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Theory and Numerics

Nikolas Apel

PSfrag replacements

X

x

B

S

F =

C, Gp

g, cp

Institut f

ur Mechanik (Bauwesen), Lehrstuhl I

Professor Dr.-Ing. C. Miehe

Stuttgart 2004

Behaviour at Finite Elastic and Plastic Deformations

Theory and Numerics

der Universitat Stuttgart zur Erlangung der W

urde

eines Doktor-Ingenieurs (Dr.-Ing.)

genehmigte Abhandlung

vorgelegt von

Nikolas Apel

aus Ulm

Korreferat

: Prof. Dr. rer.nat. Bob Svendsen

Tag der m

undlichen Pr

ufung: 28. November 2003

Institut f

ur Mechanik (Bauwesen) der Universitat Stuttgart

2004

Herausgeber:

Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. C. Miehe

Institut f

ur Mechanik (Bauwesen)

Lehrstuhl I

Universitat Stuttgart

Pfaffenwaldring 7

70550 Stuttgart

Tel.: ++49(0)711/6856378

Fax : ++49(0)711/6856347

c Nikolas Apel

Institut f

ur Mechanik (Bauwesen)

Lehrstuhl I

Universitat Stuttgart

Pfaffenwaldring 7

70550 Stuttgart

Tel.: ++49(0)711/6856326

Fax : ++49(0)711/6856347

in fremde Sprachen, vorbehalten. Ohne

Genehmigung des Autors ist es nicht gestattet, dieses Heft ganz oder teilweise auf fotomechanischem Wege (Fotokopie, Mikrokopie) zu vervielfaltigen.

Zusammenfassung

Die vorliegende Arbeit befat sich mit rein makroskopischen Beschreibungen richtungsabhangigen Materialverhaltens. Zentrale neue Entwicklungen liegen auf dem Gebiet der

Theorie und Numerik anisotroper finiter Plastizitat. Nach einer Diskussion der grundlegenden Konzepte zur Klassifizierung von Materialien anhand von materiellen Symmetriegruppen sowie der Zusammenstellung der Konzepte zur Formulierung isotroper Tensorfunktionen und -polynome werden alternative makroskopische Formulierungen finiter

Plastizitat diskutiert. Formulierungen auf der Basis der multiplikativen Zerlegung des Deformationsgradienten in einen elastischen und plastischen Anteil f

uhren auf neundimensionale Flieregeln und erlauben die Abbildung der plastischen Rotation. Im Gegensatz dazu

steht die Beschreibung der plastischen Deformation mittels einer plastischen Metrik. F

ur

letzteres f

uhrt die Wahl logarithmischer Verzerrungen und die additive Zerlegung der totalen Verzerrung in elastische und plastische Anteile auf eine Klasse von Materialgesetzen im

logarithmischen Verzerrungsraum. Sie zeichnet sich durch einen modularen Aufbau und

Strukturen und Algorithmen ahnlich zu denen der geometrisch linearen Theorie aus. Auf

der numerischen Seite werden implizite und explizite Integrations- und Spannungsaufdatierungsalgorithmen f

ur anisotrope Plastizitat bereit gestellt. Eine sorgfaltige Konstruktion dieser Algorithmen ist von entscheidender Bedeutung f

ur die Effizienz der numerischen

Simulationen. Besonderes Augenmerk wird auf Algorithmen f

ur Variationsformulierungen

gelegt. Bedingt durch die inharente (inkrementelle) Potentialstruktur arbeiten diese mit

symmetrischen Groen und benotigen daher weniger Speicherplatz und Loserkapazitat als

klassische, unsymmetrische Verfahren.

Abstract

The present work deals with purely macroscopic descriptions of anisotropic material behaviour. Key aspects are new developments in the theory and numerics of anisotropic

plasticity. After a short discussion of the classification of solids by symmetry transformations a survey about representation theory of isotropic tensor functions and tensor

polynomials is given. Next alternative macroscopic approaches to finite plasticity are

discussed. When considering a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient

into an elastic part and a plastic part, a nine dimensional flow rule is obtained that allows

the modeling of plastic rotation. An alternative approach bases on the introduction of a

metric-like internal variable, the so-called plastic metric, that accounts for the plastic deformation of the material. In this context, a new class of constitutive models is obtained

for the choice of logarithmic strains and an additive decomposition of the total strain

measure into elastic and plastic parts. The attractiveness of this class of models is due

to their modular structure as well as the affinity of the constitutive model and the algorithms inside the logarithmic strain space to models from geometric linear theory. On the

numerical side, implicit and explicit integration algorithms and stress update algorithms

for anisotropic plasticity are developed. Their numerical efficiency crucially bases on their

careful construction. Special focus is put on algorithms that are suitable for variational

formulations. Due to their (incremental) potential property, the corresponding algorithms

can be formulated in terms of symmetric quantities. A reduced storage effort and less

required solver capacity are key advantages compared to their standard counterparts.

Acknowledgements

The work presented in this thesis was carried out in the years between 1999 and 2003,

when I was a co-worker at the Institute of Applied Mechanics (Chair I) at the University

of Stuttgart.

At the end of this period I feel grateful to a lot of people who accompanied me in these

five years.

First of all, I want to thank my academic teacher Professor Christian Miehe for his

scientific support and for the fruitful discussions we had. Without his research in the field

of Applied Mechanics this thesis could not have achieved these results.

My special thanks also go to Professor Bob Svendsen for his interest in my research and

for acting as the external examiner of this thesis.

Next I want to thank my fellow workers at the institute, who were mainly responsible

for the friendly atmosphere within the institute. Especially, I would like to express my

gratitude to my room mate Matthias Lambrecht for the support he gave me and the

many discussions we had. Parts of this thesis are based on scientific results he was

mainly involved with. Furthermore, I would like to thank Andreas Koch for the good

collaboration and the many interesting discussions about a lot of mechanical topics.

I am also very grateful to Grieta Himpel for her incessant interest in mechanical and

computational problems throughout the years which is also true to Sonja Baumberger,

whom I supervised during her diploma thesis, too. Their interest on high-end topics of

theoretical and computational mechanics led to many interesting and helpful discussions

that helped me to see some things more clearly.

I want to thank my wife Heidi for giving me moral support in all these years. She kept

my options open from many everyday-life problems and thus had a great share in the

accomplishment of my research activities.

Last but not least I should like to thank my father Karlheinz for the great help he gave

me at the proof-reading stage as well as Dominik Zimmermann for his support regarding

organizational matters.

Stuttgart, January 2004

Nikolas Apel

Contents

Contents

1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.2. Notion of Stresses and Heat Flux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

2.2.1. Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

2.2.2. Heat Flux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

2.3. Balance Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

2.3.1. Balance of Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

2.3.2. Balance of Linear Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

2.3.3. Balance of Angular Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

2.3.4. Balance of Total Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

2.3.5. Balance of Entropy and Second Law of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . 19

2.4. Constitutive Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

2.4.1. Principle of Material Objectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

2.4.2. Material Symmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

3. Material Symmetries Classification of Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

3.1. Construction of a Space Lattice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

3.2. Symmetry Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

3.2.1. Rotations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

3.2.2. Rotation-Inversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

3.2.3. Tensor Representations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

3.2.4. Symmetry Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

3.3. The 14 Bravais Lattices and 7 Crystal Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

3.3.1. Triclinic Symmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

3.3.2. Monoclinic Symmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

3.3.3. Orthorhombic Symmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

3.3.4. Tetragonal Symmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

3.3.5. Cubic Symmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

3.3.6. Trigonal and Hexagonal Symmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

3.3.7. Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

3.4. The 32 Crystal Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

3.4.1. The Motif Inner Symmetries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

II

Contents

3.5. Icosahedral, Cylindrical and Spherical Symmetry Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

3.6. Classification into 14 Types of Anisotropy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

4. Representations of Anisotropic Tensor Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

4.1. Definitions and Notions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

4.2. Isotropic Extension of Anisotropic Tensor Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

4.3. Isotropic Functions of First- and Second-Order Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

4.3.1. Wangs Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

4.3.2. Smiths Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

4.3.3. Comparison of the Results Obtained by Wang and Smith . . . . . . . 46

4.4. Isotropic Polynomials of First- and Second-Order Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

4.4.1. Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

4.4.2. Integrity Basis for Sets of First-Order Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

4.4.3. Isotropic Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

4.4.4. Integrity Bases for Sets of First-Order and Second-Order Tensors . . 49

4.5. Irreducibility of Integrity Bases and Functional Bases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

4.6. Quadratic Functions of a Symmetric Second-Order Tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

4.6.1. Triclinic Functions Symmetry Group Ci . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

4.6.4. Tetragonal Functions Symmetry Group C4h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

4.6.6. Trigonal Functions Symmetry Group S6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

4.6.10. Cubic Functions Symmetry Group Oh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

4.6.14. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

5. Anisotropic Elasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

5.1. General Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

5.2. Model Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

5.2.1. Fiber-Reinforced Technical Rubber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

5.3. Numerical Example: Tension Test of a Fiber-Reinforced Bar . . . . . . . . . . 77

Contents

III

6. Approaches to Anisotropic Plasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

6.1. Kinematic Approach in Terms of a Plastic Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

6.1.1. Geometry of Multiplicative Plasticity, Stress Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . 81

6.2. Constitutive Model for Plastic-Map Plasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

6.2.1. Energy Storage and Elastic Stress Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

6.2.2. Dissipation and Plastic Flow Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

6.2.3. Decoupling of the Constitutive Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

6.2.4. Continuous Tangent Moduli . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

6.3. Algorithmic Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

6.3.1. Outline of the Standard Stress Update Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

6.3.2. Implicit Stress Update Algorithm (U1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

6.3.3. Explicit Stress Update Algorithm (U2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

6.3.4. Algorithmic Tangent Moduli . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

6.4. Variational Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

6.4.1. Standard Formulation of Rate-Independent Plasticity . . . . . . . . . . 95

6.4.2. Incremental Variational Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

6.4.3. Specification to Multi-Surface Plasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

6.4.4. Implicit Discrete Variational Formulation (V1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

6.4.5. Algorithmic Solution of the Discrete Variational Formulation (V1) . 101

6.4.6. Stresses and Algorithmic Tangent Moduli (V1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

6.4.7. Application of the Algorithm (V1) to the Model Problem . . . . . . . 102

6.4.8. Explicit Discrete Variational Formulation (V2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

6.4.9. Algorithmic Solution of the Discrete Variational Formulation (V2) . 104

6.4.10. Stresses and Algorithmic Tangent Moduli (V2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

6.4.11. Application to Model Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

6.5. Model Problem: Double Slip Plasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

6.5.1. Numerical Example: Rotation of the Slip Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108

6.5.2. Numerical Example: Drawing of a Flange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

6.6. Model Problem: Plasticity based on Quadratic Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

6.6.1. Elastic Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

6.6.2. Plastic Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

6.6.3. D2h -, Oh -, Dh and O(3)-invariant Fourth-Order Tensors . . . . . . . 112

6.7. Constitutive Model for Plastic-Metric Plasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

6.7.1. Energy Storage and Elastic Stress Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

IV

Contents

6.7.3. Decoupling of the Constitutive Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

6.7.4. Continuous Tangent Moduli . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

6.8. Algorithmic Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

6.8.1. Implicit Stress Update Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

6.8.2. Algorithmic Tangent Moduli . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

7. Additive Plasticity in the Logarithmic Strain Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123

7.1. Kinematic Approach in Terms of a Plastic Metric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

7.1.1. Current Metric, Plastic Metric and Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

7.2. Constitutive Model in the Logarithmic Strain Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

7.2.1. Energy Storage and Elastic Stress Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

7.2.2. Dissipation and Plastic Flow Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126

7.2.3. Considered Model Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127

7.2.4. Continuous Elastic-Plastic Tangent Moduli . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

7.3. Algorithmic Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

7.3.1. Stress Update Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

7.3.2. Algorithmic Tangent Moduli . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

7.4. Variational Formulation in the Logarithmic Strain Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

7.4.1. Standard Formulation of Inelasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

7.4.2. Incremental Variational Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

7.4.3. Specification to Multi-Surface Models of Elasto-Plasticity . . . . . . . 134

7.4.4. Algorithmic Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

7.4.5. Stresses and Moduli . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

7.4.6. Application to Model Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138

8. Finite Shell Element Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .139

8.1. Parameterization of the Shell-Like Continuum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139

8.2. Finite Element Approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140

8.2.1. Compatible Displacement Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140

8.2.2. Assumed Strain Modifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

8.2.3. Enhanced Strain Modifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142

8.3. Variational Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

8.4. Gradient-type Interface to Constitutive Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

9. Numerical Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .147

9.1. Necking of an Isotropic Rod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

9.2. Necking of an Isotropic Rectangular Strip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149

Contents

9.3.1. Comparison of Additive and Multiplicative Plasticity . . . . . . . . . . 154

9.3.2. Comparison of the Stress Update Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

9.3.3. Comparison of Additive and Multiplicative Shell Element Design . . 160

9.4. Deep Drawing of Cubic and Orthotropic Sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160

9.4.1. Comparison of Additive and Multiplicative Plasticity . . . . . . . . . . 161

9.4.2. Comparison of the Stress Update Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164

9.4.3. Comparison of Multiplicative and Additive Shell Element Design . . 164

10. Summary and Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .169

A. On Matrix Representations of Symmetric Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .179

A.1. Coordinate Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179

A.2. Spectral Decomposition of Symmetric Fourth-Order Tensors . . . . . . . . . . 180

B. Incremental Variational Formulation Derivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181

C. Positively Homogenous Functions of Degree One . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .182

Introduction

1. Introduction

The modeling of anisotropic material behaviour is an area of research of great importance

in material science. During the last years, the activity of research has been continuously

increasing and this trend still continues. In particular, this concerns the modeling of

anisotropic inelastic material response within the framework of elasto-plasticity which is

part of this thesis.

Symmetry theory provides a valuable set of concepts for the specification of structure, particularly important for crystalline materials but also useful for describing non-crystalline

materials. An important class of materials are crystalline solids. In the ideal state their

matter is arranged periodically in space and therefore the material properties depend on

the spatial orientation of the solid. Based on the symmetry of their atomic structure

they are divided into the 32 crystal classes. Ideal crystals possess 1-, 2-, 3-, 4- and 6-fold

rotational symmetries and the corresponding rotoinversions obtained by combining these

five rotations with a central inversion. But not all materials belong to these classes. In

the eighties quasi-crystals were discovered. Their arrangement of matter violates the rotational symmetries for a periodic structure, 5- and 10-fold symmetry axes were observed.

A key characteristic of the above mentioned crystalline materials is that their inherent

symmetry can be described by discrete rotations and rotoinversions.

The structure of many non-crystalline materials can be characterized by continuous symmetry transformations. Typical examples are engineering materials like composites consisting for example of fabrics embedded in a matrix material or bio-materials like softtissues possessing a fibrous structure. Homogenized material behaviour and overall behaviour of materials are often invariant with respect to continuous symmetry transformations, too.

A comprehensive introduction to classical crystallography is the textbook by Voigt [142].

An illustrative introduction to symmetry transformations can be found in Kennon [60].

Recent publications are Whittaker [152] Borchardt-Ott [24], Kleber, Bautsch

& Bohm [61] or Allen & Thomas [1]. A comprehensive work is the International

Tables for Crystallography edited by Hahn [45]. Chapter 3 gives an overview of the

classification of solids based on their inherent symmetries.

Complex constitutive behaviour of materials is usually mathematically described by scalar-valued and tensor-valued tensor functions. The principle of material frame invariance

and the principle of material symmetry restrict the form of the tensor functions. While

the first restriction must hold for all constitutive equations the second one depends on the

concrete material that is to be described and on the constitutive model that is used. In

this work we do not differentiate between material symmetries and physical symmetries,

cf. Zheng & Boehler [163]. The set of transformations that leave the constitutive

response unchanged is denoted as material symmetry group. It belongs to one of the 32

crystal classes, the infinitely many classes of non-crystallographic point groups, the five

cylindrical classes or the two spherical classes.

The theory of isotropic tensor functions of arbitrary sets of vectors and second-order tensors is well-known. Representations for polynomials were derived by many authors, cf. for

example the review article by Rychlewski & Zhang [111]. A comprehensive discussion

of the theory is the contribution by Spencer [132]. Complete representations for tensor

Introduction

functions go back to the competitive articles by Wang [144, 145, 146, 147] and Smith

[129]. Later, the representations obtained by both authors with different approaches were

compared and unified by Boehler [20]. The papers of Lokhin & Sedov [67], Boehler

[21] and Liu [66] discuss, how the framework of isotropic tensor functions can be used to

describe anisotropic behaviour. Therefore so-called structural tensors that characterize

the material symmetry group are introduced as additional arguments into the constitutive

function. Unfortunately, only a few classes of symmetry groups can be characterized by

vectors or second-order tensors. Zheng [162] lists a single structural tensor of first-order

up to fourth-order for almost all of the classes above mentioned. Representations for

tensor functions of higher order argument tensors, however, are still topic of research and

available only in some particular cases, see for example Zheng & Betten [160] and

Betten & Helisch [14, 15]. Recently, Xiao [156, 157] extended the structural tensor

approach to obtain complete representations for all of the 32 crystal classes and all noncrystal classes by introducing structural tensor functions as additional arguments instead

of constant structural tensors. Chapter 4 gives a survey of the theory of isotropic tensor

polynomials and isotropic tensor functions. The isotropic extension with structural functions is discussed and applied to the important case of quadratic potential functions for all

classes of symmetry. Representations of the second derivatives are derived, which govern

the well-known coordinate representations that are usually obtained by direct application

of symmetry transformations onto the fourth-order second-derivative tensor. Before applying the theory of isotropic tensor functions to complex constitutive models for inelastic

materials, we shortly illustrate its application in chapter 5 for elasticity.

An important goal of this thesis is to pick up and discuss existing alternative approaches

to finite strain elasto-plasticity and to present further developments which are the result

of recent research. Essentially two different approaches exist as for the local constitutive

modeling of finite elasto-plastic material behaviour. They can be traced back to the

classical works of Green & Naghdi [43], Lee [65], Rice [107] and Mandel [71] and

are controversially discussed in literature, cf. the review article of Naghdi [95]. The key

ingredient of plastic-map plasticity is the multiplicative decomposition of the deformation

gradient into an elastic and plastic part F = F e F p . In recent years, the microstructurebased theory for the description of finite elasto-plastic deformations in ideal single crystals,

often denoted as the continuum slip theory, has achieved a degree of common acceptance.

A common approach is the multiplicative composition of the plastic map and the total

deformation measure to the Hencky-type elastic strain variable

e :=

E

1

2

[ln[F pT CF p1 ] ln[1]]

(1.1)

that enters a constitutive function for the energy storage of the material. The plastic map

F p GL(3)+ is considered to be an internal variable that may describe the flow of matter

through the crystal by multiple shearings on crystallographic slip planes. The reversible

distortion of the lattice including a rigid body rotation is described by the elastic map F e .

ner

This is the classical approach to finite crystal plasticity proposed by Rice [107], Kro

& Teodosiu [64] and Mandel [71]. Recent works on multiplicative finite plasticity are

[122], Cuitin

o & Ortiz [34], Anand & Kothari [2], Miehe [79, 80], Miehe,

Simo

der & Schotte [93] and Ortiz & Stainier [98]. These formulations take

Schro

into account elastic and plastic anisotropies associated with certain characteristics of

the crystals. Svendsen [136] and Svendsen, Arndt, Klingbeil & Sievert [138]

Introduction

consider the incorporation of non-linear isotropic and kinematic hardening effects into

the constitutive equations. The modeling of anisotropic inelastic material behaviour by

phenomenological approaches using this multiplicative composition can be found e.g. in

Svendsen [137] and Menzel [75]. The plastic rotational part of F p is well defined in

crystal plasticity, cf. Boyce, Weber & Parks [25], but is often controversially discussed

whenever the multiplicative ansatz (1.1) is used in purely phenomenological theories of

finite plasticity, see for example Casey & Naghdi [30], Dafalias [36] and Naghdi [95].

Phenomenological assumptions for the plastic rotation often appear somewhat artificial,

for example by simply setting the plastic spin to zero as considered e.g. in Moran, Ortiz

[122].

& Shih [94], Miehe [78] and Simo

It is convenient to formulate constitutive equations with respect to the reference configuration for isotropic and anisotropic purely phenomenological models of anisotropic

plasticity with preferred structural directors deforming with the material. A framework

of plastic-metric plasticity can be motivated by the example of a transversal isotropic material consisting of plastic fibers embedded into an elastic matrix material. Therefore it

can be shown that the plastic map enters the stored energy functions only through the socalled plastic metric Gp := F pT F p . The dependence of the stored energy on C := F T F

and Gp can alternatively be derived by an invariance principle, cf. Casey & Naghdi

[30].

There is no need to introduce the multiplicative split of the deformation gradient to

motivate the framework of plastic-metric plasticity. In fact the existence of a plastic metric

that accounts for the plastic deformation of a material can be postulated a priori. This

circumvents the restrictions that are apparent in the plastic-map framework. Considering

the plastic metric to be an internal variable as is done in Miehe [82, 83] is consistent with

the classical approach to finite plasticity proposed by Green & Naghdi [43], see also

& Ortiz [126]. Reese & Svendsen [106] and Reese

Casey & Naghdi [30] and Simo

[105] model the material behaviour of a fiber reinforced composite using the plastic metric

as an internal variable for the description of the inelastic deformation.

A specific framework denoted here as additive plasticity is provided by the additive

Hencky-type elastic strain measure

E e :=

1

2

[ln[C] ln[Gp ]] .

(1.2)

Observe that (1.1) and (1.2) coincide for the special case of coaxial total and plastic deformations where C and Gp commute and the plastic map can be identified as F p := Gp1/2 .

In this sense both formulations (1.1) and (1.2) are considered to be close. Formulations and numerical implementations of additive finite plasticity consistent with (1.2)

have recently been outlined by Papadopoulos & Lu [99, 100] and Miehe, Apel &

Lambrecht [87].

The additive decomposition of the total strains into elastic and plastic parts is a typical feature of the geometrically linear theory of plasticity. Hence, ansatz (1.2) provides

a natural basis for a material-independent extension of constitutive structures from the

geometrically linear to the non-linear theory at finite strains. A similar method for the

extension of geometrically linear models to the finite strain range is considered in the in o & Ortiz [35],

cremental algorithmic setting of multiplicative plasticity (1.1) by Cuitin

it is restricted, however, to certain isotropy properties. The convenience of logarithmic

Introduction

strains has also been exploited in many works on computational multiplicative plasticity

in the last decade. We refer to the treatments of isotropic finite plasticity by Eterovic

, Owen & Honnor [102], Simo

[121, 122] and Miehe [83].

& Bathe [39], Peric

Chapter 6 discusses constitutive approaches to anisotropic plasticity. The main part

deals with the plastic-map approach. A key point is the construction of one-step time integration algorithms for the evolution equations of the internal variables. New symmetric

implicit and explicit algorithms are presented and compared with unsymmetric standard

implicit and explicit return mapping schemes. Both above-mentioned symmetric formulations are related to variational formulations of finite plasticity that were recently

developed by Miehe [85, 90] in the context of small strain elasto-plasticity and large

strain crystal plasticity, respectively. The behaviour of the algorithms is compared in

numerical examples.

The framework of additive plasticity is presented in chapter 7. Two different approaches

to the numerical treatment are presented, the classical general return scheme and a variational formulation derived in Miehe, Apel & Lambrecht [87].

On the side of computational analysis of shell-like structures we focus on a rotation-free

shell formulation in chapter 8. It is in line with recently developed brick-type mixed finite

der [92], Seifert [120] and

element designs outlined in Miehe [84], Miehe & Schro

Klinkel, Gruttmann & Wagner [62]. For a comprehensive overview of different shell

element formulations and associated finite element technologies we refer to the textbook

by Belytschko, Liu & Moran [9].

The brick-type finite shell element parameterizes as originally proposed by Schoop

[115, 116] the deformation field in terms of displacements of material points at the

top and bottom surfaces of the shell identical to the eight-node brick element of threedimensional continuum analysis. It is well known that this element yields very poor

performance within the thin shell limit. This can be traced back to locking effects due

to parasitic transverse shear stresses, which appear as a result of the low-order interpolation of the brick element, and the poor constant interpolation of the membrane strains

and in particular the thickness normal strain that contradicts plate-type bending modes.

These two locking effects can be circumvented by applying assumed strain and enhanced

strain modifications on the pure displacement approach on the basis of mixed variational

formulations. Both the enhanced as well as the assumed strain modifications are treated

here in unified matrix notations with respect to the parameter chart of the shell. The

enhanced strain formulation can be approached in a multiplicative and an additive format. The multiplicative approach defines the enhanced current metric with respect to

the parameter space of the shell by

:= jT g j

C

with j := j C + j E

(1.3)

continuum. This multiplicative enhancing is conceptually in line with works on continuum

& Armero [123] and Simo

, Armero & Taylor [124] and has been

elements by Simo

applied to brick-type finite shell element formulations by Miehe [84] and Miehe &

der [92]. In this thesis we concentrate on an additive approach that defines the

Schro

enhanced current metric in the parameter space by

= C

+ C

C

C

E

= j T gj

with C

C

C

(1.4)

Introduction

of the metric C

C computed with the compatible deformain terms of a modification C

E

tion gradient j C . This additive enhancing is analogous to works on continuum elements

& Rifai [127] and has been applied to brick-type finite shell element formulaby Simo

tions by Seifert [120] and Klinkel, Gruttmann & Wagner [62]. As done in Miehe

in (1.4) is assumed to cover two types of enhanced strain

[84] for j E the modification C

E

modes. Firstly, we enhance the normal strain in the thickness direction in order to incorporate a linear dependence in terms of the curvilinear parameter in thickness direction

chter & Ramm [28] and Bu

chter, Ramm & Roehl

as conceptually suggested by Bu

[29]. Secondly, we enhance the membrane-bending response of the shell element in a man & Rifai [127] and Simo

& Armero [123].

In order to avoid the shear locking phenomenon we apply the classical assumed strain

interpolation of the transverse shear strains proposed by Dvorkin & Bathe [37]. A

locking effect due to the poor interpolation of the director field is avoided by the introduction of the assumed strain interpolation of the thickness strains as proposed by

Betsch & Stein [11] and Bischoff & Ramm [18]. The development results in an

mixed eight-node brick-type shell element with an underlying trilinear displacement interpolation, five internal degrees for enhanced strain interpolations of the thickness and

membrane strains, and eight collocation points for the assumed strain interpolation of

the thickness and transverse shear strains. An interface to deformation-gradient-driven

constitutive stress update algorithms of anisotropic finite plasticity is developed by using an assumption with respect to the enhanced assumed local rotation as suggested by

Dvorkin, Pantuso & Repetto [38]. The strain-like interface to the three-dimensional

constitutive box at a material point of the shell continuum is formulated in terms of curvilinear coordinate charts relative to a local parameter chart of the shell.

In chapter 9 representative numerical examples are discussed. The four proposed stress

algorithms for plastic-map plasticity are compared and evaluated for complex anisotropic

phenomenological constitutive models of elasto-plasticity. This is done by considering

driver tests as well as simulations of drawing processes. As already mentioned, the plastic

map and the plastic-metric approaches are subject of intensive research. One purpose of

this thesis is to compare and to evaluate both approaches. On the computational side this

is done by means of complex boundary value problems. The multiplicatively enhanced

shell element design published by Miehe [84] serves as a reference for the proposed

additively enhanced shell formulation. The results obtained with both approaches are

compared.

The aim of this introductory chapter is to give a short and compact survey about the

continuum mechanical background of this work and to introduce the notation that is used.

We refer to the textbooks of Truesdell & Noll [140], Malvern [70] and Marsden &

Hughes [72]. Recent publications are Chadwick [31] Basar & Weichert [4], Haupt

[49] and Holzapfel [53] among many others.

The outline of this section is as follows. We discuss coordinate representations of tensors

and their transformations and rotations in bases systems. In the first part, Cartesian

bases are considered because they provide a simple lead-in to that topic. Then co-variant

and contra-variant bases are taken into account. Here especially convected bases allow an

illustrative geometric interpretation of the motion of material bodies.

2.1.1. Representation, Transformation and Rotation of Tensorial Objects

2.1.1.1. Cartesian Bases. In this paragraph, we restrict our attention to a right-handed

orthonormal basis {ei }i=1,2,3 that is characterized by

ei ej = ij

and ei ej = ijk ek .

(2.1)

ei }i=1,2,3 . The frames are assumed to be

related via an orthogonal transformation Q SO(3). Here SO(3) denotes the set of all

second-order tensors Q with det[Q] = 1 and QT = Q1 and is referred to as the proper

orthogonal group. The rotation tensor Q maps the basis vectors onto each other

ei = Q

ei

i = Q T ei .

e

(2.2)

For an illustration of this setting see Figure 1. Q is a two-point tensor with the typical

E3

v, A

PSfrag replacements

P

QT

{ei }

{

ei }

Figure 1: Two Cartesian bases are linked via an orthogonal transformation tensor, e i =

Q

ei . Tensorial objects v and A at a point P of the Euclidean space E3 can be represented

in any frame, however their characteristic properties are frame independent.

i

Q = ei e

i ei ,

QT = e

(2.3)

where two identical indices imply the summation due to Einsteins convention. In the

context of continuum mechanics, tensors describe geometrical objects which can be represented in any coordinate system. The coordinates with respect to a certain frame

are obtained by a contraction of the tensor with the basis vectors of that frame. So the

coordinates of Q with respect to {ei } are

k )ej ) ei = ik e

k ej = e

i ej .

Qij = (Qej ) ei = ((ek e

(2.4)

In literature one often finds transformations of basis vectors with rotation matrices. Such

i

a representation is obtained from (2.4) by multiplication with e

i = (

i )ej = ej

Qij e

ei ej )

ei = (

ei e

and we obtain as analogous expressions to (2.2) the linear-combinations

j

ei = Qji e

i = Qij ej .

e

(2.5)

Inserting (2.5) into the definition (2.3) leads to the coordinate representation of Q in the

j e

i , stating that the coordinates of Q are identical

barred frame. The result is Q = Qji e

in both frames {ei } and {

ei }.

when considering the above introduced frames {ei } and {

ei }, see also figure 1. They are

related, because the basis vectors of the frames are connected with the mapping (2.2) and

we get

i e

j

A = Aij ei ej = Qik Akl Qjl e

i e

j = Qki Akl Qlj ei ej

= Aij e

(2.6)

A comparison of the representations in both frames yields the transformation laws for the

coordinates due to a change of basis, i.e.

Aij = Qik Akl Qjl

(2.7)

Remark 2.1: It is important to notice that the change of basis (2.7) is different from

the rotation of A,

i )(Akl e

k e

l )(

QAQT = (ei e

ej ej ) = Aij ei ej 6= A .

(2.8)

The rotated tensor QAQT has the coordinate scheme of the barred setting in the basis

{ei }. In general, the coordinates Aij and Aij are different and then QAQT is a new

object. An exception is the rotation tensor itself, obviously it is QQQ T = Q.

2.1.1.2. Co-variant and Contra-variant Bases. For an extension of the discussion

of tensor representations and transformations, we drop the assumption of orthonormal

bases and consider an arbitrary co-variant coordinate frame {g i }i=1,2,3 spanned by three

linear independent vectors of arbitrary length and orientation and g 1 (g 2 g 3 ) > 0. The

metric coefficients are defined by the scalar products

gij := g i g j

and g ij := g i g j .

(2.9)

Obviously we have gij 6= ij . The basis vectors are normalized and oriented with respect

to a dual contra-variant basis {g i }i=1,2,3 so that

g i g j = i j

and g i g j = ijk g k .

(2.10)

For a visualization see figure 2. In analogy to the linear combinations (2.5) the co-variant

E3

v, A

PSfrag replacements

P

g

{g i }

g 1

{g i }

basis vectors can be decomposed into the contra-variant system and vice versa which is

denoted as index lowering and raising,

g i = gij g j

and g i = g ij g j .

(2.11)

In the context of dual bases the identity tensor has four different representations

g i g i = gij g i g j = g ij g i g j = g i g i .

(2.12)

According to their mapping properties, they are formally distinguished with different

symbols and names. The mixed variant representations

i := g i g i

and i1 := g i g i .

(2.13)

are referred to as identity tensors. They map within the co-variant or contra-variant basis.

The mappings in between the dual frames are referred to as co-variant and contra-variant

metric tensors,

g := gij g i g j

and g 1 := g ij g i g j .

(2.14)

representations exist A = Aij g i g j = Aij g i g j = Ai j g i g j = Ai j g i g j . Here no

difference between a multiplication with metric tensors and a coordinate transformation

with (2.11) is observed. Both operations yield a change of basis

gAg T = (gij g i g j )(Aij g i g j )(gkl g l g k ) = gia Aab gkb g i g k = Aik g i g k . (2.15)

10

v, A

E

PSfrag replacements

F

{Gi }

{g i }

F 1

F T

{Gi }

{g i }

FT

Figure 3: Two arbitrary dual bases are linked via F GL(3)+ . Tensorial objects v and A

at a point P of the Euclidean space E3 can be represented in any frame, their characteristic

properties, however, are frame independent.

2.1.1.3. Arbitrary Dual Bases. Consider two arbitrary dual frames, denoted by {G i },

{Gi } and {g i }, {g i } respectively, for i = 1, 2, 3. Assume that the co-variant bases are

mapped onto each other with a map of the general linear group F GL(3)+ , i.e.

g i = F Gi ,

Gi = F 1 g i ,

g i = F T Gi ,

Gi = F g i ,

(2.16)

see also figure 3. The transformation tensor F is a two-point tensor with the typical

structure consisting of the sum of dyadic products of corresponding basis vectors

F = g i Gi ,

F 1 = Gi g i ,

F T = g i Gi ,

F T = Gi g i .

(2.17)

The coordinates of F are obtained by contractions with the corresponding basis vectors,

e.g. F i j = (F Gj ) Gi = Gi g j . Insertion into (2.16) give the corresponding linear

combinations

g i = F a i Ga ,

Gi = F 1 a i g a ,

g i = F 1 i a Ga ,

Gi = F i a g a .

(2.18)

For a given second-order tensor A we discuss the two co-variant one-point forms in place

of all possible representations, i.e.

A = Aij g i g j

= F 1a i Aab F 1b j Gi Gj

= Aij Gi Gj = F a i Aab F b j g i g j .

(2.19)

When comparing the representations in both frames one obtains the transformation laws

for a change of basis, i.e.

Aij = F 1a i Aab F 1b j

(2.20)

11

Remark 2.2: Observe that the change of basis (2.20) differs from a generalized rotation

with F of the tensor A, which is a new object

F T AF 1 = (g i Gi )(Aab Ga Gb )(Gj g j ) = Aij g i g j 6= A .

(2.21)

Operations of this type are denoted as push-forward and pull-back operations. They yield

new tensors with identical coordinates but exchanged bases.

2.1.2. Motion of a Body

In this thesis, we consider so called material bodies S, consisting of a continuous set of

material points P which are in a one-to-one relation to the points of the three-dimensional

Euclidean space E3 . The placement of the body in space changes with time, i.e.

: S R E3 ,

(S, t) 7 (S, t) .

(2.22)

of that point with respect to a global Cartesian basis {E i }i=1,2,3 . At frozen time t = t, the

set of points only depends on S. This is emphasized by the notation t (S) := (S, t = t).

The image x = t (S) is called actual configuration of the material body and is denoted by

St . The motion is often described with regard to a fixed, so called reference configuration,

associated with time t = t0 and denoted by B. It is not necessary but often convenient to

choose the reference configuration identical to the position of the body at time t 0 so that

0 := (t = t0 ) and B := St=t0 . For a visualization see figure 4. The relative motion is

PSfrag replacements

E3

x2

x1

St 1

St 2

0

{S}

t1

t2

Figure 4: Reference configuration B and actual configurations St1 and St2 are images of a

continuous set S of material points in the Euclidean space E3 at fixed times t1 and t2 . The

motion of the body is described by the family of configurations parameterized in the time t.

(X, t) : B S ,

(X, t) = t (1

0 (X))

(2.23)

where the points of B are defined by X := (S, t0 ). The map (2.23) is the basis for the

description of the motion of the body. In what follows, we consider two configurations.

The reference configuration B is denoted as Lagrangian or material configuration, the

12

are in a one-to-one relation via (2.23). We introduce a global Cartesian frame {E i } with

coordinates i . The position vectors have the representations X = X i (1 , 2 , 3 )E i and

x = xi (1 , 2 , 3 , t)E i . At any point X the images of the global coordinate lines are

denoted as material lines which deform with the body

1 (, t) = (1 (), t)

1 () = X( 1 + , 2 , 3 )

2 () = X( 1 , 2 + , 3 )

2 (, t) = (2 (), t)

(2.24)

and

3

3

3

1 2 3

() = X( , , + )

(, t) = ( (), t) .

The tangent vectors to these lines constitute a natural co-variant basis {G i } and {g i } for

the so-called tangent space TX B and Tx S, respectively. They are obtained by

PSfrag replacements

Gi := i = i X j E j , g i := i = i i = i Gi .

(2.25)

The dual bases {Gi } and {g i } span the contra-variant co-tangent spaces, denoted by TX? B

and Tx? S, respectively. Tangent and co-tangent spaces are connected with the Lagrangian

and Eulerian metric tensors

g

= gij g i g j

G

= Gij Gi Gj

(2.26)

and

g 1 = g ij g i g j ,

G1 = Gij Gi Gj

respectively. Figure 5 visualizes the geometric setting.

G, G1

g, g 1

G3

G1

g2

1

g1

g3

G2

B

{E i }

Figure 5: Reference and actual configuration B and S of the body under consideration.

The non-linear point-map maps material points X B to the current configuration x S.

Tangent vectors to material lines i form the co-variant convective basis and constitute the

metric tensors G1 = Gij Gi Gj and g 1 = g ij g i g j .

To the opinion of the author the introduction of the natural convected basis is essential

for the geometric understanding of finite kinematics. In this context the deformation

gradient is defined in accordance with (2.25) by

F : TX B Tx S ,

F = X (X, t) .

(2.27)

It connects the co-variant basis vectors of the Lagrangian and Eulerian configurations and

the results of section 2.1.1.3 can be applied to the context of finite kinematics.

13

The deformation gradient F maps tangent vectors to material lines in the Lagrangian

PSfrag

replacements

configuration

to tangent vectors to material lines in the Eulerian configuration. Due

to property (2.10)2 , vectors in the co-tangent space are denoted as normals. They are

mapped by F T from the Lagrangian to the Eulerian configuration, see figure 6. On the

i

I

F

x

Tx S

TX B

G

F T

X

TX? B

x

i

Tx? S

Figure 6: Mappings between the co-variant and contra-variant tangent spaces of a point

X and its Eulerian counterpart x = (X). I and I 1 are defined in analogy to (2.13).

basis of these pictures, three fundamental geometric mappings are of high relevance.

(i) Map of tangents. An infinitesimal line element of the tangent space dX T X B is

mapped with the deformation gradient from the Lagrangian to the Eulerian configuration,

F : TX B Tx S ,

dx = F dX .

(2.28)

span an area

(ii) Map of area elements. Two infinitesimal line elements dX and dX

?

which is in T B. Its Eulerian counterpart is obtained with the

element dA = dX dX

X

co-factor cof[F ] := det[F ]F T and known as Nansons formula

cof[F ] : TX? B Tx? S ,

da = cof[F ]dA .

(2.29)

and

(iii) Map of volume elements. The volume of a parallelepiped spanned by dX, dX

dX]. A transformation with the JacobidX is given by the box product dV = [dX, dX,

determinant J := det[F ] yields the Eulerian counterpart

J : RR,

dv = JdV .

(2.30)

So far we have dealt with the geometry of finite deformations in terms of convective

curvilinear coordinates. In this formulation, the actual dual bases {g i } and {g i } are the

images of their Lagrangian counterparts {Gi } and {Gi }. The coordinates of tensors do

not change while performing a push-forward or pull-back operation, see (2.21). This is a

consequence of the fact that the information about the deformation is exclusively stored

in the basis vectors.

14

In several cases kinematics is formulated with respect to a single global Cartesian frame

without introducing convected bases explicitly. In order to keep things clear, we distinguish between the tangent and co-tangent spaces of the material and actual configuration

by formally introducing four Cartesian frames instead of only one which are denoted by

{E A }, {E A } and {ea }, {ea }, respectively. Then the metric tensors take the forms

g

= ab ea eb

G

= AB E A E B

(2.31)

and

g 1 = ab ea eb

G1 = AB E A E B

and they do no more contain any information about the actual deformation but only serve

as maps between tangent and co-tangent spaces. Mappings between the Lagrangian and

Eulerian configuration are performed on the basis of the deformation gradient. In analogy

to (2.17) one then has to consider the two basic deformation maps

F = F a A ea E A ,

F 1 = F 1A a E A ea .

(2.32)

In order

define the notion of stresses and heat flux, consider a body S, from which we

PSfragtoreplacements

cut out an arbitrary part Sp . The effects of the outer part onto the cut-out part have

t

x

q

S

n

h

Sp

Figure 7: Cut-off part Sp from the body S. The action of the part S\Sp is replaced by

surface tractions t on Sp and a heat flux normal through the surface of Sp .

thermal effects.

2.2.1. Stresses

The mechanical effects of the outer part S\Sp are replaced by surface tractions defined

as the limit value of a force f acting on an area element a at points x Sp of the

surface, i.e.

f

df

=

.

a0 a

da

t(x, t) := lim

(2.33)

of the normal n of the area element da in x

t(x, t, n) = (x, t)n

(2.34)

where denotes the Cauchy stress tensor. Within the context of finite deformations

relates the actual force to the actual deformed area element. Therefore the Cauchy

PSfrag

replacements

Fundamentals

of Continuum Mechanics

15

x

Tx S

TX B

S

P

F T

X

TX? B

x

Tx? S

Figure 8: Definition of stress tensors. Cauchy stresses or true stresses , Kirchhoff stresses

= J, first Piola stresses or nominal stresses P = F T , second Piola-Kirchhoff stresses

S = F 1 F T .

stresses are also denoted as true stresses. is a co-variant tensor mapping normals of the

co-tangent space Tx? into the tangent space Tx , see figure 8. The stress tensor = J is

called weighted Cauchy or Kirchhoff stress tensor.

Relating the actual force to the undeformed area element dA yields the definition of the

nominal stress tensor which is also denoted as first Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor P . From

N . Insertion into (2.34) gives the alternative Cauchy theorem

(2.29) we get n = JF T dA

da

T = PN

with P = F T

(2.35)

da

and T = dA

t. Finally, the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor S is used. It is the

Lagrangian counterpart of and is obtained by the pull-back operation

S := F 1 F T .

(2.36)

This tensor is a purely geometrical construct, with almost no physical interpretation but

is convenient for the formulation of constitutive equations.

2.2.2. Heat Flux

The thermal effects of the outer part S\Sp are represented by a scalar-field h on the surface

Sp . This field describes the heat-flux h through the surface in outer normal direction.

According to Stokes heat-flux theorem, h is a linear function of the normal vector of the

area element in a point x Sp

h(x, t, n) = q(x, t) n .

(2.37)

Here q is the contra-variant Cauchy heat-flux vector. Its Lagrangian counterpart is obtained from the demand

Z

Z

q n da =

Q N dA .

(2.38)

Sp

Bp

With Nansons formula (2.29) the nominal heat flux vector is defined as Q := det[F ]F 1 q.

16

Balance principles and conservation laws for physical quantities constitute the physical

basis of continuum mechanics. They are at first formulated as integral equations for a

cut-out part Sp of a body subjected to surface tractions and thermal loading representing

the action of the cut-off part S\Sp , see figure 7. Application of the localization theorem

yields the corresponding local or strong form of the balance law, valid for any x S.

In the subsequent development we denote with d/dt[] = [] the material time derivative.

This is the temporal change of the quantity [] at an arbitrary but then fixed point

of the reference configuration, i.e. X = constant. For Lagrangian fields F (X, t) the

material time derivative equals the partial derivative F = F/t whereas for Eulerian

the local part

fields f (x(X, t), t) it consists of two parts, f(x, t) = f /t + grad[f ] x,

and the convective part, respectively. Furthermore we introduce the following operators

grad[] := [] x , Grad[] := [] X , div[] := [] x , Div[] := [] X

(2.39)

i ei with respect to a

Cartesian basis {ei }. An important integral equation for Eulerian scalar-fields is

d

dt

f (x, t) dv =

Sp

f + f div x dv .

(2.40)

Sp

Note that in the Eulerian setting differentiation and integration do not commute due to

the time dependence of the integral limits.

2.3.1. Balance of Mass

For an arbitrary cut-out part of a body Bp and its deformed configuration Sp the density

of mass is defined by 0 := dm/dV and := dm/dv, respectively. Within this work we

consider only processes, where the mass of any part of the body remains constant during

the deformation process, i.e.

Z

Z

0 dV .

(2.41)

dv =

m=

Sp

Bp

)

= 0 xS

+ div[x]

0 J

= 0 XB.

(2.42)

= 0. The second one is

obtained with the transformation (2.30) of the volume elements.

2.3.2. Balance of Linear Momentum

The linear momentum of a part of a body is defined by

Z

Z

0 x dV .

x dv =

I :=

Sp

Bp

(2.43)

17

Any body remains in uniform motion as long as no resultant forces act on it. Otherwise

the temporal change of momentum equals the resulting volume and surface forces

Z

Z

Z

Z

I =

dV +

t da =

dv +

0

T dA

(2.44)

Sp

Sp

Bp

Bp

which are prescribed by an acceleration field

T (X, t) in the actual and reference setting, respectively. Using the Gauss theorem, the

surface integral can be recast into a volume integral and one obtains the local equilibrium

conditions related to the actual and reference unit-volume

)

)

div[] + (

x

= 0 xS

.

(2.45)

) = 0 X B

Div[P ] + 0 (

x

2.3.3. Balance of Angular Momentum

The angular momentum of a body S is defined with respect to the origin of the coordinate

system o by

Z

Z

x 0 x dV .

(2.46)

x x dv =

D o :=

Bp

Sp

The temporal change of the angular momentum equals the sum of the applied moments

in consequence of body forces and surface tractions

Z

Z

Z

Z

dV +

x T dA .

(2.47)

x 0

x t da =

x

dv +

Do =

Sp

Spt

Bpt

Bp

The corresponding local forms follow after a somewhat extensive derivation. They state

the symmetries of the stress tensors

= T

and S = S T .

(2.48)

This essential property does not transmit to the first Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor.

2.3.4. Balance of Total Energy

The total energy of a part of a body is defined by

Z

Z

0 e dV

e dv =

E :=

Sp

(2.49)

Bp

where e denotes the specific energy density per unit mass. In the thermo-mechanical

context, a temporal change of E may be caused by the power of mechanical tractions and

body forces P and the thermal power Q, i.e.

Z

Z

Z

Z

dv =

dV

P :=

x

0 x

x t da +

x T dA +

SpZ

BpZ

ZBp

ZSp

(2.50)

0 r dV

Q N dA +

r dv =

q n da +

Q :=

Sp

Sp

Bp

Bp

18

respectively. r is the heat supply per unit mass and unit time. With these definitions, the

balance of total energy reads

E = P + Q .

(2.51)

The corresponding local equations related to the unit-volume of the actual and reference

configuration run as follows

)

+ r

e = div[x q] + x

xS

(2.52)

+ 0 r X B .

0 e = Div[x P Q] + 0 x

The total energy can be additively split up into the kinetic energy and an internal energy,

which is discussed in the next two subsections.

2.3.4.1. Balance of Kinetic Energy. The kinetic energy of a part of the body is

defined by the integrals

Z

Z

1

1

K :=

x x dv =

x x dV .

(2.53)

2

2 0

Sp

Bp

local Eulerian form (2.45)1 or the local Lagrangian form (2.45)2 with the velocity x and

integrating over the volume, one obtains

K = P S .

(2.54)

Z

Z

: (g) dv =

grad[x]

F : (gP ) dV

S :=

(2.55)

Bp

Sp

2.3.4.2. Balance of Internal Energy (First Law of Thermodynamics). The total

energy can be additively decomposed into the kinetic part and a remaining part U :=

E K, denoted as internal energy. The latter is related to the specific internal energy

density per unit mass u according to

Z

Z

0 u dV .

(2.56)

u dv =

U :=

Sp

Bp

U = E K = Q + S

(2.57)

: (g) x S

u = r div[q] + grad[x]

0 u = 0 r Div[Q] + F : (gP )

X B .

(2.58)

19

Entropy is a state variable for a thermo-mechanical system which measures microscopic

randomness and disorder and determines the direction of the thermodynamical process..

Its physical definition is part of Statistical Physics. The entropy H possessed by a part

of a body is defined in terms of the specific entropy per unit mass as

Z

Z

0 dV .

(2.59)

dv =

H :=

Sp

Bp

, (ii ) a source of entropy inside the body r/ due to evolution of temperature and (iii )

a supply of entropy through the surface due to heat flux q n/. Here 0 denotes

the absolute temperature. The balance of entropy takes the form

Z

Z

Z

Z

r

1

1

r

+ dv

H=

0 + 0 dV

q n da =

Q N dA (2.60)

Sp

Sp

Bp

Bp

The second law of thermo-dynamics states that the production of entropy is always positive, i.e. 0. Solving the local forms corresponding to (2.60) for yields the local

forms of the so-called Clausius-Duhem inequality

r 1

1

= + div[q] 2 q grad[]

0

x S

(2.61)

1

r 1

X B .

0 = 0 0 + div[Q] 2 Q Grad[] 0

Insertion of (2.58) and introducing the Helmholtz free energy per unit mass through a

Legendre transformation = u yields the alternative forms

q grad[] 0

x S

= (g) : grad[x]

(2.62)

1 Q Grad[]

0

0 = (gP ) : F 0

0

X B .

A purely mechanical theory is obtained assuming an isothermal process which is characterized by constant temperature, i.e. = constant. In this case, the Clausius-Duhem

inequality reduces to

)

0

D = (g) : grad[x]

x S

(2.63)

0 D = (gP ) : F 0

0

X B

where D := is the mechanical dissipation per unit-mass of the process.

Within this thesis, the class of so-called standard dissipative materials is considered. Their

constitutive behaviour is governed by two scalar-valued tensor functions. The locally

stored energy is described by the free energy function, and the evolution of the internal

variables is governed for instance by the dissipation function, the level-set function or

the classical yield-criterion function. The form of these functions is not arbitrary but

20

restricted by fundamental principles. For a detailed discussion see e.g. Truesdell &

Noll [140], Malvern [70] or Haupt [49]. The most important principle is that of frame

invariance or material objectivity which is discussed in the first subsection. The inherent

symmetries of a material poses restrictions on the constitutive functions. The material

symmetry group introduced in the second part of this section provides a basis for the

classification of materials and the construction of appropriate constitutive functions.

2.4.1. Principle of Material Objectivity

The locally stored energy in a material that is completely reversible is characterized

by a free energy function. Here we consider elastic material behaviour and a functional

dependence on the deformation gradient F . The principle of material objectivity demands

that the free energy function = 0 is independent of the choice of reference frame.

For two arbitrary Cartesian frames linked with orthogonal rotation tensor Q, it reads

(F ) = (QF ) .

(2.64)

Thus the free energy function has to be invariant with respect to superimposed rigid body

motions. A common way to satisfy this restriction in a Lagrangian setting is to assume

a functional dependence on the right Cauchy-Green tensor C := F T gF . It is the pullback of the current metric and is objective because (QF )T g(QF ) = F T (QT gQ)F = C.

Functions satisfying the principle of material objectivity a priori are denoted as reduced

forms. They are often formulated in terms of a strain tensor of the Seth-Hill family

1 m/2

[C

G] for m 6= 0

(m)

m

E

:=

(2.65)

1

ln[C]

for m = 0

2

in the form = (E (m) ).

2.4.2. Material Symmetry

In order to motivate the classification of material according to their material symmetry,

we consider a free energy function depending on the deformation gradient. In general,

the amount of stored energy will not only depend on the applied deformation but also

on the orientation of the material. As an example consider two alignments of a fibrous

a?

PSfrag replacements

a

Figure 9: A fibrous material with orientations a and a? is subjected to the same global

deformation state. The corresponding stored energy are and ? .

material, a and a? and assume that these orientations are linked with an orthogonal

transformation, i.e. a? = QT a. In both cases the material is subjected to the same global

deformation state, see figure 9 for a visualization. The stored free energies are

= (F ) and ? = (F QT ) .

(2.66)

21

In general, both function values will differ, 6= ? . The set of all transformations

Q O(3) yielding the same value for and ? is denoted as material symmetry group

of the tensor function , i.e. {Q O(3) | (F ) = (F QT )}. For a priori objective

functions = (C) the material symmetry group is determined by

G := {Q O(3) | (C) = (QCQT )} .

(2.67)

Section 3 reviews the symmetry groups for anisotropic solids in detail and section 4

discusses the construction of tensor functions for given material symmetry groups.

23

The goal of this section is to present the standard concept of physics to classify solids

due to the symmetry of their microscopic structure. There is a wide variety of textbooks

in physics treating this topic, e.g. Jagodzinski [57], Voigt [142], Borchardt-Ott

[24] or Kleber, Bautsch & Bohm [61]. For the approach presented here we refer

especially to the books of Whittaker [152] and Kennon [60]. A comprehensive work is

the International Tables for Crystallography edited by Hahn [45]. For an introduction

to the group theoretical treatment of symmetry we refer to Hamermesh [47] among many

others.

Condensed matter is distinguished between solids having amorphous and those having

crystalline microstructure. We focus here on the latter ones. Any ideal crystal is a threedimensional pattern of atoms. The basic concept to describe the atomic structure is to

distinguish between a motif and the scheme whereby the motif is periodically repeated in

space to generate the pattern. The motif of a crystal depends upon the chemical identity

of the material of the crystal and can be a single atom, a single molecule or a group of

molecules.

The periodic spatial arrangement of the motif is mathematically described by a space

lattice. Any space lattice can be constructed by composing infinitely many parallelepipeds

denoted as elementary bricks face to face without cleavage.

In a first step, we concentrate on the external geometry of the elementary bricks and ignore

the motif. We examine restrictions on the shape so that a brick is infinitely repeatable,

thus forming a space lattice. We end up with 14 possible bricks, all having different

geometry and therefore representing 14 different lattices denoted as Bravais lattices. Each

of these 14 space grids is completely determined by specifying a so-called unit-cell of the

Bravais lattice. This could be the elementary brick itself, but for some of the grids, its

structure becomes clearer choosing not the brick itself as a construction unit but a larger

part of the grid.

According to the inherent symmetry elements of the unit-cells, the Bravais lattices are classified into seven crystal systems, denoted as triclinic, monoclinic, orthorhombic, tetragonal, cubic, trigonal and hexagonal. Taking into account the motif, a further classification

of the seven crystal systems into 32 crystal classes is possible.

The layout of the bricks building up a crystal follows the principles of a three-dimensional

mathematical point grid. The construction of such a grid is done in three steps.

(i) Grid line. Starting from an arbitrary point P0 located at x0 in space, we obtain new

points Pi by translating P0 by a so-called grid vector a

Pi : xi = x0 + ia ,

iZ.

(3.1)

The distance between two consecutive points is the grid constant a = kak.

(ii) Grid plane. Taking a second grid vector b not co-linear to a and translating the whole

grid line from (i), we obtain the points

Pij : xij = x0 + ia + jb ,

i, j Z

(3.2)

24

building a grid plane. The parallelogram spanned from a and b is called unit-mesh. The

knowledge of the shape and dimensions of the unit-mesh allow the construction of the

whole grid plane.

(iii) The space lattice is obtained by translating the grid plane in a direction outside the

plane, described by a grid vector c. So we have

Pijk : xijk = x0 + ia + jb + kc ,

i, j, k Z .

(3.3)

Grids for the two and three dimensional case are depicted in figure 10. One obvious choice

PSfrag replacements

Sfrag replacements

b

a

Figure 10: Construction of a mathematical 2d and 3d grid. The grids are spanned by the

grid vectors a, b and c. For an existing grid the choice of the unit-cell is not unique. In the

2d grid several possible unit meshes are highlighted. Three primitive cells containing one

grid point and at the bottom right a centered cell containing two grid points. For the space

grid only one primitive unit-cell is signified.

for a unit-cell is the parallelepiped spanned by a, b and c. The whole grid is uniquely

determined by the unit-cell, which is described either by the grid vectors a, b and c or

the three grid constants a, b, c and their corresponding angles = 6 (bc), = 6 (ac) and

= 6 (ab). Angles and lengths of the unit-cell are the metric of the grid.

Attached to each grid point of a 3d lattice reside eight unit-cells. The unit-cell indicated in

figure 10 contains one (eight times an eighth) grid point and is therefore called primitive.

Non-primitive unit-cells are characterized by having more than one grid point inside. As

depicted in the 2d grid, an infinite number of primitive and non-primitive unit-cells can

be chosen, all defining the same grid.

Though it is always possible to describe a grid with primitive unit-cells, the symmetry

of some grids become clearer when one chooses non-primitive cells. All in all, there exist

only 14 different 3d space lattices. They are named after the physicist Bravais.

A symmetry transformation of a space lattice is an operation which maps the lattice onto

itself. We only consider such symmetry transformations where at least one point remains

fixed. One can derive the 14 possible space grids either by introducing mirror planes as

done in Cowin & Mehrabadi [33] or by introducing rotation axes and rotation-inversion

axes as done in the following. The differences are only formal, because rotation-inversions

and mirror planes cause each other.

3.2.1. Rotations

A symmetry operation, consisting in a rotation around an axis with angle = 2/n, n N

is called a rotational symmetry and the corresponding n-fold rotation axis is denoted by

25

A(n) or simply n. Due to the postulated periodicity for the lattice, 5-fold and n-fold axis

with n 7 are not possible, see figure 11 for a 5-fold symmetry. In figure 12 the five

possible rotations are illustrated by stereographic projections.

a1

PSfrag replacements

a2

Figure 11: Parallel grid vectors have different lengths ka1 k 6= ka2 k which contradicts the

translation periodicity (3.3). Consequently 5-fold axes are not possible for a space lattice.

PSfrag replacements

A(1)

A(2)

A(3)

A(4)

A(6)

Figure 12: Stereographic projections of points on a sphere visualizing 1-, 2-, 3-, 4- and

6-fold symmetry. The outlined symbols at the centers denote the different rotation axis.

3.2.2. Rotation-Inversions

Let M A(n) denote a point which is left unchanged when applying a symmetry operation.

A rotation-inversion or rotoinversion is obtained by the composition of a rotation and a

central inversion on M . Corresponding to the five possible rotation axes there are five

rotation-inversion axes which are denoted by J (n) or n

for short. They are visualized in

figure 13. Observe that 2 is equivalent to a plane of mirror symmetry perpendicular to

the two-fold inversion axis J (2) and containing M . That plane is denoted by m .

PSfrag replacements

J (1)

J (2)

J (3)

J (4)

J (6)

Figure 13: Stereographic projections of points on a sphere visualizing 1-, 2-, 3-, 4- and 6fold rotoinversions. The filled symbols at the centers denote the different inversion-rotation

axes. Points on the lower half of the sphere are marked by crosses and points on the upper

half of the sphere by shaded circles. The center of inversion M is located at the centers of

the spheres

Rotations and rotoinversions can be described with orthogonal tensors. An arbitrary

rotation with angle around an axis a with kak = 1 is performed by the rotation tensor

Qa := cos 1 + (1 cos ) a a + sin a .

(3.4)

26

described by the composition of the central inversion with a rotation tensor which is

abbreviated by Qa := (1)Qa .

3.2.4. Symmetry Groups

The set of all symmetry transformations of a certain lattice has group structure and is

therefore denoted as symmetry group G. It is a subgroup of the orthogonal group O(3)

with the following properties

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

multiplication is associative (Q1 Q2 )Q3 = Q1 (Q2 Q3 )

the group G contains identity 1 defined for Q G by 1Q = Q

each element Q G has an inverse Q1 G defined by QQ1 = 1 .

(3.5)

The number of elements in G is termed order of the group. Thereupon one speaks of

a finite group, if its order is finite, otherwise of an infinite group. Both types play an

important role in continuum mechanics.

Different lattices can be distinguished due to their inherent symmetry. We will see that

there exist seven different crystal systems, each having its own symmetry group. Within

these systems, several grid metrics are possible. We differentiate 14 Bravais lattices belonging to the seven crystal systems according to the shape of their unit-cells.

Starting with the full anisotropic case where all grid constants and all angles are different,

we claim symmetry operations transforming the grid onto itself. This yields restrictions

on the metric of the grid.

3.3.1. Triclinic Symmetry

The most general form of a unit-cell is that of triclinic symmetry. It is depicted in figure

14. As it is a parallelepiped, the only possible symmetry operations are identity and

PSfrag replacements

Figure 14: Primitive triclinic unit-cell. The grid metric is not restricted. Identity and

inversion are the only symmetry operations transforming the unit-cell onto itself.

inversion. The cell is spanned by the three grid vectors a, b and c, satisfying

6= 6=

and a 6= b 6= c .

(3.6)

27

A monoclinic system is characterized by one inherent two-fold axis A(2) which induces a

plane of mirror symmetry denoted by m, see Section 3.2.2. There are two possibilities for

the location of that axis or mirror plane, respectively. In figure 15a the axis is introduced

parallel to a. The restrictions arising constitute the standard monoclinic shape

= = 90 6=

and a 6= b 6= c .

(3.7)

The name monoclinic indicates that only one angle is inclined. If A(2) is introduced

parallel to b a as depicted in figure 15b, the metric of the primitive unit-cell is restricted

to = 6= 90 , a = b 6= c. The symmetries of the space grid become much clearer when

choosing the non-primitive C-centered unit-cell shown in figure 15c instead, which again

has the standard monoclinic shape (3.7). Because the choice of the unit-cell is not unique,

PSfrag replacements

PSfrag replacements

c

b PSfrag replacements

a

a

b0

PSfrag

replacements

b

c

a0

b0

a0

a.

b.

c.

d.

Figure 15: Bravais unit-cells for monoclinic symmetry. Main characteristic is inherent twofold axis, yielding two different primitive unit-cells (a) and (b). Instead of (b) the C-centered

cell (c) is used because of its standard monoclinic metric. I-centered cell (d) is alternative

to C-centered Bravais cell (c).

3.3.3. Orthorhombic Symmetry

An orthorhombic system is characterized by three perpendicular two-fold axes which

come ahead with three mutually perpendicular planes of mirror symmetry. Introducing

the additional two-fold axes into figure 15a, we obtain the primitive orthorhombic cell of

figure 16a. Its metric constitutes standard orthotropic shape

= = = 90

and a 6= b 6= c .

(3.8)

From the monoclinic unit-cell 15b we get the unit-cell depicted in figure 16b by introducing

the axes parallel to the bisecting of a and b and parallel to c. Its metric is a = b 6= c,

= = 90 6= . Instead of this unit-cell one uses its corresponding C-centered Bravais

cell of orthotropic shape (3.8) as depicted in figure 16c. Another way is to put the one

axis along the body diagonal and one parallel to c as visualized in figure 16d. Here the

cell itself with metric a = b, c = 2a cos , = 6= 90 6= is not symmetric any more,

but the lattice is. Instead of the primitive unit-cell 16d one chooses the I-centered Bravais

cell having orthotropic shape (3.8), see figure 16e. The third possibility is to introduce

the axis into the primitive monoclinic cell 15b as proposed in figure 16f. This again yields

symmetry in the lattice but not the cell itself as shown in 16g. It has the metric a = b,

c = 2a cos , = 6= 90 6= . Again there exists a non-primitive Bravais cell of shape

(3.8). The grid points are located in the corners and in the midpoints of the faces. The

cell is therefore called face-centered or for short F-centered. It contains four grid points.

28

PSfrag replacements

c

PSfrag replacements

PSfrag replacements

a.

b.

PSfrag replacements

a

b

c

c.

PSfrag replacements

PSfrag replacements

a

b

c

a

b

c

d.

PSfrag replacements

a

b

c

e.

f.

a

b

g.c

Figure 16: Bravais cells for orthotropic symmetry. (a) Primitive unit-cell with standard

orthotropic metric. Unit-cells (b), (d) and (f) are not used to describe the structure of space

grids. The non-primitive (c) C-, (e) I- and (g) F-centered cells are used instead.

Up to this point, the introduced symmetry operations only affected the angles of the

unit-cells, not the ratio of the edges. This changes, when converting one two-fold axis of

an orthorhombic cell into a four-fold one which is the main characteristic of a tetragonal

system. We obtain a primitive tetragonal unit-cell having two edges of equal lengths, see

figure 17a, with restrictions

= = = 90

and a = b 6= c

(3.9)

for its shape. The cell thus obtained is also symmetric with respect to reflections on

the two diagonal planes containing the four-fold axis. Furthermore it has two diagonal

two-fold rotation axes as depicted in figure 17a. Converting the two-fold axis of an I-

a.

b.

Figure 17: Bravais cells for tetragonal symmetry. In addition to the primitive unit-cell

(a) an I-centered Bravais cell (b) exists. The restrictions for the corresponding unit-cell not

shown here are given in table 1.

centered orthorhombic cell into a four-fold one, the tetragonal I-centered cell of figure 17b

is obtained. Doing the same thing with a C-centered orthorhombic cell, the resulting Ccentered lattice can be described by means of a smaller primitive cell of tetragonal shape

and therefore yields no new space lattice.

29

To derive the Bravais cells for cubic symmetry, we introduce four three-fold axes along

the body diagonals into an orthorhombic system. As a consequence, all edges have the

same length

= = = 90

and a = b = c

(3.10)

and the faces are squares. Accompanying, all two-fold axes of the orthorhombic system

convert to four-fold ones, we have six additional diagonal mirror planes and six twofold-diagonal-rotation axes in the system. The primitive unit-cell together with these

symmetries is shown in figure 18. In the same way, the I- and F-centered Bravais cells

PSfrag replacements

a

b

c

Figure 18: The unit-cell for cubic symmetry is obtained by introducing a threefold diagonal

axis to the primitive orthorhombic unit cell. In the same way the I- and F-centered Bravais

lattices are obtained by their orthotropic counterparts.

follow from their orthotropic counterparts by adding a threefold axis along the diagonal.

As all the faces have to be equal, a C-centered cell does not exist in cubic systems.

It is impossible to find unit-cells having higher symmetry than that of a cubic system.

3.3.6. Trigonal and Hexagonal Symmetry

Starting again with a triclinic system, we introduce one three-fold axis along one body

diagonal. This leads to the following restrictions

= = 6= 90

and a = b = c

(3.11)

for the primitive unit-cell as depicted in figure 19a. Automatically we obtain three two

PSfrag replacements

a.

PSfrag replacements

a

b.

Figure 19: Unit-cells for trigonal (a) and hexagonal (b) symmetry. The trigonal symmetry

can be seen in the unit-cell itself where as the hexagonal symmetry can only be found in

stacks of unit-cells as depicted in (b).

fold axes and three mirror planes as indicated. The shape is denoted as rhombohedral.

30

Six-fold symmetry cannot be inserted into a parallelepiped, but the lattice itself can have

that symmetry. In figure 19b a unit-cell for hexagonal symmetry is visualized. The

unit-cell is obtained through figure 15b, setting = = 90 and = 120 .

3.3.7. Summary

The results obtained in this section are summarized in the tables 1 and 2. Lattices can

be distinguished due to their inherent symmetry properties. This yields 14 different grids

having 14 different primitive unit-cells. Conventionally, the lattices are represented by

the 14 Bravais cells. Seven of them are primitive, the remaining seven are larger parts

of the grid containing more than one grid point and are denoted as centered cells. Each

shape of these centered cells is identical to one of the seven primitive cells. So we can

describe all grids with seven crystallographic coordinate systems {a, b, c}, referred to as

crystal systems. In table 1 the metric of the 14 primitive unit-cells are listed together

with the crystal system and the Bravais cell to which they belong. Table 2 shows the 14

Bravais cells and their affiliation to the seven crystal systems. Besides the metrics of the

crystal systems are given.

Table 1: Unit-Cells for the 14 Bravais Lattices.

Crystal System

triclinic

monoclinic

orthorhombic

tetragonal

cubic

trigonal

hexagonal

Restriction on

Lattice Vectors

6= 6=

a 6= b 6= c

= = 90 6=

a 6= b 6= c

= 6= 90 6=

a = b 6= c

= = = 90

a 6= b 6= c

= = 90 6=

a = b 6= c

= 6= 90 6=

a = b, c = 2a cos

= 6= 90 6=

cos2 /2

a = b, c = a cos

= = = 90

a = b 6= c

a = b, c = 2a cos

= = = 90

a=b=c

= = cos1

(1/ 3)

= 2 sin1 (1/ 3)

a = b, c = 2a/ 3

= = 120 , = 90

a=b=c

= = 6= 90

a=b=c

= = 90 , = 120

a = b 6= c

Symmetry of

Bravais cell

Symmetry of

crystal system

Centering

identity

2

m

one 2axis

2

m

one 2axis

2 2 2

mmm

three 2axes

2 2 2

mmm

three 2axes

2 2 2

mmm

three 2axes

2 2 2

mmm

three 2axes

4 2 2

mmm

one 4axis

4 2 2

mmm

one 4axis

42

m3m

four 3axes

42

m3m

four 3axes

42

m3m

four 3axes

3 2

m

one 3axis

6 2 2

mmm

one 6axis

31

Primitive

C-centered

I-centered

Symmetry

F-centered

a

triclinic:

PSfrag replacements

a, b, c arbitrary,

c

, , arbitrary

b

a

a

monoclinic:

replacements

PSfrag replacements

a, b,PSfrag

c arbitrary,

c

c

= = 2 6=

b

orthorhombic:

a

a

a

a

a, b, c arbitrary,

c

c replacements

c replacementsc

replacements

PSfrag

replacements

PSfrag

PSfrag

=PSfrag

==

2

b

tetragonal:

a

a = b 6= c,

c

=PSfrag

==

replacements

2

PSfrag replacementsc

a

trigonal:

a

a = b = c,

a

=PSfrag

= 6=

2

replacements

hexagonal:

a =PSfrag

b 6= c, replacementsc

a

= = 2 , = 3

2

cubic:

a = b = c,

===

PSfrag replacements

a

a

PSfrag replacements

PSfrag replacements

a

32

3.4.1. The Motif Inner Symmetries

So far, the restrictions on the unit-cell to describe a space lattice were discussed. To

describe ideal crystals, it remains to specify the motif which is located at the grid points,

inside the cells. Obviously, the motif can reduce the so called outer symmetry of the grid

but not extend it, see Figure 20 for a two-dimensional visualization. The combination

PSfrag replacements

a.

b.

c.

Figure 20: The symmetry of the motif located at the grid points may reduce the overall

symmetry. Two-dimensional quadratic unit-cell with (a) quadratic motif has 4 mirror planes

and one four-fold axis. (b) Rectangular motif reduces symmetries to two mirror planes and

one two-fold axis. (c) Triangle motif allows only one mirror symmetry operation.

of the so called inner symmetry of the motif with the symmetry of the 14 Bravais cells

leads to 32 possible combinations, referred to as crystal classes. They are summarized in

table 3. Introducing a motif is equivalent to a subdivision of the symmetry groups of the

crystal system into proper subgroups yielding the 32 crystal classes. The generators of

the symmetry groups of the crystal classes are given in table 3.

3.4.2. Notation of Symmetry

3.4.2.1. Herrmann-Mauguin Symbols. According to Hermann-Mauguin n = 1, 2, 3,

4, 6 denote n-fold rotations and n

= 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 n-fold inversion-rotations. The transformation 1 is equivalent to the inversion itself and is also denoted as i. The transformation

2 is equivalent to a reflection with respect to a plane perpendicular to J (2) including the

symmetry center M and denoted by m.

Each crystal class has a symbol indicating the present symmetries. Symbols related to

the same axis are separated with a slash and symbols related to different axes are listed

one after another. A two-fold axis with a perpendicular mirror plane is indicated by 2/m

or m2 . For a compact notation, the symmetries are coupled with the directions as specified

in table 5.

3.4.2.2. Schoenflies Symbols. Another notation for the crystals and quasi-crystal

classes goes back to Schoenflies. This notion is commonly used in chemistry. A summary

is given in table 6.

If we consider quasi crystals or engineering materials like composites or biological materials

like soft tissues, further symmetry operations than those so far considered will have to be

taken into account. Here discrete rotations around an axis A(n) with = 2/n, n N are

possible as well as their corresponding rotoinversions. For example quasi crystals with a

33

Crystal Classes

Symmetry

triclinic

monoclinic

orthorhombic

tetragonal

trigonal

hexagonal

cubic

1)

No.

Aniso.

Notation

Order

Generators

Type

Hermann-Mauguin

Schoenflies

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

1

1

2

2

2

3

3

3

1

2

m

2/m

222

mm2

mmm

C1

Ci

C2

C1h

C2h

D2

C2v

D2h

1

2

2

2

4

4

4

8

1

1

Qc

Qc

Qc , 1

Qc , Qa

Qc , Qa

Qc , Qa , 1

Qc2

C4

10

2)

11

4/m

S4

12

422

C4h

Qc2

Qc2 , Qa

13

5

5

C4v

14

4mm

42m

D4

15

4/mmm1)

D2d

Qc2 , Qa

D4h

16

16

6

6

C3

17

18

32

19

20

3m

1)

3m

21

22

6

61)

23

6/m

24

622

25

26

6mm

62m1)

27

28

10

29

10

30

11

31

11

432

432

32

11

m

3m1)

Qc2 , 1

Qc2 , Qa

Qc2 , Qa , 1

2

Qc3

2

S6

2)

D3

Qc3 , Qa

C3v

D3d

12

Qc3 , Qa

Qc3 , Qa , 1

C6

Qc3

C6h

12

Qc3

C3h

Qc3 , 1

2

Qc3 , 1

D6

12

Qc3 , Qa

C6v

12

12

6/mmm

D3h

Qc3 , Qa

D6h

24

23

m31)

12

Qk3 , Qa , Qb

Th

24

Qk3 , Qa , Qb , 1

24

Qk3 , Qa2 , Qb

24

Oh

48

Qk3 , Qa2 , Qb

4 2 2

3m = 3 2

4/mmm = m

mm

m

2

6 2 2

m3 = m

3

6/mmm = m

mm

3

3

6

62m

= m

2m

= m

42

m3m

= m

3m

Td

Qc3 , Qa

Qc3 , Qa , 1

2

S4 = C2i

S6 = C3i

Qk3 , Qa2 , Qb , 1

34

Non-Crystal Classes

Symmetry

cylindrical

spherical

icosahedral

1)

alternative

/m

=

/mm =

2

=

m

=

m35

=

No.

Aniso.

Notation

Order

Generators

Type

Hermann-Mauguin

Schoenflies

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

/m1)

2

m

/mm1)

21)

m

1)

C

2),3)

Ch

3)

D

3)

Cv

3)

Dh

K

3)

Kh

Qc

Qc , 1

Qc , Qa

Qc , Qa

Qc , Qa , 1

Qc , Qa

Qc , Qa , 1

40

Qc5 , Qa3 , Qb

60

41

235

m3

51)

120

Qc5 , Qa3 , Qb , 1

Hermann-Mauguin symbols:

2

2

m

=

m

m m =

2

3

m 5

2)

3)

Ih

Ch = S = Ci

3)

alternative symbols:

C

= T1

Cv

=

Ch = T3

Dh =

D = T 5

K

= SO(3)

Kh

=

T2

T4

O(3)

Crystal System

Orientation

triclinic:

no convention needed

monoclinic:

A(2) -axis parallel to [010]

orthorhombic:

twofold axis and / or mirror planes are denoted

in the order of [100], [010], [001]

tetragonal:

(i) A4 -axis parallel to [001], (ii) direction [100] and

(iii) direction [110]

cubic:

(i) direction [100], (ii) [111] direction and (iii) the direction [110]

tri- and hexagonal: (i) A(6) -axis parallel to [001], (ii) direction [100],

(iii) only in hexagonal systems direction [120]

Schoenflies

Cn

Cni

Cs

Sn

Cnh

Cnv

Dn

Dnd

Dnh

Table

H.-M.

n

n

m

n

= 4, 6

n/m

nm

n2

n

m

n/mm

Symmetry Element

n-fold rotation axis,

odd order rotation axis and inversion center

mirror plane

n-fold rotation-reflection axis (only S4 and S6 are used)

n-fold axis normal to mirror plane

n-fold axis parallel to n mirror planes

n-fold axis normal to n 2-fold axis

like Dn plus mirror planes bisecting the 2-fold axis,

like Dn plus mirror plane normal to the n-fold axis

35

5-fold axis belong to the icosahedral classes with the Hermann-Mauguin symbols 235 and

m35. The five-fold symmetry operation maps an icosahedron and a dodecahedron onto

itself.

The five cylindrical and two spherical symmetry groups are infinite point groups. They

are characterized by one or two rotation axes A() with rotation angles , [0, 2].

In the case of one rotation axis we speak of transversal isotropy. Combination with a

two-fold axis perpendicular to the infinite rotation axis and with the central inversion

yields the five cylindrical symmetry groups visualized in figures 21a-e. A material with

one family of aligned fibers is a typical example for this type of symmetry.

Two perpendicular infinite rotation axes constitute spherical symmetry. In combination

with the central inversion one distinguishes between hemitropic and isotropic symmetry.

The discussed symmetry groups are summarized in table 4.

A()

A()

A()

A()

A()

PSfrag replacements

a.

b.

c.

d.

A()

A()

f.

e.

J ()

J ()

g.

Figure 21: Visualization of the infinite point-groups. Cyclic groups: (a) C , (b) Ch , (c)

D , (d) Cv , (e) Dh . Spherical groups: (f) K and (g) Kh .

An often used classification of solid materials bases on the structure of the generators

of their symmetry groups. The symmetry of a grid lattice is described by one of the

eleven symmetry groups of the crystal classes 2, 5, 8, 11, 15, 17, 20, 23, 27, 29 and 32.

All these classes have in common that they contain the central inversion explicitly. For

all these classes the motif does not reduce the symmetry of the lattice. In other words

the motif features at least the symmetries of the lattice. Considering also the cylindrical

and spherical systems, the inversion is contained in the classes 34, 37 and 39. These 14

symmetry groups are referred to as the mechanics symmetry groups or anisotropy types.

They are of special importance when considering quadratic tensor functions as for instance

for the free energy density or a plastic potential.

Anticipating the results of section 4.6, the classes 23, 27, 34 and 37 as well as the classes 29

and 32 yield quadratic tensor functions with identical symmetries so that the 14 mechanics

symmetry classes mentioned above reduce to ten.

37

Constitutive behaviour of materials can be described mathematically with tensor functions. When setting up these functions, several restrictions have to be considered, cf. section 2.4. Especially, the constitutive functions have to account for the inherent material

symmetries. The main goal of this section is to discuss how to construct tensor functions

that obey symmetry properties with respect to a given material symmetry group.

Consider a map f of elements from a domain D into the domain W as a general representative of a constitutive function

f :DW,

x 7 f (x) .

(4.1)

The domain D is assumed to consist of a set of vectors {v i }i=1...a and symmetric and

skew-symmetric second-order tensors {Ai }i=1...b , {W i }i=1...c

D := Va Ab Wc

(4.2)

where V denotes the Euclidean vector space, A the symmetric tensor space and W the

skew-symmetric one. The range W of f can be either R, V, A or W. For the sake of

brevity, we denote an element of the domain D with

x := {v 1 , . . . , v a , A1 , . . . , Ab , W 1 , . . . , W c } D .

(4.3)

In order to keep the notation short, we define the action of the orthogonal group O(3) on

the r-th order tensor space Tr by the Rayleigh products

r=0

(Q, c) 7 Q ? c := c

(Q, v) 7 Q ? v := vi Qei

r = 1 (4.4)

? : O(3) Tr Tr :

where Q O(3). This notation can be extended to the set of tensors (4.3) by

Q ? x := {Q ? v 1 , . . . , Q ? v a , Q ? A1 , . . . , Q ? Ab , Q ? W 1 , . . . , Q ? W c } .

(4.5)

The function f is classified according to its transformation properties under the action

of the orthogonal group O(3) or subgroups of the orthogonal group G O(3). A scalarvalued function f with the property

f (Q ? x) = Q ? f (x) Q G

(4.6)

otherwise as anisotropic invariant. For tensor-valued functions f the corresponding terms

are isotropic form-invariant, hemitropic form-invariant and anisotropic form-invariant.

The set of transformations G has the properties of a group and is denoted as symmetry

group of the function f . The function f in (4.6) is said to be G-invariant.

The main task of representation theory is to determine the general structure of f . Let

I := {I1 (x), I2 (x), . . . , In (x)}

(4.7)

38

be a set of n scalar-valued functions Ii=1...n that are all invariant with respect to a given

symmetry group G. The set I is denoted as functional basis if for any G-invariant function

(x) there exists a mapping f : Rn R so that

(x) = f (I1 (x)), I2 (x), . . . , In (x)) x D .

(4.8)

For tensor-valued functions f , tensor functions G1 (x), G2 (x), . . . , Gm (x) form a generating set if for all f satisfying (4.6) there exist invariants 1...m such that

f (x) = 1 (x)G1 (x) + + m (x)Gm (x) .

(4.9)

A functional basis or a generating set are termed complete representations. They are

called irreducible, if no proper subset is again a complete representation. It is important

to note that for a given function f the choice of a complete and irreducible basis is not

unique. Even the number of elements in two different complete and irreducible bases may

differ. This fact leads to the notion of a minimal integrity basis.

A substantial task in material modeling is the construction of tensor functions which are

invariant with respect to a given material symmetry group G. Results frequently used for

representations of anisotropic functions go back to the publications of Lokhin & Sedov

[67], Boehler [21] and Liu [66]. The key idea of these works is to reduce the problem

of constructing an anisotropic function of a set of tensors to the problem of constructing

an isotropic function. This is possible when extending the set of argument tensors by socalled constant first- and second-order structural tensors that are G-invariant. Based on

results of the representation theory for isotropic functions, this approach leads to complete

representations for some of the crystal classes, namely functions with triclinic, monoclinic

and orthorhombic symmetry as well as for transversal isotropic functions.

Recently, Xiao [156, 157] extended this approach to obtain complete representations for

all 32 crystal classes and all non-crystal classes by introducing vector-valued and secondorder tensor-valued G-invariant tensor functions denoted as structural functions or

isotropic extension functions instead of constant structural tensors, v ei : D V, Aei :

D A, W ei : D W. These functions are combined in an ordered set

(x) := {v e1 (x), . . . , v er (x), Ae1 (x), . . . , Aes (x), W e1 (x), . . . , W et (x)} .

(4.10)

Assume that these structural functions are invariant with respect to symmetry transformations of a given symmetry group G, i.e.

(Q ? x) = Q ? ((x)) Q G .

(4.11)

The key observation is as follows. Any G-invariant tensor function of an argument x can

be represented in terms of an isotropic tensor function with an extended set of arguments.

For isotropy, the invariance condition (4.6) poses the following restriction on the function

f (x, (x)) = f (Q ? x, Q ? ((x)) Q O(3) .

(4.12)

Inserting (4.11), one observes the desired anisotropic behaviour at frozen structural functions, i.e.

f (x, (x)) = f (Q ? x, (Q ? x)) Q G .

(4.13)

39

Using this isotropic extension method, the problem of finding representations for anisotropic functions is shifted to the problem of finding representations for isotropic functions.

The latter is well known for functions of a set of first- and second-order tensors and discussed in section 4.3. Note that the type of anisotropy is solely determined by the material

symmetry group G of the structural functions (4.10).

Remark 4.1: In literature this extension method with constant structural tensors is

referred to as the isotropicization theorem. It can easily be extended to higher-order

structural tensors. Zheng [162] specifies a single structural tensor characterizing the

symmetry group G for each crystal class. But the essential drawback of constant structural

tensors is that only some symmetry groups, namely those of transverse isotropy, triclinic,

monoclinic and rhombic anisotropy can be characterized by sets of constant first- and

second-order structural tensors. For the remaining symmetry groups, the structural tensors are of higher order than two. Unfortunately, representations of tensor functions with

higher-order tensor arguments are only known in some particular cases, see for example

Zheng & Betten [160] and Betten & Helisch [14, 15].

4.3.1. Wangs Approach

A tool for finding representations of scalar- and tensor-valued functions is the framework

of group theory. In Wang [143] a general representation theorem is presented which is

applied in [144, 145] to scalar-, first- and second-order tensor-valued functions of first- and

second-order tensors. As an answer to the criticism of Smith [129], Wang republished a

revised extensive version [146, 147] with corrigendum [148].

4.3.1.1. Underlying Idea. The group theoretical approach used by Wang [143] to

obtain a general representation theorem can be divided into two parts. The first part is

associated with restrictions on functions resulting from the requirements of objectivity

and material symmetry separately. In a second step the restrictions resulting from a simultaneous fulfillment of both, objectivity and material symmetry, lead to the formulation

of the general representation theorem.

From the discussion of restrictions on constitutive equations in section 2.4 we saw that

functions with Lagrangian agencies as for instance the right Cauchy-Green tensor C are

a priori objective. For such functions it is sufficient to consider restrictions resulting from

symmetry requirements. Having in mind that anisotropic tensor functions can be extended

to isotropic functions by adding structural functions, the restrictions due to isotropy have

to be investigated. In the following, the ideas underlying [143] and [144, 145] are discussed.

Wang considers a scalar- or tensor-valued function as defined in (4.1), i.e.

f : D W, x 7 f (x)

which is invariant with respect to orthogonal transformations. Such a function is denoted

as isotropic invariant for W = R or isotropic form-invariant in all other cases. The

generalized isotropy condition according to (4.6) has the form

f (Q ? x) = Q ? f (x) Q O(3) .

(4.14)

Restriction (4.14) can be split up into two separate equations. This is done in the following.

40

Two points x and y of the domain D are said to be equivalent, if they are related via

an orthogonal transformation y = Q ? x with Q O(3). The coset associated with a

given point x consists of all the points conjugate to x, i.e.

:= {y D | y = Q ? x Q O(3)} .

(4.15)

An important fact is that the orbits of two points x1 and x2 either coincide or have no

points in common, see Wineman & Pipkin [154]. As a consequence, the symmetry

condition (4.14) for an arbitrary point x of coset takes the form

Q ? f (x ) = f (x) where x = Q ? x .

(4.16)

Q ? x } denote the set of transformations which leave x unchanged. If, additionally to

(4.16), for all cosets the function is invariant with respect to transformations of O x ,

f (x ) = Q ? f (x ) Q Ox ,

(4.17)

Equation (4.16) states that in each fixed orbit where a point x is equivalent to a reference

point x , the value of f follows from the value at the reference point applying the same

equivalence relation. (4.17) requires invariance of the value at the reference point for all

transformations leaving the reference point invariant.

The procedure of determining representations for f consists of two steps. (i) The cosets

in D have to be characterized, and (ii) the function f has to be constructed in such a way,

that the isotropy condition is satisfied on each fixed coset. For a scalar-valued function

(x) equation (4.16) states, that (x) = (x ) = constant on each coset. In this case,

(4.17) is trivially fulfilled.

Characterization of Cosets. Any coset can be characterized by invariants. Consider

two sets of tensors belonging to the same domain D

i=1...b , W

i=1...c }

= {

x = {v i=1...a , Ai=1...b , W i=1...c } and x

v i=1...a , A

(4.18)

and

and assume that they belong to the same coset. Then they are related by x = Q ? x

denoted as equivalent.

The problem of finding a set of invariants that characterize the orbit can be treated

geometrically. The characteristic space of a nonzero vector v is spanned by the unitvector v/kvk and is denoted as oriented line.

The characterization of a symmetric second-order tensor A depends on the number of

different eigen-values. For three different eigen-values, the eigen-directions are well defined

from the corresponding eigen-value-problem and each eigen-vector spans a characteristic

line. In the case of two equal eigen-values, two eigen-vectors lie in the plane perpendicular

to the third one but the orientation inside that plane is arbitrary. Here the orientation of

the unique eigen-vector and the plane are characterized by one line.

A skew-symmetric second-order tensor is characterized by its axial vector spanning its

characteristic line, the so-called axial line.

41

On the basis of these geometric definitions of oriented lines, lines and axial lines the

can be measured. Two sets x

relative orientation between elements of the sets x or x

are equivalent, if and only if their sets of characteristic spaces are congruent and

and x

the characteristic values of corresponding characteristic spaces are the same. Thereby the

characteristic values are determined by the fundamental invariants

vi vi

tr[W 2i ]

(4.19)

of each of the elements of x or x

measured by relative or simultaneous invariants taking into account at least two different

elements.

An important result of Wang [146] is the Equivalence Theorem. It states that two lists

are equivalent if and only if all their corresponding subsets up to order four are

x and x

equivalent.

Construction of the Function. As already mentioned, isotropic tensor-valued functions are restricted besides (4.16) also by (4.17). The admissible tensor space containing

the function values f satisfying (4.17) is spanned by a set of so-called tensor generators

{f i }i=1,...,g which are elements of V, A or W, depending on the range W. An isotropic tensor-valued function then is a linear combination of these tensor generators with

coefficients fi which are scalar-valued isotropic tensor-functions, i.e.

f (x) =

g

X

fi (x)f i (x) .

(4.20)

i=1

Of course, the set of tensor generators depends on the set x of tensor arguments of the

function under consideration. For details on the derivation of the generating sets we refer

to Wang [147].

4.3.1.2. Example. We illustrate the characterization of cosets with invariants with an

example. Consider two equivalent sets, each consisting of a vector and a symmetric

respectively. Firstly, each set

= Q ? x = {

second-order tensor, x = {v, A} and x

v , A},

is partially characterized by its fundamental invariants

v

vv =v

tr[A

2 ], tr[A

3 ]} .

and {tr[A], tr[A2 ], tr[A3 ]} {tr[A],

(4.21)

and A

Furthermore, all possible relative orientations of v

set {v, A} by the transformation Q O(3) have to be characterized. Therefore it is

sufficient to consider only those transformations that leave A unchanged and investigate

the transformation of v.

i }i=1,2,3 denote the eigen-vectors of A and

Let i denote the eigen-values, {ni }i=1,2,3 and {n

A, respectively, and assume that they are connected by eight orthogonal transformations

i so that

ni = Q n

1 ,

n1 = n

2

n2 = n

3

and n3 = n

(4.22)

where Q O(3). The eight transformations defined in this way leave A invariant, i.e.

A=

3

X

i=1

i n i n i =

3

X

i=1

.

i n

i = A

i n

(4.23)

42

i transforms according to

The vector v = vi ni = vi n

i .

Qv = vi ni =

vi n

(4.24)

In contrast to the transformation of the second-order tensor, here, any of the eight transformations (4.22) results in a different coordinate representation. As a measure of the

possible eight orientations between the tensors v and A, two additional relative invariants are introduced

v

A

v Av = v

2v

.

A

and v A2 v = v

(4.25)

the vector and m = v/kvk its direction. The orientation of the vector v relative to the

characteristic space of A, represented by three non-oriented lines along ni , is characterized

by two of the three angles

cos i := m ni

i = 1, 2, 3

(4.26)

due to the linear dependence cos2 1 + cos2 2 + cos2 3 = 1. With these definitions at

hand, the invariants on the left hand side in (4.25) appear in the form

v Av = v 2 (1 3 ) cos2 1 + v 2 (2 3 ) cos2 2

.

(4.27)

v A2 v = v 2 (21 23 ) cos2 1 + v 2 (22 23 ) cos2 2

is analogously. Insertion into

The representation for the corresponding invariants of x

(4.25) yields the result

cos2 1 = cos2 1

and

cos2 2 = cos2 2 .

(4.28)

This determines the possible orientations of the tensor v. Summarizing, the set consisting

of six fundamental and relative invariants

I := {v v, tr[A], tr[A2 ], tr[A3 ], v Av, v A2 v}

(4.29)

constitutes a functional basis for scalar-valued isotropic functions of a single vector and

an symmetric second-order tensor, because these invariants characterize the coset of x =

{v, A}.

Remark 4.2: The assumption of the existence of three distinct eigen-values of A also

covers the cases of two and three equal eigen-values. In the first case, the characteristic

space of A is a single line. The orientation of v with respect to this line is then covered by

one angle which is represented by (4.25)1 . The second invariant (4.25)2 is superfluous. In

the second case, the relative orientation of v and A is unspecified. Both invariants (4.25)

can be dropped and the coset is completely described by the fundamental invariants only.

4.3.2. Smiths Approach

A systematic treatment of deriving representations for isotropic scalar-, first-order and

second-order tensor-valued functions of first-order and symmetric and skew-symmetric

second-order tensors is presented in Smith [130]. The basic idea goes back to the work of

Rivlin & Ericksen [108] who derived a representation for two symmetric second-order

tensors.

43

of first-order, symmetric and skew-symmetric second-order tensors as defined in (4.3).

The isotropy condition states

(Q ? x) = (x) Q O(3) .

(4.30)

A function basis for isotropic invariants of the tensor arguments is a set of isotropic

invariants I := {I1 (x), I2 (x), . . . , In (x)} so that any scalar-valued function restricted by

(4.30) can be expressed as a scalar-valued function of the invariants I,

(x) = (I1 , I2 , . . . , In ) .

(4.31)

For a given coordinate representation of the argument tensors, the function basis determines the values of the invariants uniquely. Or the other way round, a set of invariants

governing the coordinates of the argument tensors uniquely in a given coordinate system

constitutes a function basis. The latter was done by Rivlin & Ericksen [108] for two

symmetric second-order tensors and extended by Smith [130] to sets of first-order and

symmetric as well as skew-symmetric second-order tensors. So the main task is to determine a set of isotropic invariants I := {I1 , I2 , . . . , In } so that the coordinates of the tensor

agencies are uniquely determined by the values of the invariants through the equations

[v s ]i

= f (I1 , I2 , . . . , In )

s = 1, . . . a

[As ]ij = f (I1 , I2 , . . . , In )

s = 1, . . . b

(4.32)

[W s ]ij = f (I1 , I2 , . . . , In )

s = 1, . . . c

within suitable coordinate systems. The choice of special coordinate systems means no

loss of generality because once the coordinates are known, they can be transformed into

any arbitrary coordinate system.

The choice of suitable coordinate systems depends on the structure of the set of argument tensors. According to Smith [130], the eight cases listed in table 7 have to be

distinguished. The invariants obtained from these eight cases are summarized in table 8.

Table 7: Classification of Argument Sets due to Smith

No. Argument Set to be Considered

1.

1i.

two linear independent vectors

2.

axial vectors

2i. no vectors, all axial vectors collinear

2ii. no vectors, no skew-symmetric tensors

3.

all

ial

3i. all

3ii. all

vectors collinear, all axial vectors collinear

vectors collinear, no skew-symmetric tensors

44

Arguments

Invariants

v

A

W

A1 , A2

A, W

A, v

W 1, W 2

W,v

v1, v2

A1 , A2 , A3 ,

A1 , A2 , W ,

A, W 1 , W 2

W 1, W 2, W 3

A1 , A2 , v

A, v 1 , v 2

W 1, W 2, v

W , v1, v2

A1 , A2 , v 1 , v 2

A, W , v 1 , v 2

W 1, W 2, v1, v2

vv

tr[A], tr[A2 ], tr[A3 ]

tr[W 2 ]

tr[A1 A2 ], tr[A21 A2 ], tr[A1 A22 ], tr[A21 A22 ]

tr[AW 2 ], tr[A2 W 2 ], tr[A2 W 2 AW ]

v Av, v A2 v

tr[W 1 W 2 ]

v W 2v

v1 v2

tr[A1 A2 A3 ]

tr[A1 A2 W ], tr[A21 A2 W ], tr[A1 A22 W ], tr[A1 W 2 A2 W ]

tr[AW 1 W 2 ], tr[AW 21 W 2 ], tr[AW 1 W 22 ]

tr[W 1 W 2 W 3 ]

v A 1 A2 v

v 1 Av 2 , v 1 A2 v 2

v W 1 W 2 v, v W 21 W 2 v, v W 1 W 22 v

v1 W v2, v1 W 2v2

v 1 A 1 A2 v 2 v 2 A 1 A2 v 1

v 1 AW v 2 v 2 AW v 1

v1 W 1W 2v2 v2 W 1W 2v1

4.3.2.2. Examples. We illustrate the afore discussed ideas by two short examples. Consider case one, where there are three linear independent vectors a, b, c x among the

elements of x. Choose an orthonormal coordinate system so that these vectors have the

following representation

a = a 1 e1 ,

b = b 1 e1 + b 2 e2 ,

c = c 1 e 1 + c 2 e 2 + c 3 e3

(4.33)

where all coordinates are positive. In this coordinate system, the coordinates of a, b and

c can be obtained from the following set of invariants

a a, a b, a c, b b, b c, c c .

(4.34)

Then the coordinates of any other vector v x can be obtained from the three invariants

a v, b v, c v .

(4.35)

following set of six invariants

a Aa, a Ab, a Ac, b Ab, b Ac, c Ac .

(4.36)

computed from the three invariants

a W b, a W c, b W c .

(4.37)

45

No.

1

2

3

4

Invariants

Coordinates

a a, a b, a c, b b, b c, c c

a v, b v, c v

a Aa, a Ab, a Ac, b Ab, b Ac, c Ac

a W b, a W c, b W c

a 1 , b1 , b2 , c 1 , c 2 , c 3

v 1 , v2 , v3

A11 , A22 , A33 , A12 , A23 , A13

W12 , W23 , W13

once the invariants up to line No. i are given, the coordinates of all of the tensors entering

these invariants can be computed. Thus, the invariants listed in table 9 constitute a

functional basis for the set x, supposed that there exist three linear independent vectors

among the v i in x.

In a second example, we discuss case 3ii for the case of one symmetric tensor A with three

different eigen-values and a vector v. Introducing an auxiliary tensor X = v v, this

case can be cast back to the situation of two symmetric second-order tensors. Therefore,

the relation between invariants and coordinates is given in table 10. It can be proved as

follows. In the orthonormal eigen-basis {ni }i=1,2,3 of A, the two tensors v and A have

Table 10: Second Example: Relations between Invariants and Coordinates

No.

1

2

Invariants

Coordinates

tr[X], tr[AX], tr[A2 X]

X11 , X22 , X33

the representations

v = v i ni

and A =

3

X

i=1

i n i n i

(4.38)

where we assume the order of the eigen-values so that 1 > 2 > 3 and vi=1,2,3 0. The

eigen-values follow from the characteristic equation

3i I1 2i + I2 i I3 = 0

(4.39)

3

tr[A2 ] tr[A] + 21 tr[A]3 }. The invariants of the second line of table 10 constitute the

2

system of equations

tr[X] = v v

= v12 + v22 + v32

tr[AX] = v Av = 1 v12 + 2 v22 + 3 v32

(4.40)

46

The invariants obtained by Wang and Smith that serve as a function basis differ slightly.

Boehler [20] compared the results obtained by the two approaches. The function bases

were corrected and modified and a unified representation is derived. The resulting function

basis is given in table 8. From that table the invariants that constitute a complete,

irreducible scalar-valued function basis for a function f (x) as specified in (4.1) and (4.3)

is obtained by taking all possible disordered combinations of one, two, three and four

tensors of the set x.

The irreducibility of the function basis was proven by Pennisi & Trovato [101]. For a

discussion of this topic see section 4.5. Note that although the basis specified in table 8 is

irreducible for arbitrary tensor arguments x, a specific choice of these tensors may result

in redundant invariants.

For irreducible functional bases in two-dimensions we refer to Korsgaard [63].

In this section, we discuss the construction of isotropic tensor polynomials. Depending

on the structure of the tensorial argument set x, the restriction from the before discussed

tensor functions to tensor polynomials may result in larger sets of invariants which serve

as a polynomial basis. In spite of this drawback, the representation theory for polynomials

is often applied in literature. In the context of continuum mechanics it is mostly used

for those symmetries and sets of argument tensors where the resulting basis is identical

to those obtained for tensor functions. In any case, a basis for tensor polynomials always

serves as a function basis but the converse is not true, see Pipkin & Wineman [103].

The theory of isotropic tensor polynomials is well known and often discussed in literature. We here refer to the classical textbooks of Schur [119], Weyl [151], Grace &

Young [42] and Gurewich [44] among others. Summaries of the theory in view to the

formulation of constitutive polynomials in continuum mechanics and applications can be

found in the publications by Boehler [22], Spencer [132, 133] and Betten [13].

4.4.1. Definitions

In contrast to the framework of isotropic tensor functions, we here consider tensor polynomials

p:DR,

x 7 p(x)

(4.41)

x := {v 1 , . . . , v a , A1 , . . . Ab } .

(4.42)

Here T2 denotes the space of second-order tensors. To determine the general structure of

p, consider a set on n scalar-valued polynomials Ii=1...n which are invariant with respect

to a given symmetry group G,

I := {I1 (x), I2 (x), . . . , In (x)} with Ii (Q ? x) = Ii (x) Q G .

(4.43)

The set I is denoted as integrity basis if any scalar-valued G-invariant tensor polynomial

(x) can be expressed in the form

(x) = p(I1 (x), I2 (x), . . . , In (x)) x D .

(4.44)

47

In the following, the forms of the polynomial invariants of I will be specified. This is

done in two steps, first for vectors only and then for first-order tensors and second-order

ones.

4.4.2. Integrity Basis for Sets of First-Order Tensors

In a first step, assume that the set of argument tensors consists solely of vectors,

x = {v 1 , v 2 , . . . , v a } .

(4.45)

specified set x, it states that with the possible exception of the determinant det[v i , v j , v k ],

i, j, k [1, a], every polynomial invariant of these vectors can be expressed as a polynomial

in the invariants of two of the vectors and invariants obtained from these two by the

polarization operator

Dij [] := v i vj [] .

(4.46)

Observe that the determinant is a hemitropic invariant due to its transformation property

det[Qv 1 , Qv 2 , Qv 3 ] = det[Q] det[v 1 , v 2 , v 3 ] and has not to be considered in the context

of isotropic polynomials.

Based on Peanos Theorem, an integrity basis for scalar-valued functions can be constructed as follows. First note that polarization of the scalar-product of two vectors

yields no new invariants, i.e.

Dab [v i v j ] = (v a v j )ib + (v a v i )jb .

(4.47)

orthonormal coordinate systems {ei }, {

ei } and {ei } with i = 1, 2, 3, so that v has the

following representations

1e

1 + v

2e

2 = v1e1

v = v 1 e1 + v 2 e2 + v 3 e3 = v

(4.48)

v ) .

v1 , v2 ) = I(

I = I(v1 , v2 , v3 ) = I(

1

(4.49)

yield the zero polynomial

v , 0, 0) = 0 .

v , 0, 0) = I(

I(

1

1

(4.50)

v

v

) we

) = Q ? I(

Thus I is an isotropic invariant. From the invariance property I(

Transformation into the unbarred coordinate system yields

v12 + v22 ) = I(v12 + v22 + v32 ) .

I = I(v12 ) = I(

(4.51)

Consequently the scalar product constitutes an integrity basis for isotropic functions of a

single vector argument.

48

Now extend the set x by a second vector w. The coordinate systems are chosen in such

3 is collinear with v w and the coordinate representations are given by

a way that e

1 + v2 e

2

v = v1 e

1 + w2 e

2 .

and w = w1 e

(4.52)

1 and e

2 on can conclude that any

From a reflection operation on the plane spanned by e

invariant of two vectors has to be isotropic. Any orthogonal transformation preserves the

area A of the parallelogram spanned by v and w, for which the relation

v12 + v22

+

v

1

1

2

2

2

2

A = (

v1 w2 v2 w1 ) =

(4.53)

2

2

v1 w1 + v2 w2

w1 + w2

holds. From (4.53) we conclude that the invariant I is a polynomial in the scalar products

vv ,

ww ,

vw .

(4.54)

Application of Peanos theorem to (4.54) simply reproduces the scalar products and therefore any invariant of a set of vectors is a polynomial in the elements of the integrity basis

I := {v i v i , v i v j } i, j [1, a] .

(4.55)

Before proceeding with the construction of isotropic polynomials of a set of first- and

second-order tensors, the notion of isotropic tensors is introduced. The key property of

an isotropic tensor is that its coordinates are invariant under a change of reference frame.

As a result of that a rotation yields the same tensor.

Consider the coordinate representation of an m-order tensor A

i i ...im e

i e

2 e

m

Ai1 i2 ...im ei e2 em = A

1 2

(4.56)

ei with Q O(3). The tensor A

is assumed to be isotropic and the above mentioned properties are

i ,i ...im

Ai1 ,i2 ...im = A

1 2

and Q ? A = A .

(4.57)

Q ? A = det[Q] (det[Q] Q) ? A with

det[Q]Q SO(3) .

(4.58)

Consider the following invariant of a set of an even number m of vectors and an isotropic

tensor A of order m

a1 ) v

a2 ) . . . ) v

am

I(v 1 , . . . , v m ; A) = (((A v a1 ) v a2 ) . . . ) v am = (((A v

(4.59)

where v

ai are all different, the invariant is multi-linear in the vectors. According to the results

of the previous section, any isotropic invariant of a set of vectors can be represented

49

multi-linearity of I only mixed scalar-products have to be taken into account so that

I = p(J ) where J = {v ai v aj } with i 6= j [1, m] .

(4.60)

A typical term of that polynomial then has the form c (v a1 v a2 )(v a3 v a4 ) (v am1 v am )

where c R is a scalar value. The coordinates of A follow by differentiation

Aj1 ...jm =

mI

=

= c i1 j1 i2 j2 im jm (4.61)

v a1 v am

va1 j1 va2 j2 vam1 jm1 vam jm

and can be represented exclusively in terms of Kronecker deltas. From (4.61) one can

conclude that any isotropic tensor can be represented as a polynomial in products of

Kronecker deltas.

4.4.4. Integrity Bases for Sets of First-Order and Second-Order Tensors

4.4.4.1. Structure of the Invariants. Isotropic polynomials of a set of m first-order

and n second-order tensors x = {v 1 , . . . v m , A1 , . . . An } can be constructed with isotropic

tensors. Consider therefore the invariant

I := (((((A v a1 ) ) v am ) : Ab1 ) : ) : Abn

(4.62)

where ai [1, m], bi [1, n] and A is an isotropic tensor. When expressing the coordinates

of A in terms of Kronecker deltas as specified in (4.61), one observes that any isotropic

polynomial I(x) coincides with a polynomial in expressions of either one of the types

tr[Ab1 Ab2 Abm ] or v ai Ab1 Ab2 Abm v aj .

(4.63)

Type (4.63)1 belongs to invariants of argument sets solely consisting of second-order tensors, whereas (4.63)2 belongs to sets of first-order tensors and second-order ones.

Probably the most important result in the theory of invariants is Hilberts Theorem, see

Weyl [151], which states that for any finite set of tensor agencies x an integrity basis

consisting of a finite number of invariants exists. This theorem motivates all further

investigations in deriving complete and irreducible integrity bases.

4.4.4.2. Traces of Tensor Products. We restrict our attention to second-order tensor

agencies only x = {A1 , A2 , . . . , A }. The results of the previous section is that every

invariant of a set of second-order tensors can be expressed in terms of traces of tensor

products of that set. While the number of possible tensor products

:= As1 As2 . . . Asn ;

s1 , s2 , . . . , sn [1, . . . , ]

(4.64)

with tensors Asi x is infinite, due to the arbitrary number of factors n, the number of

traces of these products is not. To derive restrictions for the traces, we consider tensor

polynomials with coefficients being polynomials in traces of tensor products, i.e.

X

p(x) =

p(tr[(x)])(x) .

(4.65)

The basic idea in order to limit the number of relevant tensor products is to show that

concrete s can be expressed in terms of traces of tensor products of lower order

tr[(x)] = tr[p(x)] with ord() > ord(p)

(4.66)

50

outlined for instance in Spencer [132, 22].

Point of departure is the multiplication of two permutation tensors of the n+1 dimensional

space, which is zero due to a restriction of the indices to i, j [1, n],

i1 i2 ...in+1 j1 j2 ...jn+1 = 0 Rn

n n

ik , jk [1; n]

(4.67)

see for example Betten [13]. Multiplication with n tensors A, B, . . . , N Rnn yields

i j

i1 j2 i1 jn+1

1 1

i j

i 2 j2

i2 jn+1

2 1

(4.68)

A i 1 j1 B i 2 j2 . . . N i n jn = 0 .

..

..

..

...

.

.

.

(CA + AC) tr[B] (AB + BA) tr[C]

(4.69)

obtained by setting A = B = C and with det[A] = 13 {tr[A3 ] 23 tr[A2 ] tr[A] + 21 tr[A]3 }

A3 A2 tr[A] +

1

2

(4.70)

Multiplication of Rivlins identity with D x and applying the trace operator shows

that the first line in (4.69) can be expressed in terms of traces of tensor polynomials of

lower order than 4. This is indicated by

tr[(ABC + ACB + BCA+ BAC + CAB + CBA)D] 0 .

(4.71)

tr[A3 D] 0

(4.72)

which states that traces of tensor products where one factor has the exponent 3 can be

expressed with traces of tensor polynomials of lower degree. This result is conform to the

well-known fact that an isotropic scalar-valued function of a single argument tensor (C)

can be expressed in terms of the three fundamental invariants tr[C], tr[C 2 ] and tr[C 3 ]

and no higher order terms have to be taken into account.

Setting A = B in (4.71) we get

tr[(A2 C + ACA + CA2 )D] 0

(4.73)

51

which motivates the convention that tensor products with two identical factors are to be

expressed according to tr[ACAD] = tr[(A2 C +CA2 )D]+p(A, C, D), where p(A, C, D)

stands for the tensor polynomial obtained from (4.69) with ord(p) < 4.

Setting D = AE in (4.73) shows that the last term is reducible and it remains

tr[(A2 CA + ACA2 )E] 0

(4.74)

with the consequence that only such factors have to be taken into account, where A

precedes A2 in any product with both A and A2 as factors.

To obtain a complete set of rules, traces of tensor products up to an order of 7 have to be

considered. We do not want to go through the whole theory but summarize the results

discussed in detail in Spencer [132] in table 11. Based on these rules, finite integrity

Table 11: Summary. Rules for Relevant Traces of Tensor Products

A representation of an isotropic tensor polynomial (x) of a set of second-order

tensors x = {A1 , A2 . . . A } in terms of traces of tensor products has the form

(x) = p(tr[i ]) .

The tensor products i follow from the set of all possible tensor products of the

argument tensors A x by application of the following rules:

1. The factors are of no higher degree than 3.

2. If one factor is of degree 3, there are no other factors.

3. The first and the last factor are no powers of the same tensor.

4. No two factors are the same.

5. Ar precedes A2r in any product with both Ar and A2r as factors.

6. If A2r and A2s , r 6= s, are both factors, they are consecutive factors.

7. No product has a degree greater than six.

bases can be deduced. Irreducibility of the so obtained bases is not guaranteed and has

to be treated separately.

We do not list the integrity bases for different set of argument tensors here but refer e.g. to

Spencer [132].

An important notion in the context of functional bases is the irreducibility. A functional

basis is irreducible if none of its invariants be expressed as a function of the remaining

ones. For the invariants of table 8 irreducibility was proved by Pennisi & Trovato

[101]. When dealing with integrity bases, irreducibility of a basis states that none of the

invariants can be expressed as a polynomial of the remaining ones.

The key idea is as follows. To show that one invariant Ik (x) of a function basis I =

{I1 (x), . . . , In (x)} is irreducible one has to find two distinct sets of tensors x1 and x2 so

52

that all invariants except the one under consideration take the same values, i.e.

Ik (x1 ) 6= Ik (x2 ) and Ii (x1 ) = Ii (x2 ) i 6= k [1, n] .

(4.75)

ones. Finding such sets for all invariants of a function basis proves their irreducibility.

As an example consider the function basis for a single symmetric second-order tensor

I := {tr[A], tr[A2 ], tr[A3 ], } .

(4.76)

k

A1

A2

3

1 diag[1, 1, 2] diag[1, 1, 3 2]

A

2A

2

3 diag[1, 1, 2]

diag[1, 1, 2]

0 1 0

:= 1 0 0

where A

0 0 0

(4.77)

In general, it is preferable to have functional bases consisting of a small number of invariants because it leads to more concise functions. Nevertheless, the investigations on anisotropic quadratic functions of a symmetric second-order tensor and their second derivative

that will be carried out in the next chapter are not based on irreducible functional bases

as for example specified in Xiao [155, 158] or Bruhns, Xiao & Meyers [26]. Their

use requires the knowledge of how to combine the invariants to obtain a function that

completely covers the symmetries under investigation. This question leads to the notion

of syzygies that appear in the theory of polynomial invariants. The determination of

syzygies is a non-trivial task, cf. Bao & Smith [6].

For a broad range of applications in continuum mechanics the constitutive behaviour

of materials can be described with scalar-valued tensor functions of a single symmetric

second-order tensor argument. Typical examples appearing in this work are energy storage

functions, yield criteria or level-set functions and dissipation functions. In this chapter

we apply the above discussed framework of anisotropic tensor functions to the important

case of quadratic scalar-valued potential functions for the 14 mechanics symmetry groups

specified in section 3.6.

Without loss of generality, the results of this chapter are derived by means of a free energy

function. We consider a scalar-valued function (C) of a symmetric second-order tensor

C. Beside the specification of functional bases we derive coordinate-free representations

for the second derivative ,CC . The corresponding coordinate forms are well known and

listed in many publications, e.g. Schmid & Boas [113], Voigt [142] and Hosford [54] in

the context of crystal plasticity, Cowin & Mehrabadi [33] and Forte & Vianello [40]

in the context of elasticity among many others. These representations are typically derived

by direct exploitation of the restrictions of symmetry transformations on the coordinates

of the second derivative as carried out in detail for example in Hund [55]. Here the

coordinate forms are obtained from the coordinate-free representations when choosing a

53

specific orientation of the global coordinate system with respect to the principal axes of

anisotropy, cf. also Baumberger [8].

The structure of the subsequent derivations is as follows. In a first step the isotropic extension functions (C) given in Xiao [156] are specified for the symmetry group G under

consideration. For the extended set {C, (C)} of second-order valued tensor functions

a possible function basis for an isotropic scalar-valued function is obtained from table 8.

Depending on the structure of the extension functions the thus obtained basis may obtain

linearly dependent invariants which have to be dropped.

In a second step, the consideration is restricted to quadratic functions in C and their

second derivative ,CC . Because (C, (C)) is invariant among the central inversion at

fixed structural functions (C), only the thirteen classes no. 2, 5, 8, 11, 15, 17, 20, 23, 27,

29, 32, 34 and 37 of the tables 3 and 4 have to be investigated that include this symmetry

transformation.

It is convenient and sufficient to consider quadratic polynomials. Therefore the invariants

are combined in all possible combinations that are quadratic in C. Together with the

linear invariants they constitute the complete set of monomials for a quadratic polynomial.

Dropping out the linear dependent elements which result from the combination of the

linear invariants, the final set I := {I1 . . . In } is obtained. It is irreducible with respect to

linear dependencies among the invariants. Thus the anisotropic G-invariant polynomial

is of the form

P

(4.78)

= (C, (C)) = ni=1 i Ii .

The set of monomials I may consist of many invariants. Nevertheless the constant second

derivative ,CC can be reduced to an expression in terms of four fourth-order tensor

functions that will be referred to as prototypes. Let F and G denote linear functions

in C, L a quadratic function in C and M and N constant tensors. The four types of

derivatives are defined by the functions

2

I1 := CC

tr[L, M ] = Lijabcd Mji

2

I2 := CC

tr[F , M ]2 = 2Fijab Mji Fklcd Mlk

2

I3 := CC

tr[F , G, M ] = Fijab Gjkcd Mki + Fijcd Gjkab Mki

(4.79)

2

I4 := CC

tr[F , M ] tr[G, N ] = Fijab Mji Gklcd Mkl + Fijcd Mji Gklab Mkl .

Thereby the fourth-order tensors denote the first and second derivatives of the arguments

Fijab = Fij,Cab ,

and Isym

ijab =

1

2

Gijab = Gij,Cab ,

(4.80)

4.6.1.1. Isotropic Extension Functions. A set of second-order tensor functions that

allows to construct a triclinic Ci -invariant tensor function is specified in Xiao [156] as

(C) : {N , V } with N := a, V := b .

(4.81)

54

The orientation of the material is determined by two orthonormal vectors a and b. Any

Ci -invariant function can be represented in terms of the elements of a functional basis for

the symmetric second-order tensor C and the two skew-symmetric second-order tensors

N and V . Table 8 lists invariants that constitute such a functional basis. For the set of

argument tensors under consideration the basis consists of the fundamental invariants

tr[C], tr[C 2 ], tr[C 3 ],

(4.82)

tr[CN 2 ], tr[C 2 N 2 ], tr[C 2 N 2 CN ], tr[CV 2 ], tr[C 2 V 2 ], tr[C 2 V 2 CV ], tr[N V ] (4.83)

and the relative invariants of all three arguments

tr[CN V ], tr[CN 2 V ], tr[CN V 2 ] .

(4.84)

concerned only the linear and quadratic invariants of (4.82), (4.83) and (4.84) have to be

taken into account. Having in view the specification of a concrete Ci -invariant quadratic

polynomial function it is of advantage to assemble every possible combination of invariants

up to order two in C. With the above given invariants this set contains 27 combined

invariants, i.e.

I := { tr[C]2 , tr[CN 2 ]2 , tr[CV 2 ]2 , tr[CN V ]2 , tr[CN 2 V ]2 , tr[CN V 2 ]2 ,

tr[C 2 ], tr[C 2 N 2 ], tr[C 2 V 2 ], tr[C] tr[CN V ], tr[C] tr[CN 2 V ],

tr[C] tr[CN V 2 ], tr[CN 2 ] tr[CN V ], tr[CN 2 ] tr[CN 2 V ],

tr[CN 2 ] tr[CN V 2 ], tr[CV 2 ] tr[CN V ], tr[CV 2 ] tr[CN 2 V ],

2

(4.85)

tr[CN 2 V ] tr[CN V 2 ], tr[C], tr[CN 2 ], tr[CV 2 ], tr[CN V ],

tr[CN 2 V ], tr[CN V 2 ] } .

A straightforward combination of the invariants in (4.82), (4.83) and (4.84) would yield

three additional terms to those given in (4.85). But these are linear functions of the other

invariants. Enumerating the invariants of the set I with I1 , . . . , I27 these dependencies

read

tr[C] tr[CN 2 ]

= 21 (I1 + I2 + I4 + I5 I7 I8 )

tr[C] tr[CV 2 ]

= 12 (I1 + I3 + I4 + I6 I7 I9 )

1

tr[CN 2 ] tr[CV 2 ] =

I + I4 32 I7 I8 I9 .

2 1

(4.86)

Note that these dependencies stated above permit several possibilities for the choice of

which invariants to drop. With this basis at hand, quadratic polynomials (C) that are

invariant with respect to symmetry transformations of the group Ci can be formulated in

terms of the elements of the monomials in I

P

= (C, N , V ) = (I1 , ..., I27 ) = 27

(4.87)

i=1 i Ii .

55

The second derivative with respect to C gives the constant fourth-order tensor

P

,CC = 21

where Ci := Ii,CC .

i=1 i Ci

(4.88)

material parameters. 21 of these 27 parameters are related to quadratic terms in C. The

second derivatives of the invariants in I can be expressed in terms of the four prototypes

(4.79). We get

C1 = I2 (C, 1)

C2 = I2 (C, N 2 )

C3 = I2 (C, V 2 )

C4 = I2 (C, N V )

C5 = I2 (C, N 2 V )

C6 = I2 (C, N V 2 )

C7 = I3 (C, C, 1)

C8 = I3 (C, C, N 2 )

C9 = I3 (C, C, V 2 )

C10 = I4 (C, 1, C, N V )

C11 = I4 (C, 1, C, N 2 V )

C12 = I4 (C, 1, C, N V 2 )

C13 = I4 (C, N , C, N V )

2

C16 = I4 (C, V , C, N V )

C15 = I4 (C, N , C, N V )

C18 = I4 (C, V 2 , C, N V 2 )

C14 = I4 (C, N , C, N V )

C17 = I4 (C, V , C, N V )

(4.89)

A coordinate representation for the second derivative requires the specification of the

orientations of the anisotropy axes with respect to the global Cartesian frame. For the

choice a = e1 and b = e2 the form

,CC

c22 c23

c33

=

sym.

c14

c24

c34

c44

c15

c25

c35

c45

c55

c16

c26

c36

c46

c56

c66

for G = Ci

(4.90)

is obtained. The coordinates are functions of the material parameters 1 -21 , i.e.

c11 = 2(1 + 3 + 7 )

c22 = 2(1 + 2 + 7 8 )

c33 = 2(1 + 2 + 3 + 7 8 )

c44 =

c55 =

c66 =

1

2

1

2

1

2

4 + 7

1

2

6 + 7 8

(5 8 ) + 7

c12 = 2 1

c13 = 2(1 + 3 )

c14 =

c15 =

c16 =

1

2

1

2

1

2

c25 =

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

(14 11 )

(10 16 )

c34 =

(17 11 )

c36 =

(10 13 )

c46 = (9 + 19 )

(18 12 )

c23 = 2(1 + 2 )

c24 =

c26 =

(15 12 )

c35 =

c45 =

c56 =

1

4

(10 13 16 )

(15 + 18 12 )

(14 + 17 11 )

1

4

1

4

(4.91)

20

21 .

4.6.2.1. Isotropic Extension Functions. The constitutive behaviour of materials of

the prismatic crystal class with symmetry group C2h can be described by an isotropic

function of C and the extension functions

(C) : {N , D} with N := n, D := a a b b .

(4.92)

The unit vector n is aligned to the two-fold axis, a and b is a pair of arbitrary orthonormal vectors perpendicular to n. Any C2h -invariant scalar-valued tensor function can be

56

described in terms of the elements of the function basis for two symmetric second-order

tensors C and D and a skew-symmetric second-order tensor N . From table 8 the functional basis consisting of the fundamental invariants

tr[C], tr[C 2 ], tr[C 3 ],

(4.93)

tr[C 2 N 2 CN ], tr[CD], tr[C 2 D], tr[CD 2 ],

tr[C 2 D 2 ], tr[DN 2 ], tr[D 2 N 2 ], tr[D 2 N 2 DN ]

(4.94)

tr[CDN ], tr[C 2 DN ], tr[CN 2 DN ]

(4.95)

is obtained. In the above given functional basis the following dependencies are already

taken into account

tr[CD 2 ] = tr[CN 2 ],

tr[C 2 D 2 ] = tr[C 2 N 2 ],

tr[CDN ] = tr[CN 2 DN ],

tr[CD 2 N ] = 0 .

(4.96)

4.6.2.2. Application to Quadratic Functions. In order to describe a quadratic function, the linear and quadratic invariants of the irreducible functional basis are taken into

account. The linear invariants are combined multiplicatively in all possible combinations

that are quadratic in C. Thus a quadratic polynomial function can be formulated with

the combined invariants of the set

I := { tr[C]2 , tr[CD]2 , tr[CD 2 ]2 , tr[CDN ]2 , tr[C] tr[CD], tr[C] tr[CD 2 ],

tr[C] tr[CDN ], tr[CD] tr[CD 2 ], tr[CD] tr[CDN ],

tr[CD 2 ] tr[CDN ], tr[C 2 ], tr[C 2 D], tr[C 2 DN ],

(4.97)

In this set I we have dropped one linear dependent quadratic invariant. Labeling the

invariants of I with I1 - I17 , the relation

tr[C 2 D 2 ] = 21 I1 +

1

4

1

4

I2

I3 +

1

4

I4 + I 6 +

1

2

I11

holds. This set serves as a basis for C2h -invariant tensor functions of the form

P

= (C, N , D) = (I1 , ..., I17 ) = 17

i=1 i Ii .

P

,CC = 13

where Ci := Ii,CC .

i=1 i Ci

(4.98)

(4.99)

(4.100)

C1 = I2 (C, 1)

C5 = I4 (C, 1, C, D)

C9 = I4 (C, D, C, DN )

C2 = I2 (C, D)

C6 = I4 (C, 1, C, D )

C10 = I4 (C, D 2 , C, DN )

C3 = I2 (C, D 2 )

C7 = I4 (C, 1, C, DN )

C11 = I3 (C, C, 1)

C4 = I2 (C, DN )

C8 = I4 (C, D, C, D )

C12 = I3 (C, C, D)

C13 = I3 (C, C, DN ) .

(4.101)

57

when specifying the orientation of the anisotropy axes with respect to a global coordinate

system. Setting a = e1 , b = e2 and n = e3 the second derivative takes the form

,CC

c22 c23

c33

:=

sym.

c14

c24

c34

c44

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

c55 c56

c66

for G = C2h .

(4.102)

The coordinates cij are in a one-to-one relation with the 13 coefficients, i.e.

c11 = 2(1 + 2 + 5 + 6 + 8 + 11 + 12 ) + 3

c22 = 2(1 + 2 5 + 6 8 + 11 12 ) + 3

c12 = 2(1 2 + 6 ) + 3

c13 = 2 1 + 5 + 6

c33 = 2 1 + 2 11

c14 = 7 + 9 + 10 + 13

c44 = 2 4 + 11

c23 = 2 1 5 + 6

c55 = 11

c66 = 11 +

1

2

1

2

12

(4.103)

c24 = 7 9 + 10 + 13

12

c34 = 7

c56 =

1

2

13 .

4.6.3.1. Isotropic Extension Functions. To construct functions that are invariant

under symmetry transformations of the group D2h of the rhombic-dipyramidal crystal

class the extension functions consisting of a single constant second-order tensor

(C) : {D} with D := a a b b

(4.104)

can be used as additional arguments besides C. The orthonormal vectors a and b are

aligned along two of the three two-fold axis that characterize D2h . Any isotropic function

with respect to transformation of all arguments can be expressed in terms of the invariants

obtained from table 8 for two symmetric second-order tensors C and D. Thus a functional

basis consists of the fundamental invariants

tr[C], tr[C 2 ], tr[C 3 ],

(4.105)

tr[CD], tr[C 2 D], tr[CD 2 ], tr[C 2 D 2 ] .

(4.106)

invariants in C gives together with the a priori quadratic invariants the set of combined

invariants

I := { tr[C]2 , tr[CD]2 , tr[CD 2 ]2 , tr[C] tr[CD],

(4.107)

58

This set serves as a basis for quadratic D2h -invariant polynomial functions. The twelve

invariants in I are linear independent. A scalar-valued polynomial can be expressed in

terms of these invariants, i.e.

P

(4.108)

= (C, D) = (I1 , ..., I12 ) = 12

i=1 i Ii .

Therefrom, we get the second derivative

P

,CC = 9i=1 i Ci

with Ci := Ii,CC .

(4.109)

The second derivatives of the invariants are functions of the nine material parameters

C1 = I2 (C, 1)

C4 = I4 (C, 1, C, D)

C7 = I3 (C, C, 1)

(4.110)

C2 = I2 (C, D)

C5 = I4 (C, 1, C, D )

C8 = I3 (C, C, D)

C3 = I2 (C, D 2 )

C6 = I4 (C, D, C, D 2 )

C9 = I3 (C, C, D 2 ) .

Aligning the anisotropy axis with the global coordinate axes, a = e1 and b = e2 , the well

known coordinate representation for the second derivative is obtained

,CC

0

c

c

0

0

22

23

c

0

0

33

:=

c44 0

sym.

c55

0

0

0

0

0

c66

(4.111)

for G = D2h .

The coordinates of the tensor are obtained from the material parameters, i.e.

1

2

1

2

c11 = 2(1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 )

c66 = 7 +

c22 = 2(1 + 2 + 3 4 + 5 6 + 7 8 + 9 )

c12 = 2(1 2 + 3 + 5 )

c44 = 7 + 9

c23 = 2 1 4 + 5 .

c33 = 2 1 + 2 7

c55 = 7

1

2

8 +

1

2

8 +

c13 = 2 1 + 4 + 5

(4.112)

4.6.4.1. Isotropic Extension Function. The set of second-order tensor functions that

allow for modeling of a tetragonal-dipyramidal C4h -invariant tensor function with representation theorems for isotropic functions is given by

D4h := a a a a + b b b b

A := D4h : C, B := D4h : C 2

N := n .

(4.113)

The vector n is of unit length and coincides with the four-fold axis that is characteristic for

C4h symmetry. a and b are two orthonormal vectors perpendicular to n. The functional

basis has to be set up for three symmetric second-order tensors C, A, and B combined

59

with one skew-symmetric second-order tensor N . From table 8 we can read off the

elements of a function basis. It consists of the fundamental invariants

tr[C], tr[C 2 ], tr[C 3 ], tr[A], tr[A2 ], tr[A3 ], tr[B], tr[B 2 ], tr[B 3 ] ,

(4.114)

tr[C 2 A], tr[CA2 ], tr[C 2 A2 ], tr[CB], tr[C 2 B], tr[CB 2 ],

tr[C 2 B 2 ], tr[AB], tr[A2 B], tr[AB 2 ], tr[A2 B 2 ], tr[C 2 N 2 CN ],

tr[A2 N 2 AN ], tr[B 2 N 2 ], tr[B 2 N 2 BN ]

(4.115)

tr[CAB], tr[CAN ], tr[C 2 AN ], tr[CA2 N ], tr[CBN ], tr[C 2 BN ],

(4.116)

tr[CB 2 N ], tr[CN 2 BN ], tr[ABN ], tr[A2 BN ], tr[AB 2 N ], tr[AN 2 BN ] .

Linearly dependencies among the invariants may occur as a consequence of the structure

of the extension functions. In particular the identities

tr[A] = tr[CN 2 ] = tr[AN 2 ]

tr[B] = tr[C 2 N 2 ] = tr[BN 2 ]

tr[CAN ] = tr[CN 2 AN ]

(4.117)

among the linear and quadratic invariants have been taken into account.

4.6.4.2. Functional Basis for Quadratic Functions. The linear invariants can be

combined to quadratic terms which together with the a priori quadratic invariants enter

the irreducible set

I := { tr[C]2 , tr[A]2 , tr[C] tr[A], tr[C 2 ],

tr[A2 ], tr[B], tr[CAN ], tr[C], tr[A] }

(4.118)

= (C, A, B, N ) = (I1 , ..., I9 ) =

P9

i=1

i Ii .

P

,CC = 7i=1 i Ci with Ci := Ii,CC .

(4.119)

(4.120)

The seven derivatives of the quadratic invariants in I can be expressed in terms of the

four prototypes (4.79). We get

C1 = I2 (C, 1)

C3 = I4 (C, 1, A, 1)

C5 = I3 (A, A, 1)

C2 = I2 (A, 1)

C4 = I3 (C, C, 1)

C6 = I1 (B, 1)

C7 = I3 (C, A, N ) .

(4.121)

In contrast to the up to now treated symmetries, the extension functions for the considered

tetragonal symmetry are no more constant but depend on C. Therefore the derivatives

of the arguments of the prototypes (4.80) do not vanish any more, i.e.

Aijab = Aij,Cab = D4h

ijab

4h

4h

4h

Bijabcd = Bij,Cab Ccd = 21 (D4h

ijac bd + Dijad bc + Dijbc ad + Dijbd ac ) .

(4.122)

60

For the choice a = e1 , b = e2 and n = e3 of the anisotropy axes, the second derivative

can be given in the matrix form

,CC

0

c33

0

0

:=

c

0

44

sym.

c55

0

0

0

0

0

c55

for G = C4h .

(4.123)

Finally we specify the dependence of the matrix coordinates on the polynomial coefficients

c11 = 2(1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 )

c33 = 2 1 + 2 4

c44 = 4 + 6

c55 = 4 +

1

2

c12 = 2(1 + 2 + 3 )

6

c13 = 2 1 + 3

c14 =

1

2

(4.124)

7 .

4.6.5.1. Isotropic Extension Functions. For the second tetragonal anisotropy type

the tetragonal-dipyramidal crystal class D4h has to be investigated. The appropriate

extension functions are obtained from (4.113) by replacing the skew-symmetric tensor

N = n with M := n n, i.e.

(C) : {A, B, M } with

D4h := a a a a + b b b b

A := D4h : C, B := D4h : C 2

M := n n .

(4.125)

Here n is aligned to the principal four-fold axis, a and b coincide with the two-fold

axes. All three vectors are of unit length. The functional basis has to be set up for four

symmetric second-order tensors C, A, B and M . Exploitation of table 8 gives a basis

consisting of the fundamental invariants

tr[C], tr[C 2 ], tr[C 3 ], tr[A], tr[A2 ], tr[A3 ], tr[B], tr[B 2 ], tr[B 3 ],

(4.126)

tr[C 2 A], tr[CA2 ], tr[C 2 A2 ], tr[CB], tr[C 2 B], tr[CB 2 ],

tr[C 2 B 2 ], tr[AB], tr[A2 B], tr[AB 2 ], tr[A2 B 2 ], tr[B 2 M ],

(4.127)

tr[CAB], tr[CBM ], tr[ABM ] .

(4.128)

In the above specified functional basis some linearly dependent invariants have been

dropped. Besides the identity M = M 2 the following relations between linear and

quadratic invariants have been used

tr[AM ] = tr[A2 M ] = tr[BM ] = tr[ACM ] = 0

tr[A ] = tr[CA], tr[CM ] = tr[C] tr[A], tr[C 1 M ] = tr[C 2 ] tr[B]

2

(4.129)

61

4.6.5.2. Application to Quadratic Functions. Construction of all possible combinations of quadratic invariants then leads to a set of monomials suitable to set up quadratic

polynomial functions. The result is the set of eight invariants

I := {tr[C]2 , tr[A]2 , tr[C] tr[A], tr[C 2 ], tr[A2 ], tr[B], tr[C], tr[A]}

that can be used to construct a D4h -invariant function according to

P

= (C, A, B, M ) = (I1 , ..., I8 ) = = 8i=1 i Ii .

P

,CC = 6i=1 i Ci with Ci := CC Ii .

(4.130)

(4.131)

(4.132)

Here the second derivatives of the monomials are determined by the relations

C1 = I2 (C, 1)

C3 = I4 (C, 1, A, 1)

C5 = I3 (A, A, 1)

C2 = I2 (A, 1)

C4 = I3 (C, C, 1)

C6 = I1 (B, 1) .

(4.133)

The derivatives of the structural functions that enter the expressions (4.79) via (4.80) are

Aijab = Aij,Cab = D4h

ijab ,

4h

4h

4h

Bijabcd = Bij,Cab Ccd = 12 (D4h

ijac bd + Dijad bc + Dijbc ad + Dijbd ac ) .

(4.134)

The classical matrix representation for the second derivative is obtained by setting the

anisotropy axes according to a = e1 , b = e2 and n = e3 , so that

CC

0

c11 c13 0

0

c

0

0

33

=

c44 0

sym.

c55

0

0

0

0

0

c55

for G = D4h .

(4.135)

1

2

c11 = 2(1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 )

c55 = 4 +

c33 = 2(1 + 4 )

c12 = 2(1 + 2 + 3 )

c44 = 4 + 6

c13 = 2(1 + 3 ) .

6

(4.136)

4.6.6.1. Isotropic Extension Functions. Rhombohedral functions possessing the symmetry group S6 can be described with isotropic tensor functions by using

(C) : {W , V , N } with

P3

D3d := i=1 ai ai ai

W := D3d : C, V := D3d : C 2

N := n

(4.137)

62

The three unit vectors ai are all orthogonal to n and inclined at 120 to each other. With

the above specified isotropic extension functions a scalar-valued tensor function that is

S6 -invariant can be formulated in terms of a functional basis for one symmetric secondorder tensor C and three skew-symmetric second-order tensors W , V and N . The basis

obtained from table 8 contains the fundamental invariants

tr[C], tr[C 2 ], tr[C 3 ], tr[W 2 ], tr[V 2 ] ,

(4.138)

tr[CW 2 ], tr[C 2 W 2 ], tr[C 2 W 2 CW ], tr[CV 2 ], tr[C 2 V 2 ],

tr[C 2 V 2 CV ], tr[CN 2 ], tr[C 2 N 2 ], tr[C 2 N 2 CN ], tr[W V ]

(4.139)

tr[CW V ], tr[CW 2 V ], tr[CW V 2 ], tr[CW N ], tr[CW 2 N ],

tr[CW N 2 ], tr[CV N ], tr[CV 2 N ], tr[CV N 2 ], tr[W V N ] .

(4.140)

Here the relations tr[W N ] = tr[V N ] = 0 are already taken into consideration.

4.6.6.2. Application to Quadratic Functions. Combining the two linear invariants

(4.138)1 and (4.139)7 gives together with the quadratic invariants (4.138)2,4 , (4.139)8,12 a

redundant set of seven quadratic invariants. One of these invariants can be eliminated

using the relation

tr[C 2 N 2 ] =

1

2

(tr[C]2 + tr[C 2 ]) +

1

4

Thus a functional basis for quadratic scalar-valued tensor functions consisting of six

quadratic and two linear invariants that are assembled in the set

I := {tr[C]2 , tr[CN 2 ]2 , tr[C] tr[CN 2 ], tr[W 2 ],

tr[C 2 ], tr[CW N ], tr[CW N 2 ], tr[C], tr[CN 2 ]} .

(4.141)

P

= (C, W , V , N ) = (I1 , ..., I9 ) = 10

i=1 i Ii .

Deriving this function two times with respect to C yields the constant fourth-order tensor

P

,CC = 7i=1 i Ci with Ci := CC Ii .

(4.142)

The derivatives of the invariants can be specified in terms of the prototypes (4.79), i.e.

C1 = I2 (C, 1)

C3 = I4 (C, 1, A, N 2 )

C5 = I3 (W , W , 1)

C2 = I2 (C, N 2 )

C4 = I3 (C, C, 1)

C6 = I3 (C, W , N )

C7 = I3 (C, W , N 2 ) .

(4.143)

Wijab = Wij,Cab =

1

2

D3d

ijab +

1

2

D3d

ijba .

(4.144)

63

a1 = e1 , a2 = 12 e1 +

c11 c12

c11

,CC =

sym.

3

e,

2 2

a3 = 12 e1 ,

3

e

2 2

and n = e3

c13

0

c15

c16

c13

0

c15 c16

c33

0

0

0

for G = S6 .

1

(c11 c12 ) c16 c15

2

c55

0

c55

(4.145)

(4.146)

c11 = 2(1 + 2 3 + 4 )

9

4

c55 = 4

c33 = 2 1 + 2 4

c12 = 2(1 + 2 3 ) +

9

4

c13 = 2 1 3

c15 =

c16 =

3

8

3

8

(4.147)

6 .

4.6.7.1. Isotropic Extension Functions. From the second subset of the trigonal crystal system th hexagonal-scalenohedral class with symmetry group D3d will be investigated.

For this class the set

P3

D3d := i=1 ai ai ai

(C) : {W , V , M } with

(4.148)

W := D3d : C, V := D3d : C 2

M := n n

acts as a isotropic extension. It differs only in the constant structural tensor from the

extension (4.137). The unit vector n characterizes the direction of the principal axis

of D3h and the three vectors ai coincide with the three two-fold axes. With the above

specified extension, a functional basis for D3h -invariant scalar-valued functions consists

of the invariants of two symmetric tensors C and M as well as the two skew-symmetric

tensors W and V specified in (4.148). A possible functional basis is obtained with the

fundamental invariants

tr[C], tr[C 2 ], tr[C 3 ], tr[W 2 ], tr[V 2 ],

(4.149)

tr[CM ], tr[C 2 M ], tr[CW 2 ], tr[C 2 W 2 ], tr[C 2 W 2 CW ],

tr[CV 2 ], tr[C 2 V 2 ], tr[C 2 V 2 CV ], tr[M W 2 ], tr[M 2 W 2 M W ],

tr[M V 2 ], tr[M 2 V 2 M V ], tr[W V ]

and the relative invariants of each three tensors

tr[CM W ], tr[C 2 M W ], tr[CW 2 M W ], tr[CM V ],

tr[C 2 M V ], tr[CV 2 M V ], tr[CW V ], tr[CW 2 V ],

tr[CW V 2 ], tr[M W V ], tr[M W 2 V ], tr[M W V 2 ] .

To obtain a small number of invariants, the functional dependencies

tr[M W 2 ] =

1

2

tr[CM ],

and M = M 2

(4.150)

(4.151)

64

above given invariants to quadratic terms in C gives together with the a priori quadratic

invariants a set of nine monomials that serve to construct quadratic polynomial functions.

The set obtained in this way can be reduced because of the linear dependence

tr[C 2 M ] =

1

4

(tr[CM ]2 tr[C]2 ) +

1

2

Thus a quadratic D3d -invariant scalar-valued tensor function is obtained with the set

I := {tr[C]2 , tr[CM ]2 , tr[C] tr[CM ], tr[C 2 ],

tr[W 2 ], tr[CM W ], tr[C], tr[CM ]} .

(4.153)

= (C, W , V , M ) = (I1 , ..., I8 ) =

P8

i=1

i Ii .

(4.154)

The second derivative of with respect to C then gives a constant fourth-order tensor.

Its coordinate free representation reads

,CC =

P6

i=1

i C i

with Ci := CC Ii

(4.155)

C1 = I2 (C, 1)

C3 = I4 (C, 1, C, M )

C5 = I3 (W , W , 1)

C2 = I2 (C, M )

C4 = I3 (C, C, 1)

C6 = I3 (C, W , M ) .

(4.156)

Wijab =

1

2

D3d

ijab +

1

2

D3d

ijba .

(4.157)

For an orientation

of the anisotropy axes according to a1 = e1 , a2 = 21 e1 + 23 e2 ,

obtained as

,CC

c11 c13

c33

:=

sym.

0

c15

0

0

c15 0

0

0

0

1

(c11 c12 )

0

c15

2

c55

0

c55

for G = D3d .

(4.158)

c11 = 2(1 + 4 ) 49 5

c33 = 2(1 + 2 + 3 + 4 )

c12 = 2 1 + 94 5

c55 = 4

c13 = 2 1 + 3

c15 = 38 6 .

(4.159)

65

4.6.8.1. Isotropic Extension Functions. A hexagonal-dipyramidal function with symmetry group C6h can be constructed with the isotropic extension functions

6h

A

B

P3

:=

i=1 ai ai ai ai ai ai

:= (D6h : C) : C

:= (D6h : C 2 ) : C 2

:= n .

(4.160)

Here n denotes a vector of unit length aligned with the principal six-fold direction of C 6h .

The three vectors ai all lie in one plane characterized by the normal n. They are inclined

at 120 . A functional basis for a C6h -invariant scalar-valued tensor function is obtained

from table 8 for the three symmetric tensors C, A, B and one skew-symmetric tensor N

defined above. The basis contains the fundamental invariants

tr[C], tr[C 2 ], tr[C 3 ], tr[A], tr[A2 ], tr[A3 ], tr[B], tr[B 2 ], tr[B 3 ],

(4.161)

tr[CA], tr[C 2 A], tr[CA2 ], tr[C 2 A2 ], tr[CB], tr[C 2 B], tr[CB 2 ], tr[C 2 B 2 ],

tr[AB], tr[A2 B], tr[AB 2 ], tr[A2 B 2 ], tr[CN 2 ], tr[C 2 N 2 ], tr[C 2 N 2 CN ],

tr[A2 N 2 ], tr[A2 N 2 AN ], tr[BN 2 ], tr[B 2 N 2 ], tr[B 2 N 2 BN ]

(4.162)

tr[CAB], tr[CAN ], tr[C 2 AN ], tr[CA2 N ], tr[CN 2 AN ],

tr[CBN ], tr[C 2 BN ], tr[CB 2 N ], tr[CN 2 BN ],

tr[ABN ], tr[A2 BN ], tr[AB 2 N ], tr[AN 2 BN ] .

(4.163)

This representation accounts for the dependence tr[A] = tr[AN 2 ] among the quadratic

invariants. Possible linear dependencies of invariants of higher order in C have not been

checked.

4.6.8.2. Application to Quadratic Functions. A combination of the invariants of

the above introduced basis to a set that serves for the formulation of quadratic tensor

functions gives the set

I := {tr[C]2 , tr[CN 2 ]2 , tr[C] tr[CN 2 ], tr[C 2 ], tr[A], tr[C], tr[CN 2 ]} .

(4.164)

Thereby one linear dependency was considered when setting up (4.164), i.e.

tr[C 2 N 2 ], =

1

2

1

2

tr[C 2 ]

2

3

tr[A]

(4.165)

= (C, A, B, N ) = (I1 , ..., I7 ) =

P7

i=1

i Ii .

Deriving this function two times with respect to C the constant tensor

P

,CC = 5i=1 i Ci with Ci := CC Ii

(4.166)

(4.167)

66

C3 = I4 (C, 1, C, N 2 )

C1 = I2 (C, 1)

2

C2 = I2 (C, N )

C5 = I1 (A, 1)

C4 = I3 (C, C, 1) .

(4.168)

Aijabcd = Aij,Cab Ccd = 2D6h

ijabcd .

Setting a1 = e1 , a2 = 12 e1 +

coordinate form

,CC

C11 C13

C33

:=

sym.

3

e,

2 2

a3 = 12 e1 ,

0

0

0

1

(C

11 C12 )

2

0

0

0

0

C55

0

0

0

0

0

C55

(4.169)

3

e

2 2

for G = C6h

(4.170)

C11 = 2 1 + 2 2 2 3 + 2 4 + 49 5

C33 = 2 1 + 2 4

C55 = 4

C12 = 2 1 + 2 2 2 3 + 34 5

C13 = 2 1 3 .

(4.171)

4.6.9. Hexagonal Functions Symmetry Group D6h

4.6.9.1. Isotropic Extension Functions. From the second anisotropy type with hexagonal symmetry we investigate the class with D6h symmetry. The set of structural secondorder tensor functions differs from that for the first hexagonal type only in the constant

tensor, i.e.

6h

A

B

P3

:=

i=1 ai ai ai ai ai ai

:= (D6h : C) : C

:= (D6h : C 2 ) : C 2

:= n n .

(4.172)

Here n denotes a vector of unit length aligned with the principal six-fold direction of

D6h . The three vectors ai all lie in one plane characterized by the normal n. They are

inclined at 120 and coincide with the two-fold axes. A functional basis for a D6h -invariant

scalar-valued tensor function is obtained from table 9 for the four symmetric tensors C,

A, B and N that enter the function as additional arguments defined above. The basis

contains the fundamental invariants

tr[C], tr[C 2 ], tr[C 3 ], tr[A], tr[A2 ], tr[A3 ], tr[B], tr[B 2 ], tr[B 3 ],

(4.173)

67

tr[CA], tr[C 2 A], tr[CA2 ], tr[C 2 A2 ], tr[CB], tr[C 2 B], tr[CB 2 ], tr[C 2 B 2 ],

tr[CM ], tr[C 2 M ] tr[AB], tr[A2 B], tr[AB 2 ], tr[A2 B 2 ],

tr[AM ], tr[A2 M ], tr[BM ], tr[B 2 M ],

(4.174)

tr[CAB], tr[CBM ], tr[ACM ], tr[ABM ] .

(4.175)

In the above given listing the identities tr[AM ] = 0 and M = M 2 have already been

considered.

4.6.9.2. Application to Quadratic Functions. Combination of the invariants to set

up a quadratic function in C and accounting that

tr[C 2 M ] =

1

4

tr[C]2 + 43 tr[CM ]2

1

2

tr[C] tr[CM ] +

1

2

tr[C 2 ]

2

3

tr[A]

leads to a set of invariants that permit the construction of a complete D6h -invariant

scalar-valued tensor function, i.e.

I := {tr[C]2 , tr[CM ]2 , tr[C] tr[CM ], tr[C 2 ], tr[A], tr[C], tr[CM ]} .

(4.176)

= (C, A, BM ) = (I1 , ..., I7 ) =

P7

i=1

i Ii .

P

,CC = 5i=1 i Ci with Ci := CC Ii

(4.177)

(4.178)

C1 = I2 (C, 1)

C3 = I4 (C, 1, C, M )

C2 = I2 (C, M )

C4 = I3 (C, C, 1)

C5 = I1 (A, 1) .

(4.179)

Aijabcd = Aij,Cab Ccd = 2D6h

ijabcd .

Setting a1 = e1 , a2 = 12 e1 +

coordinate form

c11 c13

c33

,CC :=

sym.

3

e,

2 2

a3 = 12 e1 ,

0

0

0

1

(c11 c12 )

2

0

0

0

0

c55

0

0

0

0

0

c55

(4.180)

3

e

2 2

for G = D6h

(4.181)

c11 = 2 1 + 2 4 + 94 5

c12 = 2 1 + 34 5

c33 = 2 1 + 2 2 + 2 3 + 2 4

c13 = 2 1 + 3

c55 = 4

in terms of the five parameters 1...5 .

(4.182)

68

4.6.10.1. Isotropic Extension Functions. A hexoctahedral functions with symmetry

group Oh can be obtained by application of representation theorems for isotropic function

with the help of the set of two structural functions

(C) : {A, B} with

P

Oh := 3i=1 ai ai ai ai

A := Oh : C, B := Oh : C 2 .

(4.183)

The three unit vectors ai are orthogonal to each other. Each vector coincides with a fourfold symmetry axis. For the extension functions (4.183) a functional basis is obtained from

table 8 for three symmetric second-order tensors. We get the fundamental invariants

tr[C], tr[C 2 ], tr[C 3 ], tr[A3 ], tr[B 2 ], tr[B 3 ],

(4.184)

tr[CA], tr[C 2 A], tr[CA2 ], tr[C 2 A2 ], tr[CB], tr[C 2 B],

tr[CB 2 ], tr[C 2 B 2 ], tr[AB], tr[A2 B], tr[AB 2 ], tr[A2 B 2 ]

(4.185)

tr[CAB] .

(4.186)

When setting up this list, the following identities have been taken into account

tr[C] = tr[A] ,

tr[C 2 ] = tr[B] ,

tr[A2 ] = tr[CA] .

invariants, the set of combined invariants

I := {tr[C]2 , tr[C 2 ], tr[A2 ], tr[C]}

(4.187)

is obtained. The four elements are linearly independent and constitute a functional basis

that allows the construction of a complete quadratic scalar-valued Oh -invariant tensor

polynomial. In order to derive a representation of the constant second derivative of the

function we consider the polynomial

P

= (C, A, B) = (I1 , ..., I4 ) = = 4i=1 i Ii .

(4.188)

This form leads to the derivative

P

,CC = 3i=1 i Ci

with Ci := CC Ii .

(4.189)

C1 = I2 (C, 1) C2 = I3 (C, C, 1) C3 = I3 (A, A, 1)

(4.190)

Aijab = Aij,Cab = Ohijab ,

Bijabcd = Bij,Cab Ccd = 21 (Ohijac bd + Ohijad bc + Ohijbc ad + Ohijbd ac ) .

(4.191)

69

The well known coordinate representation is obtained for specific orientations of the

anisotropy axes. Setting ai = ei one gets the well-known representation

,CC

0

c

c

0

0

11

12

c11 0

0

:=

c44 0

sym.

c44

0

0

0

0

0

c44

for G = Oh

(4.192)

c11 = 2 1 + 2 2 + 2 3 ,

c12 = 2 1

and c44 = 2

(4.193)

4.6.11. Cubic Functions Symmetry Group Th

4.6.11.1. Isotropic Extension Functions. The second type of cubic anisotropy consists of the two classes T and Th . We focus here on the latter one because it contains the

central inversion as a symmetry operation. The set

Th := Tah + Tsh

Ts := P

h

(i,j)Q ai ai aj aj

aj aj ai ai

P

a

Th :=

(i,j,k)P ai (aj ak + ak aj )

(4.194)

constitutes extension functions for the considered symmetry class. The set P in the

definition of the tensor Tah consists of the even permutations, the indices of the set Q

appearing in the definition of Tsh take the values given below, i.e.

Q := {(12), (23)(31)} and P := {(1, 2, 3), (2, 3, 1), (3, 1, 2)} .

The three unit vectors ai are co-linear to the two-fold axes. A functional basis for a

Th -invariant scalar-valued tensor function is a linear combination of the functional basis

for a symmetric tensor C and a skew symmetric tensor W := Tah : C and the functional

basis for two symmetric tensors C and A := Tsh : C. Thus we obtain from table 8 the

fundamental invariants

tr[C], tr[C 2 ], tr[C 3 ], tr[A2 ], tr[A3 ], tr[W 2 ],

(4.195)

tr[C 2 A], tr[CA2 ], tr[C 2 A2 ], tr[CW 2 ], tr[C 2 W 2 ], tr[C 2 W 2 CW ] .

Here the identities tr[A] = 0 and tr[CA] = 0 have been considered.

(4.196)

70

4.6.11.2. Application to Quadratic Functions. Based on the above specified invariants that constitute a function basis, the following set of combined invariants is obtained

I := {tr[C]2 , tr[C 2 ], tr[A2 ], tr[C]} .

(4.197)

Thereby the invariant tr[W 2 ] = 34 (tr[C]2 + tr[A2 ]) 4 tr[C 2 ] was dropped out. The set

I permits the construction of an Th -invariant function of the form

P

= (C, A, W ) = (I1 , ..., I4 ) = 4i=1 i Ii .

(4.198)

P

,CC = 3i=1 i Ci with Ci := CC Ii

(4.199)

(4.200)

Aijab = Aij,Cab = Ths

ijab .

(4.201)

In the case where the two-fold axes coincide with the global coordinate axes, i.e. a i = ei ,

the coordinate form

,C

0

c11 c12 0

0

c

0

0

11

:=

c44 0

sym.

c44

0

0

0

0

0

c44

for G = Th

(4.202)

is obtained. The coordinates are given as functions of three material constants, i.e.

c11 = 21 + 22 + 43

c12 = 2 1 2 3

and c44 = 2 .

(4.203)

4.6.12.1. Isotropic Extension Functions. For the transversely isotropic symmetry

class with symmetry group Ch the set

: {N } with N := n

(4.204)

can be used to construct a Ch -invariant scalar-valued tensor function. The unit vector

n is aligned to the principal anisotropy axes. A complete functional basis consists of the

invariants of the symmetric second-order tensor C and the skew symmetric tensor N .

Thus from table 8 we get the fundamental invariants of C

tr[C], tr[C 2 ], tr[C 3 ]

(4.205)

tr[CN 2 ], tr[C 2 N 2 ], tr[C 2 N 2 CN ] .

(4.206)

71

listed above to quadratic terms yields together with the linear and a priori quadratic

invariants the functional basis

I := {tr[C]2 , tr[CN 2 ]2 , tr[C] tr[CN 2 ], tr[C 2 ], tr[C 2 N 2 ], tr[C], tr[CN ]} .

(4.207)

P

,CC = 5i=1 i Ci

P7

i=1 i Ii

(4.208)

with Ci := CC Ii

(4.209)

C1 = I2 (C, 1)

C3 = I4 (C, 1, C, N 2 )

C2 = I2 (C, N 2 )

C4 = I3 (C, C, 1)

C5 = I3 (C, C, N 2 ) .

(4.210)

,CC

c11 c13

c33

:=

sym.

0

0

0

1

(c

11 c12 )

2

0

0

0

0

c55

0

0

0

0

0

c55

for G = Ch .

(4.211)

c11 = 2(1 + 2 3 + 4 5 )

c33 = 2 1 + 2 4

c55 = 4

1

2

c12 = 2(1 + 2 3 )

c13 = 2 1 3

(4.212)

4.6.13. Transversely Isotropic Functions Symmetry Group Dh

4.6.13.1. Isotropic Extension Functions. From the second type of transversely isotropic symmetry classes the one with material symmetry group Dh is investigated. The

set

: {M } with M := n n

(4.213)

is an isotropic extension. n is a unit vector that coincides with the principal direction

of Dh . Once the isotropic extension functions are known, any transversely isotropic

scalar-valued tensor function with symmetry group Dh can be represented in terms of

the elements of a functional basis for two symmetric second-order tensors C and M .

72

Taking into account the property M = M 2 of the structural tensor, a possible functional

basis consists of the fundamental invariants

tr[C], tr[C 2 ], tr[C 3 ]

(4.214)

tr[CM ] and

tr[C 2 M ] .

(4.215)

4.6.13.2. Application to Quadratic Functions. The above given elements are combined such that the order in C of the combined terms is at most two. The thus obtained

set of monomials reads

I := {tr[C]2 , tr[CM ]2 , tr[C] tr[CM ], tr[C 2 ], tr[C 2 M ], tr[C], tr[CM ] } .

(4.216)

The basis I consists of seven invariants that may enter a transversely isotropic polynomial.

A typical form is

= (C, M ) = (I1 , ..., I7 ) =

P7

i=1

i Ii .

(4.217)

From that representation, the second derivative is obtained in terms of the first five

coefficients

,CC =

P5

i=1

i C i

with Ci := CC Ii .

(4.218)

C1 = I2 (C, 1)

C3 = I4 (C, 1, C, M )

C2 = I2 (C, M )

C4 = I3 (C, C, 1)

C5 = I3 (C, C, M ) .

(4.219)

,CC

c11 c13

c33

:=

sym.

0

0

0

1

(c

11 c12 )

2

0

0

0

0

c55

0

0

0

0

0

c55

for G = Dh .

(4.220)

c11 = 2 1 + 2 4

c12 = 2 1

c33 = 2(1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 )

c13 = 2 1 + 3 .

c55 = 4 +

1

2

(4.221)

73

4.6.14. Conclusion

The investigations of the representations for quadratic functions were carried out for

thirteen of the fourteen mechanics symmetry groups. Comparing the structure of the

coordinate-forms of the second derivatives, those for C6h , D6h , Ch and Dh as well as

those for Th and Oh symmetry are identical. Consequently, the fourth-order tensors of

these groups obey the same symmetries, respectively. All in all only ten different types

appear. This is a consequence of the restriction to quadratic functions which results in the

loss of information. Zheng & Boehler [163] discuss this observation. They introduce

the notion of physical symmetry for the symmetries that are covered by certain classes of

constitutive functions.

Anisotropic Elasticity

75

5. Anisotropic Elasticity

In continuum mechanics isotropic tensor functions have a huge spectrum of applications.

A representative example is the description of the elastic material behaviour of crystals.

The elastic strains are typically small so that a quadratic potential function as discussed

in chapter 4.6 can be used to describe the stored free energy in a material point. In

this case the second derivatives are the elastic moduli. Clearly, the elastic anisotropies of

crystals comprise the 32 crystal classes. Measured material constants for some crystals

can be found in Sutcliffe [135]. Further examples are multi-field problems as for instance thermo-elasticity or electro-elasticity. The symmetries belonging to the non-crystal

classes come typically up when considering quasi crystals and non-crystalline materials.

Engineering materials like composites or bio-materials like soft tissues which have a fibrous structure are typical representatives. Homogenized material behaviour or overall

behaviour observed on a macro-scale is also often characterized by the symmetries of the

non-crystal classes. A poly crystal for example is made up of grains of mono-crystals. For

randomly orientated grains the elastic overall behaviour is isotropic. Special distributions

of the orientations of the grains can result from forming processes and generally lead to

other symmetries of the elastic material response.

The well-known textbooks of Spencer [133] and Boehler [22] as well as the article of

Spencer [132] provide an introduction into the constitutive theory for anisotropic materials. Some articles with a strong focus on elasticity are listed below. The constitutive

description of fiber-reinforced composites in the small strain context for plane problems

is part of Zheng, Betten & Spencer [161] and Zheng & Betten [159]. BischoffBeiermann & Bruhns [19] derive an alternative representation for transverse isotropy

at small strains. Thereby the introduced invariants are physically interpretable. Applications to elasticity and visco-elasticity at small and finite strains are given in Kaliske

[58] and Holzapfel & Gasser [52]. A micro-mechanically based approach to hyperelasticity is provided by Bischoff, Arruda & Grosh [17]. They derive constitutive

equations for polymers and polymer-like materials showing a macroscopic orthotropic

behaviour. A transversely isotropic model for biological soft tissues and its finite element implementation is discussed by Weiss, Maker & Govindjee [150]. Menzel &

Steinmann [76] compare different approaches to the description of orthotropic elasticity

at finite strains. To guarantee the existence of minimizing solutions in the context of a

variational formulation of elasticity, the stress potential function must be quasiconvex.

The condition of quasiconvexity is rather hard to handle. Alternatively, the stronger con der & Neff [118]. They

dition of polyconvexity can be used. This is done by Schro

derive polyconvex functions for transversal isotropic materials and propose an extension

to account for orthotropic symmetries. A slightly weaker restriction than quasiconvexity

is that of rank-1-convexity. Both restrictions are very close to each other and from the

viewpoint of engineering applications, the latter is considered to be sufficient. Bruhns,

Xiao and Meyers [27] investigate strain energy functions in terms of logarithmic strains

and derive ranges where the functions are infinitesimally rank-1-convex.

The main characteristic of elastic materials is that the applied work in a loading process

of the material is stored without any loss and is gained back when unloading. The stress

76

Anisotropic Elasticity

states are in a one-to-one relation to the strain states. Loading and unloading takes place

on the same path in the stress-strain space, hysteresis effects are not present, i.e. D = 0

in (2.63). In the ensuing parts of this chapter we concentrate on a Lagrangian description

of elasticity.

As discussed in section 2.4.1 functions formulated in terms of the right Cauchy-Green

tensor C := F T gF are a priori objective. Let G denote a given material symmetry group

representing the symmetries of the material under consideration. The set of G-invariant

second-order tensor functions that allows the modeling of the free energy function as

an isotropic function is denoted by (C). Then a G-invariant function of C is obtained

from an isotropic function of C and (C) at fixed structural functions. Thus

= (C, (C)) = (I1 , . . . , In )

(5.1)

where I1,...,n are the invariants of the set {C, (C)} that constitute a functional basis.

Within a Lagrangian framework, the second Piola-Kirchhoff stresses are obtained by the

derivative of the free energy function with respect to C. Application of the chain rule

yields the representation

S := 2C = 2

Pn

(5.2)

The numerical treatment within a computer code requires the second derivative of the

free energy function. Application of the chain rule gives

o

Pn n Pn

2

C := 4CC = 4 i=1

.

(5.3)

j=1 ,Ii Ij Ii,C Ij,C + ,Ii Ii,CC

The split of the stresses and moduli in (5.2) and (5.3) into scalar derivatives with respect to the invariants and the derivatives of the invariants with respect to C leads to

convenient implementations of constitutive models. It offers a high flexibility and allows

a fast implementation of different constitutive functions, as long as the basis of invariants remains unchanged. This is because the derivatives Ii,C remain unchanged in such a

scenario.

5.2.1. Fiber-Reinforced Technical Rubber

A typical example for an anisotropic elastic material is a rubber that is reinforced with

one family of fibers. The orientation of the fibers is described by the vector a. The

isotropic extension function for a Dh symmetry group is the constant structural tensor

:= {a a} .

(5.4)

In order to account for the incompressibility of rubber-like materials, the free energy

function is split into a volumetric part vol and an isochoric part iso . The volume map

(2.30) is a measure for the volumetric deformation of a material point. This motivates

the split of the deformation gradient into a spherical part J 1/3 1 and a unimodular part

:= J (1/3) F SL(3). An a priori objective free energy function is then formulated in

F

:= F

T gF

. For the isochoric elastic strain measure of the Seth-Hill family

terms of C

=

E

1

2

G)

(C

(5.5)

77

Anisotropic Elasticity

.

= vol (J) + iso (E)

(5.6)

The volumetric part is a scalar-valued scalar function and can therefore not serve to

describe anisotropic behaviour. The anisotropy is completely modeled by the isochoric

part. A function basis can be obtained from table 9. It consists of the five invariants

tr[E

2 ], tr[E

3 ], tr[E(

a a)], tr[E

2 (a a)]} .

I := {tr[E],

(5.7)

We consider a model problem, where the isochoric part of the free energy function depends

on two invariants only, i.e.

P

(5.8)

iso = 3i=1 ci I1i + 1 I42 + 2 I1 I4 .

The isotropic part is a Yeoh model. It is described by three material parameters c i . The

anisotropic part is associated with the stiffness of the fibers. For the volumetric part we

set vol = (J ln[J] 1). The stresses and moduli are obtained by differentiation with

Based on the first and second-order derivatives with respect to E

respect to C.

,I4 I4 , E

T := E = P

,I1 I1 , E +

P

2

E := E

Ij,E

+ ,Ii Ii,E

E

}

E

=

i=1,4 {

j=1,4 ,Ii Ij Ii,E

(5.9)

= 4 2 = PT : E : P + T : L .

= 2C = T : P and C

S

CC

(5.10)

,C and L := 4E

,C C were introduced by Miehe & LamThe mapping tensors P := 2E

brecht [88]. They specify efficient spectral-decomposition-based algorithms to perform

mappings of the type (5.10) for all strain tensors of the Seth-Hill family. The transposition

operator in (5.10) is associated with the first and last pair of indices.

In a first example we demonstrate the effects of the orientation of the transversal structural tensor a a. Consider a rectangular bar made of two layers of a fiber-reinforced

incompressible rubber material. The fibers orientations in the upper layer are defined by

the structural vector au , those in the lower layer by al . Figure 22 shows the specimen.

u/2

PSfrag replacements

au

u

l

al

u/2

Figure 22: Tension test of a rectangular bar. The bar of dimensions 10 5 1mm is

deformation driven pulled up to a total elongation of u = 10mm. The bar consists of two

layers of fiber-reinforced rubber material whereby the orientations of the fibers differ.

78

Anisotropic Elasticity

Its dimensions are 10 5 1mm. The bar is stretched to its double size in a deformation

controlled process. The material is assumed to be quasi-incompressible. The isochoric

part of the free energy is assumed to be of the form (5.8). The three material parameters

ci describe the isotropic response. Kaliske [58] has identified the following values for a

filled rubber: c1 = 0.5894, c2 = 0.1203, c3 = 0.04484. Their units are N/mm2 . The

anisotropic part is determined by the constants 1 = 1.0N/mm2 and 2 = 0.2N/mm2 .

The bulk modulus is set to = 1000N/mm2 . The deformed shape of the bar strongly

depends on the orientation of the structural tensors. We investigate two settings. In the

first one the vectors are oriented at l = +45 and u = 45 . This leads to a torsion of

the bar. The rotation is such that the orientations of the fibers align with the loading axis

because the stiffness of the material rises to its highest value in direction of the fibers.

See figure 23a for the deformed shapes. The plot in figure 24a quantifies the rotation of

the cross section at the end of the bar. It shows the angle of rotations of the fictitious

straight edges through the corner nodes of the cross section. If we set l = 90 and

replacements

PSfrag replacements

a1

a2

a1

a2

200

200

replacements

PSfrag replacements

a1

a2

a1

a2

200

200

replacements

PSfrag replacements

a1

a2

a1

a2

200

200

replacements

PSfrag replacements

a1

a2

a1

a2

200

a.

200

b.

Figure 23: Tension test of a rectangular bar. Deformed configurations for (a) l = +45 ,

u = 45 and (b) l = 90 , u = 0 . The two lower corner points of the cross section of

the back face are fixed in vertical direction.

79

Anisotropic Elasticity

0

140

1600

3200

4800

6400

angle [ ]

40

60

80

100

Sfrag replacements

120

140

a.

10

displacement u [mm]

300

0.3

0.4

0.5

PSfrag replacements

0

displacement u [mm]

1600

3200

4800

6400

250

load [N/mm2 ]

deflection [mm]

40

b.

1600

3200

4800

6400

0.2

c.

60

displacement u [mm]

0.1

0.6

80

10

Sfrag replacements

100

20

PSfrag replacements

0

1600

3200

4800

6400

120

load [N/mm2 ]

20

200

150

100

50

0

10

d.

10

displacement u [mm]

Figure 24: Tension of a rectangular bar. Twisting bar: (a) Relative torsion of the fictitious

edges obtained by straight interpolation of the corner nodes of the cross-sections at the ends:

average rotations. The upper curves document the rotation of the long edges at the top and

bottom surface, the lower curves belong to the short edges on the left and right side. (b)

Load displacement curve. Bending bar: (c) Deflection of the mid-points of the cross-section.

(d) Load displacement figure.

u = 0 the deformation mode is completely different. In the lower layer the contraction

is blocked by the stiff fibers. Consequently the bar deforms to a groove as shown in figure

23b. The deflection in the mid-point of the cross sections is plotted in figure 24c. Figures

24b,d show the load displacement figures for both settings. The numerical computations

were carried out with Q1P0 elements as described for example in Miehe [77]. The bar

was discretized with 1600, 3200, 4800 and 6400 elements. The results of all simulations

are close up to a total deformation of u 3.5mm. Then the deflections obtained with

the different discretizations diverge. Small deviations are also observed for the angle of

rotation of the bar. The load displacement figures are independent of the discretization.

In a second example we simulate the inflation of an elastic fiber-reinforced membrane.

The specimen is depicted in figure 25. The radius is 400mm and the thickness is 30mm.

It is loaded on its lower surface with a pressure p = 10N/mm2 . The boundary of the

upper surface is fixed in all three directions. The constitutive model is identical to the

one used for the rectangular bar, the material parameters are chosen as follows: = 1000,

c1 = 0.5894, c2 = 0.1203, c3 = 0.04484, 1 = 1.0 and 2 = 0.25, all in N/mm2 . To

80

Anisotropic Elasticity

PSfrag replacements

Figure 25: Inflation of a fiber reinforced sheet. The circular sheet has a radius of 400mm.

Its thickness is 30mm. The parallel lines symbolize the fibers. The boundary of the top face

is completely fixed, the bottom face is loaded with a pressure p = 10N/mm 2 .

perform the simulation the material model has been implemented into the non-linear

finite element program Abaqus Standard via the umat user interface. The specimen

is discretized with 474 C3D8I eight-node continuum elements arranged in a single layer.

The element design bases on an extension of the incompatible mode method to the non & Armero [123]. The results of the simulation are

linear regime as suggested by Simo

documented in figure 26. While for isotropic material behaviour the deformed shape is

a sphere, the fibers prevent the uniform extension of the specimen. As the anisotropic

terms of the free energy function can be associated with contributions coming from fibers

that are added to the isotropic matrix material, the extension along the fiber direction

is expected to be less than in other directions. This effect can clearly be observed in the

plots in figure 26.

a.

b.

c.

Figure 26: Inflation of a sheet. Different stages of inflation: (a) side view, (b) view from

below and (c) perspective view.

81

PSfrag replacements

6.1.1. Geometry of Multiplicative Plasticity, Stress Tensors

The key assumption of plastic-map plasticity is the multiplicative decomposition of the

deformation gradient into an elastic map F e and a plastic map F p , i.e. F = F e F p . This

split was first introduced by Lee [65]. Many models of crystal plasticity base on this

F e C, S

Fp

g,

F =

x

X

S

C,

B

Fe

Fp

Figure 27: Kinematic setting for multiplicative plasticity. A point X of the Lagrangian

configuration B is mapped by the non-linear point map onto the point x of the Eulerian

configuration S. Motivated by crystal plasticity, the tangent map F = is multiplicatively

decomposed into a plastic part F p and a part F e := F F p1 accounting for the elastic

deformation and the rigid body rotation of the slip systems. This split introduces a local

and symmetric stresses

incompatible intermediate configuration B with convected metric C

kinematic ansatz. Therein F p describes the part of the deformation that results from

plastic flow on crystallographic planes whereas F e describes the reversible distortion of

the lattice plus the rigid body rotation of the lattice. The elastic map is defined by the

composition

F e := F F p1

(6.1)

of the deformation gradient and the inverse plastic map. F p is considered as an internal

variable that develops according to a constitutive ansatz with initial condition F p (t =

t0 ) = 1. The plastic map defines locally a stress-free state associated with a plastic

see figure 27 for an illustration. In this configuration the

intermediate configuration B,

current metric

:= F eT gF e

C

(6.2)

is a function solely of the elastic part of the deformation. Hence it is a suitable measure

for the stored free energy function. The symmetric stress tensor in the intermediate

configuration is defined as the pull-back of the Kirchhoff stress tensor, i.e.

:= F e1 F eT .

S

(6.3)

Alternatively the quantities in (6.2) and (6.3) are obtained by a push-forward of the

and S

are

Lagrangian tensors C and S, respectively. By construction, the quantities C

82

:= F e S

defines the first Piola-Kirchhoff stress

work conjugate. The transformation g P

tensor with respect to the intermediate configuration. It is work conjugate to the elastic

map F e .

= F F 1

Within the subsequent development, the spatial velocity gradient l := grad[ x]

PSfrag replacements

that appears in the Clausius-Duhem inequality plays an important role. The pulled back

:= F e1 lF e to the intermediate configuration decomposes additively into an

quantity L

elastic and a plastic part, i.e.

e

:= F e1 F e

L

e

p

(6.4)

L = L + L with

p := F p F p1 .

L

These two parts represent the temporal change of the elastic and plastic maps separately

with respect to the intermediate configuration. A visualization of the introduced tensors

is given in figure 28.

X

x

Fe

Fp

TX B

S

TX B

p

P

F eT

F pT

TX? B

TX? B

Tx S

Tx? S

Figure 28: Multiplicative decomposition of the tangent map F into an elastic part F e and

a plastic part F p in plastic-map plasticity.

6.2.1. Energy Storage and Elastic Stress Response

As pointed out in section 2.4.1, an a priori objective free energy function is obtained by

defined in (6.2)

assuming a functional dependence on the elastic deformation measure C

with respect to the intermediate configuration, i.e.

q ) .

= (C,

(6.5)

Here = 0 is the locally stored energy per unit reference volume and q a generalized

vector of internal variables. The latter is governed by a constitutive assumption for q ,

evolving from the initial condition q (X, t = t0 ) = 0. Any thermodynamically consistent constitutive model has to satisfy the second law of thermodynamics. The temporal

evolution of the free energy is obtained straight forward with (6.1) as

,C F pT ] : F p + ,q q .

= 2[gF e ,C F pT ] : F 2[C

(6.6)

From the dissipation inequality (2.63)2 one obtains the first Piola-Kirchhoff stresses by

standard argumentation

gP := ,F e F pT = 2gF e ,C F pT .

(6.7)

83

Furthermore the stress-like internal variables conjugate to the plastic deformation F p and

the internal variable vector q are

p := F eT ,F e F pT = 2C

,C F pT

GP

:= ,q .

and Q

(6.8)

by

The actual dissipated energy is then given in terms of the Mandel tensor

:L

p + Q

q 0 with

:= F eT ,F e = 2C

,C .

0 D =

(6.9)

p and the Mandel tensor

are

given in figure 28. Both, the plastic evolution operator L

mixed variant objects.

6.2.2. Dissipation and Plastic Flow Response

Consider a non-smooth convex elastic domain E that bounds the internal forces

Q)|f

(,

Q)

c 0 ;

E := {(,

= 1, . . . , m} .

(6.10)

The functions := f c are denoted as yield criteria functions. The principle of

maximum dissipation governs the evolution of the internal variables. This constrained

optimization problem can be solved with a Lagrange multiplier method, i.e.

Q,

) = (

:L

p + Q

q ) + P (f (,

Q)

c ) stat.

L(,

(6.11)

p = P f and q = P f

L

,Q

,

(6.12)

penalty method. Then one has to solve the minimization problem

Q)

:= (

:L

p + Q

q ) + 1 (f c )+2 min.

P(,

2

(6.13)

With this approach stress states outside of the elastic domain are admissible but penalized.

The superscript + has the meaning ()+ := 12 {|()|+()} and is a material parameter.

The evolution equations resulting from (6.13) are identical to those from the Lagrangian

multiplier method but the plastic parameters are identified as

1

:= (f c )+

(6.14)

and replace the loading conditions. In this case the yield criteria are replaced by viscous

pseudo yield functions

v :=

that give the rate-independent functions in the limit for 0.

(6.15)

84

The plastic flow rule (6.12)1 can be decomposed into a symmetric part and a skewsymmetric part. Multiplication of the flow operator from the left side with the convected

metric gives a covariant tensor that can be decomposed according to

L

p = D

p+W

p

C

(6.16)

p := sym[C

L

p ] and W

p := skew[C

L

p] .

D

(6.17)

Making use of the definition of the Mandel tensor in (6.9), the derivative of the level-set

function appearing in the flow rule can be expressed as

1 f

f, = C

,S

(6.18)

where S

configuration. Thus the symmetric part of the flow rule takes the form

p = P f

(6.19)

D

,S

p = 0.

and the plastic spin vanishes, W

For the subsequent developments, we consider a decoupling of the constitutive functions

into macroscopic and microscopic parts. This is typically done when considering crystalline materials. The elastic response function is assumed to be of the form

+ i (A)

= e (C)

(6.20)

where the internal variable vector is degenerated to a single scalar value, q = {A}, the socalled equivalent plastic strain. The macroscopic part e accounts for the stored energy

resulting from macroscopic lattice deformations. The microscopic or internal part i

describes contributions resulting from micro-stress fields as a consequence of dislocations

or point defects in the crystal lattice. The plastic stresses are

:= 2C

e

,C

i

.

and B := ,A

(6.21)

These stresses are restricted to the elastic domain, which is defined by yield criterion

functions. Here we assume the decoupled form of the level-set functions

+ f i (B) .

f = f e ()

(6.22)

In the following we denote the gradients of the level-set functions as normals defined by

:= f e

N

i

and N := f,B

.

(6.23)

p = P N

and A = P N

L

(6.24)

F p SL(3)

(6.25)

the plastic deformation of metals is volume preserving. This property can be integrated

into the constitutive model by restricting the plastic map to the special linear group, i.e.

det[F p ] = +1 .

85

The considered model problem is formulated with respect to the intermediate configuration. Consequently, the tangent moduli have to relate the relative rates of the stress

tensor and the deformation tensor in that configuration. These rates are given by the

objective Lie-derivatives

)

pT C

+C

L

p = 2D

= C

+ L

vp [C]

.

(6.26)

= S

pS

S

L

pT

L

p [S]

v

ep are then

is the rate of deformation tensor. The continuous tangent moduli C

Here D

defined by

ep :

=C

vp [S]

1

2

ep : D

=C

.

vp [C]

(6.27)

:= sym[C

N

] and Q

:= sym[S

N

T ]

P

(6.28)

in terms of the normal onto the -th yield surface as defined in (6.23). Together with the

flow operator (6.24) the first equation in (6.26) then takes the form

2 P P

= 2D

C

= 2S

,C , equation (6.26)2 can be recast to

and with the elastic moduli C

:P

:D

+ 2Q

] .

=C

P [ C

vp [S]

(6.29)

(6.30)

The plastic multipliers are obtained from the consistency conditions, stating that in

the case of plastic loading where 6= 0 the stress state remains on the yield surface, i.e.

P P

) P N KN = 0 .

f = 2f,e

:

(

D

(6.31)

C

i

Herein the hardening module is abbreviated by K := ,AA

. Inserting the identity

=Q

+

f,e

= N : ,C

C

1

2

: C

P

(6.32)

=

with the matrix

[g ]

:D

+P

: C)

(2Q

:P

+P

: C)

+ N KN .

g := (2Q

(6.33)

(6.34)

Finally, insertion of this equation into (6.30) allows the identification of the in general

unsymmetric continuous elastic-plastic tangent moduli as

ep := C

P P [g ]1 (C

:P

+ 2Q

) (2Q

+P

: C)

C

(6.35)

86

6.3.1. Outline of the Standard Stress Update Algorithms

We consider deformation controlled simulations where F n+1 is prescribed. Standard stress

update algorithms integrate the system of evolution equations of the internal variables

I in a discrete time interval [tn ; tn+1 ] while accounting for the restriction of the plastic

forces F to the elastic domain. This constraint is typically formulated by yield criterion

functions in terms of level-set functions of the time-continuous setting,

f (F , I) c

= 0 A

t

(6.36)

are the algorithmic parameters. The set A consists of those numbers of the flow systems

on which plastic loading takes place. In general this set is not known at the beginning of

the time step and has therefore to be determined by an iterative procedure as discussed

der [91]. See also the literature therein. An approach

for example in Miehe & Schro

circumventing the difficulties arising from the non-uniqueness of the activity of the slip

systems is proposed by Schmidt-Baldassari [114]. For the moment this set is assumed

to be known. The vectors of the internal variables and the internal forces are related by

p , Q}

to the quantities introduced at the beginning of this

I := {F p , q } and F := {GP

chapter. They are related by the constitutive equation

F + I (C, I) = 0 .

(6.37)

The evolution of internal variables is specified by an integration algorithm which is assumed to be a function of the internal variables, the internal forces and the active algorithmic parameters and to have the form

A(I, F , ) = 0 .

(6.38)

p := [I, F , ]T

(6.39)

leads to the following compact format of the non-linear system of evolution equations

F + I (C, I)

=0.

A(I, F , )

r(C, p) :=

(6.40)

f (F , I) + c + t

For strain-driven deformation processes in the above system the deformation gradient F

is fixed within the time step. The iterative solution based on a Newton scheme requires

the linearization Lin[r] = r + k p in terms of the matrix

,II

I

0

(6.41)

k := r ,p = A,I A,F A, .

f,I f,F t

The vector p introduced in (6.39) is updated according to

p p k1 r

(6.42)

87

until convergence is obtained in the sense that krk tol. Symmetry of the tangent matrix

k is obtained if the conditions

A,I = I ,

A, = f,F

and f,I

=0

(6.43)

are satisfied. In single surface plasticity this is for example the case for standard implicit

update algorithms of the form A := I In F f (F ) with level set functions which

depend on the internal force only.

Once the inelastic variables p := [I, F , ]T are determined by the above-outlined local

Newton iteration,the stresses are obtained by the constitutive expression

S = 2C (C, I)

(6.44)

from the free energy function. The sensitivity of the stresses with respect to the total

deformation

S = Calgo :

1

2

(6.45)

is governed by the fourth-order consistent tangent moduli tensor Calgo , which appears in

the form

2

2

Calgo = 4CC

+ 4Cp

p,C .

(6.46)

Here the sensitivity p,C of the inelastic variables with respect to the total deformation is

obtained implicitly from the condition (6.40) yielding r ,C + k p,C = 0 and therefore

p,C = k1 r ,C

(6.47)

in terms of the tangent matrix k evaluated at the solution point p of the local iteration.

Insertion into (6.46) gives the representation

2

2

Calgo = 4CC

4Cp

k1 r ,C

(6.48)

2

of the tangent moduli. Insertion of the explicit representations for CC

and r ,C gives

the final form

1

,II

I

0

,IC

,CI

(6.49)

Calgo = 4,CC 4 0 A,I A,F A, 0

f,I

f,F

0

0

t

of the tangent moduli, consisting of the elastic contribution and a softening term due to

the accumulation of inelastic deformation in the time interval under consideration. Note

that the tangent moduli are symmetric if the conditions (6.43) are satisfied. Observe

furthermore that Calgo can be represented in the form

,IC

Calgo = 4,CC 4,CI k

where k

1

,II

I

0

k

:= A,I A,F A, .

f,I

f,F

t

(6.50)

(6.51)

88

As for fast numerical computations within finite element codes, the general structure

outlined here can be modified so that the numerical effort is reduced. The main drawback

of the above-outlined algorithm is that the iteration is performed directly with the plastic

internal variables. This leads to a high number of local iteration steps. Taking into

account the structure of concrete algorithms allows the iteration with elastic quantities,

which need less iteration steps to converge. This is done in the next sections.

6.3.2. Implicit Stress Update Algorithm (U1)

The evolution of the plastic map F p is integrated by using an exponential map that

automatically preserves the plastic incompressibility property (6.25). In the context of

computational plasticity it was first introduced by Weber & Anand [149]. A backward

Euler scheme is applied to the integration of the equivalent plastic strain. Thus the

implicit integration scheme of the evolution equations in a time interval [t n , tn+1 ] that

accounts for the bounded plastic stress space is given by

F p = e1 F pn with e := exp A N

A = An + A N

(6.52)

0 ; f c 0 ; (f c ) = 0 .

PSfrag replacements

and N are the gradients of the level-set functions as defined in (6.23). Note that only the

F

X

F pn

TX B

x

F

e?

Tx S

Fe

Fp

e1

X

TX B

active constraints at the end of the time step enter the equations in (6.52). The numbers

of the active flow systems are collocated in the active set

A := { [1, m] | > 0} .

(6.53)

A procedure for its determination is specified in box 1 that summarizes the algorithm.

For the subsequent developments, we postulate that A is known. The update (6.52)1 is

equivalent to

F e = F e? e with F e? := F F np1

(6.54)

where F e? is the elastic trial value. For a geometrical interpretation of these mappings

see figure 29. On the basis of the following trial values

? := F e?T F e? ,

C

? := 2 e (C

?) ,

S

,C

? := C

?S

?

i

and B ? := ,A

(An )

(6.55)

89

History data: internal variables In = {F pn , An }

1. Compute trial values

? = F e?T F e? ,

F e? = F F np1 , C

? = 2 e (C

? ),

? = S

?C

? and B = i

S

,A

,C

Set initial values

=C

? , A = A? = An , =1...m = 0, A = An , S

=S

?,

C

B? = B

? ) + f i (B ? )

2. Check for plastic loading based on trial state f ? = f e (

if f ? c

[1, m]

exit

= 2 e ,

=C

S

, B = i , N

= f e

S

,

,A

,C

,

i

N = f,B

P

+ expT [ P

?

RC = C

A N ]C exp[

A N ]

P

RA = A + An + A N

+ f i (B) c

Rf = f e ()

t

q

P

if kRC k2 + kRB k2 + | A Rf |2 < tol goto 7

5. Compute increments

P

1

1

= A [g ]1 (Rf Rf ,C : RC,

Rf ,A RA,A RA )

C

: RC

1

with g = Rf ,C : R1

+ Rf ,A RA,A RA, +

C

: RC,

C,

+

P

C

R1

C

:

(R

+

C

A RC,

C,C

P

1

A A RA,A

(RA + A RA, )

goto 3

if < 0 for some A then

A A\? where ? := argA {min{ | A}}

? = 0

goto 3

endif

8. Check yield criteria

if f > c + t

for some [1, m] then

?

A A\ where ? := arg[1,m] {max{f |f > c +

goto 3

endif

t }}

90

one can decide whether or not plastic loading occurs. In order to solve the constrained

? , B ? ) c

problem (6.52) in the non-trivial case of plastic loading, indicated by f (

t

+ eT C

?e

RC := C

(6.56)

RA := A + An + N

+ f i (B)

Rf := f e ()

which have to vanish in the solution point. This non-linear coupled system of equations

is solved iteratively by a Newton scheme. Therefore (6.56) is linearized with respect to

A and , i.e.

C,

+ P RC,

Lin RC = RC + RC,

=

0

C

: C

P

(6.57)

Lin RA = RA + RA,A A + RA,

= 0

+ Rf ,A A + Rf , = 0 .

Lin Rf = Rf + Rf ,C : C

Solving (6.57)1,2 for the strain increments C

the algorithmic parameters from (6.57)3 . Resubstitution finally yields the updates for the

strain variables. The algorithm is summarized in box 1.

6.3.3. Explicit Stress Update Algorithm (U2)

Using an explicit integration scheme for the evolution equations of the internal variables,

the stress update algorithm takes a much simpler structure than its implicit counterpart

discussed in the last section. The integration scheme for the evolution equations in a time

interval [tn , tn+1 ] reads

F p = e1 F pn with e := exp A N

A = An + A Nn

(6.58)

0 ; f c 0 ; (f c ) = 0 .

The above equations differ from the implicit ones in (6.52) only in the normals, here they

are evaluated at the beginning of the time step. As before, := (tn+1 tn ) are the

incremental plastic parameters. The set A := { [1, m] | > 0} determines the active

constraints at the end of the time step and is assumed to be known for the moment.

Based on the trial values

? := F e?T F e? ;

C

? := 2 e (C

?) ;

S

,C

? := C

?S

?

i

and B ? := ,A

(An )

(6.59)

that are obtained with the definitions F e = F e? e and F e? := F F np1 one can determine

the loading state of the material in the considered time step. In the following, plastic

loading indicated by f c t

> 0 for at least one [1, m] is considered.

The only unknowns in (6.58) are the algorithmic parameters . They are determined by

the consistency conditions f c t

of the time step. These equations are solved iteratively by a Newton scheme. Therefore

consider the linearization

P

, + f i B,A P

= 0 .

(6.60)

f c + f,e

:

C

,B

A

A A,

C

t

91

, N }

History data: internal variables In = {F pn , An } and normals {N

n

n

1. Compute trial values

? = F e?T F e?

F e? = F F np1 ,

C

?) ,

? = S

?C

? , B ? = i (An )

? = 2 e (C

S

,A

,C

Set initial values

=C

? , A = An , =1...m = 0, A = An , e = 1, S

=S

?

C

? ) + f i (B ? )

2. Check for plastic loading based on trial state f ? = f e (

if f ? c

[1, m]

exit

i ,

=C

S

,

= 2 e ,

B = ,A

S

,C

= 4 e , K = i

C

,C C

= f e

N

,

,

i

N = f,B

,AA

4. Check convergence

qP

if

A (f c

2

t )

= sym[C

N

]

P

? = sym[e1 e, ]

N

tol goto 8

= sym[S

N

T ]

Q

? = sym[C

N

? ]

P

6. Compute increments

P

= A [g ]1 (f e + f i c

t )

:P

+P

: C)

? + N KN +

with g := (2Q

+

P

]

e = exp[ A N

n

sym[eT C

? e]

C

P

A A + A Nn

goto 3

if < 0 for some A then

A A\? where ? := argA {min{ | A}}

? = 0

goto 3

endif

9. Check yield criteria

if f > c + t

for some [1, m] then

?

A A\ where ? := arg[1,m] {max{f |f > c +

goto 3

endif

t }}

92

and Q

defined in (6.28) and using the relation

Introducing the symmetric tensors P

(6.32) gives the linear equation

f c +

:

+P

: C)

(2Q

1

2

, N KN = 0 .

C

(6.61)

The sensitivities of the elastic right Cauchy-Green tensor with respect to the algorithmic

parameters follow directly from the definition (6.2). Introducing the algorithmic tensors

? := e1 e,

N

(6.62)

then gives a representation for the algorithmic sensitivities of C

are analogous to the definitions (6.28) of the tensors P in the continuous setting, i.e.

? := 1 C

, = sym[eT C

? e, ] = sym[C

N

? ] .

P

2

(6.63)

With these definitions at hand, the algorithmic parameters are obtained from (6.61) as

P

= A [g ]1 (f c )

(6.64)

:P

+P

: C)

? + N KN + .

g := (2Q

t

(6.65)

Finally, it remains to update the internal variables according to the integration scheme

(6.58). A summary of the algorithm is given in box 2.

6.3.4. Algorithmic Tangent Moduli

The tangent moduli in the intermediate configuration are defined by

algo :

=C

vp? [S]

1

2

vp? [C]

(6.66)

= S

L

p? S

S

L

p?T

vp? [S]

= C

+L

p?T C

+C

L

p? = 2D

?

vp? [C]

(6.67)

The quantities that are superscribed with a star denote the algorithmic counterparts of

the variables introduced in the continuous setting. The incremental plastic flow operator

denotes the increment of the plastic map with respect to the intermediate configuration.

p? := F p F p1 = e1 e = e1 e. Making use of the

With (6.52) it is defined by L

via

and directly on , we get

fact that e depends on C

?

p? = P

?

(6.68)

L

A N + N : C

yields

with the definition N

: (D

? )

= 2B

?P

(6.69)

C

A P

1 := I + 2 sym12 [C

? ] and sym12 [] means the symmetric part with respect to

N

where B

the first two indices. The increments of the algorithmic plastic parameters are obtained

93

from the consistency conditions. In the case of plastic loading the stress state at the end

of the time step has to lie on the yield surface, i.e.

i

P

A .

(6.70)

f = f,e

: C +

A f, = t

C

i

i

The derivative f,e

is defined in (6.32) and f, = N KN where K := ,AA . Insertion

C

of the strain increment (6.69) into (6.70) then allows solving for the plastic parameters.

The result is

1

: D

? where R

:= P

= R

(6.71)

A [g ] (2Q + P : C) : B .

:B

:P

+P

: C)

? + N KN + .

g := (2Q

t

Substitution of the increments of the plastic parameters in (6.69) yields

:D

:= B

: (I P

=R

? where R

? R

)

C

A P

(6.72)

(6.73)

and then in turn the incremental flow operator in (6.68) as a function of the algorithmic

? , i.e.

rate of deformation tensor D

:D

:= (N

? : R

+P

? R

) .

p? = L

? where L

(6.74)

L

A N

This expression leads, when inserted into (6.67), together with the constitutive equation

: 1 C

to the form

=C

S

2

12

algo := C

C

: sym 12 [C

2 sym 12 [S

T ] .

L]

L

C

(6.75)

Making use of the structure of L in (6.74), the final form of the algorithmic moduli

algo := C

(C

:P

+ 2Q)

:R

P

? + 2Q

? ) R

C

A (C : P

(6.76)

? := sym[C

N

? ] and Q

? := sym[S

N

?T ]

P

(6.77)

12

:= sym 12 [C

? ] and Q

:= sym 12 [S

? T ] .

N

N

P

(6.78)

derivations of the stress update algorithm and the consistent tangent moduli are specified

in index notation. The key ingredient is the exponential map. Let m denote its argument,

then the derivative with respect to is

P

ab

ij .

eij, = eij,mab N

with mij = A N

(6.79)

94

Its

The normal N

is then given by the formulas

derivative with respect to C

ij,C = ik Slj +

kl

1

2

ajkl

Cia C

= N

.

and N

ij,Ckl

ij,ab ab,C

kl

(6.80)

RCij ,Ckl

RCij ,

RA,A

RA,

Rf ,Cij

Rf ,

Rf ,A

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

P

?

]

ik jl + 2 sym ij [eai Cab

ebj,mcd A N

cd,Ckl

?

2 symij [eai Cab

ebj, ]

P

i

i

1 A f,BB

,AA

N

N

ab ab,C

ij

i

N ,AA N

N ,AA .

(6.81)

There are some papers treating the numerical computation of the exponential map of

an unsymmetric argument and its derivatives. Ortiz, Radovitzky & Repetto [97]

compare two different methods for the computation of the exponential map and its first

and second derivatives. One of them bases on a Taylor series expansion of the exponential

map, the other one on a spectral representation of the argument tensor. In Itskov [56]

analytical expressions for the exponential map and its first derivative are obtained by

means of the Dunford-Taylor integral.

Simplifications for Explicit Integration. In cases where the normals onto the yield

= 0 and N = 0 for all [1, m], the above derived

surfaces are constant, i.e. N

,C

,A

equations can be simplified. This is for example the case in Schmid-type crystal plasticity,

where the structural tensors are constant in the intermediate configuration and for the

? = 0 and B

= I.

explicit integration scheme proposed in section 6.3.3. Then we have N

The moduli turn out to have a structure similar to the continuous setting, i.e.

P

1

.

algo := C

P

? + 2Q

? ) (2Q

+P

: C)

C

A

A [g ] (C : P

(6.82)

Consider the yield surface of single slip crystal plasticity specified by a level-set function of

:s

m|

where s

is a unit vector characterizing the slip direction and m

the type f e = |

? = P

is a unit vector associated with the normal of the slip plane. Then the identities P

?

=Q

hold and the moduli turn out to be symmetric. This follows immediately

and Q

from a series expansion of the exponential map in (6.68). This completes the classical

algorithmic treatment of crystal plasticity.

The constitutive model of elasto-plasticity outlined in section 6.2 belongs to the class of

so-called standard materials This generic type of material model can be related to the

publications by Biot [16], Ziegler [164], Germain [41], Halphen & Nguyen [46],

see also the recent treatments in the textbooks by Maugin [73] and Nguyen [96]. It

is described by two fundamental scalar-valued constitutive functions, an energy storage

function and a dissipation function.

95

Assume a functional dependence of the stored energy in a material point on the objective

right Cauchy-Green tensor C and an internal variable vector I. It governs the constitutive

equation for the second Piola-Kirchhoff stresses

S = 2C (C, I)

(6.83)

0 D = F I 0 with F := I (C, I) .

(6.84)

The dissipation function is assumed to depend upon the flux of the internal variables

and on the internal variables themselves. To cover the properties of a normal dissipative

mechanism, the following properties must hold: is convex with respect to the flux I,

I) 0 and is homogeneous of degree one with respect to the flux

(0, I) = 0, (I,

differential equation

I) with I(0) = I0

0 I (C, I) + I (I,

(6.85)

often referred to as Biots equation of standard dissipative systems, cf. Biot [16] and

Nguyen [96]. The two constitutive equations (6.83) and (6.85) determine the stress

response of a normal-dissipative material in a deformation-driven process where C is

prescribed. To account for a non-smooth dissipation function, the derivatives appearing

in (6.85) are understood to be sub-differentials. Plasticity and dry friction are timeindependent and non-viscous irreversible processes governed by non-smooth dissipation

functions. These functions are positively homogeneous of degree one in the fluxes,

I) = (I,

I) ,

(I,

(6.86)

have cone-like structures and are not differentiable at I = 0 as visualized in figure 30. An

introduction to sub-differential calculus in the context of plasticity theory can be found

e.g. in Han & Reddy [48] or Maugin [73].

PSfrag replacements

I)

(I,

I

I)

F I (I,

F

I F ?

Figure 30: Dissipation function (I,

?

(F , I) is the indicator function of the elastic domain E := I (0, I).

Based on the definition (6.84)2 of the internal forces F , one introduces a dual dissipation

function ? depending on the forces F by the Legendre-Fenchel transformation

I) } ,

? (F , I) = sup{ F I (I,

I

(6.87)

96

which is convex and positively homogeneous of degree one in the internal forces. The

definitions (6.84)2 and (6.87) induce the two alternative representations

I) and I F ? (F , I)

F I (I,

(6.88)

of Biots equation (6.85)1 . The internal force defined in (6.88)1 is an element of the cone

I) I }

E := I (0, I) := { F | F I (I,

(6.89)

that is identified with the elastic domain of (6.10). See figure 30 for an illustration. In

the case of plastic loading where I =

6 0 the reduced dissipation inequality (6.84)1 takes

the form

I) I = (I,

I) 0

0 D = I (I,

(6.90)

where the property (6.86) has been made use of, cf. appendix C. This inequality is

satisfied by the above-assumed properties of .

6.4.2. Incremental Variational Formulation

Now we proceed with the construction of an integrated version of constitutive equations

giving a consistent approximation of the continuous differential equation (6.85) in a finite

increment [tn , tn+1 ] R+ of time. Following conceptually the recent publications from

Miehe [85] and Miehe, Schotte & Lambrecht [90], we define an incremental stress

potential function W depending on the deformation measure C n+1 := C(tn+1 ) at time

tn+1 that determines the stresses S n+1 at time tn+1 by the quasi-hyperelastic function

evaluation

S n+1 = 2C W (C n+1 ) .

(6.91)

Clearly, this function W must cover characteristics of the storage function and the

dissipation function introduced above. To this end, consider the variational problem

W (C n+1 ) := inf

IGp

tn+1

[ + ] dt with I(tn ) = In .

(6.92)

tn

R t the incremental stress potential function W as a minimum of the

generalized work tnn+1 [ + ] dt done on the material in the time increment under consideration. Starting with the given initial condition I(tn ) = In , the minimum problem

defines an optimal path of the internal variables I(t) for t [tn , tn+1 ] including the right

boundary value In+1 := I(tn+1 ). The internal variables can be restricted to be elements

of a certain group, as for example F p SL(3) to guarantee plastic incompressible flow,

see (6.25). This is indicated by I Gp .

The two equations (6.91) and (6.92) provide an approximately variational counterpart to

the continuous setting (6.83) and (6.85) of the constitutive equations in the discrete time

step [tn , tn+1 ] under consideration. In order to show the consistency, we at first recast

(6.92) into the form

Z tn+1

tn+1

W (C n+1 ) = inf

[(C, I)]tn +

(I, I) dt .

(6.93)

IGp

tn

97

The necessary condition for the minimum problem is that the variation with respect to

the internal variables of the term in brackets vanishes, i.e.

[I

I]ttn+1

n

tn+1

tn

[ I I + I I ] dt = 0 .

(6.94)

[( I + I )

I]ttn+1

n

tn+1

tn

d

( ) + I ] I dt = 0 .

dt I

(6.95)

I + I = 0 for t = tn+1

(6.96)

at the discrete right boundary of the interval [tn , tn+1 ]. The minimizing path of the internal

variables inside the interval is determined by the Euler equation

d

( ) = 0 for t [tn , tn+1 ] .

dt I

(6.97)

In the limit tn+1 tn , the form of the minimization path becomes irrelevant because

the time increment degenerates to a discrete time tn+1 . Equation (6.96) still holds in this

case and therefore it is shown that the variational formulation (6.92) represents a consistent point-wise approximation of Biots normal-dissipative evolution equation (6.85).

Furthermore, taking the derivative of the incremental potential function with respect to

the strains C n+1 , we have

C W (C n+1 ) = C (C n+1 , In+1 ) ,

(6.98)

with (6.83) then shows the consistency of the potential equation (6.91) with the continuous

setting.

6.4.3. Specification to Multi-Surface Plasticity

In the subsequent development we consider a non-smooth convex elastic domain that

is described by m functions f (F , I) depending on the internal forces and the internal

variables. The level-surfaces f (F , I) = c with the thresholds c > 0 are assumed to

describe the boundary E of the domain

E := {F | f (F , I) c ;

= 1, . . . , m} ,

(6.99)

which is identical to (6.10). Here the functions f are assumed to be (i) convex with

respect to the plastic forces, (ii) positively homogeneous of degree one with respect to F

and (iii) zero at the origin, f (0, I) = 0. Application of the principle of maximum plastic

dissipation determines the evolution of the internal variables

I) = sup {F I}

.

(I,

F E

(6.100)

98

multiplier method. Therefore the dissipation function is extended by the weighted constraints and the solution is then obtained by

I) = sup inf {F I + P (f (F , I) c )}

(6.101)

(I,

F E

0 ,

f c 0 ,

(f c ) = 0 .

(6.102)

For known Lagrange multipliers (6.101) can be interpreted as the Legendre-Fenchel transformation of the dual dissipation potential

P

? (F , I) = (f (F , I) c ) .

(6.103)

Insertion into (6.88)2 yields the evolution equation

P

I = F f (F , I) .

(6.104)

Alternatively, problem (6.100) can be solved approximately with a penalty method. Introducing the inverse penalty parameter , the approximative solution

X 1

I) = sup {F I

(f (F , I) c )+2 }

(6.105)

(I,

2

F E

is obtained. Physically, the inverse penalty parameter can be interpreted as the viscosity

of the material. This approach regularizes the rate-independent ansatz (6.101). Equation

(6.105) may be interpreted as the Legendre-Fenchel transformation of the dual dissipation

function

P 1

(f (F , I) c )+2 .

(6.106)

? (F , I) = 2

The evolution equation for the internal variables follows from (6.88)2 in the same form as

in the rate-independent case that is given in (6.104) but with the parameters

1

:= (f c )+

(6.107)

The evolution equation (6.104) can be viewed as a split of the evolution into normal

directions F f and the amounts of plastic flow. Evaluation of the dissipation (6.100)

at the solution point with the rate (6.104) and exploiting the homogeneity of the functions

f gives the representation

P

(6.108)

(1 , . . . , m ) = f 0

of the dissipation. Thus the image of the level-set function f can be considered as the

force driving the amount of flow on the flow system . From (6.102)3 we get f = c

in the case of rate-independent plastic loading and from (6.107) f = + c for ratedependent plastic loading. Both cases are covered by the scalar dissipation function of

the form

P

(6.109)

(1 , . . . , m ) = ( ) with := c + 2 2

which is a function of the plastic multipliers only. The rate-independent case is obtained

for = 0.

99

The integration of the rate and the dissipation function requires function evaluations

of the free energy and the dissipation function at time tn+1 and therefore bases on the

internal variables at the end of the time step. The internal variables are obtained by

some integration algorithm that accounts for the constrained plastic forces to the elastic

domain. In contrast to the standard stress update algorithm outlined in section 6.3.1

we now formulate this constraint by algorithmic yield criteria functions which lead to a

symmetric formulation of the update algorithm.

6.4.4.1. Integration of the Free Energy. A key kinematic quantity in the timediscrete setting that allows the construction of a symmetric formulation is the relative

plastic deformation gradient defined by

p

f := F p F np1 .

(6.110)

The current metric in the intermediate configuration is a function of the relative deformation gradient

:= F eT gF e = F pT CF p1 = f pT C

? f p1

C

(6.111)

:= F e?T F e? is the trial metric in the increment evaluated with the elastic

where C

trial deformation gradient F e? := F F np1 . Thus in the time increment [tn , tn+1 ] the

relative deformation gradient replaces the internal variable F p and the free energy function

q ) can alternatively be parameterized by the total deformation and the incremental

(C,

internal variables, i.e.

= (C, I ? )

(6.112)

p

where I ? := {f , q } is the vector of algorithmic internal variables. The algorithmic plastic

forces dual to the algorithmic internal variables are given by the derivatives

F ? := I ? (C, I ? )

(6.113)

the form

A(I ? , F ? , ) = 0

(6.114)

6.4.4.2. Integration of the Dissipation Function. Before integrating the dissipation

function over the time interval, the dissipation is reformulated in terms of the relative deformation gradient associated with the considered time interval that is introduced above.

In the dissipation inequality (6.9), we express the macroscopic part of the dissipation by

the scalar product of two algorithmic quantities associated with the time-interval under

consideration,

p .

:L

p =

: (F p F p1 F p F p1 ) =

:f

n

n

(6.115)

100

p

Herein f denotes the algorithmic relative deformation gradient defined in (6.110) and

the associated work conjugate algorithmic stress tensor. The latter is related to the

p

f

= f p (C, f ) =

pT

(6.116)

The dissipation

Q}.

and is part of the vector of the algorithmic plastic forces F ? := {,

can be expressed by these algorithmic tensors as

= 0 D = F ? I ? ,

(6.117)

cf. (6.115). Approximating the incremental flux by I ? [I ? In? ]/t gives together with

the assumption that F ? is constant within the time interval the expression

Z tn+1

dt F ? : (I ? In? ) .

(6.118)

tn

step towards a symmetric formulation is the restriction of the algorithmic plastic forces

F ? instead of the forces F to an elastic domain, i.e.

E := {F ? |f (F ? ) c 0

= 1, . . . , m} .

(6.119)

Obviously, the evaluation of the level-set functions with F ? and F will give different

results as can be seen from (6.116). The deviation depends on the size of the time step

but is proven to be negligible for typical time increments used in numerical simulations.

In the limit tn+1 tn we get the identity of both stress tensors because f p 1.

Applying the principle of maximum plastic dissipation to the incremental setting defines

the following Lagrange function

P

(6.120)

L(F ? , ) := F ? : (I In ) + (f (F ? ) c ) stat.

P

(6.121)

A = F ? L = I + In + f,F

? = 0

which is nothing but the evolution equation for the internal variables. Furthermore the

loading conditions 0, f c 0 and (f c ) = 0 must hold at the solution

point.

single surface yield criterion or to a system of orthogonal flow systems as obtained by a

Kelvin-mode decomposition, cf. section 6.6.5 and appendix A.2, it is possible to specify

an incremental potential function that yields the identical symmetric algorithm as it

is obtained from the principle of maximum dissipation discussed above. Inserting the

approximation of the dissipation (6.118) and the algorithm (6.114) into the variational

problem (6.92) gives the representation

W (C n+1 ) = inf

[W h (C n+1 , I ? )]

?

I Gp

(6.122)

101

incremental variational problem. (6.122) minimizes the function

W h = (C n+1 , I ? ) n + c

(6.123)

p

with respect to the algorithmic internal variables I ? = {f , q }.

The solution of (6.122) has to guarantee that the dissipation in the time increment is

positive and is obtained as

W (C n+1 ) = inf

sup[W h (C n+1 , I ? ) ] .

?

I Gp

(6.124)

Here we consider the plastic multiplier to be a function of the internal variable vector,

i.e. = (I ? ). The necessary conditions read

W,I ? = F ? + c,I ? ,I ? = 0 ,

0,

0,

= 0 .

(6.125)

The sensitivity of the plastic multiplier with respect to the algorithmic internal variable

vector is obtained from the integration algorithm A = I ? + In? + f,F ? (F ? ) = 0 for the

internal variables when considering

F ? A,I ? = 0

,I ? = F ? /f (F ? )

(6.126)

where we have exploited the homogeneity properties of the level-set function discussed in

appendix C. Plastic loading with > 0 enforces = 0 because of (6.125)4 . Then (6.125)1

gives the negative yield condition f + c = 0. Thus the discrete variational formulation

results in the same set of equation as the principle of maximum plastic dissipation.

6.4.5. Algorithmic Solution of the Discrete Variational Formulation (V1)

Both, application of the principle of maximum dissipation to the incremental quantities

and the discrete variational problem (6.122) lead to the same set of equations, i.e. the yield

criteria functions, the integration algorithm for the internal variables and the constitutive

equation for the algorithmic forces.

In order to solve these equations the iteration variables are assembled in a vector

p := [I ? , F ? , ]T

and the governing equations are combined in a residual vector

e

?

F ? + P

I ? (C, I )

r(C, p) := I ? In? F ? f (F ? ) = 0

f (F ? ) + c + t

(6.127)

(6.128)

which has to vanish in a strain driven process where F and because of that also C are

prescribed. The solution is obtained by applying a Newton scheme. The variable vector

p is updated according to

p p k1 r

(6.129)

102

until convergence is reached, i.e. krk < tol. The iteration matrix k appears within the

linearization of (6.128) and has the structure

k := r ,p =

,I ? I ?

sym.

I

0

P

.

f,F

f,F

?F ?

?

(6.130)

In contrast to the standard stress update algorithm outlined in section 6.3.1 this variational formulation is always symmetric.

6.4.6. Stresses and Algorithmic Tangent Moduli (V1)

Once the internal variables are determined by the solution of the constrained minimization

problem the stresses and algorithmic tangent moduli have to be computed. The second

Piola-Kirchhoff stresses follow from the definition (6.91) by a function evaluation, i.e.

S = 2dC W h (C, p) = 2C W h + 2p W h p,C .

(6.131)

The last part vanishes due to the necessary condition (6.130)1 so that the stresses are

determined by the constitutive equation

S = 2C (C, I ? ) .

(6.132)

The sensitivity of the stresses with respect to the deformation is given by the second

derivative which turns out to have the form

2

Calgo = 4d2CC W h (C, p) = 4CC

W h + 4Cp W h p,C .

(6.133)

The sensitivity of the variable vector with respect to the deformation is obtained from

the consistency condition dC r = C r + p r p,C = 0. With the derivatives

2

Cp

W h = [,CI ? , 0, 0]T

(6.134)

2

2

2

C = CC

CI

? k I ? C

(6.135)

denotes the quadratic upper left sub-matrix of the inverse iteration matrix k 1

where k

with dimension (len[I ? ] len[I ? ]), compare (6.50) and (6.51).

6.4.7. Application of the Algorithm (V1) to the Model Problem

We now concretize the discussed framework of an implicit variational formulation of elastoplasticity to the model problem of section 6.2.3. Recall the assumed decoupled structure

of the stored energy function (6.20) and the level-set functions (6.22) which here take the

forms

p

+ f i (B) .

= e (C, f ) + i (A) and f = f e ()

(6.136)

103

For the integration we apply an algorithm based on an operator split. In a first step the

evolution equations are integrated by a backward Euler algorithm, i.e.

P

p

= 0

f 1 PA N

.

(6.137)

A An A N = 0

p

B, ]T is updated iteratively in terms of

The algorithmic variable vector p := [f , A, ,

the residual

f p )

+ f p e (C,

B +P

A i (A)

p

e

=0

f 1 P f ()

r(C, p) :=

(6.138)

i

A An

B f (B)

f i (B) + c + t

f e ()

,f p f p

0

I

0

,AA

0

1

P

k := r ,p =

f,

0

sym.

f,BB

0

0

f,

f,B

(6.139)

(6.139) for concrete forms of the constitutive functions (6.136). The derivatives of the

free energy function are

,fijp

= ,Cab Cab,f,ij

p

p

p

p

p

p

,fij fkl = ,Cab Ccd Cab,f,ij Ccd,f,k,l + ,Cab Cab,f,ij f,kl

(6.140)

,Cij

= ,Cab Cab,Cij

p C

p .

,Cij fklp = ,Cab fcd

f

+

ab,Cij cd,Ckl

,Cab ab,Cij fkl

They base on the following derivatives of the right Cauchy-Green tensor

Cij,fklp

= 2 symij [flip1 Ckj ]

p1 p1

p1

p

p ]

Cij,fklp fmn

= 2 symij [flm fni Ckj fli Ckj,fmn

p1

p1

Cij,Ckl

= fki flj

p1 p1 p1

p1 p1 p1

flm fnj

fni flj fki

= fkm

Cij,Ckl fmn

p1 p1 p1

C p

= 2 sym [f f f ] .

ij,fkl Cmn

ij

li

mk

(6.141)

nj

If the local iteration has converged, the relative plastic deformation gradient has to be

corrected. This is because of the additive update that violates the incompressibility

constraint f p SL(3). We suggest a correction of the form

p

p

p

f det[f ]1/3 f .

(6.142)

104

We now discuss the solution process of the incremental variational problem (6.92) for

explicit integration algorithms, leading to a tremendous reduction of the numerical effort.

The integration of the rate requires a function evaluation of the free energy at time tn+1 .

Therefore the internal variables at the end of the time step have to be known. Typical

one-step algorithms iterate solely the scalar algorithmic multipliers := (tn+1 tn ),

A( ) = 0 .

(6.143)

I = I( ). A wellP

known representative is the forward Euler scheme I = In + f (Fn , In ). For the

dissipation function one obtains with (6.108) the expression

Z tn+1

P

P

1 2

(6.144)

( ) dt =

c + 2 t .

tn

When inserting (6.144) and the algorithm (6.143) into the variational problem (6.92) the

following representation is obtained

W (C n+1 ) = inf W h (C n+1 , 1 , . . . , m ) .

0

(6.145)

by the finite-dimensional problem (6.145) that minimizes the function

P

2

(6.146)

W h := (C, I) n + c + 21 t

The minimization problem (6.145) with inequality constraints can be solved by a Lagrange

multiplier method. The solution is the saddle-point of the associated Lagrange function

P

(6.147)

W (C n+1 ) = inf sup[ W h (C n+1 , ) ]

W,h = 0 ,

0 ,

0 ,

= 0 .

(6.148)

W,h 0 ,

0 and W,h = 0

(6.149)

that determine the algorithmic parameters . In the case of plastic loading a non-empty

set of active constraints exists

A := { | 6= 0}

(6.150)

105

X

+ where =

[W,h ]1 [W,h ] A .

(6.151)

A

P

h 2 1/2

(W

)

tol .

,

A

(6.152)

During the iteration the set of active constraints may change. We apply the update

procedure of the active set proposed by Miehe, Schotte & Lambrecht [90] in the

context of crystal plasticity.

The solution of the minimization problem and the integration of the internal variables is

coupled and has to be treated simultaneously. The minimization problem can be viewed

as an energetic counterpart of the consistency condition of the standard formulation. In

contrast to the standard formulation the update of the plastic increments in the variational framework is solely determined by this so-called energetic consistency condition.

The update of the internal variables in any iteration step is performed according to the

integration algorithm (6.143).

6.4.10. Stresses and Algorithmic Tangent Moduli (V2)

Once the constrained minimization problem (6.145) is solved, the stresses and elasticplastic moduli are obtained by function evaluation of the derivatives of the incremental

stress potential function W . According to (6.91), the derivative with respect to the strains

C n+1 yield the stresses S n+1 . Application of the chain rule gives the expression

P

(6.153)

dC W = C W h + A W,h ,C .

In the solution point the last term drops out because (6.149)3 gives W,h = 0 for plastic

loading where > 0 and ,C = 0 in the case of elastic behaviour, where = 0 =

constant. Thus the stresses are

S n+1 = 2C W h .

(6.154)

The sensitivity of the stresses with respect to the strains is governed by the algorithmic

tangent moduli. Like the moduli in elasticity theory they are obtained by the second

derivative of the stress potential function in the solution point

P

h

h

2

(6.155)

Cep

n+1 := 4dCC W (C n+1 ) = 4W,CC + 4

A W,C ,C .

The sensitivity of the incremental plastic parameter with respect to the strains is obtained

by linearization of the necessary condition (6.149)3 with respect to the deformation. Inserting the result

P

,C = A [W,h ]1 W,h C

(6.156)

into (6.155) gives the algorithmic elastic-plastic moduli

h

Cep

n+1 = 4W,CC 4

1

h

h

A [W, ] W,C

W,h C .

(6.157)

They consist of an elastic contribution and a softening part. The latter is a consequence of

a change in the internal variables of the material within the time step under consideration.

The algorithm is summarized in box 3.

106

History data: internal variables In = {F pn , An } and normals {N n , Nn }

1. Set initial values

=1...m = 0, A = An ,

2. Determine current state of internal variables

Perform integration step of algorithm

A( ) = 0

3. Evaluate local minimization function

P

W h = (C, I) n + A c +

1 2

2 t

h

W,C

= ,C

h

W,CC = ,CC

W,h = , + t

W, = , + t

h

= ,C

W,C

4. Check convergence

qP

if ( A W,h )2 tol goto 7

P

A [W,h ]1 W,h

? = argA [min{ | A}]

if ? 0 then

determine scaling parameter := 1 ? /?

perform scaling

P h (1 )

h

if W := A W, 0 remove flow system, A = A\?

goto 2

endif

? = arg=1...m [min{W,h ]

if Wh? 0 then

A {A ? }

goto 2

endif

8. Set stresses

S n+1 = 2C W h

107

We now apply the above discussed framework of incremental variational plasticity to the

model problem of section 6.2.3. Recall the assumed decoupled structure of the stored

energy function (6.20) and the level-set functions (6.22), i.e.

+ i (A) and f = f e ()

+ f i (B) .

= e (C)

(6.158)

The integration of the internal variables is performed with the explicit scheme (6.58).

The solution of the minimization problem (6.145) with a Newton scheme bases on the

derivatives of the function W h with respect to the algorithmic parameters . The stresses

and moduli require the derivatives with respect to the total strains. So the following

expressions have to be specified

)

h

,C

,C

W,h = , + c + t

W,C

= ,C : C

W,h C = , C : C

(6.159)

h

,C : ,C

,C : ,C C : C

,C W h = C

WCC

=C

W,h = , + t

,C

for the functions given in (6.158). The following compact expressions for the derivatives

are obtained

of the free energy with respect to the elastic deformation measure C

, + ,A A,

,

= 2,C : 12 C

1

1

1

, = 2 C , : 4,C C : 2 C , + 2,C : 2 C , + A, ,AA A,

(6.160)

, + 2 sym[e1 e, ,C ]

,C

= ,C C : C

, C = ,C

.

Within the iterative solution procedure of the minimization problem the internal variables

are updated according to

eT ( )C

? e( )

C

P

(6.161)

A A + A A, .

It remains to specify the derivatives appearing in (6.160). They are obtained in terms of

derivatives of the exponential map, i.e.

1

? e, ] = sym[Ce

1 e, ]

C ,

= sym[eT C

2

(6.162)

1

? e ] + sym[eT C

? e, ] .

C , = sym[eT, C

Metallic solids belong to the class of crystalline materials and show anisotropic elastic

behaviour. The anisotropic response is caused by the periodically distributed matter,

i.e. the crystalline atomic structure. A typical example is copper whose lattice can be

constructed with a cubic face-centered Bravais-cell.

A cubic free energy function with symmetry group Oh is specified with respect to the

isoclinic intermediate configuration. It is assumed to be of the form

= e (I1 , I2 , I3 , I4 ) + i (A)

(C)

(6.163)

108

I1 , . . . , I4 constitute the basis

I := {tr[C],

1

2

: C)

2 tr[C

2 ]), det[C],

tr[(O

2 ]}

(tr[C]

(6.164)

which is of course far from being complete. The first three invariants are the principal

:= F eT gF e , the

invariants of the current metric in the intermediate configuration C

is defined in

fourth invariant accounts for cubic symmetry. The fourth-order tensor O

terms of the three orthonormal anisotropy directions that characterize cubic symmetry,

P

O := 3i=1 ai ai ai ai .

(6.165)

For the considered model problem we assume the elastic constitutive function

/2

= 2 (I1 3) + (I3

1) +

1

4

(6.166)

where i = 12 hA2 +(y y0 )(A+ 1 exp[A]) accounts for non-linear isotropic hardening.

The first two terms in the free energy function represent the isotropic part in form of

a compressible Neo-Hooke model, whereas the latter two parts model the anisotropic

response. The shear modulus is denoted by , the parameter is related to the Poisson

ration according to

=

2

.

1 2

(6.167)

is a parameter for the cubic part. The plastic contribution is governed by the hardening

modulus h, the initial yield stress y0 and the saturation yield stress y .

In metallic materials plastic deformation is associated with movements of dislocations in

so-called slip planes. The deformations take place when the Schmid-stress in a slip plane

reaches a critical value. The corresponding yield criterion functions read

M

) + f i (B) y 0 .

= f e (,

0

(6.168)

:= s

m

characterize the slip systems by two orthogonal

The second-order tensors M

denotes the normal of the slip plane and s

specifies the direction in

vectors. Here m

which plastic flow takes place. Thus the following relations hold

m

= 0 and k

k = 1 .

s

s k = k m

(6.169)

:M

| and f i := B .

f e := |

(6.170)

An interesting effect in plastic-map plasticity is the rotation of the slip systems. This

rotation is contained in the elastic map and can be determined from the polar decomposition F e = v e Re . Small elastic deformations are characterized by a small left stretch

109

simple shear test in plane strain state is considered. Plastic flow can take place on two

slip lines that are inclined at 60 . Both slip systems have identical plastic material parameters. Setting y0 = y = 80N/mm2 and h = 0N/mm2 specifies rate-independent ideal

plastic response. The elastic material response has cubic symmetry, the shear modulus is

= 75000N/mm2 , the exponent = 0.8067 and the cubic parameter = 51500N/mm2 .

The deformation is prescribed through the deformation gradient

1 0

(6.171)

F := 0 1 0 ei ej ,

0 0 1

parameterized with the scalar . The evolution of the slip systems orientations during

the deformation process is depicted in figure 31 by the two lines inside of the elements.

At the beginning of the deformation process both slip lines rotate rapidly clockwise. The

Figure 31: Rotation of the slip planes in a simple shear test. The lines indicate the slip

orientations. The sequence shows deformation states at = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and = 2.5.

rotation becomes slower as the orientation tends towards a preferred alignment, where one

of the slip systems is in line with the shearing direction. The rotation of the slip systems

is not proportional to the global deformation of the specimen. Some more insight to what

is going on during the deformation process is gained by the plot in figure 32. There the

angles of the rotations contained in the elastic and plastic maps obtained from a polar

decomposition are plotted. The sum of the rotation angles from the elastic and plastic

maps coincide very well with the overall rotation contained in F . At the beginning of

the process, the elastic rotation increases faster than the overall rotation and converges

towards a final value of 60 . The plastic rotation first compensates the fast elastic

rotation by turning to the opposite direction. When the latter slows down, the plastic

40

F

Fe

Fp

Fe + Fp

angle [ ]

20

PSfrag replacements

0

20

40

60

80

10

shear parameter

Figure 32: Rotation of the slip planes in a simple shear test. The plot documents the

rotations contained in the maps F , F e and F p . The structural tensors map with the elastic

map and rotate counter clockwise up to an angle of 60 .

110

rotation more and more develops like the global rotation. For the application of a similar

double slip model to the simulation of the necking of a metallic strip we refer to Miehe [81]

for rate-independent crystal plasticity and to Steinmann & Stein [134] in the context of

rate-dependent response as well as preceding publications by other authors cited therein.

6.5.2. Numerical Example: Drawing of a Flange

To show the performance of the double slip formulation, we investigate a drawing process

of a flange under plane strain conditions. The geometry and the boundary conditions

are depicted in figure 33. The inside of the flange is drawn uniformly in radial direction

200

PSfrag replacements

a2

200

u a1

200

200

Figure 33: Drawing of a circular flange in plane strain. The inner boundary is pulled

towards the center up to a final deformation of u = 75mm. The crosses indicate the tangent

vectors of the slip planes aligned at 60 to each other. All length in mm.

towards the center until a final deformation of u = 75mm is reached. In the computation

increments of u = 0.1mm are used. The slip systems are inclined at 60 to each other.

Their orientation is specified by the crosses in the figure. The elastic behaviour is described

by three elastic constants. For the purely isotropic parameters we set = 75000N/mm 2

and = 0.8067. The cubic coupling parameter is set to = 51500N/mm2 . This choice

reflects the elastic behaviour of copper. The non-linear plastic response is governed by

a hardening modulus of h = 100N/mm2 , an initial yield stress of y0 = 80N/mm2 and

the saturation stress of y = 110N/mm2 . The saturation parameter is set to = 16,

the viscosity is = 0.1Ns/mm2 . The specimen is discretized by 644 six-node triangular

elements. The computation is performed with the implicit algorithms U1 and V1. Figure

34 shows the results of the simulation. One clearly sees the softer behaviour along the

a.

b.

c.

Figure 34: Drawing of a circular flange in plane strain. Distribution of the equivalent plastic

strain for displacements of (a) 24mm, (b) 48mm and (c) 75mm of the inner boundary.

111

vertical axis a2 that has smaller angles with the slip systems than the horizontal axis

a1 . The distribution of the equivalent plastic strain obtained with both algorithms are

indistinguishable.

6.6.1. Elastic Response

We now specify the free energy (6.20) for anisotropic elasticity. The function is assumed

to depend on the elastic Hencky strain tensor defined in the intermediate configuration.

Restricting the considerations to quadratic functions, the canonical form reads

A) =

(C,

1

2

e kE + i (A) where E

e =

kE

1

2

ln[C]

(6.172)

where i = 12 hA2 +(y y0 )(A+ 1 exp[A]) accounts for non-linear isotropic hardening.

e

:E

:E

e is the norm of the Hencky strain tensor with respect to

e kE := E

Here kE

that characterizes the macroscopic elasticity moduli

a constant fourth-order tensor E

associated with a fictitious lattice of the intermediate configuration. Due to the fact that

can be derived from a potential function as discussed in section 4.6 and the symmetry

E

e and the logarithmic stresses ,E e , the elasticity tensor has the major and minor

of E

symmetries, i.e.

AB C D = E

C D AB = E

B AC D = E

AB D C .

E

(6.173)

The scalar variable A accounts for energy storage due to micro-stress fields.

6.6.2. Plastic Response

For the inelastic response, the level-set function (6.22) is specified for multi-surface plasticity by

B) = kk

H +

f (,

2

B

3

(6.174)

=C

S

is referred to as Mandel tensor, cf. (6.9)2 , and B is the

The unsymmetric tensor

are assumed to possess

stress variable dual to A. The constant fourth-order tensors H

the major and minor symmetries, i.e.

AB C D = H

C D AB = H

B AC D = H

AB D C .

H

(6.175)

In order to model incompressible plastic flow, the plasticity tensors are restricted to the

deviatoric subspace of the fourth-order tensors possessing major and minor symmetries

(6.175) by the constraints

: 1 = 0 .

H

(6.176)

= P : H

: P where P is the deviatoric projection tensor defined by

Then obviously H

1

P := I 3 1 1.

In the context of single surface plasticity, (6.174) with restrictions (6.176) leads to a

yield criterion which is similar to the widely-used Hill-criterion derived in the classical

textbook by Hill [50]. The construction of a coordinate-free deviatoric representation of

for some types of anisotropy is discussed in the next section.

H

112

:= F eT gF e

F e := F F p1 , C

, L

p = F p F p1

:= 1 ln[C]

E

2

e || + 1 hA2 + (y y0 )(A + 1 exp[A])

free energy

= 21 ||E

E

2

e

stresses

S

= 2(E : E ) : E

,C

plastic force

= C

hardening stress

B

= ,A = hA (y y0 )(1 exp[A])

e

level set functions f

= ||||

H

p

f i =

2/3 B

: /||

; N

=H

||

p = P N

flow rules

L

H

p

P

;

=

2/3

A

=

N

N

loading conditions 0, f c , (f c ) = 0

kinematics

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

and

We now discuss a unified representation for the constant fourth-order tensors E

that covers the symmetries described by the symmetry group D2h , cubic symmetry

H

with symmetry group Oh , transversal symmetry with symmetry group Dh and isotropic

response by appropriate choices of parameters. Tensors possessing theses symmetries were

already derived in section 4, equations (4.111), (4.192) and (4.219). In the following, an

alternative function basis will be given that leads to a convenient and simple structure

of the orthotropic fourth-order tensor. Furthermore we comment on how to satisfy the

incompressibility condition (6.176).

Recall the function basis already specified for D2h -invariant functions in (4.105) and

(4.106). For a symmetric second-order argument tensor it reads

I1 = {tr[], tr[ 2 ], tr[ 3 ], tr[M ], tr[M 2 ], tr[M 2 ], tr[M 2 2 ]} .

(6.177)

I2 = {tr[], tr[ 2 ], tr[ 3 ], tr[m1 ], tr[m2 ], tr[m1 2 ], tr[m2 2 ]}

(6.178)

1, 2, 3. Based on these invariants, we develop another basis I3 yielding a convenient and

transparent representation for the fourth-order tensor. To this end, at first we reformulate

the isotropic invariants of by

(6.179)

tr[ 2 ] = tr[m1 2 ] + tr[m2 2 ] + tr[m3 2 ]

and replace tr[ 3 ] by det[] by using Cayley-Hamiltons theorem. With the identity

tr[mi 2 ] tr[mi ]2 = tr[mij ]2 + tr[mik ]2

(6.180)

that is valid for every even and odd permutation of (i, j, k), by insertion of (6.179) and

(6.180) into (6.178) we obtain the new function basis

I3 = {tr[m1 ], tr[m2 ], tr[m3 ], tr[m12 ]2 , tr[m23 ]2 , tr[m13 ]2 , det[]}

(6.181)

113

with the definitions mij := 21 (ai aj +aj ai ). A coordinate form of this coordinate-free

representation has been proposed by Smith & Rivlin [131]. Having this basis at hand,

we define the fourth-order tensor as the second derivative of an isotropic function , i.e.

2

M :=

(I1 , . . . , I7 ) ,

(6.182)

where Ii=1...7 denote the elements of the function basis I3 . For a quadratic function of

the form

= 21 1 I12 + 21 2 I22 + 12 3 I32

+ 4 I1 I2 + 5 I2 I3 + 6 I1 I3 + 7 I4 + 8 I5 + 9 I6

(6.183)

M = 1 m1 m 1 + 2 m2 m 2 + 3 m3 m 3

+ 4 Sym[m1 m2 ] + 5 Sym[m2 m3 ] + 6 Sym[m1 m3 ]

+ 27 m12 m21 + 28 m23 m32 + 29 m13 m31 .

(6.184)

Here we use the abbreviation Sym[mi mj ] := 12 (mi mj +mj mi ). Clearly, the tensor

M has the major and minor symmetries. A comparable approach to the construction of

integrity bases and structural tensors functions for orthotropic anisotropy is outlined

in Boehler [21]. In a Cartesian coordinate system aligned to the axes of orthotropy

{ai }i=1,2,3 , the tensor appears in the simple coordinate representation

1 4 6

0

0

0

2 5

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

M=

(6.185)

1

0

0

2 7

0

sym.

2 8

1

2 9

in terms of nine material parameters. The deviatoric property (6.176) is satisfied for the

three dependencies

4 =

1

2

(3 1 2 ) ;

5 =

1

2

(1 2 3 ) ;

6 =

1

2

(2 1 3 ) (6.186)

includes other symmetry types as special cases:

(i) Transverse isotropy with the only preferred direction a1 yields the dependencies

1 6= 2 = 3 ,

4 = 6 6= 5 ,

8 = 2 5 ) 6= 7 = 9 .

(6.187)

(ii) Cubic symmetry has equal material response with respect to all three axes, i.e.

1 = 2 = 3 ,

4 = 5 = 6 ,

7 = 8 = 9 .

(6.188)

1 = 2 = 3 = 4 + 7 ,

4 = 5 = 6 ,

7 = 8 = 9 .

(6.189)

The elasticity tensor E

= M. The function is then described in terms of nine elastic constants

by setting E

114

1,...,9 . For isotropic elastic material behaviour, these are related to the well-known Lame

constants and by 1,2,3 = + 2, 4,5,6 = and 7,8,9 = 2.

= M specifies the plasticity tensor for the considered symmetries. Orthotropic

Setting H

plastic yielding for incompressible plastic flow is governed by the six parameters 1,2,3 and

7,8,9 while 4,5,6 are determined by condition (6.186). These parameters are related to the

initial yield stresses yij with respect to the principal axes of orthotropy. For the simple

tension

p modes one obtains, by evaluating the level-set function (6.174) with threshold

c = 2/3y0 in box 4 line (4), the relations

1 =

2 y02

;

2

3 y11

2 =

2 y02

;

2

3 y22

3 =

2 y02

.

2

3 y33

(6.190)

1 y02

;

2

3 y23

9 =

1 y02

.

2

3 y13

(6.191)

7 =

1 y02

;

2

3 y12

8 =

The isotropic case is characterized by y11 = y22 = y33 = y0 and y12 = y23 = y13 = y0 / 3.

6.6.4. Comparison of the Stress Update Algorithms

We now compare the proposed four stress update algorithms for multiplicative anisotropic plasticity U1: standard implicit, U2: standard explicit, V1: variational implicit

and V2: variational explicit. Therefore a simple shear test and a simple tension test are

investigated. The considered deformation gradients that drive the tests are

1 0

0

0

0 ei ej ,

F := 0 1 0 ei ej and F := 0 f ()

(6.192)

0 0 1

0

0

f ()

respectively. The simple shear test is parameterized by the shear parameter . To obtain

the corresponding stresses a single pass through the return scheme is required. The simple

tension test is parameterized by the stretch along the e1 axis. The contraction f () of

the material in the direction perpendicular to the stretch direction has to be determined

iteratively so that the stresses along e2 and e3 vanish. For that test, the return algorithm

is passed several times in a single time step.

The computations are carried out using a single surface Hill-type plasticity model as

discussed in section 6.6. The material parameters are = 164200N/mm2 and =

80190N/mm2 for isotropic elasticity. Two different symmetry properties of the level2

set function are investigated. The reference yield stress is set to y0 = 450N/mm

. An

O(3)-invariant function is then completely determined, i.e. y11 = y0 and y12 = y0 / 3. For

Oh -invariant cubic symmetry we set y11 = y0 , y12 = 129.904N/mm2 . Thus the resistance

to shear stresses is weakened compared with the isotropic case. The principal axes of

anisotropy ai coincide with the global coordinate axes. All computations are carried out

for rate-independent ideal elasto-plasticity.

The load-displacement curves for the tests specified in (6.192) are plotted in figure 35.

The quality of the stress response depends on the size of the increments that is used to

reach the final shear deformation of = 4 and the final stretch of = 4. The size of the

115

stretch

angle [ ]

290

280

stress 12 [N/mm2 ]

shear parameter

270

260

stress 11 [N/mm2 ]

stress 12 [N/mm2 ]

Sfrag replacements

tress 11 [N/mm2 ]

PSfrag replacements 500

250

240

U1

U2

V2

U1

V1

V1

230

220

210

200

a.

angle [ ]

1.E-02

1.E-03

1.E-03

1.E-01

1.E-01

1.E-02

480

460

440

420

400

380

360

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

b.

shear parameter

0.5

1.5

U1

U2

V1

V1

V2

V2

1.E-02

1.E-01

1.E-02

1.E-01

1.E-02

1.E-01

2.5

3.5

3.5

3.5

stretch

300

stretch

angle [ ]

300

250

PSfrag replacements

stress 11 [N/mm2 ]

200

stress 12 [N/mm2 ]

stress 12 [N/mm2 ]

Sfrag replacements

tress 11 [N/mm2 ]

150

100

U1

U1

U1

V1

V1

50

0

c.

0.5

1.5

stretch

angle [ ]

5.E-01

1.E-01

1.E-02

1.E-01

1.E-02

2.5

3.5

250

200

150

100

50

0

d.

shear parameter

Sfrag replacements

angle [ ]

0.5

1.5

1.E-02

1.E-03

1.E-03

1.E-02

2.5

shear parameter

60

480

PSfrag replacements

stress 11 [N/mm2 ]

stress 12 [N/mm2 ]

460

angle [ ]

stress 11 [N/mm2 ]

tress 12 [N/mm2 ]

shear parameter

U1

U2

V2

V2

440

420

400

380

e.

0.5

1.5

U1

V1

V1

V2

V2

U2

1.E-02

1.E-02

1.E-01

1.E-01

1.E-02

1.E-02

2.5

stretch

stretch

40

20

0

20

40

60

F

Fe

Fp

Fe + Fp

80

100

3.5

120

f.

0.5

1.5

2.5

shear parameter

Figure 35: Comparison of the stress update algorithms U1: standard implicit, U2: standard

explicit, V1: variational implicit and V2: variational explicit. Isotropic material response:

(a) simple shear test and (b) simple tension test. Cubic material response: (c) and (d)

simple shear test, (e) simple tension test and (f) angle of rotation from polar decomposition

of the deformation maps. The numbers denote the size of the time increment used. Note

the ranges of the 11 -axes in (b) and (e)!

116

increments was increased as long as the results were reasonable and the thus obtained

curves are plotted in figure 35.

For the shear test with the isotropic material the results obtained and depicted in figure

35a can be summarized as follows. Deviations from the solutions obtained with the

algorithms U1, U2 and V2 that use the yield criterion function of the continuous setting

are observed for the algorithm V1. This is mainly because the latter uses algorithmic

stresses that enter the yield function. The increment of 1.E-01 is too large for V1, the

results obtained with 1.E-02 does not improve for smaller steps. Figure 35b shows the

tensile stresses for the tension test. The algorithms U1, U2 and V2 all tend to an identical

result while V1 shows slight deviations. Note the range of the stress axis!

Figures 35c-f document the results for cubic material behaviour. The cubic symmetry

is reflected in the periodical stress response. This is because of the linearly increasing

rotation of the flow system documented in figure 35f. Recall that the rigid body rotation

of the flow system is part of the elastic map F e . In figure 35c the implicit algorithms U1

and V1 are compared. For a step size of 1.E-02 both yield identical results. For small

steps, the explicit algorithms U2 and V2 give the same stress response. It is identical to

the one obtained with the implicit algorithm U1 but the step size is only a tenth of that for

the latter. If one increases the step size, the algorithms become unstable as documented

in figure 35d. Finally, figure 35e shows the results for the simple tension test. As for the

isotropic material, the stresses from algorithm V1 slightly deviate from the results of the

other algorithms, even when the step size is refined. Note again the range of the stress

axis.

6.6.5. Kelvin-Mode Decomposition of Fourth-Order Tensors

A class of phenomenological multi-surface elasto-plasticity models bases on the spectral

decomposition of the plasticity tensor that governs the anisotropy of the level-set function. The concept of this so-called Kelvin-mode decomposition dates back to Kelvin [59]

and is topic of several publications. Rychlewski [110] uses this idea in the context of

thermo-elasticity. Qi & Bertram [104] apply this concept to the description of creep

damage of single crystal superalloys and Mahnken [69] treats the modeling of creep

phenomena. Applications in context of the modeling of elastic plastic material behaviour

is the contents of the works of Schreyer & Zuo [117] and Arramon, Mehrabadi,

Martin & Cowin [3]. A constitutive elasto-plasticity model in the logarithmic strain

space is recently discussed by Himpel [51]. The spectral decomposition of the elasticity tensor is topic of Mehrabadi & Cowin [74] and Sutcliffe [135]. In the latter,

a collection of elastic constants for several crystalline materials is given. The graphical

hlke & Bru

ggemann

representation of fourth-order elasticity tensors is contents of Bo

[23].

The Kelvin-mode decomposition of a fourth-order tensor with major and minor symmetries is outlined in appendix A.2. In general, for given orientation, the eigen-bases depend

on the coordinates of the tensor that is to be decomposed. The only two exceptions are

isotropic and cubic tensors. For an isotropic tensor the well-known volumetric-isochoric

decomposition of the unit tensor holds

I

sym

= Pvol + Piso

with

Pvol := 13 1 1

Piso := Isym Pvol .

(6.193)

117

For a cubic tensor, where the axes of anisotropy coincide with the global coordinate axes,

the decomposition reads

P3

Pcub1 =

Ni Ni

sym

Pi=2

(6.194)

I

= Pvol + Pcub1 + Pcub2 with

6

Pcub2 =

i=4 N i N i

where N i are the eigen-tensors of the cubic tensor. For the first cubic projection tensor,

they are defined by

0 0

0

2 0 0

1

1

0 , N3 = 0 1 0 .

N2 = 0 1

(6.195)

2

6

0 0 1

0 0 1

all faces remain rectangles. The definition of the second cubic projection tensor bases on

the three eigen-tensors

0 1 0

0 0 0

0 0 1

1

1

1

(6.196)

N4 = 1 0 0 , N5 = 0 0 1 , N6 = 0 0 0

2

2

2

0 0 0

0 1 0

1 0 0

that are associated to shear deformations of a unit cube along the anisotropy axes. A

cubic Hill-type plasticity model with plastic incompressible flow is then defined by two

level-set functions in terms of the cubic projection tensors, i.e.

1

f () := kkPcub1 +

2

B

3

and f () := kkPcub2 +

2

B

3

(6.197)

In the remainder of this chapter we discuss a class of plasticity models that base on the

introduction of a plastic metric instead of a plastic map. A special class of models is

obtained for an additive combination of the total deformation measure C and the plastic

metric. In conjunction with logarithmic strains these models turn out to have a structure

identical to the geometric linear theory and are proven to be very powerful. Because of

that this topic is treated separately in the next chapter.

6.7.1. Energy Storage and Elastic Stress Response

A special class of plasticity models beside the plastic-map approach can be derived from

the latter by proposing invariance of the intermediate configuration with respect to superimposed rigid body rotations, cf. Casey & Naghdi [30]. Recall the general form of

an objective free energy function, i.e.

= (C, F p ) .

(6.198)

Superimposed rotations onto the intermediate configuration restrict the free energy to

(C, QF p ) = (C, F p ) Q SO(3) .

(6.199)

118

measure into the free energy, this invariance condition is a priori satisfied by the reduced

form

p.

(C, Gp ) where Gp := F pT GF

(6.200)

The second-order tensor Gp is denoted as plastic metric because of its symmetry and

positive definiteness. In contrast to the unsymmetric plastic map F p SL(3) the plastic

metric Gp Sym+ (3) cannot describe rotations. Observe that the function in (6.200)

solely depends on Lagrangian quantities. Within a plastic-metric framework the introduction of an intermediate configuration is superfluous. The plastic metric describes the

plastic deformation of the material and is governed by a constitutive evolution law with

initial condition Gp (t = t0 ) = Gp0 .

In the subsequent development we consider additional Lagrangian internal variables that

are assembled in the generalized vector q. For the functional dependency

= (C, Gp , q)

exploitation of the dissipation inequality 0 D = S :

definitions of stress variables

S := 2,C ,

S p := ,Gp

(6.201)

1

2

C

and Q := ,q .

(6.202)

With these definitions, the reduced form of the dissipation inequality reads

p + Q q 0 .

0 D = S p : G

(6.203)

Consider a non-smooth convex elastic domain E that bounds the internal forces

E := {(S p , Q)|f (S p , Q) c 0 ;

= 1, . . . , m}

(6.204)

in terms of m level-set functions. The evolution equations for the internal variables

are obtained postulating maximal dissipation for the deformation process. This ansatz

gives a constrained optimization problem that can be solved with a Lagrangian multiplier

method. It has the solution

p = P f ep and q = P f i

(6.205)

G

,Q

,S

For the subsequent developments, we consider a decoupling of the constitutive functions

into two parts,

(C, Gp , Q) = e (C, Gp ) + i (q) .

(6.206)

Yield criteria formulated in the reference configuration restrict the stress according to

= f e (S p ) + f i (Q) c 0 .

(6.207)

119

As the proposed elasto-plasticity model is formulated with respect to the reference configuration the derivation of the Lagrangian continuous tangent moduli is straight forward.

They link the rate of the right Cauchy-Green tensor to the rate of stresses, i.e.

S = Cep :

1

2

.

C

(6.208)

The stress tensor is defined in (6.202)1 . Together with the decoupled ansatz of the free

energy function (6.206) and the evolution equation (6.205)1 its rate takes the form

+ P S ,Gp : f ep .

S = 2S ,C : 12 C

(6.209)

,S

the case of plastic loading of the flow systems . Thus we obtain

P

p

e

(6.210)

= [g ]1 {f,S

p : S ,C : C}

i

e

p

i

e

with the matrix g := f,S

p : S p : f p + f,Q Q,q f

,Q . Insertion into (6.209) then gives

,S

G

by comparison with (6.208) the elasto-plastic tangent moduli

Cep := C + 4

P P

[g ]

p

e

e

S pT

,C : f,S p f,S p : S ,C .

(6.211)

,C .

6.8.1. Implicit Stress Update Algorithm

The evolution equations (6.205) and the loading conditions are discretized using an implicit scheme. In a typical time increment [tn ; tn+1 ] we get the following set of equations

P

Gp = Gpn + P A N

q

= q n + A M

(6.212)

0 , f c 0 , (f c ) = 0 .

i

e

:= f,Q

. The set A contains the numbers of the flow systems that

Here, N := f,S

p and N

are active. The constrained set of equations (6.212) is solved iteratively with a Newton

scheme. Therefore, the residuals

P

RG := Gp + Gpn +P A N = 0

Rq := q + q n + A M = 0

(6.213)

Rf := f c

= 0

are defined, which have to vanish in the solution point at the end of the time step. For

its determination see the exposition in section 6.3.1. The linearization at fixed C with

respect to the variables Gp , q and reads

P

Lin RG = RG [I N : S p,Gp ] : Gp + A N = 0

P

= 0

Lin Rq = Rq [I M Q,q ] q + A M

(6.214)

p

p

= 0.

Lin Rf = Rf + N : S ,Gp : G + M Q,q q

120

Here we have abbreviated the weighted sum over the second derivatives of the level-set

function with

P

P

i

e

p p

.

(6.215)

and M := A f,QQ

N := A f,S

S

To obtain a short and compact representation, the following definitions are introduced

:= [ (S p,Gp )1 + N ]1

and := [ (Q,q )1 + M ]1 .

(6.216)

Within the considered algorithm, the stresses are determined for prescribed deformations,

i.e. C = 0. This system of linear equations in the increments is solved for the incremental plastic multiplier. The result is

P

P

(6.217)

= A A [g ]1 (Rf + N : : RG + M Rq )

g := N : : N + M M .

Now the internal variables can be updated according to

P

Gp Gp + [I N : S p,Gp ]1 : (RG + A N )

P

q

q + [I M Q,q ]1 (Rq + A M )

+ .

(6.218)

(6.219)

p

P

The iteration has terminated when kRG k2 + kRq k2 + A (Rf )2 < tol, where tol

denotes the machine-dependent numerical zero.

6.8.2. Algorithmic Tangent Moduli

The algorithmic tangent moduli are the discrete counterpart of the continuous moduli in

equation (6.211). They are defined by

S = Calgo :

1

2

C .

(6.220)

In contrast to the situation in the stress update algorithm, now the global deformation

prescribed by C is no more constant. In the solution point determined by the stress

update algorithm, the residuals in (6.213) are zero. Then from (6.212) the increments of

the internal variables

P

Gp = (S p,Gp )1 : : ( A N + N : S p,C ) : C

P

(6.221)

q

= (Q,q )1 A M

are obtained. The linearization of an active consistency condition (6.212)3 in the solution

point reads

f = N : S p,Gp : Gp + M Q,q q + N : S p,C : C = 0 .

(6.222)

P

= A [g ]1 {N : : N : S p,C + N : S p,C } : C

(6.223)

121

with the matrix g as defined in (6.218). The linearization of the second Piola-Kirchhoff

stresses

S = C :

1

2

C + S Gp : Gp

(6.224)

p

1

: : N : S p,C

Calgo := C 4 S pT

,C : (S ,Gp )

P

P

p

1

: : N (N : : N + N ) : S p,C .

+ 4 A A S pT

,C : (S ,Gp )

(6.225)

123

This section discusses the essential steps of a Lagrangian geometric approach to anisotropic finite plasticity in terms of a plastic metric that was motivated in chapter 6. The

restriction of the framework to the logarithmic strain space yields a modular structure. It

consists of a pre- and post-processing module that surrounds a constitutive model. The

structure of that model is identical with the geometric linear theory. The subsequent

discussion follows the ideas of the recent paper by Miehe, Apel & Lambrecht [87].

PSfrag replacements

C, Gp , S p

g, cp ,

F =

x

Figure 36: Kinematic setting for additive plasticity. A point X of the Lagrangian configuration B is mapped by the non-linear point map onto the point x of the Eulerian

configuration S. The total deformation is measured by the convected metrics C and g in

the reference and current settings, respectively. The plastic deformation is governed by the

reference plastic metric Gp and its current counterpart cp .

Within a Lagrangian setting, the total deformation of a body B can be measured with

the a priori objective right Cauchy-Green-tensor

C := F T gF

(7.1)

which represents the current metric g in the Lagrangian manifold. According to the works

of Coleman & Gurtin [32] and Lubliner [68], the history of the inelastic deformation

process can be described by internal variables. Following the works of Miehe [82, 83] the

plastic deformation is to be described in terms of a so-called plastic metric Gp Sym+ (3).

It is a co-variant second-order tensor which develops within the elastic-plastic deformation

process starting from the initial condition

Gp (t0 ) = G ,

(7.2)

where G is the Lagrangian metric tensor defined in (2.26) and t0 denotes the time at the

beginning of the deformation process which is assumed to be stress free.

7.1.1.1. Geometric Preprocessing into the Logarithmic Strain Space. A key

point in the setting up of a framework of finite plasticity is the definition of an elastic

strain measure E e which enters the stored free energy function. We assume this strain

measure to be a function of the above introduced current and plastic-metric tensors, i.e.

E e = E e (C, Gp ) .

(7.3)

124

In Miehe [82, 83] several possible definitions of the elastic strain variable are given. Here

we consider the elementary additive form

E e := E E p

(7.4)

E :=

1

2

ln[C] and E p :=

1

2

ln[Gp ] ,

elasto-plasticity is the mapping of the large strain multiplicative plastic

constraint onto an additive restriction. The structure of that additive

same as the one in the small strain theory. Reformulation of (7.5)2

Jacobian

p

J p := det[Gp ] = exp[tr[E p ]]

(7.5)

context of metal

incompressibility

restriction is the

gives the plastic

(7.6)

that is a measure for the change of volume due to plastic deformation. The constraint

J p = 1 takes the additive form

tr[E p ] = 0

(7.7)

similar to the geometric linear theory. The one-to-one relation between G p in the Euclidean space and E p in the logarithmic space suggests the usage of E p as internal variable. Thus a constitutive model can be formulated exclusively in terms of quantities of

the logarithmic strain space.

7.1.1.2. Constitutive Model in the Logarithmic Strain Space. As already stated,

an important fact is that a constitutive model can exclusively be formulated in the logarithmic strain space. Assume therefore a functional dependence of the free energy on the

logarithmic strain tensor E defined in (7.5)1 and a set of internal variables I := {E p , . . . }

consisting of the logarithmic plastic strain tensor defined in (7.5)2 and some additional

hardening variables. The rate of the total logarithmic strains is related to the rate of the

right Cauchy-Green-tensor according to

=P:

E

1

2

with P := 2E ,C ,

(7.8)

the dissipation inequality (2.63) then gives a representation exclusively in quantities of

the logarithmic strain space, i.e.

(E,

0 D := T : E

I) 0 .

(7.9)

The constitutive model can be viewed as a material box. Its input is the logarithmic

strain tensor and a set of internal variables. The output is the current stress tensor T

dual to the logarithmic strain tensor and the associated elastic-plastic tangent moduli

Eep , i.e.

{E, I}

Model

{T , Eep } .

(7.10)

125

The elasto-plastic tangent moduli relate the rate of total logarithmic strains to the rate

of logarithmic stresses

.

T = Eep : E

(7.11)

The attractive feature of the constitutive model in the logarithmic space is that it can preserve the structure of models of the geometrically linear theory. If so, also the structures

of the algorithms are identical to those of small strain theory.

7.1.1.3. Geometric Postprocessing from the Logarithmic Strain Space. Once

the stresses and moduli are obtained in the logarithmic space, they have to be mapped

to the Lagrangian stresses and moduli. This step is a purely geometric transformation

denoted as geometric postprocessing. The stresses and moduli are obtained by

S := T : P and Cep := PT : Eep : P + T : L

(7.12)

where the transformation tensor P is defined in (7.8)2 and L := 2P,C = 4E ,CC is a sixthorder geometric transformation tensor. The elasto-plastic moduli relate the Lagrangian

rate of strains to the stresses, i.e.

S = Cep :

1

2

.

C

(7.13)

Closed-form spectral-decomposition-based algorithmic approaches to these types of tensors have been discussed in the context of Seth-Hill strain measures by Miehe & Lambrecht [88].

This section specifies the constitutive model of equation (7.10) for metal plasticity. We

take into account the modeling of elastic and plastic anisotropies as well as induced

anisotropy effects as in the case of kinematic hardening. As already mentioned before,

due to the modular structure and the logarithmic strains, the structure of geometrically

linear constitutive models is preserved.

7.2.1. Energy Storage and Elastic Stress Response

Consider a free energy function describing the energy with respect to unit reference volume

that is locally stored in a material point of the form

= (E e , q) .

(7.14)

The logarithmic elastic strains are defined in (7.4) and (7.5). q denotes a set of internal variables accounting for hardening effects. To obtain a thermodynamically consistent model, we insert (7.14) into the Clausius-Planck-inequality (7.9). According to the

standard argumentation of rational thermodynamics or Colemans method, the inequality

must hold for arbitrary processes. This motivates the definition of the stress-like variables

T := +E e (E e , q)

T p := E e (E e , q)

(7.15)

e

Q := q (E , q) .

126

The first equation is the constitutive equation for the stresses in the logarithmic strain

space. The remaining two define so-called thermodynamical forces, dual to the internal

variables. Observe that the additive combination of E and E p results in T p = T . The

forces and internal variables are combined in the sets F := {T , Q} and I := {E p , q},

respectively. With these definitions, the dissipation inequality (7.9) reduces to

0 D := F I = T : E p + Q q 0

(7.16)

where Q q denotes the generalized scalar product of the dual quantities assembled in the

sets Q and q, respectively.

7.2.2. Dissipation and Plastic Flow Response

Consider the plastic flow to be constrained by a non-smooth convex elastic domain in the

space of the plastic forces

E := {(T , Q) | f (T , Q) c ;

= 1, . . . , m}

(7.17)

f = f (T , Q)

(7.18)

parameters c 0 associated with the initial yield stresses acp

cording to c := 2/3y0 . The level-set functions are gauges with respect to the thermodynamical forces T and Q. A canonical form of the evolution equations for the internal

variables in the framework of an associative plasticity theory is determined by the constrained thermodynamical extremum principle of maximum plastic dissipation

min {0 D} with f (T , Q) c 0 [1, m] .

(T ,Q)E

(7.19)

In general (7.19) is a non-linear coupled problem which cannot be solved directly. The

solution bases on the definition of the Lagrange function with 0

p Q q + P (f c ) stat.

L(T , Q, ) := T : E

(7.20)

which converts the problem (7.19) into a saddle point problem. The solution is given by

L = 0 yielding the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker equations

p+P

T L = 0 = E

P A

.

(7.21)

Q L = 0 = q + A Q f

L = 0 =

f (T , Q) c

where in the last equation (7.21)3 only the active constraints appear. They are combined

in the active set defined by

A := { | f (T , Q) c = 0} .

(7.22)

The internal variables are assumed to be zero at the beginning of the deformation process

E p (t = t0 ) = 0 and q(t = t0 ) := 0 .

(7.23)

127

In metal plasticity one often assumes a decoupling = e + p of the free energy function

defined in (7.14) into two parts. e describes the energy storage due to macroscopic

lattice deformations and p an energy storage due to micro-stress fields associated with

dislocations and point defects, cf. Rice [107] for a micro-mechanical motivation. Here we

consider a fully decoupled representation

= e (E e ) + k (A) + i (A)

e =

k =

i =

1

2

1

2

1

2

kE e k2E

kkAk2

hA2 + (y y0 )(A + exp[A]/)

(7.24)

a symmetric second-order tensor for the description of the kinematic hardening and A a

scalar variable that models isotropic hardening. The quadratic function kEk 2E = E : E : E

in (7.24)2 is a typical example and can be replaced by any anisotropic function. For the

structure of the fourth-order elasticity tensor E we refer to section 4.6. The material

parameters k R+ and h R+ are associated with the kinematic and isotropic hardening,

respectively. The dual forces are

T = E : Ee ,

(7.25)

A classical form of the yield function suitable for the description of the Bauschinger effect

of kinematic hardening identifies the internal force B with a so-called back-stress. The

level-set functions are assumed to have the particular functional dependencies

f = f e (T + B) + f i (B)

p

= kT + BkH , f i = 2/3B

(7.26)

on a stress T + B relative to the negative back-stress B. Instead of the quadratic levelset function in (7.26) any other anisotropic function can be used. In the case of single

surface plasticity, possible structures of the plasticity tensor H are given in section 4.6.

Applications of the proposed form in multi-surface plasticity on the basis of Kelvin-modes

can be found for example in Himpel [51]. To model plastic incompressible flow as is

observed in metals, the plasticity tensors H have to be restricted according to

H : 1 = 0 .

(7.27)

Insertion of (7.26)1 into (7.21) yields the evolution equations and loading conditions

)

e

e

i

p=P

=P

=P

E

f

,

A

f

,

A

B

A

A

A

(7.28)

0 , f c 0 , f = 0 .

As a consequence of the normality rule and the initial conditions (7.23) the kinematic

hardening strains turn out to equal the plastic strains and with (7.25)2 a simple one-toone relation to the kinematic hardening stress is obtained, i.e.

A = Ep

and B = kE p .

(7.29)

128

Geometric Preprocessor

E := 12 ln[F T gF ]

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

Constitutive Model

internal variables I := {E p , A, A}

free energy

= 21 ||E E p kE + k2 ||A||2 + i (A)

with

i = + h2 A2 + (y y0 )(A + 1 exp[A])

stresses

T = E : (E E p )

back stresses

B = kA

internal stress

B = hA

q

level set functions f = ||T + B||H + 23 B

p = P H : (T + B)/||T + B||H

flow rules

E

evolution

A =E

q P

evolution

A = 23 A

Geometric Postprocessor

C = T : P with P := 2C E

model is given in box 5.

7.2.4. Continuous Elastic-Plastic Tangent Moduli

The elasto-plastic tangent moduli Eep relate the logarithmic total strain rate to the loga The rates of the stress-like variables are

rithmic stress rate T = Eep : E.

e,

T = E : E

= K : A

and B = K A

B

(7.30)

where we have introduced the tensors E := E e E e , K := AA and K := AA to abbreviate the second derivatives of the free energy function. It follows from the consistency

condition (7.28)6 that the evolutions of the level-set functions

+ B f i B = 0

f = T f e : T + B f e : B

(7.31)

e=E

E

p and the evolution

have to vanish for plastic loading, where 6= 0. With E

of the plastic strains (7.28)1 , the elastic stress rate takes the form

X

E:

T := E : E

T f e .

(7.32)

A

X

f = T f e : E : E

g = 0

(7.33)

g := T f e : E : T f e + B f e : K : B f e + B f i KB f i .

(7.34)

129

The plastic multipliers now can be obtained by solving (7.33) for , i.e.

X

=

[g ]1 T f e : E : E

for A .

(7.35)

Insertion into (7.32) provides the elasto-plastic tangent modulus for plastic loading

Eep = E

XX

A A

[g ]1 E : T f e T f e : E .

(7.36)

In this section we propose an algorithmic formulation of the constitutive elasto-plasticity

model in the logarithmic strain space which was discussed in the previous sections. The

key point is an implicit integration algorithm for the evolution equations of the internal

variables (7.28)1,2,3 that accounts for the loading conditions (7.28)4,5,6 .

7.3.1. Stress Update Algorithm

Consider a time interval [tn , tn+1 ] and let E pn = An and An be the initial data at time

tn . Application of an implicit integration scheme to the evolution equations and loading

conditions (7.28) gives the discrete equations

E p = E pn + A T f e

P

i

,

(7.37)

A = An + A B f

0 , f c 0 , f = 0

with the incremental plastic parameters := t on the flow-systems. Note that only

the active constraints enter (7.37). They are combined in a so-called active set

A := { | f c = 0}

(7.38)

where f := f (T n+1 , B n+1 , An+1 ). In order to solve the problem (7.37) the first step is

to check, whether plastic loading occurs or not. Therefore trial states are defined which

are obtained by freezing the internal variables, i.e.

E e? := E E pn , E p? = E pn

T ? :=

E e ?

A? := An

B ? := A ?

(7.39)

?

?

?

A

:= An

B := A

with ? := (E e? , A? , A? ). Insertion of these trial values into (7.37)4 gives the trial levelset functions f ? := f (T ? , B ? , B ? ) and plastic loading occurs if at least on one flow

system the loading conditions are not fulfilled, i.e.

f ? c 0 for some [1, m]

plastic loading .

(7.40)

In the case of plastic loading, the non-linear coupled system (7.37) has to be solved

iteratively with a general return algorithm for , E p , A and A.

Since the active set A at the end of the time step is not known from the beginning and may

change during the iterative solution procedure, an active set search strategy is required.

130

discussed in section 6.3.2. For the moment this set is assumed to be known. The iterative

Newton-type solution algorithm bases on the definition of the residuals

P

RE := E p + E pn + A T f e = 0

RB := A + An + B f i

= 0

Rf :=

f (T , B, B) c

= 0 A.

A linearization of the above defined residuals yields the equations

(7.41)

P

Lin RE = RE E p + A [ T f e T T f e : A : E p ] = 0

P

Lin RA = RA A + A [ B f i BB f i KA]

= 0

Lin Rf = Rf T f e : A : E p + B f i KA

= 0

(7.42)

which have to vanish in the solution point. Within the time step the total logarithmic

strains E are constant so that the kinematic relation E p = E e holds. Furthermore,

the second derivatives of the free energy function are abbreviated by

E := ,E e E e ,

K := ,AA

and K := ,AA .

(7.43)

The fourth-order tensor appearing in (7.42) is defined by A := E+K. The strain residuals

(7.42)1,2 can be solved for the strain increments. With the definitions

e 1

:= (A1 + P

E

A T T f )

i 1

:= (K1 + P

and E

A BB f )

e

: (RE + P

f

)

E p = A1 : E

T

A

i

(RA + P

A = K1 E

A B f ) .

(7.44)

(7.45)

Insertion into the linearized discrete consistency condition (7.42)3 gives the increments of

the plastic multipliers

=

: RE B f i KER

A)

[g ]1 (f T f e : A : E

(7.46)

: T f e + B f i : E

: B f i .

g = T f e : E

(7.47)

+

A.

(7.48)

Equations (7.45) determine the updates for the strain increments E p = A and A.

If any of the A at the end of the iteration is negative, we have to update the active

set and restart the iteration. A summary of the algorithm is given in box 6.

1. Set initial values

E e = E e,? = E E pn , E p = E pn , A = A? = An , A = A? = An , = 0

T ? = T = E e , B ? = A , B ? = A

2. Compute trial states

f ? = f (T ? , B ? , B? )

= 1, . . . , m

A = { | f ? c > 0}.

if (A = { }) elastic

else plastic

3. Compute stress variables and the derivatives of the level set functions

T = E e ,

N = T f e ,

B = A ,

N = B f e ,

B = A

N = B f i

P

P

RA = A + An + A N

RE = E p + E pn + A N ,

P

Rf = f A

RA = A + An + A , N

p

P

if kRE k2 + kRA k2 + |RA |2 + A |Rf |2 < tol exit

5. Compute second derivatives and matrix g

E = E e E e ,

K = AA ,

K = AA

A = E + K,

P

N = A T T f e ,

e 1

= (A1 + P

E

A BB f )

P

i 1

= (K1 +

E

A BB f ) ,

: N + N EN

g = N : E

6. Compute plastic increment for A

P

: RE N KER

A)

= A [g ]1 (f N : A : E

7. Update internal variables

: (RE + P

E p E p + A1 : E

A N )

A Ep

(RA + P

A A + K1 E

A N ) A

+ A

goto 2.

endif

131

132

The algorithmic elastic-plastic tangent moduli relate the increment of the total strains to

the increment of the stresses, i.e.

T = Eep : E .

(7.49)

Point of departure for the derivation of Eep is the additive decomposition of the strains

(7.4) together with the incremental elasticity law

T = E : (E E p )

(7.50)

where E are the elastic moduli defined in (7.30)1 . The increments of the plastic strains

are obtained from (7.37)1,2 as

P

: T f e + A1 : E

: N : E : E

E p = PA A1 : E

(7.51)

i

1

A =

A K E B f .

the sum of the active second derivatives of the level set funcP

tions by N := A T T f e . The increments of the plastic multipliers remain to be

determined. Therefore the incremental consistency conditions

f = T f e : E : E T f e : A : E p B f i KA = 0

P

: N) : E} : E ,

= { A [g ]1 (T f e : (I E

(7.52)

(7.53)

in terms of the matrix g defined in (7.47). Evaluating the strain increments (7.51) and

insertion into (7.50) then allows the identification of the algorithmic tangent moduli by

comparison with (7.49). Defining the fourth-order tensors

= {(I E

: N) : E}T

:= E : A1 : E

(7.54)

moduli

Eep = E E : B : E

XX

A A

[g ]1 ( : T f e T f e : T ) .

(7.55)

The transposition of the fourth-order tensors in (7.54) and (7.55) is associated with the

first and second pairs of indices, i.e. [()ijkl ]T = ()klij .

The constitutive model of elasto-plasticity outlined in section 7.2 belongs to the class

of standard materials. The theoretical framework for this type of materials has already

been dealt with in section 6.4. In the sequel we discuss the characteristics due to the

logarithmic additive strain measure. The results obtained in the last chapter can be

transferred to the logarithmic strain space when the deformation measure C is replaced

by E and a functional dependence of the dissipation function on the flux of the internal

variables only is considered. The latter is a consequence of the geometrical linear structure

of the constitutive model inside the logarithmic strain space, cf. Miehe [85]. A detailed

discussion can be found in Miehe, Apel & Lambrecht [87].

133

A constitutive model belonging to the class of generalized standard media is described

by two fundamental constitutive functions, an energy storage function and a dissipation

function. The energy storage function is assumed to depend on the logarithmic strain

E and an internal variable vector I. It governs the constitutive equation for the stresses

T = E (E, I)

(7.56)

(7.15) and (7.16), respectively. The dissipation function is assumed to depend on the

flux I of the internal variables only. It determines the evolution of I by Biots equation

= 0 with I(0) = I0 .

I (E, I) + I (I)

(7.57)

The two constitutive equations (7.56) and (7.57) determine the stress response of a smooth

normal-dissipative material in a deformation-driven process where the strains E are prescribed. Based on the definition of the internal forces F , one introduces a dual dissipation function depending on the forces F by the Legendre-Fenchel transformation

}. This induces the two alternative representations

(F ) = supI { F I (I)

and I = F (F )

F = I (I)

(7.58)

mental physically-based constraint on the dissipation function . It is a priori satisfied

0. For

by assuming convex and prescribing the properties (0) = 0 and (I)

rate-independent response and a first-order positively homogeneous , evaluation of the

dissipation functions yields the dissipation, i.e.

0.

0 D = (I)

(7.59)

Next we discuss the construction of an integrated version of the constitutive equations

giving a consistent approximation of the continuous differential equation (7.57) in a finite

increment [tn , tn+1 ] R+ of time. Following the recent works Miehe [85] and Miehe,

Apel & Lambrecht [87], we define an incremental stress potential function W depending on the logarithmic strains E n+1 := E(tn+1 ) at time tn+1 that determines the stresses

at tn+1 by the quasi-hyperelastic function evaluation

T n+1 = E W (E n+1 ) .

(7.60)

Clearly, this function must cover characteristics of the storage function and the dissipation function introduced above. To this end, we consider the variational problem

W (E n+1 ) = inf

I

tn+1

[ + ] dt with I(tn ) = In .

(7.61)

tn

R t the incremental stress potential function W

as a minimum of the generalized work tnn+1 [ + ]dt done on the material in the time

134

increment under consideration. Starting with the given initial condition I(t n ) = In , the

minimum problem defines an optimal path of the internal variables I(t) for t [t n , tn+1 ]

including the right boundary value In+1 := I(tn+1 ).

The two equations (7.60) and (7.61) provide an approximative variational counterpart of

the continuous setting (7.56) and (7.57) of the constitutive equations in the discrete time

step [tn , tn+1 ] under consideration.

The proof that (7.61) represents a consistent point-wise approximation of Biots normaldissipative evolution equation (7.57) is analogous to the one given in section 6.4.2. Taking

the derivative of W with respect to E n+1 we get

E W (E n+1 ) = E (E n+1 , In+1 )

(7.62)

where In+1 is given by (7.57). Comparison with (7.56) shows the consistency of the

potential equation (7.60) with the continuous setting.

7.4.3. Specification to Multi-Surface Models of Elasto-Plasticity

For a known elastic domain E specified as in (7.17) by functions f , the dissipation

function may in the rate-independent case be defined by a generalization of the classical principle of maximum dissipation of plasticity proposed by Hill. It defines the

dissipation function by the constrained maximum problem with inequality constraint

= supF E [F I]

which can approximately be solved by a multiplier method

(I)

= sup[ F I P (f (F ) c ) ] .

(7.63)

(I)

c and (f c ) = 0. Equation (7.63) may be interpreted

as the Legendre-Fenchel

P

transformation of the dual dissipation potential (F ) = (f (F ) c ). Insertion

of (7.58)2 and exploiting the homogeneity of yields the one-dimensional representation

of the dissipation function which is equal to the dissipation (7.59)

P

(7.64)

0 D = (1 , . . . , m ) = c .

Discretization of the variational problem (7.61) bases on an implicit integration algorithm

A for the internal variables of the form

A(E n+1 , ) = 0 .

(7.65)

Here, the internal variables are viewed as functions of the algorithmic incremental parameters := t that are elements of the cone K := {P

| 0}, i.e. I = I( ). A

typical example is the backward Euler scheme I = In + F f (F ).

In the logarithmic strain space the level set functions depend on the plastic force only in

contrast to the setting in multiplicative plasticity where the level set functions depend

and therefore on the plastic force F = G

P

p and the dual

on the Mandel stress tensor

internal variable F p , see (6.8) and (6.9).

The integral of the dissipation function is discretized by a fully implicit integration scheme

Z tn+1

dt = t ( /t) .

(7.66)

tn

135

1. Geometric preprocessor. Let F n+1 GL(3) be the current deformation gradient

and g the Eulerian standard metric. Get Lagrangian logarithmic strains

E n+1 :=

1

2

incremental variational formulation for given data base {E n+1 , In } in [tn , tn+1 ]

W (E n+1 ) = inf

I

tn+1

[ + ] dt

tn

for internal variables In+1 Rn at time tn+1 and compute stresses and moduli

T n+1 = E W (E n+1 ) and

2

En+1 = EE

W (E n+1 )

3. Geometric postprocessor. The transformation tensors

Pn+1 := 2C E n+1

and

2

Ln+1 := 4CC

E n+1

map stresses and moduli from the logarithmic strain space to the Lagrangian space

S n+1 = T n+1 : Pn+1

and

ep

T

Cep

n+1 = Pn+1 : En+1 : Pn+1 + T n+1 : Ln+1

Insertion of the integration algorithm for the internal variables and (7.66) into (7.61)

defines the function

W h (E n+1 , 1 , . . . , m ) = (E n+1 , I h (E n+1 , )) n + t( /t))

(7.67)

W (E n+1 ) = inf W h (E n+1 , 1 , . . . , m ) .

K

(7.68)

7.4.4. Algorithmic Solution

The minimization problem (7.68) with inequality constraints can be solved by a Lagrange

multiplier method. The solution is the saddle-point of the associated Lagrange function

P

(7.69)

W (E n+1 ) = inf sup[W h (E n+1 , ) ]

W,h = 0 ,

0 ,

0 ,

= 0 .

(7.70)

136

W,h 0 ,

0 and W,h = 0

(7.71)

that determine the algorithmic parameters . In the case of plastic loading a nonempty set of active constraints exists A := { | 6= 0} and an improved solution of the

incremental parameters is obtained by a Newton step

P

+ where = A [W,h ]1 [W,h ] A .

(7.72)

The iteration is terminated if the residual is below a given tolerance, i.e.

P

[ A (W,h )2 ]1/2 tol .

(7.73)

During the iteration the set of active constraints may change. Here we apply the active

set search strategy suggested by Miehe, Schotte & Lambrecht [90].

The solution of the minimization problem and the integration of the internal variables are

coupled and have to be treated simultaneously. In any iteration step the update of the

internal variables is performed according to

P

(7.74)

In+1 In+1 + A In+1,

where the increments of the algorithmic multipliers are determined by (7.72).

Once the constrained minimization problem (7.68) is solved, the stresses and elastic-plastic

moduli are obtained by function evaluation of the derivatives of the incremental stress

potential function W . According to (7.60), the derivative with respect to the strains E n+1

yield the stresses T n+1 . Application of the chain rule gives the expression

P

h

(7.75)

E W = W,E

+ A W,h ,E .

In the solution point the last term drops out due to (7.71)3 and so that the stresses are

h

T n+1 = W,E

.

(7.76)

The sensitivity of the stresses with respect to the strains is governed by the algorithmic

tangent moduli. Like the moduli in elasticity theory they are obtained by the second

derivative of the stress potential function in the solution point

P

h

h

Eep

(7.77)

n+1 := EE W (E n+1 ) = W,EE +

A W,E ,E .

The sensitivity of the incremental plastic parameter with respect to the strains is obtained

by linearization of the necessary condition (7.71)3 . Inserting the result

X

(7.78)

,E =

[W,h ]1 W,h E

h

Eep

n+1 = W,EE

XX

A A

h

W,h E .

[W,h ]1 W,E

(7.79)

The softening part is a consequence of the change of the internal variables within the time

step. The algorithm is summarized in box 8.

History data: internal variables In = {E pn , An , An }

1. Set initial values

=1...m = 0, A = An ,

2. Determine current state of internal variables

Perform integration step of algorithm

A(E n+1 , ) = 0

3. Evaluate local minimization function

W h = (E n+1 , ) n + t( )

h

W,E

= ,E

h

W,EE = ,EE

h

W,E

= ,E

W,h = , + t,

W,h = , + t,

4. Check convergence

qP

if ( A W,h )2 tol goto 7

P

A [W,h ]1 W,h

? = argA [min{ | A}]

if ? 0 then

determine scaling parameter := 1 ? /?

perform scaling

P h (1 )

h

if W := A W, 0 remove flow system, A = A\?

goto 2

endif

? = arg=1...r [min{W,h ]

if Wh? 0 then

A {A ? }

goto 2

endif

8. Set stresses

T n+1 = E W h

137

138

We now apply the above discussed framework of incremental variational plasticity to the

model problem of section 7.2.3. Recall the assumed structure of the stored energy function

(7.24) and the level-set functions (7.26), i.e.

= e (E e ) + k (A) + i (A) and f = f e (T + B) + f i (B) .

(7.80)

The solution of the minimization problem (7.68) with a Newton scheme bases on the

derivatives of the function W h with respect to the algorithmic parameters . The stresses

and moduli require the derivatives with respect to the total strains. So the following

expressions have to be specified

)

h

= , + c

W,h

W,E

= ,E

W,h E = , E

(7.81)

h

h

W,h = ,

WEE

= ,EE

W,E

=

,E

for the functions given in (7.80). This somewhat lengthy and tricky procedure is discussed

in detail in appendix B. Here we solely summarize the results. For the derivatives of the

free energy the following compact expressions are obtained

,

= f

i

e

i

e

, = f,T

+ f,B

E f,B

: E : f,T

(7.82)

,E

= T

,EE = E E : B : E

: f i .

,E = E : A1 : E

,B

P

T T f e )1 + A]1

E := ,E e E e

B := [( P

e 1

:= (A1 +

K := ,AA

E

T T f )

P

i 1

:= (K1 +

.

A := E + K

E

f,BB )

(7.83)

Within the iterative solution procedure of the minimization problem, the internal variables

are updated according to

P

E p E p + PA E p,

A A + PA A,

(7.84)

A A + A A,

: T f

E p, = A, = A1 : E

i

f,B

and A, = K1 E

(7.85)

The stresses (7.76) and moduli (7.79) that are obtained with the derivatives (7.82) specified in this section are identical to the those obtained with the general return algorithm

in section 7.3.

139

This section outlines an eight-node brick-type finite shell element design based on an additively enhanced current metric relative to the parameter space of the shell-like structure.

It is a further development of the gradient-enhanced formulation of Miehe [84] and investigated in detail in Miehe & Apel [86]. This formulation is applied to the simulation

of deep drawing processes in Miehe & Schotte [89]. Similar approaches can be found

in Betsch [10], Seifert [120] and Klinkel, Gruttmann & Wagner [62]. Defining

an interface to strain-driven constitutive algorithms allows the use of existing isotropic

and anisotropic constitutive material models.

We consider a shell as a standard continuum where one dimension is small in comparison

with its span. Correlated to that dimension is the thickness direction of the shell. The

shell is parameterized with convected curvilinear coordinates. Therefore consider the socalled parameter space A R3 of the shell that has a particular Cartesian structure

A = M H. Here M R2 is the reference surface and H R the parameter space

of the

shell fiber. The points of the parameter space are described by the curvilinear

PSfrag

replacements

coordinates 1 , 2 of the shell surface and 3 along the shell fiber. The parameter space is

i }i=1,2,3 . Figure 37 visualizes the notation

equipped with a Cartesian orthonormal basis {E

introduced in this paragraph.

{Gi }

{g i }

X

j

J

B

x

A

their Eulerian counterparts x = x( i , t) in the actual configuration are parameterized with

the coordinates i of the parameter space A of the shell. The associated linear tangent maps

are J := X and j := x. The deformation gradient is the composition F := jJ 1 .

X = X(). The corresponding tangent map is denoted by

J : T A TX B ,

J = X .

(8.1)

The dual tangent mapping that connects the co-tangent spaces is J T : T? A TX? B. In

a similar manner the actual configuration S is parameterized. Points of the parameter

space are mapped onto points of the Eulerian configuration by x := x(, t). The tangent

map is defined by

j : T A TX S ,

j = x

(8.2)

140

and the co-tangent map by j T : T? A Tx? S. The covariant current metric g and the

reference metric G at A in the representations with respect to the parameter space

are denoted by

:= j T gj

C

:= J T GJ .

and G

(8.3)

The local deformation of the shell-like continuum can be defined in terms of the above

introduced parameterizations of the Eulerian and Lagrangian configurations by

= x X 1

and F = jJ 1 .

(8.4)

These compositions are depicted in figure 37. The local stress state in a shell-like continuum is primarily a function of an objective strain tensor which constitutes a relationship

between the current and the reference metrics. With regard to the interpretation and

identification of the strain tensor it is convenient to consider the geometric setting relative to the parameter space. It is of special advantage when dealing with enhanced and

assumed strain modifications. A classical objective strain measure is the Green-Lagrange

at A defined by

tensor E

:=

E

1

2

G]

.

[C

(8.5)

PSfrag replacements

For the spatial discretization the shell-like continuum B is divided into non-overlapping

elements of finite size B e B so that B = ne=1 B e . The element nodes are located at the

3

Ae = M e H e

Me

3

8

Figure 38: Parameter space of the shell element. It has Cartesian structure Ae = Me He

associated with the reference surface of the shell and the thickness direction. The four

assumed strain points for the thickness strain are marked with a square, the four assumed

strain points for the transverse shear strain interpolation are marked with black circles.

bottom and top surface of the shell-like continuum. Figure 38 shows the parameter space

Ae of a single eight-node brick-type shell element. Using the iso-parametric concept, the

interpolations of the geometry of the elements in the reference configuration and their

deformed actual counterparts are given by

x=

8

X

i=1

N ( , , )xI

and X =

8

X

i=1

N I (1 , 2 , 3 )X I .

(8.6)

141

The quantities xI and X I denote the discrete nodal coordinates at the bottom and top

surface. For the interpolation the standard trilinear shape functions

N I (1 , 2 , 3 ) =

1

8

(1 1 I1 )(1 2 I2 )(1 3 I3 )

(8.7)

are used. In contrast to standard continuum settings we here assume a particular orientation of the brick by defining the parameter 3 to be associated with the thickness

direction of the shell. This motivates the decomposition of the element parameter space

Ae = Me He into a reference surface Me R2 and the part He R associated with

the shell fiber, cf. figure 38. The parameterization of the deformation of the shell is then

simply provided by the standard nodal displacement vector of the brick element

xI = X I + d I

(8.8)

for I = 1, . . . , 8. Based on the interpolations (8.6) the compatible Jacobians (8.1) and

(8.2) are obtained at any point of the element parameter space, i.e.

j=

8

X

i=1

x I N

and J =

8

X

i=1

X I N I .

(8.9)

This representation allows the computation of the compatible current and reference metrics according to (8.3)

C := j T gj

C

C := J T GJ .

and G

(8.10)

The discrete forms of the first and second variations of the current metric tensor are

1

2

C =

C

8

X

B IC dI

C) =

and ( 12 C

i=1

8 X

8

X

T

GIJ

CC (dI dJ )

(8.11)

I=1 J=1

in terms of the nodal B-matrices of dimension 63 and the nodal G-matrices of dimension

6 1 that are defined by

BCI (ij)a :=

1

2

CC (ij) :=

1

2

(8.12)

Assumed strain interpolations were first introduced by Dvorkin & Bathe [37], Bathe

& Dvorkin [7] to avoid locking effects due to parasitic shear strains. Betsch & Stein

[11] extended this method to avoid locking caused by parasitic thickness strains.

The strains mentioned above are associated with the coordinates C13 , C23 and C33 of

13 , G

23 and G

33 of its Lagrangian counterpart relative to the

the current metric and G

parameter space. The assumed strain interpolations take the forms

ass 1 2

( , )

C33

ass 2

C13 ( )

ass 1

C23

( )

1 2

ass

G

33 ( , )

2

ass

G

13 ( )

1

ass

G

23 ( )

P4

=

PA=1

6

=

PA=5

8

=

A=7

P4

=

P6A=1

=

PA=5

8

=

A=7

1

4

1

2

1

2

1

4

1

2

1

2

1

2 A

(1 + 1 A

)(1 + 2 A

)C33

2 2 A

(1 + A )C13

1 A

(1 + 1 A

)C12

1

2 A

(1 + 1 A

)(1 + 2 A

)G33

2 2 A

(1 + A )G13

A

(1 + 1 1 )G

12

A

(8.13)

142

based on the discrete values of the metrics at the collocation points for the assumed strains

that are enumerated in figure 38. In the parameter space Ae of the element the assumed

strain points 1, . . . , 4 of the Betsch-Stein approach are identical with the points in the

corners of the reference surface of the shell. They have the coordinates

(1, 1, 0) ,

(+1, 1, 0) ,

The assumed strain points 5, . . . , 8 of the Dvorkin-Bathe approach are located at the

centers of the edges of the reference surface, i.e.

(0, 1, 0) ,

(0, +1, 0) ,

Note that the assumed strains (8.13) replace the associated values of the compatible

setting (8.10). This replacement procedure can be expressed by

= G

= C

C + [G

ass G

C]

C + [C

ass C

C ] and G

C

C

C

C

C

(8.14)

denote the modified metric tensors. The bracket terms in (8.14) are

and G

where C

C

C

understood to be present only for the values associated with the transverse shear and the

thickness components as depicted in (8.13). These modifications have an effect on the Band G-matrices. The modified terms are

P4

1

1 1

2 2

IA

BCI (33)a :=

A=1 4 (1 + A )(1 + A )BC (33)a

P

6

1

2 2

IA

BCI (13)a :=

(8.15)

A=5 2 (1 + A )BC (13)a

P

1

I

1 1

IA

BC (23)a :=

A=7 2 (1 + A )BC (23)a

for the B-matrix (8.12)1 . The the corresponding entries in the G-matrix (8.12)2 have to

be changed accordingly, i.e.

P4

1

1 1

2 2

IJ A

IJ

G

CC 33 := PA=1 4 (1 + A )(1 + A )GCC 33

6

1

2 2

IJ

IJ A :=

(8.16)

G

CC 13

A=5 4 (1 + A )GCC 13

P

8

1

IJ

A

1

1

IJ

GCC 23 :=

A=7 4 (1 + A )GCC 23 .

8.2.3. Enhanced Strain Modifications

the Green-Lagrangian strains defined in (8.5), similar to the approach proposed by Simo

& Rifai [127] for continuum elements for small strains. In the context of a brick-type

shell element design, the current metric in the representation relative to the parameter

space is additively enhanced

.

+ C

C

=C

E

C

(8.17)

C

is the assumed enhanced current metric which consists of the compatible part C

C

latter is assumed to have the form

1

2

= B a ,

C

E

E

(8.18)

143

where B E is a matrix of shape functions that governs the incompatible contributions and

a the vector of internal element degrees. In order to set up the matrix B E , we start with

the particular interpolation

1 1

1 4 + 2 5

0

? = 1 + 2

2 2

0

(8.19)

C

4

5

E

3

0

0

3

in terms of five internal parameters

a = [1 2 3 4 5 ]T .

(8.20)

These five internal element parameters 1,...,5 govern incompatible modes which enhance

membrane and thickness strains. The incompatible membrane shapes follow the classical

& Rifai [127]. It was applied

works of Taylor, Beresford & Wilson [139] and Simo

to four-node shell elements by Betsch, Gruttmann & Stein [12]. The incompatible

?

chter & Ramm [28]. Observe that the shape C

thickness shape is adopted from Bu

E

satisfies the condition

Z

? dV = 0 .

C

(8.21)

E

Ae

In order to satisfy the patch test, Simo

? J 1 from the parameter space A to

E = (J0 /J)J T C

the ansatz (8.19) of the form C

0

E 0

E of the current metric relative

the Lagrangian manifold B, yielding the modification C

to the Lagrangian configuration. Hereby J := det[J ] and the subscript 0 indicates

the evaluation at the center of the element, i.e. at = (0, 0, 0). In order to achieve the

identical result within a computation relative to the parameter space A, the above given

ansatz is pulled back. The result is the enhanced part of the metric in (8.17)

1

2

=

C

E

1

2

J0 T T ? 1

(J J 0 )C E (J 0 J ) =: B E a

J

(8.22)

The variational formulation of the enhanced strain method used here is similar to the

& Rifai [127] for

Hu-Washizu-type three-field variational formulation presented by Sim o

the small-strain case. Point of departure is the variational problem

Z

]J dV stat.

) S

: 1C

= [(C

C +C

E , S)

(8.23)

(u, C

E

ext

E

2

A

with respect to the parameter space of the shell. The above functional depends on the

and

actual displacement u = x X, the enhanced part of the current metric tensor C

E

The external loads are assumed to be dead loads. They are prescribed for

the stresses S.

the body in the reference configuration, their contributions are

Z

Z

u dV +

ext (u) =

0

T u dA .

(8.24)

B

144

Variation of (8.23) yields, after plugging in the discretization, the set of coupled weak

forms associated with the element domains in the parameter space

R

C : 2,C J dV Ge

GeC := Ae 21 C

=

0

ext

R

1

e

(8.25)

= 0

GS := Ae S : 2 C E J dV

dV = 0

E : (2,C S)J

GeE := Ae 21 C

R

R

u dV + Be T u dA. Observe that the corresponding Euler

where Geext := Be 0

equation to (8.25)2 demands that the enhanced part of the right Cauchy-Green-tensor

= 0. Within a finite element approximation

vanishes in the continuous setting, i.e. 12 C

E

this requirement must be weakened, otherwise no improvement of the solution will be

obtained. In order to ensure correct convergence towards the exact solution, an element

formulation must pass the patch test. This restriction is a priori satisfied by the chosen

ansatz (8.19). It guarantees that the element-wise incompatible part of the enhanced

right Cauchy-Green tensor are L2 -orthogonal to at least constant stress fields. Based on

this fact, the three-field formulation reduces to the two-field formulation

)

R

C : 2,C J dV Ge

GeC := Ae 21 C

=

0

ext

(8.26)

R 1

e

G :=

C

:

2

J

dV

=

0

.

E

e

,C

E

Linearization and insertion of the finite element interpolations (8.11), (8.15), (8.16) and

(8.22) then gives the coupled element equations

(8.27)

GeE + GeE = aT {Ra + K ad d + K aa a}

in terms of the partial element residuals and element stiffness matrices

R

R

K dd = RAe (B TC CB C + GCC )J dV

T

Rd = RAe B C SJ dV

(8.28)

and

K da = RAe B TC CB E J dV

dV

Ra = Ae B TE SJ

T

K aa = Ae B E CB E J dV

and K ad = K Tda . The numerical integration must be performed with at least nine Gauss

, Armero & Taylor [124] as

points to avoid under integration. We refer here to Simo

well as the numerical examples in section 9.2 for details. In (8.28) we have introduced the

constitutive functions for the stresses and consistent tangent moduli

)

) and C := 4 (C

+C

:= 2 (C

+C

(8.29)

S

,C

,C C

at time tn+1 computed in terms of the assumed enhanced metric (8.17). The parameters

a are defined on the element level. Their increments a in (8.27) can be eliminated by

static condensation, i.e.

a = K 1

aa (Ra + K ad d) .

(8.30)

The condensed element residual vector and element tangent matrix are

R := Rd K da K 1

aa Ra

and K := K dd K da K 1

aa K ad .

(8.31)

A typical global Newton iteration step consists of an assembling procedure of the condensed element residuals R and element tangents K to the global residual vector and

tangent matrix, the solution of the associated linear algebraic system and an update of

the incremental displacement. The increments for the parameters a on the element level

are obtained from (8.30).

145

The assumed enhanced strain procedure yields modifications of the current and the reference metrics, see (8.14) and (8.17). A general interface to strain-driven constitutive

models is provided by the deformation gradient F . It is defined in (8.4) for the compati based on this

ble setting. A computation of an assumed enhanced deformation gradient F

of the Eulerian

definition needs a recovery of the assumed enhanced Jacobians j and J

and Lagrangian parameter maps. In the context of assumed enhanced strain methods the

basic idea bases on a polar decomposition of the Jacobians j and J of the Eulerian and

Lagrangian parameter maps, respectively,

j = ru and J = RU .

(8.32)

The symmetric and positive definite stretch tensors are obtained from the current and

reference metrics defined in (8.10) as

1/2

u=C

C

1/2 .

and U = G

C

(8.33)

1/2

r = jC

C

1/2

and R = J G

C

(8.34)

The assumed enhanced strain modifications (8.14) and (8.17) affect the metric tensors

directly. This yields the modified stretch tensors

1/2

:= G

1/2 .

:= C

u

(8.35)

and U

C

A basic assumption conceptually outlined in Dvorkin, Pantuso & Repetto [38] considers the rotation unaffected by the assumed strain modification. This assumption defines

the enhanced assumed Jacobians of the parameter maps

= RU

.

j = r u

and J

(8.36)

Insertion of the compatible rotations (8.34) into (8.36) gives the representations

1/2

j = j C

1/2 C

C

= J G

1/2 .

1/2 G

and J

C

C

(8.37)

:= j J

1 .

F

(8.38)

constitutive model. The constitutive model then determines the stresses and moduli

) and C = 2 (F

) .

P = F (F

(8.39)

FF

The stresses and consistent moduli of the parameter space needed for the setting up

of the residual and tangent matrix of the mixed shell element are then obtained by a

transformation by means of the assumed enhanced parameter maps

1 )B

SAB = P aB (j 1 )A (J

(8.40)

a

and

1 )B (j 1 )C (J

1 )D SB D C AC .

AB C D = CaBcD (j 1 )A a (J

C

B

c

D

(8.41)

147

Numerical Examples

9. Numerical Examples

9.1. Necking of an Isotropic Rod

In this first example we consider the classical necking problem of a rod for isotropic elasticplastic material response. It is a standard benchmark problem of finite plasticity and has

[121] and Papadopoulos & Lu

been analyzed by many authors, see for example Simo

[99]. The aim of the investigation is to compare the results obtained with the different

stress update algorithms, U1: standard implicit, U2: standard explicit, V1: variational

implicit and V2: variational explicit. Furthermore the results obtained from the additive

logarithmic strain space formulation are compared to those from the multiplicative plasticmap plasticity framework. The length of the rod in its reference configuration is l =

53.34mm, the radius r0 = 6.4135mm. Due to the apparent symmetry of the problem,

,

we discretize one eighth of the specimen by 120 Q1P0 elements as described in Simo

Taylor & Pister [128] and Miehe [77]. Half of the elements are concentrated on a

length of 8.98mm in the middle of the rod close to the necked zone. The necking is

triggered by an imperfection of the rod in form of a continuous decrease of the radius in

the fine discretized region from r0 to r = 0.982r0 at the center cross section. We use the

multiplicative Hill-type constitutive model of section 6.6 and the additive Hill-type model

of section 7.2.3 with saturation-type non-linear isotropic hardening response. The set of

material parameters for rate-independent behaviour is summarized in table 12.

a.

c.

b.

0.00

0.08

0.16

0.24

0.32

0.40

0.48

0.56

0.65

0.73

0.81

0.89

0.97

1.05

1.13

Figure 39: Necking of an isotropic rod. Deformed specimen and distribution of equivalent

plastic strain: (a) Reference configuration, (b) intermediate state after onset of necking at

u = 8.4mm and (c) final state at u = 14mm.

total elongation of u = 14mm. Figure 39 depicts the initial and two deformed discretized

structures with the distribution of the equivalent plastic strain of the additive model. The

final displacement was applied in 200 increments. To compare the different stress update

algorithms the global load-deflection curves and the radial contractions at the center of

the specimens are considered. They are plotted in figure 40. Up to a deformation of

around 6mm, the load increases and the whole rod contracts uniformly. When the load

is increased further, necking starts at the center of the rod. This is documented by

the kinks in the r/u-curves. Figure 40a compares the implicit algorithms at different

step sizes. The results from the standard formulation U1 are very close to each other.

Deviations come solely from the discretization of the evolution equation. The results from

148

Numerical Examples

70

3.5

r [mm]

80

F [kN]

60

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U1

V1

V1

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a.

12

b.

4

70

3.5

r [mm]

F [kN]

14

80

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U1

V1

U2

V2

V2

20

10

0

c.

10

12

14

d.

r [mm]

50

40

e.

10

12

14

10

12

14

10

12

14

200

200

400

200

400

0.5

3.5

70

10

U1

V1

U2

V2

V2

2.5

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plastic metric

plastic map

u [mm]

80

20

u [mm]

30

1.5

200

200

400

200

400

60

F [kN]

0.5

u [mm]

30

replacements

2.5

60

replacements

200

200

50

50

14

1.5

200

200

50

50

14

10

V1

U1

U1

V1

V1

u [mm]

plastic metric

plastic map

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

u [mm]

10

12

14

f.

u [mm]

Figure 40: Necking of an isotropic rod. Comparison of the update algorithms. U1: standard implicit, U2: standard explicit, V1: variational implicit and V2: variational explicit.

(a) and (c) show the load displacement curves, (b) and (d) the radial contraction r of

the mid cross section of the rod. The numbers of iteration steps used are specified in the

legends. Plots (e) and (f) compare the results from the plastic-map model (U1) with the

results of the plastic-metric model obtained in 200 steps.

149

Numerical Examples

bulk modulus:

shear modulus:

initial yield stress:

infinite yield stress:

hardening modulus:

saturation parameter:

y0

y

h

= 164.206 kN/mm2

= 80.1938 kN/mm2

=

0.45 kN/mm2

= 0.715 kN/mm2

= 0.12924 kN/mm2

= 16.93

the variational algorithm V1 coincide with those from U1 but differ in the post critical

regime for large steps. The variational algorithm allows larger load step increments than

the standard formulation.

The performance and robustness of the explicit algorithms U2 and V2 is not so good as

that of the implicit ones. The algorithms U2 and V2 require 400 steps. For larger step

sizes the computations either fail or the curves diverge and oscillate in the post critical

range as shown for V2 in the load-displacement figure 40c and plot 40c that documents

the contraction of the strip. The characteristics observed in the load-displacement curves

can also be found in the graphs 40b,d, where the contraction of the cross section in the

middle of the rod is plotted against the displacement.

Minor differences between the two frameworks of plasticity models the plastic-map approach and the plastic-metric approach become apparent in figure 40e. The simulations

were performed in 200 steps. The plastic-map model with the implicit standard integration algorithm U1 is identical to the formulation of multiplicative isotropic plasticity

& Miehe [125], Simo

[121] and Miehe [83]. The results are almost

outlined in Simo

identical except a minor deviation in the softening regime where the non-coaxiality of

the current and the plastic metric C and Gp seems to separate the results. In the same

range we also observe small differences in the radial contraction as depicted in figure 40f.

Nevertheless, in the considered case of isotropic finite plasticity, results of the proposed

formulation based on the additive kinematic ansatz (7.4) are surprisingly close to the

multiplicative kinematic ansatz (6.172).

In this example we investigate the performance of the additively enhanced finite shell

element formulation proposed in chapter 8. For comparison, the multiplicatively enhanced

shell element of Miehe [84] has also been implemented. By means of the benchmark

problem of necking of a rectangular strip both element designs are compared. Figure 41

depicts the geometry of the specimen and its loading. The strip is deformation driven

pulled up to a total length of 29.78mm. On its loaded ends the boundary conditions allow

free contraction of the specimen. In the middle of the specimen the width is reduced to

13.5mm in order to trigger necking. The same material as in the first example is used. It

is isotropic with non-linear isotropic hardening and is described by the material constants

given in table 12. The analysis is performed with the additive plastic-metric formulation

of section 7.

150

Numerical Examples

u

h = 13.545

PSfrag replacements

t = 1.0

l = 17.78

Figure 41: Necking of a Strip. Geometry and boundary conditions. All length in mm.

Due to symmetry, one fourth of the strip is discretized using 5 10 shell elements. The

specimen is stretched in 120 uniform steps up to a final edge displacement of u = 6mm.

We investigate five numerical integration schemes having 8, 9, 15, 27 and 64 Gauss points.

The coordinates and weights for the 8-, 27- and 64-point integration formulas follow from

a one-dimensional scheme by tensor product operations, i.e.

(1 , 2 , 3 )ijk = [a]i [a]j [a]k ;

For the 8-point integration these vectors are

q q

a = [ 13 , 13 ]T ;

w = [1, 1]T .

(9.1)

q

q

a = [ 35 , 0, 35 ]T ; w = [ 59 , 89 , 59 ]T

(9.2)

q

q

q

q

a = [ 37 + s, 37 s, 37 s, 37 + s, ]T ;

w = [ 12 1t , 12 + 1t , 12 + 1t , 21 1t ]T (9.3)

24

, Armero & Taylor [124], a 9-point

with constants s = 245

and t = 6 1.2. In Simo

quadrature formula was proposed consisting of the eight points resulting from (9.1) but

with weights w = [ 95 , 95 ]T and one additional point at the center of the element with

weight w = 32

. For a two-dimensional element, they suggested a 5-point formula. The

9

latter can be used in shell elements for integration over the reference surface M e , once

the integration over the thickness direction in He has been done. In this case we end up

with 15 Gauss points. Three-point thickness integration over H e is done at

q

q

(9.4)

3 = 35 , 0, 35 with w = 59 , 98 , 95 .

q

In the shell surface, the 5-point quadrature formula consists of four points given by

q q

a = [ 35 , 35 ]T ; w = [ 59 , 95 ]T

(9.5)

and one additional point at the center of the surface with weight w =

16

.

9

Figure 42 shows the final states of the simulations. With the 8-point integration the strip

deforms in the post critical regime completely differently from the ones with the 9-point

151

Numerical Examples

a.

b.

c.

d.

plastic strain. (a) Additively enhanced and (b) multiplicatively enhanced element design

with 8-point quadrature. (c) and (d) show the corresponding results for 9-point integration.

9000

9000

8

9

15

27

64

8000

7000

6000

7000

6000

load [N]

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4000

3000

5000

4000

3000

2000

2000

1000

1000

a.

b.

displacement u [mm]

displacement u [mm]

9000

mul. enh.

add. enh.

8000

7000

6000

load [N]

load [N]

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8

9

15

27

64

8000

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5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

0

c.

displacement u [mm]

Figure 43: Necking of a strip. Load-displacement curves for (a) multiplicatively enhanced

and (b) additively enhanced element design for 8-, 9-, 15-, 27- and 64-point quadrature

formulas. Plot (c) compares the curves for 9-point integration.

152

Numerical Examples

8

9

15

27

64

1

2

3

0.2

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t [mm]

w [mm]

replacements

4

5

6

7

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

10

a.

b.

displacement u [mm]

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5

6

7

8

9

15

27

64

displacement u [mm]

mul. enh.

add. enh.

mul. enh.

add. enh.

0.1

0.2

t [mm]

w [mm]

0.8

d.

2

3

4

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5

6

7

0.6

1.2

displacement u [mm]

e.

0.4

replacements

displacement u [mm]

8

9

0.2

t [mm]

w [mm]

c.

8

9

15

27

64

replacements

8

9

15

27

64

0.1

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

displacement u [mm]

0.7

f.

displacement u [mm]

Figure 44: Necking of a strip. Change of width w in the necking cross section and

change of thickness t at the center of the strip for (a,b) multiplicatively enhanced and (c,d)

additively enhanced shell element design for integration schemes with 8-, 9-, 15-, 27- and

64-Gauss points. Plots (e) and (f) compare the curves for 9-point integration, respectively.

153

Numerical Examples

The plastic deformation is essentially restricted to one row of elements and one observes

a hourglass-like pattern which renders the results useless. For details on the drawback

of this quadrature formula we refer to Simo, Armero & Taylor [124]. The results

obtained with higher quadrature formulas are close to each other.

In figure 43 the load-displacement curves are plotted. (a) belongs to the additively enhanced and (b) to the multiplicatively enhanced element design. The curves for 8-point

integration document the inadequacy of this integration scheme. All other curves almost

coincide. In (c) the results obtained with both elements using the 9-point quadrature

formula are compared. There is a slight difference in the post-critical regime.

In order to document the effect of the integration order, the changes of width w and

thickness t in the necking cross section are documented in figure 44. One clearly observes

the effect of under-integration of the 8-point quadrature formula in the post-critical regime

leading to physically meaningless results. The curves of a higher integration order slightly

differ towards the end of the deformation process.

This example is concerned with a drawing process of a thin circular flange. It serves

as a benchmark for the analysis of anisotropic elastic-plastic response and has already

been considered by Papadopoulos & Lu [100]. The problem can be viewed as a simplified model of the outer part of a circular sheet that is deep-drawn into a cup. The

benchmark substantially idealizes a three-dimensional deep-drawing experiment because

no out-of-plane drawing occurs and therefore no contact elements are needed. Geometry

Q

a1

PSfrag replacements

a2

a3

10

a2

200

400

200

and

boundary conditions. Coordinates of P

and Q are P (200/0/0) and Q((200/ 2)/(200/ 2)/0). All length in mm.

and boundary conditions are depicted in figure 45. The nodes at the inner side are drawn

in radial direction up to a total displacement of u = 75mm. In order to prevent buckling

of the blank, the lower layer is supported in vertical direction. The structure is discretized

using 10 40 brick-type shell elements with the nine-point quadrature. The process is

deformation-controlled by applying increments of u = 0.1mm of radial displacement.

154

Numerical Examples

We assume isotropic elastic and cubic plastic response and investigate two different approaches to the modeling of the anisotropic yield criteria. On the one hand the anisotropic

plastic behaviour is governed by a single surface cubic Hill-type level set function in terms

for plastic-map plasof a constant fourth-order tensor H for plastic-metric plasticity and H

ticity. The restriction to cubic symmetry is obtained by the choice y11 = y22 = y33 and

y12 = y23 = y13 .

The orientations of the principal axes of anisotropy {ai }i=1,2,3 are specified in figure 45.

The ratio of normal stresses to shear yield stresses := y11 /y12 serves as a measure for the

deviation from the isotropic state. We investigate two sets of material parameters which

only differ in this ratio. For the boundary-value problems, considered here, these values

are = 3.4641 and = 0.86603. Throughout all simulations we assume isotropic linear

hardening using the material parameters listed in table 13.

Table 13: Material Parameters

bulk modulus:

shear modulus:

reference yield stress:

normal yield stress:

hardening modulus:

y0

y11

h

= 164000 N/mm2

= 80190 N/mm2

=

450 N/mm2

=

450 N/mm2

=

100 N/mm2

On the other hand the anisotropic response is the result of a Kelvin-mode decomposition

of a cubic fourth-order tensor. The attractive feature of such a decomposition is that in

the case of cubic symmetry the eigen-tensors do only depend on the orientation of the

fourth-order tensor. For co-axial principal axes of anisotropy {ai } and global coordinate

axes {ei }, the eigen-tensors are specified in section 6.6.5.

9.3.1. Comparison of Additive and Multiplicative Plasticity

The results of the numerical simulations obtained with the single surface additive plasticmetric model and the multiplicative plasticity model using the stress update algorithm

U1 are documented in figures 46, 47 and 48. The additively enhanced shell element of

section 8 with 9-point quadrature is used. Figure 46 shows the deformed flanges and the

distribution of the equivalent plastic strains for = 3.4641, whereas figure

47 shows those

for = 0.86603. Compared with the isotropic setting, where = 3, the results for

= 3.4641 are associated with an increase of plastic deformation in regions of high shear

stresses T12 . The onset of yielding is observed at /4 + n/2, n = 0, 1, 2, 3, see figure 46.

The choice = 0.86603 yields an increase of plastic deformations in regions of high normal

stresses T11 and T22 . We observe the onset of yielding at n/2, n = 0, 1, 2, 3, see figure 47.

For both sets of anisotropic material parameters, the outer rim becomes wavelike during

the deformation. This phenomenon is well known in sheet metal forming and is denoted

as earing. The plots of equivalent plastic strain from the additive plasticity model are

almost indistinguishable from those of the multiplicative model. Figure 48 depicts the

development of the nodal forces acting at the two nodes P and Q specified in figure 45.

For the two considered sets of anisotropic material parameters the curves for P and Q

differ from each other as follows. For = 3.4641 the maximum yielding occurs at /4

Numerical Examples

a.

b.

Figure 46: Drawing of a flange. Deformed meshes and distributions of equivalent plastic

strain for u = 25mm, u = 50mm and u = 75mm. (a) Multiplicative plasticity using

algorithm U1 with maximal accumulated plastic strain Amax = 0.4435 and (b) additive

plasticity with Amax = 0.4465 for anisotropy ratio = 3.4641.

a.

b.

Figure 47: Drawing of a flange. Deformed meshes and distributions of equivalent plastic

strain for u = 25mm, u = 50mm and u = 75mm. (a) Multiplicative plasticity using

algorithm U1 with Amax = 0.9244 and (b) additive plasticity with Amax = 0.9478 for

anisotropy ratio = 0.86603.

155

156

Numerical Examples

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multiplicative plasticity

additive plasticity

replacements

replacements

50

40

isotropy

30

20

a.

10

20

30

40

50

10

0

80

b.

u [mm]

isotropy

30

multiplicative plasticity

70

40

20

60

multiplicative plasticity

additive plasticity

50

additive plasticity

10

60

60

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

u [mm]

Figure 48: Drawing of a flange. Nodal forces at P and Q for multiplicative and additive

plasticity. Anisotropic response for (a) = 3.4641 and (b) = 0.86603.

in the positive quadrant. In this direction the material is softer and the nodal force at

Q is smaller than the one at P . For = 0.86603 the softer behavior is along the a1 and

a2 axes and the nodal force at P is smaller than the one at Q. Clearly, both curves are

identical in the isotropic case. Differences between the additive and the multiplicative

model are in correlation to the amount of plastic deformation of the material. The higher

the accumulated plastic strain, the stronger the deviation of the nodal forces of both

models. Nevertheless, the curves are close to each other.

9.3.2. Comparison of the Stress Update Algorithms

We now focus on the four proposed stress update algorithms U1: standard implicit, U2:

standard explicit, V1: variational implicit and V2: variational explicit. Figure 49 shows

the development of the nodal forces at the points P and Q during the simulation with

the single surface Hill-type model. The maximum constant step size of u = 0.1mm has

been proven to be appropriate for the simulations. It was determined with the implicit

standard algorithm U1. Simulations where the size was doubled after some plastic steps

aborted. This was caused by the failure of the local Newton iteration in the stress update

algorithm. The results of all algorithms are almost identical.

Furthermore we compare the implicit algorithms within a simulation using the multi-

replacements

60

U1

V1

U2

V2

50

60

40

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a.

U1

V1

U2

V2

50

40

30

20

10

10

20

30

40

50

60

displacement u [mm]

70

80

b.

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

displacement u [mm]

Figure 49: Drawing of a flange. Nodal forces at P and Q for the proposed stress update algorithms U1: standard implicit, U2: standard explicit, V1: variational implicit, V2:

variational explicit. Anisotropic response for (a) = 3.4641 and (b) = 0.86603.

80

157

Numerical Examples

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nodal force [kN]

displacement u [mm]

PSfrag replacements

nodal force [kN]

displacement u [mm]

PSfrag replacements

nodal force [kN]

displacement u [mm]

U1

U1

U1

V1

V1

V1

Figure 50: Drawing of a flange. Deformed meshes with equivalent plastic strain obtained

with algorithm U1 and a Kelvin-mode decomposition of a cubic fourth-order tensor.

In the case of ideal plasticity, the flow systems are decoupled. They are weakly coupled

via the equivalent plastic strain if hardening phenomena are modeled. On one of the flow

systems yielding occurs due to the normal stresses, while on the other system yielding is

caused by the shear stresses, cf. (6.197). In order to stabilize the solution procedure, the

viscosity is set to = 500Ns/mm2 . The resulting deformation of the flange differs from

those obtained with the single surface model. A sequence of deformed meshes and the

distribution of the equivalent plastic strain is visualized in figure 50. Obviously, the effect

of yielding due to normal stresses is dominating. The deformation has similarities to the

one from the single surface Hill-type model with anisotropy ratio = 0.86603, where the

resistance to shear strains is increased. Plastic flow dominates in the regions near the

coordinate axes. The evolution of the nodal forces at the points P and Q during the

deformation process is plotted in figure 51. As already observed in the boundary value

problem with the single surface model, the curves do agree very well. Maximum values

for the equivalent plastic strain are Amax = 0.81556 for U1 and Amax = 0.81837 for V2.

70

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60

50

40

30

20

U1

V1

10

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

displacement u [mm]

Figure 51: Drawing of a flange. Nodal forces at P and Q for the implicit stress update

algorithms U1 and V1. Plastic anisotropy is introduced into the constitutive model by a

Kelvin-mode decomposition of a cubic fourth-order tensor.

158

Numerical Examples

a.

b.

Figure 52: Drawing of a flange. Deformed meshes and distributions of equivalent plastic

strain for u = 25mm, u = 50mm and u = 75mm with the additive plasticity model. (a)

Multiplicatively enhanced element design with Amax = 0.4512 and (b) additively enhanced

element design with Amax = 0.4465 for anisotropy ratio = 3.4641.

a.

b.

Figure 53: Drawing of a flange. Deformed meshes and distributions of equivalent plastic

strain for u = 25mm, u = 50mm and u = 75mm with the additive plasticity model. (a)

Multiplicatively enhanced element design with Amax = 0.9976 and (b) additively enhanced

element design with Amax = 0.9478 for anisotropic response = 0.86603.

159

Numerical Examples

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60

add.-enh.

mul.-enh.

20

60

10

PSfrag replacements

30

b.

mul.-enh.

add.-enh.

50

40

80

50

displacement u [mm]

c.

50

10

60

PSfrag replacements

mul.-enh.

add.-enh.

70

80

9

15

27

64

50

40

30

20

10

0

f.

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

displacement u [mm]

Figure 54: Drawing of a flange. Nodal forces at Q (upper curves) and P (lower curves)

for (a) 9-, (b) 15-, (c) 27- and (d) 64-point integration. Plot (e) shows the results for

multiplicatively enhanced and (f) for additively enhanced element design.

80

160

Numerical Examples

To evaluate the additively enhanced finite shell element design we compare the results

with the multiplicatively enhanced shell element design proposed by Miehe [84]. For the

simulations the additive plasticity model is used. The set of cubic material parameters

listed in table 13 and the two anisotropy ratios introduced in the previous section, =

3.4641 and = 0.86603, are considered.

In figures 52 and 53 the deformed flanges are plotted. They show slight differences in the

distribution of the equivalent plastic strains. The difference in the maximum equivalent

plastic strains is small. For = 3.4641 the nodal forces at P and Q differ only slightly

towards the end of the simulation. In the other case, where = 0.86603, there are stronger

differences as documented in detail in figure 54. Both element formulations seem to be

sensitive with respect to the accuracy of the numerical integration scheme. One observes

a change of the curves from 15 to 27 gauss points. The limit load also depends on the

integration scheme and is different for both element designs.

Now we compare the proposed stress update algorithms as well as the discussed additive

and multiplicative material models within the simulation of a deep-drawing process. When

drawing cups out of single- and poly-crystalline circular sheets, the top of the cups do not

show a constant height, as one would expect in the case of isotropic material behavior.

Instead, a periodic sequence of lower and higher points can be observed, the so-called

troughs and ears, which are caused by the plastic anisotropy of the blank. An experimental

result is shown in figure 56a. The experimental configuration considered is sketched in

figure 55, it is axisymmetric with respect to the punch direction. The circular sheet is

39.5

27.0

PSfrag replacements

20.6

4.6

0.81

5.1

22.0

Figure 55: Earing in deep drawing. Geometry and boundary conditions. Lengths in mm.

fixed upon the die by a ring. This so-called blank-holder is not pressed against the blank,

but is fixed in a distance equal to the initial thickness of the sheet. When pushing down

the punch, the specimen is increasingly deformed until it finally drops out of the machine.

For the numerical simulation of this problem, both the material models and the shell

elements were implemented into the finite element program ABAQUS Standard. Three

different contact pairs occur between top and bottom of the blank and the machine tool,

which is modeled as a rigid surface. We assume very low friction with a coefficient of 1%.

At the final state of the process that prevents rigid body motion of the specimen, when it

is no longer fixed by the blank-holder. The discretization of the blank is done by taking

161

Numerical Examples

into account the symmetry conditions of the level set function, leading to sectors of 90

in case of orthotropic symmetry and 45 for cubic symmetry, see figure 56b,c. Table 14

lists the material parameters used in the calculations.

Table 14: Material Parameters

bulk modulus:

shear modulus:

normal yield stress:

normal yield stress:

normal yield stress:

shear yield stress:

shear yield stress:

shear yield stress:

initial yield stress:

hardening modulus:

y11

y22

y33

y12

y23

y13

y0

h

= 128000 N/mm2

= 45000 N/mm2

= 200/250 N/mm2

= 200/150 N/mm2

= 200/200 N/mm2

=

80 N/mm2

=

80 N/mm2

=

80 N/mm2

=

200 N/mm2

=

100 N/mm2

In order to document the deep-drawing process, figures 57 and 59 show sequences of

deformed meshes for both the additive and the multiplicative plasticity model. The latter

uses the standard implicit update U1. The additively-enhanced assumed shell element

with 9-point quadrature is used.

For the cubic level-set function, figure 57, as well as for the orthotropic level-set function,

figure 59, the deformed sheet has four ears. For cubic symmetry, all four ears are of equal

shape. This is observed in experiments with single-crystal sheets with [100] orientation,

see for example Tucker [141]. From the simulation with the orthotropic parameter set,

one observes the development of four ears, where the shape and distribution of equivalent

plastic strains of opposing ears are equal. This behavior is experimentally observed in the

deep drawing of poly-crystalline sheets with rolling texture, see for example Balasubramanian & Anand [5]. The profiles of the ears obtained at the end of the simulations

are documented in figure 58. It shows the relative heights of the cup profiles as suggested

by Tucker [141] for both sets of material parameters. The corresponding load deflection

PSfrag replacementssheet

sheet

45

a2

PSfrag

replacements

a1

a1

a.

b.

90

a2

c.

Figure 56: Earing in deep drawing. (a) Experimental observation of earing in deep drawing

of a poly-crystalline sheet, taken from Wilson & Butler [153]. (b) and (c) show the

circular sheet. The symmetries of the level set functions are pictured by the curved lines.

For cubic symmetry (b) one eighth of the sheet, for orthotropic symmetry (c) one quarter

is discretized.

162

Numerical Examples

a.

b.

Figure 57: Earing in deep drawing. Formation of four equal ears using the cubic level set

function. (a) Multiplicative plasticity using algorithm U1 with maximum equivalent plastic

strain Amax = 0.7670 and (b) additive plasticity with Amax = 0.7600.

rel. height

1.80

replacements

additive

multiplicative

1.60

1.40

1.20

1.00

30

60

90

120

150

180

210

240

270

300

330

angle [ ]

Figure 58: Earing in deep drawing. Profiles from multiplicative plasticity with algorithm

U1 and additive plasticity. Cubic symmetry leads to four equal ears, the considered orthotropic symmetry yields two equal pairs of ears. The heights are given relative to the

reference height of href = 21mm as suggested by Tucker [141].

360

163

Numerical Examples

a.

b.

Figure 59: Earing in deep drawing. Formation of two equal pairs of ears using the orthotropic level set function. (a) Multiplicative plasticity using algorithm U1 with maximum

equivalent plastic strain Amax = 0.8510 and (b) additive plasticity with Amax = 0.8430.

3500

3500

multiplicative

additive

3000

2500

load [N]

load [N]

2500

Sfrag replacements

2000

1500

PSfrag replacements

1000

500

0

a.

multiplicative

additive

3000

2000

1500

1000

500

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

b.

10

15

20

25

30

35

Figure 60: Earing in deep drawing. Load deflection curves of the punch for (a) cubic and

(b) orthotropic plastic anisotropy. The results obtained with the multiplicative approach

with algorithm U1 and the additive plasticity formulation coincide.

40

45

164

Numerical Examples

curves of the punch forces are plotted in figure 60 for both sets of parameters. The curves

from the additive and multiplicative plasticity model are identical.

9.4.2. Comparison of the Stress Update Algorithms

The simulations of the deep-drawing process were carried out with all four stress update

algorithms, U1: standard implicit, U2: standard explicit, V1: variational implicit and

V2: variational explicit. The resulting profiles of the cups obtained from sheets with the

cubic and orthotropic level set functions are shown in figure 61. The curves match very

well. Figure 62 shows the global load displacement curves for the punch.

1.80

rel. height

replacements

U2

U1

U1

V1

V2

1.60

1.40

1.20

1.00

30

60

90

120

150

180

angle

210

240

270

300

330

360

[ ]

Figure 61: Earing in deep drawing. Comparison of the profiles obtained with the different

stress update algorithms. Four equal ears are obtained with the cubic level set function.

The orthotropic level set functions brings about two equal pairs of ears.

3500

3500

U1

U2

V1

V2

3000

replacements

2500

load [N]

load [N]

2500

2000

PSfrag replacements

1500

2000

1500

1000

1000

500

500

a.

10

15

20

25

30

35

U1

U2

V1

V2

3000

40

45

b.

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

Figure 62: Earing in deep drawing. Load-displacement curves obtained with the four

proposed stress update algorithms for (a) cubic and (b) orthotropic plastic symmetry.

In order to compare the additively and the multiplicatively enhanced finite shell elements,

the additive plasticity model of section 7 is used with the material parameters listed in

table 14. The deformation process of the simulation with cubic level-set function is documented in figure 63 while figure 65 shows deformed plastic orthotropic sheets. One clearly

observes the inherent symmetry of the model in the distribution of the equivalent plastic

strains. The range of the equivalent plastic strain differs and the plots show slight differences. Nevertheless the profiles are in very good accordance for both the multiplicativelyand additively-enhanced finite shell elements. They are plotted in figure 64. The loaddisplacement curves in figure 66 for the punch also show negligible differences.

165

Numerical Examples

a.

b.

Figure 63: Earing in deep drawing. Formation of four ears with a sheet with cubic level

set function using additive plasticity. (a) Multiplicatively enhanced element design with

Amax = 0.8480 and (b) additively enhanced element design with Amax = 0.7600.

3500

mul. enh.

add. enh.

3000

load [N]

2500

PSfrag replacements

orthotropic

cubic

2000

1500

1000

500

0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Figure 64: Earing in deep drawing. Load displacement curves of the punch obtained with

multiplicative plasticity with algorithm U1 and additive plasticity for cubic and orthotropic

symmetry of the level set function.

166

Numerical Examples

a.

b.

Figure 65: Earing in deep drawing. Formation of four ears with a sheet with orthotropic

level set function using additive plasticity. (a) Multiplicatively enhanced element design

with maximal equivalent plastic strain Amax = 0.8540 and (b) additively enhanced element

design with Amax = 0.8430.

add. enh.

mul. enh.

rel. height

1.80

replacements

1.60

1.40

1.20

1.00

30

60

90

120

150

180

210

240

270

300

330

angle [ ]

Figure 66: Earing in deep drawing. The cubic level set function yields four equal ears

whereas in the orthotropic case two equal pairs of ears develop. Results from multiplicatively

enhanced shell-element design fall in line with those from additively enhanced design.

360

167

This thesis deals with theoretical and computational approaches to the modeling of anisotropic material behaviour at finite elastic-plastic strains. To this end, several different

fundamental topics are considered.

In the first part, the classification of solids due to their inherent symmetries are discussed.

In the second part we focus on the representation theory of isotropic tensor functions and

discuss how they can be used to model anisotropic material behaviour. Here recently

developed results by Xiao [156, 157] are picked up and applied to the formulation of the

important class of quadratic potential functions. Compact coordinate-free representations

of fourth-order moduli tensors are given for all classes of anisotropy. To the knowledge of

the author, up to now only coordinate representations exist in literature. One should get

further experience in the formulation of anisotropic tensor functions with those symmetries where structural functions are required. To this end the interpretation of invariants

of special interest. The construction of interpretable invariants is still an open question.

Another aspect is related to the identification of the material parameters from experimental tests. Here one is interested on functional bases that yield combined invariants that

lead to stress expressions that are sensitive with respect to the material parameters.

An essential part of this thesis is the discussion of approaches to anisotropic plasticity.

First we discuss the plastic-map approach that bases on a multiplicative decomposition of

the deformation gradient into elastic and plastic parts. On the numerical side implicit and

explicit stress update algorithms are presented. Beside the standard unsymmetric formulations two symmetric algorithms are developed. The latter ones are related to variational

formulations recently developed by Miehe [85] and Miehe, Schotte & Lambrecht

[90], cf. also Miehe, Apel & Lambrecht [87]. Furthermore a specific framework of

additive plasticity in terms of logarithmic strains is developed. Its characteristic is an

attractive modular structure consisting of (i) a pre-processor that determines the elastic

strain measure that enters the free energy function, (ii) a constitutive model with a structure similar to models of the geometrically linear theory and (iii) a post-processor that

maps the stresses and moduli obtained from the constitutive model in the logarithmic

strain space back to the standard Euclidean space. The key difference to existing formulations in logarithmic strains is its modular structure which is here part of the model and

not only of the algorithm.

The additive plasticity framework provides a powerful approach to a broad spectrum of

constitutive models. Scheday successfully [112] used this framework for the identification of material parameters of aluminium and rubbers. It has already been extended to

non-local plasticity by Zimmermann [165]. To the authors opinion, this approach provides a good basis for the development of advanced constitutive models and offers many

possibilities for future research.

For the simulation of shell-like structures we propose a brick-type mixed finite element

design. It is the additively enhanced counterpart of a multiplicatively enhanced shell

element proposed by Miehe [84]. The additive enhancing simplifies the element formulation enormously. A gradient-type interface to arbitrary deformation driven anisotropic

constitutive models is presented.

All of the proposed formulations are tested and evaluated by representative numerical

168

examples. Driver shear tests of an isotropic and a cubic material with different load

increments are used to investigate the stress update algorithms for rate-independent plasticity. As all integration algorithms are approximations, their accuracy increases with

decreasing load step size. Due to the algorithmic stresses that enter the yield criterion

function, deviations of the curves are observed for the implicit variational formulation

also for small time steps. The implicit formulations behave stable while the explicit ones

fail or start to oscillate if the load size step is too large. This phenomenon is not subject

of investigations in this thesis, here further research must be done.

An evaluation of the quality of the stress update algorithms can be obtained from numerical simulations of boundary value problems. Within the simulation of the necking of an

isotropic rod the influence of the step size is investigated. For moderate load step sizes the

resulting load displacement curves and the radial contraction of the necking zone are in

good accordance. As in the driver test, oscillations are observed at comparable small load

step sizes for the explicit codes. In this isotropic test the implicit codes allow very large

steps, the variational formulation seems to be more robust than its standard counterpart.

The immense difference in the sensitivities of the algorithms with respect to the load step

size reduces when considering anisotropic material behaviour. One criterion that allows

an evaluation of the four stress update algorithms is the development of the equivalent

plastic strains. To this end we consider a simulation of a drawing process of a circular

flange using the newly developed additively enhanced shell element design. Furthermore

a comparison of nodal forces in the zones of maximum plastic flow is provided for cubic

single-surface and a Kelvin-mode decomposition multi-surface phenomenological model.

We do not document the influence of the load increment size explicitly, but the chosen

increment size is such that the simulations using the standard implicit update cannot

be carried out with larger constant increments. The obtained results are in very good

accordance.

The same quality of the results is observed in the simulation of the deep drawing of a

metallic sheet. Here we consider cubic and orthotropic plastic anisotropic response. The

update algorithms are compared by means of the global load displacement curves of the

punch and the profiles of the cups as well as the distributions of the equivalent plastic

strain. An evaluation of the update algorithms in the context of rate-dependent plasticity

remains open.

The simulation of the above-mentioned drawing processes has also been carried out with

the additive plasticity model. The deviations of the curves from those obtained with the

plastic map approach using the implicit standard stress update algorithm are very small.

Only in the simulation of the drawing process of the flange the nodal forces differ slightly

towards the end of the deformation process.

The performance of the proposed finite shell element design is documented in detail by

comparing the results with those obtained with the multiplicatively enhanced formulation published by Miehe [84]. As a benchmark problem we consider the necking of an

isotropic rectangular strip. Here we compare the load displacement curves and the contraction of the necking cross section. The results obtained with both element designs are

close together, both elements show the same characteristics concerning the choice of the

quadrature rule for the numerical integration.

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179

A.1. Coordinate Representation

For the implementation of anisotropic material models into a computer code, we briefly

review a notation which is convenient to use and reduces the numerical effort for symmetric

second-order and fourth-order tensors with minor symmetries

Aij = Aji

(A.1)

symmetries that restrict the tensors to the space of symmetric second-order tensors and

fourth-order tensors with minor symmetry, their coordinates can be represented as vectors

and matrices of a six-dimensional space. A computer implementation can make use of

this fact by storing the coordinates of second-order tensors according to the scheme

(A.2)

In order to distinguish between the tensor notation and the corresponding matrix storage

form, Latin indices belong to the tensor representation and take the values 1, 2, 3, while

Greek letters belong to their matrix representations and take the values from one to six.

The coordinates of fourth-order tensors are stored as a 6 6 matrix according to the

scheme

A1111

A1122

A1133

2A

2A

2A

1112

1123

1113

2A

2A

A2222

A2233

2212

2223

2211

2A2213

2A3312

2A3323

2A3313

A3322

A3333

A3311

A = A =

. (A.3)

2A1211 2A1222 2A1233 2A1212

2A1223

2A1213

2A2323

2A2313

2A1311

2A1322

2A1333 2A1312

2A1323

2A1313

The representations (A.2) and (A.3) date back to Kelvin [59] and can frequently be found

in literature. They have some nice properties. Due to the preservation of the Froebenius

norm of a second-order tensor

kAij k = kA k

(A.4)

one also speaks of a norm equivalent notion. Moreover, a double contraction of two

tensors corresponds to a scalar-product of two vectors, a matrix-vector or matrix-matrix

composition in the six-dimensional space, i.e.

A : B = Aij Bij

= A B

A : A = Aijkl Akl = A A

A : B = Aijst Bstkl = A B .

(A.5)

A : A1 = I or Aijst A1

stkl = Iijkl =

1

2

(ik jl + il jk )

(A.6)

and has the corresponding matrix representation based on a standard matrix inversion

A A1

= I = .

(A.7)

180

expressed by the Rayleigh product as

Q ? A = Qia Qjb Aab = A

.

Q ? A = Qia Qjb Qkc Qld Aabcd = A

(A.8)

:= Qia Qjb =

Q2

Q2

11

Q221

2

Q31

2Q

Q31

21

2Q11 Q31

2Q11 Q21

12

Q222

2

Q32

2Q

Q32

22

2Q12 Q32

2Q12 Q22

Q213

Q223

2

Q33

2Q

Q33

23

2Q

Q33

13

2Q13 Q23

2Q12 Q13

2Q22 Q23

2Q33 Q32

Q22 Q33 + Q23 Q32

Q12 Q33 + Q13 Q32

Q12 Q23 + Q13 Q22

2Q11 Q13

2Q21 Q23

2Q33 Q31

Q21 Q33 + Q31 Q23

Q11 Q33 + Q13 Q31

Q11 Q23 + Q21 Q13

2Q11 Q12

2Q22 Q21

2Q31 Q32

Q21 Q32 + Q31 Q22

Q11 Q32 + Q31 Q12

Q11 Q22 + Q21 Q12

(A.9)

Consider a fourth-order tensor A having minor symmetries as in (A.1) and major symmetry, Aijkl = Aklij . The space of fourth-order tensors with minor and major symmetries

is denoted by T and A T . Consider the eigen-value problem

A : N i = i N i ;

Ni : Ni = 1 .

(A.10)

The six eigen-values i and eigen-directions N i can directly be computed using the normequivalent representations (A.2) and (A.3).

Assume a labeling of the different eigen-values 1 < < r where 2 r 6. For each

tensor A T there exactly exists one orthogonal decomposition of T ,

T = P1 P r ,

(A.11)

with the subspaces Pi Pj for i 6= j. The tensor A can be uniquely decomposed into

these subspaces according to

A = 1 P1 + + r Pr

(A.12)

the space Pi . They constitute a proper orthogonal decomposition of the fourth-order

identity tensor

Pi for i = j

sym

P1 + + P r = I

; Pi : Pj =

.

(A.13)

0 otherwise .

In the case of six distinct eigen-vectors we have six uniquely determined eigen-tensors N i .

For r < 6 some eigen-values coincide. In this case only the subspace corresponding to the

eigen-value with a multiplicity greater than one is uniquely determined, not its basis. For

an eigen-value of multiplicity m the projection tensor related to Pi is given by

Pi =

m

X

k=1

(i )

Nk

(i )

Nk

r

Y

A i Isym

j=1

j6=i

i j

(A.14)

181

( )

i

where N k=1...m

denote an arbitrary orthonormal basis spanning Pi . The second equation

in (A.14) allows the computation of the projection tensors, solely based on the knowledge

of the distinct eigen-values i=1...r of the given tensor in a closed form.

In this section we deduce the derivatives of the free energy function that occur in the

framework of the incremental variational formulation in section 7.4.6.

Recall the decoupled structure of the potential functions of the model problem, i.e.

(E, I) = e (E e ) + k (A) + i (A) and f (F ) = f e (T + B) + f i (B) .

(B.1)

These functions depend on the internal strain-like variables and forces that are combined

in the sets I := {E p , A, A} and F := {T , B, B}, respectively. The forces are defined by

T := ,E e ;

B := ,A ;

B := ,A .

(B.2)

The evolution equations of the internal variables are integrated using an implicit scheme

yielding the discrete forms

X

X

X

e

e

i

E p = E pn +

f,T

, A = An +

f,B

, A = An +

f,B

.

(B.3)

The following identities are direct consequences of the assumed decoupled structure of

the level set functions in (B.1)

e

e

f,T

= f,B

,

e

e

e

e

f,T

T = f,BT = f,BT = f,BB

and E p = A .

E := ,E e E e ;

K := ,AA ;

A := E + K and K := ,BB

:= [A1 + P f e ]1 ; E

:= [K1 + P f i ]1

E

,BB

,T T

(B.4)

(B.5)

and

B := [(

are defined.

T T f e )1 + A]1

(B.6)

The derivatives of the internal variables with respect to the algorithmic parameters and

the total strains are

P

p

e

e

e e

f,T

E p, = f,T

T : (E E + ,AA ) : E ,

P e

1 e

= [I + f,T T : A] f,T

(B.7)

: f e

= A1 : E

,T

P

i

i

A, = f,B

A f,BB

,AA A,

P

i

i

(B.8)

= [1 + A f,BB ,AA ]1 f,B

1 i

= K E f,B

P

P

p

e

e

E p,E =

f,T T : E

,T T : A : E ,E

fP

P

e

1

e

(B.9)

= (I + f,T

: f,T

T : A)

T : E

= B:E.

182

, = T : E p, B : A, B A,

P

e

p

e

= (T + B) : (f,T

A f,T

T : A : E , )

P

i

B (B f i A f,B

K A, )

e

i

= f f = f

(B.10)

e

i

, = f,T

: (,E p E p + ,AA ) : E p, + f,B

K A,

e

i

e

i

= f,T : E : f,T + f,B E f,B

(B.11)

,E = ,E e : (EP

E p ),E

e

= T T : f,T

T : (T + B),E

= T

(B.12)

,EE = T ,E e : (E P

E p ),E

e 1

= E E : [( f,T

+ A]1 : E

T)

= EE:B:E

(B.13)

p

,E = ,E e E e : (E

,

P E )e

e

= E : (I + f,T T : A)1 : f,T

: f e .

= E : A1 : E

,T

(B.14)

Here we have exploited the fact that the level set functions are homogeneous functions of

degree one, i.e.

e

T : f,T

= f e

e

and T : f,T

T = 0 .

(B.15)

The framework of standard dissipative materials requires that the dissipation function

and the level set functions are positively homogeneous of degree one. For a scalar-valued

function f (A) of a single second-order tensor A homogeneity of degree one is defined by

the property

f (A) = 1 f (A)

(C.1)

dA f : A = f (A) and d2AA f : A = 0 .

(C.2)

The first property directly follows from the definition of the Gateaux-derivative of f

dA f : A =

d

d

[f (A + A)]|=0 = [(1 + )f (A)]|=0 = f (A) .

d

d

(C.3)

0=

d

[dA f : A f (A)] = d2AA f : A + dA f dA f = d2AA f : A .

dA

(C.4)

Curriculum Vitae

Name:

Nikolas Apel

Date of birth:

Place of birth:

Ulm, Germany

Nationality:

German

Marital Status:

Education:

1977

Elementary School: Obereschach (Ravensburg)

1978 1981

Elementary School: Deutsche Schule Lissabon, Estoril

(Portugal)

1981 1982

Secondary School: Deutsche Schule Lissabon, Lisbon

(Portugal)

1982 1990

Secondary School: Gymnasium Weingarten, Weingarten

Community Service:

1990 1991

Community service at Korperbehinderten Zentrum Oberschwaben, Weingarten

Education:

1991 1993

Study of Physics at the University of T

ubingen

1993 1998

Study of Civil Engineering at the University of Hannover

Assistant Lecturer at the Institute of Mechanics (Civil Engineering), University of Stuttgart

since 2003

Computational Engineer at DaimlerChrysler AG, Stuttgart

(Germany)

I-1(1996)

Theoretische und algorithmische Konzepte zur phanomenologischen Beschreibung anisotropen Materialverhaltens, J. Schroder, Dissertation, 1996.

I-2(1996)

Zur Theorie und Numerik finiter elastoplastischer Deformationen von Schalenstrukturen, B. Seifert, Dissertation, 1996.

I-3(1996)

unstlichen Infrarot-Dichroismus in Polymerfolien bei

groen Verformungen, J. Buhler, Dissertation, 1996.

I-4(1998)

ucksichtigung des stochastischen Charakters des Bebens, S. Zhang, Dissertation, 1998.

I-5(1998)

Modellbildung, Parameteridentifikation und Finite-Elemente-Formulierung,

J. Keck, Dissertation, 1998.

I-6(1999)

I-7(2000)

Beachtung von Stabilitatsproblemen, J. Schroder, Habilitation, 2000.

I-8(2002)

auf der Grundlage inkrementeller Variationsformulierungen, M. Lambrecht,

Dissertation, 2002.

I-9(2002)

Mikromechanisch motivierte Modelle zur Beschreibung finiter Deformationen gummiartiger Polymere: physikalische Modellbildung und numerische

Simulation, F. Lulei, Dissertation, 2002.

I-10(2003)

Adaptive Finite-Elemente-Berechnungen der nichtlinearen Festkorpermechanik bei kleinen und groen Verzerrungen, A. Koch, Dissertation, 2003.

I-11(2003)

der finiten Elastizitat und Inelastizitat auf der Grundlage optischer Feldmemethoden, G. Scheday, Dissertation, 2003.

I-12(2004)

Elastic and Plastic Deformations. Theory and Numerics, N. Apel, Dissertation, 2004.