T'al Jii or by
are maculine: and o are derivatives with the ax i from the verbs

* Mo terms, that admit the three genders, require an ax for the feminine (ee Ch. 14.)

t ex. and highe. amugquzajag an


fg laughter. [1 Et.

to, emthg wood. t a.

whitenes. Ftf or W me, and cuh

ning (fornouns,tminated by an ax containing a mote I, admit the feminine termination gq;


See Ctu 14. 5- ii- 7-)- 5 Ex- Ylqq the duties of: prie. 11 Ex. OUR: theft.

w Ex. WITH: abandonment. (In other retires of this ax, the attentive: vary with the gen
der of the noun, With which they are connected) 'H' Ear.
Except the neuters
55 Lia: volition.

tcrrour,
Except the feminine

token,
begging

a hand. I; Ex. an: victory.


vnlva, and

fat

E' 15-1 l
ing in I withapenultimate T, I,

51, Ft, TL, II, TT, til,

I
UL, or H.* But, with apenultimate U_\,+ it is neuter; and o'
N,
is a term ending in

One terminated by I is maculine: ex

* The exceptions are numerous: or many uch terms are neuter as well as maculine; others
are excluively neuter; and a few admit the feminine gender in limited aceoptations (as
O

pace, contradiinguihed from

wood).

Among thoe, which are maculine and neuter,

ome are common to thce gendcrs in the ame acceptations; others vary in their genders according
'

to the meanings of the terms.

Thee, as well as the gendcrs of nouns in U with other penul

timates (as tak, TLZCC), may be learnt from practice, or by conulting dictionarics.

Tthc

genders of many of them have Lecn indicath by rules noticed in the text: but divers exceptions are

contained in rules repecting the genders of nouns in If, which have been here omitted. A few
remarkable anomalies are now ubjoined.

'DE-nail a javelin is invariably feminine: but among other imilar feminine nouns, as Pa
, an,

a ream, and

moonlight, ome_deviate from that gender in certain

acceptations (Du. HTQ'g a high note). _


FZTT a wife, W clean rice,

fried rice, are maculine and ucd in the prora

number only (Ean ZIQTZ one, two, or many wives), UJTI i year, His! the rainy ea.

on, and

and, are in like manner employed in the plural number only, but are;

feminine.
Ham -a pillar, and

'
wool, are feminine or neuter (Ex.

a wooden po); but excluively neuter in compoition with

and

repectively

(Ex.

felt) .
O

The compound terms a

a ulous ore,

the come: of the eye, and

the country of a nation, are maculine.


T This alo is ubject to divers exceptions: ome nouns o terminated being mac-uline as well a;
neuter; and a few excluively maculine.

- 1

a leaf,

a velel,

TOrt of gras (Poa Cynouroides),

and

a paraol are maculine and neuter. Wiag and Ya: an enemy,

pil, Bag a on:

a holy WXT,

thread
A

-v

a Pu_}'

Big: a frying pan, and ome others, are excluively


lthong, and' a

maculine.

a journey,

few more, are feminine.

wealth,

hollow,

E 105 I
cepting diyllable derivatives terminated by the ax
neuter, unles this denote the agent. *

which are

Nouns ending in ZH, or

Ilii: are neuter, and o are diyllables inLUJH. +

Monoyuables

ending in '3 or E are feminine. I


9. Terms, which ignify a god, a demon, a man (ora male animal),

a mountain, a ea, mud, heaven ll, a cloud s, a ray of lightll, aday V',
a meaureH, a word, an arrow II, a acrice or olemn act of re
ligion, the oul, a claw or nail, a hair, a tooth, the throat, a cheek, a

dug, an arm Ilii, and an ancle, are maculine'.


10. Terms ignifying a woman (or a female animal), earth, a river SS,
and a climbing plant, are feminine: o are mo names of pecies o
plants.
1 1.

But names of pecies of fruit are neuter; o are terms, which ig

* Ex. WET a king. an? a hide. (Such triyllables are maculine. Ex. nm great
nes) But THI-T Gon is maculine and neuter; and WITH: a name, and ni hair,
are neuter only. PH-'T a boundary, which is otherwie derived, is feminine.
t Ex. glia butter,
maculine. Ex.

a bow, WEET glory. (But triyllablcs in Ire: are


the moon)

ray of light is feminine and neuter; and

a roof (ated in dictionaries as neutcr) is properly feminine. So is IIT-HTZI a.


nymph; but commonly ued in the plural only.

a bloom is feminine, and rericted to

the plural ; but, ignifying a god, it is maculine.

I. Ex.

properity. I: the eyebrow.


e\
O

and

heaven, are neuter; and

a\cloud is neuter. 1]

and feminine.

11 q'

call-nium

a ray of light is feminine. Hg is maculine

and

aday, are neuter.

certain meaures o-f capacity, are maculine and neuter, and


.

or

if

and ma',

and

are femininc_.

and

an arrow, are maculine and neuter; and ZUZ maculine and feminine.

'

0
a

TT a l 5; g an arm ls maculme and feminine.


U

'

55

a nvcr 15 neuter.
-_

111 . I

'qit 'corpulent)z*
4. No ax is ubjoined, for the feminine gender, to numerals deno

minated HZ; no"r to H'Q &o. (Ch. 6. s. ii. 2.), Nor 15 (but Bil de
duced from Z'T'I) to a crude noun ending in TFL (Exn Tr from
T'LFL
(ee ii. a3.).
boundary) 3 and to a

compound epithet in

SECTION It.
N. B. - The rules contained in this fection are applicable, provided the
'
(
.
term be not ubordinate (IWUHFUZ ele (if it be econdary in com;

poition) the ax, uggeed by the more general rule, mu be em-'


Ployed.
A 1, *

1
is fubjoined in the feminine to a crude noun terminated

by an ax containing a mute Z (Eva Fa a river); or by the ax I

(Ex.

a female.eag1e); or

a female potter) 'o


3

or 3131(Ex.
HTHV; (Eva
H
ZBHTY
a patronymick
thigh deep);
from Uta,
51' Hurt
); or (Ex.
KUHVL,

ing of ve portions); or F'c (Ex.


or TFL (Ex.

cona

a female gameei);

a woman dealing in alt); or IS-ZL(E>.*. Yz

fighting with; WITH] (on according to ome, NNW) feminine of WHEN: from

to remove. It is optional in a

compound epithet. Ex. 'a'L-Zda,

__a', or _H=[, abounding in cherihers.


r 'Z may terminate, in the feminine, a compound ending in WZ; but a;" mut, if the
totm relate to apaage or the RZg'I-'Ed'm Ex. a, ot
w a diich.

, a female bipcd;
-

E 1 15 I'
and certain other
a dancingwords.girl>;*
'l'

and, as an exception
to Other
rules,

and
__
ignifying a qualityI
may terminate
(Ex. vUs:
in theorfeminineoft),
'a noiin
unles
ending
its jpenuli
in

timatc be, conjunct (Ex. PIij pale yellow); and the fame may termi

nate T? and certain other nouns," and any noun in I ignifying a


member of an animal, or a noun terminated b'y T deduc ed from a
or other ax (Ex. Via; or
ynonyma (Ex.

night), excepting

and its

the Cure of not living).

'* As alo certain other nouns, in certain acceptations.

Ex.

wie accented, " produced in the native Countrf';

livelihood, o'r, other

l a veel, or the baard daughter of a.


A

widow, contradiiinguihed from

a proper; name;
glews,

I in other acceptations;

a place not ctitious,


raw greens;

_a nake;

black,

a factitious one;

corpulent, or
a proper name;

he erpent,

but

boiled
long like

lndigo, or blue (as an animal),

but'Hl'E-'n blue (as clothes), or a, WITH Proper names;

wood o haped;

'

a owing veel,

lndvlousz

a ploughman, i

covetous;

braided hair;

WU Varie'gated.
\

i a woman
+_Ex.

(from fallovv; a man;a expunging


h. (Uk being
the tadd'bita
expungedqsi
in
i. r,

called;

avmare;

per;

a bitch;

s, i_ Lo

a cow;

a Plant o

long pep

_mater'nal grand-mother; and many others; But,- on the other- hand,- the

pmle is ubject to exceptions. Ex.


Alo
1; Except
ll Ex

ar

a back tooth.

(optionally formed with this ax) crimona


(a damel) chooing her' own huband;

40' Wg mUChs
a words

fortunate, &o.

or

aroad; and ome others,- as

[
By age;" rith terrr'r.*'

LL. 'al

118

Ex.

]
one,.'whoe hair intenti

terminates, infhe feminine,v a generrcktermi that:

\VW not rericted tQ the feminine; il- provided the. penaltimate be not.
I

Till a doe;

a priees>2 and, event though 'ilk

be. pennltimate, a generick term ending in X, and denoting human be',

ings (ee patronymiclm'), but' no others. Ex.


partridge.

a male or female'
i

is the feminine termination ofa genericl; term ending.

'12

in 'I and denoting hUman beings (lion ZRa female decendant of


Unles I

the

(EM

a woznan= of a

* This limitation eitcludes uch compounds beginning with terms ignifying meaures of time,
Or with thev words

3 13,

quent to them take- the acute accent.

't X;

ZSH,

Ex.

&e. though the term ube-z

one, who has done much.

terminates, in the feminine,a noun ending. in. the term,

name of a demon. So

female friend,_ and

Ex.

one,- who his m, infaml. are

irregular derivatives with this ax,


i German is- hero' explained by grammari'ans as depending rv on peculiar diinguihing igns;
econdly, on arbitrary analogy: one apprehended from conant marks; the other not o, but from

inruction only', being neither common thall gendcrs, nor rericted to indi'vidIials, including alo
imilarity of decent and of udies: thus "-kine" is rictly generrck; and a prie" is o, (though
the form be'- not different from that of other men,) becaue this term is neither common to all genc
ders nor rericted to one individual', ib patnonymiclis- are generick: but adjectii'es, or novus du

noting quality, are not lb.


n

[l- Though re'rictetffo the feminine, gererick terms [they are names of plants] of which the lah
r
A_
. .
member is
EX.

Ilii, um,
a pot-herb.

or

(Lia-5

this ax. '

i
.'1

s Except from this limitation

a hore,

A a man, and ome others: ee. &i.

Note r.

i
i

1 up?

'J The amoterminates_-JLZ-, or 'Hid-le; U ora' noun- ending in the-ter:qu ig, pro
. > they be proper names.
* '
on'.
. . o
Videc
lus-ib feminine

- this'
1 unable to. move,- is eemed With

If 120. J

C'H A P T E R XV.i
ON
1.

A blank

INDECLINABLES.
is ubituted for the feminine termination

and for an afx of declenion Evil), after an indeclinable term (SHHJUN


Such a term is therefore invariable in the three genders and the three

numbers, and in all the caes.

2.

lndeclinable terms nevertheles admit the import of caes, numbers,

and genders, without their inections: "indeclinable compounds are even


ubject to variation of gender, auming the neuter form; other com
pounds, terminated by indeclinable words, provided thee. be not prin

cipal terms in the compound, are inected like common nouns.


'v

3. Certain nouns (az &c.> are indeclinable; and o are. particles

"*I

'

Via), Including prepotlons (ETHVT and TTFHJ; o likeme


are adverbial or indeclinable compounds (Hlqz and nouns
terminated by certain tada' 'bin-1 and Ci afzes.

4.

Properly the indeclinable nouns are thoe, which are invariable,

even though they denote ubance (i e. even when ued as nouns);*


e ax heaven;

mid; UIFII morning; gx again; Hx con

ceatment; gq high; 't low; 13?er owly; afar-43 me; a

cept;
yellerday; SHH at
tomorrow;
the ame time; in the day; 'far, 'near',
at night; 'ma
apart; at eve;

near;
llently;
'FLTTXI HH
a longofhimelf;
time;and F
WHH
IN inwithout,
and
vain; 'ZHFLa
H
on the outlde;
little;
at night;"BITE"
Eq'
FIFLt-ee;
and EFU with

caue;

manieation;

evidently; Hi half; Am? HHR, and

121 '_]
and the particles are uch, as are indeclinable, unles they ignify ub
ance <i. e. excluively of imilar terms which are nouns, as 'HIS-2 cat
tle, contradiinguilhed from WITH well, right>.'l' But, amongthe in

perpetually;

diviion;

[in compoition with certain verbs] 'c0n

cealrncnt, *awry, 3direpect;

cept;

'along time, 'interrogatiom 3quickly, 4n0w;

ehead, 3blame, *cae;

eae, well being;

without, except;

and
ther;

'many, *cxcept;

patience;

violence; [or
*
lrepeatedly,
'alwaysz
without, except;

quickly;

diuion;
yes; [or certain
In and
axes

not. and

interjection;

and

'ecretly,

at night;

(3.

and

'in private, atoge_


[or

<

obacle;

unegaon, adz.

T.
and aupiciounes;
with;
Egg alas!

quickly, 'little;

[or

fatiguc;

il i- 'andx "only! afor' 4cxletivei


tive;

(intex-jcction)

exience;

repeatedly;

nt the ame time;

(reproachfully);

(in compoition) 'watcr,

bleing!

formerly;

frequently, almo;

_\
.
_
bow,
Putei]
alutation,
reverence;

without, ex

atmophere;

fale; HUin vain;

*\

'unexpectedly, 2inconiderately;

oblation
(interjections)
to manes;
oblation of butter; 'ornament, other;
aenough;

all) a whiper;

'mld, 'without, except;

indeed,
ame; A

m 'on "as, like' Sand? a. 'intcrjectioh 2exPle

'only, exactly, "eyem sas;

o,' in this manner,

'in like" manner, "thus, 'as 'evem 6exactly; THE '(lwbtles, gProbablYB 'WIFE
"again and again, continually, 2or ever, 3always;

, . ' 'more;
, particle
... (with
- excellently
interrogativc
zagam,
a 'kind inquiry);
; _

at the ame time;

\ 7 doubt;
-\
much;
if (exprcng
dubitation,
if;
indignation, or

m mno; except; ah!me:


expreion
(no
of joyand
or grief;
=r=L

Wonded;

lanves] as much as;

a and a [or

met, araaz gem

ahl expreion of doubt-5 T'ldonatwn [En

124 3
6. The ues of thee everal denominations will be explained in their
places. h'lcantnzic it may be remarked, that all thee prepoitions
(J'qli' and Fi), whether properly o called, or only o denomiz ,

nated or: account of certain momalies, are placed before the verbs, with
which they are connected: but, in the dialect of the Ve'da, they often
follow the verb, or are as frequently disjoined from it. In common peech
alo, they are ometimes disjoined from the verbs; but, according to the
bet authorititzs, they are, in this inance, denominated particles, and not

prepoitions.
7. Particles, reembling the prepoitions, are ometimes found in
compoition with terms, which would not regularly retain the form that

is exhibited, i they were joined with a true prepoition (Inas In


uch inances likewie, the eeming prepoition mu be deemed a particle.
8. Inflected verbs occur in acceptations nOt reconcileable with uch
inection.

Thee alo mut be conidered as particles.

So certain in

v*.
Z ' diuion, "deire, 3'plendour;

'diiiom 'deruction, 3weetnes, 4tendernes,


(_\

Slamentntion;

and

eectuation;

'wrought, 'hurt, laughter, miting; mF/Zand

and

'pain, 'play (tickling ?); and ome others.

To which mut be added, on account of certain anomalies, 'U


0
in limited ncceptations, the following terms:
of great aection;
_
'
capture be ignified;

again, and

determination;

direpect or etrangement;

food; and,
repect or how

ornament;

unles

_.\
and

before, and

provided atiety be meant; the indeclinable terms

diappearance, as alo

towards (in conjunction with the

verb ax, or with one ignifying to move); the pronoun


tively; and the indcclinable term

this, when employed reec

concealment.

nated in conjunction with the yerb s

This lat term is optionally lo denomi

So are

and A

rengtheningctthc

weak, when thee are conjoined with the ame verb.


'W
.

A term ending in the ax s

tive ound.

A
'

>

'

'

lS denominated '(i. Ex.

'
.

a cemln mum.

So is any imitative ound, unles followed by Yf.

'A word, bearing the import of one terminated by (1. e. denoting the acquiition of acertain (late

[135]
its import of benediction, they are called WEZTZT; a; arc other a.
xes, ubjoined to verbs.

6. Before a a'rvad'zdtuca ax, denoting'the object, or the cbndition,


or an agent who is ide'ntical with the object,

(Wherein I is mute)

is axed to the crude verb: but, before uch an ax, denoting the agent,

U (wherein both cononants are mutc) is ubjoined. '-'


7. IIK and other verbs, to which

i'mpl'y 'ubjoined, conitute

the r clas ofverbs. A- imple blank (glad is' put inead of Art;
ubjoined to 322.: and other verbs of the 2d. clas; a blank denomis
nated W (in right of which reduplication takes place), to

and other

verbs of the 3d; the ax w (wherein '51 and I are mute)


is ubjoincd, inead of TT, to

and other verbs ofthe 4th 51:

12 a), to Tj (EFU &c. 5th; 1 IIGH), to as; &c. sin; '


ubjoincd to the la vowel of the root), to EK

&c. 7th; I',

to Pu-ir) &9. an;" Bat t), to S (g'u &c.9th;g and


full (I which requires U; ee vi.

to

&c. roth.

* That is, a is ubjoined to the root, before drwd'bdtycarz in the pave voice of' trantive
verbs, and in the imperonnl form of the intranitive, and in the reciprocal or'neute: paivez-but
U is ubjoined in the active and middle voices of verbs active, common, or deponem_

f Certain verbs optionally admit either

or

_' Vz_

yqpnmmnzrs), Egg, M, ze, a; and ay; am, na hng


or with the propoition

3 but, with any other propoition, this verb indpenzbly requires

theax

1 The verb A , though belonging to the r clas," requires the ax

into a .

i']

and is converted;

optionally admits this ax;

and
4

take the ax 3, and hbitute


i

for the final*conoinant.


6

s-g, and the upplementary verbs HIS, Fill,

I? or W

'

and

..

.-

admit

[136]
8.

is imilarly ubjoined to any verb, to denote the act or ope

ration of an inigator, or motive, inigating or inciting the voluntary

agent: and, if the conequence accrue to the agent of the cau ative action,
the middle voice is ued; ele the active voice: but this is optional, if
the action be hown to be reflective by another term in the entence. ""
g. To expres, that vthe agent wihes to do the act, which the verb
imports, a phrae at full length may be ued; or UI

may be ub

joined to the root with the import of deire. The ame ax is alo employ
ed for the ene o beliefand expcctati'on. such a derivative verb-is either
active, or deponent, like the original verb, from which it was derived.
10. A verb, coniing of a ingle yllable beginning with a cononant,
and certain verbs containing more yllables or beginning with vowels

(as

&C.), take

to denote the repetition or the intenity of

the action.

But a verb, ignifying motion, takes this ax with the import

of tortuous only. Certain verbs

&C.) take the ame ax in only

an ill ene of the verb.


11. Ablank
may be ubituted for
before any ax;
and, in uch cae, the verb is no longer rericted to the middle voice, as

it was by the mute

contained in the derivative verb terminated by WET.

The old grammarians aigned the name of Charcarz'ta_ to this form of the
intenive or reiterative.
12.

Certain verbs

&c.), in certain limited acceptations, take

UI (ix.). Others, as before mentioned (vii.), take


mon acceptations. One

admits

in their com

another

takes

'THIS others (HWABLCQ admit Via ;'l' and certain verbs

,-:_7'_',_

require A.
* This is ubject to exceptions. See Syntax.
\

T Thee axes,

, and

, are optionally ubjoined to thoe roots o?

PectiVCIY, when an tird'bazl'ituca ax follows: that is, the verb mu be conjugated as a deriva
tive one, with the hmd't'ta aXCSB "14 may be inccti either as a derivative' or as a imple
root, with other axes.

I-

-*-gk*

h,

_;.-L-f-*-*

t is? l
'13. The ame terms ayed), being nouns, do not admit the hilt
mentioned ax; but divers nouns are 'converted into verbs, with various
appropriate meanings, by ubjoining the axes
Hail,
or

ail (man art-an, (-)F21FL, (oftne- or that; and tub


ituting at the ame time a blank

) for

the axes o caes; _

for thee mu be expunged, when they become a component part of


a verb.

lg;
14. &c.
All thee,
(viii.-xiii.),
whetherare
verbs
denominated
or nouns, terminated
verbs
by the'l'axes
and cone

quently admit Q
together with

&e. ee ii.), and its ubitutes

ee in),

i_n the active or in the middle voice, or in both, and

'LTK in the pave (viy

'

15. But the ax TT and its ubitutes (Vii.), as alo UEE on), are
only employed in four tenes &c. viz. UZ,

and V;

for, in the re of the tenes, the axes are drd'lzad'lza'tuca (v.): viz.
.'in one of its enes, and

as abovementioned (v.); and the ax U,

. whichis ubjoined (precluding


and the ax

o ubjoined before

(or rather its ubitutes, ee

'

&c.) to a verb, before a

, or
; and Fa

iii. 12.), before

SECTION III.
PERMUTATIONS OF THE AFFIXES. '

. t. I'; is ubituted for a: contained in an ax (5. ii. 4.)z 'but


* Wifor the ame following an inective root denominated
' A conjugated noun, deduced from the rof thee axes, is active; one, formed with the
econd, is deponent; but, with the third, it is optionally active or deponent.

T They may be termed derivative verbs; and may be diinguihed as cauals, deideratives, in

tenivcs or reiteratives, imple derivatives, andoconjugztezl nouns.

: 139. 1
'4. But, in the reective voice,
inead of Fii, and
tuted for

(Wherein His miite) is put

(wherein a; is mute) inead of I, ubi


And generally, in tenes &c. diinguihed by a mute

gi , T is put inead of

the la vowel (and ubequent cononant,

_ if
(2dany
mg.).
there be,) in axes of the reective voice; and

.5. a, and

or

are put inead of the axes of (UUTU the

third (or, as the Sarcht grammarians call it, the r) peron ubituted for

. And a blank

is ubituted for U: in

(as in the

verb YJ'H) when an ax follows, the initial owhich is U: or I; *

but s is ubituted before one beginning with "T,

6. she: is treated like a? (3d du. zd du. and pl. nt du. and pl.)g
but

(THE

is put inead of

is prexed to the axes of the r peron ;+ and I

in axes ubituted for

"and i? inead of r

(except ? and

but this is permuted in ome inances,

and expunged in others.j

may be ubituted for this,

and or "i, if the ene be benediction; and Ft is put inead of ir

(wz and Entt inead o I, in axcs ubituted for she: (3d


ding. du. and pl. and ed du.); but T inead of the ame in the 1 per

on; and I, after I (2d ing.); and Ill-, after 'i (2d pl.).

-* In general, according to one interpretation of a rule, which will be cited (xii.), I, however

deduced, is expunged before an ax, or before any term, beginning with He


'f This prefix is treated as one containing a mute 'I 3 and, on the other hand, , though ub

ituted For

, iis not diinguihed by a mute T ,

V. ii. 7.), following acono

r
nant,
1; a'
is converted
is ubituted
intofor following
beforethe verb 3 or an inficilive root ending in a

onant: but i? is exgunged

.
con

after an i: zctive root ending in II) or after one ter

minated by I deduced from an ax; provided this vowel be not preceded by a conjunct.

E 14'0 ]
7. ln'aBSXCs fubituted for Qdiinguihed by a mutect?
,

and

ablank

'mu be put inead of U: 'inct

the i peron; and inead Of 7< in axes of the active voice (3d ing.

&c_); and Frt inead of an (3d du.), art inead of UH (2d (iii.),
and F for 'U (2d pl.), and SIR inead Of

8.

(ill ing;).

is'prexed to axes ubituted for

the middle and pave voices; but

in

in the active voibe'

and the ax, ubequent to this la prex, is ctitiouly diinguihed by

a mute

; but, if the import of the term be benediction, by a mute I;

Ft is ubituted for I; and Fj (3H), for t (3d pl.); but arm:


for JZ' (ing.); and
(3d ing. &c.).

isprexed to Ft and '51


i '
-

is ubituted for I" (ZUFU in the a'wad'lza'tuca ax, When

ubjoined to an inective root ending in 31.'l' But UK and I are ex


punged

before

any cononant except 'qd

10. The cerebral letter

is ubituted for

minations of the aorit pa

in the termination

(2d pl.), in the ter

and remotely pa

of the imperative &c.

and

provided

thee terminations immediately follow an inective root ending in (ZUQ

a vowel or emivowel including s, but excluding 3] (or U),

This

permutation may' take place, if 3 deduced from the prex

pre

cede uch termination, and be itelf preceded by (ZUJ uch avowel


. the
. _ for &e.
in 'Itherwd'bdtuca
Abhnk
ax ofIS
u b ituied
impentive
H (dcduced from
provided it .be not the nalorletter.

1' W, being a component part of a hrvad'bdrum ax diinguihed by a mute 3:

converted into

when ubjoined to an incctive root ending in 31,

in), is

[148]
TABLE

II.

FORMATION OF INFLECTIVE ROOTS lN EACH TENSE AND MOOD.


i. Pre

Theme, permuted if neceary; followed by W, convertible into

3;" before a emivowel or naal, but merging in

Of in a gua

diphthong: or ele followed by WET, a, U, U, &C; or by I


liable to permutations, as

&C; or by 'I liable to imilar permu

tations; or by 7" convertible into i or I ; or by a blank denomi

nated

or

ii. Rem. p.

&e.

Theme, doubled and in general permuted; with or without

prexed to the terminations: or ele theme, not doubled, but in


general permuted, and followed by THE with an auxiliary.

iii. Abs.. Theme, permuted if there be occaion for it; and with or

without 'X prexed to the termination


iv. Aor.

&c.

The ame root as in the aholute future; with 'Z in general i

prefixed to the termination 'Ell-a &c ; or ometimes the root followed


.

by the termination
v. Im. Be.

vi. Abs. lb.

or Ul' &e. Without I prefixed thereto. '

The root formed like that of the preent tene.

With 32' or

prexed to the inective root of the pre

ent tene; but ometimes Without that prex (Ch. 17.


vii. Imjz. &de. The root affected as in the preent tene.
._ ben,

iii,).

The theme, permuted if requiite; and with I prefixed to the

termination

&C; but without uch prex before the 'termina-'

tion UIFI: &C; and ometimes Without it before H or 'He or before


a blank ubituted for Ft.
viii. Ama.

'

Theme, permuted according to exigency; and, in ome

inances, doubled; with I] or

uually prexed to it: and with

or without the prex 'Z before the ubitutes of ; that is, with

it 'generally prexed to Ededuced from ail: but ometimes


without it before that or 73: deduced from the fame; and always

without it before

or 'I deduced from Hi; or before If or "I,

or
from
U (ee gan. 12.),
and k , or before a blank ubituted for'

ix. Cond.f. With 3] or U in general prexed to an inective root


imilar to that of the aorill; future.

[156]
ed: to an drd'dad'kdtuta ax, the initial of which is (HU\) any con;

5 'm na; _ qug; ,


Mix

(7tth and

), a? (toth cl. but without the ax.

loth

but withoutthc

and ed cl. including the ubitute

or 'II )-, &lI and &HI


r in F.

15 in i,
Had,

T,

We

MH,

NH, d-l, Ii (7thc1.and

WH,

(7th cl-andt as ome hold,

6tth ),
4th 01.), Bl,

tain, Via nd Ya (Mh oh apd &thl- [Ya isnot included i_n this,

li? becaue her; the ame accent t-WFS xt a dierent purpoe. 1,

'5 in &I.
x (4th cl.),

HZ',

(461- 6th and '7th sl-h ,

4th cl. and 7th, and, as ome hold,

6th cl. but no'

e ate-maw), its, He, War-a, after ed.


u t- er. as, an, as (nt an, as, He, Edt (nt o. me was
alth cl- ), TTS, UT, II? (4th CU- U'Zl and g (4th eld:

2 in X, 'TT- (4th cl.), and 3? (as well as its ubitute Way


t3 in I.

WITH, (5th cI.and toth, hot without the nn

Ht (en and 4th cl. and toth but without the ax

), fZT, Fill',

), 'Z, at? (4.th cl. not 6th

and
nottoth), T? (tth cl. not 6th not toth), rat, "as, ZHU, "It,

3 in IL. all', TN and WHEN.

4 in' Ft.

g, mit, mind Tij (on 'an and In),

an, at', For, and', at', &th. m '


ith and 6th ch), m and HIS.
anI'cl.),
in

9th cL),

To (ql'i
3d cl. and,waccording
when' torags
ome,

l &at.
cl. or, according
th to Others, r

7th cl. and,eceotdzng to ome, ' rit el. ), U'H (all d-le-'a-MVZF'

[159]
place in certain verbs; * but,_optionally o, if the prefix

intervened"

6. In certain other verbs, with certain prepoitions, but only in par


ticular circumances, the permutation maytake eect. I
7. After a prepoition, that furnihes caue for uch permutation; or

after

is ubituted for a: become the initial o'f the verb WET,

provided TL or a vowel immediately follow.

. 8. After the prepoltions II, ,


i for' U: in 'ETI (deduced from BTFHTU.

and
i

His ubituted

9.' The ubitution of I for U: does not take place, if this be the
followed
initial ofan
by inected
the ax word
HIS; nor in nor in the verb
ignifying
a__to go; nor

in U? converted into

ltion II) in

iii.7. note [l.) ; nor (on account of a prepo

(iv. note Q),

by HZ; nor in

and

followed

5th cl. ) followed by U] or FI; nor

(ubequently to the prior yllable) in 'ax (tra and 'UEiF-l, followed

by &i.
* Alo in the terms
1 Viz.

and UU.

(4.th cl.),

(ee ix.)l

deduced from

verb which has. the prex '82


(Ch. 17. 5. iii. 3.).
a 'N
_ ii: Viii.

with Wild', a, t',


with ( unles a

ubjoined); TT or
place in

), and:

'-

or a, unles: livmg being be the ubject;

ax follow >, or with

(though uch an ax be

with x, or i. But the permutation mut take

(9th cl. uppt.) joined with the prepoltion .

[I Alo in the terms

and. an.

I] From this reriction, it follows, that the permutation does take place onaccount'of a prior

yllable (II-31] F)_

____--,-_-

>-_-_

__

[169]
2. The nal of an inflective root ending in a vowel'* becomes long
before UI, provided the ecient: initial of this ax be a DE con

onant.+

'

3. Ft is ubituted for the nal of an inflective root ending in' Hz


before an drd'lzaci'lza'luca ax beginning with H ,

SECTION

nt

PERMUTATIONS or ROOTS, AND or ram TERMINA4


TIONS, am'er ARD'HAD'HATUCA AFFlXES.

1. ' Before an a'rd'fzad'lm'tuca ax,Y a blank

the nal of an inective root ending in

i.l

and,
e Likewie
optionally,the
thatpenultimate
of the verbof the (roots

nants in the inectivc roots

8th cl.).

is ubituted for

and for the yllable 'a Pre;

But In'
and is ubituted
ubituted
foii the
fox:nal cono;

ahd

before the famect

zix with the ame reiriction; alo before an ax beginning with a makconfonant and diin
guihed by a mute A or I

ed. The verb


'

before

and,'optionally, before one beginning with I and o diinguih-i

(Sth cl*.) is optionally liable to the ame permutation of its inective root
_

1' This and the r rule i'n the preceding paragrnph are taken from the r pert of PA'N'rm's
Fourth Section and Sixth Lecture. The remaining rules of that paragraph, with mo' of thoe in the
notes,
i: PA'N'tNx
are from7.the
5. econd
iv. Seepart
exceptions,
of the ome
Ch. fection.
16; iii. See
5. below, note

ll The rules contained in this and in the following fection, and mo of thoe in the preceding
one, are extracted from the econd part of the Fourth Section of PA'N'mr's Sixth Lecture 3 and the
Pcrmutntions, there directed, are as it were null, in repect of other conequent operations.

The

remaining rules, belonging to that portion of PA'N'INi's grammar, are, in this work, placed amon
rules, with which they are otherwie connected.
-

5 When uch an ax foilow's the inective root of Ha, I

may optionally be

inerted after the vowel, rejecting, at the ame time, the original I and penult a,

175 ]

3.' The vridd'lzi element is ubituted for the nal of an inflective root
ending in 3 ( CXCCPt one denominated

before aa'rvad'atuca

ax ditinguihed by a mute 'I and beginning with a cononant, pro


vided omething have been expunged

4. The ame is ubituted for the nal of an inective root ending in

a vowel, or for 33] penultimate of an inective root,+ when an aix,


diinguihed by a mute FL or UL, is ubjoined. 1.'
5. But the penultimate I of an inective root ending in TT, and

whoe radical vowel was originally accented with the acute accent, is not
e
..,
. .
.
o permuted before lHUL, nor before a ent ax dlhnguihed by a mute

Ftor Well
I

6. Beore

followed by axes o the active voice (UTGYIPZL

the vr'idd'lzi element is ubtituted for an

vowel terminating the in

ective root; and mu be o for YJ contiguous to Her I, in an in


ective root terminated by either of thee emivowels, even though the

ax FHZL be deitute o the prex I; (Ch. 17. t), i.); alo, for any
'unles
vowel

haveinbeen
an inflective
prexed root
to Vk;
terminated
but, by
optionally,
a cononant
for A' pro

odially hort (unles contiguous to UN or I), in an inective root be

In

the permutation takes place before a hwuarl'bz'ttuza ax ( though diinguihed by a


'\

more I or

beginnino-a with

: but

is ubituted for the nal vowel of this verb, before an ax

and diin guihed bY a mute 'ER


k or
C

0 This is optional in the verb

o
o
'\.

But the gun'a diphthong is here ubituted, if uch

ax coni of a ingle cononant.

t Except

(or

), and as,

t, The mediate vowel of the verb

is thus permuted, before any ax incident to verbs.

11 Exccpt the compound verb

, and the verbs

and Ya,

[w]

SECTION VII.

'REjECTION AND iIixlsriRTION or T,"


r. A blank (ahtn is ubituted for I, following dart (Ch.16.
5. ii. 7.) in an inective root; and, provided an ax diinguihed by a
mute

or

follow, for I penultimate of an inective root, which

ends in a cononant, and was not diinguihed by a mute '2. *


and
2. TH,
I iswhen
imilarly
the ax
effpunged
'It immediately
fromfollows;
the rootsand fromIlii,
the roots

and 'HilI (i when an ax diinguihed by a mute


or

follows; and from TH, before

_.from

3. =

is inerted after the la yOWel of a verb originally exhi

'biited with a mute


clas,

but, optionally.

before

The ame is inerted, in the la verbs of the 6th

&C., before the ax

and in

'and'UiiL be.

Fand
ore an
gall,
ax beginning
before one
with
beginning
a U'Q-'L with
cononant;
'a vowel.s
and-in'

'

'

* Except
'

Fill',

'

to worhip.
O

i t See other anomalous permumions, 'among Derivatianny" A'aum'from lark,


'

I. Certain other verbsvof the 6th clas, in which I is a radical penultimate, as

TT,

and ll', are, nevertheles, included in this rule; and retain the penultimate T,

'> r a . . 9 A

_0

lv before an ax diinguihed by a inute. T or Z:

but, here, fhe'a'uginent'is 'inerted before the la cononant; and the preceding H is cone
i
fquently exPunged, before the

t Ch. . .vii. 2.
con onan (
4 5
r )

5 Except, in regard to J'ai, an ax to which


and except' in regard to

(le-i)

is preiXCd, unles in the remote pa

and Ell, the ax

The la verb is, moreover, ubject to other anomalies

and the remote pa

184

sdi'- Bil-WHAT
ix. ConDirrdONAL
Ldg- FUTURE.
WHEN: Ml xins- WHUXE
du- stu-aict

du-.=aumn==t

P-'a mma

du- amorous

' -ammn

it smsrna

SECTION 11.
'LooNJUGA'rED m ann MIDDLE vorcz as a. DEPOXENT VERB,1=
3djing.
A
Na'
. -

2ding.
i. Parer'r.
nag

ting. Hi

du. ni-

du. n

du. Ham?

- mld

- NHYZr

Pl- using;

after this and certain other verbs (Ch. 16. 5, iizi., 11. a note) : and the gun/a element is not 'bitutz
ed in this root, before tir-vad'luituca

3;

axes.

is prexed to the inective root, when

mar. ( Ch. r 7 . 5 . iii, 1.),


a, enegative
'

See Ch. 19. 5. iv. a. 1.

follows, unles the term be connected 'pith


is
'

The axes are permuted as before: but

not ubituted for i, ince the verb does not end in

(Ch. 16. 5. iii. 11.),

ing the nal of the c'onjunc'i, is expunged as before (ee vi. IJ.
bsfore vOWcls (ee ii, 1,).

Ft, becom

is annexed to 1]
A
A

' Ya: is pnxcd to theincctivc root (Ch. 17. 5.;n. 1.), and a, with its prex 'ZZL
is ubjolned; changing H to
'

and the gun/a

The axes are permuth as before (vi. 1),

long before na.

is ubituted for the vowel of the moz,.

'\ -

A' merges in the gu'za

letter; and become;

See iii,

1- Kto attain, though belonging to the roth clas (ee 5. iii.), may be inected without
and, according to ome grammarians, it remains a deponent verb r but others deny that inference;
HOWch, I, to be,' is deponent in, Conjunction with the compound prepoition
the reaon here t'ubjoined; and is therefore exhibited as an example of deponent verbs.

may therefore prex, to 'the verb,

before cononants, and

i/far. p.

, fqr

The reade;-

'

before vowels,
i

lite,
'

When reciprocity of action is indicated, (as it is. in the foregoing inances) a verb takes the re

ectiveans, unles preceded by the terms

or

cepting uch verbs, as ignify to go or to kill ( including, in the exception,

__',

roots, but excluding T.

EL

and eat,
and certain other

*'\
kings ght together.).

Z in tene-"- &C- diinguihczl by 3 time I, 'T is ubituted for the ? portion of reective

M*-*-.-_"

a '"

or M-M --*--"

[185]

ii. Big.

sdng- For?

2ding- aufq'd

du- 'entend
z-'ntr

1irpg

arm?_
- mi? A?

dwells-na
- Wife? BZ]
iii. are.

sding-u
. _ du- arm
- It-n'am

=ding9a likes-uant?
du- uantan
du- Winter?
- Haar
- aft-ram? .+'

taling-nan

zdvg- unne

du. unsad

du- uad

du- aente?

121- uaea

- uant?

- nine-ma:

Ma- and

iv.

LA

axes, and is ubituted fcr


'cononant but

(ad ingl

But zu (converted into 'I before any

is ubituted for U, in an ax diingiiiifhed by a mute

following N

(Ch.
is ictitinuy
16.' s; diing'ixed'byiiil 4. 9; and fi).'a mute
Now a hrvad'bdruca
(du. 3d and adili
ax, See
which
Ch.does
16. not
5. iv.cOntain
1.
a mute

is. m
ubituted:ubjpimdas to
uual,
the wages:
roof; and
in' the
the 'gun'a
gun'avoWel
(W,
and converted
diphthong,into
U and Ibefore
(3d pl. and

II: ingi), and bec0mes long before"


*

inead of a'

prexed
bitutedfor
to a
fox
i. 2.).

(in

ing), and

ahdzll

i. 3.

inead of I (3d pl.)

w and

I is ust o;" a: afi'ei:

except. U (and

i.\t. *.

&ahonan'Cht
16.
iii. 4.).'an. The
t. 1. ii;
afiiites,
and being
Ya;denominated
is not ubituted
rd'bad'bdtum,
(Ch.' 16; 5. iii. ;f.

ubituted'er Io, in the ai

ti' See

(r du, and pli See

See

vowel, as

following'

16..

is annexed to this ters; as before

iii. io.

the derebral Z may be

preceded by

emivowel or vowel;

The aixes of ad and I are permuted as above: but H is eXpunged before an

aalzthe initial. of which is Hk (2d pl.); and E is ubituted for the a of

(Wns-l- Sat-chi r6': e. iiii 5,


I See s. i. 4. The termination: are permuted as in the preent tene (i.).

before 'T

_.-.

Zd/zng.szlT

2d '7'8-312 FLEE?

iik'

du. Wmr

du- azan 'straw

-UNFITH '

-VHLTzTTDTF. -sweel-P
ix.

du- KNRFFIFG

sdmg- Sque zdiPK-z- Ki'llTaBJ-i

WEE

du. Quae,th

du- zzn-zem

du- swme

pl.;gugj

-atmWar

-KmmE-i

is put inead of 3]- (3d pl.), and 53 inead of

(I ing-): and H (deduced from

ee) is expunged in a hrvad'bdtum nx ubituted for

V N

unles it be its nal: the

prefix is- conequently reduced to 'qund to i before cononants),- See Ch. 16.

iil: 8.

But, in the ame axes, being drd'bad'bdtuta when the import is a benediction; H is ietaincd, with
prexed to it, ince it isa

cononant (Chi 17.

FE, and to 'a I contained in ai'tes iubituted for


.

i. 1.); and a:

(Ch. 16.

iii.

is prexed to
In both inances, His

ubituted for I, after the

vowelznnd

and 2<l}: but a maybe ubituted for

and I, for Ft and 51, after

in

after

(ng. 3d

preceded by

a e

See canonant
Ch. 16. 5.may
iii. beto.doubled;
_ as alo the femivowel,
and the nal nnal ; or any one ;
i mivow.l
* Since&e.
the oft
or any two ; or none of them; this termination may be here varied ixteen ways, and, _alo, in the

preceding inance (iii.): but, eight ways, in the remote pa (ii.). S'e Ch. iii
H-i
.
.
.
v
.
+ ti

IS retained before the reectwe axes

prexed to it:

U; i's nbimtcd for

after the

z is put for (3d ing), and 'El- or 'U (2d ing.).


N

3. 5.

i. 8. +.);
)

and '1.
.

and

is

vowel; and,- conequently,

is ubituted for U in the reec

tive ax, following any latter but A (3d pl.), i A blank is ubituted for a of
and

prcced.d by an
1: Se:

9.

bctorc

may be put for SL, in an ax ubituted for Whllowing the prex


d

element. See Ch. if.

'

iii. lo. u. and 12.

Th: regular reflectlve axes are here employed; with the fubituticm of

For SIR, after A.

Ch. 16.

iii. 9; t

[I 1-95 j
3.

Deiderative (deduced from TT), conjugated in the Active Voice',

Prccr-zt 3d ing.

&c. " *

p. 3d ing. ZTLH'TWKTT-FHH-BTZT &e.


Abs. j;
3d ingqizbj
ing. Fulda (2d_/mg.-an'i=r
&c_). i
Aor.
j: 3d
&e. *
Im. 3d ing.
Abs.

FLEE &c.

3d ing.

&c.

Imp. Go. 3d/i/1g. WET-t and Ben. 3ding'. YLWFL &e.


Aor. p. 3ding. Walxzil du- WFNKHW . anguhgz

2d ing. avail: du.3>1HN,fEWI pl. WENJTIE


aning- WZNH du.3q1Lsa pl. WTLFWF.
Cond.
4.

3ding.

&c.*

The ame, conjugated in the Middle Voice.

Preent. 3d ing. aqzch


Rem. . 3d ing.

&C.

Abs- ? 3d ing- N (2ding. 'WITH &c.).


Aor.

3d ing.

&c.

Imjz. 3d izig.
Abs.

&e.

3d ing.

&C.

Imp. Be. 3di71g.

and Ben. 3dmg.

&c'a

Am. p', 3d ing. amzp'qq &c.


Cond. 3d ing.
it

(Ch. 17.

&cr'i'

(wherein I is mute) refues the prex

i. 1.

and, conequently (Ch. 16.

when ubjoined to an

iv. 2.), is ctiti'ouly diinguihed by a mute

which prevents the permutation of the vowel with a gun/a diphthong.


and the vowel becomes hort in the prior yllable (Ch. 18.

iv. 3. and 4.).

U is ubituted for
0.

a on account of the preceding ZUL letter (Ch. 4.

iii. 14.), But, before an drd'bad'bdtuca

is expunged, as the nal of an inective root ending in sqi (Ch. 19. 5. ii. 1.)

Thus the inective root is


"

Reduplication takes place a

ax, U in

vowel

beforErt/ad'bdtum axes, and


V

before drd'bad'bdtums.
NJ

1' The terminations dier; but the intermediate axes, and the rooti arc-aected as in the active

voice (iii.)v

[ no? _]
Le Rd
3'd inging. uziae
Wacttpr
or

duradilsi'
du- thtipz..zfrug+
'.

uning. am But or aft't * du. Milan . nger,


Ram. 3d ing. fruits-'a am." (but, according to ome gramma.
rians, 3d ing. &IN-U? du. iHEHg-or ele -3d ing.

ning-214. Wan &e. in.


* A blank

(Ch. 18.

is ubituted or

(Ch. 16.

iv. 3.), as before. The root

ii. II_); and redupiication t'akcs place

is inected asz Wtb (Ch.sl6.

ii. t4-); and.

r\

Art is expunged, ince Cbarcaritar are included among verbs of the econd clas (Ch. 24..).
i

may beprexed town hr'vad'lzdtuta ax, containing a mate

I cononant (Ch. 17.

ii. l.).

and beginning with

The permutation with the gun'a diphthong (WNL reolvable into

II before vowels,) takes eect, notwithanding the particular rule repecting the root
A

(Ch.
1' Suchhrvad'bdturar,
19. 5. iv. 2.), for a reaon
as haveexplained
not a mutc
in the
T,following
are ctitiouiy
note (Ch. 16.

a mule

iv. It) diinguihed by

which prevents thepermutation of the vowel with the gin/a diphthong: for the per

mutation is not here barred, in this form of the verb, by a rule repectng the particular verb U
'\

(Ch. 19. 5. iv. 2. 1.); ince the imperative

is exhibited by the grammarian (PANK 7. 4.

65.), as an anomalypcculiar to the Vizla : whence it is inferred, that the regular ubitution of the
gun'a diphthong, becomes proper in the common dialect. But ome grammarians eem to Jimit this

incrmce to the" four tenes &e. in which

expunged.

is ubituted
it.
for
is ubituted
I, before
for a vowel
(3d (Ch.
pl.), following
19. 5. iii. I.).
an abbjg/IGJDOK (Ch. '6.

in. r.); and

(Ch.
l Nothing
ib. iii.prevents
2.), asheore
the permutation
any dr'd'bazi'britura,
of the vowel
in with
general:
the gun'a
for diphthong,
, apon'mn
before of
the the
axverb' is

notBut
expunged
ome grammarians
on account ofdothenot
d'd*':ad'ict1(itum
admit the ax
ax, as uch (Ch.
auming
19. 5. itiv.asI.a maxim, that a verb is

liable to the ame rules, in the charmrim form, to which it was ubject as a imple verb.

A COllCcLUcnl diirence of opinion, repecting the permutation otithe radical nal, will be explain

ed in i ubequent note (A

oblicrving, in this place, that the rule (Cht 16.

iv. r. 1.), repccting

), is not here applicablc, becaue the root is, in that iulez cxhibited- 'with the termi

whigh indicate; the imple verb 5 or, according to another orinionA becaue
that rule is relativ: to the peculiar anomalies of the Vida. .

But the author o one of the popular grammars ates all rules, aecting particular verbs, as optional
a. this deriveth-e formo it: that is, a root, which is irregular as a imple verb, may bc iniiectcd as a

[U5]
8.

From a derivative verb, further derivatives (cauals &c.) 'may 'be

deduced.

Ex.

he wihes to caue exience.

is not ubjoined to a verb terminated by

But

denoting deire. However,

it Can be o ubjoined, if another ax intervene ; and, thus, the ucceion

of axes may be prolonged withoUt limit. Ex.

wihes

to excite the deire of frequent or intene exience.


caues the wih of occaioning frequent or intene exience.
*

9.

The caual is the derivative form, which mo frequently occurs.

The others are rarely employed; epecially the intenves, and the deri
vatives deduced from derivative verbs.

SECTION V;

IMPEiRSONAL.
LmemhWhWh(&Wi

And; HIS-31; N or out-am: Nmmmm:


Want; man; Win and am. uz or mea-e;
Wih When orsmfimn

'

II is ubituted for I, before uch of thee,- as begin with Vowels. >In the'r peron o the
imperariVe

ince the ax, through its prefix, is ctitiouly diinguihed by a mute 'T

'K
.

(Ch. 16.

6-

iii. 6. +.), it is not conidered to contain a mute

and, therefore; the permutation

with the gun'a diphthong is not precludedi


O

a The reectiv: ax es are employed in this, as in the paiive voice.

is ubjoinea

to the verb (Ch. 16. 5. ii. 6.), before a dr'oad'bitucdax. X ix) isPrexcd to U, FHHJ
and

being &rd'bad'bdtura axes: and the vowel is convertible into the gin/a diph

thong, as uual; or the inective root may be permuted (i. e. the vowel may become end/71), in
like manner as before
is ubituted for

(Ch. 19

ii. 3.),

This ax (wherein Hand Blue muFe)

a (Aor. p.), before a (3d ing.); and the termination

(Ch. 16. s. iii. 12. 11.),

is expunged

The remotely pa tene is analogous to that of the active voice; though

ome grammarians erronecuy make it

E 195 ]
h. Sin'cc 'the caual is Of coure tranitive, there can be no imperonai
deduced from it; and the derivative verb U-L (ioth cl.) is alo tranitivc:

but, hould any inance occur of this verb bearing a neuter ene, when
joined with a propoition, the imperonal will agree with the 3d ing. of
the patvc (S. vi. 2.).
3,

From the Dcderative (See s. iv. 3.).

We; quarwrsr; gl; NNW;

augrim; stratagem; ENKH or Huia'e; REEVE;


Wanmnf
4.

From the Intenwe (See s. iv. 5.),

WHEN; THFZTF'RWHHRF-W; Gll; R;

HP; sweete; WIan or uje; Winne;


Matmm
5. From the Clearca'rctita' Intenve.

ug; shun-has &cz auil 'air-nium; refrain-ear?


or mrm; alvtam; Humane; 'e-un and autile

or me; Wmfa; Auma or sazhmma:


* The nal U is expunged, before the &rd'bad'brilum ax (Chr 19.
ii. 1.j, inead of becom
ing long under a ubequent rule (Ch. '9.
v. 4.): and the permutation of the inectivcte root, on
'account of lll, or of axes treated like it, is barred by that operation.

Conequently, the in

ective
before drd'lyad'bdturar
root is
: and,before[broad'btutarz
thus, the future tenesand,
areasalike
in theinactive
the middle
and middle
and imperonal;
voices,
but the

aorit pa diers.

On the auxiliary verb ma, ee aremark in Section vi. 2. note. I


1; The inections are imilar to thoe of the deiderativc, with the derence of the prior yllable,
and the ue of akinead of x:

The inective root, therefore, is

or HgJ

I. Here, the inections are imilar to thoe of the imple verb, diering Only in the addition of the
prior yllable, and in the formation of the remote pa.

h,_,

,__

7_

,_

C 19'7 II

SECTION VI.
P A s s I V E.
r. From the imple Verb.*

Preent 3d ing- WITH? du' JFPLYB - W'TLZTK


2d ing. SZZPQJF du. SZTDJP'ET pl. Muhadax

1ing- satij du. Klla? pl. SHTLZIIHS.


Rem. p. 3ding. WITH? &c.

An. . 3d ing. WN or Wu &c

Aor. . 3d ing. Num or FAV'LWFZWTZT &0.


J'ai-12. 3d ing.

KZURUHFI &c.

Abs. . 3d ing.

&c.

I?27_;9.C3C.3ding.

and Ben. 3d ing.

or

snme &c
Aar. p. 2d
3d ing.
pl. Waxii-zi;
WVNTFJ du. WVNEWTHIII
or Wane-3;
or

cond-- sding- UWNFHUFT or Ir-Emw &c.+


2.

From the Caual.

Preent 3di71g.

&c.
Ram. p. ading- man'BiR
-=r2-I,fxi or -W &a.

Abs. f. 3d ing. NTFJFN or manam &c.

Aor-- 3d ing. mm or umm &a.


a: In certain acceptations (for example, with the prePoition

I which makes the verb ignify

to apprehend or perceive), Ris tranitive; and concquently admits the paVe voice.
1- The 3d peron ingular is formed as in the imperonal; the other peruns and nUmbers are
uciently obvious, ince the terminations are imilar to thoe of the middle Voice; and the inective

root is

before arwd'bzitucas, and

drd'bad'bdmcar: but

or 441., convertible into

before mkitei'i.

See

V. I. *.

or WI, before

.[ 198 ZJ

Im. 3d ing. MEIFUFI &c

Abs. p. 3d ing. SHLUUH &e.

Im-Bc-ading- luste and Ben. me or mae &e.


Aor. p. 3d mg- SHle du. Tullqll O VIMHEIH-T-t &c.

Cond. . 3d ing, BRWFA'DZH or Nitrazmh


3.

From the Deiderative.

Premt 3dzng.

fie.

Rem. p. 3d ing. I-MFHW &e.


AJ. j; 3d ing. Eq &c.
Am: . 3d ing.
4.

&e. See the lmperonal (Q v. 3.).[l

From the Intenivc.


Wm>

'pi-A

Prrt ad ing- 53 &L'Qligki m &S


\

Rump. 3d ing. KZZTDKGFZI? &e. See the Imperonal


5.

From the Clearcqrzim lntenve.

Preent 3d ing.

&e. See the lmperonal

I The ax is expunged

before the drd'bad'bdtum

v. 5.)II
but not o, beore

a'rd'bad'bdturar which have the prex


(Ch. 19
ii. 2.): unles thee be deemed imilar to
6..
-.
I'CZHL (Ch. 19. 5. ii. 3.), Conequently, the inective root is
before drvad'bdtucar,
'N

and

or lar q (convertible into

and

) before cird'bad'lydtucas; but

as "uab in the remote pa: and, here, E is not ubituted for H in the auxiliary verb
before

becaue the rule [or that permutation (Ch. 16.

iii. 5.) is rericted to a hrwd'ltum

ax of the fir peron; EHZ ome grammarians do admit the permutation, in the r peron of the

remote 'a. Many o the inections, as is evident, are imilar to thce of the middle voice.
i The 3d ing. is the ame. with the imperonal (5. V. 3.)5 the other numbers and perons, in this
paliive voice, may be eaily inferred.
5 The inr'iezflions are, here alo, analogous to thoe o the d lier-atth

il The inections are imilar to thoe o the irnpl" verb, adding the prior yllable, and varyirvg the
renzctc pu?"

[tye]

SECTION VH.
RECIPROCAL on NEUTER PASSIVE;
1. From the imple Verb.*
*\
Prue-"nt 3d

r
&C.

'\

Rcm. i. 3d ing. W'l &c.


'i'
'w-

K'

Aor.

3d ing. Bti-Niici LQFI or Uiulnfa &c.

Aor.

3d ing.

and

or

&C'

The ret o the inections conorm with thoe of the imple pave. 1'
2.

From the Caual.

Prent 3d ing.

&c.as in the deponent caual.

3. From the Deiderative.

nere-1.: ed

e'ra'srvto see-t

i' A propoition is joined to the verb, in the example vhere given; becaue the reciprocal Paive
is retricted to an action, which aect: the object (Ch. 16.

ii.v 3.

a , without a propoition;

does not denote uch an action: but Uadoes ; for it ignies to ubdue or overcome.
'l' The ubithtion Of
(Ch. 16.

for H, before a, is optional, i the term cnd in a vowei

iii. 12.); but indipenable, if it end in a cononant.

On the other hand, the optional

permutation o the root beore a &c. as before 'Pa-Ill, is rericted to one terminated by a.

vowel; and is not allowed, aterone ending in a cononant (Ch. 17.


i. 7. and Ch. 19.
ii. 3.);
"I, The imperoan neuter pave is imilar to the 3d peron of the reciprooal paiive. See Syntoz.
] In general, the reciprocal pave is inected like the imple verb
16.
ii. 3.
But, in regard to the ax Was, and the ubitution of m, certain verbs are exceptcd
(Ch. '9.

ii. 3.

and, among them, uch as are terminated by the caued ax

.
k

Conequently, the reciprocal of the caual conorms with the paiive, in nothing but the terminations,
Which are thoe of the middle voice.
i
*

5 Roots,- terminated by
(Ch. 19. 5. ii. 3. [1.).minations.

, are among the Vcrbs, which are exceptcd as abovementioned

Here alo, the rcciproeal retains nvhing a the Pll'r': voice, butthe tea

E 204 ]
J_{=i_i.,_'n

mia-T.
10. a?
fa.

tr. 'to alutc.* 'to praie.

11. In?"

intr. 'to be happy, or well; or to do in

aupicious act. 'to be eay, glad or cheerful. ato be pleangfr HXH.

refual: afrm
12. Ffii

tr. 'to praie. inlr. 'to

rejoice, or be glad. nto be proud. 'to eep, or be lazy and uggih. 5to

Wit x.

be elegant. t-r. 6to go, or approach. intr. 'to be an idiot or fooli

r 3. '(qz
THE,

intr. to quake or tremble a little; to hake."


Fii, CAUs.
i

14.

tr. to lament or bewaill

' MA'D'HAVA expounds the term


'the pronouncing a benediction preceded
by a bow or obeiance z' DURGAiDAiSA explains it more conciely
a alutation.'

See

Ch. 23. 5. v. and loth cl.

1' MA'o'HAVA interprcts the r term by


which
and D'URGA'DA'SA expounds
Vo'r-ADE'VA
by

; the econd, he oberves, isa quality of the

tates three acceptations


and

See

U? loth el.

I MArTnn'YA and Vo'rAnra'vA omit the fth acceptation

; and MAD'HAVA coniders

the reading, in which it occurs, as reing on the authority of " ome" only.
c

'

by Egg, Fat: by "as, and

by

He explains z:

'

The eventh acceptation res on

the authority of CHANDRA, who has added

Accordingly, VO,PADE,VA um'

bits this among ix acceptations of the root. See

Ch- 22- 5- ii- alo

4'h d' and

loth cl.

I MA''HAVA interprets

by

'

and Vo'PADEiVA tates, as the ene of the

tom'
5 Verbs, ignifying to move or to wallow, do not admit the middle voice in the cauative.
,
/ 7
.
II MA
D HAVA and BHAT'T 10'11 explain
the term, by

'.

o
and Eo.
VO'PADE'VA

[- "258 ]*
57.

He

tr. 'to tae', intr. 'to be pleaing. WR;

23. tie' [zartij


int. to ram-r
viii. wuZ. i.
Dzs.
X
i INT. Tilctchj and

or
IMPERs.
q,

29.

Ya?

'intiz to refolve, or deteiinine in c'onequence of

awih 'Or deire; to apply or endeavour diligentlyI &H.

ing.

UFFTHT.

lMPeas.

(2d.

Des. q. INT.

'and Hii 'Or Hillle CAUS- WEET-&Ft. Aar. p.

Where-'Ft

30;
was;
31. Wri- Dzs- great?
into: to hine.
or admit. in.
their? and unite it Wit-i. cing. Wart-it.

,.

WVZTIFIFCPH. So 'shade Had.


32.'

33.

Fq'Zi;

cibly. tram. to ak Or beg. M

Des.

and

INT.

and

&' or &Hi-I ctus. &THE-43. AOT. p. Ka,--*,


Or
50 ZWPT.

Dzs.

INT.

'

and

* The elementary initial is H, ince the labia-dental is not included in the rule (Ch. 18. 5.

\
ii. r.- I.) among dentals. EXc
See 17. and 18.,

i
This root is ynonyrnoits with two, inerted above.

'l' Ca'savr't and SwAivu' give this explanation


-

milarly explains the root, by


1 See

VO'PADE'VA i.

i'

reth cl;

[1 Vo'PAnz'VA ates
note):

to the term.

an additional Verb,

as alo

(See Art. ii. 4. a

and exPlains all thee roots by aa

0
l
.
.
5 Causrca
makes the mute
vowel of this verb,
3; but Csm'naswa'tir' cenures that

reading.

209 I
34.

intr. - to be looe, lax or ack. tr. ' to looen.*

INT.
'g

and
ljl,

IMPERS.
or

Des.
CAUS. wa;

middle voice Wa; (1101. 19. WUW,-H>.


35,

intr. 'to be wicked. 'to be crooked.

bend, or make crooked.+


36.

tr. ato

WITH:
tr. to praie, or atter; to coax, or to boa."

THIR,

PASS.KWR.

DLS.

IN'I'.

&e.

ARTICLE

11.

Wit/1, Mute Vowels Acutely Aented.

1. W

tr. to go, approach, or move continually ilk "Act

- The term is explained by MA'D'HAVA, agzag m, sugar; and DW


GA'DA'SAexpoundsit, la: and

remarks, read

Some, as Mh'n'nhvh

See Bj 9th clas, and E] loth cl. and IQ'U ibid.

2, The term isexplained by MA'n-uhvh,


acceptation of this verb,

and H, VO'PADE'VA ates, for the

which Dunch'nh'SA expounds YZu'qg and

Some, as is remarked by Mh'n'uhvh, read illa.

See

9th a,

and roth.
U
\'\
\
I, The Tara'rgin't' cenures the author of the Vrrm', for exhibiting
and 31

, as the

gd Sing. remote pa of thee two verbs: he means ome commentary on the d'bdtusz for the
calm 'ar-"tri has not exhibited uch examples from the deponent, but from active, verbs viz.

'\

zd at. Vertigo, *\unde)


o

'

I; See Art. iii. 42..

DURGA'DA'SA here interpret: _*

s The term is interpreted by MA'LYHAVA

is

or TJJTL

b'-_*-_______--. wis-u-

---

'

by

; and the example, given by him,

advances uniformly towards the town.

kkb-

-"-

DURGA'A'SA ex

->_--L_MM*=* m

[r211 j

Father), Eit Aor. p. meznrt * (3d du; meant-xt) or'


WWlFil-'L * piss. aged. Dns. YYF-zn or 'amnfg rN-T.

rit?an and Fq or almi. cAus._ Waiting-3

(Am a manam-at

' *

- ' '

4. Igg [Zjm to prinkle. intr. to diilor drop-1" Tall'.

Wa. Am. p." 'sangen or naa.


5. 'in [exisz dbly. a. to ir and chumz n, Trzjir
p (zd ing.

Viit-il. Imp. 656.

or Ben. HUTR]

Aor. p. W piss. Head. nzsrant. rN-r. mate-i and


mvia or main. cius. T'TlFrd (Ama p. swarm ,-F)_
6. Y. 7.
t

8.

9.TJ. 10.Ti'Tl

'I

WITH; and tth cbervc, that the prepcuion [In 3] here ignies either < a little'
Or t limits incluive'

Vo'PADE'vA adds another verb


U

and'- expounds
Since he both
root by
contains the mutewhich
yllable
DURGA'oA'sA
ZI,
interprcts
may be ubituted for cxu

5. iii. 12.

Ch. 16'

1- The initial ibilant is, according to the be authoritics, dental in the elementary form of the rnot ;
but is permutcd regularly, before the palatine, which follows it.
du.

Ex. MAsc. ting.

i, dropping honey. ZFA'D'HAVA interprets


O

DA'SA
This explains
verb is alo
HIS
read by

it as an additional root.

-$I ,

by

; and DURGAL

and inances
and of its ue occur.

Accordingly VoPA\I)E/VA ates

MAtTRL'YA notices, as a dierent reading,

to hine_

cti- MAPTAVA expounds

by
'

VOPADE'VA interprets the root, by


O

WSZ; which DURGA'oA'SA explains,

TT. Csm'RAswA'My and others omit [my


U

verb', but CHANDRA and the re inert it; and examples o its ue occur.
*\
(9 and to), and
t]

See

and m

o
Ch. 22.

7'Lis expunged (Ch. 19.

iii. and

gth clas.

vii. 1.),lbccaue the prex is ctitiouy diinguihed by a mute

X, Ch. 16. s. iii. 8.

*-i-_c-

.-

&He-M

I" 212 ']

Im,
tr. 'to&Je.
hurt or kill.or'to
Ben.
aict. intr. am PASS.
uer pain.* .5l.

m11,du. 'r'
a)
[Will] War.
tr. to 30.:Pisa. &a. Ome(zd ing.
ra or
'\'\r\

mng. ons. Sattin (Am Wsm


tr. 'to command in general, 'to or

12

dain relatively to holy ordinances in particular. int'r. 3 to do an aupici


ous act or one betokening good fortunes Ram. p. 2d ing.

(or, as ome admit, &THE.

l du. HlZH or 51> Abs. .

(39 du.orFIFTH
l. 3dplAor. NERO,
' or
or azddu.
Aor.jz.SHBEIUFL
3dpl. WUFZESMI
' VO'PABI'VA exhibits, with the r root, the aCCcptation thus,

DURGA'DA'SA expounds

by ZZ

remarks, that DURGA prefers H.

and

CSHI'RASWAth, reads

and

But the Samant and other authorities admit both verbs in

thee
for acceptations
Scc ;and Vo'PADEiVA
and
adds
4th cl.In'_
and
DvazA'nA'SA
9thc1. Seelilfcwie
notices, as
Ya
avarious
4zh androth
reading, claes.

l Here, the letter I is not expunged (Ch. 19.


i. The Tarangin'i erroneouly reads
root of this clas.

See

vil. x.).

However, VO'PAD"VA exhibit: it as an additional

4th cl.

I] The permutation of the initial after a propoition does not take place (Ch. 18.
a.

ii. 9.), Ex.

But, in other acceptations of this root, as in the following verb (12), the permu_

tatioaof the initial' takes eect.

Ex.

THE-II

See Ch. 18.' 5. ii. 4. 5.


5 SA'CAT'A'YANA expounds

by

and DUKGA'DA-'SA by
a

>

and
but he
CHANDRA
interprels explains it FQ'IFQZ;
by
and CSHI'RASWA'W',
Here VO'PADESVA interprets the verb by

g, which DURCA'nA'SA expounds

See

4th clas;
O

qx Since the root contains a mute T, the ue of the prex

is optional (Ch. 17. S-i. t.).

[213]
13.

tr. to eat. lei. HUTFZ (\2d ing.

eat/My Uifii. Aor. p. smizqtir. piss. man. Drs.

&mi-sith. at. armed and aia or Ul.


cing. mixa (Amu seaman)
14_

i _v 1' \

z'ntr. -to be eady Or rm. Zr. 'to

kill. =to cat.* UZZ. Fiat? (in ing. qu or HNIH


Aor. p.

or

CAUS.

aict-ad)15. 33:

'

(A0r. p.

1 A

J'intr. to be Ready or rm. [1

J'ai?
'\

'\

*\

'\
*\
(3d du. WET:
3dpl. egg
ad ing. 'a-U 2d du. nag: again, ay;

iaing. state; or new. Arm. FIRST-T or NTYIFL;


16. "I

tr. to peak articulatelyl

Hmzo

Writ-V
qUZm. p. ad ing.) and Ft (Fat 3d ing.) are converted into gater the apirated oft con
onant (Ch. 16.

iii. 13.); and this is permuted with the unapirated cononant (Ch. 3.

a, preceded and follow-ed by a

cononant (don p.), is expunged

15.

iii. 33.
iii. tI. *).

o The conjunction a' indicates, that it is alo ynonymous with the preceding verb.

f The penultimate A' is permuted wit'h the erdd'bi vowel (Ch. 19.

iv. 4.), before an ax

diinguihed by a mute UL. But the aix of r ing. Rcm. p. otionally precwes the mue
letter (Ch. 16. $.iii. 3.
I The penultimate II, being proodially hort, with an initial cononant, is optionally o per
muted beore
I

conjoined with

(Ch. 19.

iv.

MA'n'HAVA cenures as erroneoiIs, a reading which he acribes to MAiTM'YA; vizv

a I.

But no 'ch reading is found there.

s Here the medial a is converted into T, with axesiinguctihed by ii mute X, Ch. 19.
So

8'

'

See
q VoiPADE'VA
loth cl.
ates, for the ene of the verb,

2.
which DURGA'nA'sA expounds,

N The prepottion , prexed to this verb, permutes the naal cononant, i a preceding pre

poition furnih caue for it (Ch. 18.

ii. tr.). Ex.

i
.* N

17_

214 l

t7'.
> to dwrde
*\. . or plrt,
. to dig
. or root?

*\

1'le (3d du. had: 2c.l\ ing, TEU)


18. ma?

intr. to ound inarticulately, as a river, a

bell, or a muical inrument &c.+


19.

(3d du. U-ZZ)

II? [TTFFTUTURH] tr. 'to g'o._ cibly. fr. 'to ak or beg;

WF'TZS (3d du.

2d ing. WHEN

l du.

Uj. Ao-r. jz. WIZTFI: (or, preceded by In,


PAss.

Des.

20. Fiat', 21. nii

on,
_

tvr. to ound.

and So

<

&an.

*\

22.

tr.
'\ *to- kill or hurt.

23. I?

intr. to grumble, as the bowels; or to caw as

crowl

.\

'

* MA'DUAVA expounds

.\

by NZF, Vo'mnevn tates

which

; which DURGAiDA'SA expounds

See

Go'vwnh interprets ErUTFT.


't Vo'PADa'VA ates
ZVTIBZ

(31)

and

loth cl.

The initial UL is converted into a: (Ch. 18. 5. ii. 1.), which is changed into UL after
certain prepoitions (Ch. '8.

ii. 10.), as in the example exhibited in the text.

1 Vo'PADn'vn ates an additional acceptation,


' to bean'

See

which DURGA'DA'SA interpret:

zozh cl,

[1 Since the inective root contains two cononants, I is prexed to it, after w ubituted

for U (Ch. 18. 5. iv. 5.),


3 The radical I is not convertible into UL,

after a preportion (Ch. 18.

ii.).

Ear.

However, Vo'PAna'VA likewie exhibits ma, in compliance, as DURGA'nA'SA


remarks, with the opinion of ome grammarians.

See

1] CE'S'AVA and others explain, by the term

loth cl.

Rag , the ound here intended. But

DURGA'DA'SA rejects that Iimitation, and exhibits the verb, as denoting the noie of a crow.

-__L'

__.___ _

215 l

WEE.
24. Fli-

tr. to bite or ing venomonly.*

25. W. 25. squ [dale] tr. to bindci afa. smart;

(3d du. Wl''FFI: 2d mg. smn l du. sna), D'zs.


sifsf. So KlZ- SHW'YZ.
'*
27.

intr. to have upreme 'power and uperh'u

man faculties. J'Z. 'ii' See."

ax.
28.
&E.
29.

intr. to make or- conitute a 'part

U?

int-r. to aect the cheekil

'

'

o sz'leVA erroneouly reads

3,

The word is

3, and lS derived

from
to ing: it ignies a erpent, and is ued by claical authorities for any michicvou's
lbclng. ctThe verb, as explained by MAtTRE'YA, the Tarangin'z' &c, denOtes < the act of a erpent,
or other being, who is dipoed to bite or ing ;' o'r * the act o uch an animal, conling in ting
.

.
*
'
ing:
* to bite.'
VO'PADEIVA
ates IN, which
DURGADA'SA
interpret:

f D'HANAPA'LA remarks, that the Drdvim: read the r, while the era: admit the econd

only. But MAITRE'YA and other authbrities inert both Verbs. See
1 Ft is prexed to the root, after

ubituted for a',

(z,'); and

See Ch. 18. s. iv. 5.'

[i The initial ngvowel being proodially long, the root takes


16. 5. iii. 2.
i
i
_
5 The

SamantzZ reads

til-&i.

Ex.

zd CL

in the Ran. p. See Ch.

MA-'D'HAVA

_...

interprets the root


e

by

and BHA'T/T'o' expounds the verb by


O

T.

Vo'rnoe'VA ates Wg, which DURGA'DA'SA explains by UJU-c, The verb is obolete.
A] MAD'HAVA remarks, that an act, which conis in aecting a portion of the face (meaning
the
' an cheek),
act relatiVe
is here
to indicated.
the cheekg'DURGA'DA'SA
and RAMA'NA'T'HA,
interprets HIS,

* roughnes produced bythe cheek." The verb is obolete; and is miplaced among roots terminated
by dentals.

See

Ch. 22. s. ii.

According to CA's'YAPA, the ve la roots (25-29) are not

conjugated; and the Samantri ays the ame of the preceding ve (25-28; including a-s a th
the various reading of the la): but the be authorities admit the conjugation of thee, as of all
other D'Mtnr.

\.

'r

[216]
30'

w" to blame, cenure or dePie.*


<2d ing_

I du.

PASQ

-a. (Wit/wep- Uzl *)31,

[U

'

intr. to thrive or be happy.+

F'a,

'efgr-. Imms. Far-i, DES. ffia'q. INT. ma and


misl or WF-. cAus. za (Aonzt sqwx.

32_ qg: [gigzaa] tr. * to gladden. intr. 'to hine:


ifz. as?
33,

intr. to act, or perform functions; to endea

vourorbebuy.' ziazf. Haz, YFZHT.


34.

35.

36.

intr.
INT. 'to hed tears."
and

[NTSTRQIZ'RF] t'r. 'to call.


Viz.
or Hlji. CAUS.Dzs.

(1107. lb.

FIFTH-T), so Zia. UZFZ. Alo qf, aa

rzz.
37.

tr. to lament Aor bewailg

38,

inzr. to be pure or clean; tr. to cleane or make

cleanjl WIHFFL THIS. LZFZHT. 'Im &Ben. IgbaTr-L, **


* This permutation of the ecicnt initial (Ch. 18.

ii. 10.) is optional in the derivatives

(rr I'a'anta) of this root ; or, as ome arm, in the conj ugation of the Verb.
O

is explained by DURGA'DA'SA

1
aected by joy:

' the ate of being

But that is a meaning, which the verb bears, when joined with the prepoition

The imple verb, as it is uually employed ignies to thrive. See


'\

(18.).

*\

I DURGA DA'SA here explains gxg by Bg,

See

Ch. 23.

i.

u See If? &e. Ch. 22. 5. ii.


s See i. '4. The verb, being inerted in two places, may be either active, or deponent; whether
the ene be reective or otherwie.

URGA lDAiSA remarksrthat

See

'
here ignies

4th clas; and I? a loth.

** The penult I is exPunged, with axes diinguihed by a mix-te


s. vii. I.

and

or 12:
ib

.\\.

See Ch- X9'

--

i: 21?

A]

..;..

-.

i'

'8313. s. 95.. 9. viii-'2. to. 'er-te 11. War [name]


kr. to gO-*

*\ _*_\
'\*\
r*\
Tii&Pa.
Fii.

;\_
So *\
Bd.

*\\
BT.

Alo

HIS. FUK Likewie KNIPT. WHEN. And BRIEF-i. WWZ;


12.
.

tr. to upect or think probable; to doubt or

fear.+

"\

.*\*

and
. 13.

or

q-.\

INT.

(1407. it
i .
t-r. \to mark or bicpotqu IIUR.

W.
Dzs. Kiqa.
14. Hi
into',
or make crooked."

P;B_k\

DERYWINHLWH.

_ 15.

.'

WKPLWIUL

'to be wicked or 'wool-ted. tr. sto bend

Hyrdi. HTZE.

rik?

tr. to decoratetadorn, or becOmieH Tiaii'i;

16. Via;

z'ntr. 'to be proud. 't'o quake 01" tremble. ato be

thiryl V'. Had. .


' *
'\
q- Some, as MA'D'HAVA remarks', read

_
inerring, that the verb is 013.;

for

'ionally exhibited with the cerebral bilant. On the other, which is the md approved, reading,
the initial dental is exempted from permutation after reduplication (Ch. 18. ii. 1.
N

JMAXTRE'YA reads

inead of

; othe'rs erroneouy add

(See Ch. '8.

s, ii); which Csm'RASWA'Mi' reads , remarking, that the verb is repeated (ee r.), on

account of the dierence of import. However, Vo'PADE'VA ates as eparate roots, with this
'\
*\
'\
_____ ___
acceptation,

and

and

and

I?

Well as

1' Vo'PADL'i/A exhibits for the meaning o this root,

and

which Dun.

\
nA/nA'SA expounds by

and

See
'

(4th cl.) and

___..,.._,,_____

*_,_

1; DURGA-'DA/SA expounds the term by

Ya: (Ch. 22. s. ii.).


1] Accordie
ing to DURGA'DIi'sA , either

" (20.

Ft
p

(5th cl.).

See H an (loth cl.);and;

0-

or

See

This likewifz ignies ' to go or approach ;' according to RA'MA cited by DURGA'DA'SA.
O
.

w'

1 Here MA D'HAVA expounde the. term by n of: and V I

'

'

'

Vo'PADa'V/t Fates.

So229
into-take
Zti.
Zl
H'TZV
or - accept. Eiiz.
-

37.' Ya:DES.
18.

'ESAZ

eii. rm; araanii (it-3471.), 'Hiizz'aitaziaz 'and a,


'a-afar', aai, or a'eiaiir, aqrt, aftazzn

(mia aa'faatr are; Aor. p. Had-aim. cing. 'strait-rth


(1407. p. mattere WHAT) &3._
_
p
19.

Ya;

'to be atiate or atised. t-r. 'to_

repel or rejj THIPL

Flat-'t

alas,
420. "IN,
26. wasHhi.
27. 'at-a.
22. 28. ment
23. 29. &I.
2_4.Z,
30. ire.
31.

32. Fil.** 33.

Ya, 'ag* and

34.

[Fl'ile] tr. to go.

_ DurtcA'DA'sA
'
explains the r, as here equivalent
.*'
1
to

the la to

A? (zoi-

and remarks', -that ome reject'the other acceptanon.- See

- r

't The penultimate

is not permllicd- with the gailn'a element;v ince the ax is' vitioufly

diinguihed by a mute 75,


'i See Ch. 18. iv. 9. *".
.
'
, .
- A .
x SA'CAT'A'YANAi and Csnr'RAswn'm' emit the econd acceptation: but DHANAPA'LA,
MMTREYA and others inert it. See ax,
The Samapr reads

Ch. 22.

ii.

for

5 The initial Z of HTZR is an ecientradical, not liable to be changed into


5_ ii, 1,

vo'PADr'va has ated an additional root,

which eems unauthorized; and,

BURGAipA's'n cites-Cnhnnnn and otheirs,'or a dih'crent rehding,

himelf read it PJT,

and eemsto have.

q Some, ag DUR'GA'DAis-A remarks, read

joins to each of the roots,

(Ch. 18,

and

moreover; 'Voiinna'vn ubej

and a, an additional ynonym,

*"' Itlappears from a remark o MA'D'HAVA, that 'the two verbs,

and)
and , are omit;"

ted by ome grammarians; but ought to be retained. However, VO'PADB'VA does not inert

_*_ w-y

_.

...

- ,___*__-_.7_- _

-_-_ -<

(2253
>ARTICLE

V.

o Verbs terminated by Palatine Cononants wit/I. Mute Vowels Gravely Aented,

and containing Ecient VoweLs Acutely Accented.

1. as? [J'ai]

to hine. add. Hi. uant. H.

seat. main. aea or Ben. ate. againe. mma.


imms. awzx. DES. faas. Im. maz and ma'
or maai (1107. p. strait-'ilk or strait-rat), cles. Tar
(Am p. meam-m.

'

2. Via'

try-'to wet, moien or prinkle. 'to

(Am p. WHctiHZTFL) &a.HUR.

gratify by ervice &c.*

3.

Ul.

CAUS.

tT. to ee or view; to perceive; to inpect.'i'

Find. Q. Til. Des. ge. Im- B and


or

se.
4- A?
afam.

CAus.

(1407. i.

&e.

tr. to. tell, ay, or peak articulately.

5. vast. 6. nqa [Wit] tr. to go.I And, WZ. Wa.

so earl. and W.

7. I? [H'IF] w. to bind." Hid. ZTHS. "Ii-'(i.


* The econd acceptation, which appears to be an addition to the original text, is upported by

the Nx'ructa and other authorities: it is inerted by BHAT'Tio'n; but omitted by Vo'mnn'vn.

See Hi' Ch. 23. e iii.


T The ene of this root is ated by VoPADr-z'VA, ZHZ; which DURGA'DA'SA interprets
and

1 Vo'PAneivA adds a third root,

See

Ioth.cl.

; which is unnoticed by MA'oYuAVA, and the re.

I This root is fynonymous with the next, according to Vo'PADE'VA; who alo exhibits it, as
*\
_
c'onjugated in the active voice, with the acceptation of

inlr. e to ound,

->229 ']
adorc, or treat with courtey. Iai.

" Impt But

Ben. greatth and Warm piss, art and aizad . p


7.

8. 3.?" 9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

ger, 14. was [omnia] tr. t0g0-+ 'ninth THE, zi.


'Hid-T. So Fii-T, i-'e'QlF-E. an, Heard, Likewie i'i'l.
gi.

Alo

TH, Ama. WZHFL or

sti and WIFE or Wd.


p
( 15, gg_ 15. Big 17.zag_ 18. rein; NNW] tr. when
or rob. u &Hath. Plain. rt. so raia, Win, Like
wie aha, Fi. Aor. p. ami-T or Wr. And

strewn; or NERVES But ami-Tin, And stairilr-"Lt


Aor.
19.p. HIS-THE
20. H
or UTQUIFUW.
[a] ZT- to gall
Likcwie U'l' UHFH.

* In the r acceptation, the radical a: is expunged before certain axcs; but, in the econd,
.

it is retained (Ch. 19.

vii. I. '*.). Hence VOPADE'VA ates U

orWY.I Ch. 3 s 1 an

rothcl U

1' Vo'PADn VA ates two other roots,


'

'

,
o

and

'

'

or'that root. -See

'

V,

_
i

, (
i

The Catantra emits


X

but

'

inerts 33, See


Ioth cl.
7th cl. and a? 6th cl
Q
f\
1
is optionally ubituted for if? ubjoined to thee two la verbs (Ch. 16. 5.iii. r'z.
note 1. p. 142.).
l

'

'

Vo'pADE'VA and his commentator exhibit, or the import of' thee verbs, a' a and

and make the two r likewie ignify

t to move:' and the third, according to Cannon,

ignies alo ' to ound.'

may be ubituted for U.

See Ch. 16.

iii. 12. note 1. p. 142.

A 1 The la root admits the middle voice, though VARo'nAMn'NA and other: have denied its
Ex.

F] _

Some add

and inances of its ue do occur.

' 'w See Ch. 16. 5. in." 12. note 1. p. 142.


(Ch.
'H' 3.The
5. iii.penult
74 anda
3.). is permuted with the palatine' ( a), which is ' 'converted into i

E 231 ]
29'. -

z'ntr. 'to retreat orabcond; 'to be crooked

or fraudulent.* TZZZ
3'0'.

intr. 1 to be faint, or incapable of di

crimination. *to increae or grow.1'

21. szi [HF] int-r. to dilate-or pread. n Pljjs LEAF.


32.

intr. to be inattentive

negligent; to err or

miakel qa. HZZ. gia.

derne.
33',
dfsat.tr.
34.

'

'to glean. 'to gather little by little.**

U'Q

intr. 'to end or terminate; to leave o. tr.

great.

'

*to nih Or concludentol' pas or quit. ++

is equivalent to anq, according to MMTRE'YA. But DURGA'DA'SA

a'dds' another interPretation,

'SZHUFL

i The vowel becomes long before the penult I,

See Ch. 18.

iii. 6.

i DURGA/DA/SA expounds the r terms by

2332.
il On collating
e

everal

copies,

it

appears,v that Vo'PADL'VA

and the econd, by

and his commentator read

i to forget 3' but, from a imilar collation of MA'D'HAvA, Bnrr'r'o'u &a. their
.
C

reading
5 See eems
Ch. 18.
to be
s. iii.

6.

Vo'PAnE'VA adds another root

1 DuneA'DA'SA explains the term by

RAMA'NAiT'HA reads

and Tnuo'CHANA, a.

'o YA/DMA imap, Bigg by qtm WZF-f ; 6 taking little by litti-d? Dung.
DA'SA explains it ' taking the reidue of a gathered crop;' but remarks, that ome expound it
4 diplaying!

it The Tarangin/z erplains aw: by HUFHZ. Vo'ranx'va exhibits four accep-

E 233 J
- 46. Fit?

tr. to pain or make uneayf" Kg; THE-i;

ar-n.
47,

[fig-[Hail tr. 'to worhip o'r treat with conrtey. *t0 pain

or make uneay. 'to cleane or make clean.+

THE:

or
Ham
48,
sm-m.
WET-
i (3d
[nnmzs]
du.du. &was. 'pl.pl.
tr.&a.
'to
&Dog.
go. 'to
in2dzng.
blame,
ing.'fir-aim
,
or cenurc;
m .q''_

du. azasl or smea. ple t or swan-o. Bat or V.


Zm or Wm. THE. warn. a:er and Ben. awry
Wah" or WiFLWBWLor NTU. 'DE-s. W-[U
or q. INT. HU-i'i' CAUS. inm

[2. WHTHUFUz

Pass. a. . 'ab Frm or W. am, m


or Wm. UF- smiten. 'a and Ben. znfinfm,
Bq or azt'e (2d pl. ang', 'azi sh? or

Wg &e. ).' sir-Ilii: (3d du. armqm, HZWHIL or


Zl-N. 2dpl. mzg', Hamms, ale' or Wth &A.
* Vo'PADBvA explains the root by THIS.
t VO'PADE'VA'S interpretation is

and

and DuRcA'pA'sA explains the la

term by Tl.
1: The verbis particularly irregular; for

aix, but optionally before a U cononant.

is ubituted for this root before an drd'ad'bdluca

Ch. 18.

i. I.

The vowel does not become long before the penultimate I (Ch. tSJiii. 6.), becaue the
ubequent cononant
5 The ue of the prex

inherits the powers of the original vowel

Ch. 2. . iii. 2.

is here optional; according to BHA'nAnWA'JA's reriction of the

rule repecting that prex, before the ax

See Ch. 17.

i. 6. *.

qT i is converted into 'all even before X. See Ch. 19- S- iii- 2- and Ch- 7.
V The Vrrdd'bi diphthong is ubituted before
'H The Cbarmrita of this irregular verb is inadmiible.

See Ch. 19. s. iv. 6

I. 5. and note' *.

235 I'

ran .* in du. rZH pz. &Saide-t Save Quarta.


anataaaiircand Ben. ZHTFL-'l' AND WYMFE.
Pass. &e.

\
55- Ya

'\

intr. to ound 'inarticulately; to igh or groan,

asin direst ZQ-T. &Hi-. E-[HL Das. ZH. INT.


VERBS and

&c. CAUS. EfiT-m. Aor. .

56. an 57. a? [un-ii] tr. to fry. u sta, ate-na


*\

(gd du. THE)

Aor. i.

or

ea. asks-1',

Alo

58. UTFL 59. Bird?

tr. -to blame or cenurer 'to fryis

wah. UBTFL And si. Mila


60. F. 61. a'
z'yztr. to ght. &THi-T. H'Flffi;
62.

FLH [Emi tr. to kill or hurt.

63.

FldFl. dFF-. H,

tr. to guard or protectl g. &J'a

giant.
* SinCe the radical vowel was graveiy accented (Ch. r7. 5.i.- r. 12), the verb does not admit the

prex ZZ, unles in the Rent. p. see'cu 1'7. 5. i. r. (with note-5.) and 6. r.
1 The vowel becomes long before I.

Ch. 19. s. v. 4..

I This root hould have been placed, near a preceding one (4I.), which is imilarly explained :
but they are eparated, ays MAITRE'YA, becaue the r is uncommon; or becaue the meanings
vary. He adds- examples of the dierent import of thee roots; and DURGA'DA'SA cites his an;
thority for rericting this verb to a cry uttered in dires.
I Thee verbs are ometimes confounded, in ignication, with the two following (58. and 59.)

See

and

6th cl. as Well as

and

Iioth cl.

s MAiTRaiY/t reads the ame term in both places; and makes the four verbs ignify to fry.
PURUSHACA'RA, adopting that reading, agns nevertheleli: both acceptations to thee verbs.
BHAT'Tion's authority is olIOWed in the text; but VO'PADE'VA appears to have tranpocd the
, (

terms; ince the two r verbs are explained by him


<
[w

'

*\<

' to blamei' add the tWO li

(
' ' to blame, or 'to ry:' for DURGAiDAiSA interprets un:
by

'

'J MAiTRE'YA inerts this verb with the preceding one; and reP'ats it here, expounding it

[ 237 J

cing. sugaa (Am p..=atz.*gF[ or, according to ome, stiszrT ;


Or even

'

fat-"ad,
2.
&Ham. tr.cus.
to urround,
'eai'
encompas,
( Aor. orp. encircle.
as-'Heat or
WHZ'IIFL *). Pass- Head.
3.

intr. to act, or perform functions; to endeavour

orbe buy.+

4. THE 5. THE

t-r. to aemble, or heap together.1

re. &The. FEFT. s0 W; Wild

5. ag [a] intr. to move." ag. as? Big-ar.


7. 1352." [WITH] to blow; to open, or uncloeg wi-Yf. WIFE.
FhFan.
'
8.

[TTFPU tr. to go or approachi N'ai.

cerebral, on account of the final letter; but MA''HAVA remarks, that


(inerted by ome in this place,) is an erronepus reading.

Dzs.

, with a final a. ,

However, Vo'PADn'VA here places three

mors, WZ, with a pcnultimate I , a: or I, This is founded on the diverity of opinions,


\

a'
from
repecting
theadederative
penultimate
the permutations
from
Ft,this
androot.
in
cenures
theSeedoubled
PURUSHACAfRA
yllable;
loth cl. for
and others
MA'D'HAVA
for exhibiting
deduces

* The vowel is here, optionally, permuted with U in the prior yllable (Ch. 18.

iv. to. '.).

t Vo'PAna'VA ates is: for the acceptation of this root; and DuacA'nA'sA interprets it,

man-2.
.
3; Vo'pAns'VA interprcts
one of thee roots, by

WhiCh DURGAA," exPounds


I See
S See

loth cl.
Viii- 4-1-

'
o
and the other, by Hmao;

The example given is ' the toring o grain!


'

Alo

x 6th and loth claes.

1 A ynonymous root, w, is ated by VO'PADn'vA ; and conjugated in the active voice. i

[ ' 246.. J
33. Ill? [NNW] tr. to adorn or decorate.*

afar.

34.

TTTTZJ

_ _

tr." to confound and diOrder, as with pain or

grie' TZIFL
35.

36. 'II

tr. to rub andpres; to grind or pound:

Thzt. gifte. nifim. se, thx'. .,


37.

intr. to become mall', low, or -hallow,[l

Y'Z'. A

38.

* See

v _.

tr. to cut or helves 73.?

vii. 19.

r Cavs'tca and Dunea read

and SA'C-AT-'d'YANAP Be:

both roots. The verbis tranitive according to DURGA'DA'sa. See


it D'HhNAPA'LA reads

SA'CA'r'jt'YANA has

verbs, but with a mute 2, viz.


verb

and

Vo'ersiVA inert:

i-iL 17,

and Csttt'xaswh'm' admits both thee


However, MAtTRL'vA here atesa ingle

; and ubequently inerts

Is), adding there

as a reading approved by " oine," Vo'rADE'vA exhibits three roots with this acceptation;

ni and 'it-2: BHAT'T'o'Jx ates two only, Ha- and WZ, without noticing the re.
0 co . .
- iA .
a
. d
I
/
t
.
gc
,
'

He; lS interpreted by DuacAoASA V, and in one place


6th cl. and

and DURGA reads ax, which MAITRE'YA notices as a various z

a
x_ g.ai'- and

*\ '\

* ceptation of the root,


6th

IN. See

loth cl.

- Ii MAtTRE'vA has

reading:

,
'
Vo'PADE'VA ates, for the ac: '

which DURGA'DA'sh interpret: Hmag,

and-al? and

loth cl.

'

*\ '\'\ "

5 MAlTRE'YA adds a various reading

See

MAFHAVA remarks, that ome


(

catalogues of roots here inert

a i by MMTRz/YA.

Voyaon'VA interprets the root'by

; but he approves the omiion .

; which DURGA'DA'SA reris.

to ' cutting, or paring o, hairl

* *"*-****

[ 256 il
be.

lr. 'to connect. 'to olve or de't'nonfimte.a

sagfr. acting. WBHI, Dns. WiYi'Z'HT. clue. sng (Aon 17.


ariszeo.
61, i?
v62.

intr. to be roughfr' Eg,


intr. to play or port:

FiZ-HT, Caus. Aor.


63.

aio

Z'FE.
tr. 'to break, cut or tear. _to kill."

THE-a

CAUs. Aor; p.

64. ZZZ

Zii-T,

66. V [WHX] tr. to go, or approach.

gain. agz.gz*alz clue-gettownp. SHZZZ'FL) So


CAUS. EZ'Zl (Aort 1'1.
o Here alo the radical penult i'

)_. _

and this letter is not repeated inthe econd doubled yllable

(Ch. 18. 5; iv. r;). But VO'PADE'VA exhibits 'two roots, with dierent penultimates a: and Z.
K

ct

OUROA DA SA explams the term

* to reolve or demontrate :' but Go'vINDA

'exPounds it, 3 to connect thorotrghly.'

1 Here again the penult is originally I,


(

t. In compoition with the prepoitions

A?" a,

and TT,

this verb is deponent.- Ex.

But not o, in conjunction with Mix, as a pre

poition governing the objectivc cae


with him.

Et,

plays.

Nor in conjunction with a, when the term ignifies to ound inauiculately.

Ex.

the wheel creaks.

MA'D'HAVA remarks, that here alo (See vii. 23.),

ignies

and

"to break or 'to kin)

SWA'MI' and others read g,

s Mu-rnz / YA reads

.a

and others combine both readings.


SZ,

U)
"i

3 2'

See

vii. 23.

v ,
\LA has "2
and BHABAPA
5 a, s I;"
a

_ Bnhr'r'o'n:

Vo'rnnz'va exhibits x roots with this ngie acceptatiou,


and

but makes them alideponcnta See '

258 ]

7. TT. 8. EW

tr. to peak, ay, or tell. JW.

Alo am. cAus. AN. p. I'qzttec or Waawa


9. 'Fit

zinlr. 'to move low. in 'to approach owlydf

iw. Hair. arm.


to. an, 11. Ftt. 12. He. 13. 2111. 14. &Ft. 15. Ice.
16. SENT. 17.

[Fgamfgj to kin:

W, Ei. Alo?

Plain. Fe (3ddu. arm] ). ztnt.

tinual] sq

atn. F'tu. Fitf. Pm, Z. El.


18. qTfi,

19.

20.

24. 'e-i. _2'5. TT'Zi',

21- Wit. 22- 'CF-i. 23- Bil.

26. THE:

30. HTJZ 31. Ya

'I-1373.'-

2-8- XTTVSF-

29- W,

tr. to go, move, or approachH ng, Was,


_.y._-_.

of the caual

cr

But that is erroneousz and only the deideratiye

is cxcepted from the regular permutation.

See Ch. 18.

ii. 3.

SA'CAT'A'YANA and Csru'aaswA'Mt' hete notice, as a various reading, Lia, with this accepz,
tation.

L'x. a a

* MA'D'HAVA and Vo'PApn'K/A here exhibit an optional ormation of the aori pa in the
caual; yet this verb is not enumerated among the twelve roots, which are intended by the rulei

cited in this place by MA'D'HAVA.

(Ch. 19. 5. v. 2. *. ,
c

t VoiPAnr'vn's interpretation is Wg, RaMA'NA'T'HA makes the verb tranitiVCa


',
j; See an,

and

6th citand

loth ci,

1] Since the root is terminated by a conjunct, the arges are not ditinguihed by a mute 'slain
the remote pat (Ch. 16. 5. iv. r.); but they are, in the imperative
tion (Ch. 16.
other.

denoting a benedicj

iii. 8.): the penultimate a: is therefore retained in the one, and expunged in the

Ch. 19. 5. vii. r.

The imple root

(not its Charcan'ta derivative,) being preceded by U, and governed by


'

a word ignifying a Fcow; requires the prex


.

Ex.
'N

fra

Irn',

utd,
/
s CAUSICA,
as .15 remarked by MA'D'HAVA, reads

*.

&e. with a penultimate

inead

of
pairs,

&e. (21.) with a penultimate I, Accordingiy, Vo'rAms'VA exhibits thee roots by


<
o
and
&a. To mo of them, he properly agns this only acceptation,

L' 259 ]

W. So WEET. And Tt. Likewie-KF-i. SHWTJI. Alo

trit. Birth. vali. I'F-i.


U'alf. i. W'E-.
H'ci (cAvs- Armp- Sezi), 'at-in
32.

tr. to_cover, clothe, or hide.* _Y"a*_

33.

34. Q"

tr. to hurt, pain, or excruciate.+

'a.

,_

35- Yf? [axiti] tr-toki-gt H'H'. ght.

. 36- 'M- 37- Hid [WHAT] to kin-11 with. Haut. Hfif.


Das. FHF-lq. So FIN
38. till.

UQQN. Imp. Be. Ben. 'FP-U.

39. WLTT

tr. 'to peak. inn. 'to hine. tr. 3to

kin-t WIFE What. And Hud will.


-

3 or

sd

'to move, go or approache but to others (viz. SIR, Lia',

TT and

he allots another ene alo,


(

MAITRL'YA, in reading

or HIS) 'to kill.'

He follow:

inead of

yet this variation is unnoticed by MA'D'HAVA


T

and BHAT'T b'Jt.

They have equally paed unnoticed MAtTRE'YA's omiion of

(23.); yet,

in this inance alo, he is followed by VO'PADE/VA. But this la author adds. as ynonymous
F

roots,

'

and

HH,

_ i

_f

and

'

and

alo

and a, in

_. .

addition to Ha- and w.


See0

VO'PZADI-vA
loth Cl,
interprcts the root by gin-HIS, which his commentator expounds

o
'r DURGA'A'SA explains

c ,
by

I VorpADz'vA's interpretation is
See

loth cl.

' killing! See

and

rath cl.

which DURoADA'SA expounds

If reciprocity be ignied, this, like other verbs, is deponent. Ex. J'a.

a
.

Bil' i, See Ch. 20. 5. ii. t.


0

ll MMTRE'YA remarks' that ome "ad hall and

but the Tarangin'i exhibits

and 'I'l-T, dceming it here unneceary to ate I for the original radical (See Ch. 18. s. ii. r.
O

and 3.)_

MA'D'HAVA and BHAT'T'O'JI concur with MAtTRI'YA in preferring the original read
I

ing

and 'kin-I.

However, VQ'PADn/vA ates H,

and

as alo

&in.
O

s MAlTRE'YA's interpretation of thee verbs is

to t kill.' SWA'Mt'omits the

264 3
17, :
ato go or approach.*

inn', >to hine. tr. -t0'dere or love.


i. FUF. .

is. Ter. 19. an [THE] m. to ound. Half-t Ham;


tan, Das. ni cing. wrath. Aor. 15. W-'qFrF.
Alo HFT. HHW (3d du. HUHHZ) E.
20_ HFR zh Ell
HUW

tr. to erve or honourJ; F.

(3d du. ZFEV.

Im/z. &de. Ben.

01:

Hem." Des. nm or female m. Printed or


TlU'U, and TiH-"l or
22_ WIT

tr. 'to move Or. approach. z'nlr. 'to- ound._

trto erve or honouer Ilqz Win (3d d'u

Wl;

Dzs. szrq. ctuszznrma.


the dental terminatio-ns are retained.
* Vo'PADE'VA's term for the econd acceptation is m: 3 which DURGA'DA'SA interprets by

'aection.'
T Vo'PADE'VA, as uual, exhibits two roots

and

of the ecient initial, inead o regulating it.

See Ch. 18.

; making optional the permutation'

ii. 3.

'

1 MAtTRE'YA remanks, that the r YOOT, a, is repeated, on account of the dierence of

import.

See 19ct.

The radical nal of the econd root is I permuted on account of the preceding I, Dog

._
*\
GA'nA'sA interprets BITE: by

. ,
See

and

.
8th cl. and

Ch.

22. 5. 2. iii. 4.

[1

is optionally ubituted for the final cononant; in this verb (Ch. 19.

diinguihed by a mute 'ax or

and mu be o, before

i. 2. *.), before a
a

devoid o the prefix

Now the ue of the prex is optional with this root, before that ax (Ch. 17.

i. 3. +.).

s The acceptations of this root are thoe of the four la verbs, with the third ene of the pre
O

ceding.

VO'PADF'VA exhibits the ame three acceptations, ating

or the la.

root, though ending in DE, is not diinguihed by a mute If (Ch. 22. s. 2. iii.
an loth cl.

i \

This
.Seq

268 3
i du.

aqznrtor
UlH, z,mortie. m. Blind: and atmtz'
i'
or month.
Liar.
16.
cherih

['adi'] tr. to pread in a Continuous ream. ' to


or

protect." lzii.

dol- .

or

NNW-Is CAUS. Aor. pNFl'FlTUFL.


i '17.

'

[Waam] intr. ' to move or quake. t-r. ' to cover. I


CAUS. Wa. Aor. P

WBR
i 18AHU. 12. Hg

tr. 'to cbver. 'to move"

Hart- He. arm. CAUS. Wnr sQ agi, sta.


Hiaiz

' '20. Via. 21.

So 7133. ving.

-' A

tT. to hold.- TB,

'

H.

'

22. na. 23. ug [o-ment Feet zgj tr. 'to tell or de


cribe. 'to kill or hurt. -co'giv.1r Nail-i. and. So agri- THE;
" The foot is converted into in the remote pat (Ch. 18?

v. 3.}; and, after reduplichtion,

the inective root, ubitute: the etnivowel before vowels (Ch. 19. s. iii. 1.),
t Here

is optionally ubiituteckor g.

I T is ubituted for the root, before

bh. 16. 5. iii. 12.

141.

(Ch. 18. 5. v. 3.) 3' but not befo' I blailk

ubituted for it.


o

'

"MA'n'iuvA and BuAr'r'O'n interpret UH'FI': by Hjg, Vo'rans'vn ates


g, which DuacA'DA'sn interprets &UITZ.
5 Here alo W is optionally admitted in the Aor. p. Ch. 16. 5. iZi; '21. p. 142. .

q] See 'SIR Ch. 22. 5. iii.


U This double interpretation, which eems to originate in a various reading," is countenanCcd by
MA'D'HAvA and BHAT'T'O'JL But MAt-rrts'YA ates the r acceptation only: and o does
VO'PADB'VA; for his interpretation
a
pounded by DURcA'nA'sn as the ame with

tt For this root ctitiouy contains a mate


z; See

'

is here, as well as under the preceding root, eke


4
I
'
' '

(Ch. 19. 5. iii; 4.

See Ch. 22. 5. a. ii 42. a nate.

loth cl.

_-._.

-_.>--<\__

AKW

[ 270 3

ARTICLE XIV.
Wit/i Mutc Vowelr Acutely Accenled.

t. na

tr.to bind:*

FiTEI. T-l. hange-'t

FSFE and Ben. FUJFL or W.+ Ame. TTBJTFL INT.


or FWEUPT; and

or

(3d du. Tilg.

jzl. Tll'TU. 2d mg. Tilrlji' or W. du. Tll'TU-i. pl,

male. in ing. marih or mair'. du. Pil'q'z. pl.

mile-or
2. Ass. 3- Tii. 4- jUZl [Tii'] tr- to envy-II 'Ille-TT _

"tasted, L. So izd. 'ZZ'JMW &c. faint. Dis.


N

which his commentator interprets,

But MArrRr'YA makes

a eparate'

root, a' he had before done with a-imilar one inerted by him in a- preceding article (ix. 13.

'\ '\
and he here adds, as a Various reading,

MA'D'HAVA cenures that eparation


\

ofthe terms. However, Vo'pADE'VA aiigns to the root


ene of

, a' a econd acceptation, the imple

HZ) ' to move or walk 5' and alo ates a diinct verb 'U

' to move f

V
Ch- 23- 5- ii- 2

his commentator too endeavours to-jniy'its inertion. See

0 N

o DURGA/DA'SA oberveg, that u ome" read

but no authority appears for this remark.

'l' The femivowel is optionally expunged before the like emivowel, being itelf preceded by a

cononant.

Ch. 3. s. iii. 2.

1 This root does admit the C'lwrrari/a form, accmding to MA'D'HAVA and others, notwithand

ing the neeety for converting

into

T, after expunging the nal Ell, before certain termi

nations (See xiii. 26. H.


The nal

, and afterwards the penult I, are i" gclncral expunged before a (

onant (Ch. 16. 5. iii. 9.)1 but, ifa naal one follow, or a

Con

cononant diinguihed by a mute

To: it', then I, temtinating an inective root, is converted into 73

and that v

. 'gain coaleces with A in the concpondcnt ori'dd'bi form (Ch. 3. . ii. 2. 'J.).
f

I VO'BADE'VA varying the radical initial, ates another root,

with this, and another

27!

CAus.

Aor. .

Alo

&C- DESOr Zmkf or


p. &st-Ne:

CAUs.

57 '33 [nFl] tr. 'to move. 'to worhip: intr. 'to ound. 'to bev

weary

&al-'1317.

HETU.

FllEWP and

&t-'lb Aor. p.

IN-r.

or H. CAus. Elaa.

&WqEUT-E.
6.

Aqr'. i.

z'nlr. 'to bathe. lr. 'to diil, 3to expresion

gaat
queezc out.CAvs.3\1iYT>-'T.
'to pain, or dires.
Amu-sto answer,
churni,
7.

to bathe &QS

acceptation

HIS;

e to night: D'um'm'st repeats, under all crime roots, ths remark,

thqt ome make them terminate with a double II,

He gives two explanations of their import;

'I ' impatience o another's rie, and 2 impatience o another's faults'

Thee verbs govern the fourth

ca e or dative.
* In this verb, the third yllable, or, as ome interpret the rule, the third cononant, is doubled. (Ch.

18. 5. no.

'

1- MA/D'HAVA remarks, that this root has other acceptations

'
t 'w

'Worhipr ound.' One D'lza'lua'la countenances this. However, BHAT'T'O'J! has let it unnoticed;
and VoiPADE'VA makes the root ynonymous with a ubequent one (8.) in twovacceptatjona
L A', though proodially hort in a root beginning with a cononant, is not here permitted' with;
the vri'd'd'bi letter, before &Epreceded by 32', becaue the root ends in qh, 19.v
s. iv. 6. *.).
-

[1 MA/D'HAVA and BHAT/r'o'n explain the term


" by
N'-'.
'looening o integrant parts ;'

o. -

. .

r .

'

'diilhng o liquor;' and


._

v 'ar

' bathing.' DURGA'DA'SA ates the la with three other enes o the ame term
0

and

'

MAn-RE'YA, as cited by MA'D'riAvA, who is followed by B_HA'I_'T OiJI: adds

UTJ as a various reading.

But his text exhibits

with
0

t.
Vo'rnna'va likewie exhibits both roots with a mnte

inances, that ome double the final II:


s See the preceding note;

35. ii',- Yard-tion'

, .

.-

and DURGA DA SA remarks In both

-*Y-*

'

[ 272 J
8.

tr. ito go. _to dere

F.

Aor. ), WEcFL

Fiat-'ii

INT.

and HlFF- or

are. cing. exil. Aor. p U'r''d.


9. WET [IIHU qai

tr. lto adorn. inlr. =to be able.

tr'. 3to preventsf WETFT,

W'FUFTT, Aor. 17.

CAUS.

smam, AN. p. sm-rr,


to. FAME! [BIWTEI] l-r. to divide, cleave, or plit.[] sta.

time; (3d du. &Balas pz. &as. Ldng. &arm. Infant.


Aor. p. amtz. DLS. tlBH-T. m. ttt and zgr
or &Yafadl CAUS. mtaa. Aor. p. Wtezr-L.
11. after. 12. after. 13. &That. 14. zia [te]
* The concurrent authority of MAi'rrtz'YA, MA'D'HAVA and BHAT'T/Oljl, and one DIJJIydt'd

is here followed. But another vocabulary o roots (lates


\

Vo/pADEVA,
' 'to be weary. adopting
'to move."
this la interpretation for both roots, explains them

1' MAITRE YA remarks, that the mute vowel is naal; and that ome conider it as circumexed.
N

Hence the verb admits the middle voice.

Ex.

DURGAIpA'SA interpret: the econd acceptation by

which is one of the enes of

qj'g according to the V'r'wapram'ra.


I a, being here contiguous to a nal ad indipenably becomes vrTrld'ln' beore
active voice (Ch. 19. 5. iv. 6.).

in the

Ear.

i MALTRE'YA ubjoins two ynonymous roots,

and

which are unnoticed by

MA'D'HAVA and the re, and which appear erroneous. VO'PADE'VA's interpretation of the root
is &I.

See 24'

5 The ubitution of I for a, and rejection o the prior yllable, take place by pecial rule.

Ch. 19. 5. iii. 8. 9.


In the intenive of this root, the prior yllable takes the augment; and the vowel, contained
in th' ubequent yllable, is changed to I. Ch. 18.

iv. 9. '

[273]
z'ntr. to wink or twinkle.*

C'Avs.

Iaa. m. p. anr or Wtaj Alo B-l.

ninth, shorn.
15.

'

tr. 'to lop. intr. Ito be inanimateclj

wifte. &treat.
(WTTUFFU
16.
When
intr.Meat.
- to be blue. tr. 2 to tinge or dye blue."
17.

[FIRST] t-r. to meditate; to conider; 'to undertakes

riate.

18. THE [Had] tr. to bind. ailg


19_

tr. 'to cover orencl'oe.

makealoudinoie.
20.
&ajl
21.

'

tr. "to dieae or diemper. intr.

BRIEF] tr. to dihure, end forth, or turn out.M FB.

FIFLU.
' MArTar'YA ates the econd root, on the authority or a ome" only. MA'n't-uwa. and th'
O

re admit the four indicriminately.

They expound the term by

' contraction 3' but

DURGA'DA'SA interprets it, * covering the eye with the eyelids.' This is conformable with the
common ue of thee verbs.

T The ubitution of the hort vowel is optional in this inance. Ch. 19.

V. 2. *.

1; Ma'n'rutva explains the term by


SA'SA interpret:

Vo'unr'VA ates HIS, which Duncn'

t the hindrance of action;-

'that ir,* be add',

(HZFIUHO - a ate of inenibility."


I Duch'DAiSA makes the verb active, a' well as neuter; 'Rd he "e" it' import to a black

(e': dark blue) colour.


\

p DURGA DA'SA interpret' Hull-a: by

tion," or

' practice: See

' adoration,"

'reec

roth cl.

q The econd acceptation is omitted by VoiPAnI'VA but inerted by MA'D'HAVA and BHAT'T'O') l
'o MA,D'H*VA explains the term by
of a thing contained.'

BHAT'T'O'N concur' in this.

; and expound: this again 6 the turning out


But DunoA'nA'u interpret' the ame ter'

* the dicrimination of a particular quantity: He and Vo'rns'vA refer this verb to the rath clas.

E 275 I

FIFTH.
35. . CAUS.
36. Amup. WZ-.
37.
[TT-TT]
SoQiZ-.
tr. to go .
or moved'

.
a

mate-r,
38. THE m. p. MANNER.
int-r. to move;
cAus.tomgu.
drop or fall.+
39- UY [Tl'a] tr- to gather-I U. Ham. Aor. p.

NNW? FL.
'
40. na [UIH] tr. to eat, r. Aor. p. Santam
_ 41. 'HIS [WET] t'r. to go.

4_ ZZZ [et

tr. to cut, plit or pierce."

WITH.
43,

Aor. p.

..
44.

CAUs.

1
[METTTIR'] int-r. to run or move with peed.$

so W. WUZE- Ao-r.Aor-. 12- BRIEF-&Ft. CAUs. Armp.


'

'

WET

_
_\
o NIA'D'HAVA remarks, that ome vocabularies add three fynonymous roots, g,
and qB.

The r, he thinks, is admiible, ince inance' of it' ue occur; it i' accordingly

noticed by BHAT'T'O'Ji: the third is ubequently inerted (4t.), on the authority- o MALTRE'YA
and others: but the econd is erroneous. See Ch 18. s. ii. 1. i. Vo'PAoz'vA has nevertheles ad
\

mitted
ated with
it; and
the he
ingle
makes
acceptation
all thee of
verbs bear two 'enes,
to move."
like the preceding (29 &c.) ; except

1* VO'PADE/VA exhibits tWo acceptations

r by

and 1')'_",_GA/l_.m'M interprets the

and 'he econd by TWf The enes of this and of the next root

to be thus tranpoed: and that is countenanced by one Dbitupd/a.

See

Ch. 22. s. 2.

ii. 42. in a note.


l

2; Vo PADE'VA make' this root ynonymous with


nA'SA remarks, that the meaning here is (

but D'ul'cL'
* falling o."

/
/vns
,
.
.
- "To,
o
.
l Vdomnn
mterpretauon
i'
Whlch
DURGA'DA'SA explain'

V'

marking, however, that the verb is alo ued with the import of * being plit ;' and with that of 'di
play."

See ZB Ch. 22. 9. 2. ii. 2. and, according to Vo'PADz'vA, loth. cl.

5 VO'PADI'VA adds a third fynonymous root

(See

7.). He tates, for'te import,

2 , which DVRGA'nA'SA explains

'

'

E 27') 3
Fi-

INT.

and

er

Ald

q't'r'. gq. le. m. aim. HISFT. Willi. ASti-T'.

'SB

\.*'*

68. WITH. [Cati] tr. to endeavour, aim Or rive. PISE: 'Zifi

69. El [HIS] tr. to bind.+ Tact.

70. wait. 71. art. 72. wit [N] tr- to u-t with. with:
vat.

. '

73, He? [aqut] tr.to eat. i: CAUs.Uo<1ct}ii$ii.H

74, mit [Psalm] tt'. to kill or hung Nail-Et;


V
75, 2273. 76. N'a; '77. H'Zt [ad] Mr. to be proudl m;
ma't, na'.
7
t
FRVZi.
78. HJE'.Alo
79. W'a.
Stag. 80.Hi-T;
Hi [alj tr. to killorhurt.**

, _

81. z [Eli] m to Pervade.++ WET. ZV'IHZRT? &e. zat.


82. . 83. WET; 84. lFa [WITH] w. to prinkle or ma:

mix qa. t. &Fatal. So a. F (afrm-Po;


,

r.

a For' 3.,- preceded by I, is expunged before a naal cr a

emivowels. See Dtrivatim of Parli'rt'plu U.

conimant, excepting

'l- lx'lA'D't-IAVA joins this with the preceding root; but MArTRs'YA and BHA-r-'T'o'n djzjozn"
them, ating diinct acceptations; and o does Vo'PADE'VA.
1 The penult of the r root becomes long (Ch. 18. iii. 6.),

PADE'VA and ome others, vmake the radical originally long.

Hdwwcr, MMTRE/YA, Vbc

bee U; loth cl.

Vo"PAD:'v('

'\
(

adds a econd acceptation to the la root,


* to move
l] This, like other verbs ignifying to wallow, does not admit the middle vct'nice, bnt the active
only, in the cauative form; even when the ene is recctive.
.
5 Some, as MA lD'HAVA remarks, read this
root wrth
a mute
'

ny

q] MA'D'HAVA remarks, that the r- r00t is ltkeWie rattde among uch as contain a mute '3
K

t'

Vo'PADE'VA everally interprets thee verbs by three ynonymous terms, THE',

if

and

o'

ax: ; the la of which is expounded by DURGA'DA'SA

'pridc_'

U The third root is omitted by Vo/PAm-L'VA and his commentator.


'H Some repeat this verb with another acceptation (ee 85.); and Vo'PAD\\'A acCordingly ates'
i'o enes ; but his commentator remarks, that the econd is not generally admitted.

I; A'IA'D'HAVA here prefers the reading' exhibited by MA'tTRL'Y'A," which icts preerved in the t'eth

'ra-

_M n w
_.... ..__ q-h

E do J

ss-- 86- &- 87- &r. 88- t [tmamfzjznz-r.


*to be atised. tr. 'to pleae.* iL FHETE. EITJF. so
&Hid. But Btt (3d du. z. 3dpz.SI-Ti-T. ling.

&rm.
&Viit. Impdu. BITE:
da or(2dingqfh
Fair.pl.xing'II-V:&War.
or z
dwwa.

pl. &Ham. Acts. p. W (3d du. Ie. 2d ng. anfSFz,


xing. satins',
ese or WHEN.- Im- &a. &Law.
Likewie iiH'. &THE.
89.

90.

91. Y

[U-Mix] tr. to go or move:

ua. T. &Pia.
\

*\

but the Taranginiz' ates a dierent interpretation,

' to gratify by ervice &c.' and

" ome," as remarked by MA'D'HAVA and BHAT'T'O JI, read

inead of

,Thee

variations are unnoticed by Vo'PADE/VA and his commentator.


* MAITRE/YA'S authority, as expresly conrmed by MA'D'HiAVA, is here followed; but ome
read

(ee 81.), inead of , juifying the repetition on account of the dierence of

import. Vo/PADL'VA agnsa econd acceptation to


DURGA'DA'SA remarks, is not generally admitted.

t to move;- which, as

This commentator explains the four verbs'as

ignifying

but his examples diagree.

See

xii. 27.

1" This verb takes the ax 3, and ubitutes U for the nal (Ch. 16. s. ii. 7.
blank, ubituted for U (Ch. 19.

The

ii. 1.), inherits the powers of the original, and prevents the

permutation of the radical vowel, as a penultimate one proodially hort (Ch. 19.
Jxr 3 is permuted with the gun'a diphthong (Ch. 19.

iv. 2.).

But the

iv. 1.), before axes diinguihed by a

mme 'T (Ch- 16. 5. iv. 1.); and, not being preceded by a conjunct, may be expunged beore any
other II or T (Ch* I9

s. iii. 6.

iii. 5.), while it indipenably requires the expunging of . (Ch. 16.

but the prex

&nihed by a mutc 'I (Ch. 16.

converted into

in the r peron of the imperative

iii. 6. in), the ax is permuted with the gun/a diphthong, which is

before the vowel.

3: VO'PADE'VA adds a fynonymous root, a.


(Una'dU exhibits

being diin

The commentary on anomalous derivative:

as a upplementary Saulraj root.

[283]
A RTI C LE

XV.

Verbs terminated by Sibz'lants, with Mute Vowels Gravcly Accentcd ,* and


i

containing Eczient Vowels Acutely Accentcd.

1. Ya. 2. Bet [dnanaag] intr. 'to kindle.


DEs.
,to be weary. 3t0 live.
INT.

and

eraila orAor.
&WCwst
.

gau. Aor. p. sugar-[5 So &tail. &fist.

'

3. Ya [ax] a. to appoint. axz. HELZ'M qFaFn.


me. uered. in. aqza and' aig, aTFe or
aft-ere &C; crus. qa. Aor. p. WEBBE.

t.
4.

tr. to learn or acquire cience.

5_ fu [FNH{8\HYIZWIUJ tr. 1 to beg. 'to mis obtaining.

'to obtain."

6.

intr. lto peak articulately. intr. =to im-'

rede-s Yard. &Qui. iar. Das. &iued. rm. Ya


* Here A is expunged (Ch. 4. 5. vii. a), but prevents the permutation of the vowel as penult.
+ A is ubituted for H, and the rt cononant alone' retained (Ch. 18.

iv. 5.).

; The Tarangin'i and Others apply to this verb, a rule, which rericts the deponent verb to the

ene of " eeking knowledge;" but the Aitz'a and the re refer that rule to the deiderctative orm
o the verb

(51h cl.).

K Vo'PAnE'VA, apparently from a various reading of the next line, ates the neceptations
* 'to obtain. i to begs 5 to olicit or peak through cOVetounesa
*to be weary or direed.'
s SwA'My reads a; A

and iners, that thee are two additional enes of

the preceding root; but CHANDRA and many others make this a eparate verb.
_*\

the rtmt,
\:_

* to obructf

Vo'PADE'VA, eeminglcty from a variation o this la reading,v

'\

ates

'to kill or trike :' and, here, DURGA'DA'SA erroneouly remarks, that
'\

the D-Ldlupmdpa writes

DURGA interprets

l
_
_
a
and that HaLA worm has given an

i: 287 3
intr. xto. endeavour. tr. -to aim on; atterrtp'c.i

30.

sea.
ign &c. ffe. Aor. p. King.-i, Drs. 'is
CAUS-"igla, z '
i
'e-e
31. ai.
d,32. TT?
So
'33.
Drs.

int'ra to grow orlinc'reaesi'"

'

tr. to go or movei=
Wga WEET.
CAUS. Jisla'; Aor. . SliT-IEFE.

34. Us.- 35. 'TT-6

tr. to blame, cenur'e or depie.

ridd. BITE. nan So rrqgranq'd,


36. Us.

37. 39?

"

intn to be 'preemineng or excel

lent-t Wed, arten,

V .

38.'to'kill
HE: or_39._hurt.
ay?
tell.
'to covens

A tr. 'to peak or

HQGR,

* DvRoA'b/L'SA cite' eitamples to how,- that the verb is active as well as neuter.
1' From the inections o the intenive as exhibited by MA'D'HAYA, it appears, that he reads the
r root with the'labial cononant: but Vo'rAna'VA mites the emivoweLits initial. See lines
loth cl. and

itvi. 78. andqu Ch- 30'

it See

loth cl. v i

'

I According to MA'D'HAVA and BHA'T'T'o'jr, following th'e authority of SWAVMi'ct, the initial of
thee roots is the labia] cononant ;! and that of the two next, the femivowel.

remarks, revere that; and VO'PADZ'VA actually does o.

femivowel
ibid. and fur the xvi.
initial,
83. is

5 Mn'o'HAVA

'

the labial

His interpretation of the roots, with the

commence',
'
r see
--

-. L

and eXplaiu

and

remarks, that D'HANAPA'LA and others make

Some, as BHAT'T'OiH

lah
, d._

'

the' initial of thee verbs,


>

and

with an initial I, ' to grow or increae'

Vo'pA'nr-z'vA's interpretation of the roots, with the labial Confonant for the initial- is
O

' 'to pread. 'to kill or hurt." 3to give. 'toctpealtl Here: the

thitd acceptation eems to be founded on a variation in 'the reading, which-is countenancedby the
text of MMTRE'YA, though unnoticed by MA'D'HAVA. Certain derivatives, which appear to
have uggeed?Vo'r-AD'VA'S r interprctation, are accounted for otherwie by BHATTTTO'JI and
the re.-

See

loth cl.

'

_. ....
\"'

-'----__

[289]

nm* on uant. mea-R- tn FilliEE. meal. sweet.


m%a and Ben. rmZe-cz or attain, an. p. WWZi-(zd an.

WUZlTFiT. 121. swan. nd ng- arm-ate. pl. SQUZE'. all;


ing, agmfa) or sunrise; Cond. . stungen-on samngt,
48.

tr. to take, receive or accept;

( 2d ing.

or HIS. pl.

all?

and ailth or

'Hajy l or Tzi. nm or HZJR. neat. Barren.


or sugaa (3d du.3;iz'_ZI'lFi_ 121. WZZIFM
or
Cond.
Aart .
p. 'Ilu-gnarr

Imp. &Je.- "Ya and Ben.

or WHEN, Alo Tars-T


49.

i *

t-r. to make handomc or brilliantl THE.


tD/z. J'l .

FLEE. ajlnat.

'

o
(Ch. s
3. 5.being
m. 7.);
converted
and theinto
preceding
Z, a:
z is changed
expungedinto
(Ch.L18.(Ch.
5. iii.'6.7.).5. iii. 13.); and this into

t , deduced from FLFHK, is expunged between Lia cononantt (Ch. to. s. iii. tt. '.),

and the initial islnot in that cae permutcd. E is eonvetted into 29: as before; and a, ub
ituted for Ft, is changed to a ; and the preceding Z is conequently rejected.
I' CA/s/YAPA and others read Ig, and inances o its ue occur.

T'O'Jr, therefore, admit it as a ynonymous root.

Vo'PADE'VA ates this and

the loth cl. conjugated in the active voice, with the ame acceptation.
that ome reject WET,

but admit

MA'D'HAVA and BHAT'

, as verbs of

DuRcA'oA'SA remarks,

in the t clas, making it however deponent.

[1 Here alo the ue of the prex is Optional ; and the ame permutation: enue.

See 47.

'
When the prex is nor ued in the aori pa, this root, ending in a NUK Cononant with a.
denult ZI, requires ai (Ch. 16. s. iii. 12.); o which the nal is expunged before vowels

bid.
q CHANDRA and others, as remarked by MA'n'HAVA, read
but DE'VA, MAr'rrtE'YA and others, as in the text.
dierent acceptation,

generally admitted.
'by his commentator,

and SWA'Ml',

Vo'PADn'vA ates both thee roots with a

* 10<l0P5' however, DURGA'nA'SA remarks, that they are not

Vo PADE'VA's interpretation

of this verb i' expoundcd by him and

two]

ARTICLE XVI.
li'tt/r Mutt Vowels Acute/y Aented. .
'1.

z'ntr: to do any thing but maniei-l one's 1

'or
entiments
Wi
by otmd.*
Cnvs. heath.- . Am: p. ass-133qu
h-Fli- Aor.
* [1.
2.

tr. 'to reach, pert-side or obtain. 'to acctrmulate.1'

AnZ-tt. 3.:th (2ding. arra-am or WHEN), sqztat or


WET. WFZE-'t or WEH-S Strata. astart. IIYIFE and
Ben. PRZUTFE. Am p. Ill (on in connexion with PISE, 3d
w. ._-,A
Q-

' The term

O'

A.

is here equivalent to

'averment;'expounded by the [Tri

&c. 'the manieation of one's meaning :' and the verb, as is remarked by MA'D'HAVA, belongs to

this clas with any other ene, but this ingle excepted one.

i'

c0

LA
HH

a"

D'HANAPA'LA and others read


.\

um ound 3' CHANDRA and DURGA ate


.\

.
omitting 'thelm'ute yllable.

' and SA'CATA'YANA

a
K
,
The authority o CAYYAT'A and BHAT'T'O'J:

is ollOWed in the text: however, MAiD'HAvA cites MAITRL'YA 'in upport o this reading, though
"\

the text et' the D'bdtupradt'pa here exhibit w

See

loth cl. VO'PADE'VA,

U
0
. A
'
_
likewie, eonjugating the ame root in both claes, ates or its acceptations

*\

' 'to praie. 'to peak. ' to mani'. * to make numerous ounds: For D'URGA'DA'SA propoesv thee

three la explanations of Vo'PADI'VA's econd acceptation.


t

is optionally ubituted for a , on account, o the mute

(Ch. 16.v

"

1 Vo'Mnn'vA ates two acceptations


I The ue ofthe prex'

..

is optional, on acc0unt of the mute I (Ch. 17. s. i. r.). I ,

being the r element of a nal conjunct, is expunged, before the ubjoined

permuted with the cerebraF

iii. 12.).

on aeconnt of the preceding H.

and this is

So, in the Absi xt. I is

changed to 3,
k

5 g; is converted into
cerebral

),

Ch. 4.-

the 'preceding 'as is expunged; and the ubequent' H become'


vii. 5. and iii. re.

i '291 i

he. WZF- iu- Wril. 111. WHEN 0r sding- Wda

du. smit. - WZ'JL Cvnd-f- WiiZW orWEZFE- Alo


Prg.

(3d- du- L'EUJHS; pl. Ux'' &c.). Imp.

grating (zding- FUZULFB. in ing. ate-matter &c.). Abs. p.


anzttita; (ining. manam &c.)-. Imfit. snatz'att-ms.

Uaq. ctus. stamin. m. p. anrstaz.


i 3. H'ZL 4.-'HELLH'FL'0RTUH tr. ,to' pare ormakethinjiintffcto

be thin. n'a-Ft or nattrt." after (sung gathers: it' ases.

armtained awereozwxawuaaee
Alo Nas

o _

__

' 5. Ter [Sea] it. to prinlele a weth '


&a. E'i. _

_ Iteaw

' ..'

i _

7. I'ET [Yea] tr.tr.toaguard


kis."ortwain
preeriie'. (stir-arte 10.; &He. a,

6,

A" L'Li

a'

* The vowcl is not permuted with-itin wyll-'Leletnenty whetiz


Ch. 19.iv.6.

i This verb, op'tionally, admits the ax

_.

prexed t'
.

_ * _

in the active voice,

15. $._ii. 7. 3,

* r; VO'PADI'VA unites the necep't'aiion', here' ated,- to the irre'ghlar ctverB;"and:iriterpre'ts the
'
- . ,.
. .
,
'\<.
ynonymous regular verbs'int'ranitively
' to be thin) 'SGSJHH g." ' . \
I This root,- with the aeceptation here lated, alo admits the ax

but,idfed ( a'coimi

ou'nd verb, or' even as a mgle one,-) in other enes, it can onctlyl be 'incctectd Legutixly;
eenures or reproves.
s Vo/pADg'vA's interpretation

*ct' '

'

'

'

'

is explained by Ditch-un,

Ex;

".-- -'
t prink:

ling) Sun'HA'cARA, cited by MA'n'HAi/A, adduces aclacal etiamPle of this, which is the'
literal ene of the verb.
*
'
1] See Ch. 18. 5. ii. to. But, in derivatives of this verb, the permutation on account of a prepdd
tion, is optional. See Par'ic'ln t,
I'

[ 292 ]
a

8.

9. ga.

to.

tr. to go 'or approach'

- FLFHHI. so gan. Began m. wagge?


&e. Alo WEET

it. FH

intr. 'to be angry. tr. l'to accumulate.+

12.

tr. to accumulate or ll;

13. HZT [HUH] tr. lto cover. zto kin or Peel." H'e'.
tr. to treat with repect; to regard or mind

14

&a- We'r. aid-ar.


i 15a VlZ.

'

15- alraio

'

17.

tr: 'to deire.

T'. FIFTH. TIFBHT. So dra. With


o VO'PADZ'VA ates

a as well as V,

'the num,

and infers an option in the deiderativc of

or

His commentator iners a like Op.

tion in the intentve : but both erroneouy. See Ch. 18. 5. ii. 3. and r. 1.
.
t MA'o'uAVA and BHAT Troili Ioberve, that ome read the interpretation otherwie,
I

'

'

3 ;

VO'PADE'VA ates both enes

EZ-J.

3, The text of MA''HAVA, conrmed by that of BHAT'z-'o'j r, is here followed: but Vo'moz'vx
reads 712.,

MAr'rRa'YA's text agrees with this reading. He remarks, and is cited by hilt'

n'ruwa or the obervation, that " ome." write

but Vo'PADn'VA aigns to this additiomt

root the acceptations of the preceding one (r r.). Ear.

* ' lls, or 'is angry."


'

l Durtca and many Others expound the interpretation of this verb by

but SWA'MI' by

' taking of tin.'

See
ame aceeptation,
(3.).

Vo'rana'va exhibits a econd root with the

; expounded i by Duxcaina'sa,
N

MMTRB'YA and otne others here add


na.

' covering 3'

* to take or accept." Ex.

It is inerted, on the authority of " ome," by BHA'rT'o'Jr, and is noticed by MA'L

D'BAVA. But Vo'raus'va makes it a verb of the roth clas only. See Ch. 29.
\

Some, as remarked by MA'D'HAVA, read

* to diregard,' and the text of_

MAITRE'YA, as well as that of Vo'unn'vn, exhibits this reading; but it diagrees with examples
in the Vidar, and with a paage in the dictionary of AMLRA.
(

rans'VA, 'Pa-27.

An additional root is ated by Vo'.

Ex.

It eems erroneous. See Ch. is. .ii. 1.'4.

'

_'

C &94 3

n.';ngnnn.* jtzt;
'

'

an; 34. the; 'wis-ter; - 35. FAH. 37.Il*55l'.-'38.1'q.

39.

40. IN. 41- U, 42. re [m'alz] t'r. to Itinor to hurt.+

enter-note; them, An. a. Wiltfil. or' ctsxlii-rso


mi, Town.

Alo "FIFTH, FVYW' (ed hee'm

&her. frzzzt; &an. Brim-T. him noon &Ith


CAus..'l'qUFl. Das.
Aor. p. K Litewe 'er-H.

'NNW (3d du. SZiHQZ), Hl. So WIFE. Ft'le (sade


BRIEF), Alo Maria. And F. WITH (3d du. EHHFng
Liltewie HHFl. Alo lelF-T, BITE (go-du. Bfl') Q']
Yti
or ate-rags rm.
'

43,

SOZHFR.
- ' *
&in. t
.

*-_

intr. 'to bark or growl. tr. 'to reproach', rail,>-:or

mnletzoientlystctj'.

* '

'

'

" '
'I

'_--*:
' See xv. to.

(DunoA'DA'sa remarks, that CHAIURBHOJA,iates

as admitting the middle voice;

while RAMA'NA'T'HA reiricts this to the active voice, and exhibits an addiional ynqnymous velh
with _-bmh voices. Qn the authority of Vva'cnunau'n the vowel o

(Mans

gravely acccnted by MAr'rer'YA, MA'n'nAVA, BHAT'T'O'H and the re, and'thc verb' rEues the
pyx
(Ch. 12.
and H-roth cl.

i. 1.
But Vp'pAnE-'YA makes it admit that prex,
DURGA'DA'SA remarks, that obmclread:
for

See

7th cl;
Vo'umn't'x

(\

aid-tis "ynonymous roots

and HKH_ See 'Ug- Ch. 23. 5. i. 30. andeH 6th'

Wd'xlolllgd'w , ,

.
_
i: iThic VOWel my become
wit/Mr;
Ch. 19. _ t. iv. o.

i
'l-e

it any terntmtntedrot

16.-Sviil. tap:

-' '- =

5 The ue of the prex before is optional in the two lat verbs. Ch. 17. 5. i.

BHA'T'T'OU and the 're cadplitiircti


atcs two enes

= - . '

. t

'

'tents as ignifying the ' barking oa dog) Vo'ntma'vrt


; DuacA'ni'i'SAfs expoition o-t-rhich is herelollowed.

U' 2395- ]*

44. 3d-U%]'=n.-tonnm.* Ith,'3l-HWT&c. on' with'


(addu45. ing.
Was.45. zdingxszit
at-13. --47. urgaj
Wi.
tr.t0'prinkle.j_
7
- Raia.
PISE. Ft'l, Likewie &Hid. H'Zi'ET (igd du. &DE-13. ndizig.

&Him. In du. aittztl. Lie." Santa- An'zrsqf'zrarzng


nirovirt.
48, 'g'ET
&tils.tr. toitld.
cherih or nurturcII
_
. 1 _ ad'_
>
ing." giet), Eiiti. 'Wii'EFAi-Fl, Anqp. Ue,

49- Willis 50- &THE. 51- HE- 52-II[{1%ler.to't>urn.-*ti


WET;

&Ram. So

fhq

ing.

Stinks) THis-"time 'Alo dree. Livid.


53.

55.

_\

'*

tr. to prinkle' UEj


'.

e Vd'PAnz/va, exhibiting two acceptations

i' -_to kill, Pto burn 5' atestwo t:

in'c'l'udes
diinct roots.,3,U
this irregtilarity
and (for whichorthere
the ake
is claical
of a variation
authority),
in the
under
participle
an indenite
'pa'live'.
rule.
'MAn'HAvctA'

'-1*'The ue of the ax BAVL is optional in this verb (Ch. its. 9. tri-243. r


L See

3d cl._and

..

9th ci.'_ Alo

6th cl.

n 'his verb is enumerated in the sz'rritj among thoe, which refue the prex
s. i. r. +.).

But VO'PADE-'VA iriects it with that-prefut.

((jht 17; .

4 A

s Hi is here the ubitute for Ig (Ch. 16. 5. iii. no.


iSee

clas; where the verb refues the prex

ubtitution of If? for


"te

i. I. t), and requires the'

(Ch. 16. 5. iii. rz. t. p. r42.). See likewie 'I'E 9th ma ma, ci, ,

'it See'aq 4th clas; where the verb rejects ZZN;


.

(Ch. 17.

See aloa'q- 'Oth cl. and

'

4th cl. as well as (g and


9th cl.
'it A paage in the &tri/21," which makes this verb reject the ax

'

(Ch. 17; 5. i. r. t), is

hown by MAD'HAVA to be a mitake; as it is contrary t'o the general Conent of graminariani. i t'
o

it, IVIA'D'HA VA.an_d HA/T/TQJL] add, as

'

id

part-'of the text,

3 the two ir (verbs (53. and 54.) likewie_igpiy * to kill and -3 to weary)

Thispatage occurs 'us

one'D'le-'tuzl'm ibut is wanting in. the other. It is alo omitted in the D'cfttyradz'gq Landthe, cprt_-__.j;

I 297' ]

at,
67. &a.

68.

[nail] tr. to go or approach'

&U.

n (3d du. fitrz: and ditory. ctos. 'BETI-. my.


sr'a.
69.

intr. 1 to laugh. tr. 2to ridicule or derideqL BUFFL

Hem. AN. greeing


70. limit [Fh] intr. to meditate profoundly. 11

Pin?

(usai &Sit-t (3d du. &THI-Is), &Ham.


Art. 6.); the former remarks, after MAXTREiYA and others, that they are inerted in this clas
(ee FF-i,

and Iih clas , for a variation in the accent; and, as an obervation of

MAiTRr-z'YA ingly, that they are placed in this article, for a conormity of acceptation. But MA l

TRE'YA's text exhibits Hi,

HUZ

and his

remarks, aboveci-tcd, are conned to the two la roots. One D'ba'tupa'f'a is conient with this;
and the other agrees with the reading in the teXt.
c
and himelf interprets Wax:

Vo'PADn'vzt, too, ates

*\<
by (

' 'to reprove. * to peak 5' and explains a.

*\

as indicating

' 3to preerve.'

He exhibits Fa, g, ma, g',

. Wi,
e with two acceptations

'V

but as verbs of the 6th clas only.-

and
See

*c

&c. 6< clas. Alo HH loth clas.


' MA'D'HAVA remarks, that "ome" here add four other roots; which are not' ound in the
works of MAtTRE'iYA and others. Thee, hOWever, are wholly unnoticed by BH'AT'T'O'Jr, and

'.\
the re: but eem (for the manucripts are imperfect) to be g, and,

'\
and g,

VO'PADB'VA does exhibit

with this acceptation.

See

loth clas,

'l* DURGA'DA'SA brings examples of the verb ued as a tranitive, as well as a neuter one.
It is one of the roots which are exCepted from the rule for uing the middle voice when recipro
0

city of action is indicated (Ch. 20. 5. ii. t.).

Ex.

they laugh at each other.

I The vowel is not permuted, becaue the root contains a. mute T,

Ch. 19. 5. iv. 6. *.

[I Vo'raos'vit's interpretation
in this text.

is expounded by DURGA'PA'SA

as

[ 293 l
71. TU. 72. Tr

intr. 'to ound. 'to be an

gry.* &Patin. wah.


73. V? [WET] tr. lto got or approach. sto poiH Ua. ctor-19

Wt'art or Wot-&Ft.

tuum
74. 'AN
(am-Parts.
[gn] intr.
pl. toiltts.
jump or
2dmgmoveairm.
by leapsi
arm.
, 75. nt; [Earth] o. to kill or hunt with. attain (no du.

War-gear pl. was. zding- itra) afar-r.


76. g

tr. to praie." YiUfF. slain. f'l. ring.

etc. and Ben. UWTFL.

77. He [H'] tr. to cheat or deceive.++ Us. THIS


(3d du. YEO.

Aor.

"' Vo'PADE'VA's interpretation agrees with this ;'


\

1' An additional acceptation is ated by VO'PADB'VA,

* to poil.'

I. DURGA'DA'sA oberves, that " ome" read WTL


verb'

IN _for

MA'D'HAVA

remarks, that another

i' here inerth in ome copies: but appears to be unautho:ized.

See

ad clas.

[ Not, ays the Mana'rama', as inadvertently exhibited in certain ancient Works,

5 See
(MZZ
xv. 27.
q The verb is eitcepted from the rule or expunging the prior yllable and permuting the vowel
(Ch. 19. 5. iii. 9.).
e' DURGA adds a econd acceptation

c
' an ill proceeding.'

Vo'PADE/Jlo ates

0
'

the verb with two enes,

Fgj * ' to kill or to hurt. 'to praie.'


- O
.

tr MAlD'HAVA and BHAT'T'o'Ji expound

by

(wickednes). This la is

the interpretation ated by Vo'PADr-zivn. But DURcAbA'SA explains the verb by


'deceiveSL'

See loth clas and Ch. 29.

n, Since the verb ends in I, the vowel is not permuted in the aori pa.

Ch. 19.

if. 6. A

I 360 ]

CHAPTER XXII.
SUBORDINATE

ORDERS OF THE FIRST

CLASS OF VERBS.

SECTION I.
N; il.

Ya: AND CERTAlN OTHER ROOTS WITH MUTE VOWELS


GRAVELY ACCENTED," AND CONTAINING EFFICIENT
VOWELS ACUTELY ACCENTED.*

1. If'

int1.to hine. l. &Qw du. &li'l'


Aor.p.
INT.

or
and

Dzs.

or

or

Zau. Aor. p. sqzqa

CAUS.

AN.p.
2. Kqar-L or Bil''.
inlr. to be white.
* The verbs, contained in this fection, are anomalous in the aori pa; optionally admitting the
'ctiVe voice in that tene; and taking
1' The VOWel

for g, before the active terminations.

is ubituted for the emivowel

iv. 5. 1.)3 and the ubequent vowel

in the prior yllable (Ch. 18.

merges in it of coure (Ch. 4..

1 The aori pa may be active inead of deponent (Ch. 16.


\

cae, i: ubitute: A? for g (Ch. 1659111. xz. +. p. 142.),

ii. 3.

iv. 4. *.).
ad nem-); and, in uch

303 J

a'a. He. arm. man were or sue-'th'th bias:


thereon. Inr. ween and. harden'd a- nate-rate
So

WEET:
ha

'

[Tai] tr; to go or approach. See 15.

'

Fit-int.
17.\aE
arm Aor.intr.
p. to&Hall
tru or b'eorcondentJ
Il'r'flEz
18. T [H'Ft] zintr. to and or be."

'o-Yf. H.

am or aaith-A HFFiFii. man', 'an or Ben;


aasin. aan or met Sheeld or WHFPFFL.
Das. aF-ZHR and &Train.
19.

r'ntr. to grow or increaed!

Aor.

and aij._ Aor. p. WEET and WHEN;

Bag [UZYFBIZZT] nation-to aid.


,

found in certain lis.

'

Vo'PAmt'VA and DuncA'DA'sri late

and do not notice the other;

although it have the anthOrity of PA'N'iN and all his commentators.

See

o'
cl. and

and

41),

a'

Ch. 21. ix. 33. 1.'

* Since

containza mute 37, I is expunged (Ch. 19.

1' Thee roots annex to the prior yllable, in the Intenive.

vii. r.)l
Ch. 18.

iv. 9.

1 Br-rA'r'T'o'jr expresly conrms this reading, and concurs with MA'D'HAVA in a reference top

o"
Ch. 21. ix. 33. for the root UH,

,
A
,
,
But DuncA'DA'SA- ates this lai alo, in this'placc, as

as
avarious
ignifying
reading
' the ate
fanctioned
of beingbyfree
" ome"
from douth
grammarians.
i
He explains the term

I MA'b'r-LAVA explains this by llg,

See roth cl.

5 This, and the following verbs contained' in this-fection, are optionally active in the 'aori and
conditional future, and in the detderative (Ch. 16. s. ii. 3. 5. ad finem.); and refue the prex before

II (Ch. 17. s. i. 3. 5.) unles the reectiVe ax'es

or

follow.

q See loth cl.

a' MA/DtHAVA explains lhis by QTWZZ.

pounded by DURG'A'DA'SA

, _

Vo'PADi'vA's int'rPretation is HIS, Lia

See loth cl. and Ch. 23. 5. i'.

(I 304 J

(Mr
at. awe-a
[UHZRI]
a FP'IFFI-a
intr. to prinkle
La du. orman?
drop.* FUZR.
or maze),
WETHI _or lct
and
or Wz: WZ-FFL
(ad
WFZiZ'.
du. Medium)
WZFT and and
Ben. Khd Or
du. SHWFBTH'U
Aor. i.
or seem-te
(3daa enrazo.
DES
Cond. . UWFZWH and NR'IFLWFT
and

or

z/z. Ill [FIFTH] intr. to be able. B. HIS' ( 2d ing;


'ful
23 V' j'"
,.

W or as;ti no;" (adiaa 'saw't-i) and K'QFT a;


'atm (ad ing. mm ar a) Wfa and arm?
Or air-Fra. lmp. &Be. 'BRIEF-i and Ben. 'E or 'gracig

der-1:- Ktzj and Uz or He:

'

li] Finis."
This
* Vo'rADa'VA's
verb, with interpretation
certain' prepoitions,
is g
in certain
, explained
circumances,
by DURGA'OA'SA
optionally permutes the initial

Q'

(Ch. 18.

ii. 6.

Ex.

'

.\

or

' water drops_.

'l The ue of the prex is optional, on account of the mute I (Ch. 17.

i. I.); and this,

like the preceding verbs, may be active in certain tene' &e.


x

i' ubituted for I (or a for

in this verb (Ch. '8. 5. iii. 1.),

The root maf

be inected with active axes in the aholute future 5 and alo in the ame tene' as the preceding

Verbs (Ch. 16. 5. ii. 3. 5. p. 134.)z and, like thoe, it reject:

before the ame terminations,


'N

and before

unles before the reective axes, where, it is optional (Ch. 17.

2. This is, here placed to indicate th'e cloe Of the criet beginning with Had

i. 3. 5.).

[395.]

SECTION 11.
VERBS- DENOMINATED rFL ,.As IF -DISTINGUISHED
BY A MUTE tr.*

ARTICLE

I."
XI/m

Roots DzT/Zz'nguzhed by a Mute


and Terminated by a Mute l/bwelevely,
Accented, and containing an Fctcz'ent Vozuel Acute-ly Accented.

z'ntr. to act, endeavour or rive;

1. Ha

HIS. YH'Y.

HfZiHT. CAus. aza. Aor. . WFFHZFL CAUS. PASS. Abs. Fut.


lZl or HZl. Aor.
or

ori

Im. Be. Ben.

Aor. paKEnZ or

( 3d du._

WgHch or WHEUTFFI), cow; mu'ima or aqastaFr. .


2. EJ'U

UFUTZ) z'ntr. ' to fear. 2to be diquieted. 3to full,

* The mute If, or the deignation

(ee Art. iii. 1.), makes the penultimate vowel ged'

net-ally hort in the cauative form, or before the ax

3 but, optionally long, in ome inec

tions of the pave of the cauative; viz. 3d Sing. Aar. p. and other inections analogous thereto?
See Ch. Ig. I. iii. 4.. and
ii. 3.
The roots plaCed in this ection, and nOt again occurring in other places, mu be conidered to

have the mute II, notwithanding variations in the ene of the verb by means of prepoitions or
Otherwie. But uch, as occur in other place-s alo, belong to this fection in a limited acceptation
only: excepting, however, verbs o the loth clas, which cannot be uppoed to be repeated in this

fection; ince a pecial rule provides, that only ve (ome ay even) roots of that clas are diin
guihed by a mute It in the imple ene o the verb (Ch. 28. i. 95.): and verbs of the loth clas
remain unchanged in the cauative.

'r This mute letter, which is not however here exhibited with the roots, regard-s derivative nouns.
See Deri-uatim of Participkc (J'a

. 1 See

roth cl.

'- ."

t" 306- l

cr partie and' Femde arm. CAUs. aaaa_ Aor. p.


arm.
3, U'U

gllg

intr. to bcte famous or renouned:

Coma. U'a, Aar. I. WHEN."

Wild, THE.

CAUS. Pass. Aor. j.

NUI or sma.
4. 'QZT

tr. to pread or diue.

FIFTH. THIS.

CAus.

HFUl, Aor. p. WHEN-T. CAUS. PAss. Aar. p. Hull? or Sa.

5. He; [HIS] tr. to rub, grind or poundt Had, '1327.


Ham c. azure. Aor. p. manam-1

5. U? [ture-Et] a. to dicomt.** ter-t. ate-2. FHFZHL


ctus._ft>au, AN. WHWZFL
* DURGA,

cited by MA'D'HAVA,

reads

*\

3,

and the Praise,

't

uaaaaa Vo/pADr-z'vA combines the two,

new-a

remarked by DURCA'UA'SA, read

and ekplain the terms. < feeling

pain, or moving' through feare" "others" exhibit

i
and interpret this * the

Production o pain or of fear ;" he himelf expounds ac: U: (mation arm;" 5' and WZ

was',

In;" mwmzon A? fear, this, like other ymnymous verbs, govems the ablative
\

CIIG-

Ex.

* he is afraid of a tiger." See

t-Thp vowel (})_kgm rot: the dnivownl. (

sh cl.

within the prior yllable of this verb, 'm me

&an. 5. (Ch.. 134. s, 'm 5, tz),.


1 <Some,* as MA'o'HAVA oberves, here read
na and

but that. is confined by SWA/Mn St:

loth cl.

I: Th vowed T isretained (byt-ubitming italilrefnrtber'dicall' in the

abby? of the

&aleep. (an to s. iv.- to. '3.


v

, i
'

, _.

s Vo more VA s mterpretation

is explained by

A,

_c*

one.le sat,

se. 71? 9th cl.


If Here alo, the vowel I is retained in the prior yllable.
e' SwA'Mr', quoted by MA/D-HAVA, expound: this by

See 3, I,
rdigmmt-mgps VOIPP

.\
DB'VA'S interpretation is

' to cut.'

But DURGA'DA'SA remarks, that the other

[ 309 l
3. TT?

intr. to diil or drop.u g'. FIFTH', "w,

CAUS, TTZU, Aor. p. WHTWZ-FE, CAus. PAss. Aor.

erirzi or

arm-2.
3, 'g'Z CAUS. zi.
tr. to urround
Aor. p. 'or encompas.+ Caus.
&Thi.
Pass; Aar. .

Infra-e'
or stre-1
,_ct-ara*, 5, are' [nnm] am. to Peak." caus. HZUFT.
NZUTs

CAUS. PAss. Aor. [It

or WHTFZ.

amiz.
.

6. U?"

* See

'

inzr. to dances CAu's.

BITE- or Vale.

or

Ura PAs's." Avr. p;

Ch. 21. Art. ii. 29. and viii. 73. Likewie

(Ch. gr. xiv. 40. alo loth cl.).

RAMA'NA'T'HA cited by DURcA'DA'sA makes this la interchangeable with the root hown in the
text: contrary to the opinion of others.
.\

1 See

Ch. 21. vii. 31. It belongs to this fection; and is 'conj'u'ga'ted in' the active voice,

with the acceptation here ated. But, in its other enes, it is deponent and is regular in the eau'ative.
1 To make the penultimate vowel hort, '2 is elected (Ch. 2. 5. iii. 3.)x and, in making it
optionally long again (Ch. 19.
diphthong

iii. 4.), the correpondent vowel

is taken; and not" the

But DURcA'DA'sA oberves, 'that onite retore the diphthong.

Ex.

or safefz.
[i See Ch. 21. viii. 11. and 18. Thee roots do not belong to this fection, in th' acceptationsi
there ated 3 but only when ignifying to peak.
5 Sce Ch. 21. viii. 21. Although the ame term be employed in both places, the acceptat-lo-ns.
U

are dierent; and the verb belongs to this fection. when it ignies merely ' dancing'

or ' the ame, with indication of paion,'

and is referred to the other place, when it

imports il that, joined with verbal repreentation of paion,'

. oberves, read

* to move.'

But SWA'Mt' writes

a some," zsaMAzTRE/YA

' to bend.'

The initial of

the root is originally [ll(Ch. 18. 5. ii. I. 5.), on the authority of the Bbbya, again the opinion'
o certain gtamma-rians.

But' Vo'ranr'va tates both

and FZ.

See

loth el.

t an 1
12.

13.

14. Up- 15.

tr. to cover!

gn, egg-m. 407. p. argtrt. CAUS. gna-r, Ab'r. p.


Wg. A CAus. Pass. Aar.

or

Alo 'alliis CAUS. Una.

So Barl.

Aar. p. Wa, CAus. PAss.

Aor. p. Wt or I'. Likewie N. cles. 1107. p.


Wqn,
'
16.

intr. to act.+ n. Agr. p. WITH-Ft. CAUS."

ama.
17_ WI,

13_ WTT

intr. to wind or movettortu

oulyl made. Samsnat. am. (with mz) as'zft cing,


swain. so sm.
19. aim.

20. Tm [fir-th to go or approach] CAUS. qu.

smat.

21
___,

A p

22. HU. 23.

tr. to gives Fm. CAUs.

_._,_

.
'
e MA/0*HAVA remarks, that in ome vocabularies, the la root is read

\
erroneou

'
..
See Ch. 18.

it. l. 1. and 3.

, varies both the la roots,


Vo ,parfay-t,

and DURGA'DA'M oberves, that "ome" there read

'\

In,

and

or EPT,

t The terms, exhibited in place of an interpretation, are thus expounded by MAXTRRYA: ' no
particular ene is ated; or, as " ome" hold,
in general.*

is here unexPlained, becaue it ignifies action

SWA'ML' ays, 'its ene is not pecicd, becaue it has many acceptations.'

on are adduced by BHAT\Tl0/Jr. =Volp1mglvxs interpretation\

himelf

is explained by

0
' action only.' DURGA'DA'SA, fubjoining an example, makes the verb

there ignify * to move!

; See

Both rea

'

Ch. 21. iii. 13..and

Ch. at. iv. 31.

Il Tilee toms: as expresly "wihed by MMTRL'YA, have been already inerted (Ch. zr. xii.
2. and 6.) with the acceptation of * ound'
s See

and m loth cl.

But, they are diinct from the verbs ated in the, teirt.

U Some , "

according to the remark of MA''HAVA

and Br-mr'r'o'jr,

read

*\

'to move.' But the text of MAtTRe'YA exhibits this reading otherwie,"
'\ '\
am

,
Vo'rADs'VA ates vthis la root as belonging to the preent fection, ing'

t 314 J
. s
'\
.
36, WT [TT] tr. to prepare (boil &c.).* CAUS. quaj'. CAUS.
Pass. Aoia. WITH: or

37.

al. tr. ' to lay. '= to_grattfy.>3to

cxhibit. 4t0 'harpenj FAUS. aqaf.


l

J____.,r

i," ,_________

II

s See w 2d cl. and V (convertible into

Ch. 23.

2. ii. 17.

Thee ynonymous

verbs belong to this fection in their proper acceptation: but not o, when the ene is dierent. In ali
r
'
.
ignies (lg)
t [ooemng
of conituem,
Parts; ic

thee places, the term

carding to CAIYAT'A and others. as quoted by MA'D'HAVA.


dierent ene,

He exhibits, as an example o 2

, which is explained ' caues to weat,' for, as that author here oberves,

verbs have numerous acceptations. BHAT'T'O'Jt concurs in this. But Vo'PAnE'vA ates t wear
N

as the proper import of both verbs; and rericts them in this ection to the ene here ated,
\

and1' The inective root, ending i' Ign', requires the augment

z a, a verb of the 9thcl


ceptations here a'ed.

Ch. 17.

iv. r.

_._belongs to this cction, when it is ued with the particular ac.

The reading, followed in the text, has the authority of MAlTRB'x-A and
'

others, and is conrmed by MA'D'HAVA.

They explain

as ignifying, 'not m

ply knowledge, but uch only as is obtained by viion ;' and juiy that expoition by etymology.
bv parallel inances, and by direct authority.
(caues to know)

They accordinle ate the regular cauativc.

Since a, with a mute II, is ated in the loth clas for

this very acceptation, DE'VA concludes, that the cauative has both forms with this ene.

The

*\

.
Ayia intimates the ame opinion. But CHANDRA reads

,_"3 to harped'
0

VARD'HAMANA has the like text, With this explanation (n


CnQ-th)
_._ '*_,.
.__.*\ ; noizcing, zzh
the other reading as a variation. SWA'MI' and SA'CAT'AiYANA Concur in this, adding as an ex
0

ample,

'whets an arrow.'

The Eo'dilvinyrfa diapprove< that; aying, t the

ancmms do net admit "I" 'Z/f

CA'S'YAPA and the Sal/tanto', too, agree herein.


-

'

HARAUATTA, on the contrary, argues from a paage in the Cat/int', that fZ


ignify 'knowledge not ight_'
a

He, therefore, prefers the other reading


-

M
'

D'HAVA cenures this; and adds, that others, admitting the alleged
e mterpretation of
derive the

mu hm

di

regular caual, bearing the import as abovementioned, rom another verb bearing a di.

hent ene (ee

loth CL), tzcc verhs have numerous acceptations: he cenures [his alo;

becaue it would follow, that the verb might have two cauatives in all its enes. BHATLr'o'j;
has briey hinted thee various opinions without any declared dlapprobatio'n. VO'rApE/VA exhibiu

[317]

A R T I C L E III.
XiX
The ame and other Verbs dinguihed by a Mutc Ft.

r. [HZRZZHEXHZJ The foregoing verbs, contained in this fection,


are denominated , or ctitiouiy contain a muitc' Thi As alo the
following: viz.

2. [H FLHN ' TFisTW] The rode.

4th et. Fla

4th.ci.
4th cl.
t Cl. (ee Ch. 23. 3. ivi 4.), and any root
ending in the yllable Mr (with certain exceptions ubequently atedM
CAUS. HFUFH,

Of'

CAUS

Pass. Aor. p. WT-'i or stiy: T. ZWFT. mmr,


&e.
3.

Optionally thee roots, un.

les
01' joined with a- prepo--tiomli
or Cause HUT-or Hla.
or

't
is merely a denomination according to ome ; but uppoes a' more If, according to
others. This la opinion has been here preferred.
i

t "Some," as MA'D'HAVA and BitAT'T'oiH remark, read a part of this paage otherwie;
FITUU_ See
3,
4'
mute If.

(4th cl.); on which MAiTLtE'YA remarks, that ' ome" agn to it a


i

Vo'imnz! vA accordingly ates- ir'- as-'optionay making the vow/'e hort in the cauative.

i The rejection of the penult I, i'rt-tlid'dodative'- (or Before' th,


rericted
Utodies=elothcs.
the import o *hunting.'

Ex.

n See Half, gaf, HB (ii. 30.-32.), and

Ch. '39. 5. vii. 2.), is

hunts deer.

(Ch. 234. 3. ii. 82).' They are'

only- optitmally ranked in thisection, when imple verbs; but indipenably (ee before) when joined
with prepoitions.

Some deviations, by claical authorities, from this and other rules of the preent

ction, are rec0nciled in the Ciric-inni, by. makingzthe- rule for (hot-tening. the vowel indenito
(Ch. 19. s. iii. 4.). Others reconcile thee, like many other imilar anomalies, by treating the ir
regular derivative as a denominative (.Ch. 30.).' Bu't this is ubjectto" dicuity in ome inancrs

319 ]
63' Some place here the ign of termination

to cloe the verb's'

denominated TFL. Others include the following.


9_ Him

tr. to go or approach.* Tm. Wlm (3d du.

nuing: or Rings. . WTUL: or rings, 2dmg. wfmn or


fm. du. ruing: 'or &was. pl. Ti or &im- I ng
trtmm or NNW.
or

du. Wll'a or &fire.

p1.'qt{l74i

l. War-je Wlll or
INT.

mmar,

DEs.

and lf Or dtx.

CAUS.

p. UUr-L.

This ign of termination cloes the eries ouverbs deno


minated

S E C T I O N II I.
ARTICLE I.

Ver/15, by ome included in the preceding Section.


X{X_c

1. '

Already inerted at the cloe of la fection : but ome,

as there oberved, make it end before this verb, which may conequently'
begin the preent fection.
* In this, which is the proper ene of the verb, it is rightly denominated

An inance

of the cauative, in a dierent acceptation,: is ated by S\Vr\lMll and the Samanla',


which they interprct

.
import of the original root, E

*dilutes.'
'\'\

Aecordingly VoiPAUE'vA thus exhibits the

I
\
_
and DURGA'DA s'A explains agg, 'an eay

production.'

an irregular derivative of the root ated in the text, does ignify a diluted

decoction (as being one eaily made).'


fying ' to go.'

Vo'I'ADB'VA aigns an optional mute II to the verb igni

See note

1' This and the following ix verbs optional-ly ubitute

for the vowel, and reject the prior

yllable
Ch. 19. s.
in iii.
the8.remote pa, before a mute 'T ,or I,
K and before

j, " SJme," ays MAITRE'YA, place it before


BHA-r'ro'sr, the vowel hould Concquently be perini*:*r.7.

joined with

in the cauative of which, as oberved by


Ex.

E 323 ]
Jto prevent 0pulence.* .HY-{, Raia' (Zd dun at-iv.
11.

intr. to be great or va.+ 'cha-,

Iiirt,

,2_ Ya [HWWJZHH] tr. 'to accumulate. intr. 'to be ofkin.

Sto ow homogeneouy. 4t0 count: aa, Taint,


XXl

,3. VZ-T. 14. get. 15. na, [ta] tr. to go or approach." Ua.

one. Warm. so eia. Field Alo t (Vil


ruet (3d du. Bags), Tl. Aor. p. WTIHFUI (HMWFHSL
i

' MA'D'HAVA explains the r term by


relative to a barn or hoard of grain.'
oberves, that ome reject this ene.

the econd he expounds as denoting < an act

DURGAlnA'SA interprets it ' the prevention of wealth 5' and


See

roth cl,

t See Via," roth cl. It belongs alo to the 6th clas according to Csrir'nASWA/Mr'.
0
DE'VA ates it as of all three claes.
.
1 The it term is explained by SWA'Mt' Raia-3.

Vo'PA

MA'D'HAvA oberves that " ome" read

"\
this he expounds *a ream uninterrupted by heterogencous things.'

term, he interprets * an act relative to kin 3' that is, ' anity.'
'an act cononant to anity.'

The Tat-wa bid'lyim' explains this,

Vo'PADE'VA
.
O
ates two enes of the root

DURGA'DA's-A ays, ome read


0

The econd

ccountingf

He further oberves, that RA'MA reads

Uqa

and interprets it ' accum-ulationt' but that others conne the verb to one acceptation, that

of * auity.*

U Some, as remarked by MA'D'HAVA, here read

and,

in the next paragraph,

The verbs and w,

inerted in a former fection (3. 2. ii. 31. and 32.), are here repeated, according to this reading, for

the dierence o import and conequcnt variation in the Cauativca

Vo'PAnniVA's interpretation for

e '\ '\
wa? is

' * to move. , to have dominion :' but the r of thee terms is here re

ricted by DURGA'A/SA to ignify ' falling) See


Ch. 29. and (for

Ch. 21. xiii. 17. and

(loth cl.)

4th cl.

5 The prepoitlon is indipenably permuted (i there be Caue Or it) in Conjvlllnct'idn with'

this root. (Ch.- 18.

ii. ii. *.)

(1 The verb takes


quires the medial augment

on account of the mute V (Ch. i6.


before that atx (Ch. 17.

iv. 4. ").

iii. 12. f- p. 141), and re-

335 i
Bil)

tr. to cover or wear. "igf ZTLE. Fit?

hi. 'its

or War "K or hath; ngrlx sangen; aggvrc and

Ben. nature WLYFE or Wart' TliBE or Wart.


Voms 133. artes rife-at or vital (2ding.7[1%al
or them) as-sail or aza't. wheat. sister-r. WEET" and
Ben. U'BEHB: or &Flie. Aqr.. IITLB'T (3d du. MTJBHIF'IT)
and BITE; or QQZTQ (3d du. IZIEL'lFil. Ill: du. 3273le

sage-naeyt wa. emerath or seals-sea.


___

SECTIONIL

VERBS or' THE FlRST CLASS, TERMINATED BY VOWELS.

A R T I C L E

I.

Roots w/Lic/L admit the Middle Voice with the Reectivc Sen.
*\
a
t. fart-si [harm]
tr. to erve.** Era. ZiWW (3d du.

* The penultimate vowel is converted into V, before a vowel, in right of which it would re
gularly bc permuted with the gun'a diphthong.

Ch. 19.

iii. 3. *.

i The uc of the prex is Optional on account of the mute '35 (Ch_ 17_

to

before the

cononant (Ch. 4.

vii. 3.), and

i_

E is changed

3 ubituted for Ftaftex that a.

pirated oft cononant (Ch. 16. 5. iii. 13.), is changed to Z on account of the contiguous cerebral

(Ch. 3. g. iii. 7.); and Z is expunged before Z (Ch. is. 5. m. 7.).


a I s is converted into z as before z and the initial is*pcrmuted with the correponding apirate.
'\

'\

In the next place, I, is ubituted for the nal

before

after the gutturul cononant.

vii. 5.

(Ch. 4.

iii. 14.. and

and this letter is changed to 'I

v ll Hi

is here the ubitute of

deitute of the prex (Ch. 16. s. iii. 12.).

The ame

permutations take place, as above.


5 Since the Vowel would not regularly be Converted into the 5th/a diphthong, it remains here
I

unpcrmuted. See U', in la page.


'I In the middle voice of this verb, Di may be expunged before a dental cononant or the emi

vowet 'at (Ch. 16'. 5. iii. 12. +. p. 141.), and its nal is rejected before a vowel (ibid).
1" This verb has the acute accent on the Vowcl.

Ch. 17. 5. i. t. 1'.

338 1 ading. Hernia at eme,


(a vfa m (sd t nds.
na'

i.

'

_
A _
*\
adeZ. 'TL'l' ill/ing. Ram
or FTTTZT, til, de.- FTl-FZIYL
Wah
anu V. Will.

(ad ing.

'

A R T I C L Ect

II.

lie-Us, re'Zric'z't-d to the active voice even with the reecting ene,

*\

'\

1. He:

XXV

eclng.

tr. to drink: HZTFQ

or

du.

(ad du Was pL age

pl.

rit/ing.

du. HIS?

pl. arm] 2151.' SIWFFI'. &WET. Wart. HBH; or Ben.


(ad dat. Bal'il), liar. i. WZSHZ (3d du.

and

Weler (36 du. sum-'it pl. Was), or Elz (3d


Zziil 'Igjl Drs. &- lar. &Sad and

or

'

i' denominated i prepotion (Ch. I5.v. A), in repect of the permutation of I

with UL
r Since the robt here contis' o two yllable', with no conjtm within the verb, ax is ubitutu!
m, he 'on-e] (Ch. 39. 5. iii. ad; Unles there be grounds for converting it into the guie or err-1.! In;"

diphthongo

'

3 The man Z directs the on-mation of a feminine noun in z (Ch. 14.. 5. ii. 1.),
(Ch.
[ 18. 5;isibituted,
vi. r.).
is
in ubtituted
the elementary
for
root, (Ram
for thep. nal
3d and
diphthong,
rit/7713.), unleCs
Ch. 16.
before
5. iii.
I mute
3. N. B.

The nal U Isexpdnged before the prex Je; and before a'rd'lzad'lm'lum: beginning with
Vowds, and ditinguihed by a mute Ter 3 (Ch. 19. 5.- ii. 4.-).
SSince the root is denominated

diinguihed by a mute

(Ch. 16. 5. i. 7.), the nal is converted into T before

Ch. 19. 5. ii. 4.

i] This verb optionally requires the ubitution o

for

(Ch. 16-

iii. 12. '_);or

FHH, being ubituted for the ame, may be expunged after this verb (Ch. 16. 5. iii. 11. *.)z

and

is ubituted for (3dpl.), ince the root ends in

inay be retained, annexing, at the ame time, H

(Ch. tas. iii. n.): or ele


loth' root (Ch. 17. s. i. I. '.).

t 341 3
&Pa. Ben. Vital-T.

AoT-II

INT

&e. CAUs.

Alo HW-i. Fill. CAus. 'alltllf

21. '3

tr. to urroundd"

CAus. quai

Aor. p. Ittzn

'22. 'Gill

to urround or encompasi Walzl: Hall

23. 'SIR

tr. to cleane." Zm. Ka. Imp. are. Ben.}

EZIE'IFC
BZWU.til-Ft, t.' maid,
24. til Am.
[n]IIZZI'FFE.
tr. to drink.cius.ahg

't'ilt'eii. Amatus-t and Ben. Belle. SENT-T. smit-arc. Dis.


&rueth. in. firte-91 and alB-n or morel. cing. wah,
-%_ll Aor. p. satitmI,-H.**
I? or 'q '(Ch. 19. stir), nor the expunging of faih. 16. 5. iii. n.*.); but it

requires U

in the cauative (Ch. 17. 5. iv. i.+.). See 'Ell 24. and ad. cl.

' According to MA'D'HAVA, the verb does not admit

nor

a s.

but

in

o oJ

the cauative (Ch. r7. 5. iv. r. t.). See

ad. cl. and

s. 3 v. 5. But the Cds'ita' and Tal

wabsd'bin; apply to this verb the rule repecting. &I.

Ex.

* halms'

T This, ays MA'D'HAVA, is MAtTRi-z'YA's reading, countenanced by BHAT'T'ABHA'SCARA.

However MArTRE'Ya's text exhibits the ubjoitted root (22.). BHAT'T'o'n ates both, without
any remark; and Vo'PADE'VA has noticed only the following verb.

But DURGASlNl-IA, cited

by RAMA'NA'T'HA, exemplies this root (zt.).


. 1 This is the proper reading, according to SWA/Mll and the re (See Ch. 22.
The verb likewie ignifies * to be elegant'

2. iii.4..).

according to " ome," as remarked

by BHAT'T'O'JX.

l DURGA'nA'S/t here explains the term by (

_
4 making clean.' The muto

'I erves to dicriminate this from other verbs analogous to a ; for this root is not deno

minated I (Ch. 16. 5. i. 7.),


or I,

It conequently retains

and does not ubitute i,

for Al.

5 The root is changed to

before an initial mute '51 (Ch. 19.

vowel is not converted into the gun'a diphthong (Ch. 19.

vi.4.). Here the

iv. 2.), becaue it is not penultimate,

ays VARD'HAMA'NA ; or rather, becaue this permutation is pecially excepted by CA'TYA'YANA;


as is remarked by others.

II This, like a preceding verb ( 1.), admits the middle voice with the reective ene, in the
cauative, though the ene be ' wallowing.'

It takes

before full.

Ch. 17. s. iv. I. i.

'* The pcnultimate is here expunged; and 'i is ubituted in the prior yllable (Ch. 19.

v. 2. U),

E 342 ]

25, a) [Male-13] tr. to mell.* ifre sta, am Im.


&c. Ben.

or &Vial. Aor. p.

and

Dss.

gxah m. Kgai and a or H. chhs. 'x-ma.


p. Wzn or Wfixun
26. W]

tr. * to blow, or ound an inrument.

Paul.
' to blow
mar.
or excite
w. Cc.
re. ai
3 to apply
and re
Ben. toWWlFL
emit parkss
or 'PETUTFE- m.
iahh chus. Am', p. amnm

man
27. U markt. Fr'HEx.
intr. to
Mq.
land or remain
ien
ill. and Ben. &ma.
IIHFL'H'SQPUWFL Des. g, xhhh and gR"
or

CAUS' Wa. Aor. 11.

o The Tatwabo'd'im' interprets this, by

1 Here

MIDDLE V.

' receiving odour:

is ubituted for the root, before an initial mute U (Ch. 19.

vi.-U;

T-Hk (Am p) is optionally explmged ,(Ch. 16. s. m. n. -.). The ubitution of T for
KII (Ian is optional, ince the vowel is here precededt by a conjunct (Ch. 19.

1; z is ubituted for the nal in this and the following root, before

it. 4.).

(Ch. 19.

v. 5.).

[1 The penultimate is optionally convertible into 2 in the Aenp. of the cauative (Ch. 19 S.v.2.*.).
5 The Talwaba'd'bin expounds the r term,

* air tending to produce ound," as blowing:

conch, or beatingadrum: the econd is explained, ' the applying of re.' MA'D'HAVA inter
prets it * applying (and exciting) re by the breath ;' DURGA'nA'SA furnihes the other'expla
nation.

11 'an is ubituted for "T" (as

is for pa) before an initialmute 'SL ch

19. s. vi. 4..

.- The converion of U: into 'Ttakes place notwithanding the intervention of a prior


yllable, or of the prex II? (Ch. 18. s. ii. 4. so. Ex. I'g. WHIQ'IFL
H This verb reject; FFFEL (Ch. 16. 5. iii. n.*.); and admits the ubitution of '2 and

'I in certain circumances (Ch. 19. 5. ii.4.)_


t; The penultim'ate mu be here changed to

\
Ch. 19_ g_ v_ z_ e.

E bend.
344 agri.
3tr. 2tonomake
Fig'ze
i 30,
(Zd du BITE:
intr. 'to
zdmg.
du. Hgm),
crooked. Im. en

Ben. galra; PASS. ga. Dzs.


31. 'He

'

intr. ' to ound. 2to be dieaed. tr. Jto

pain or torture.+ &WET.

(3d du. UUTQS, 2d/z'ng. 'Hail

wa.
or WHEN.
WHTFL.raf
du. F'q')
and Ben. mia.
&Fii 01'
snaa; onsqme
(so on. Wrwi or anguih. WFWFL. Dss. ma- ur
or Eg- CAUS
32, U

tr. to remember or think of.

HEFHT,

Wa. Dzs. am. cous- rim-p. swarm."


33. I

tr. 'to accept; to appoint. * to cover.5 W,

o I, being preceded by a conjunct, is changed to the gun-'a letter, in the Rm, pa

iv. 7.): admitting, hOWever, the ubituticm of the Uriidd'bi VOWcl (Ch. 19.

19 5

iv. 4.), either a; a ub

equent permutation, or as a preferable che.

I: is imilarly changed to gun'a, before U (pas. voice), before as? me), and before the
initial '8LG an erLad'ba'Iuca ax ofthe imperatch

Ch. 19.5.1v. 9..

+ The Tathzba'd'bini interprets straw: by (firm t dieae:

The verb (me

certain others) is deponent in conjunction with "art, providcdthe 'ne be intrantive.

Ex.

An. p. Until-TT
it ounds; Imp.
or UITLZH.
Uc. 'Fi Hi
(ForandtheBen.inertion of the prexor ZQ, after I

preceded by a conjunct, is optional before

and

s. i. 3.)

with reectivc zxes.

(Ch. 17.

-*

1', The ue of the prex is generally optional in. this verb (Ch. 17.

i. 1. *.);, but indipcnablg

before R] (Ch. 17. s. i. 4.), and before 'at and II: in the Ram, pa (Ch. 17. 5. i. r. 9.),

This root

as well as

at, g 252 ) p
and

'u

is de onent in the deiderative ' and, with 2

limited acceptation, hortcns the vowel in the cauutive (Ch. 22.

2. ii. 33.)- [t ubitutcs a;

for the vowel, in the prior yllable (Ch. 18. iv. Io.'*.).
5 MA'D'HAVA ates this, as a paage found in ome copies. BHAT'T'O'H has inerted it
o w '\
'\
Without remark, but his reading is
. VO,PADF,VA. his 3:
and

I: w 3

or death. m. &vii.-12; der. p, sumF-I.


41.

tr. to bean'

(ad du. WET; pl.

',

zd ng. W, i t ing. WET. du. Wit or WUMS. pl.

Win: or "END-' WITH (ad du. vantage, zd-ing. net-m


ye. Wit. ling. eyen? or Iqua, du. npqn. pz. gqn),
that. WEET. Hlj ( 3d du. gula'. 2dng. W, Iing.
Amar. Ben. 3d and 2di1'g. Alum-I), MILLER. DAME
and Ben.

W. SHEiEtFL. Dns. "2333." CAUS.

ctor. p.

and'

the sth'eli*(

bythe Nyv'tt, with theeoncm-r'enee of Meiras'u and A'tnn'u: but

VAnd'HAuA'NA extends it to this verb; and both opinions are allowed by MA'n'nAVA and

BHAT'T'O'i t.
' The nal vdwel of the root becbmes long before

beginning with the cononant (Ch. 19.

s. i. 2.); and the initial of the root is not changed to T (Ch. 18. 5. ii. 3.).
a; The nal vowel of the root becomes long before Idiinguihed by a mute Kand I:
(Ch. 19. s. v. 4.).

* VO'PADB'VA ine: this irreguler verb, as alo fynonymous with a imilar regular one (39 a note) in ignifying ' to go.'
p
t T he verb takes V , and is converted into sad (Ch. 16.

ii. 7. ;.). Since the ax is a i'- _

bad'be'tum one, in tight of the mqte h. 16. s. ii. 5.), but contains no mute T, it is ctitiouy

diinguihed by a mute I (Ch. 17. 5. iv. x.); and conequently does not pen-mate the preceding
vowel.

'

The terminating Vowd of that ax. not being preceded by a conjunctz i' changed to I before

vowels (Ch. x9. 5. iii. 3.); and may be eitpunged before I and

I Here, again, th_e prex


l

(ibich 5.)t

is exPrest excepted in the Rump. (Ch. '7. 51. t. 53.

is deponent in the deiderative (See 32. a note), unles joined with the prepoition

or

ans.
e. UW.
The verb itelf is deponent in conjunction with aqypmld'd the ene be intunitictve.
.\

Imp. Ut.

Exd

or Bn'.

ctor. p.

amittx.
5 The root hete optionally ubtitute' 2 for 3 in the prior yllable (Ch. 18. St iv. 6. 5.), See 39.

[ 35l ]

Aor. p. WT'JT-[jx'

13. gaf [WHUHH] z'ntr. to rain SITPL &53.


m?1 4;(201. ing. nixtr.mar.
* to 'exchange
unwit,or TTUFfL
barter. * to
Wart.
reore; mi
and Ben. maw. saw', Human. Dzs- ."
15.

tr. vto preerve, or protcct- Ilii-i.

(3d.

du. era 2d. ing. fomEr In. ing. zryg ZIHL. A; p.


(2d. ing. Ilii-m: i. ing.

'

'

agrees with this.

\ t

'\

a w peah- and the

TaMatbandra ates a variation

But RA'MACHANDRA reads

which is the reading of the Cdlantrd, interpreted

'

by RAMA'NA'T'HA

* killing.'

However, the Miram'a' quotes a dierent interpreta

tion

' the exciting of wrath a' adding; that all thee variations are rejected,

being unnoticed by MA'D'HAVA and Others-

See E zd. th

' 3, in the prior yllable,- is cOnverted into 2 before the &mivowelctfollowed by


the long vowel is ubituted (Ch. 18.
,

.-

iv. 6. and 10.),

i '

1- ,

'

'

i i

1' The term IS explained by RAMA NAT HA and other:

See

'

- -

a'

and expound: it in the contrary ene

4.

*
'

L MA/Q'HAVA expounds

* falling: But Go/vaA

BHAT/T-A reads

; and

_j

i placing.
.

by

t barter ;' and ays a other;"


l

explain it
* delivering back! BHAT'T'o'n admits both interpretztions. The
.
N
i _ ., e
Ca'lanlra and Vo'PAm-z'vA ate
= 3 which RAMA'NA'T'HA tranates
3)
' exchange)

l This root is included in the rule for the indipenable permutation o'f the pct'repotion
(Ch.
before
It is
18.'HT
imilarly
5. ii. (Ch.
n. Comprehended
*.).18. 5._iv.
Ear. 7.), in that for changing
AN, p, the nal to

5 The verb ubitutes, in the Ram. pt,


iv. 3. 11.,.

(mundie into

r, which does not admit reduplication (Ch. '8. 5.


.

1! Sinccthe verb is denominated a (Ch- 16- s. i- r- 7-), X is ubituted to'r the n.(Ch. 16.
i'

[ 355 I
4- '32

tr.4[*to bind] .'t0 l'oatzheo

'

ARTICLE 11.
T/u four r Roots have-a Grey: .A'c_ce,rtt,- on thy; Eqaieutt Yond, qualm
i

like ma'de on the Mut'c Vowel, '

'
KX: _r/ 1',

.\**\\.
1'

'into to commence:

WITH-y NNW] (hding

i-du. imitate-e), straw;" Air-Tent on. et;


>-

.._.

_,

z-

one acceptation

<.

.Y_..'

..

'the deiring, or eeking, of knowledge) The regular verb,

ignifying 'to Worhip or revere,' 'belongs to the loth clas. -

29. Some errofe

heouy Conjugate it as a deponent verb of the l clas.v

s 3, Lbeing iibtituted o: the vowel in the prior yllable (Ch. 18i.

this irregular verb, as well

in aia,

and

iv; 6.), becowe. lous in

* Here, likewie, MAi'i'na'YA's text exhibits the regular ene ohlyt and Vo'PADs'VA notices
both.
._
accept-'imm

. .*\

"
'to bate or depie!.
1 to bind,"
.

,\ .\

irregular Verb to the la acceptatiOhi eitpreed

The
connss he
. Cats/izi
,

) 'transormation ;' which HAan

bATT/t eaponnds, ' a' change of mind; QCCaioned by a', diagreeable cnation; uch as that o lenchz'

accordingly, BHAT'i'io'Jr exprees the rericted accePtatiOn .'by


aection d 'he mind:

__\

.
' a change
or

The. regular hell), ignifying ito bind or tic,' is referred by the.bel autho:

rities to the toth clas. See

loth cl. However, DURGA'DA'SA," citing here, (as under the,

preceding roots,) RAMAUA'T'FAiS opinion, that it is not conjugatcd in the

clas; quotFS a." in'

ance of its being nevertheles o' employ'edi Ex.


'l The ubitutedvowel, I, becomes long (Seea precedinginote 5.) Theinitial oft cononant
becomes apirated

4.

vii. 3._*.).

r MA'n'Hava and Btrir'r'o'tr explain the term, by (ZWHXHZJ fmakinsa hesipningi'


:
,
.Go'vthABHA'T'T'A,
by

'..'..=

'

--

_
X
.
t unheitatingapplication.' RA-MA'NA'T'HA,

by (3.$cllllag) t'eheerrnhoeeopat'tonr- the la adds, that, preceded by HIS: , it g


i

. \

'

>

'

nies () ' commenceinent: _ VAiMANA, and. others exhibit the verl; With the prepoitton
Prexed: but the imple verb is alo ued.
l Since the root is a' monoyllable with the grave a'ccent on the vowel, the prex
ed, unles in the Rump.

17.

is preclud

i. 1.),

33: ubituted o'r Ft (451.fih) following the afpirated ort cononant (Ch. 16.5.'iii.13.)
Arid this is conVerted into the unapirated one; before the oft cononant (Ch. 3.

iii. 3.).

5 The ration 1ie changedto the hard cononant (I ), before the ibilant lit), Ch. 3. 5. iii. 3.

[357]
0? The next liar an Acute Accent marked an the Mute Vowel ; and the like
tired?an the Eczient one.

*\

'\

5. lFFZ-qu

*\

intr. to ound inarticulately.* EHZR.

o.._...'\...
&34. _.'\r
&alin
svr 'Ilzcfollowing have a Grave Accent on the Ecicnt Vawcl; and an Acute
one marked on t/Le Mute Vowel.

6. a

[n'lqlll] tr. 'to go or approach. intr. 2 to dry or

become arid. ate-w WZ (2d/ing. WFZZ'ZI or WHEN. l du.

staff-La), EK'TN. &Win. Imp. ec- Beni FMTFE- ctor-p. WIFE


(3d du. WHR'FTI) or Haiieaila; (3d du. Wail. 3d pl.
ior
lgii Dns.PAss.

7. UU

lNT.

and
'

intr. to copulate WITH, Will! <3d du. ZNFIZ.

* Sec fiaa'ZI 4thcl.- Doon'oA'sh ays a ome" read

in this place.

1' This verb, joined with U, may permute the initial ( Ex. W'E'I-T or
; and o may its derivatives (except certain participles) joined with Et 3 but

not the conjugated verb (Ex.

not, as ome write,

Ch. 18.

s. ii. 6. X.
1

is optionally the ubitute of a, as indicated by the mute

(Ch* 16
m- 12-)>

[1 This verb annexes

to the prior yllable in the inteniVe (Ch. '8.

iv. 9. '.).

ct The radical I is expunged before an ax ditinguihed by' a mute To:

(Ch. 19.

vii. I.).

5 This reading, ated by MA'D'HAVA as a variation, is here adopted on the authority of BHAT'
\

T'o'n and Vo'PADE'VA.

But MAiTRii'YA inerts

it ' oppoite act." PURUSHACA'RA reads


revered

( i. e.

3 and explains it, t

ignies to copulate." RAMA'NA'T'HA expounds the term

t amorous mtercoure.'
/

in the interpretation, and expounds

MAiTRa'YA oberves, that ome read an,

D'HANAPA'LA and SA'cA

'

'
TA YANA inert both verbs, according
to MA'D'HAVA's quotation from them: but he hows, that

this di-agrees With the


on'vn ates

zi-i.

and

and Padamanjari, and contradicts VYA'GHRABHU'TL'.


as fynonymous with an,

Yet Vo'rA

RAMA'NA'T'HA ays ome read

358 3

ading. ale or &II-&i. ldu. &Been. Hail, dami) .


aamir-L (3d du. stamin.
r'

23

3107. l,

3. um [HISWZH] tr. 'to alute. int-r. zto ound. 3to bow Oi

bend.* Viit. Ham (2d

&Fi'iia or arte), dal. AN.

swiIfiT-L (3d du. Iftji)

9. ma. io. at; [naijziz to go orapproaclinalj Flm


( 3d du. made: ed
Fi' or Firii'iia. l du) aail,

rim. nm nae- SWZZ'FL Harow Wit-Writ


SHXTUFL nigh-"oil" n'i. in. Pint-an &C. cito-s. wrath.

Aor. p. ssF'FtTim-L Miooii v. nal-ill Hard ( no.


HHWIRHL TiTT'FlT. Inz. &Be. Ben. 'EiFT'FictlT or U'FTRFFLH riot/1.
' MA'D'HAVA omits the econd illtcrpl-etation.

retain it.

But MAiTRE'YA, BHATiT'oiJl and the re

Vo/PADE/vA alo ates two acceptations

plained by DURGA/DA,SA in two enes

3 the la of which is ex.

and

and, on the other,

he remarks, that it is not applicable in 'the common dialect.

The root is by * ome' errozieoully rend with a mute I, as is remarked in the Manirami.

The Verb is Optionally , when ingle; but indipcnably o, if joined withaprepoltion.


Ch. 22. s. 2. iii. 3.

'

i I is ubituted for the radical final, before the ubjoincd mute Wk (Ch. 19.

vi. 3.); and

Ft

), convertible into Up, is as uual prexed to it (Ch. 3. s. iv. 4.*.).

1 The penult is expuligcd,- before a vowel diinguihed by a mute I or 3: (Ch. 19.


I In the active voice, this verb requires
5

to be prefixed to H (Ch_ z7_

i. 1.),

j_ 3,

is the iibitute for T), onaccount of the mute 62 (Ch. 16. 5. iii. 12. tp. vil-ii l

and the penult is retained (Ch. 19.


i. 1.).
9] This verb, being ued intrnnitively, with the prepoition
nent. -

joined to it, becomes depo

'

Thetcompound cauative verb

is deponent, when patience (or a delay) is ignfd

Ex. Waxing Hi: rit-air a little:


'V Thepgnult is expunged.

See note

H With this verb,

and
K

'voices (Ch. 16.

iv. 2.

have . optionally a mute I, in the middle and Patin!


-

E 361 'Jl

(sd du. Sit-dieth. ween.

or 15.
Qui), gem; tr.zzaf,
to ee. Ul
ming, summe.
(zding.
WIFE and
Ben.
UIZJEZIFLVDES.

(3dlNT.
du

&e.
or or*

&c.

cius. qa, m. p. Uznrr or'znxzri'sul Minute v.

'FitiWFiM piss. aged. m. z or any. m.. ema


or ZZZE. 1m.9*c. Ben. ztq or THE, tion/1. mas?

(3d du. HazWFi-or AZLHTHVH

-.

16. TT' [Z'Y'Ti] tr. to bite or ingzz ZWFHJH] IZW ( zd ing.

ailed or He), Yet. &eae. He. Wort. mia and


Ben. asm &reitzii < ad du, Minio. WZ'ZZTFL Des.
&Px'a-T. in. &PISE-il &QSZS
=t is conequently not expunged in that tene.
"' U

Ch. 19.

vii.

is ubituted for the root, before a mute I (Ch. 19.

vi. 4.),

i The ue of the prex is here optional (Ch- 17.

I. 6.

X If mu be inerted in this root, when a

conunii'pt, not diinguihed by: a mate T,

is ubjoined (Ch. 17.


[I

iv. 5.).

The radical is of coure changed to x before that inerted VQWCL

may be ubituted or fg, on account of the mute

q 3 is the ubitute o that ax (Ch. 16.


e rted for the radical vowel, when

iii. 12.

; ele

not

The gun'a element is, in this rgqt,

OllOWS

' s The deiderative of this verb is dcpdhcnt.

'I The vowel may be here retained by ubitming it for the like radical (Ch. 19. 5. v. 2.).
M' The verb is deponent, when joined with the prepoition a, provided the ene be intran
trive.

tf The treating of the root in the future &e. of the pave,as in the 3d ing, 40: M, is
allowed in this verb (Ch. 17. i. 7.
1; The term, (I

is formed irregularly.

* the act of a fangcd animal.' Duaonion'sn reads

MA'D'HAvA and Bnitr'r'o'u explain it

; and notiees the other as a variation.

H Tisexpimecd behre IN: (Ch. 19. 5. vii. 2'.).


Though the penult

have been expunged before the mate 35, this 'verb adds a: to the

prior in-bie othe intenGVe by pecial rule (Ch. ral 9. iv. 9. *.). -

'

"VV

[ 362 ]
17, iq

tr. to drag along; to furrow.*

' being, H'i'Ei Or shew TEZ or' Yizar AN,


were and sustain WFBIETTFE (addul saint-in
IIUET or SHEIBJ).1 Dis. warm

are
18. (-"5. Sign or tr.zems),
to burn Was
or 'reduce
again.
to ahes.wait-i
(3d du. WITH. Das. &N'a-[T lNr. jaeu &ot

19. r? [BHH] tr. to prinkle. YBFFT, nis (2d/ing.

ieah iizi. &Win. Aor. p. IiZ


ARTICLE-'111.
Cory'ugated with HIJMP

1. i [alflniqaQRV] intr. ['to dwell.] tr. 'to Cure or

heal-ii hi,
i

* Mn'n'ruwA and BHAT'T'O'JI explain the term by


agrees with Vo'PADe'VA's interpretation

* dragging along 5' which


The verb governs two objects, Set

In 6th cl.
1' The inertionv of I; is optional, ince the penult a? is gravely accented (Ch. 17il'- In this Vebr 33 in

iV- 5*)*

and IN, the der. po may ubitute either gk N ."

.
(6

Il

has he" a "Me

(Ch. 16. s. iv. 2.), which prevents the permutation of the "did

'vowel as well as the inertion of I.


s E is converted into He becaue the initial o the root is I (Chf 4
1] In the intenve of this verb, the prior yllable takes (Ch. 18.

Vii- 3-)
iv. 9. *.)

'V The r root has an acute accent marked on the mute vowel; and the two others, a CIICW'

ex.
.
'o Like imilar irregular verbs (Art 1.), this is rericted by the Cds'r'cd with' to a limited If'

ceptation. In its other enes (' to dWell. 'to deire) it _'belongs to the toth clas; thou?b

'i
'-*

Uit

E 363 1
_ i2. ZT'FT

tr. [* to cut.] 'to raightem zto

raight.*

ZTTZZ'I'HFFI'. M. V. flaimj
3.

tr. to harped: la'. M. V.

ARTICLE

iv.

The ollqeuz'ng have a Circunyllex marked an the Mute Vowel, and a Grave

Accent ounded on the Orzlginal Radz'cal

WITH?
1, ZLZUHUK
(2d ing. Hm
tr. to prepare
or NNW),
(boil, &c.);
W;
to mature.$ Aor. p.

(gd du. avant)

'

'

KIUYZRFL
i 2, U? [HFHXB]
MLDDLE V. intr.
nii
to be connected
AOT-f. WEET.
'Hjd
Aor. p.'HUIH'_

eaat.**

3. NH

tr. to erve or worhip.++ Ni_

(3d du.v

Its-"tas, La ing. Man or HN'W) Hem. Nzat AN. p.


VoerE'VA inect it as a regular one of the r; and RAMA'NA'T'HA deny its admitting of con

jugation. The A'Hmran'a makes the verb deponent ', contrary hOWever to the be authorities. The
irregular verb appears likewie to bear other meanings; as 5 to chaize; to remove; to deroy;
alo, c to doubt z' but, in this la ene, it uually requires the propoition an.
* In its regular ene (' to cut), this belongs to the loth clas: though conjugated by Vo'PA
'I'VA in both voices of the r.
11 The ubituted vowel becomes long, as in the imilar irregular verbs before ated. Art: I. 3.
\

1; The pecial acceptation


nal ene of the root.

ated in the Cds'ica' omit', is the ame with the origi

In other acceptations, it is referred to the loth clas.

[ Exccpt the econd root.


5 Sce

tOth cl.

A Some, as remarked by MA'n'HAVA, do not admit the root in this place.

'. I. and W for

' Ch. 17. 5. i. r.


N

7th cl.

Ch. 21.

Ch. 21. x. 6.

a' It is not placed by VYA'GHRABHU'TI, among roots which refue


11' See

See

and

[Gth cl.

XTV

368

-\ .
'\
,
i
,'\ .
du. Warm.
Aor-- gl.
Aor-p- Sign
(3d du-MS'HZ
pl. sign) or sag (sd du. stgtm't), piss. m. . gxm

or gtm. Aor. p. augu! (3d du. Sagl or ngET-)

amptss Aor.. egg-tri: and Wga, sate-m or 'sagmf


Des.

FIZHFHFFTTJ m.

Thc and F'

&e. CAvs:

givet-t. Arm/1. Uga


at? The iwallowz'ng [save the Acute Acccnt on t/zc Male Vowez.

8. I? [Hl] tr. lto ay or tell. intr. = to peak. 'HZZ


THE: (3d du. gaze. zdmg. xazng pl. Ya', loing. 3317.:
or THI. du. xzn arm ue-mia, HZFL. WHPZFL.

HYF'L and Ben- WIFE- ElatiiFt-H ItafZUI. ons.


Faas. im. 'quean &a. cing. HIPZ'Zl. 407. p. stanza-Ft
In ome acceptations, HZPL
9.

tr. * to. move. intr. 2t-o grow or increae.

Wet, Igth (3d du. emerge zding. gift-m. Z. W_


p
* There are onr modes ofinection, in this inance; ince the ubitution of
is here optional ; and o is that of

for Pa; (Ch. 16.

iii. 12.); and, tvhen

equcnlly employed, permutations, analogous to thoe bcore

is con

are alh Optional (Ch. 19

5, ii. 3. ).
'i The change of the vowel or the emirowel takes eect in this tene (Ch. tB.

vowel is hort (Ch. 19.

for

'
v. 2.) ; and the

v. 2. *.).

1 Not, as erroneouy written by an author cenured in the Alano'ramd,

[I The permutatiOn vwith the l'rt'dd'bi Vowcl is here i-ndipenable.

Ch. 19.

iv. 6. *". .-

s Vo'PADE'VA makes the verb common; and ates tWO enes for this and a imilar root o the
i'

,o\

loth clas

1 to peak. 2 to command.

DURGA'pA/SA ays, that ome rec

koh it deponent. According to PA'N'iNt and the re, the verb is deponent, when it ignies either to
encourage, or to educe; or when lure is implied, or knowledge, pereverance or controvery:.
alo, when it ignies to peak together; optionally, in this la inance, however, when dipute is.
implied.

With the propoition

artiCUlate-peech.

With

it is deponent, provided it be intranitive, ignifying hOWever


it admits the middle voice, for the reective import.

CORRECTIONS

P. 4. I. 21.or by read vy. 1. 22.o'r a] read (Ft-I. for a read a. I. 24;


for I' read I.
P. 6. l. 13.0r 'I read I. l. 14.for I read a; l. 17.f0r
read I.
P.'8. l. 3. read
l. 12.f0r 'as read 'QSL 3d column, omit a. l. 13'.

for He read

3d columrz, read U.

I. 15.jbr 'Q' read U.

'

P. 15. 1. 9. read

15. 18. II. l. 2.for


for

read

4.]br mionary read tctnc'engcfe

read

A P. 19. 1. 3. read rz. [a t/ze notes, l. 7. read

P. 24. 1. 16. and 18. for T; read He.


P. 26. *. 1. 4.0r

read Z.

P. 27. *. l. 15: read

l. 24. read

P. 31.1. 13.f0r

read

1. 14. read WET:

P. 36. 1. 5 for element read cononant.


P. 40. ijbr

'read z.

P. 41._*. 1. 12. read II


P. 42. cancel the note * (as it espeeuliar to the Vchas.)'
P. 4 3. 1. 8. for
*

read

Note *. read followed by

initilal, (on as ome ay, by' UZZD or by Pa',

P. 46. 1. 9. read

1. lO. for

read

P. 47. +. dele (See Ch. 18.).

P. 48. 1. 4.fb'r

read

1), 56. 1. 2. after acriiccr add or


P. 59. +. la line,jbr

read U.

P. Gz. Z- law?"

read

a chariot'ee'r,

retaining tha

P. 154. I. t. after
read or, in the anomalies of the Wdas, 'Tin
and BZIT. 1. 3. after ax, read markedwith an indicatory I, and
P. 157. jforTZI-'JJ
read
Hast!
P. 158. Notes 1. t. ztcr Fla- chc t and. After
for ZZFFZ: read T'TPZ .
read &I.

Note o'
a

p, 159. 1. 5. read gl-ZH_

Note

che ad

read 'ax-I.
a

of.

Note

l. 2.

for FHH
0

read with li (if a cht ax, other

than 'ZN, follow) or with'cili (any ax being ubjoined).


R 160

1_ 1_ jbr YTFT read 'claw l. z.for

_ (5th 01.) read (5th and loth cl.).

P. 162. 'il-for

read

1. 3L0r

'

mal

P. 164. l. 1. ztcr Ill, inert'

and

Note *- ill?"

in'

m (for "so,
P, 165. l. 4.or Morcovcr &C. read Before the ame, with the ame ex

ccption, along vowel hall be ubituted for that o uch prior ylla

ble, i proodially hort and followed by one alo proodially hort.


P. 167. le linc,f0r

read

P. 169. *. 1. 3. read U (U mi-39.


P. 170.

l. 15. 'read in four tenes optionally, but orming the others re

gularly. _
P. 17 t . I for (or

read (not

p, 174. +. zzcr ? inert

Note H. for only read notwithand.

ing exceptions.
>
P. 175. la line, read (unles contiguous to a nal Qor I),

Note +,

add before FHUK and a cht ax.


P. 176.l. 7. add Alo, in

P. 177. l. 2. for conjointly dental and labial read labiodental. Note *.


for

Toad &3..

p_ 178, 1, to. (tar '51 add not initial. 1. 12.for

read g.

P. 179. 1. to. read and from QF'H with a limited acceptation, before &e.

\
'

'

'
'

'
'

'

'