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137.

AUKTION

THE DE WIT COLLECTION


OF MEDIEVAL COINS PART III

11. März 2008


Steigenberger Hotel Remarque Osnabrück
Natruper-Tor-Wall 1
Hotel-Telefon +49 (0)5 41 60 96 633
Hotel-Fax +49 (0)5 41 60 96 634
(nur während der Auktion/only during the auction/
uniquement pendant la vente/solamente durante
l'asta/solamente durante la subasta/только во
время аукциона)

ZEITPLAN AUKTIONEN 136 - 139


AUKTION 136 Montag, den 10. März 2008
ANTIKE MÜNZEN DER INSEL KRETA 10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr
DIE SAMMLUNG DR. BURKHARD TRAEGER Nr. 1 bis Nr. 616
MÜNZEN AUS DER WELT DER ANTIKE 14.00 Uhr - 19.00 Uhr
Nr. 617 bis Nr. 1652
AUKTION 137 Dienstag, den 11. März 2008
THE DE WIT COLLECTION 9.30 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr
OF MEDIEVAL COINS PART III Nr. 3035 bis Nr. 3852
14.00 Uhr - 15.30 Uhr
Nr. 3853 bis Nr. 4256
AUKTION 138 15.30 Uhr - 19.00 Uhr
ITALIEN UND VATIKAN Nr. 4501 bis Nr. 5102
ITALIEN UND VATIKAN Mittwoch, den 12. März 2008
MÜNZEN UND MEDAILLEN 9.30 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr
AUS MITTELALTER UND NEUZEIT Nr. 5103 bis Nr. 5983
SPEZIALSAMMLUNG WIED 14.00 Uhr - 20.00 Uhr
Nr. 5984 bis Nr. 7318
AUKTION 139 Donnerstag, den 13. März 2008
GOLDPRÄGUNGEN 9.30 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr
Nr. 7501 bis Nr. 8294
RUSSISCHE MÜNZEN UND MEDAILLEN 14.00 Uhr - 19.00 Uhr
IN GOLD UND SILBER Nr. 8295 bis Nr. 9014
DEUTSCHE MÜNZEN AB 1871 Freitag, den 14. März 2008
9.30 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr
Nr. 9101 bis Nr. 9839

Detaillierter Zeitplan siehe Seite 5 Detailed timetable view page 5


Besichtigungen siehe Seite 9 Viewing of auction good view page 9

Horaire détaillé voir page 5 Calendario dettagliato veda pagina 5


Exposition des monnaies voir page 9 Esposizione veda pagina 9
Sehr geehrte Kundin,
sehr geehrter Kunde und Münzfreund,
ich freue mich, daß Sie bereits heute, 4 Wochen vor unserer
nächsten Auktion, die neuen Kataloge erhalten haben und
wünsche Ihnen viel Freude bei der Lektüre unseres
Auktionsangebotes.
Wir wurden oft gebeten, den Ablauf einer Auktion etwas näher
zu beschreiben, diesem Wunsch kommen wir gerne nach. Am
Ende dieses Kataloges finden Sie die Rubrik: “Wie biete ich
richtig“, die Ihnen als Ratgeber zur erfolgreichen Teilnahme an
unseren Auktionen dienen soll.
Sollten Sie darüber hinaus Fragen zum Auktionsablauf haben,
helfen wir Ihnen auch gerne persönlich weiter.
Die Mitarbeiterinnen unserer Kundenbetreuung stellen wir Ihnen
auf der nächsten Seite vor.
Mit herzlichen Grüßen aus Osnabrück,

Ihr Fritz Rudolf Künker

UNSERE ADRESSE Fritz Rudolf Künker GmbH & Co. KG


OUR ADDRESS Gutenbergstr. 23 · 49076 Osnabrück
Telefon/Phone: +49 (0)5 41-96 20 20
Fax: +49 (0)5 41-96 20 222
Gebührenfrei: 0800-58 36 537
E-Mail: service@kuenker.de
Internet: www.kuenker.de
Montag-Donnerstag 9.00 - 17.00 Uhr
Freitag 9.00 - 15.30 Uhr
Sonnabend nach Vereinbarung
Außerhalb unserer Geschäftszeit steht unseren Kunden ein
automatischer Anrufbeantworter zur Verfügung.
Monday-Thursday 9.00 a. m. to 5.00 p. m.
Friday 9.00 a. m. to 3.30 p. m.
Saturday by prior appointment
Answering machine available after opening hours.

WWW.KUENKER.DE Auf unserer Internetseite haben Sie die Möglichkeit


WWW.KUENKER.COM • die Abbildungen zu vergrößern
• Ihre Gebote direkt abzugeben
• die Ergebnisse der Auktionen abzurufen
On our website you have the possibility
• to zoom all images
• to place your bids
to view all auction results

AUKTIONSHOTEL Steigenberger Hotel Remarque, Natruper-Tor-Wall 1,


AUCTION LOCATION 49076 Osnabrück
Telefon/Phone: +49 (0)5 41-60 96 633
Fax: +49 (0)5 41-60 96 634
Mitglied im Verband der Deutschen
Münzenhändler e. V.
Associaton Internationale des Numismates
Professionnels (AINP)

2
UNSERE KUNDENBETREUUNG STEHT IHNEN GERNE ZUR VERFÜGUNG
Die Maxime unseres Teams lautet: Nur wenn Sie als Kunde zufrieden sind, sind wir es auch! Geben Sie uns Ihre Auktions-
gebote zu treuen Händen, wir sorgen dafür, daß sie korrekt ausgeführt werden. Auch wenn Sie sich von Teilen oder Ihrer
gesamten Sammlung trennen möchten, sind wir Ihre ersten Ansprechpartner. Beachten Sie dazu bitte auch die Hinweise für
Einlieferer auf der folgenden Seite bzw. im hinteren Teil des Kataloges.

WIR FREUEN UNS AUF IHRE AUKTIONSGEBOTE UND EINLIEFERUNGEN!

Ulrich Künker Gisela Thomas Alexandra Elflein


Leitung Kundenbetreuung Prokuristin English, Français, Italiano
ulrich.kuenker@kuenker.de gisela.thomas@kuenker.de alexandra.elflein@kuenker.de

Marion Künker Sonia Russo Barbara Westmeyer


Deutsch, English Italiano, Español, English, Français Deutschsprachige Kundenbetreuung
marion.kuenker@kuenker.de sonia.russo@kuenker.de barbara.westmeyer@kuenker.de

Bettina Schweitzer Anastasija Koepsell Nadine Zuber


Deutsch, Svenska Russian, Deutsch Deutsch, English
bettina.schweitzer@kuenker.de anastasija.koepsell@kuenker.de nadine.zuber@kuenker.de

SO ERREICHEN SIE UNS


GEBÜHRENFREI (AUS DEUTSCHLAND) 0800 / 5836537 (0800 / KUENKER)
TELEFON +49 (0) 541/ 96 20 20
FAX +49 (0) 541/ 96 20 222
INTERNET www.kuenker.de
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WAS IST ZUR ERFOLGREICHEN AUKTIONSTEILNAHME BESONDERS WICHTIG?


Ihr schriftlicher Auftrag sollte möglichst frühzeitig eintreffen, spätestens einen Tag vor der Auktion.

• Wenn Sie telefonisch an der Auktion teilnehmen möchten, bedarf das unserer vorherigen Genehmigung. Bitte teilen Sie uns
diesen Wunsch daher mindestens 48 Stunden vor der Versteigerung mit. Nähere Informationen zum telefonischen Bieten
finden Sie auf den folgenden Seiten.
• Beachten Sie bitte auch die Hinweise „Wie biete ich richtig“ im hinteren Teil des Kataloges.
• Gerne können Sie Ihre Gebote auch online abgeben. Unter www.kuenker.de bieten wir den gesamten Auktionskatalog
online an.
• Bei Fragen rufen Sie uns an, unsere Kundenbetreuung freut sich auf Ihren Anruf!
3
WICHTIGE HINWEISE IMPORTANT INFORMATION
FÜR UNSERE EINLIEFERER FOR OUR CONSIGNERS
1. Unser Expertenteam garantiert Ihnen eine fachgerechte Bearbeitung der von 1. Our team of specialists guarantees an expert treatment of the consigned
Ihnen eingelieferten Stücke. items.
2. Die Schätzpreise werden von uns aufgrund unserer hervorragenden 2. The estimates are carefully established by us due to our excellent know-
Marktkenntnisse sorgfältig festgelegt. Die Stücke werden zu 80% der im ledge of the market. Bidding for the items is then started at 80 % of the
Katalog angegebenen Schätzpreise ausgerufen. Durch diese Regelung werden estimate price stated in the catalogue. This arrangement protects you as a
Sie als Einlieferer geschützt. Für nicht verkaufte Objekte werden keine consigner. Unsold items incur no fees.
Gebühren erhoben. 3. The standard offered in our catalogue is of the highest quality, and is reco-
3. Der Standard unserer Kataloge ist von hoher Qualität und findet internatio- gnised internationally. We have one of the best clientele lists worldwide.
nale Anerkennung. Wir haben eine der besten Kundendateien, die es 4. You as a consigner also profit from the individual consultation offered to
weltweit gibt. our customers.
4, Von der individuellen Betreuung unserer Kunden profitieren auch Sie als 5. As a consigner, you receive the auction proceeds within 45 days of the
Einlieferer. close of auction. Special arrangements can be made following discussion.
5. Als Einlieferer erhalten Sie Ihren Auktionserlös innerhalb von 45 Tagen 6. For consignments with a value over € 2.500,-- we may bear the
nach der Auktion. Sonderregelungen sind nach Absprache möglich. transportation costs. For deliveries over € 25.000,-- we may personally
6. Auf Wunsch kann Ihre Einlieferung bei Ihnen zuhause abgeholt werden. Ab collect the items at an arranged place after prior consultation. Upon
€ 2.500,-- Einlieferungssumme übernehmen wir die Kosten, ab € 25.000,-- consultation, the shipping of your goods could be covered by our insurance.
können wir Ihre Einlieferungen unter Umständen und nach Absprache auch 7. Not all coins are suited to be registered as individual items. Trust in our
an einem vereinbarten Ort persönlich entgegennehmen. Selbstverständlich expert´s experience as they carefully combine less-valuable coins into
ist Ihr Versteigerungsgut durch uns versichert. interesting lots.
7. Nicht alle Münzen eignen sich, als Einzelstücke aufgenommen zu werden. 8. The valuation price of your delivery should be at least € 1.000,--.
Vertrauen Sie auf die Erfahrung unserer Experten, die niedrigpreisige 9. Your delivery is confirmed in writing immediately on receipt. At least five
Münzen liebevoll zu interessanten Lots zusammenstellen. weeks before the auction, you receive an exact list of your objects with the
8. Der Schätzwert Ihrer Einlieferung sollte mindestens € 1.000,-- betragen. relevant catalogue numbers.
9. Ihre Einlieferung wird Ihnen sofort bei Übernahme durch ein Protokoll quit- 10. Within a week of the close of auction, you receive a list with the results in
tiert. Spätestens fünf Wochen vor der Auktion erhalten Sie eine genaue order to see what prices were reached for each individual lot.
Auflistung Ihrer Objekte mit den dazugehörenden Katalognummern. 11. Profit from our position as a leading coin dealer. If you have any questions,
10. Innerhalb einer Woche nach der Auktion erhalten Sie bereits die please contact our customer service team on +49 (0)541 – 96 20 20.
Ergebnisliste und können alle erzielten Preise feststellen. 12. Would you like to receive copies of our contracts for consigner, without
11. Profitieren Sie von der Anziehungskraft eines führenden Unternehmens. making any commitment? Do you have any other questions? Our customer
Bitte wenden Sie sich bei Fragen an unseren Kundenservice unter 0541 – service team will be pleased to help you – please call on +49 (0)541 – 96
96 20 20 oder gebührenfrei unter 0800 – 5 83 65 37. 20 20.
12. Unsere Verträge für Einlieferungen können Sie unverbindlich anfordern.
Haben Sie noch Fragen? Wir freuen uns auf Ihren Anruf. Telefon:
0541 – 96 20 20 oder gebührenfrei unter 0800 5 83 65 37.

RENSEIGNEMENTS IMPORTANTS INFORMAZIONI PER I


A L'ATTENTION DES VENDEURS NOSTRI DEPOSITANTI
1. Notre équipe d’experts garantit une prise en charge compétente des pièces 1. Il nostro team di esperti assicura un trattamento accurato dei pezzi che ci
que vous nous confiez. avete inviato.
2. Notre excellente connaissance du marché nous permet de fixer soigneuse- 2. Eseguiamo valutazioni finalizzate alla vendita. I prezzi di stima sono frutto
ment les prix estimés. Les pièces seront mises aux enchères à un prix della nostra eccezionale conoscenza del mercato e della nostra attenta
représentant 80% du prix estimé indiqué dans le catalogue. Cette régle- valutazione. La base d´asta ammonta all´80% del prezzo di stima indicato
mentation vous protège en tant que vendeur. Aucuns frais ne seront préle- sul catalogo. Non si addebitano spese per gli oggetti invenduti.
vés sur les pièces invendues. 3. I nostri cataloghi sono di alta qualità e sono riconosciuti a livello interna-
3. Nos catalogues ont un niveau qualitatif élevé, reconnu au plan international. zionale. I nostri clienti sono fra i migliori al mondo.
Nous disposons d’un des meilleurs fichiers clients du monde. 4. Come depositanti potete beneficiare dell’assistenza riservata a ciascuno dei
4. En tant que vendeur, vous profiterez vous aussi du suivi personnalisé que nostri clienti.
nous offrons à nos clients. 5. Come depositanti riceverete gli importi realizzati all’asta entro 45 giorni dal
5. Le vendeur recevra le produit de la vente dans les 45 jours qui suivront les termine della stessa. Si possono concordare condizioni particolari.
enchères. Des dispositions spéciales pourront être prises sur accord préalable. 6. A partire da un controvalore degli oggetti di € 2.500,--i costi del trasporto
6. Nous prendrons en charge les frais d´expédition des pièces dont le montant sono a nostro carico, mentre a partire da un controvalore di € 25.000 gli
sera supérieur à € 2.500,--: Si leur montant est supérieur à € 25.000,--, l´un oggetti possono essere ritirati personalmente da un nostro incaricato ad un
de nos employés se poudra charger de prendre la livraison à un lieu posto concordato. Naturalmente il trasporto dei vostri oggetti puó essere
concordée. En concertation, notre assurance couvrira tous les risques. assicurato tramite la nostra assicurazione.
7. Les pièces de monnaie ne se prêtent pas toutes à une vente individuelle. 7. Non tutte le monete possono essere negoziate singolarmente. Fidatevi
Faites confiance à l’expérience de nos spécialistes qui se chargeront avec dell´esperienza dei nostri esperti, che raggruppano le monete non molto
plaisir de rassembler les pièces bon marché de manière à constituer des lots preziose in lotti di sicuro interesse.
intéressants. 8. Il valore stimato degli oggetti depositati deve ammontare ad almeno
8. La valeur estimée des pièces fournies devrait s’élever à un minimum de € 1.000,--.
€ 1.000,--. 9. Nel momento in cui gli oggetti sono presi in consegna, viene rilasciata una
9. Au moment de la prise en charge, vous recevrez un détail des pièces ricevuta numerata. Riceverete un elenco preciso degli oggetti che avete
fournies. Au plus tard cinq semaines avant la vente aux enchères, vous depositato con i relativi numeri di catalogo al massimo cinque settimane
recevrez une liste exacte de vos pièces avec les numéros de catalogue prima dell’asta.
correspondants. 10. Riceverete l’elenco degli oggetti aggiudicati entro una settimana dalla
10. Dans la semaine qui suivra la vente aux enchères, vous recevrez déjà la chiusura dell’asta. Potrete cosi verificare i prezzi realizzati.
liste de ses résultats et pourrez prendre connaissance des prix obtenus. 11. Approfittate della capacità di un leader di mercato per aumentare il valore dei
11. Profitez de l’attrait du leader du marché. Pour tout renseignement, vostri oggetti. Se avete delle domande, rimaniamo a vostra disposizione per
veuillez-vous adresser à notre service clientèle: +49 (0)541 – 96 20 20. qualsiasi necessità. Rivolgetevi alla nostra consulenza ai clienti diretta al
12. Vous pouvez demander sans engagement de votre part nos contrats de dépôt numero +49 (0)541-91 20 20.
de pièces? Vous avez d’autres questions? Nous seront heureuses 12. Volete ricevere i nostri contratti senza impegno? Avete altre domande? Potete
de vous répondre au +49 (0)541 – 96 20 20. contattarci al numero +49 (0)541-96 20 20.

4
DETAILLIERTER ZEITPLAN AUKTIONEN 136-139

AUKTION 136 Montag, den 10. März 2008


ANTIKE MÜNZEN DER INSEL KRETA 10.00 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr
DIE SAMMLUNG DR. BURKHARD TRAEGER Nr. 1 bis Nr. 616
MÜNZEN AUS DER WELT DER ANTIKE Sammlung Kreta, Kelten, Griechen: Hispania - Kreta
14.00 Uhr - 19.00 Uhr
Nr. 617 bis Nr. 1652
Griechen: Kykladen - Lots Griechen, Römer,
Völkerwanderung, Byzantinische Münzen, Kreuzfahrer,
Orientalen

AUKTION 137 Dienstag, den 11. März 2008


THE DE WIT COLLECTION 9.30 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr
OF MEDIEVAL COINS PART III Nr. 3035 bis Nr. 3852
England, Irland, Schottland - Italien
14.00 Uhr - 15.30 Uhr
Nr. 3853 bis Nr. 4256
Balkan - Gewichte
AUKTION 138 15.30 Uhr - 19.00 Uhr
ITALIEN UND VATIKAN Nr. 4501 bis Nr. 5102
Aquileia - Lucca

ITALIEN UND VATIKAN Mittwoch, den 12. März 2008


MÜNZEN UND MEDAILLEN 9.30 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr
AUS MITTELALTER UND NEUZEIT Nr. 5103 bis Nr. 5983
SPEZIALSAMMLUNG WIED Mailand - Lots Italien, Europa, Übersee
14.00 Uhr - 20.00 Uhr
Nr. 5984 bis Nr. 7318
Habsburgische Erblande, Deutsche Münzen und
Medaillen mit der Spezialsammlung Wied,
Sammlung Sedisvakanz, Medaillen, Papiergeld,
Münzgefäße, Numismatische Literatur

AUKTION 139 Donnerstag, den 13. März 2008


GOLDPRÄGUNGEN 9.30 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr
Nr. 7501 bis Nr. 8294
RUSSISCHE MÜNZEN UND MEDAILLEN 14.00 Uhr - 19.00 Uhr
IN GOLD UND SILBER Nr. 8295 bis Nr. 9014

DEUTSCHE MÜNZEN AB 1871 Freitag, den 14. März 2008


9.30 Uhr - 13.00 Uhr
Nr. 9101 bis Nr. 9839

5
LIST OF CONTENTS AUCTION 137
No. Page
THE DE WIT COLLECTION OF
MEDIEVAL COINS PART III 3035 - 4256 13 - 434
England, Ireland and Scotland 3035 - 3374 13 - 101
England 3035 - 3302 13 - 81
Mercia 3035 - 3043 13 - 16
East Anglia 3044 - 3047 16 - 17
Viking Invaders 3048 - 3052 18 - 19
Kent 3053 - 19
Canterbury 3054 - 3055 20
Wessex 3056 - 3059 21 - 22
Kings of all England 3060 - 3302 22 - 81
Ireland 3303 - 3336 82 - 90
Scotland 3337 - 3374 90 - 101
Spain 3375 - 3518 102 - 137
Governors 3375 - 3378 102 - 103
Emirate 3379 - 3387 103 - 105
Caliphat 3388 - 3401 106 - 109
Almoravides 3402 - 3408 110 - 111
Almohades 3409 - 3412 111 - 112
Kings of Granada 3413 - 3414 112
Castile and León 3415 - 3417 113
León 3418 - 3419 114
Castile 3420 - 3423 114 - 115
Castile and León 3424 - 3476 115 - 127
County of Barcelona 3477 127
County of Empuries 3478 128
County of Urgell 3479 - 3481 128
Navarra and Aragón 3482 - 3484 129
Navarra 3485 130
Catalona-Aragonese 3486 - 3504 130 - 134
Mallorca 3505 - 3507 134
Arbeca 3508 135
Gerona 3509 135
Reyes Católicos 3510 - 3518 135 - 137
Portugal 3519 - 3539 137 - 144
Italy 3540 - 3852 146 - 260
Kingdom Italy 3540 - 3541 146
Milano 3542 - 3569 149 - 164
Pavia 3570 - 3575 165 - 166
Savoia 3576 - 3584 167 - 169
Torino 3585 170
Asti 3586 170
Monferrato (Casale) 3587 - 3588 171
Genova 3589 - 3592 173
Como 3593 174
Bergamo 3594 175
Brescia 3595 175
Piacenza 3596 176
6
No. Page
Italy (Continuation)
Cremona 3597 176
Parma 3598 177
Reggio nell’Emilia 3599 177
Modena 3600 178
Bologna 3601 - 3604 179
Ravenna 3605 - 3606 180
Verona 3607 - 3611 181
Trento 3612 182
Mantua 3613 182
Ferrara 3614 - 3617 183 - 184
Padova 3618 - 3621 184 - 185
Venezia 3622 - 3654 186 - 195
Aquileia 3655 - 3673 196 - 200
Trieste 3674 - 3676 201
Firenze 3677 - 3689 205 - 208
Lucca 3690 - 3693 209 - 210
Pisa 3694 - 3697 210 - 211
Siena 3698 - 3700 212 - 213
Volterra 3701 213
Arezzo 3702 213
Rimini 3703 214
Pesaro 3704 214
Ancona 3705 - 3708 215 - 216
Urbino 3709 216
Fossombrone 3710 217
Gubbio 3711 - 3712 217
Perugia 3713 - 3716 218
Camerino 3717 219
Macerata 3718 - 3719 219 - 220
Recanati 3720 - 3721 220
Roma 3722 - 3757 222 - 235
Gaeta 3758 235
Capua 3759 236
Napoli 3760 - 3773 236 - 240
Aquila 3774 - 3776 241
Sulmona 3777 242
Salerno 3778 - 3780 242 - 243
Counts / Dukes of Puglia 3781 244
Arabs in Sicily 3782 - 3786 244 - 245
Normans in Sicily 3787 - 3814 246 - 251
Hohenstaufen in Sicily and South-Italy 3815 - 3837 252 - 256
Charles I. d’Angiò in Sicily and South-Italy 3838 - 3842 257 - 258
Kingdom Aragon in Sicily and South-Italy 3843 - 3851 258 - 260
Villa della Chiesa (Sardegna) 3852 260
Balkan 3853 - 3903 262 - 284
Slavonia 3853 - 3857 262
Croatia 3858 - 3859 263
Dalmatia 3860 - 3870 265 - 267
Spalato 3860 265

7
No. Page
Balkan (Continuation)
Ragusa 3861 - 3865 265 - 266
Cattaro 3866 - 3869 266 - 267
Ulcinj 3870 267
Serbia / Raska 3871 - 3891 272 - 278
Bosnia 3892 - 3895 280 - 281
Serbia 3896 - 3902 281 - 283
Skutari 3903 284
Countries around the Black Sea 3904 - 3958 287 - 307
Bulgaria 3904 - 3918 287 - 291
Banat Severin 3919 292
Wallachia 3920 - 3931 292 - 295
Moldavia 3932 - 3936 295 - 296
Trebizond 3937 - 3948 297 - 301
Georgia 3949 - 3955 303 - 306
Tmutarakan 3956 306
Caffa 3957 - 3958 307
Countries around the Aegean Sea 3959 - 3991 308 - 318
Latin empire 3959 308
Nicaea 3960 - 3965 309 - 310
Principality of Achaia 3966 - 3977 311 - 314
Barony / Duchy Athens 3978 - 3981 314 - 315
Possessions of Naples in Greece and on the
Ionic Islands 3982 - 3983 315 - 316
Chios 3984 - 3989 316 - 318
Phokaea 3990 318
Levantine Imitations 3991 318
Rhodes and Cyprus 3992 - 4017 319 - 330
Knights Hospitallers on Rhodes 3992 - 4004 319 - 325
Cyprus 4005 - 4017 326 - 330
Asia Minor / Cilician Armenia 4018 - 4044 332 - 341
Rum Seljuks 4045 - 4059 343 - 346
Middle East 4060 - 4125 348 - 380
County of Edessa 4073 - 4074 358 - 359
Principality of Antioch 4075 - 4095 360 - 366
County of Tripoli 4096 - 4102 367 - 369
Kingdom of Jerusalem 4103 - 4117 371 - 376
Lordships of the Latin Kingdom Jerusalem 4118 - 4120 378 - 379
Acre 4121 - 4123 379 - 380
Ottoman Empire 4124 - 4125 380
Turkoman Coins 4126 - 4183 382 - 405
Artuquiden 4126 - 4171 382 - 399
Artuquids of Hisn Kayfa and Amid 4126 - 4133 382 - 385
Artuquids of Mardin 4134 - 4171 386 - 399
Zengiden of Mosul 4172 - 4175 400 - 402
Mammelukken in Mosul 4176 402
Zengids Atabegs of Sinjar 4177 - 4178 403
Zengids Atabegs of Al-Jazira 4179 - 4180 404
Ayyubiden in Mayafarikin 4181 - 4183 405

8
No. Page
Jetons / Counting Pennies / Tokens 4184 - 4228 408 - 422
France 4184 - 4200 408 - 413
Germany 4201 413
England 4202 414
Burgundian Netherlands 4203 - 4213 414 - 418
Tokens 4214 - 4228 419 - 422
English Tokens 4215 - 4228 419 - 422
Prototype Token 4215 419
Beaded border pictoral Token 4216 420
Pictoral Tokens: The main series 4217 - 4225 420 - 421
Transitional Token 4226 422
Cross and pellet Token 4227 422
“Boy Bishop” Token 4228 422
Weights 4229 - 4256 423 - 434
Byzantium 4229 - 4234 423 - 424
France 4235 - 4247 425 - 427
Burgundian Netherlands 4248 - 4251 429 - 433
Italy 4252 - 4256 433 - 434

The General Index of the de Wit collection you will find at the end of this Auction catalogue.

___________________________

BESICHTIGUNG ON VIEW
Besichtigung des Auktionsgutes in unseren The coins are on view at our premises in
Geschäftsräumen, Gutenbergstr. 23, 49076 49076 Osnabrueck, Gutenbergstr. 23, from
Osnabrück, ab dem 11. Februar 2008, nach February 11th 2008, by prior appointment:
vorheriger telefonischer Vereinbarung unter +49 (0)541 96 20 20.
+49 (0)5 41 96 20 20.

EXPOSITION ESPOSIZIONE
Les monnaies seront visibles à partir du Tutti i lotti sono visionabili a partire dal
11 Février 2008, Gutenbergstr. 23, 49076 11 Febbraio 2008 presso la nostra sede,
Osnabrück, sur rendez-vous téléphonique Gutenbergstr. 23, 49076 Osnabrück previo
+49 (0)541 96 20 20. appuntamento telefonico +49 (0)541 96 20
20.

EXPOSICIÓN ПРОСМОТР АУКЦИОННЫХ


ЛОТОВ
Con cita previa +49 (0)541 96 20 20 podrá Просмотр аукционных лотов проходит с
ver todos los lotes el 11 de febrero de 2008 en 11 февраля 2008 года в нашем офисе
nuestras oficinas en 49076 Osnabrück, по телефонной договоренности +49 (0)541
Gutenbergstr. 23. 96 20 20 по адресу: Gutenbergstr. 23, 49076
Osnabrück.

9
WICHTIGE HINWEISE FÜR UNSERE IMPORTANT INFORMATION ON
TELEFONBIETER TELEPHONE BIDDING
Wenn Sie telefonisch mitbieten möchten, bitten wir Sie If you wish to participate in the auction as a telephone
aus organisatorischen Gründen, uns diesen Wunsch bis bidder, please inform us at least 48 hours in advance as we
spätestens 48 Stunden vor der Versteigerung schriftlich have to approve and schedule all calls. To register for
mitzuteilen. Voraussetzung für ein telefonisches Mitbieten telephone bidding, we require that you submit at least the
ist, daß Sie mindestens den Schätzpreis bieten. estimate as written bid in addition to being called.
Telefonisches Bieten ist erst ab einem Schätzpreis von Telephone bidding is accepted on lot numbers with
ca. 500 Euro pro Los möglich. estimates starting at 500 Euro.

Bitte beachten Sie, daß wir keinerlei Haftung übernehmen, We do not assume liability should the telephone line be
falls die telefonische Verbindung während der Auktion interrupted or not be achieved.
nicht zustande kommt.
Please call +49 541 96 20 20 for more information or to
Sollten Sie Fragen zu der telefonischen Teilnahme an register for telephone bidding. During the auction you will
unseren Auktionen haben, können Sie uns vor der Auktion be able to reach us at the telephone number indicated on
unter +49 (0)5 41 96 20 20 oder 0800 5836 537 page 1.
(gebührenfrei) anrufen. Während der Auktion erreichen
Sie uns unter der auf der ersten Seite angegebenen
Telefonnummer.

INFORMATIONS POUR LA INFORMAZIONI PER LA


PARTICIPATION PAR TELEPHONE PARTECIPAZIONE TELEFONICA
Si vous désirez participer par téléphone à nos ventes aux Se desiderate la partecipazione telefonica in diretta durante
enchères, veuillez vous mettre en relation avec Alexandra l´asta, siete pregati di chiamare la Signorina Sonia Russo al
Elflein au moins 48 heures avant la vente au numéro numero diretto +49 541 96 20 245 come minimo 48 ore
+49 541 96 20 233. Pendant la vente aux enchères nous prima dell´asta e di inviarci la vostra offerta, la quale deve
vous prions d'appeler le numéro indiqué sur page no. 1 de ammontare come minimo al prezzo di stima anche per
ce catalogue. iscritto.

Une participation téléphonique à la vente sera possible à la Accettiamo una partecipazione telefonica in diretta
condition que vous nous fassiez parvenir aussi votre ordre durante l´asta per oggetti il cui prezzo di stima ammonta
par écrit. Cet ordre devra être au moins égal au minimum come minimo ai 500 Euro.
au prix d’estimation et concerner un lot estimé au moins
500 Euros. Non assumeremo nessuna responsabilità se la linea
telefonica è occupata o se non siete raggiungibili.
Nous déclinons toute responsabilité dans le cas où la
communication téléphonique serait interrompue, ou bien
ne pourrait être établie.

INFORMACIONES DE COMO ВАЖНАЯ ИНФОРМАЦИЯ ДЛЯ


PARTICIPAR POR TELÉFONO УЧАСТИЯ ПО ТЕЛЕФОНУ
Si quiere participar por teléfono en la subasta por favor se Для участия в торгах по телефону просим Вас
ponga en contacto anteriormente con la señora Sonia связаться с нами не позднее 48 часов до начала
Russo +49 541 96 20 245 y envienos las pujas tambien аукциона. Условием проведения телефонных торгов
por escrito por lo menos 48 oras antes de la subasta. является письменное подтверждение ставки, равной
как минимум стартовой цене.
Autorizamos una participación por teléfono solamente
Участие в телефонных торгах возможно только для
para lotes cuyos precio de estima es por lo menos 500 лотов со стартовой ценой свыше 500 евро.
Euro.
Для получения дополнительной информации и
No asumimos la responsabilidad si la conexión telefónica регистрации на аукционе звоните Анастасии Кепселль
se interumpa sin previsión o si está comunicando. до аукциона по телефону +49 541 96 20 268 и во время
аукциона по телефону, указанному на первой странице
каталога.

10
PREFACE
The preface of the auction catalogue 121 describes how I came to collect medieval coins. That
really leaves me with one thing to explain in the catalogue of the third and last part of my
collection, namely, what led me to give up collecting coins.

The main reason is obvious: age! When I started toying around with the idea of selling the
collection in 2004, I soon found I wanted to add to the coins a short text elucidating their historical
setting and the many short comments that had accumulated in my forty years of collecting - often
during the most lively conversations and discussions with numismatists and historians. I
immediately set about composing an initial text sample which I sent to the Künker company to be
reviewed. It took Messrs Künker, Kirsch and myself only one meeting to decide to shape the entire
catalogue along the lines of this first sample and to have it translated into English.

This was the beginning of a close cooperation with the Künker company and its employees, which
led to numerous significant additions and new ideas. The result of this cooperation, which has
been most constructive, now lies before you in the form of three handsome catalogues. I hope the
result of our work will spur a deep interest in medieval numismatics and inspire further research
into the subject. I am very grateful to the Künker company which proved willing to publish the
part of my sceatta collection that had already been sold to the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge
in a fourth individual volume, complete with my historical comments. This catalogue will be
mailed to you upon demand.

I would like to take this opportunity to thank the many people, whom I cannot name individually
here, but without whose advice and support the realisation of these collection catalogues would not
have been possible. Thanks to all the scientists, dealers and collectors, who have supported me
with their comments and research. Thanks to Fritz Rudolf Künker, Arne Kirsch, Dr Sebastian
Steinbach and the other staff for their extensive work on the collection. Thanks also to the
translator of the historical commentaries, Robert Weir, and Wilfried Danner, who did an excellent
job on the layout of the catalogue. Not least, I would like to thank all the readers of the catalogues,
whose positive reactions on the two preceding parts spurred me on to do just as good a job on the
third.

After the third and last auction, when all my coins will once again have been scattered across the
world, the one thing remaining will be the memory of all those nice years of collecting and the
many interesting people accompanying me along the way. I hope the new owners share my
fascination with these 1,000 years of European coinage and I hope they will enjoy their objects for
a long time to come.

Rotterdam, December 2007

G. W. de Wit

11
INTRODUCTION

At the Synod of Clermont from 18 to 28 November 1095 Pope Urban II called for an armed
pilgrimage to the Holy Land, a speech that would thunder on well into the thirteenth century,
prompting thousands of crusaders to take up the cross. The only exception were the knights of the
Iberian peninsula, who had their hands full (re)conquering the territory of present-day Spain on the
Muslims during the seven-and-a-half-century-long Reconquista. Many a crusade army counted
famous personalities among its midst, Staufer emperor Frederick I for one or English king Richard
the Lionhearted for another. The consequences of the crusades would be immense for medieval
Europe: the crusades eventually wore down the Byzantine Empire, they caused the Italian city
states of Genoa and Venice to grow fabulously wealthy and become sea powers of significance in
the Mediterranean, they saw the founding of the short-lived crusader states in Palestine and in the
Christian knights’ orders that they sparked a substantially better organised and disciplined warrior
elite established itself. Yet, the most important aftereffect of these armed pilgrimages without any
doubt was the heightened cultural exchange between the Orient and the Occident.

Despite the enduring atrocities of these wars, mutual understanding also grew, leading the main
Frankish chronicler of the First Crusade to comment: “For we, who were occidentals, have now
become orientals. [...] Words of different languages have now become common property to the
extent of no nationality being foreign anymore, mutual trust uniting those who do not know each
other’s origins” (Fulcher of Chartres, Historia Hierosolymitana, book III, chapter XXXVII). Even
if Fulcher’s judgment was too optimistic, as the future was to show, it aptly reflects the
rapprochement of Christendom and Islam at the turn of the 11th century.

As did the previous parts, the third part of the De Wit collection connects the westernmost part of
medieval Europe to its east, following almost the same route English crusaders took to the Holy
Land. Our numismatic journey starts in 8th century England at the coinage of its kings and, via the
Iberian peninsula, deeply marred by the Reconquista, we are lead to the cities and states of Italy
that had grown fabulously wealthy through trade. Italy, incidentally, is also the origin of the very
first coin Professor De Wit purchased: a Salut d’Or of Charles of Anjou (1266-1278) from Naples,
which he bought in Amsterdam in 1965 – the beginning of the present collection and at the same
time part of the last catalogue. From here, the trail continues, across the Balkan, along the Black
Sea down to the Aegean and then out to Rhodes and Cyprus. The coinage of the ephemeral
crusader states and the Turkmen mark our destination. In what one might call an aside to the
collection, the 90 reckoning counters and the weights offer a deeper insight into medieval trading.
At the end of this journey coinages and issues of both Christian and Islamic rulers and dynasties
will have been considered along with the ways in which they influenced each other.

We are once more proud to present the collector’s extensive historical commentaries on the
individual items, the period of their minting and the persons behind the fabrics. All pieces are
again shown enlarged by a factor 1.5, if not marked otherwise. At the end of the catalogue there is
an comprehensive general index with key words from all three parts of the collection. It also
contains a register of errata of the previous parts, I and II.

We hope you enjoy reading the third part and its historical commentaries and wish you the best of
luck with bidding!

Fritz Rudolf Künker Arne Kirsch Dr. Sebastian Steinbach

-•-
Auf Wunsch von Herrn Professor de Wit haben wir uns entschlossen, den Katalog seiner
Sammlung in englischer Sprache zu verfassen. Wir verbinden damit die Hoffnung, ein
internationales Publikum interessierter Sammler mittelalterlicher Münzen und Erforscher der
Numismatik des Mittelalters ansprechen zu können. Für die damit verbundenen Schwierigkeiten
für unsere deutschsprachigen Kunden bitten wir erneut um Verständnis. Unser Team steht Ihnen
selbstverständlich mit Rat und Hilfe bei Unklarheiten oder Verständnisproblemen zur Verfügung.

12
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17
VIKING INVADERS - NORTHUMBRIA

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6JG GCTNKGUV TGEQTFGF TCKF KP VJG YGUV KU VJG RNWPFGTKPI CPF FGUVTWEVKQP KP  QH VJG EJWTEJ CPF  
OQPCUVGT[ QH .KPFGUHCTPG 5KOKNCT 0QTYGIKCP TCKFU VQQM RNCEG KP  QP VJG OQPCUVGT[ QH /QPM  
YGCTOQWVJCPFKPQPVJGOQPCUVGT[QH5V%QNWODCPKP+QPC6JGPGZVKPHKNVTCVKQPDGICPKPYKVJ
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XCT[KPITGUWNVUHQTVJG0QTVJGTPGTU6JGKUNCPFUQH6JCPGVCPF5JGRR[YGTGEQOOQPN[WUGFCUDCUGUHQT
VJGUG CVVCEMU HTQO JKU ECOR QP 6JCPGV VJG &CPKUJ EJKGHVCKP 4QTKM RNWPFGTGF DQVJ %CPVGTDWT[ CPF  
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.QFDTQM+XCTVJG$QPGNGUU7DDGCPF*CNHFCP6JGKTCTO[VWTPGFVQYCTFU0QTVJWODTKCCPFECRVWTGF
;QTMQP0QXGODGT+PKVKPXCFGF/GTEKCCPFVQQM0QVVKPIJCOCHVGTYJKEJVJG/GTEKCPURCKF
&CPGIGNF CPF VJG 8KMKPIU TGVKTGF VQ ;QTM (TQO JGTG VJG CTO[ RTQEGGFGF UQWVJGCUVYCTFU VQYCTFU  
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ITGCVQPVJG'PINKUJUKFG*KUUWEEGUUQT#NHTGFUQWIJVVQICKPVKOGCPFRCKFVJG8KMKPIUQHH6QYCTFU
VJG GPF QH VJG UGXGPVKGU VJG 8KMKPIU UGRCTCVGF VJGKT HQTEGU QPG RCTV WPFGT *CNHFCP OQXGF KPVQ  
0QTVJWODTKCDCUGFKVUGNHKP;QTMCPFDGICPVQEQNQPKUGVJGTGIKQP6JGTGOCKPKPIRCTVQHVJG8KMKPI
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 PQ 
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18
KENT


 

 %WPPGVVK#5OCNNETQUURCVV¾GYKVJCRGNNGVKPVYQCPINGU %80B0'6B6+B4%086CVVJG


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 %WPPGVVK#5OCNNETQUURCVV¾GYKVJCRGNNGVKPVYQCPINGU %800'66+4%086CVVJGGPF


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 /KTCDKNKC(GEKV#5OCNNETQUURCVV¾GYKVJRGNNGVKPVYQCPINGU 0&#&4+#+('%64+PVYQNKPGU


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OCFGJKUDTQVJGT%WVJTGFMKPIQH-GPV1PEGCICKP-GPVJCFDGEQOGCRTQXKPEGQH/GTEKC0QVJKPIKU
MPQYPQH$CNFTGFGZEGRVVJCVJGWUWTRGF-GPVTWNGUJQTVN[DGHQTGYJGP#GVJGNYWNHUGPVD[JKU
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5RKPM.QPFQP

19
CANTERBURY

%#06'4$74;
/GTEKCEQPVTQNNGFVJGCTEJDKUJQRUQH%CPVGTDWT[CPFVJGTGHQTGVJGPCOGQHKVUQXGTNQTFYCUKPFKECVGFQP
%CPVGTDWT[ EQKPCIG 6JWU CTEJDKUJQRU ,CGPDGTJV
  CPF #GVJGNJGCTF
  KPENWFGF VJG  
PCOGU QH /GTEKCP MKPIU 1HHC CPF %QGPYWNH QP VJGKT EQKPU 1P #GVJGNJGCTFʼnU FGOKUG  /C[   
9WNHTGF JKU CTEJFGCEQP CUUWOGF QHHKEG 6JG PGY CTEJDKUJQR FKF CYC[ YKVJ PCOKPI VJG /GTEKCP  
QXGTNQTF QP JKU EQKPU CPF KPUVGCF KPVTQFWEGF VJG VQPUWTGF DWUV 2NGIOWPF
  YCU VJG NCUV  
CTEJDKUJQRVQUVTKMGEQKPKPFGRGPFGPVN[

#'6*'.*'#4&
 



 

 2GPP[YKVJ1HHCCUQXGTNQTF#+PVJTGGNKPGU#'&+.*'#4&#4%'2+4+PVJTGGNKPGU/
 1((#4':0QTVJ5GCD[IT 44'FIGDTGCMUXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
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(TQO0%PQ 
'Z&%JKEMEQNNGEVKQP 
$NWPV

%'1.016*
 



 

 2GPP[  )TQWR +++  $KCTPYWNH # 6QPUWTGF DWUV HCEKPI   %'1.016* #4%*+'2 4 /QPG[GTU  
PCOGQPCPFDGVYGGPVJGNKODUQHCETQUU $+#408.(/10'6#0QTVJ5GCD[IT
'ZVTGOGN[TCTG#VVTCEVKXGURGEKOGPYKVJPKEGVQPKPIGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
'Z%CTN[QP$TKVVQPEQNNGEVKQP
  
'Z.QEMGVV+EQNNGEVKQP
  
)TQWR+++EC 
#PCOGKPVYQRGTRGPFKEWNCTCTOUQHQPGETQUUKUUGGPKP9GUUGZCUYGNN
UGGPQUCPF .CVGTVJKUV[RG
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UGGWPFGT*QNNCPFPQCPFWPFGT7RRGT.QTTCKPGPQ 

20
WESSEX

9'55':
6JGHKTUVRGPPKGUYGTGUVTWEMD[$GQTJVTKEKP9GUUGZ*GJCFCTKXCNYJQO1HHCJGNRGFJKOVQFTKXG
CYC[ $GQTJVTKE YGFFGF C FCWIJVGT QH 1HHCʼnU CPF WPFGT JKU TWNG 9GUUGZ YCU FGRGPFGPV QP /GTEKC  
7RQP$GQTJVTKEʼnUFGCVJJKUNQPIVKOGHQG'EIDGTJVCUEGPFGFVQVJGVJTQPG*GGUVCDNKUJGFCTWNGOWEJ
OQTGKPFGRGPFGPVQH/GTEKCCPFUGPVCPCTO[VQ-GPVKP6JWUJGICKPGFEQPVTQNQHVJG%CPVGTDWT[
CPF .QPFQP OKPVU 'EIDGTJV YCU UWEEGGFGF D[ JKU UQP #GVJGNYWNH KP  *KU OCKP HGCV YCU VJG  
EQPSWGUVQHVJG8KMKPIUKPYJQRTKQTVQVJCVJCFUVQTOGFDQVJ.QPFQPCPF%CPVGTDWT['PRCUUCPV
JGFTQXG$GTVYWNHQH/GTEKCCYC[7RQPTGVWTPKPIHTQOCRKNITKOCIGVQ4QOGYJKEJJGJCFUGVQWVQP
KPJGYCUPQNQPIGTTGEQIPKUGFCUMKPI6QRTGXGPVOCVVGTUEQOKPIVQCJGCFJGCESWKGUEGFKPC
FKXKUKQPQHJKUFQOKPKQPU9GUUGZHGNNVQJKUUQP#GVJGNDCNFYJKNG#GVJGNYWNHJKOUGNHTGVCKPGFVJGTGUV
QH 5QWVJ'CUV 'PINCPF #GVJGNDGTJV #GVJGNYWNHʼnU UGEQPF UQP UWEEGGFGF VQ JKU HCVJGTU FKOKPKUJGF  
MKPIFQOCVJKUFGCVJKP9JGPHKTUVUQP#GVJGNDCNFFKGFKP9GUUGZECOGWPFGTJKUTWNGCPFVJG
9GUV5CZQPMKPIFQOYCUTGWPKVGF7PFGTVJGTGKIPQHVJGVJKTFDTQVJGT#GVJGNTGFVJG8KMKPIUKPXCFGF
#GVJGNTGFURGPVOQUVQHJKUTGKIPDCVVNKPIVJG8KMKPIUUWRRQTVGFD[JKUDTQVJGT#NHTGF1PJKUFGOKUG
#GVJGNTGFʼnU EJKNFTGP YGTG VQQ [QWPI VQ GZGEWVG VJG RQYGTHWN TWNG VJCV YCU UQ FGURGTCVGN[ PGGFGF VQ  
YKVJUVCPF VJG KPEGUUCPVN[ TCKFKPI 8KMKPIU 6JWU #NHTGF CUEGPFGF VQ VJG VJTQPG +PKVKCNN[ 9GUUGZ NQUV  
CPFYCUHQTEGFVQRC[VJG8KMKPIUQHHDWVD[VJGVCDNGUJCFVWTPGFCPFJGFGHGCVGFVJG8KMKPIUCV
'FKPIVQP .QPFQP YCU VCMGP KP  CPF DGECOG VJG EGPVTG QH QRRQUKVKQP CICKPUV VJG GPGO[ 9JGP  
#NHTGFFKGFKPJKUUQP'FYCTFʼnUUWEEGUUKQPYCUEQPVGUVGFD[JKUEQWUKP#GVJGNYQNF6JGNCVVGTHNGF
CPFLQKPGFVJG&CPGUKP0QTVJWODTKCKP'FYCTFFGXCUVCVGF'CUV#PINKCCUCTGVCNKCVKQPHQTCTCKFQP
9GUUGZ#DCVVNGGPUWGFNQUVD[9GUUGZ6JG&CPGUOCTEJGFKPVQ/GTEKCDWVGXGPVWCNN[YGTGFGHGCVGF
CV6GVVGPJCNN'FYCTFYQWNFMGGRGPICIKPIVJG&CPGUCPFD[VJGVKOGQHJKUFGCVJKPCNNTGIKQPU
UQWVJQHVJG*WODGTYGTGHKTON[KP9GUUGZJCPFU

#'6*'.97.(
 



 

 2GPP[2JCUG'VJGNPQVJ#$CTGJGCFGFDWUVT #'6*'.88.(4':4/QPG[GTUPCOGQP


CPFDGVYGGPVJGNKODUQHCDGCFGFETQUU '6*'.016*/10'6#0QTVJ5GCD[IT
45OCNNGFIGFGHGEVPKEGRQTVTCKVXGT[HKPGVQGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
2JCUGEOCLQTKV[QTCNN%CPVGTDWT[OKPV

#'6*'.$'4*6
 



 

 2GPP[  /CPKPE # $CTGJGCFGF DWUV T   #'6*'.$'#4*6 4': 4 /QPG[GTU PCOG QP CPF  
DGVYGGPVJGNKODUQHCDGCFGFETQUU /#0+0%/10'6#0QTVJ5GCD[IT 
440KEGRQTVTCKVCNOQUVGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
'NUGP$TWUUGN 
(TQONKUVPQ 
1RGPETQUUV[RGEC

21
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

 

 
 

#.(4'&
 
 2GPP[(QWT%QKPCIG.QPFQP#GVJGNUVCP#5OCNNETQUURCVV¾G#'.(4'&4':4/QPG[GTU
PCOG KP VYQ NKPGU VJTGG RGNNGVU DGVYGGP CPF C RGNNGV CDQXG GPF DGPGCVJ  #'6*'.  56#0 0QTVJ  
5GCD[IT 48GT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
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)WPVJTWO%CPVGTDWT['FYCTFVJG'NFGTV[RG  
.QPFQPEC

'&9#4&VJG'.&'4
 
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5GCD[IT 'ZVTGOGN[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP
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RTGUWOCDN[QXGT/GTEKCVJCPMUVQVJGUWEEGUUHWNECORCKIPKPIQHJKUHCVJGT*GFTQXGVJG8KMKPIMKPI
#PNCHQWVQH;QTMDWVJGYCUNGUUUWEEGUUHWNKPJKUFGCNKPIUYKVJ5EQVNCPF+VKUHCKTVQUVCVGVJCVCVVJG
VKOGQHJKUFGCVJKPJGJCFŋJGNFVQIGVJGTCEQORQUKVGUVCVGYJKEJGODTCEGFOQUVQHRTGUGPVFC[
'PINCPFŌ
0QTVJ 1HITGCVKPVGTGUVKUVJGEQKPCIGNCYGPCEVGFCV)TCVGN[FWTKPI#GVJGNUVCPʼnUTGKIPŋ9G
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GZEGRV KP C RQTV #PF KH C OKPKUVGT DG EQPXKEVGF QH UVTKMKPI DCF OQPG[ VJG JCPF YKVJ YJKEJ JG YCU  
IWKNV[UJCNNDGEWVQHHCPFUGVWRQPVJGOKPVUOKVJ[Ō6JGUVCVWVGCNUQIKXGUVJGSWQVCQHOQPG[GTUHQT
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0QTVJ+R #GVJGNUVCPYCUUWEEGGFGFD[JKUDTQVJGT'CFOWPF
 &WTKPIJKU
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'CFTGF
  YJQ FTQXG 'TKE ŋ$NQQFCZGŌ
FKGF   QWV QH 0QTVJWODTKC 1P 'CFTGFʼnU FGCVJ KP  
 VJG VJTQPG RCUUGF VQ 'CFYKI GNFGUV UQP QH 'CFOWPF DWV VJG /GTEKCPU CPF 0QTVJWODTKCPU  
TGPQWPEGFVJGKTCNNGIKCPEGVQJKOKPHCXQWTQHJKU[QWPIGTDTQVJGT'CFICTKP1P'CFTGFʼnUFGCVJKP
'CFICTTWNGFKP9GUUGZCNUQ'CFICTʼnUTGKIPKUOCTMGFD[VJGITCPVKPIQHCWVQPQO[VQVJG&CPKUJ
KPJCDKVCPVU QH GCUVGTP 'PINCPF 'CFICT JCF VYQ UQPU 'FYCTF D[ JKU HKTUV YKHG CPF #GVJGNTGF D[ JKU  
UGEQPFYKHG#GNHVJTKVJ'FYCTFDGECOGMKPIDWVVJGEQWPVT[YCUFKXKFGF1P/CTEJ'FYCTF
YCUXKUKVKPIJKUDTQVJGTKP&QTUGVYJGPJGYCUCVVCEMGFD[UQOGQH#GVJGNTGFʼnUTGVCKPGTUCPFOWTFGTGF
*GYCUNCVGTTGXGTGFCUCUCKPVCPFOCTV[T#GVJGNTGFʼnUTGKIPYCUCVWTPKPIRQKPVHQTYJKNGVJG&CPKUJ
KPHNWGPEG ITGY CPF DGICP VQ FQOKPCVG CV VJG UCOG VKOG VJG VKGU GUVCDNKUJGF YKVJ (TCPEG VQQM QP  
ITQYKPI UKIPKHKECPEG HQT VJG HWVWTG 6JG MKPI JKOUGNH NGF VJG YC[ KP VJKU VCMKPI HQT JKU YKHG 'OOC  

#GNHIKHW  VJG FCWIJVGT QH 4KEJCTF ++ &WMG QH 0QTOCPF[ VJG ITGCV ITCPFUQP QH VJG HKTUV &WMG QH  
0QTOCPF[4QNHQT4QNNGVJG8KMKPI
UGGWPFGT0QTOCPF[ 

%H CNUQ VJG 'PINKUJ VQMGPU KP VJG EJCRVGT ,GVQPU
PQ   CPF VJG 'PINKUJ EQKPU KP QWT  


ECVCNQIWGPQHH

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 6YQ.KPG9WNHUVCP#5OCNNETQUURCVV¾G'#&4'&4':4/QPG[GTUPCOGKPVYQNKPGUFKXKFGF
D[VJTGGETQUUGUCDQXGCPFDGNQYCTQUGVVG88.(560/10QTVJ5GCD[IT 
5RKPM.QPFQP
5OCNNHNCPFGHGEVXGT[HKPG


1XGTUVTWEMQPCEQKPQH#GVJGNUVCP

22
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

'#&)#4
 
7PFGT'CFICTVJGEQKPCIGYCUTGHQTOGF+PKVYCUFGETGGFVJCVKPHWVWTGVJGEQKPUUJQWNFDGCT
PQVQPN[VJGPCOGQHVJGOQPG[GTDWVCNUQVJGRNCEGQHOKPVKPI+PHCEVHTQOVJKUFCVG'PINCPFYCUVQ
DGNKVGTCNN[EQXGTGFKPOKPVUPQOQTGVJCPOKNGUCRCTVŋ1WTENCKOKUVJCVCPGVYQTMQHOKPVUYCU
RCTVQHVJGRNCPQHVJGTGHQTOQHCPFVJCVKVYCUVJGKPVGPVKQPVJCVOGPUJQWNFPQVJCXGVQVTCXGNCP
WPTGCUQPCDNG FKUVCPEG KP QTFGT VQ TGCEJ C OKPVŌ
&QNNG[ CPF /GVECNH UGG HKI +++  9G HKPF UKOKNCT  
TGIWNCVKQPUKP(TKGUNCPF
UGGWPFGT(TKGUNCPF 



 

 6YQ NKPG  *GTKIGT # 5OCNN ETQUU RCVV¾G   '#&)#4 4': + 4 /QPG[GTU PCOG KP VYQ NKPGU  
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5OCNNUETCVEJGUCNOQUVGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
2TGTGHQTO

#'6*'.4'&++
 
6JGTGKIPQH#GVJGNTGF
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5V $TKEGʼnU FC[   #GVJGNTGF  
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CPFYCUUWEEGGFGFD[JKUGNFGUVUWTXKXKPIUQP'FOWPF+TQPUKFG*GEQPVKPWGFVJGUVTWIINGCICKPUV
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UGXGTCNFKUVKPEVV[RGUYJKEJUGGOVQDGEJCPIGFTQWIJN[GXGT[UKZ[GCTU&QNNG[KUQHVJGQRKPKQPVJCVVJG
EJCPIG QH V[RG QEEWTGF CV /KEJCGNOCU
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23
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

5GEQPF*CPF
 

 

   

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24
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

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25
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

 

   

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26
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

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27
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

#0).1&#0+5*2'4+1&
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FGCVJ%PWVYCURTQENCKOGFMKPIQHCNN'PINCPFD[VJG&CPKUJHNGGV6JG'PINKUJJQYGXGTFKUUGPVGF
CPFECNNGFWRQP#GVJGNTGFVQTGVWTPHTQOJKUGZKNG%PWVYKVJFTGYVQ&GPOCTMDWVTGVWTPGFUYKHVN[KP
VQGPHQTEGJKUENCKO*KUEQPSWGUVUJQYGXGTYQWNFPʼnVNCUVCPFCHVGT#GVJGNTGFʼnUFGOKUG%PWVJCF
VQ FGCN YKVJ VJG HQTOGTʼnU UQP 'CFOWPF
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DGECOGMKPIQHCNN'PINCPF6JWUDGICPVJG#PINQ&CPKUJRGTKQF
#HVGT #GVJGNTGF JCF FKGF %PWV OCTTKGF JKU YKFQY 'OOC C OCPQGWXTG KPVGPFGF VQ RTGXGPV CP[  
KPVGTXGPVKQPD[JGTDTQVJGT4KEJCTF++&WMGQH0QTOCPF[
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CPF JG JCF #PINQ5CZQP EWUVQOU RTGXCKN KP IQXGTPKPI KV 6JG QPG KPPQXCVKQP YCU VJG CRRQKPVOGPV QH  
GCTNU OQUVN[ QH 5ECPFKPCXKCP QTKIKP 5VKNN VJG OQUV RQYGTHWN QH CNN )QFYKP QH 9GUUGZ YCU #PINQ  
5CZQP

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HNGWTGF 'PINKUJ ETQYP CPF C SWCVTGHQKN KU CPQVJGT PQXGN HGCVWTG DQVJ QH VJG QDXGTUG CPF TGXGTUGŌ  

&QNNG[ 

%PWV CFQRVGF VJG GZKUVKPI PGVYQTM QH OKPVU CPF CFFGF UQOG PGY EGPVTGU $NCEMDWTP CPF .[QP JCXG  
KFGPVKHKGFCVQVCNQHOKPVUFKGEGPVTGUCPFFKHHGTGPVUV[NGU#VVJGDGIKPPKPIQHCPKUUWGGCEJ
OCKPFKGEWVVKPIEGPVTGOWUVJCXGDGGPUGPVCEQOOQPOQFGNVQEQR[DWVRTQXKFGFVJGGUUGPVKCNUQHVJG
FGUKIPYGTGRTGUGPVVJGFKGEWVVGTYCURGTOKVVGFEQPUKFGTCDNGNCVKVWFGKPVJGFGVCKNQHEQORQUKVKQP6JG
TGUWNV YCU C ITGCV CTTC[ QH XCTKGVKGU OCMKPI VJG UGTKGU QPG QH VJG OQUV KPVGTGUVKPI KP 'PINKUJ  
PWOKUOCVKEU 1H  OKPVU  CTG TGRTGUGPVGF JGTG KP  URGEKOGPU 1H  FKGEGPVTGU  CTG  
TGRTGUGPVGF ŋ+P QT CDQWV  JQYGXGT VJG V[RG YCU EJCPIGF VQ QPG YJGTG VJG MKPI YCU FGRKEVGF  
YGCTKPICEQPKECNJGNOGVCPFTGEGPVUVWFKGUJCXGUJQYPVJCVFGVGTOKPGFGHHQTVUYGTGPQYDGKPIOCFGVQ
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D[EYJGPJKUVJKTFV[RGYCUKUUWGFVJGPGYEQKPUDGKPIQHVTCFKVKQPCNFGUKIPYKVJVJGMKPIQPEG
OQTGUJQYPDCTGJGCFGFCPFYGCTKPICUKORNGFKCFGOŌ
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3WCVTGHQKN
 
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XQKFGFGCEJNKODVGTOKPCVKPIKPVJTGGETGUEGPVU 
6JG FGEKUKXG UVWF[ QP OKPVU HQT VJG 3WCVTGHQKN V[RG KU VJCV D[ $NCEMDWTP CPF .[QP 4GIKQPCN FKG  
RTQFWEVKQPKP%PWVʼnU3WCVTGHQKNKUUWGKP#PINQUCZQP/QPGVCT[*KUVQT[.GKEGUVGTRGX 
0QTVJ
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28
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

 

   

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5OCNNHNCPETCEMXGT[HKPG 
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29
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

 

   

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30
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

 

   

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31
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

 

   

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32
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

 

   

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33
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

 

   

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34
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

 

   

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35
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

 

   

 5CNKUDWT[5CGOCP# %0864':#0).148/4 5#'/#005'4 IT 


6TCEGUQHXGTFKITKUXGT[HKPGVQGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
$WUVQH5QOGTUGVUV[NGDWUVXGT[TCTGHQTVJKUOKPV 
'Z&TCDDNGEQNNGEVKQP
  
'Z'NOQTG,QPGUEQNNGEVKQP
 

 5QWVJCORVQP  #GNHUKIG #  %086 4': #0).148 4  #'.(5+)' 10 *#/26  IT  
(NCPETCEMUXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
'Z9GNNUEQNNGEVKQP $CNFYKP 
'Z/CEMEQNNGEVKQP
5[NN 

 

   

 5QWVJCORVQP#GNHYGTF# %0864':#0).148/4 #'.(2'4&10*#/6IT


(NCPETCEMXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
'Z/CEMEQNNGEVKQP
PQVKP5[NNQIG  
'Z'NOQTG,QPGUEQNNGEVKQP.QV

 5QWVJYCTM#GNHUKIG#$WUVNYKVJUEGRVTGDGJKPF %0864':#0).148/4 #'.(5+)


/1058&)0QTVJIT 
'ZVTGOGN[TCTG#NKVVNGYGCMN[UVTWEMQVJGTYKUGXGT[HKPGVQGZVTGOGN[HKPG 

5RKPM.QPFQP 
'Z&TCDDNGEQNNGEVKQP
  
'Z.QEMGVVEQNNGEVKQP
  
'ZVTGOGN[TCTGXCTKGV[YKVJUEGRVTGKPHKGNFDGJKPFJGCF
PQVKP*KNF0QTVJCPF$/% 

 

   

 5QWVJYCTM#GNHYKPG# %0864':#0).14 #'.(2+0'58&)IT 


8GT[HKPG 
)NGPFKPKPI.QPFQP#WEVKQP
 PQ

 5QWVJYCTM'CFYKPG# %0864':#0).144 '#&2+0'58&)IT 


5RKPM.QPFQP &CTMDNWG2CVKPCENGCPGFXGT[HKPG 

36
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

 

   

 5QWVJYCTM.GQHTKE# %0864':#0).14 .+1(4+%058')IT 


6TCEGUQHXGTFKITKUCPFUNKIJVN[DGPVXGT[HKPG 
'NUGP$TWUUGN#WEVKQP
 PQ

 5QWVJYCTM9WNHTKE# %0864':#0).1+4 28.(4+%058&')IT 


6TCEGUQHGPETWUVCVKQPXGT[HKPG 

 

   

 5VCOHQTF)QFTKE# %0864':#0).148/4 )1&4+%/156#IT 


&CTMRCVKPCXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP

 5VCOHQTF)QFYKPG# %0864':#0).1+4 )1&2+0'/56#IT 


8GT[HKPGVQGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
'NUGP$TWUUGN#WEVKQP
 PQ

 

   

 6CWPVQP#GNHUKIG# %0864':#0).148/4 '.(5+)6#068IT 


44&CTMVQPGXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
(TQO0%PQ

 6JGVHQTF#GNHYKI# %0864':#0).144 #'.(2+'1&'1&IT 8GT[HKPG 


'NUGP$TWUUGN#WEVKQP
 PQ

37
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

 

   

 6JGVHQTF#GNHYKI# %0864':#0).1:4 #'&2+)/1+&'1IT 


#NKVVNGYGCMN[UVTWEMXGT[HKPG 
$CNFYKP.QPFQP

 6JGVHQTF'CFYKPG# %0864':#0).14 '&2+0'1&'1&IT 8GT[HKPG 


'NUGP$TWUUGN#WEVKQP
 PQ

 

   

 6JGVHQTF)QFOCP# %0864':#0).1:4 )1&/#0/1&'1&IT 


0KEGRQTVTCKVXGT[HKPGVQGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
'NUGP$TWUUGN#WEVKQP
 PQ

 6JGVHQTF.GQHYKPG# %0864':#0).148/4 .'1(2+0'/1&'1&IT 


6TCEGUQHGPETWUVCVKQPXGT[HKPG 
'NUGP$TWUUGN#WEVKQP
 PQ

 

   

 6JGVHQTF.KHKPE# %0864':#0).14 .+(+0%10&'1IT 


)QQFRQTVTCKVXGT[HKPG 
'NUGP$TWUUGN#WEVKQP
 PQ

 6JGVHQTF5RTWPV# %0864':#0).1484 52480610&'1IT 


'ZVTGOGN[HKPG 
'NUGP$TWUUGN#WEVKQP
 PQ

38
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

 

   

 9KPEJGUVGT5KDQFG# %0864':#0).1484 5+$1&#102+0%5IT 


40KEG2CVKPCCNOQUVGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP

 9QTEJGUVGT#GNHYQNF# %0864':#0).144 #.(21.&102+IT 


445OCNNFQWDNGUVTWEMXGT[HKPG 
*QTPWPI-QRGPJCIGP#WEVKQP
 PQC 
*KNF 
5[NN%QR 
9QTEJGUVGTUV[NG

 

   

 ;QTM%QNITKO# %0864':#0).144 %1.)4+//1'1(IT 


0KEGRQTVTCKVCNKVVNGYGCMN[UVTWEMCVVJGGFIGQVJGTYKUGGZVTGOGN[HKPGYKVJPKEGRCVKPC 
5RKPM.QPFQP

 ;QTM&CJHKP# %0864':#0).1484 &#*(+0/1'1IT 'ZVTGOGN[HKPG 


5RKPM.QPFQP

 

   

 ;QTM(TKVJEQN# %0864':#0).1484 (4+&1./1'1+IT 8GT[HKPG  


'NUGP$TWUUGN#WEVKQP
 PQ

 ;QTM5VKTEQN# %0864':#0).1484 56+4%1./1'1+IT 


5OCNNFQWDNGUVTWEMXGT[HKPG 
'NUGP$TWUUGN#WEVKQP
 PQ

39
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

2QKPVGF*GNOGV
 
#$WUVNYGCTKPIRQKPVGFJGNOGVKPHTQPVUEGRVTG45JQTVETQUUXQKFGFNKODUWPKVGFCVDCUGD[VYQ
EKENGUKPEGPVTGCRGNNGVKPGCEJCPINGCDTQMGPCPPWNGVGPENQUKPICRGNNGV 
0QTVJ5GCD[


 

 &QTEJGUVGT5YGVC# %0864 ':#04 52'610&14 % '56IT 


4$GPVYGCMN[UVTWEMCVVJGGFIGDWVPKEGRQTVTCKVXGT[HKPG 
-ÌNPGT/ÒP\MCDKPGVV-ÌNP#WEVKQP
 PQ 
6[RG+++E4*/&QNNG[,+PIQNF5QOGVJQWIJVUQPVJGGPITCXKPIQHVJGFKGUHQTVJG'PINKUJ%QKPCIGE
%QOOGPVCVKQPGUR 
*KNF

 

   

 .KPEQNP#GIGNOCGT# %0864':#0)4 #')'./#'410.+0%IT 


8GT[HKPGVQGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
5EJWNOCP#OUVGTFCO 
6[RG+++E4*/&QNNG[,+PIQNF5QOGVJQWIJVUQPVJGGPITCXKPIQHVJGFKGUHQTVJG'PINKUJ%QKPCIGE
%QOOGPVCVKQPGUR 
*KNF

 .QPFQP9[PUVCP# %0864+%:4 2;056#010.80IT 


5NKIJVGN[DGPVQVJGTYKUGXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
6[RG++E4*/&QNNG[,+PIQNF5QOGVJQWIJVUQPVJGGPITCXKPIQHVJGFKGUHQTVJG'PINKUJ%QKPCIGE
%QOOGPVCVKQPGUR 
*KNF
MPQYUQHURGEKOGPUHTQO2WPUVCP 

 

   

 .QPFQP.GQHUVCP# %0864''::4 .'1(56#010.70IT 8GT[HKPG 


4CWEJ9KGP#WEVKQP
 PQ

 6JGVHQTF'CFYKPG# %086':#0)4 '#&2+0'/1&'1IT 


4'ZVTGOGN[HKPG 
/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP$CUGN 
6[RG+4*/&QNNG[,+PIQNF5QOGVJQWIJVUQPVJGGPITCXKPIQHVJGFKGUHQTVJG'PINKUJ%QKPCIGE
%QOOGPVCVKQPGUR 
*KNF

40
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

5JQTV%TQUU
 
#&KCFGOGFDWUVNUEGRVTGYKVJNKUJGCFKPHTQPV45JQTVETQUUXQKFGFKPEGPVTGCEKTENGGPENQUKPIC
RGNNGV0QTVJ5GCD[

 


 &QXGT.GQHYKPG# %0864'%:4 .'1(2+0'10&1(4IT 8GT[HKPG  


.CP\/ÒPEJGP#WEVKQP
 PQ

 

   

 *WPVKPIFQP#GNHICT# %0864'%:4 #'.()#410*806IT 


46TCEGUQHGPETWUVCVKQPXGT[HKPGVQGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
/ÒP\\GPVTWO-ÌNP

 .QPFQP#GVJYGF# %0864'4 #'&2'&10.80&IT 8GT[HKPG  


5RKPM.QPFQP 
/QPG[GTPQVKP0QTVJ

*#41.&+
 
%PWV JCF KPVGPFGF JKU UQP *CTVJCEPWV D[ JKU YKHG 'OOC VQ UWEEGGF JKO KP 'PINCPF CU YGNN CU KP  
&GPOCTM +P &GPOCTM JG FKF DWV 'PINCPF YCU FKXKFGF # ITQWR QH UQWVJGTP PQDNGU NGF D[ )QFYKP  
YKUJGF*CTVJCEPWVVQCEEGFGVQVJGVJTQPGDWVVJGGCTNUKPVJGOKFFNGCPFPQTVJQHVJGEQWPVT[NGFD[
.GQHTKERTGHGTTGF*CTQNF%PWVʼnUUQPD[#GNHIKHW+PCEQORTQOKUG'OOCCEVGFCUTGIGPVKP9GUUGZ
QP*CTVJCEPWVʼnUDGJCNHCPFVJGTGUVYGPVVQ*CTQNF 
1PGQHVJGEQKPUQH*CTQNFʼnUTGKIPKP'PINCPF
OKPWU9GUUGZ YCUVJG,GYGN%TQUUV[RG#U*CTVJCEPWV
FKF PQV EQOG VQ 'PINCPF JKU RQUKVKQP YGCMGPGF CPF *CTQNF DGECOG MKPI QH CNN 'PINCPF KP   
RTQORVKPI'OOCVQHNGGVQ(NCPFGTU*CTQNFEJQUGCPGYV[RGVJGŋ(NGWTFGNKUŌV[RG*GFKGFQP
/CTEJCPF*CTVJCEPWVYCUTGSWGUVGFVQEQOGVQ'PINCPFCUMKPI

,GYGNN%TQUU
URTKPICWVWOP 

  

 .QPFQP$TKJVOCGT#&KCFGOGFDWUVN *#41.&4':4%TQUUEQORQUGFQHHQWTQXCNUWPKVGF


CVVJGKTDCUKUD[VYQEKTENGUGPENQUKPICRGNNGV $4+*6/#'410.80&0QTVJ5GCD[
IT 49GCMN[UVTWEMXGT[HKPG 
/ÒP\\GPVTWO-ÌNP

41
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

(NGWTFGNKU
 

#&KCFGOGFDWUVNKPCTOQWTKPHTQPVCUJKGNFCPFUEGRVTG4.QPIETQUUXQKFGFNKODUWPKVGFCVVJGKT
DCUGUD[CEKTENGGPENQUKPICRGNNGVKPGCEJCPINGHNGWTFGNKUDGVYGGPVYQRGNNGVU 
0QTVJ5GCD[

 


 .QPFQP#GNHTKE# *#41.&4'%:4 #'.(4+%10.80IT 


/KPQTHNCPETCEMVTCEGUQHXGTFKITKUXGT[HKPG 
9#)&QTVOWPF#WEVKQP
 PQ

 


 .CPECUVGT!'CYKPG# *#41.&4''&:4+PGCEJCPINGVTGHQKNQHRGNNGVU '#2+0'10


.#0&0QTVJ5GCD[IT 5OCNNHNCPETCEMXGT[HKPG 
/ÒP\\GPVTWO-ÌNP 
6QO[OKPFVJGOKPVKPFKECVKQPECPQPN[DGTGCFCU.#0&YJKEJYQWNFTGHGTVQ.CPECUVGTDWV*KNFGDTCPFMPQYU
QHPQUWEJV[RGHQT.CPECUVGT 
*QYGXGT VJKU OQPG[GT KU MPQYP HQT .GYGU  D[ VJG PCOG QH 'CFYKPG  YJKEJ KU UWRRQTVGF D[ VJG ECTF  
CEEQORCP[KPIVJKUEQKPDWVKPVJCVECUGVJGEQKPUJQWNFJCXGTGCF.#';'
*KNF 

*#46*#%076
 
6JG'PINKUJKPXKVCVKQPQH*CTVJCEPWVVQTGVWTPVQ'PIGNCPFCUMKPIYCUCTCVJGTJCNHJGCTVGFQDUGTXKPIQH
JGTGFKVCT[EWUVQOCPFUQQPTGITGVVGF7RQPCTTKXCNJGTCKUGFVCZGUVQRC[QHHJKUHNGGV 
*CTVJCEPWVYCUMKPIQPN[HQTCDTKGHRGTKQFCPFYJGPJGFKGFFWTKPICYGFFKPIQP,WPGJGYCU
UWEEGGFGFD['FYCTF
VJG%QPHGUUQT VJGQPN[TGOCKPKPIUQPQH#GVJGNTGFʼnUCPFVJG#PINQ&CPKUJ
KPVGTNWFGGPFGF
#TOCPFUEGRVTG
LWPGLWPG 



 

 9CTYKEM.GQHYKPG#&KCFGOGFDWUVNYKVJUEGRVTGKPNJCPF %0864'%:#41XGTUJQTV


ETQUUXQKFGFSWCFTKNCVGTCNYKVJRGNNGVCVGCEJCPINGCPFKPEGPVTG .'12++102#'4+00QTVJ
5GCD[IT 445NKIJVGN[DGPVXGT[HKPG 
/ÒP\\GPVTWO-ÌNP#WEVKQP
 PQ 
*KNF 
6JKU EQKP KU UVTWEM YKVJ VJG PCOG QH ŋ%PWVŌ +V WUGF VQ DG EQPUKFGTGF C RQUVJWOQWU KUUWG QH %PWVʼnU DWV PQY VJG  
KPUETKRVKQPKUCEEGRVGFCUCPCDDTGXKCVKQPQH*CTVJCEPWVCPFVJGEQKPKUIKXGPVQVJCVMKPI 
5GG0%R

42
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

'&9#4&VJG%10('5514
 
&WTKPI 'FYCTFʼnU HKTUV [GCTU QH IQXGTPOGPV )QFYKP ECWUGF JKO C ITGCV FGCN QH VTQWDNG +P   
'FYCTF OCTTKGF 'FKVJ )QFYKPʼnU FCWIJVGT CPF ITCPVGF VJG NCVVGTʼnU DQVJ UQPU GCTNFQO 0GXGTVJGNGUU  
'FYCTFGZKNGF)QFYKPKP 
6JG RQNKVKEU QH 'FYCTF YJQ JCF URGPV JKU [GCT GZKNG YKVJ VJG 0QTOCPU CEVKXGN[ HCXQWTGF VJG  
0QTOCPU QXGT VJG 5ECPFKPCXKCPU CPF ITCPVGF VJGO HKPCPEKCN RTKXKNGIGU *GPEG C NQV QH (TGPEJ PQDNGU  
GPVGTGFVJGEQWPVT[QHYJKEJ4QDGTVQH,WOK½IGUDGECOGCTEJDKUJQRQH%CPVGTDWT[ 
+P)QFYKPTGVWTPGFCPFJKUHQTOGTTKIJVUYGTGHWNN[TGKPUVCVGFCPFVJG0QTOCPUJCFVQHNGGVJG
EQWPVT[ QPG QH VJGO 4QDGTV QH ,WOK½IGU )QFYKP FKGF KP  CPF JKU UQP *CTQNF KPJGTKVGF JKU  
CWVJQTKV[ 
#U 'FYCTFʼnU OCTTKCIG YCU YKVJQWV KUUWG VJG UGCTEJ HQT C UWEEGUUQT YCU KPUVKICVGF KP   
WPUWEEGUUHWNN[VJQWIJCPF'FYCTFGPHQTEGFJKUFGEKUKQPVJCV9KNNKCO&WMGQH0QTOCPF[DGJKU
UWEEGUUQTD[UGPFKPI#TEJDKUJQR4QDGTVVQ(TCPEGVQPQVKH[JKUKPVGPFGFUWEEGUUQT.CVGT*CTQNFYQWNF
ENCKO VJG VJTQPG 6JG .GZKMQP FGU /KVVGNCNVGTU EQOOGPVU CU HQNNQYU ŋ6JG CVVKVWFG 'FYCTF CFQRVGF  
VQYCTFU'CTN*CTQNFʼnUOKUUKQPVQ0QTOCPF[
QT TGOCKPUWPENGCTCUFQGUYJGVJGT'FYCTF
QPJKUFGCVJDGFFGUKIPCVGF*CTQNFVQDGJKUJGKTQTOGTGN[GPVTWUVGFJKUMKPIFQOKPVJGGCTNʼnUJCPFUUQ
VJCVJGOKIJVRTGUGTXGKVWPVKN&WMG9KNNKCOECOGVQENCKOJKUTKIJVUŌ6JKUKUFGRKEVGFKPVJG$C[GWZ
VCRGUVT[
HQN  









&GURKVG 9KNNKCOʼnU ENCKO QH DGKPI VJG TKIJVHWN JGKT VQ 'FYCTFʼnU VJTQPG KV YQWNF DG *CTQNF UQP QH  
)QFYKPYJQUWEEGGFGF'FYCTFCVJKUFGCVJQP,CPWCT[ 
1P(GDTWCT['FYCTFYCUECPQPKUGFD[2QRG#NGZCPFGT++'FYCTFYCUVJGNCUVQHVJGCPEKGPV
*QWUGQH9GUUGZVJGNKPGCIGQHYJKEJIQGUDCEMVQ%GTFKE 
1PEQKPCIGWRVQCRRTQZ'FYCTFKUFGRKEVGFDGCTFNGUUCHVGTVJCVJGCRRGCTUDGCTFGF

2CEZ
 

 


 9KNVQP  #GNHUVCP # &KCFGOGF DWUV N UEGRVTG KP HTQPV   '&2#4& 4'%: 4 .QPI ETQUU XQKFGF  
YKVJ EKTENG KP EGPVTG CPF GCEJ NKOD GPFKPI KP C ETGUEGPV 2#%: KP CPINGU   #'.56#0 10 2+.  
0QTVJ5GCD[IT 5NKIJVN[DGPVXGT[HKPG 
/ÒP\\GPVTWO-ÌNP#WEVKQP
 PQ 
*KNF 
6JGOQPG[GTQHVJKUV[RGKUWPKFGPVKHKGFVQFCVG

4CFKCVGUOCNNETQUU
 


 

 ;QTM  5EWNC # $WUV N YGCTKPI TCFKCVG ETQYP  #:&2'2 4': 4 5OCNN ETQUU RCVV¾G TKPI KP HKGNF  
5%8.##100'1'(4+0QTVJ5GCD[IT #NOQUVGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
9KPVGT&ÒUUGNFQTH#WEVKQP
 PQ 
4KPIKPHKGNFQPQDXGTUGPQVOGPVKQPGFKP0QTVJ 
6JGVGZVQPVJGQDXGTUGUJQWNFTGCF'&9'4&

43
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

6TGHQKN3WCFTKNCVGTCN
 



 
 .QPFQP#GNHYKI#&KCFGOGFDWUVNUEGRVTGYKVJNKUKPHTQPV '&2#4&441XGTUJQTVETQUU
XQKFGF SWCFTKNCVGTCN QTPCOGPV YKVJ VJTGG RGNNGVU CV GCEJ CPING CPF QPG KP EGPVTG   #'.(2+) 10  
.80&0QTVJ5GCD[IT 8GT[HKPGVQGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP

5OCNN(NCP
 



 

 .QPFQP  )QNVUKIG # &KCFGOGF DWUV N  '&2#4& 4': 4 5JQTV ETQUU XQKFGF   )1.&5+' 10  
.800QTVJ5GCD[IT 0KEGVQPKPIXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP

'ZRCPFKPI%TQUU
NKIJV 
 



 
 .GYGU'CFYCTF#&KCFGOGFDWUVNUEGRVTGYKVJCVTGHQKNJGCFKPHTQPV '&2#4&4':4
5JQTV ETQUU XQKFGF YKVJ GZRCPFKPI NKODU LQKPGF CV VJG DCUG QH VYQ EKTENGU   '&2'4& 10 .#'2'  
0QTVJ5GCD[IT 6TCEGUQHXGTFKITKUGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP$CUGN#WEVKQP
 PQ

'ZRCPFKPI%TQUU
JGCX[ 
 



 
 .KPEQNP  1VJITKO # &KCFGOGF DWUV N UEGRVTG YKVJ C VTGHQKN JGCF KP HTQPV   '&2'4& 4': 4  
5JQTVETQUUXQKFGFYKVJGZRCPFKPINKODULQKPGFCVVJGDCUGQHVYQEKTENGU 1&)4+/10.+0%1.
0QTVJ5GCD[IT &CTMRCVKPCCPFPKEGRQTVTCKVXGT[HKPG 
5EJWNOCP#OUVGTFCO

44
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

2QKPVGF*GNOGV
 
#$GCTFGFDWUVTYGCTKPIRQKPVGFJGNOGVCPFJQNFKPIKPTKIJVJCPFCUEGRVTGYKVJCETQUURCVV¾G4
5JQTVETQUUXQKFGFGCEJNKODVGTOKPCVKPIKPVJTGGETGUEGPVUKPEGPVTGCPCPPWNGV0QTVJ5GCD[

 

   

 ;QTM.GQHPQVJ# '&2'4&4':4 .'1(016*10'1('42IT 


0KEGRCVKPCXGT[HKPG 
5EJWNOCP#OUVGTFCO
 ;QTM.GQHPQVJ# '&2'4&4':4 .'1(016*10'1('42IT 
0KEGRCVKPCXGT[HKPG 
*CNN$TKIJVQP

5QXGTGKIP'CINGU
 

  

 *GTGHQTF#GIGNTKE#-KPIETQYPGFCPFPQVDGCTFGFUGCVGFQPVJTQPGHCEKPIKPTJCPFCNQPIUEGRVTG
CPFKPNCPQTD '#&2#4&4':#0).145JQTVETQUUXQKFGFYKVJCDKTFKPGCEJCPING #'
)'.4+%10*'40QTVJ5GCD[IT 
445OCNNHNCPETCEMUQPVJGTGXGTUGXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
6JKUV[RGYCUKPVTQFWEGFCV/KEJCGNOCU6JGQDXGTUGKUPQVCVTWGŋUQXGTGKIPŌV[RGVJGCXGTUKQPQHVJGJGCF
DGKPIHQTGKIPVQCVTWG/CLGUVCUDWVVJKUKUCFGVCKNYJKEJRGTJCRUECPDGQXGTNQQMGFKPVJGKPVGTGUVQHKPVGNNKIKDKNKV[
6JGDKTFUQPVJGTGXGTUGCTGGCINGU5GG4*/&QNNG[('NOQTG,QPGU#PGYUWIIGUVKQPEQPEGTPKPIVJGUQ
ECNNGFŋ/CTVNGVUŌKPVJGŋ#TOUQH5V'FYCTFŌRKP#PINQ5CZQP%QKPU*KUVQTKECN5VWFKGURTGUGPVGF6Q5KT
(TCPM5VGPVQP

*COOGT%TQUU
 
#%TQYPGFDWUVTDGCTFGFYKVJUEGRVTGKPHTQPV45JQTVXQKFGFETQUUYKVJGCEJNKODVGTOKPCVKPIKP
CPKPEWTXGFUGIOGPVQHCEKTENG+PQPGSWCTVGTCTKPI0QTVJ5GCD[

 

   

 .GYGU1UYQNF# #&2#44&4':4 1521.&10.'2'IT 


/KPQTHNCPETCEMXGT[HKPG 
5EJWNOCP#OUVGTFCO 
#WMVKQP*. 
0QTKPICU

 ;QTM1VJDGTP# '&2#'4&4:4 16*$'4010'1(4IT 8GT[HKPG 


$QWIJV
&GMMGTEQNNGEVKQP  
'Z5EJWNOCP#OUVGTFCO#WEVKQP
 PQ

45
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

 

 
 

$WUVHCEKPI5OCNNETQUU
 
 .QPFQP#GNHYCTF#$GCTFGFCPFETQYPGFDWUVHCEKPI'#&2#4&4':#0
1DXGTUGKPKVKCNETQUU
QOKVVGF 45OCNNETQUURCVV¾G #'.(2#4&10.80&0QTVJ5GCD[IT 
#NOQUVGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
'Z'NOQTG,QPGUEQNNGEVKQP
 

2[TCOKFU
 
 $GFHQTF9WNHYKI#$GCTFGFCPFETQYPGFDWUVTUEGRVTGKPHTQPV'&2#4&4':#45JQTVETQUU
XQKFGFKPGCEJCPINGCR[TCOKFURTKPIKPIHTQOVJGKPPGTEKTENGCPFVGTOKPCVKPIKPCRGNNGV 28.(2+)
10$'&0QTVJ5GCD[IT 44/CIPKHKEGPVRQTVTCKVGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
'Z.QEMGVVEQNNGEVKQP
  
'Z$CIUJCYGEQNNGEVKQP 
2QUUKDN[WPKSWGQHVJGV[RGQHVJKUOKPV

*#41.&++
 
*CTQNF YCU KOOGFKCVGN[ EQPHTQPVGF D[ VJG MKPI QH 0QTYC[ YJQUG KPXCUKQP JG HQWIJV QHH #PQVJGT  
KPXCUKQP KP VJG UQWVJ CV 2GXGPUG[ $C[ YJGTG &WMG 9KNNKCO QH 0QTOCPF[ NCPFGF YCU UWEEGUUHWN  
JQYGXGT*CTQNFGXGPVWCNN[YCUMKNNGFKPDCVVNGJGFKGFQHJKUYQWPFUCHVGTDGKPIJKVD[CPCTTQYCVVJG
$CVVNGQH*CUVKPIUQP1EVQDGT

5QNG
LCPWCT[QEVQDGT 
#%TQYPGFJGCFNUEGRVTGKPHTQPV4#ETQUUHKGNFCPFDGVYGGPVYQNKPGU2#: 
0QTVJ5GCD[

 

   

 .GYGU1UYQNF# *#41.&4':#0)4 1<21.&10.'2''IT 


44&CTMRCVKPCFQWDNGUVTWEMQPVJGTGXGTUGQVJGTYKUGXGT[HKPG YKVJPKEGRQTVTCKV 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
'Z&QWDNGFC[EQNNGEVKQP+
  
'ZJKDKVGFKP2CTKUKP
 .QPFQP9WNHYCTF# *#41.&4':#0).42#:YTQPIUKFGWR 28.(2#4&10.80
IT 448GT[HKPGVQGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
'Z&QWDNGFC[EQNNGEVKQP+
  
'Z%CTN[QP$TKVVQPEQNNGEVKQP 
'Z9JGGNGTEQNNGEVKQP 
'Z&TCDDNGEQNNGEVKQP 
'Z%QNNQPEQNNGEVKQP 
'ZJKDKVGFKP2CTKUKP

46
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

#0).1014/#02'4+1&
9+..+#/+
 
#HVGTCHGYHGGDNGCVVGORVUCVTGUKUVCPEG'PINKUJPQDKNKV[ECOGQWVVQVJGCFXCPEKPIFWMGQH0QTOCPF[
CPFUWDOKVVGF9KNNKCOYCUETQYPGFQP%JTKUVOCU&C[#HGYKPUWTTGEVKQPUVJGNCUVEQPXWNUKQPU
QHQRRQUKVKQPYGTGUYKHVN[UWDFWGF 
9JGTGCU 'PINKUJ EQKPCIG YCU GZEGNNGPVN[ QTICPKUGF CPF KVU EQKPU OCPWHCEVWTGF D[ GZRGTV FKGUKPMGTU  
EQPVKPGPVCNEQKPCIGCPF0QTOCPF[ʼnUKPRCTVKEWNCTYCUQHRQQTSWCNKV[UGGPQ
2CTV+  
9KNNKCO + JCF DGGP FWMG QH 0QTOCPF[ UKPEG  7PFGT JKO 'PINCPF JCF ENQUG VKGU YKVJ (TCPEG  
KPKVKCNN[ YKVJ 0QTOCPF[ NCVGT EJKGHN[ YKVJ #SWKVCKPG $WV CNUQ VJG UOCNNGT EQWPVKGU RNC[GF UKIPKHKECPV  
RCTVUCPFKPVJGGPFVJGYJQNGQH(TCPEGJCFDGEQOGVKGFVQ'PINCPF 
9KNNKCO EQPUKFGTGF JKOUGNH VJG KOOGFKCVG UWEEGUUQT QH 'FYCTF CPF 'PINCPF EQPUGSWGPVN[ WPFGTYGPV  
NKVVNGEJCPIG+PEWTTGPE[VJGRQWPFYCUUVCPFCTFKUGFNC[KPIVJGDCUKUHQTVJGRQWPFUVGTNKPI 
5JQTVN[DGHQTGJGFKGF9KNNKCOCRRQKPVGFJKUQNFGUVUQP4QDGTV%QWTVQKUGCUFWMGQH0QTOCPF[CPFJKU
UGEQPF UQP 9KNNKCO
++  4WHWU UWEEGGFGF CU MKPI QH 'PINCPF 6JG VJKTF UQP
*GPT[ +  YCU OGTGN[  
ITCPVGFCPCNNQYCPEG

2TQHKNG%TQUU(NGWT[
! 


 

 9KPEJGUVGT#PFGTDQFC#&KCFGOGFDWUVNUEGRVTGKPHTQPV 2+..'845' #04%TQUUHNGWT[


YKVJCPPWNGVKPEGPVTG #0&'4$1&' 102++u0QTVJ5GCD[IT 48GT[HKPG 
(KPP-GPFCN 
(TQONKUVPQ 
0QTVJOGPVKQPUCUNGIGPFQPVJGQDXGTUG9+..'/854':
+QH# 

$QPPGV
! 

 


 9CNNKPIHQTF$TKJVOCGT#%TQYPGFDWUVHCEKPIYKVJVYQHKNNGVUCVGCEJUKFGQHJGCF 2+..'/85


4':#4%TQUUXQKFGFYKVJCPPWNGVKPEGPVTGRGNNGVDGVYGGPVYQETGUEGPVUCVGPFQHGCEJNKODRKNGKP
GCEJCPING $4+*6/#'4102#..0QTVJ5GCD[IT 
#VVTCEVKXGRCVKPGCPFGZVTCQTFKPCT[YGNNUVTWEMGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP

6YQUEGRVTGU
! 


 

 .QPFQP$NCEUWP#%TQYPGFDWUVHCEKPIVQNCUEGRVTGRCVV¾GVQTCUEGRVTGDQVQPP¾G 2+..'/


4':#04%TQUUHNGWT[YKVJCPPWNGVKPEGPVTGQXGTUCNVKTGDQVQPP¾G $.#%58010.80QTVJ
5GCD[IT 0KEGRCVKPCXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
(TQO0%PQ

47
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

6YQ5VCTU
! 

  

 .QPFQP  )QFYKPG # %TQYPGF DWUV DGVYGGP VYQ UVCTU   2+..'./ 4': #0 4 %TQUU DQVQPP¾G  
QXGTSWCFTKNCVGTCNYKVJKPXWTXGFUKFGUCPPWNGVKPEGPVTG )1&2+0'10.80&0QTVJ5GCD[
IT #NOQUVGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
)NGPFKPKPI.QPFQP#WEVKQP
 PQ 
'Z$KTFEQNNGEVKQP
 

2CZU
! 

  

 9KPEJGUVGT#GUVCP#%TQYPGFDWUVHCEKPIVQTCUEGRVTG%TQYP 2+..'./4':4%TQUU


RCVV¾GKPGCEJCPINGCPCPPWNGVEQPVCKPKPIQPGNGVVGTQHVJGYQTF2#:5 +'56#0102+0%0QTVJ
5GCD[IT /CIPKHKEGPVRCVKPCGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP

9+..+#/++
 
'XGPKH9KNNKCO+YCUUWEEGGFGFD[JKUUGEQPFUQP9KNNKCO++KP'PINCPFCPFHKTUVDQTP4QDGTV%QWTVQKUG
DGECOGFWMGQH0QTOCPF[VJGFKXKUKQPFKFPQVOGCPVJCVVJG#PINQ0QTOCPDQPFYCUDTQMGPGPVKTGN[ 
+PCPKPUWTTGEVKQPCICKPUV9KNNKCOCKOGFCVDTKPIKPIDQVJNCPFUWPFGT4QDGTVYCUWPUWEEGUUHWN
6JTGG [GCTU NCVGT 9KNNKCO YGPV VQ 0QTOCPF[ CPF VJG DTQVJGTU TGCEJGF CP CITGGOGPV VJCV VJG[ YQWNF  
JGPEGHQTVJ LQKPVN[ TWNG 0QTOCPF[ 4QDGTV NGHV VQ VCMG RCTV KP VJG (KTUV %TWUCFG KP  RNGFIKPI JKU  
FWEJ[VQ9KNNKCOHQTCRC[OGPVQHOCTMU
9KNNKCOFKFPQVDGCTVJGFWECNVKVNG  
9KNNKCOYCUMKNNGFYJKNGJWPVKPIKP0GY(QTGUVKP

2TQHKNG
! 



 

 %CPVGTDWT[#JIGOWPF#%TQYPGFDWUVTJQNFKPICUYQTF 8+..'/4':4%TQUURCVV¾GYKVJ


CPPWNGV KP EGPVTG QXGT ETQUU HNGWT[   #*)'/80& 10 %06 0QTVJ  5GCD[   IT  
445OCNNFQWDNGUVTWEMXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
'Z2CTUQPUEQNNGEVKQP
  
'Z&QWDNGFC[EQNNGEVKQP
 

48
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

*'04;+
 
7RQP 9KNNKCOʼnU FGCVJ *GPT[ VJG [QWPIGUV UQP QH 9KNNKCO + WUWTRGF VJG 'PINKUJ VJTQPG +P   
*GPT[TGUKIPGFJKUENCKOUVQ0QTOCPF[CICKPUVCRC[OGPV
6TGCV[QH#NVQP +PVJGUCOG[GCT*GPT[
NCPFGFKP0QTOCPF[CPFVQQMJKUDTQVJGT4QDGTVECRVKXGKPVJG$CVVNGQH6KPEJGDTCK
 *GCPPGZGF
0QTOCPF[GXGPVWCNN[VCMKPIVJGFWECNVKVNG 
*GPT[ʼnUQPN[UQP9KNNKCOYJQKPJCFDGGPCRRQKPVGFNKGIGHQT0QTOCPF[D[VJG(TGPEJETQYP
FTQYPGF VJCV UCOG [GCT *GPT[ CNUQ JCF C FCWIJVGT /CVJKNFG
YKFQY QH )GTOCP 'ORGTQT *GPT[ 8   
CPFUJGTGVWTPGFVQUGEWTGVJGUWEEGUUKQPKP0QTOCPF[VJCVYCUJGTʼnUD[JGTKVCIG+PUJGOCTTKGF
%QWPV)GQHHTG[QH#PLQW
PCOGF2NCPVCIGPGVCPCOGIKXGPVQVJGNKPGCIGUVCTVGFD[VJGHWVWTG*GPT[
++ #HGWFQXGTVJG'PINKUJVJTQPGDGVYGGPVJGJQWUGU#PLQWCPF$NQKUGPUWGF 
6JG EQKPU QH *GPT[ + UJQYGF GZVTGOGN[ RQQT YQTMOCPUJKR CPF VJG[ UVGCFKN[ ITGY YQTUG +P   
SWCNKV[JCFFGVQTKCVGFVQUWEJCPGZVGPVVJCVVJG#PINQ5CZQP%JTQPKENGUC[UŋVJGRGPP[YCUUQDCFVJCV
VJG OCP YJQJCFCVCOCTMGVCRQWPFEQWNFD[PQOGCPUDW[VJGTGYKVJVYGNXGRGPP[YQTVJŌ&TCUVKE
OGCUWTGUYGTGVCMGPDWVVJGUKVWCVKQPFKFPQVKORTQXG/QTGQXGT5VGRJGPʼnUCIGYCUFCYPKPI
&QWDNGKPUETKRVKQP
! 


 

 5QWVJYCTM  #NHICT # %TQYPGF DWUV N YKVJ UEGRVTG DGHQTG DWUV C SWCVTGHQKN  J'04 4 &QWDNG  
KPUETKRVKQPDGVYGGPVJTGGDGCFGFEKTENGUVJGQWVGTKPUETKRVKQPFKXKFGFD[HQWTSWCVTGHQKNUKPEKTENGUKP
EGPVTGETQUURCVV¾G #.()#41 05862840QTVJ5GCD[IT 
445OCNNHNCPETCEMCNKVVNGQHHEGPVTGCPFYGCMN[UVTWEMXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
(TQO0%PQ*5 
'Z2KORTG\JQCTFPQ 
5COGFKGUCU/CEMU[NN 
6JGTGXGTUGVGZVUJQWNFDGTGCFKPYCTFUHTQOVJGQWVUKFG 
6JKU KU VJG HKTUV KPUVCPEG QH C TGXGTUG FKURNC[KPI VYQ EQPEGPVTKE EKTENGU QH VGZV C FKUVCPV RTGFGEGUUQT QHVJG(TGPEJ
ITQUVQWTPQKUUVTWEMKP

2GNNGVUKP3WCVTGHQKN
! 


 

 5QWVJYCTM  .GQHYKPG # %TQYPGF DWUV HCEKPI JQNFKPI C UEGRVTG KP HKGNF T C UVCT  *'04+%85
43WCVTGHQKNYKVJUVCTKPEGPVTGCPFRGNNGVUQPNKODUHQWTNKUCTQWPF .'(2+0'1058&4'
0QTVJ5GCD[IT 4&CTMRCVKPCYGCMN[UVTWEMXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 

3WCFTKNCVGTCNQP%TQUU(NGWT[
 


 

 %CTNKUNG'TGDCNF#%TQYPGFDWUVHCEKPIJGCFVJTGGSWCVGTUNUEGRVTGKPTJCPF*'04+%854
3WCFTKNCVGTCN YKVJ KPEWTXGF UKFGU CPF NKU CV GCEJ CPINGU QXGT ETQUU HNGWT[  '4'$#.6  10  

%#4.+5.' 0QTVJ5GCD[IT 4+TTGIWNCTHNCPHKPGVQXGT[HKPG 
-CUVPGT/ÒPEJGP#WEVKQP
 PQ 
(QWPF CNQPI YKVJ  QVJGT EQKPU
$CXCTKC 5CN\DWTI #WUVTKC 4JKPGNCPF .QYGT 5CZQPKC CPF .QYGT #NUCEG  KP  
6JTCEK
UGG(9KGNCPFVKP,CJTDWEJHÒT0WOKUOCVKMWPF)GNFIGUEJKEJVG$F::++ 

49
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

%TQUUHNGWT[
KOKVCVKQP 

 

 #%TQYPGFDWUVHCEKPI *'04+%85#0).4%TQUUHNGWT[YKVJCPPWNGVKPEGPVTG (4'5#
1054!#6#0QTVJ5GCD[IT 44$GPVCPFHNCPETCEMHKPGVQXGT[HKPG 
4CWEJ9KGP#WEVKQP
 PQ 
ŋ6JG YGKIJV CV  KU NQY VJG OCLQTKV[ HCNN DGVYGGP CDQWV  CPF  IT DWV  TGOCKPU RQUUKDNG HQT CP  
QHHKEKCNEQKPCVVJGGPFQHVJGFKUVTKDWVKQPEWTXG+VJKPMVJGTGXGTUGTGCFKPIKUVJGDGUVQPGECPFQDWVKVUVKNNOCMGU
PQUGPUG(4'5#KUPQVCTGEQTFGFOQPG[GTʼnUPCOGCPF54!#6#FQGUPQVUWIIGUVGXGPCEQTTWRVKQPQHCMPQYPQT
NKMGN[OKPVPCOG#NNVJCV+HGGNEQPHKFGPVCDQWVKUVJCVVJKUKUCEQPVGORQTCT[
VJEGPVWT[ KOKVCVKQPPQVCPQHHKEKCN
TGICNEQKPŌ
.GVVGTQH/TU#TEJKDCNF(GDTWC[  
#PQVJGTRQUUKDKNKV[KUVJCVYGJCXGJGTGCPWPMPQYPURGEKOGPHTQOVJG%CODTKFIGOKPV
 

56'2*'0
 
7RQP*GPT[ʼnUFGCVJ5VGRJGPQH$NQKUUGK\GFVJG'PINKUJVJTQPG*GYCUVJGUQPQH5VGRJGP++QH$NQKU
OCTTKGF VQ #FGNC C FCWIJVGT QH 9KNNKCO + 5VGRJGP CNTGCF[ KP JKU QYP TKIJV EQWPV QH $QWNQIPG CPF  
/QTVCKPCPPGZGF0QTOCPF[CUYGNNCPFITGCVN[GPJCPEGF$NQKUKPHNWGPEGOWEJVQVJGFKUEQPVGPVQHVJG
*QWUGQH#PLQW

+P)GQHHTG[
/CVJKNFGʼnUJWUDCPF NCPFGFKP0QTOCPF[9JKNUV5VGRJGPEQPHTQPVGFVJGKPXCFGTUKP
0QTOCPF[ 4QDGTV 'CTN QH )NQWEGUVGT KPUVKICVGF C TGDGNNKQP CICKPUV JKO KP 'PINCPF 6JKU VYQHTQPV  
UVTCVGI[YCUCKOGFCVGPHQTEKPIVJGENCKOUQH/CVJKNFGCPFJGT[QWPIUQP*GPT[
++ 

(TQO/CVJKNFGCEVKXGN[GPICIGFKPVJGDCVVNG5VGRJGPNQUVKPCPFYCU
UJQTVN[ MGRVECRVKXG
$WVVJGVCDNGUVWTPGFYJGP'CTN4QDGTVFKGFKPCPFHKXG[GCTUNCVGT/CVJKNFGJGTUGNHEQWNFPQVDWV
NGCXG'PINCPF

)GQHHTG[ U[UVGOCVKECNN[ EQPSWGTGF 0QTOCPF[ KP  CPF YCU UQQP CEMPQYNGFIGF FWMG D[ VJG  
(TGPEJ MKPI *GPT[ UQP QH )GQHHTG[ CPF /CVJKNFG UWEEGUUQT KP 0QTOCPF[ #PLQW 6QWTCKPG CPF  
/CKPGNCPFGFKP'PINCPFKP*GTGCEJGFCPCITGGOGPVYKVJ5VGRJGPVJCVJGYQWNFUWEEGGF
6TGCV[
QH9KPEJGUVGT 

6JGUGVTQWDNGFVKOGUCTGTGHNGEVGFKPEQKPCIG(QTUGXGTCN[GCTUVJGTGYCUYJCVOKIJVDGECNNGFCFWCN
OQPCTEJ[6JG#PIGXKPRCTV[
YKVJ/CVJKNFGCPFNCVGTJGTUQP&WMG*GPT[ YCUKPEQPVTQNQHCNCTIG
RCTVQHVJGEQWPVT[KPENWFKPIPGCTN[VJGYJQNGQHVJGYGUVGTPJCNH6JKUNKOKVGFVJGMKPIʼnUOKPVUVQVJG
'CUVGTPJCNHQHVJGEQWPVT[GZEGRVKPVJGHKTUVCPFNCUVV[RGUQHVJGTGKIP
UGGVJGOCRKP0QTVJRCTV+
R 
$TQQMG 

9CVHQTF
EC 
#%TQYPGFDWUVTJQNFKPIUEGRVTGKPTKIJVJCPF4%TQUUOQNKPGYKVJCHNGWTKPGCEJCPING 
0QTVJ5GCD[

 

   

 .KPEQNP4CWNH#(0'4 4#8.(10.+0%1.IT 49GCMN[UVTWEMXGT[HKPG 


0WOKUOCVKEC9KGP#WEVKQP
 PQ 
ŋ6JGTGXGTUGVGZVTGCFU4#8.(QH.KPEQNP6JKUEQKPKUCFKGFWRNKECVGQHQPGKPVJG$/VTC[UYJKEJECOGHTQOVJG
5CTVV-[OGJQCTF#UVJKURNCEGKUKP.KPEQNPUJKTGKVYCUPCVWTCNN[KPEQKPUQHVJGNQECNOKPV#NCTIGITQWRQH
VJKUEQKPUYGTGCESWKTGFD[VJG$/KPVQQNCVGQHEQWTUGVQDGKPENWFGFKPVJG$/ECVCNQIWG6JKUEQKPTGCFU
ENGCTN[  4#8.(
10  .+0 6JG OKPV UKIPCVWTG KU PQV UQ ENGCT CU VJG OQP[GTU PCOGDWVKVKUOQTGVJGPEGTVCKP
&WTKPI V[RG + .KPEQNP U UKIPCVWTG EJCPIGF HTQO 0+%1. VQ .+0%1.  NCVGT EQKPU NKMG [QWTU TGCFKPI .+0Ō  

.GVVGT/TU#TEJKDCNF 

 .QPFQP$TKEOCT#56+'(0'4$4+%/#410.80IT 


&CTMRCVKPCCNKVVNGQHHEGPVTGCPFUOCNNHNCPETCEMXGT[HKPG 
)NGPFKPKPI.QPFQP#WEVKQP
 PQ 
'Z$KTFEQNNGEVKQP
 

50
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

*175'2.#06#)'0'6ŋ#0)'8+0'/2+4'Ō
*'04;++
 
6JG CEEGUUKQP QH*GPT[++DTQWIJVCDQWVVJGŋ#PIGXKP'ORKTGŌVJCVUVTGVEJGFHTQO+TGNCPFVQ#PLQW
CPF/CKPGKP(TCPEG*KUOCTTKCIGVQ'NGCPQTJGKTGUUQH#SWKVCKPGKPJCFCNTGCF[OCFGJKONQTF
QH VJG 9GUV (TCPMKUJ 4GCNO HTQO VJG 2[TGPGGU VQ 2QKVQW KP VJG 0QTVJ CPF #WXGTIPG KP VJG 'CUV *G  
EGFGFJKUVKVNGUQHFWMGQH#SWKVCKPGCPFEQWPVQH2QKVQWVQJKUUQP4KEJCTFKPYJQOJGJQYGXGT
HQTEGF VQ UWTTGPFGT VJG UCOG VKVNGU VQ 'NGCPQT KP  +P  JG CESWKTGF EQPVTQN QH $TKVVCP[ *G  
PGXGTWPKVGFCNNQHJKUVGTTKVQTKGUWPFGTQPGTWNG

*G KPVTQFWEGF C PGY EQKP KP  VJG 6GCND[ V[RG $WV VJG TGCN EJCPIG FKFPʼnV VCMG RNCEG WPVKN   
YJGPCV[RGYCUKPVTQFWEGFVJCVYQWNFNCUVHQTUQOGVKOGVQEQOG

%TQUUCPFETQUUNGVU
6GCND[ V[RG
 
#%TQYPGFDWUVHCEKPIYGCTKPICTOQWTCPFOCPVNGYKVJUEGRVTGKPTKIJVJCPF4.CTIGETQUURQVGPV
YKVJUOCNNETQUURQVGPVKPGCEJCPINGKPEGPVTGCUOCNNETQUUKPUCNVKTG 
6JKUKUUWGKUEQOOQPN[MPQYPCUVJG6GCND[V[RGCUCXCUVJQCTFQHCDQWVEQKPUYCUHQWPFCV
6GCND[KP.KPEQNPUJKTGKP

 

   

 $WUV%%CPVGTDWT[9KNNGO# *'04+4#4 2+..#/10%#060QTVJ5GCD[


IT #NKVVNGYGCMN[UVTWEMCVVJGGFIGDWVPKEGRQTVTCKVXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP

 $WUV '  0GYECUVNG  9KNNGO #  *'04+ 4' 4 


9  +..'./
 10   0+8 0QTVJ   
5GCD[IT 8GT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
'Z'NOQTG,QPGUEQNNGEVKQP
8GKNKPI)NGPFKPKPI  

5JQTV%TQUU
+PCPGYEQKPCIGYCUKPVTQFWEGFVJGUJQTVEQKPCIGV[RGVJCVYCUKPWUGHTQOVQ'XGT[
MKPIKPVJCVRGTKQFCFQRVGFVJGVKVNG*'+04+%854':6JGFGUKIPGTQHVJGPGYEQKPUYCUVJG(TGPEJ
IQNFUOKVJ2JKNKR#KOGTQH6QWTU6JGPGYFGUKIPYKVJKVUKNNOQFGNNGFRQTVTCKVOCTMGFCV[RGYJKEJYCU
QPN[UWKVCDNGHQTFKXKUKQPKPVQJCNXGUCPFSWCTVGTUHQTUOCNNEJCPIG 
6JGTGKUCUVGCF[FGENKPGKPVJGYQTMOCPUJKRQHVJGEQKPUFQYPVQVJGGPFQHVJGKUUWGKP
$TQQMG 

 



%NCUUD .QPFQP1UDGT#%TQYPGFDWUVHCEKPIYKVJUEGRVTG*'04+%854':45JQTVETQUU
XQKFGF YKVJ SWCVTGHQKN KP GCEJ CPING   15$'4  10  .80& 0QTVJ  5GCD[   IT  
8GT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
%NCUU

51
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

4+%*#4&+
 
#UDQVJQNFGTUQPUQH*GPT[++JCFCNTGCF[FKGFVJGVJKTFKPNKPG4KEJCTF+JCFPQRTQDNGOUUWEEGGFKPI
VQVJGGPVKTGFQOKPKQP(QT#SWKVCKPGUGGWPFGT*GPT[++ 
4KEJCTF+YJQVQQMWRVJGETQUUKPVJG6JKTF%TWUCFGCPFYQWNFRNC[CXKVCNTQNGKPKVKUDGVVGTMPQYP
CU4KEJCTFVJG.KQPJGCTVGF4KEJCTFEJCPIGFPQVJKPIKP'PINKUJEQKPCIGDWVJGFKFUVTKMGEQKPKPOCP[
QHJKUQVJGTNCPFUCU2QKVQW
UGGPQ CPF#SWKVCKPG
UGGPQUCPF 
5JQTV%TQUU

 



%NCUU   .QPFQP  4KECTF # %TQYPGF DWUV HCEKPI YKVJ UEGRVTG  *'04+%85 4': 4 5JQTV ETQUU  
XQKFGFYKVJSWCVTGHQKNKPGCEJCPING 4+%#4&10.80&0QTVJ5GCD[$IT
0KEGRCVKPCXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
#&#2CTKU 
%NCUU

,1*0
 
4KEJCTFFKGFJGKTNGUUCPFVJWUVJGNCUVUQPQH*GPTK++,QJPECOGVQRQYGT6JGTGYGTGPQOQPGVCT[
KPPQXCVKQPUWPFGT,QJPVJQWIJJKUTGKIPKUOCTMGFD[VYQETWEKCNOCVVGTU 
(TGPEJMKPI2JKNKR++#WIWUVTGEQIPKUGF,QJPʼnU
 ENCKOUKPRTKPEKRNGDWVUJQTVN[CHVGTVJCVJGWUGF
VJG QRRQTVWPKV[
  VQ FGENCTG ,QJPʼnU RQUUGUUKQPU KP 0QTVJ (TCPEG XQKF
COQPI YJKEJ 0QTOCPF[  
YKVJVJGGZEGRVKQPQHVJGVJTGG%JCPPGN+UNCPFU NGCXKPI,QJPVJG9GUVGTP(TGPEJVGTTKVQT[FGUETKDGFCU
#SWKVCKPGDWVIGQITCHKECNN[WPURGEKHKGF*GPEGHQTVJ,QJPYCUMPQYPCUŋ,QJP.CEMNCPFŌ 
6JGNQUUQHVJG0QTVJGTP(TGPEJVGTTKVQTKGUKPEQODKPGFYKVJVJGHQTOQHIQXGTPOGPVCRRNKGFKP
VJG ŋ#PIGXKP 'ORKTGŌ YGTG VJG KOOGFKCVG ECWUG QH VJG /CIPC %JCTVC KP  # NQV QH OQPG[ YCU  
PGGFGFYJKEJVJGDCTQPUYGTGPʼnVCNYC[UYKNNKPIVQUWRRN[6JG[VJGOUGNXGUVQQMOGCUWTGUCPFFTCHVGF
CNKUVQHENCWUGUVQVCMGECTGQHVJGUGKUUWGUVJGŋ#TVKENGUQHVJG$CTQPUŌYJKEJCEVWCNN[JGNFOWEJVGZV
QH YJCV YCU VQ DGEQOG VJG QTKIKPCN /CIPC %JCTVC $GECWUG QH KPVGTPCN FKURWVGU VJG KOOGFKCVG  
KPVTQFWEVKQPYCURWVQHHCPFKVYCUPʼnVWPVKNVJCVVJGHKPCNCOGPFGFFQEWOGPVYQWNFDGCEEGRVGF 
%QKPCIGTGOCKPGFWPEJCPIGFWPFGT,QJP

5JQTV%TQUU

 



%NCUU D  %CPVGTDWT[  7NCTF # *'04+%85 4': 4  8.#4& 10 %#06+ 0QTVJ   
5GCD[%IT (KPG 
6WTSWCV/QPVRGNNKGT 
%NCUU

  


%NCUU D  %JKEGUVGT  2KGTGU # *'04+%85 4': 4  2+'4'5 10  %+%' 0QTVJ  5GCD[  
IT 9GCMN[UVTWEMXGT[HKPG 
-ÌNPGT/ÒP\MCDKPGVV-ÌNP#WEVKQP
 PQ 
%NCUU

52
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

 



%NCUU D  .QPFQP  4GPGT # *'04+%85 4': 4  4'0'4  10  .80& 0QTVJ5GCD[
IT 8GT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP

4*7&&.#0/+06
5JQTV%TQUU

 


 %NCUU++5KOQPF#%TQYPGFDWUVHCEKPIYKVJUEGRVTG *'+04+%854':45JQTVETQUUXQKFGF


YKVJ SWCVTGHQKN KP GCEJ CPING   5+/10&  10 48.# 0QTVJ  5GCD[  XCT  IT  
446TCEGUQHGPETWUVCVKQPXGT[HKPG 
)NGPFKPKPI.QPFQP#WEVKQP
 PQ 
'Z'NOQTG,QPGUEQNNGEVKQP 
%NCUU++ECRTG 
4JWFFNCPNKGUOKNGUYGUVQH%JGUVGT6JGTGYCUCECUVNGQPVJG4KXGT%NY[FYJKEJHGNNKPVQVJGJCPFUQH1YCKP
)Y[PPGFKPCPFYCUECRVWTGFD[.NGYGNN[PKP

*'04;+++
 
*GPT[ʼnU OKPQTKV[ UCY VJG KPUVKVWVKQP QH TGIGPE[ NGF D[ 9KNNKCO VJG /CTUJCNN 'CTN QH 2GODTQMG +P  
*GPT[CEEGFGFVQVJGVJTQPGDWVJKUTGKIPYCUYGCMVQYCTFUVJGDCTQPU+PJGHKPCNN[VQQM
JGCTVCPFUGPV5KOQPQH/QPVHQTVKPVQGZKNG
VJGNCVVGTUVTQXGVQYKPVJG'CTNFQOQH.GKEGUVGTDCEMCPF
OCTTKGF*GPT[ʼnUUKUVGTDWVDGVTC[GFJKONCVGT #HVGTJKUFGHGCVCV.GYGUKP
$CTQPKCNOQXGOGPV 
5KOQP QH /QPVHQTV JGNF FG HCEVQ RQYGT KP 'PINCPF YJKEJ YQWNF NCUV WPVKN *GPT[ʼnU UQP 'FYCTF +  
TGUVQTGFPQTOCNKV[KPVJGMKPIFQO

*GPT[JCFEGFGF#SWKVCKPGVQJKUUQP'FYCTFKP

5JQTV%TQUU
#%TQYPGFDWUVHCEKPIYKVJUEGRVTG45JQTVETQUUXQKFGFYKVJSWCVTGHQKNKPGCEJCPING

 

   


%NCUU   .QPFQP  +NIGT # *'04+%854':4 +.)'410.80&%0QTVJ5GCD[
#IT (KPGVQXGT[HKPG 
-WPUVWPF/ÒP\GP.WICPQ 
%NCUU


%NCUU   %CPVGTDWT[  6QOCU # *'04+%85 4': 4  61/#5 10 %#06 0QTVJ   
5GCD[#IT %QTTQFGFHKPG 
/ÒP\CWMVKQP'UUGP#WEVKQP
 PQ

53
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND


 


%NCUU$
++E .QPFQP0KEJQNG#*'04+%854 0+%*1.'10.80&0QTVJE5GCD[
$IT #NKVVNGQHHEGPVTGCPFHNCPETCEMCNOQUVXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
%NCUU 
ETQUURQOO¾GNCVGRGTKQF 
6JGUJQTVETQUUEQKPCIGJCFENQUGFYKVJQPN[VYQTQ[CNOKPVU.QPFQPCPF%CPVGTDWT[DQVJYGTGKPVJGJCPFQHC
UKPINGOQPG[GT0KEJQNCVJG5V#NDCPQ

+PCPGYV[RGYCUKPVTQFWEGFVJGNQPIETQUURGPP[+VUV[RGYCUFGVGTOKPGFD[VJGFGUKTGVQRWV
CP GPF VQ VJG CDWUG QH ENKRRKPI VJG ETQUU QP VJG TGXGTUG YCU GZVGPFGF VQ VJG GFIGU QH VJG EQKPU CPF  

RGPPKGUYGTGFGENCTGFKNNGICNKHVJGHQWTGPFUQHVJGETQUUYGTGPQVXKUKDNG
$TQQMG 
6JG YGKIJV KU  IT 6JG VGZV KPKVKCNN[ YCU *'04+%85 4': #0) YJGP KV HKTUV EJCPIGF VQ  
*'04+%854':6'4%+85CPFVJGPVQ*'04+%854':+++

*'04+%854':+++YCUVJGPMGRVQPCNUQHQTVJGV[RGYKVJQWVUEGRVTGWRVQ'FYCTF+*GKPPQXCVGF
VJGOQPGVCT[U[UVGO
.QPI%TQUUYKVJQWVUEGRVTG
#%TQYPGFJGCFHCEKPI4.QPIETQUUXQKFGFYKVJVJTGGRGNNGVUKPGCEJCPINGETGUEGPVYKVJUVCT

  


%NCUUD .QPFQP#*'04+%854':#0)4.+'6'4%+.100QTVJ5GCD[IT
8GT[HKPG 
'NUGP$TWUUGN 
 CPF  CTG RTGUWOCDN[ HTQO VJG UCOG EQNNGEVKQP 5GG 0 , /C[JGY 6YQ RCTEGNU QH 5VGTNKPIU QP VJG  
$TWUUGNU/CTMGVKP0%R 
1PVJGGCTNKGUVEQKPUQHVJGPGYKUUWGJKUPCOGFQGUPQVCRRGCTCPFVJGMKPIʼnUVKVNGUQEEWRKGUDQVJUKFGUQHVJGEQKP
*GPTKEXU 4GZ  #PINKG 6GTEK 2GTJCRU VJG VGPFGPE[ VQ EQPHWUKQP QH 0KEJNCUʼnU YQTM YKVJ VJCV QH VJG OQPG[GT QH 5V  
'FOWPF NGF VQ VJG GCTN[ KPUGTVKQP QH VJG OWKPVPCOG JCNH QH VJG YQTF #PINKG YCU EQPUGSWGPVN[ ECTTKGF QP VQ VJG  
QDXGTUGCPFVJGTGXGTUGNGIGPFTGCFNKG6GTEKG.QP
$TQQMG  
%NCUU

 

   


%NCUU   .QPFQP  0KEQNG # *'04+%85 4':  #0) 4 0+%1.' 10 .80& 0QTVJ   
5GCD[IT #NKVVNGYGCMN[UVTWEMKPRCTVUXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
1DXGTUG0QTVJTGXGTUG0QTVJ

%NCUU 9KPEJGUVGT0KEQNG# *'04+%854':6'4%+40+%1.'109+0%0QTVJ
5GCD[IT &QWDNGUVTWEMQPVJGTGXGTUGXGT[HKPG 
5EJWNOCP#OUVGTFCO#WEVKQP
 PQ 
'Z*QCTF*CCTNQQ
  
%NCUU

54
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

 

   


%NCUU 0QTVJCORVQP.WECU# *'04+%854':6'4%+4.8%#510014*0QTVJ
5GCD[IT (KPGVQXGT[HKPG 
5EJWNOCP#OUVGTFCO#WEVKQP
 PQ 
'Z*QCTF*CCTNQQ
 


%NCUUC .QPFQP0KEQNG# *'04+%854':+++40+%1.'10.70&0QTVJ5GCD[
IT #NKVVNGQHHEGPVTGXGT[HKPG 
'NUGP$TWUUGN 
0WODGTUCPFCTGRTGUWOCDN[HTQOVJGUCOGEQNNGEVKQP5GG0,/C[JGY6YQRCTEGNUQH5VGTNKPIUQP
VJG$TWUUGNU/CTMGVKP0%R 
%NCUU

 

   


%NCUU CD  ;QTM  6QOCU #  *'04+%85 4':  +++  4 61/#5 10 '8'49 0QTVJ   
5GCD[IT #NOQUVXGT[HKPG 
5EJWNOCP#OUVGTFCO#WEVKQP
 PQ 
'ZJQCTF*CCTNQQ
 

%NCUU CD  .KPEQNP  4KEJCTF #  *'04+%85 4':  +++  4 4+%#4& 10 .+0) 0QTVJ   
5GCD[IT +TTGIWNCTHNCPHKPGVQXGT[HKPG 
5EJWNOCP#OUVGTFCO#WEVKQP
 PQ 
'ZJQCTF*CCTNQQ
 

 

   


%NCUU D  %CPVGTDWT[  )KNGDGTV #  *'04+%85 4':  +++ 4 )+.$'46 10 %#0 0QTVJ   
5GCD[IT &CTMRCVKPCCNKVVNGYGCMN[UVTWEMCVVJGGFIGXGT[HKPG 
*WK\KPIC$GPPGMQO

%NCUUD 9KNVQP9KNNGO#+*'04+%854':+++ 49+..'/109+.60QTVJ5GCD[
IT 5OCNNHNCPCPFCNKVVNGYGCMN[UVTWEMCNOQUVXGT[HKPG 
5EJWNOCP#OUVGTFCO#WEVKQP
 PQ 
'ZJQCTF*CCTNQQ
 

55
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

 

   


%NCUU D  5JTGYUDWT[  4KECTF #  *'04+%85 4':  +++  4 4+%#4& 10 5415 0QTVJ   
5GCD[IT 9GCMN[UVTWEMCVVJGGFIGQVJGTYKUGXGT[HKPG 
5EJWNOCP#OUVGTFCO#WEVKQP
 PQ 
'ZJQCTF*CCTNQQ
 


%NCUUD 0QTYKEJ*WIG# *'04+%854':+++ 4*8)'100149+<0QTVJ5GCD[
IT (KPGVQXGT[HKPG 
5EJWNOCP#OUVGTFCO#WEVKQP
 PQ 
'ZJQCTF*CCTNQQ
 

 

   


%NCUU D  0GYECUVNG  4QIGT #  *'04+%85 4':  +++  4 41)'4 10 0'9'% 0QTVJ   
5GCD[IT #NKVVNGYGCMN[UVTWEMQPVJGGFIGXGT[HKPG 
5EJWNOCP#OUVGTFCO#WEVKQP
 PQ 
'ZJQCTF*CCTNQQ
 


%NCUUD $TKUVQN'NKU#*'04+%854':+++ 4'.+510$485610QTVJ5GCD[
IT &QWDNGUVTWEMCNOQUVXGT[HKPG 
5EJWNOCP#OUVGTFCO#WEVKQP
 PQ 
'ZJQCTF*CCTNQQ
 

 

   


%NCUUD .KPEQNP9KNNGO# *'04+%854':+++ 49+..'/10.+0%0QTVJ5GCD[
IT 0KEGRCVKPCKTTGIWNCTHNCPXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP


%NCUUE 9KNVQP+QP#*'04+%854':+++ 4+10109+.61010QTVJ5GCD[
IT (NCPFGHGEVCPFCNKVVNGYGCMN[UVTWEMXGT[HKPG 
5EJWNOCP#OUVGTFCO#WEVKQP
 PQ 
'ZJQCTF*CCTNQQ
 

56
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

 

   


%NCUUE 9KNVQP*WIG# *'04+%854':+++ 4*8)'109+.6100QTVJ
IT +TTGIWNCTHNCPXGT[HKPG 
5EJWNOCP#OUVGTFCO#WEVKQP
 PQ 
'ZJQCTF*CCTNQQ
 


%NCUUE .QPFQP0KEQNG# *'04+%854':+++40+%1.'10.80&0QTVJ5GCD[
IT 9GCMN[UVTWEMCVVJGGFIGCPFCNKVVNGQHHEGPVTGPKEGRQTVTCKVXGT[HKPG 
5EJWNOCP#OUVGTFCO



 


%NCUU E  %CPVGTDWT[  0KEQNG #  *'04+%85 4':  +++  4 0+%1.' 10 %#06 0QTVJ   
5GCD[IT (NCPFGHGEVXGT[HKPG 
*WK\KPIC&GNHV

.QPI%TQUUYKVJUEGRVTG
#%TQYPGFJGCFHCEKPIYKVJUEGRVTGKPTJCPF4.QPIETQUUXQKFGFYKVJSWCVTGHQKNKPGCEJCPING

 

   


%NCUUC .QPFQP0KEQNG# *'04+%85Q4':+++ 40+%1.'10.80&0QTVJ5GCD[
IT 4#NKVVNGYGCMN[UVTWEMQVJGTYKUGXGT[HKPG 
'NUGP$TWUUGN 
%NCUU


%NCUU D  .QPFQP  0KEQNG #  *'04+%85 Q 4':  +++  4 0+%1.' 10 .80& 0QTVJ   
5GCD[IT 4#NKVVNGYGCMN[UVTWEMQVJGTYKUGXGT[HKPG YKVJPKEGUVTWEMRQTVTCKV 
'NUGP$TWUUGN 
'ZJQCTF$TWUUGN

57
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

 

   


%NCUUC .QPFQP4KECTF#*'04+%854':+++ 44+%# &10.80&0QTVJ5GCD[
IT %NGCPGFXGT[HKPG 
*WK\KPIC$GPPGMQO 
(TQOVJGJQCTF*CCTNQQ! 
6[RGCUJQWNFUJQYVJGTQWPFG[GEQKPCVJCPFUJQYUQXCNG[GU 
6[RG 
6[RGJCUPQKPKVKCNOCTMFQGUJCXGCNKUVKRRGFUEGRVTG

%NCUUD .QPFQP*GPTK#*'04+%854':+++ 4*'04+10.80&'0QTVJ5GCD[
IT 8GT[HKPG 
*WK\KPIC$GPPGMQO 
(TQOVJGJQCTF*CCTNQQ!

 

   


%NCUU D  %CPVGTDWT[  )KNGDGTV # *'04+%85 4':  +++ 4 )+.$'4 10 %#06 0QTVJ   
5GCD[IT &CTMVQPGUOCNNHNCPXGT[HKPG 
*WK\KPIC$GPPGMQO

%NCUUD $WT[5V'FOWPFU4CPFWNH#*'04+%854':+++ 44#0&8.(105 '&0QTVJ
5GCD[IT 8GT[HKPG 
5EJWNOCP#OUVGTFCO#WEVKQP
 PQ 
'ZJQCTF*CCTNQQ
  
0QNKUVKRRGFUEGRVTGDWVCPQTFKPCT[QPG

 

   


%NCUUD .QPFQP4KECTF#*'04+%854':+++44+%#4&10.80&0QTVJ5GCD[
IT &QWDNGUVTWEMXGT[HKPG 
/ÒP\\GPVTWO-ÌNP 
0QTOCNUEGRVTG

%NCUU E  %CPVGTDWT[  9KNNGO # *'04+%85 4': +++  4 9+..'/ 10 %#06 0QTVJ   
5GCD[IT 'PFQHVJGHNCPXGT[HKPG 
*WK\KPIC$GPPGMQO 
'ZJQCTF*CCTNQQ! 
5ERGVTGYKVJNKUQPVQR

58
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND



 


%NCUUE .QPFQP9KNNGO#*'04+%854':+++ 49+..'/10.80&0QTVJ5GCD[
IT 8GT[HKPG 
0GGTNCPFKC-CORGTXGGP 
*CUVQDGJQCTF*CCTNQQ 
*CTFN[CNKUVQRRGFUEGRVTG

  


%NCUUE &WTJCO4KECTF#*'04+%854':+++ 44+%#4&10&84*0QTVJ5GCD[
IT 5OCNNHNCPETCEMCNOQUVXGT[HKPG 
5EJWNOCP#OUVGTFCO#WEVKQP
 PQ 
'ZJQCTF*CCTNQQ
 

 



%NCUUE .QPFQP4GPCWF#*'04+%854':+++ 44'0#8&10.80&0QTVJ5GCD[
IT 0KEGRCVKPCXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP



 


%NCUUI .QPFQP4GPCWF#*'04+%854':+++ 44'+08&10.80&0QTVJ5GCD[
IT 8GT[HKPG 
*WK\KPIC$GPPGMQO 
'ZJQCTF*CCTNQQ!

59
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

'&9#4&+
 
'FYCTF+YCUVJGUQPQH*GPT[+++CPF'NGCPQT*GOCTTKGF'NGCPQTQH%CUVKNGKP2TQDNGOUYKVJ
VJG$CTQPUDGICPGXGPDGHQTGJGCEEGFGFVQVJGVJTQPG
UGGWPFGT*GPT[+++ DWVJGGXGPVWCNN[OCPCIGF
VQ UVCDKNKUG VJG UKVWCVKQP +P  JG VQQM WR VJG ETQUU QP VJG .CUV %TWUCFG VQIGVJGT YKVJ .QWKU VJG  
5CKPVQH(TCPEGCPFCUJGTGOCKPGFKP#SWKVCKPGHQTCYJKNGJKUEQTQPCVKQPFKFPʼnVVCMGRNCEGWPVKN

*KUGPVKTGTGKIPKUOCTMGFD[YCTTKPI+P2JKNKR+8QH(TCPEGFGENCTGFJKURQUUGUUKQPQH#SWKVCKPG
XQKF'FYCTFCVVGORVGFVQHQTIGCNNKCPEGUYJGTGXGTJGEQWNFVQTGXGTUGVJKUFGEKUKQP)WKFQQH(NCPFGTU
(NQTKU 8 QH *QNNCPF 4CKPCNF QH )WGNFGTU ,QJP ++ QH $TCDCPV -KPI #FQNH QH 0CUUCW KP )GTOCP[  
5KGIHTKGFCTEJDKUJQRQH%QNQIPGGVE*GFKFPʼnVUWEEGGFJQYGXGTCPFJCFVQCITGGVQRGCEGKPKP
2CTKU

'FYCTFECTTKGFVJTQWIJPWOGTQWUEJCPIGUDWVJKUTGKIPUWHHGTGFCNQVHTQOTKQVUKPUVKICVGFD[COQPI
QVJGTUVJGEJWTEJ.CEMQHOQPG[YCUEJTQPKECNCPFYJGP'FYCTFFKGFKPJGNGHVCPKPECRCDNG
UQPHCEKPICPCD[UUCNFGDVCPFCPWPHKPKUJGFYCT

+P  JG KPVTQFWEGF C PGY OQPGVCT[ U[UVGO VJCV HQTOGF VJG RTGNWFG VQ VJG FGHKPKVKXG U[UVGO VJCV  
'FYCTF+++YQWNFGUVCDNKUJ
.QPI%TQUUYKVJUEGRVTG
#%TQYPGFJGCFHCEKPIYKVJUEGRVTGKPTJCPF4.QPIETQUUXQKFGFYKVJVJTGGRGNNGVUKPGCEJCPING

 

   


%NCUU   $WT[ 5V 'FOWPFU  ,QJP # *'04+%85 4': +++   4 +1* 10 5'& 0QTVJ   
5GCD[IT (KPGVQXGT[HKPG 
/ÒP\\GPVTWO-ÌNP 
%NCUU


%NCUU   .QPFQP  2JKNKRR # *'04+%85 4': +++  4 2J'.+2 10 .80& 0QTVJ  5GCD[  
IT 4#NKVVNGYGCMN[UVTWEMCVVJGGFIGXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
%QKPCIG KP VJG PCOG QH *GPT[ +++
ENCUU   0GY RQTVTCKV QH HKPG UV[NGYKVJETQYPCPFUKFGEWTNUTGUGODNKPIVJQUG
VQVJGPGZVKUUWG 
%NCUU
#HVGT C NQPI WUG QH VJG UJQTVNQPI ETQUU RGPP[ VJG %QWPEKN JCF VQ HKPF OGCUWTGU HQT KORTQXKPI VJG  
EQKPCIGCPFGURGEKCNN[CICKPUVVJGFCPIGTQHENKRRKPI+PVJG[GCTUOWEJKUJGCTFQHENKRRKPI
CPF QH RTQUGEWVKQPU QH VJG ,GYU YJQ YGTG OCFG UECRGIQCVU HQT VJG RWDNKE KPFKIPCVKQP CV VJG DCF  
EQPFKVKQPVJGEQKPYCUKP

+P#WIWUVCPGYEQKPYCUQTFGTGF6JGYGKIJVYCUTGFWEGFHTQOITVQIT6JGOKPVU
YGTGRWVWPFGTCPGYQTICPKUCVKQPKPYJKEJVJGOCUVGTYQTMGTNCVGTGPVKVNGF/CUVGTQHVJG/KPVWPKVGF
KP JKU RGTUQP VJG TGURQPUKDKNKV[ HQTOGTN[ FKXKFGF COQPI VJG OCP[ OQPG[GTU 6JG OQPG[GTʼnU PCOG  
VJGTGHQTGFKUCRRGCTGFHTQOVJGEQKPYKVJQPGGZEGRVKQP
UGGPQ #NQPIYKVJVJGPGYU[UVGOVJG
ITQCV
RGPEG CPFVJGHCTVJKPI
ƒRGPEG YGTGKPVTQFWEGF+PVJGJCNHRGPP[YCUCFFGF

6JG VGZV
WPVKN 'FYCTF ++  TGCFU '&9 4': #0). &05 *;$ 6JTQWIJQWV VJKU RGTKQF PGKVJGT  
#SWKVCKPGPQTCP[QVJGT(TGPEJRQUUGUUKQPYGTGKPENWFGFQPEQKPU
2GPP[ 
#%TQYPGFDWUVHCEKPI4.QPIETQUURCVV¾GYKVJVJTGGRGNNGVUKPGCEJCPING

 

 %NCUU+E.QPFQP# '&94':#0).&05*;$4%+8+6#5.10&100QTVJ5GCD[
IT 9GNNUVTWEMCPFXGT[HKPG 
.GQRCTFFʼn1T2CTKU 
6JGPWODGTUCPFCTGHTQOCJQCTFPGCT$QTFGCWZ 
%NCUU/C[VQ&GE

60
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

 

   

 %NCUU+E.QPFQP# '&94':#0).&05*;$4%+8+6#5.10&100QTVJ5GCD[


IT 8GT[HKPG 
*GP\GP#OGTQPIGP 
(TQONKUVHGDTWCT[OCTEJPQ
 %NCUU+F.QPFQP# '&94 #0).&05*;$4%+8+6#5.10&100QTVJ5GCD[
IT %NGCPGFCNOQUVXGT[HKPG 
.GQRCTFF 1T2CTKU 
6JGPWODGTUCPFCTGHTQOCJQCTFPGCT$QTFGCWZ

 

   

 %NCUU ++D  %CPVGTDWT[ #  '&9 4  #0).  &05 *;$ 4 %+8+6#5 %#0614 0QTVJ   
5GCD[IT 0KEGRCVKPCXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
(TQO0%PQ*5 
'Z5JWVVNGYQQFEQNNGEVKQP 
%NCUULCPWCT[OC[
 %NCUU+8G.QPFQP# '&94 #0).&05*;$4%+8+6#5.10&100QTVJ5GCD[
IT %NGCPGFHKPGVQXGT[HKPG 
.GQRCTFF 1T2CTKU 
6JGPWODGTUCPFCTGHTQOCJQCTFPGCT$QTFGCWZ




 
 

 *CNHRGPP[%NCUU+++E.QPFQP# '&94#0).&05*;$4%+8+6#5.10&100QTVJ


5GCD[IT &CTMRCVKPCCPFUNKIJVN[EQTTQFGFXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
%NCUU
 %NCUU+++F.QPFQP# '&94 #0). &05*;$4%+8+6#5.10&100QTVJ5GCD[
IT (NCPFGHGEVCVVJGGFIGCNOQUVXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP

61
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND




   

 %NCUU+++G0GYECUVNGQP6[PG# '&94 #0).&05*;$48+..#018%#564+0QTVJ


5GCD[IT (KPGVQXGT[HKPG 
*QNNGOCP'PUEJGFG 
%NCUU+++
NQPIPCTTQYHCEG 

 (CTVJKPI%NCUU+++I.QPFQP# '4#0).+'4.10&10+'05+50QTVJ5GCD[


IT 4GXGTUGCNKVVNGQHHEGPVTGXGT[HKPGVQGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP

 

   

 %NCUU+8$WT[5V'FOWPFU4QDGTVVJG.CJCNGKG#'&94#0).&05*;$441$'466*'
*#.'+'+'0QTVJ5GCD[IT 4#NOQUVXGT[HKPG 
.GQRCTFF 1T2CTKU 
%NCUU+8 
6JGPWODGTUCPFCTGHTQOCJQCTFPGCT$QTFGCWZ 
#U OGPVKQPGF VJG OQPG[GTʼnU PCOG FKUCRRGCTU HTQO VJG EQKPU DWV KU UCXGF QP QPG KUUWG VJCV QH #DDQV QH 5V  
'FOWPFYJQHQTCYJKNGUVTWEMRGPPKGUYKVJJKUOQPG[GTʼnUPCOG4QDGTVVJG*CFNGKG
$TQQMG 

 %NCUU+8C.QPFQP# '&94 #0). &05*;$4%+8+6#5.10&100QTVJ5GCD[


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62
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

 

   

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63
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

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64
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

  

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65
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

  

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66
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

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67
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

  

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68
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

  

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#NVJQWIJ 'PINKUJ KPHNWGPEG KP #SWKVCKPG YQWNF QHHKEKCNN[ NCUV WPVKN  YJGP VJG $CVVNG QH %CUVKNNQP   
YCU NQUV CPF $QTFGCWZ TGOCKPGF KP (TGPEJ JCPFU *GPT[ +8 YCU VJG NCUV VQ JCXG VJG VKVNG &05 #36   
KPFKECVGFQPJKUEQKPU*GPT[8PQNQPIGTKPENWFGFKVQPEQKPCIG

69
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

*175'.#0%#56'4
*'04;+8
 *'04;8
 
5QPQH,QJPQH)CWPV#RGTUQPCNFKURWVGYKVJ6JQOCU/QYDTC[NGFVQJKUDCPKUJOGPVDWVWRQPJKU
HCVJGTʼnU FGOKUG JG TGVWTPGF HTQO (TCPEG *G GZGTVGF ITGCV KPHNWGPEG QP -KPI 4KEJCTF YJQ GXGP NGV  
JKOUGNHDGRGTUWCFGFVQCDFKECVG

  

 *CNHRGPP[.QPFQP#%TQYPGFJGCFHCEKPIDGVYGGPVYQCPPWNGVU *'04+%8ã4:ã#0&). 


4.QPIETQUURCVV¾GYKVJVJTGGRGNNGVUKPGCEJCPING%+8+6#5.10&100QTVJ5GCD[
IT 44#NOQUVXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
'Z.QEMGVV 
%H2QVVGT$0,
 R 

*'04;8
 
1NFGUVUQPQH*GPT[+8YGFFGFVQ%CVJCTKPGFCWIJVGTQH%JCTNGU8+QH(TCPEG*GYCUYGNNRTGRCTGF
HQTUWEEGUUKQP*GRWPKUJGFVTCKVQTUCPFJGTGVKEUTWVJNGUUN[DWVJKURGQRNGCFQTGFJKO 
6JG[ UVQQF DGJKPF VJGKT MKPI KP JKU DCVVNG CICKPUV (TCPEG KP YJKEJ *GPT[ HQWIJV VQ CUUGTV YJCV JG  
DGNKGXGFVQDGJKUTKIJVHWNENCKOVQVJG(TGPEJVJTQPGGPEQWTCIGFD[JKUXKEVQT[CV#IKPEQWTV%JCTNGU
8+CRRQKPVGFJKOJGKTDWV*GPT[FKGFDGHQTGJKUHCVJGTKPNCYFKF

 


 3WCTVGTPQDNG # #TOU QH 'PINCPF CPF (TCPEG KP VTGUUWTG QH GKIJV CTEJGU NKU DGVYGGP VYQ CPPWNGVU  
CDQXG UVCT DGVYGGP VYQ CPPWNGVU T CPF VJTGG CPPWNGVU N   *'04+%  Z 4': Z #0).  Z <   
(4#0%4(NQTKCVGFETQUUYKVJNKUKPEGPVTGCPFQPGNKUCVVJGGPFQHGCEJNKOD ':%8.6#$+684
Z+0Z).14+#(D0QTVJ5GCD[IT 9GNNUVTWEMIQQFXGT[HKPGURGEKOGP 
%QKP+PX.KUUG#WEVKQP
 PQ 
'Z5CNG5RKPM/C[
PQVRQUUKDNGDGECWUGKP0%HTQOOC[PQVVJKUEQKP  
'Z9CNVGTUEQNNGEVKQP 
'Z/CPPEQNNGEVKQP 
'Z$NCMGEQNNGEVKQP



 

 )TQCV  .QPFQP # %TQYPGF JGCF HCEKPI UVCT QP N UJQWNFGT   *'04+% Z &+ Z )4# Z 4': Z  
#0).+'Z<Z(4#0%4.QPIETQUURCVV¾GYKVJVJTGGRGNNGVUKPGCEJCPINGVYQEQPEGPVTKEEKTENGU
YKVJ PCOG QH OKPV KP VJG KPPGT EKTENG %+8+6#5 .10&10 ¢   2158+  #&+8614' ” /'8/ ”  
0QTVJ5GCD[IT 0KEGRCVKPCCNOQUVGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
(TQO0%PQ 
%NCUU%/WNNGVQPNGHVUJQWNFGT

70
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

  

 *CNHRGPP[.QPFQP#%TQYPGFJGCFHCEKPIDGVYGGPVYQCPPWNGVU *'04+%854':#0).4


.QPIETQUURCVV¾GYKVJVJTGGRGNNGVUKPGCEJCPING
VTGHQKN %+8+6#5.10&100QTVJ5GCD[
IT 8GT[HKPG 
5EJWNOCP#OUVGTFCO

  

 *CNHRGPP[.QPFQP#%TQYPGFJGCFHCEKPIDGVYGGPVYQRGNNGVU *'04+%Z4':Z#0).4


.QPI ETQUU RCVV¾G YKVJ VJTGG RGNNGVU KP GCEJ CPING  %+8+6#5 .10&10 0QTVJ  5GCD[   
IT +TTGIWNCTHNCPXGT[HKPG 
/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP$CUGN

*'04;8+
 
*GPT[ 8+ UQP QH *GPT[ 8 CPF %CVJCTKPG QH 8CNQKU &WTKPI JKU GCTN[ TGKIP JKU OQVJGT CEVGF CU  
IWCTFKCP1P0QXGODGTJGYCUETQYPGFMKPIQH'PINCPFCPFQP&GEGODGTMKPIQH
(TCPEG *G YCU C FGGRN[ TGNKIKQWU OCP JCF OCP[ CFOKTGTU CPF HQWPFGF COQPI QVJGT VJKPIU VJG  
EQNNGIGU QH 'VQP CPF %CODTKFIG 6JG XCEWWO NGHV D[ JKU NQPINCUVKPI KNNPGUU
#WIWUV  VQ ,CPWCT[  
 ECWUGFVJGHGWFDGVYGGPVJG*QWUGUQH.CPECUVGTCPF;QTMVQHNCOGWRCICKP 
#VVJG$CVVNGCV0QTVJCORVQP
 JGYCUECRVWTGFD[VJG;QTMKUVU*GHNGFKPDWVKPHGNN
ECRVKXG CPGY VQ 'FYCTF +8 6JTQWIJ VJG KPVGTXGPVKQP  QTICPKUGF HTQO (TCPEG  QH JKU CFJGTGPVU JG  
OCPCIGFVQEQOGDCEMDWVQPN[UJQTVN[KPCHVGT*GPT[JCFTGVWTPGFVQVJGVJTQPG'FYCTF
FGHGCVGFCPFMKNNGFJKO



 

 0QDNG.QPFQP
 #%TQYPGFMKPIUVCPFKPIHCEKPIKPCUJKRYKVJVJGCTOUQH'PINCPFCPF
(TCPEG*'04+%&+)4#4':#0).<(4#0%&05*;$4(NQTKCVGFETQUUKPVTGUUWTGQHGKIJV
CTEJGUYKVJ*KPEGPVTGETQYPUCPFNGQRCTFUKPVJGCPINGUQPGUOCNNNKUKPVJGUGEQPFCPING+*%#86
64#05+'052'4/'&+8/+..148/+$#6(D0QTVJ5GCD[IT 
49GNNUVTWEMCPFXGT[HKPG 
#TIGPQT2CTKU#WEVKQPPQ 
1PVJGGFIGQHVJGUJKRNKUCPFNGQRCTFU

71
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

Ő VJQUGVJCVECPPQVDGGCUKN[VQNFCRCTVHTQOVJGQTKIKPCN1PN[VJGYQTMOCPUJKRVJGNGVVGTKPIGVEFKHHGTHTQO
VJGQTKIKPCN 

Ő +OKVCVKQPUVJCVJCXGVJGGHHKI[KPEQOOQPDWVHCKNVQPCOG*GPT[QT'FYCTFKPFKECVKPIVJGNQECNUQXGTGKIP
KPUVGCF'ZCORNGUCTGVJGPQDNGUUVTWEMD[VJGEQWPVUQH(NCPFGTU2JKNKRVJG$QNF
UGGPQ 
,QJPVJG(GCTNGUU
 CPF2JKNKRVJG)QQF
UGGPQ  

Ő +OKVCVKQPU VJCV CICKP JCXG VJG QTKIKPCN GHHKI[ CPF CNUQ KPFKECVG VJG 'PINKUJ MKPIU DWV UVCPF QWV DGECWUG QH  
VJGKTUK\GUGGPQUCPF
YKVJVJGCTOUQH#TMGN 6JGUGYGTGUVTWEMKP)QTKPEJGOKPVJGNCVGVJ
EGPVWT[)TQWRUCPFHKPFCORNGFGUETKRVKQPKPPWOKUOCVKENKVGTCVWTG0QVUQITQWR 

1TKIKPCNN[ VJG[ YGTG YKVJQWV GZEGRVKQP TGICTFGF CU EQWPVGTHGKVU
GI 5GTTWTG KP   &GUEJCORU FG 2CU PQVGU  
ŋKP%NCKU9CTKPCOQPG[EJCPIGTYCUCTTGUVGFKP/GEJNKP
VQFC[ U/GEJGNGP HQTCEEGRVKPIOQPPCKGUHCWUUGU
EQPVTGHCKVGUGVF¾HCPFW
HCNUGEQWPVGTHGKVGFCPFRTQJKDKVGFEQKPU&GUEJCORUFG2CU HTQOVJCVGCTN[OQOGPVQPVJG
*GPT[8+CPPWNGVPQDNG
 JCFDGGPKOKVCVGF+P/QPVCIW
0WO%JTQP
 RGVUGSS 
TGEQTFGF EQPVKPGPVCN KOKVCVKQPU QH PQDNGU CPF T[CNU DCUGF QP (NGOKUJ'PINKUJ VTCFG CPF HQWPF VJCV VJGUG KOKVCVKQPU  
OWUVJCXGDGGPUVTWEMHQTCNQPIRGTKQFQHVKOG'PINKUJNKVGTCVWTGEQOOQPN[TGHGTUVQITQWRCUŋ(NGOKUJPQDNGUŌ
CPF FQGU PQV YCUVG OCP[ YQTFU QP VJGO 0QTVJ QP RPQVGUŋ/CP[EQPVKPGPVCNEQRKGUQH.QPFQPT[CNUGZKUV
CPF VJGUG YGTG OQUVN[ UVTWEM CV C NCVGT FCVG 6JG[ OC[ DG FKUVKPIWKUJGF D[ VJGKT EQCTUG YQTM CPF VJGKT NCTIGT  
OQFWNGŌ
0QTVJKVUGGOUKUTGHGTTKPIVQITQWRKPRCTVKEWNCTJGTG  

6JG PQDNGU QH *GPT[ 8+ CPF VJG T[CNU QH'FYCTF+8YGTGKOKVCVGFQPVJGEQPVKPGPVVJG[VQIGVJGTURCPVJGRGTKQF
HTQO  VQ  *CNXGU QT GXGP UOCNNGT FGPQOKPCVKQPU YGTG PQV KOKVCVGF 6JGUG V[RGU MGRV QP DGKPI KOKVCVGF  
WPVKNNQPICHVGTVJGVKOGQHKUUWGQHVJGQTKIKPCNU 

0QVWPVKNVJGJQCTFQH5GTQQUMGTMG
QPVJGKUNCPFQH9CNEJGTGPKPVJG0GVJGTNCPFU FKFVJGUKIPKHKECPEGQHVJGUG
KOKVCVKQPUVTCPURKTGKPVGTOUQHVKOGHTCOGEKTEWNCVKQPCPFUEQRG
UGG*'PPQX)GNFGT/WPVXQPFUV5GTQQUMGTMG
,/2
 R#VQVCNQHEQKPUECOGWRKPVJKUJQCTFCOQPIVJGOPQDNGUCPF
T[CNU 

1H VJGUG  PQDNGU QPN[ HQWT YGTG QTKIKPCN VJG TGOCKPKPI  YGTG KOKVCVKQPU
VJG QTKIKPCNU UJQYGF UKIPU QH YGCT  
HTQOWUGYJGTGCUVJGKOKVCVKQPUUJQYGFJCTFN[CP[YGCTYJKEJRQKPVUVQCOWEJNCVGTFCVGHQTVJGKOKVCVKQPU  
6JG 5GTQQUMGTMG JQCTF YCU DWTKGF CTQWPF  CPF VJG YGNNRTGUGTXGF UVCVG QH VJG KOKVCVKQPU KPFKECVGU VJCV VJG[  
YGTGUVTWEMNQPICHVGTVJGQTKIKPCNPQDNGU+PVJKUTGURGEV8CP)GNFGTPQVGUVJGHQNNQYKPI
R  

ŋ6JKUUJGFUPGYNKIJVQPVJGSWGUVKQPQHEQPVKPGPVCNKOKVCVKQPUQHVJG'PINKUJEQKPUYJCVVTCPURKTGUKPRCTVKEWNCTKU
VJCV VJG UEQRG QH VJKU RJGPQOGPQP YCU XGT[ OWEJ NCTIGT VJCP JCF DGGP CUUWOGF WPVKN PQY DCUGF QP VJG TGNCVKXGN[  
HGYRKGEGUTGLGEVGFCUEQWPVGTHGKVUD['PINKUJEQNNGEVQTU6JGPWODGTUKPVJKUJQCTFKPFKECVGVJCVVJGITGCVGTRCTVKP
VJG COQWPV QH PQDNGU EKTEWNCVKPI KP VJG 0GVJGTNCPFU JCF DGGP TGEGPV CFFKVKQPU 7PHQTVWPCVGN[ QNFGT JQCTF  
FGUETKRVKQPUJCTFN[KHCVCNNVCMGKPVQCEEQWPVVJGUGUWDVKNGFKHHGTGPEGUUQVJCVVJGTGNCVKXGPWODGTUQHQTKIKPCNUCPF
KOKVCVKQPU CTG DG[QPF XGTKHKECVKQP 6JGTG JQYGXGT KU PQ GXKFGPEG UWRRQTVKPI CP QEEWTTGPEG QH VJGUG KOKVCVKQPU KP  
GCTNKGTJQCTFUYJKEJLWUVKHKGUVJGEQPENWUKQPVJCVVJGOCPWHCEVWTGQHEQWPVGTHGKVPQDNGUCPFTQUGPQDNGUYCUURCVKQ
VGORQTCNN[NKOKVGFVQVJGRGTKQFDGVYGGPCPFCPFVJGPQTVJGTP0GVJGTNCPFUCPFYCUENQUGN[EQPPGEVGFVQ
EQPVGORQTCTKN[ OCPWHCEVWTGF KOKVCVKQPU YJKEJ YGTG FKUVKPEVN[ CPF QHHKEKCNN[ OCTMGF CU PGY 9JCV UGGOU RGEWNKCT  
HKPCNN[KUHCEVVJCVVJGKOKVCVKQPUYGTGD[PQOGCPUKPHGTKQTVQVJGQTKIKPCNUEQPVTCT[VJGKTYGKIJVKUWUWUCNN[JKIJGT
VJCPVJCVQHVJGQTKIKPCNUYJKEJUJQYITGCVGTYGCT#VVJGVKOGQHVJGKTCEVWCNWUGPQDQF[EQPUKFGTGFVJGKOKVCVKQPU
QH NGUUGT XCNWG *QYGXGT VJG CWVJQTKVKGU VJCV UWRGTXKUGF OQPGVCT[ CHHCKTU CV VJG VKOG FKF MPQY VJCV HQTGKIP EQKPU  
YGTGDGKPIKOKVCVGFKP)QTKPEJGOCPFGNUGYJGTGCPFOGCUWTGUYGTGVCMGPVQENQUGVJGOKPV$WVVJGEKTEWNCVKQPQH
UWEJ PWODGTU QH KOKVCVKQPU CRRCTGPVN[ FKF PQV CVVTCEV CP[ CVVGPVKQP DGECWUG PGKVJGT VJG IGPGTCN OKPV OCUVGTU PQT  
RTQHGUUKQPCN OQPG[ EJCPIGTU PQVKEGF C FTQR KP KPVTKPUKECN XCNWG YJKEJ YQWNF YKVJQWV C FQWDVJCXGNGFVQCENQUGT
KPXGUVKICVKQPCPFRTQJKDKVKXGQTFGTUŌ 

*QYVQVGNNVJGFKHHGTGPEGDGVYGGPQTKIKPCNPQDNGUCPFKOKVCVKQPU! 
6JGHCEGUQPKOKVCVKQPUCTGDTQCFGT 














+PVJGQDXGTUGNGIGPF(4#0%KUTGRNCEGFYKVJ(4#0CPF*;$YKVJ*;+PVJGTGXGTUGVGZV+%*QHVGPDGEQOGU+
CPF+..148/VWTPUKPVQ+..14 
6JGPQUCPFENGCTN[KNNWUVTCVGVJGUGFKHHGTGPEGUYKVJVJGGZEGRVKQPQH+%*

72
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND



 
 (NGOKUJKOKVCVKXGEQKPCIG
VJEGPVWT[ 0QDNG.QPFQP#%TQYPGFMKPIUVCPFKPIHCEKPIKPCUJKR
YKVJ VJG CTOU QH 'PINCPF CPF (TCPEG  *'04+% ð &+ D )4#  D 4': D #0). D < D (4#0 D  
&05*;4(NQTKCVGFETQUUKPVTGUUWTGQHGKIJVCTEJGUYKVJ*KPEGPVTGETQYPUCPFNGQRCTFUKPVJG
CPINGU  ð +*%  #86 Q 64#05+'05 Q 2'4 Q /'&+8/ Q +..14  +$#6 0QTVJ 
KOKVCVKQP   
5GCD[IT 6TCEGUQHGPETWUVCVKQPXGT[HKPG 
$QWIJV
&GMMGTEQNNGEVKQP  
$QWIJV5EJWNOCP#OUVGTFCOFF 
6JTGGNKUCPFVYQNGQRCTFUQPVJGUKFGQHVJGUJKR 
6JKU EQKP KU CP KOKVCVKQP QH VJG PQDNG QH *GPT[ 8+ &WTKPI VJG VJ EGPVWT[ CPF NCVGT VJG PQDNG YCU QH  
UWEJ RQRWNCTKV[ QP VJG EQPVKPGPV VJCV KOKVCVKQPU CRRGCTGF DGHQTG NQPI 6JTGG V[RGU QH VJGUG KOKVCVKQPU ECP DG  
FKUVKPIWKUJGF 


 

 *CNHPQDNG.QPFQP#%TQYPGFMKPIUVCPFKPIHCEKPIKPCUJKRYKVJVJGCTOUQH'PINCPFCPF(TCPEG
*'04+%~&+~)4#~4':~#0).~<~(4#0%~4(NQTKCVGFETQUUKPVTGUUWTGQHGKIJVCTEJGU
YKVJ*KPEGPVTGETQYPUCPFNGQRCTFUKPVJGCPINGUQPGUOCNNNKUKPVJGUGEQPFCPINGNKU&1/+0'~0'
Q+0Q(8414'Q681Q#4)8#5Q/'(D0QTVJ5GCD[IT 
8GT[HKPG 
)NGPFKPKPI.QPFQP#WEVKQP
 PQ 
1PVJGGFIGQHVJGUJKRNKUCPFNGQRCTFU


 

 )TQCV%CNCKU#%TQYPGFJGCFHCEKPIDGVYGGPVYQCPPWNGVU *'04+%”&+”)4#”4':”#0).


Z<Z(4#0%4.QPIETQUURCVV¾GYKVJVJTGGRGNNGVUKPGCEJCPINGCPFQPGCPPWNGVKPVJGPFCPFTF
CPINGUVYQEQPEGPVTKEEKTENGUYKVJPCOGQHOKPVKPVJGKPPGTEKTENG8+..#”%#.+5+5” 2158+Q
&'8/”#&+8614'”/'8/0QTVJ5GCD[IT 
5NKIJVGN[KTTGIWNCTHNCPCPFCNKVVNGYGCMN[UVTWEMQVJGTYKUGXGT[HKPGVQGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
5EJWNOCP#OUVGTFCO 
6JGOKPVQH%CNCKUGZKUVGFHKTUVDGVYGGPCPFCPFYCUTGQRGPGFDGVYGGPCPF

73
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

 

   

 *CNHITQCV.QPFQP#%TQYPGFJGCFHCEKPI *'04+% ”&+”)4#”4':”#0).”<”(44


.QPIETQUURCVV¾GYKVJVJTGGRGNNGVUKPVJGCPINGUVYQEQPEGPVTKEEKTENGUYKVJPCOGQHOKPVKPVJGKPPGT
EKTENG  %+8+6#5 ” .10&10 ” 2158+ Q &'8/ ” #&+86 14' ” / ” 0QTVJ  5GCD[   
IT 6TCEGUQHGPETWUVCVKQPXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
(TQO0%PQ*5 
'Z%CTVGTEQNNGEVKQP 
'Z4%CTN[QP$TKVVQPEQNNGEVKQP 
'Z5JWVVNGYQQFEQNNGEVKQP 
#PPWNGVKUUWGOOETQUU+PQPG 
 *CNHITQCV  %CNCKU # %TQYPGF JGCF HCEKPI DGVYGGP VYQ CPPWNGVU   *'04+% ” &+ ” )4# ” 4': ”  
#0).”<”(4.QPIETQUURCVV¾GYKVJVJTGGRGNNGVUKPGCEJCPINGCPFQPGCPPWNGVKPVJGPFCPFTF
CPINGUVYQEQPEGPVTKEEKTENGUYKVJPCOGQHOKPVKPVJGKPPGTEKTENG8+..#”%#.+5 ” 2158+Q
&'8/”#&+8614'Z/'8/0QTVJ5GCD[IT 8GT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 

 

   

 2GPP[.QPFQP#%TQYPGFJGCFHCEKPI *'04+%85”4':”#0).+'4.QPIETQUURCVV¾GYKVJ


VJTGGRGNNGVUKPGCEJCPINGCPFQPGCPPWNGVKPVJGPFCPFTFCPINGU%+8+6#5”.10&10”0QTVJ
5GCD[IT 5NKIJVGN[EQTTQFGFXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
(TQO0%PQ*5 
'Z5JWVVNGYQQFEQNNGEVKQP 
#PPWNGVKUUWG 
 2GPP[%CNCKU#%TQYPGFJGCFHCEKPIDGVYGGPVYQCPPWNGVU *'04+%85”4':”#0).+'4
.QPIETQUURCVV¾GYKVJVJTGGRGNNGVUKPGCEJCPINGCPFQPGCPPWNGVKPVJGPFCPFTFCPINGU8+..#”
%#.+5”0QTVJ5GCD[IT #NOQUVXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
'Z&CPICTEQNNGEVKQP)NGPFKPKPICRTKNNQV 
%H9JKVVQPC

 

 *CNHRGPP[  %CNCKU # %TQYPGF JGCF HCEKPI DGVYGGP VYQ CPPWNGVU   *'04+% ” 4': ” #0). 4  
.QPIETQUURCVV¾GYKVJVJTGGRGNNGVUKPGCEJCPINGCPFQPGCPPWNGVKPVJGPFCPFTFCPINGU8+..#”
%#.+5”0QTVJ5GCD[IT 8GT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP
 *CNHRGPP[  .QPFQP # %TQYPGF JGCF HCEKPI   *'04+% 4': #0). 4 .QPI ETQUU RCVV¾G YKVJ  
VJTGGRGNNGVUKPGCEJCPING%+8+6#5.10&100QTVJ5GCD[IT (KPG 
&QODTQYUMK/ÒPUVGT 

74
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND

  

 (CTVJKPI.QPFQP
.GCH2GNNGV+UUWG #%TQYPGFJGCFHCEKPIDGVYGGPVYQRGNNGVUNGCHQPDTGCUV 
*'04+% 4': #0). 4 .QPI ETQUU YKVJ VJTGG RGNNGVU KP GCEJ CPING  %+8+6#5 .10&10 0QTVJ  
5GCD[IT 44#NOQUVXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
(TQO0%PQ 
'Z5JWVVNGYQQFEQNNGEVKQP



 

 )TQCV.QPFQP#%TQYPGFJGCFHCEKPI *'04+%Z&+)4#Z4':Z#0).+Z<(4#0%4


.QPIETQUURCVV¾GYKVJVJTGGRGNNGVUKPGCEJCPINGVYQEQPEGPVTKEEKTENGUYKVJPCOGQHOKPVKPVJGKPPGT
EKTENG%+8+6#5.10&102158+&'8/#&+8614'/'8/0QTVJ5GCD[IT
49GCMN[UVTWEMCNOQUVXGT[HKPG 
9KPVGT&ÒUUGNFQTH#WEVKQP
 PQ 
7POCTMGF

*175'1(;14-
'&9#4&+8HKTUVTGKIP
 
#HVGT 4KEJCTF JCF YQP VJG $CVVNG CV 0QTVJCORVQP
  JG ENCKOGF MKPIUJKR 6JG RCTNKCOGPV  
JQYGXGT CEMPQYNGFIGF *GPT[ 8+ VQ JQNF VJG UVTQPIGUV ENCKO CRRQKPVKPI 4KEJCTF UWEEGUUQT +P VJCV  
UCOG[GCT4KEJCTFRGTKUJGFCV9CMGHKGNF 
6JG;QTMKUVUMGRV.QPFQPQEEWRKGFCPFRTQENCKOGF4KEJCTFʼnUUQP'FYCTFMKPI
 'XGT[QPGNQ[CN
VQ*GPT[8+YCUFGUKIPCVGFCVTCKVQTCPF*GPT[8+CPF/CTICTGVHNGFVQ5EQVNCPF 
5QOG QH *GPT[ʼnU NQ[CNU TGCUUGODNGF KP (TCPEG CPF YKVJ VJG DCEMKPI QH .QWKU :+ VJG[ NCPFGF CP  
KPXCUKQPHQTEGQPVJGUJQTGUQH'PINCPFKP6JKUNGFVQCPQVJGTDGKVUJQTVNKXGFTGKIPQH*GPT[8+

 'FYCTFHNGFVQ(NCPFGTUCEEQORCPKGFD[JKUDTQVJGT4KEJCTFYJQCNUQJGNRGFJKOTGVWTP
VQ'PINCPF+P'FYCTFFGHGCVGF/CTICTGVPGCT6YGMGUDWT[VCMKPIEQPVTQNQPEGCICKP*GPT[8+
YCUOWTFGTGFCPFVJG*QWUGQH.CPECUVGTGPFGF
*GCX[EQKPCIG

  

 *CNHRGPP[.QPFQP#%TQYPGFJGCFHCEKPIDGVYGGPVYKEGVJTGGRGNNGVUÃ'&9#4&&+)4#
4':4.QPIETQUURCVV¾GYKVJVJTGGRGNNGVUKPGCEJCPING%+8+6#5.10&100QTVJ5GCD[
IT 8GT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
(TQO0% 
'Z9JKVVQPEQNNGEVKQP
KNN2N V[RG++ 
'Z.QEMGVV

75
KINGS OF ALL ENGLAND



 

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 PQ

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6JG HKTUV EQKPU QH RJCUG ++ UJQY VJG NQPI ETQUU RQTVTCKV KP +TKUJ UV[NG DWV UVKNN ENGCTN[ KPFKECVG 5KJVTKE  
NCVGTKPVJGUCOGRJCUGKVFKUCRRGCTU6JGYGKIJVKPVJKURJCUGKUTGOCTMCDN[NQYGTVJCPVJCVKPRJCUG+

 

   

 2GPP[  2JCUG ++  &WDNKP # +TKUJ DWUV N DGJKPF C ETQUU   ++064+  4': +(0 4 .QPI ETQUU  
XQKFGFYKVJGCEJNKODVGTOKPCVKPIKPVJTGGETGUEGPVUKPGCEJCPINGCUOCNNRGNNGV (;'+40!++/1
+'+6&(5GCD[IT 4#NOQUVXGT[HKPG 
45EJWNOCP.CTGP#WEVKQP
 PQ 

 2GPP[  2JCUG ++  &WDNKP # +TKUJ DWUV N DGJKPF C ETQUKGT  +064%4': +&+(0+ 4 .QPI ETQUU  
XQKFGFYKVJGCEJNKODVGTOKPCVKPIKPVJTGGETGUEGPVUKPGCEJCPINGCRGNNGV 0+4+00/1&(0&(
5GCD[#IT 48GT[HKPGVQGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
(TQO0%PQ

*+$'4010145'
 

 

   

 2GPP[  2JCUG +++  # +TKUJ DWUV N   ++(+6+'&+1+'  4 .QPI ETQUU XQKFGF YKVJ GCEJ NKOD  
VGTOKPCVKPIKPVJTGGETGUEGPVUKPVYQCPINGUCJCPF +++++1+ +++%+.&(5GCD[IT
40KEGRCVKPCGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
/CTUJCNN(KGNFU%JKECIQ

 2GPP[2JCUG+++#+TKUJDWUVNHQWTRQKPVUKPPGEM +++6+04++&++2+'4.QPIETQUUXQKFGFYKVJ


GCEJNKODVGTOKPCVKPIKPVJTGGETGUEGPVUKPQPGCPINGCJCPFKPCPQVJGT5KPVYQQVJGTUCRGNNGV +++
2+2+0(0+&++&(5GCD[IT 'ZVTGOGN[HKPGCPFRGTHGEVRKGEGYKVJPKEGRCVKPC 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
(TQO0%PQ 
(TQOVJGUCOGFKGUCU&QNNG[!

83
IRELAND

*+$'4010145'
 

  

 2GPP[6[RG+8#*GNOGVGFDWUVHCEKPIYKVJVTKRNGUVTCPFOQWUVCEJGUETCVEJGFFKG 0+('0+10


&+++8( 4 .QPI ETQUU XQKFGF YKVJ GCEJ NKOD VGTOKPCVKPI KP VJTGG ETGUEGPVU KP CPINGU ETQUU VYQ  
RGNNGVUJCPFCPFVJTGGRGNNGVU00000000&(5GCD[IT 
44#NKVVNGYGCMN[UVTWEMCVVJGGFIGXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
(TQO0%PQ

*+$'4010145'
 

 

   

 2GPP[  2JCUG 8 # %TQYPGF DWUV HCEKPI YKVJ RGNNGVU GKVJGT UKFG 4 .QPI ETQUU XQKFGF &(   
5GCD[XCTIT 'ZVTGOGN[TCTG5OCNNHNCPFGHGEVXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
(TQO0%PQ 
#VNGCUVQPGSWCFTCPVQHVJGTGXGTUG&+0KUNGIKDNG6JGTGHQTG&WDNKPJCUVQDGVJGOKPV 
0%UC[UFGTKXGFHTQO9KNNKCO+6YQ5VCTUV[RG9CUPʼnVKVOQTGQHCEQR[QH'FYCTFVJG%QPHGUUQTʼnUEQKPU!$WUV
HCEKPIUOCNNETQUUV[RG0QTVJ
 

 2GPP[2JCUG8#%TWFGDWUVHCEKPIYKVJNQPIDGCTF48QKFGFNQPIETQUU5KPVYQSWCTVGTUJCPF
KPQPGCPPWNGVYKVJEWTXGKPCPQVJGT&(5GCD[IT 449GCMN[UVTWEMXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
(TQO0%PQ 
'Z8GEEJK.QPFQP#WEVKQP
 PQ

*+$'4010145'
 

 

   

 2GPP[2JCUG8+#8GT[ETWFGDWUVNETQUKGTVQN48QKFGFNQPIETQUU%TQUKGTYKVJHQWTRGNNGVU
KPVYQSWCTVGTUQPGRGNNGVKPQVJGTU&(5GCD[IT 48GT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
(TQO0%PQ

 2GPP[2JCUG8+#8GT[ETWFGDWUVNETQUKGTVQN48QKFGFNQPIETQUUETQUKGTYKVJHQWTRGNNGVUKP
VYQSWCTVGTUQPGRGNNGVKPQVJGTU&(5GCD[IT 48GT[HKPG 
/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP$CUGN

84
IRELAND



 

 2GPP[2JCUG8+#8GT[ETWFGDWUVNETQUKGTVQN48QKFGFNQPIETQUU%TQUKGTYKVJHQWTRGNNGVUKP
VYQSWCTVGTUQPGRGNNGVKPQVJGTU&(5GCD[IT 
4(NCPETCEMCPFVTCEGUQHGPETWUVCVKQPCNOQUVXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
(TQO0%PQ

,1*0CU.QTF
 
#U CHVGT &GTOQV /CE /WTTQWIJ JCF HNGF PQDKNKV[ HTQO 'PINCPF CPF 9CNGU UVQQF RQKUGF VQ HKNN VJG  
XCEWWO *GPT[ ++ QH 'PINCPF JCF VQ CEV #V VJG EQPITGUU QH1ZHQTFJGJCFVJG.QTFUJKRQXGT
+TGNCPFFGXQNXGWRQPJKUUQP,QJP,QJPWUGFCITCFWCNCRRTQCEJVQICKPEQPVTQNQXGT+TGNCPFDWVJCF
VJG ITGCVGUV FKHHKEWNV[ FQKPI UQ 6JWU %QPPCEJV FKFPʼnV EQOG WPFGT JKU UYC[ WPVKN DGVYGGP  CPF  
 +P  JKU GZRCPUKQPU ECOG VQ C JCNV 6JG +TKUJ VWTPGF VQ VJG 5EQVU HQT CKF KP TGUKUVKPI VJG  
'PINKUJ6JGGCTNQH7NUVGTKPRCTVKEWNCTRNC[GFCUKIPKHKECPVRCTVYJKEJQHHGTURTQQHHQTVJGKPFGRGPFGPV
UVCVWUQH7NUVGT 
,QJPKUFGUKIPCVGF&QOKPWUQPJKUEQKPUDQVJKPVJGRGTKQFDGHQTGJKU'PINKUJMKPIUJKRCPFCHVGT6JG
UCOGVKVNGYCUDQTPGD[CNNJKUUWEEGUUQTU*GPEGVJGWUWCNFKUVKPEVKQPDGVYGGP,QJPCU.QTFCPF,QJP
CU-KPIKUPQVOCFGCUVJGNCVVGTVKVNGYCUUQNGN['PINKUJ 
6JG+TKUJPQTVJG0QTYGIKCPUKP&WDNKPECNNGFVJGOUGNXGUMKPICPFVJG'PINKUJCNYC[UWUGF&QOKPWU

  

 *CNH2GPP[  &WDNKP  0QTOCP # &KCFGOGF JGCF HCEKPI   +1*#00'5 &1/ 4 8QKFGF ETQUU  
RQVGPVCPPWNGVUKPCPINGU 014/#010&88%&(5GCD[IT 
#NOQUVXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP


 

 2GPP[&WDNKP4QDGTF#%TQYPGFDWUVKPVTKCPINGJCPFJQNFKPIUEGRVGT+1*#00'54'::4
5WPOQQPCPFVJTGGUVCTUKPVTKCPING41$'4&10&+8'&(5GCD[IT 
5RKPM.QPFQP 0KEGRCVKPCGZVTGOGN[HKPG
 
(TQO0%PQ

  

 *CNH2GPP[&WDNKP4QDGTF#%TQYPGFDWUVKPVTKCPINGKPVYQCPINGUCUVCT+1*#04':4
%TQUUOQQPCPFUVCTUKPVTKCPING41$'4&10&&(5GCD[IT 8GT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
(TQO0%PQ

85
IRELAND

*'04;+++
 
*GPT[+++JCFPQTGHGTGPEGUVQ+TGNCPFUVTWEMQPJKUEQKPU
QVJGTVJCPKPFKECVKQPQHVJGOKPV *KU+TKUJ
EQKPUUJQYVJGUCOGVKVNGCUJKU'PINKUJ4':+++

 

   

 2GPP[)TQWR+&WDNKP4KECTF#%TQYPGFJGCFHCEKPIKPFQWDNGVTKCPINGJCPFJQNFKPIUEGRVTG
EKPSWGHQKNVQTKIJV*'04+%854':+++48QKFGFNQPIETQUURQOO¾GRGNNGVUKPCPINGU4+%#4&10
&+0'&(5GCD[IT 8GT[HKPG 
'NUGP$TWUUGN 
2TGUWOCDN[HTQOVJGJQCTF$TWUUGNU4WGF #UUCWV 
(TQONKUVDPQ
IT 
 2GPP[)TQWR+&WDNKP4KECTF#%TQYPGFJGCFHCEKPIKPFQWDNGVTKCPINGJCPFJQNFKPIUEGRVTG
EKPSWGHQKNVQTKIJV*'04+%854':+++48QKFGFNQPIETQUURQOO¾GRGNNGVUKPCPINGU4+%#4&10
&+8'&(5GCD[IT 8GT[HKPG 
'NUGP$TWUUGN 
2TGUWOCDN[HTQOVJGJQCTF$TWUUGNU4WGF #UUCWV 
(TQONKUVDPQ
IT 

 

   

 2GPP[  )TQWR +  &WDNKP  &CXKF # %TQYPGF JGCF HCEKPI KP FQWDNG VTKCPING JCPF JQNFKPI UEGRVTG  
EKPSWGHQKNVQTKIJV*'04+%854':+++48QKFGFNQPIETQUURQOO¾GRGNNGVUKPCPINGU&#8+10
'8'.+0&(5GCD[IT 8GT[HKPG 
'NUGP$TWUUGN 
2TGUWOCDN[HTQOVJGJQCTF$TWUUGNU4WGF #UUCWV 
(TQONKUVDPQ
IT  

 2GPP[  )TQWR +  &WDNKP  &CXKF # %TQYPGF JGCF HCEKPI KP UKPING VTKCPING JCPF JQNFKPI UEGRVTG  
EKPSWGHQKNVQTKIJV*'04+%854':+++48QKFGFNQPIETQUURQOO¾GRGNNGVUKPCPINGU&#8+10
&;8'.+&(5GCD[IT /CIPKHKEGPVRQTVTCKVGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
(TCPEJGUEJK$TWUUGN


 

 2GPP[  )TQWR ++  &WDNKP  4KECTF # %TQYPGF JGCF HCKPI KP UKPING VTKCPING JCPF JQNFKPI UEGRVTG  
EKPSWGHQKNVQTKIJV*'04+%854':+++48QKFGFNQPIETQUURQOO¾GRGNNGVUKPCPINGU4+%#4&10
&+8'&(5GCD[IT 8GT[HKPG 
5EJWNOCP#OUVGTFCO#WEVKQP
 PQ 
(TQOJQCTF*CCTNQQ
 

86
IRELAND

'&9#4&+
 
1PJKU+TKUJEQKPU'FYCTF+DGCTUVJGVKVNG&QOKPWU*[DGTPKGCRCTVHTQOJKU'PINKUJVKVNGU6JGPCOG
QHVJGOQPG[GTFKUCRRGCTUUQNGKPFKECVKQPKU%KXKVCU&WDNKP
QTQVJGTOKPVU 


 

 2GPP[5GEQPFEQKPCIG
# &WDNKP#%TQYPGFDWUVKPVTKCPINGVTGHQKNQHRGNNGVUQPDTGCUV'&94
#0).&05*;$4.QPIETQUURCVV¾GYKVJVJTGGRGNNGVUKPGCEJCPING%+8+6#5&8$.+0'&(
5GCD[IT 8GT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP


 

 2GPP[5GEQPFEQKPCIG
$ &WDNKP#%TQYPGFDWUVKPVTKCPINGVTGHQKNQHRGNNGVUQPDTGCUV'&9
4#0).&05*;$4.QPIETQUURCVV¾GYKVJVJTGGRGNNGVUKPGCEJCPING%+8+6#5&8$.+0'&(
5GCD[IT 8GT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP

  

 *CNH2GPP[&WDNKP#%TQYPGFDWUVKPVTKCPING'&94#0).&05*;$4.QPIETQUURCVV¾GYKVJ
VJTGGRGNNGVUKPGCEJCPING%+8+6#5&8$.+0'&(5GCD[IT 
5OCNNUETCVEJGUXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
(TQO0%PQ

'&9#4&+8
 
$GVYGGPCPFVJGTGKUCICRKPIPWOKUOCVKEXQKF+PVJKURGTKQFQPN[CHGYEQKPUYGTGUVTWEM
+TGNCPFGZRGTKGPEGFCRGTKQFQHJCTUJFGENKPG6JG5EQVUNGFD['FYCTFDTQVJGTQH4QDGTVVJG$TWEG
-KPIQH5EQVNCPFKPXCFGFVJGEQWPVT[CPF'PINKUJKPHNWGPEGYCPGF6JGHCOKNKGU1ʼn%QPPQTKP%QPPCEJV
CPF1ʼn0GKNNKP7NUVGTETGCVGFVJGKTQYPQXGTNQTFUJKRU


 

 )TQCV%TQYP
(KTUV6[RG &WDNKP#.CTIGETQYPKPVTGUUWTGQHPKPGCTEUYKVJRGNNGVUCVRQKPVU4
.QPIETQUURCVV¾GYKVJVJTGGRGNNGVUKPGCEJCPINGCPFQPGCPPWNGVKPVJGUVCPFVJCPINGU%+8+6#5”
&8$.+0+'”&(5GCD[IT 40KEGRCVKPCXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP

87
IRELAND

  

 %QRRGTJCNHHCTVJKPI#%TQYPš2#6š4+-4%TQUURCVV¾G&(5GCD[IT 


5RKPM.QPFQP 44#NKVVNGQHHEGPVTGXGT[HKPG
 
(TQO0%PQ


 

 %QRRGTHCTVJKPI#/KVTGF5CKPVʼnUJGCFHCEKPIUWPCPFTQUG2#64+%+854%TQUUYKVJTQUGCPFUWP
KPCNVGTPCVGCPINGU5ó#ó.ó8ó#ó6ó1ó4&(5GCD[IT 44(KPGVQXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
(TQO0%PQ 
$QVJVJGQDXGTUGVGZVCPFVJCVQPVJGTGXGTUGCTGTGVTQITCFG



 

 )TQCV*GCX[KUUWG&WDNKP#$WUVKPVTGUUWTGRGNNGVUKPQPGQTVJTGGNQYGTURCPFTGNUQHVTGUUWTG 


'&9#4&85”&'+ )4# &05 *;$'40+4.QPIETQUURCVV¾GYKVJVJTGGRGNNGVUKPGCEJCPING
%+8+6#5”&8$.+0+'” 2158+&'8/”#&+8614'”/'8/”&(5GCD[IT
8GT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
0Q9QPVJGDTGCUV 
.GIGPFTGXGTUG2158+&'8/#&+86148//'8/+JCXGOCFGVJG.QTFO[JGNRGT
2U 


 

 )TQCV.KIJVKUUWG9CVGTHQTF#$WUVKPVTGUUWTGTQUGVVGUD[PGEM)QPDTGCUV '&9#4&85”


&'+ )4# &05 *;$'40+4.QPIETQUURCVV¾GYKVJVJTGGRGNNGVUKPGCEJCPINGCPFQPGUOCNN
ETQUUKPVJGUVCPFVJCPINGU%+8+6#59#6'4(14& 2158+&'8/”#&+86148”/'8/
&(5IT 8GT[HKPG 
*KTUEJ/ÒPEJGP#WEVKQP
 PQ

88
IRELAND

  

 2GPP[9CVGTHQTF#%TQYPGFDWUVHCEKPICPPWNGVUD[PGEM4.QPIETQUURCVV¾GYKVJVJTGGRGNNGVUKP
GCEJCPINGCPFSWCVTGHQKNKPEGPVTGQHETQUU&(5GCD[#IT #NOQUVXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP

*'04;8++
 
6JTGG%TQYPU%QKPCIGEC


 

 )TQCV*GPT[8++'CTN[6JTGG%TQYPUKUUWGU
 ##TOUQH'PINCPFCPF(TCPEGQXGTNQPI
ETQUU&1/+085*;$'40+'46JTGGETQYPUQXGTNQPIETQUU&1/+085*;$'40+'&(
5GCD[IT 4+TTGIWNCTHNCPCPFYGCMN[UVTWEMXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
(TQO0%PQ


 

 )TQCV  )GTCNFKPG KUUWG #WIWUV  1EVQDGT 


!  # (KV\IGTCNF CTOU FKXKFKPI 4Q[CN CTOU  4':  
#0).+' (4# 4 6JTGG ETQYPU J DGNQY YKVJKP VTGUUWTG  Q &1/ Q +08 Q 5 *+$'40+' Q &(  
#5GCD[IT 48GT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
(TQO0%PQ 
)GTCNF'CTNQH-KNFCTG
 

.CVGRQTVTCKVKUUWG


 

 )TQCVV[RG+C&WDNKP#$TQCFJGCFHCEKPICTEJGFETQYPDWUVDTGCMURNCKPVTGUUWTGW*'04+6*'
)4#  #0) 4 .QPIETQUURCVV¾GYKVJVJTGGRGNNGVUKPGCEJCPING%+8+6#5&8$++0+'2158+
&'8/#&+8614'/'8/&(5GCD[IT 9GCMN[UVTWEMXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
(TQO0%PQ 
'Z/KNNGPPKCNEQNNGEVKQP 
$QWIJV'5\CWGTEC

89
SCOTLAND


 
 )TQCV  V[RG ++F  &WDNKP # $TQCF JGCF HCEKPI QRGP ETQYP PQ VTGUUWTG ETQUUGU D[ ETQYP  
*'04+%85 )4#%+# 4': #0+ 4 .QPI ETQUU RCVV¾G YKVJ VJTGG RGNNGVU KP GCEJ CPING  5+8+6#5  
&8$.0+'2158+&'8/#&+8614'//'8/&(5GCD[IT 
9GCMN[UVTWEMKPRCTVUOKPQTHNCPETCEMXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
(TQO0%PQ


 

 )TQCV6[RG+++&WDNKP#$TQCFJGCFHCEKPIQRGPHNCVETQYPPQVTGUUWTG*'04+%85)4#%+#
4': #1 *;$ 4 .QPI ETQUU RCVV¾G YKVJ VJTGG RGNNGVU KP GCEJ CPING  %+8+6#5 &8$.+0 2158+  
&'8/#&+8614'//'8/&(5GCD[IT 8GT[HKPG 
)NGPFKPKPI.QPFQP#WEVKQP
 PQ

5%16.#0&
5EQVNCPFʼnU JKUVQT[ KU TGCNN[ VJCV QH QPIQKPI DCVVNG YKVJ 'PINCPF UQOGVJKPI VJCV KU JCTFN[ TGHNGEVGF KP  
5EQVVKUJEQKPCIG9JCVFQGUUJQYCTGVJGKPVGTTWRVKQPUKPKVUOKPVKPIFWTKPIKPVGTTGIPKYJGPC5EQVVKUJ
MKPIYCUJGNFECRVKXGD[VJG'PINKUJQTFWTKPIVJGEGCUGFQRGTCVKQPQHOKPVUQEEWRKGFD[VJG'PINKUJ

6JGMKPIFQO5EQVNCPFGOGTIGFCTQWPFYJGPVJGMKPIFQOUQHVJG2KEVUCPF&±N4KCVCYGTGWPKVGF
4Q[CNNKPGCIGEQOOGPEGFYKVJ-GPPGVJ+/CE#NRKPCPFFGXQNXGFQPDTQVJGTUEQWUKPUGVEWPVKN

+P  VJG MKPIFQO %WODGTNCPF YCU CFFGF CHVGT VJG RTQXKPEG .QVJKCP JCF DGGP LQKPGF KP CRRTQZ  
 6JWU VJG JGCTV QH 5EQVNCPF YCU UJCRGF /CNEQNO ++
  DGECOG KVU HKTUV UQXGTGKIP 6JG  
OCTTKCIG QH JKU ITCPFUQP /CNEQNO +++ VQ 5V /CTICTGV
VJG FCWIJVGT QH 'FYCTF VJG %QPHGUUQTʼnU JCNH  
DTQVJGT  EQKPEKFGF YKVJ VJG 0QTOCP EQPSWGUV QH 'PIGNCPF 9JGP /CNEQNO FKGF KP  PQDKNKV[  
FGOCPFGF VJCV VJG QTKIKPCN RTQEGFWTG QH UWEEGUUKQP
DTQVJGTU EQWUKPU GVE  DG TGKPUVCVGF 6JWU VJG  
VJTGGUQPUQH/CNEQNO+++'FICT#NGZCPFGT+CPF&CXKF+DGECOGUWDQTFKPCVGVQVJG'PINKUJMKPIU
9KNNKCO++CPF*GPT[+9JGPKP*GPT[+FKGF&CXKFUGK\GFVJGQRRQTVWPKV[VQUJTWIQHH'PINKUJ
CWVJQTKV[CPFTGENCKO%WODGTNCPF

5EQVVKUJ OKPVKPI DGICP HCKTN[ NCVG &CXKF + KP  UVTWEM HKTUV EQKP FWTKPI VJG FC[U QH 'PINKUJ MKPI  
5VGRJGP&CXKFʼnUHKTUVEQKPU
VJGTGCTGUQOGEQKPUMPQYPVQDGUVTWEMD[/CKPCTFCTQWPFUGG8
5OCTV6JGEQKPUQH5V#PFTGYU%J DGCTITGCVTGUGODNCPEGVQ5VGRJGPʼnU9CVHQTFV[RG

&#8+&+
 
&CXKFʼnUOCTTKCIGVQ/CVKNFCGCTPGFJKOVJGGCTNFQOQH0QTVJCORVQPCPFVJGJQPQWTQH*WPVKPIFQP*KU
UKUVGTYCUOCTTKGFVQ*GPT[+QH'PINCPF&CXKFCPFJKUUWEEGUUQTUKPVTQFWEGFCU[UVGOQHEQWPVKGUKP
5EQVNCPF
DGVYGGPCPFVJGTGYGTGKPVQVCN 6JGTGYCUPQFGHCEVQECRKVCNDWVVJGOCKP
EKVKGUYGTG'FKPDWTIJ4QZDWTIJ5VKTNKPI2GTVJCPF#DGTFGGP

  


 2GPP[2GTKQF&
CHVGT 'FKPDWTIJ#%TQYPGFDWUVTYKVJUEGRVTG4%TQUUOQNKPGCPFHNGWT
FGNKU8#85GCD[IT 44#NKVVNGQHHEGPVTGCPFYGCMN[UVTWEMHKPGVQXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
(TQO0%PQ 
%HCNUQ(KPPNKUVPQ 
2GTKQF&
5VGYCTV)TQWR+8C #HVGTFGCVJQH&CXKFCPF'CTN*GPT[

90
SCOTLAND

9+..+#/+VJG.KQP
 
9KNNKCOQYGFJKUGRKVJGVŋVJG.KQPŌVQVJGHCEVVJCVJGTGRNCEGFVJGFTCIQPKPVJGCTOUQH5EQVNCPFYKVJ
CNKQPTCORCPV9KNNKCOVJG.KQPʼnUTGKIPKUFQOKPCVGFD[CFKURWVGQXGTVJGCWVJQTKV[KP0QTVJWODTKC
%WODGTNCPFCPF9GUVOQTGNCPF+PLWUVCU9KNNKCOYCUCDQWVVQITCPV0QTVJWODTKCHWNNRQYGTU
JGYCUECRVWTGFCPFUWDLGEVGFVQVJGJWOKNKCVKQPQHJCXKPIVQCEMPQYNGFIGVJGUW\GTCKPV[QH'PINCPFCPF
*GPT[ ++ CU JKU HGWFCN NQTF +P  VJG UVCVG QH HGWFCN FGRGPFCPE[ YCU CPPWNNGF DTQWIJV CDQWV D[  
COQPIQVJGTVJKPIUCRC[OGPVQHOGTEU
VQ4KEJCTF6JG.KQPJGCTVGFYJQPGGFGFVJGOQPG[VQ
HKPCPEG JKU ETWUCFG  6JG DQTFGT DGVYGGP 'PINCPF CPF 5EQVNCPF CU NCKF FQYP KP VJG 6TGCV[ QH ;QTM  

 TGOCKPUVQFCVG
5GEQPFEQKPCIG
 

  

 2GPP[ENCUU'FKPDWTIJ#FCO#%TQYPGFDWUVNYKVJUEGRVTGUEGRVTGJGCFETQUUQHHQWTRGNNGVU
'4'%8/8#14%TQUURCVV¾GETGUEGPVGPENQUKPIRGNNGVKPGCEJCPINGQHETQUU #&#/10
'&'0'$85GCD[IT 449GNNUVTWEMRQTVTCKVYGCMN[UVTWEMCVVJGGFIGXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
(TQO0%PQ

6JKTFEQKPCIGRQUVJWOQWUKUUWG
 

 

   

 2GPP[#%TQYPGFDWUVNYKVJUEGRVTG45JQTVXQKFGFETQUUUVCTUKPCPINGU *7'9#.6'4


5GCD[IT 9GCMN[UVTWEMXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP
 2GPP[#%TQYPGFDWUVTYKVJUEGRVTG45JQTVXQKFGFETQUUUVCTUKPCPINGU *7'9#.6'4E
5GCD[IT 8GT[HKPG 
0WOKUOCVKEC9KGP#WEVKQP
 PQ

#.':#0&'4+++
 
6JGTGKIPQH#NGZCPFGT+++UCYUQOGQHVJGTKEJGUVOKPVKPIKP5EQVVKUJJKUVQT[6JGVTCPUKVKQPHTQOVJG
XQKFGFETQUUVQVJGNQPIETQUUVQQMRNCEGFWTKPIJKUTGKIPCTQWPF
KP'PINCPFVJGNQPIETQUUYCU
KPVTQFWEGFKPWPFGT'FYCTF+ 
(KTUVEQKPCIG
 

  

 2GPP[  ENCUU +  )NCUIQY  9CNVGT # (KNNGVGF JGCF T YKVJ UEGRVTG  #.':#0&'4 4': 4 .QPI  
XQKFGFETQUUYKVJUVCTUKPCPINGU9#.6'4102+%85GCD[IT 48GT[HKPG 
'NUGP$TWUUGN 
2TGUWOCDN[HTQOVJGJQCTF$TWUUGNU4WGF #UUCWV 
(TQONKUVDPQ 
&QGU2+%8
QH2+%+ OKPVGFKP)NCUIQY!

91
SCOTLAND

 

   

 2GPP[  ENCUU +  2GTVJ  +QP %QTKP # (KNNGVGF JGCF T YKVJ UEGRVTG  #.':#0&'4 4': 4 .QPI  
XQKFGFETQUUYKVJUVCTUKPCPINGU+10%14+01025GCD[IT 8GT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
(TQO0%PQ 
'Z4[CP

 2GPP[ENCUU++$GTYKEM9KNNGO#%TQYPGFDWUVTYKVJUEGRVTG#.':#0&'44':4.QPI
XQKFGFETQUUYKVJUVCTUKPCPINGU9+..'/10$'45GCD[IT +TTGIWNCTHNCPXGT[HKPG 
'NUGP$TWUUGN 
2TGUWOCDN[HTQOVJGJQCTF$TWUUGNU4WGF #UUCWV 
(TQONKUVDPQ

 

   

 2GPP[ENCUU++2GTVJ+QP%QTKP#%TQYPGFDWUVTYKVJUEGRVTG#.':#0&'44':4.QPI
XQKFGFETQUUYKVJUVCTUKPCPINGU+10%1102'45GCD[IT 
9GCMN[UVTWEMKPRCTVUXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
(TQO0%PQ

 2GPP[ENCUU+++#DGTFGGP#NKUCPFGT#%TQYPGFDWUVNYKVJUEGRVTG#.':#0&'44':4.QPI
XQKFGFETQUUYKVJUVCTUKPCPINGU#.+5#010#5GCD[IT 
/KPQTHNCPETCEMCPFCNKVVNGQHEGPVTGQVJGTYKUGXGT[HKPG 
'NUGP$TWUUGN 
2TGUWOCDN[HTQOVJGJQCTF$TWUUGNU4WGF #UUCWV 
(TQODPQ

 


 2GPP[ENCUU+++&WOHTKGU9CNVGT#%TQYPGFDWUVNYKVJUEGRVTG#.':#0&'44':4.QPI
XQKFGFETQUUYKVJUVCTUKPCPINGU9#.6'410&805GCD[IT 48GT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
(TQO0%PQ 
2TGUWOCDN[HTQOVJGJQCTF$TWUUGNU4WGF #UUCWV 
'Z.QEMGVV 
'Z&WPFGG 
+PECV&WPFGG6JGTGKUUQOGSWGUVKQPCUVQVJGKFGPVKV[QHVJGOKPV

92
SCOTLAND

 

   

 2GPP[ENCUU++++PXGTPGUU)GHTCK#%TQYPGFDWUVNYKVJUEGRVTG#.':#0&'44':4.QPI
XQKFGFETQUUYKVJUVCTUKPCPINGU)'(4#+0810+5GCD[IT 
4#NKVVNGQHHEGPVTGXGT[HKPG 
5EJWNOCP#OUVGTFCO#WEVKQP
 PQ 
'ZJQCTF*CCTNQQ
 

 2GPP[ENCUU+++4QZDWTIJ#PFTGX#%TQYPGFDWUVNYKVJUEGRVTG#.':#0&'44':4.QPI
XQKFGFETQUUYKVJUVCTUKPCPINGU#0&4'81045GCD[IT #NOQUVXGT[HKPG 
'NUGP$TWUUGN 
2TGUWOCDN[HTQOVJGJQCTF$TWUUGNU4WGF #UUCWV 
(TQONKUVDPQ

 

   

 2GPP[  ENCUU +++  5VKTNKPI  *GPTK # %TQYPGF DWUV N YKVJ UEGRVTG  #.':#0&'4 4': 4 .QPI  
XQKFGFETQUUYKVJUVCTUKPCPINGU*'04+%10564'5GCD[IT 48GT[HKPG 
'NUGP$TWUUGN 
2TGUWOCDN[HTQOVJGJQCTF$TWUUGNU4WGF #UUCWV 
(TQONKUVDPQ

 2GPP[ENCUU+++'FKPDWTIJ#NGZCPFGT#%TQYPGFDWUVNYKVJUEGRVTG#.':#0&'44':4
.QPIXQKFGFETQUUYKVJUVCTUKPCPINGU#.':10'&'05GCD[IT 
#NKVVNGQHHEGPVTGXGT[HKPG 
'NUGP$TWUUGN 
2TGUWOCDN[HTQOVJGJQCTF$TWUUGNU4WGF #UUCWV 
(TQONKUVDPQ

5GEQPFEQKPCIG
EC 


 

 2GPP[ # %TQYPGF DWUV N YKVJ UEGRVTG   #.':#0&'4 &'+ )4# 4 .QPI ETQUU RCVV¾G UVCT KP  
CPINGU4':5%16148/ 5GCD[IT &CTMRCVKPCCNOQUVGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
6QFGTK(NQTGPEG 
%NCUU$

93
SCOTLAND


 

 2GPP[#%TQYPGFDWUVNYKVJUEGRVTG #.':#0&'4&'+)4#4.QPIETQUURCVV¾GUVCTKP


CPINGU4':5%16148/ 5GCD[IT 8GT[HKPG 
4CWEJ9KGP#WEVKQP
 PQ

,1*0$#..+1.
 
#V JKU FGOKUG KP  #NGZCPFGT +++ JCF PQ OCNG JGKTU 6JWU VJTGG[GCTQNF /CTICTGV YCU ETQYPGF  
YKVJVJGEQPUGPVQHPQDKNKV[5JGYCUVJGFCWIJVGTQH/CTICTGV
UJGKPVWTPVJGFCWIJVGTQH#NGZCPFGT
+++  CPF 0QTYGIKCP MKPI 'KTKM ++ 0QDKNKV[ UKIPGF C VTGCV[ YKVJ -KPI 'FYCTF + QH 'PIGNCPF KP   
UVCVKPIVJCV/CTICTGV
/CKFQH0QTYC[ YCUVQYGFVJGUQPQH'FYCTF+'FYCTF++;GVKPVJGUCOG
[GCT C UJKR ECTT[KPI VJG RTQOKUGF EJKNFSWGGP JQOG HTQO 0QTYC[ YGPV FQYP KP C UVQTO QHH VJG  
1TMPG[UNGCXKPIPQUWTXKXQTU/CTICTGVYCUOGTGN[UGXGP[GCTUQNF'FYCTF+EJQQUKPIHTQOUGXGTCN
RTGVGPFGTUDGUVQYGFVJGETQYPWRQP,QJP$CNNKQN
5GEQPFEQKPCIG
,QJP$CNNKQNʼnUEQTQPCVKQPTGKIPKVGFVJGYCTYKVJVJG'PINKUJCPFVJG5EQVUHQTIGFCRCEVYKVJ2JKNKR+8QH
(TCPEG
DGIKPPKPI QH VJG ŋ#WNF #NNKCPEGŌ  RTQORVKPI 'FYCTF VQ KPXCFG 5EQVNCPF CPF JCXG $CNNKQN  
UWTTGPFGTJKUCWVJQTKV[



 

 2GPP[ # %TQYPGF DWUV N YKVJ UEGRVTG   +1*#00'5 &'+ )4# 4 .QPI ETQUU RCVV¾G UVCT KP  
CPINGU4':5%16148/ 5GCD[IT 49GNNUVTWEMXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP#WEVKQP
 PQ
#HVGT$CNNKQNYCUVQRRNGFUGXGTCNŋ9CTUQH+PFGRGPFGPEGŌGPUWGF6JCVVJG'PINKUJFGURKVGPWOGTQWU
ECORCKIPU KPVQ 5EQVVKUJ VGTTKVQT[ PGXGT OCPCIGF VQ QEEWR[ KV KU GURGEKCNN[ QYGF VQ VJG WPYCPKPI  
RWIPCEKV[QH9KNNKCO9CNNCEGCPF4QDGTVVJG$TWEG

41$'46+$47%'
 
$QVJ ,QJP $CNNKQN CPF 4QDGTV VJG $TWEG YGTG FGUEGPFCPVU QH &CXKF + #HVGT VJG FGCVJ QH 'FYCTF +  
'FYCTF ++ EQPVKPWGF DCVVNKPI VJG 5EQVU WPVKN  YJGP 4QDGTV VJG $TWEG FGHGCVGF VJG 'PINKUJ PGCT  
$CPPQEMDWTPCPF5EQVNCPFYCUCEMPQYNGFIGFCPKPFGRGPFGPVMKPIFQO 
4QDGTVVJG$TWEGOQUVNKMGN[FKFPQVUVTKMGEQKPDGHQTG

 


 2GPP[#%TQYPGFDWUVNYKVJUEGRVTG 41$'4685&'+)4#4.QPIETQUURCVV¾GUVCTKP


CPINGU5%16148/4': 5GCD[IT 448GT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP

94
SCOTLAND

&#8+&++
 
9JGP &CXKF $TWEG KP  UWEEGGFGF JKU HCVJGT CU &CXKF ++ JG YCU QPN[ HKXG [GCTU QH CIG # [GCT  
GCTNKGT JG JCF YGFFGF ,QCP QH VJG 6QYGT UKUVGT QH 'FYCTF +++
VJG EQWRNG YGTG TGUR  CPF  [GCTU  
QNF +P'FYCTF+++YGPVQPCPQVJGTECORCKIPCICKPUVVJG5EQVUFGHGCVKPIVJGOCV*CNKFQP*KNN
&CXKF++HNGFVQ(TCPEGYJGTGJGTGOCKPGFVJTQWIJQWVJKUOKPQTKV[DKFKPIJKUVKOG1PEGQHCIG
 
JG KPXCFGF 'PINCPF DWV JG NQUV VJG $CVVNG CV 0GXKNNG %TQUU
PGCT &WTJCO  CPF YCU VCMGP ECRVKXG  
'FYCTF+++HCKNGFVQECRKVCNKUGQPVJKUUWEEGUUFWGVQVJGHKGTEGTGUKUVCPEGD[VJG5EQVVKUJRGQRNGCPFJCF
VQ CESWKGUEG VQ VJG 6TGCV[ QH $GTYKEM KP  YJKEJ GPCDNGF VJG TGVWTP QH &CXKF ++ HQT C TCPUQO QH  
OCTMU 
&CXKFJCFPQOCNGKUUWGCPFWRQPJKUFGCVJVJGQNFF[PCUV[DGECOGGZVKPEV 
7PFGT&CXKF++VJGITQCVYCUHKTUVKUUWGFUVCTVKPICEQR[QHVJGITQCVQH'FYCTF+++KPVTQFWEGF
UKZ[GCTUGCTNKGT

(KTUVEQKPCIG


 

 2GPP[ # %TQYPGF DWUV N YKVJ UEGRVTG   &#8+&  &'+  )4#%+# 4 .QPIETQUURCVV¾GUVCTKP
CPINGU4':5%166148/5GCD[IT 8GT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
(TQO0%PQ 
'Z4%$
UJQWNFPʼnVVJKUDG4%.! 

  

 (CTVJKPI#%TQYPGFDWUVNYKVJUEGRVTG /10'6#4')+5&4.QPIETQUURCVV¾GUVCTKPCPINGU


#8+&5%16145GCD[IT 'ZVTGOGN[TCTG8GT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
(TQO0%PQ 
4GOCTMTGXGTUGVJGTGKUUQOGVJKPI
#! DGVYGGPVJG1CPFVJG6QH5%1614WPOGPVKQPGFKPVJGFGUETKRVKQP

5GEQPFEQKPCIG
 



 

 )TQCVENCUU#'FKPDWTIJ#%TQYPGFDWUVNDTGCMKPIRNCKPVTGUUWTG &#8+&Z&'+Z)4#Z


4': Z 5%16148/ 4 .QPI ETQUU RCVV¾G UVCT KP CPINGU  8+..# '&+0$84)*  &05 Z  
26'%614/5(.+$#614/55GCD[IT 8GT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
(TQO0%PQ 
.GIGPF &1/+085  2416'%614  /'85  '6 .+$'4#614 /'85  6JG .QTF KU O[ RTQVGEVQT CPF O[  
FGNKXGTGT
2U  
6JGZQPVJGTGXGTUG
DGVYGGP&05CPF26'%614 KUCDQXGCETGUEGPV

95
SCOTLAND



 

 )TQCV  ENCUU %  'FKPDWTIJ # %TQYPGF DWUV N DTGCMKPI RNCKP VTGUUWTG   &#8+&  &'+ ¢ )4#  
4': 5%16148/4.QPIETQUURCVV¾GUVCTKPCPINGUKPQPGCPING&8+..#'&+0$84)* 
&05 26'%614/5 ( .+$#614/55GCD[IT 
+TTGIWNCTHNCPCPFYGCMN[UVTWEMXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
QPTGXGTUG
DGVYGGP&05CPF26'%614 KU CDQXGCETGUEGPV 
2TGUWOCDN[HTQOVJGUCOGNQVCU
ECTFDGCTUVJGUCOGJCPFYTKVKPI 



 

 )TQCV  ENCUU &  'FKPDWTIJ # %TQYPGF DWUV N DTGCMKPI RNCKP VTGUUWTG   &#8+& ¢ &'+ ¢ )4# ¢  
4': ¢ 5%16148/ 4 .QPI ETQUU RCVV¾G UVCT KP CPINGU  8+..# '&+0$84)*  &05   
26'%614/5 ( .+$#61/55GCD[IT 'FIGHCWNVUQVJGTYKUGXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
QPTGXGTUG
DGVYGGP&05CPF26'%614 KU CDQXGCETGUEGPV


 

 *CNH ITQCV  'FKPDWTIJ # %TQYPGF DWUV N DTGCMKPI RNCKP VTGUUWTG   &#8+&  &'+  )4#   
4':  5%16148/ 4 .QPI ETQUU RCVV¾G UVCT KP CPINGU  8+..# '&+0$84)*  &05  
2416'%614/'85¢5GCD[IT 0KEGRQTVTCKVKTTGIWNCTHNCPCNOQUVGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
)NGPFKPKPI.QPFQP#WEVKQP PQ 
'Z9KNNGUEQNNGEVKQP
  
6JGRUCNOVGZVKUUJQTVGPGFVQŋ)QFKUO[FGHGPFGTŌ

96
SCOTLAND

41$'46++
 
#VVJGFGOKUGQH&CXKFVJGETQYPFGXQNXGFQPVJGJGTGFKVCT[5VGYCTVVKVNG6JWU4QDGTV++UQPQHVJG
QNFGUVFCWIJVGTQH4QDGTV+/CTLQTKG$TWEGCPF9CNVGTVJGVJ*KIJ5VGYCTVCEEGFGFVQVJGVJTQPG6JG
5VGYCTVF[PCUV[YQWNFTGKIP5EQVNCPFWPVKN 
#OQPIJKIJPQDKNKV[4QDGTV++TGKIPGFCURTKOWUKPVGTRCTGUCUFKFJKUUWEEGUUQT4QDGTV+++PGKVJGT
GXGTJGNFTQ[CNUVCVWTG


 

 )TQCV2GTVJ#%TQYPGFDWUVNDTGCMKPIRNCKPVTGUUWTG 41$'4685 &'+ )4# 4': 


5%16146/4.QPIETQUURCVV¾GUVCTKPCPINGU8+..#&'2'46*: &05 26'%614/5
( .+$#614/55GCD[IT 9GNNUVTWEMCPFTCTGKPVJKUEQPFKVKQPXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
(TQO0%PQ 
6JG QPVJGTGXGTUG
DGVYGGP&05CPF26'%614 KUCDQXGCETGUEGPV 
0% OGPVKQPU 1DXGTUG DWUV DCUGF QP VJG UV[NG QH VJG &CXKF ++ KPVGTOGFKCVG JGCF ITQCVU #PGZEGNNGPVURGEKOGPQH
VJKUXCTKGV[CPFTCTGKPVJKUWPENKRRGFUVCVG(TQOVJGUCOGFKGUCU50%PQ


 

 2GPP[2GTVJ#%TQYPGFDWUVNYKVJUEGRVTG 41$'4685 4': 5%16144.QPIETQUU


RCVV¾GUVCTKPCPINGU8+..#&'2'46*Z5GCD[IT 
9GCMN[UVTWEMCVVJGGFIGXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP

41$'46+++
 
6JGQNFGUVUQPQH4QDGTV++YCUPCOGF,QJP'CTNQH%CTTKEM[GVJGCFQRVGFVJGPCOGQH4QDGTV+++
#P CEEKFGPV JCF TGPFGTGF JKO VQVCNN[ FKUCDNGF CPF IQXGTPOGPV NC[ KP JKU DTQVJGTʼnU JCPFU 4QDGTV  
5VGYCTV&WMGQH#NDCP[ 
4QDGTV+++KPVTQFWEGFVJGHKTUVIQNFEQKPU

*GCX[EQKPCIG
 


 

 )TQCVHKTUVKUUWG'FKPDWTIJ#%TQYPGFHCEKPIDWUVKPUGXGPCTEVTGUUWTG 41$'4685ð&'+ð


)4#ð4':ð5%16148/4.QPIETQUURCVV¾GRGNNGVUKPCPINGU8+..#ð'&+0$74)*ð 
&05ð26'%614/5(.+$#614/55GCD[IT #NOQUVXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 

97
SCOTLAND



 

 )TQCVUGEQPFKUUWG2GTVJ#%TQYPGFHCEKPIDWUVKPUGXGPCTEVTGUUWTG 41$'4685 &'+ 


)4# 4':¢5%16148/4.QPIETQUURCVV¾GRGNNGVUKPCPINGU8+..¢ #¢&'¢2'46*: 
&05¢2¢6'%614/5¢(¢.+$#614/55GCD[IT 
(NCPETCEMCPFFQWDNGUVTWEMXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP



 

 )TQCVUGEQPFKUUWG2GTVJ#%TQYPGFHCEKPIDWUVKPUGXGPCTEVTGUUWTG 41$'4685¢&'+)4#


¢4':¢5%16148/4.QPIETQUURCVV¾GRGNNGVUKPCPINGU8+..#¢&'2'46*  &05¢(¢
6'61$¢/5¢(.+&#6155GCD[IT 'FIGEJKRRGFXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
6JGFKCOGVGTKUUOCNNGTVJCPWUWCNCPFVJG2UCNOVGZVKUCNKVVNGDKVICTDNGF

,#/'5+
 
#HVGT[GCTUQHECRVKXKV[
 ,COGU+KPUVKVWVGFCUQNKFMKPIUJKR+PJGYGFFGF,CPGVFG
$GCWHQTVCPFYCUOWTFGTGFKP

 


 &GO[V[RG+++#.KQPTCORCPVNKPNQUGPIGñ+#%1$85„&'+)4#%+#„4':545V#PFTGYU
ETQUU DGVYGGP VYQ NKU KP JGZCIQP HNGWT[ SWCVTGHQKN KP CPINGU NCTIG SWCVTGHQKNU YKVJ UOCNN RGNNGVU KP  
EGPVTG 5#.88/ð(#%2128.8/„688/J(D5GCD[IT 
48GT[HKPGVQGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
.GIGPF5#.88/(#%2128.8/688/&1/+0'1.QTFUCXG6J[RGQRNG
2U 

98
SCOTLAND

,#/'5++
 
#VVJGOWTFGTQHJKUHCVJGT,COGU+,COGU++YCUQPN[UGXGP[GCTUQNF*GYCUETQYPGFKPCPF
YGFFGF/CTKCQH)WGNFGTU
FCWIJVGTQH#TPQNF&WMGQH)WGNFGTU KP#PWPHQTVWPCVGUVTQMGQH
HCVGNGFVQJKUFGCVJKOOGFKCVGN[CHVGTJGJCFYQPVJG$CVVNGQH4QZDWTIJ



 

 &GO[V[RG+8D#.KQPTCORCPVNKPNQUGPIGñ+#%1$85”&'+”)4#%+#”4':”5%45V
#PFTGYU ETQUU DGVYGGP VYQ NKU KP JGZCIQP HNGWT[ SWCVTGHQKN KP CPINGU NCTIG SWCVTGHQKNU YKVJ NCTIG  
RGNNGVUKPEGPVTG 5#.88/„(#%2128.8/688/&PQ(D5GCD[IT 
5EJWNOCP#OUVGTFCO
48GT[HKPG





 

 5V#PFTGYURGPP[
 #1TDVKNVGFFQYPYCTFU +#%1$85¢&'+¢)4#¢4':4
.CVKPETQUUKPSWCVTGHQKN Q%48:Q2'..+61+''5+/5GCD[IT 
4/KPQTFQWDNGUVTWEMCNOQUVXGT[HKPG 
'NUGP$TWUUGN 
(TQONKUVDPQ 
.GIGPF %48: 2'..+6 1/0' %4+/'0  6JG ETQUU FTKXGU CYC[ CNN UKP
(TQO C HQWTVJ EGPVWT[ J[OP D[  
2TWFGPVKWU  
+P  C HKPF YCU OCFG CV %TQUUTCIWGN #DDG[ KP #[TUJKTG YJKEJ KPENWFGF OCP[ URGEKOGPU QH ,COGU +++ CPF +8  
6JG RGPPKGU CTG ENGCTN[ QH GEENGUKCUVKECN KPURKTCVKQP +P CFFKVKQP VQ VJG FGXKEG QH VJG QTD VJG TGXGTUG NGIGPF KU VJG  
QRGPKPI NKPG QH CP GXGPKPI J[OP D[ 2TWFGPVKWU +V YCU VJGP UWIIGUVGF VJCV KV YCU CP GEENGUKCUVKECN KUUWG QH VJCV  
CDDG[6JGNCVGTCVVTKDWVKQPVQ$KUJQR-GPPGF[QH5V#PFTGYUKUHCTOQTGRNCWUKDNGDGECWUGVJGQDXGTUGV[RGKUVJG
UCOGCUQPVJGCTOUQH5V5CNXCVQT U%QNNGIGVJGTGHQWPFGFD[$KUJQR-GPPGF[KPCPFVJGDKUJQRTKEFKFJCXG
EQKPCIG TKIJVU +V KU PQY VJQWIJV OQTG NKMGN[ VJCV VJG[ YGTG TGICN QTUGOKTGICNKUUWGURGTJCRURCTVQHVJGŋ$CNEM
OQPG[ŌFGOQPGVK\GFCVNCWFGTKPCUCTGUWNVQHCTGXQNVCICKPUV,COGU+++#UCIGPGTCNTWNGVJGUGEQKPUJCXG
PQKPFKECVKQPQHVJGEQWPVT[QHQTKIKPKPVJGNGIGPFDWVQPGURGEKOGPQHVJGŋRGPP[ŌKUMPQYPYJKEJTGCFU4':5
6JGEWTTGPE[XCNWGKUWPEGTVCKP
5GG&WPFGGECVCNQIWGCPF85OCTV6JGEQKPUQH5V#PFTGYUEJCRVGT8+ 


 

 5V #PFTGYU RGPP[ # 1TD VKNVGF FQYPYCTFU   +#%1$85 ¢ &'+ ¢ 4': )4# 4 .CVKP ETQUU KP  
SWCVTGHQKN %48:Q2'..+6Q1+'Q)4+/5GCD[IT 
4+TTGIWNCTHNCPCPFUETCVEJGUCNOQUVXGT[HKPG 
0GGTNCPFKC-CORGTXGGP 

99
SCOTLAND


 

 5V#PFTGYURGPP[#1TDVKNVGFFQYPYCTFUTQUGVVGKPEGPVTGQHQTD +#%1$85¢&'+¢)4#¢4'


4.CVKPETQUUKPSWCVTGHQKN  %48: 2'..6 1+ %4++ 5GCD[IT 48GT[HKPG 
6QFGTK(NQTGPEG



 

 5V #PFTGYU RGPP[ # 1TD VKNVGF FQYPYCTFU   -#41.85 ¢ &'+ ¢ )4# ¢ 4' 4 .CVKP ETQUU KP  
SWCVTGHQKN %48:¢2'..+6¢1'¢%45GCD[XCTIT 4(KPGVQXGT[HKPG 
*GP\GP#OGTQPIGP 
+UUWGFD[
! $KUJQR-GPPGF[QH5V#PFTGYU
2TGXKQWUN[MPQYPCUŋ%TQUTCIWGNŌRGPPKGU  
0QTOCNN[KVYQWNFTGCF+#%1$85DWVVJKUURGEKOGPENGCTN[UJQYU-#41.85 
6JKUKUCEQWPVGTHGKVHTQOCRGTKQFQHYJKEJHGYCTGMPQYP#NNMPQYPURGEKOGPUYGTGHQWPFQPVJGEQPVKPGPVPQV
QPGKP'PINCPF5GGCTVKENGD[/WTT[CPF0GTQOKP4$0
 R

,#/'5+++
 
+PQPCUEGPFKPIVQVJGVJTQPG,COGU+++YCU[GCTUQNF0KPG[GCTUNCVGTJGYQWNFYGF/CTICTGV
QH&GPOCTM*GYCUCYC[YCTFOCPCPFOCFGPWOGTQWUGPGOKGU5VKNNJGYCUVJGHKTUVVQUVTKMGCEQKP
YKVJCŋTGCNŌRQTVTCKV



 

 )TQCV  ENCUU 8+


  # %TQYPGF DWUV VJTGGSWCVGTU N KP UWTEQCV CPF CTOQWT CPPWNGV QP  
KPPGT EKTENG   +#%1$85 „ &'+ „ )4#%+# „ 4': „ %1648 4  .QPI ETQUU RCVV¾G ETQYPU CPF  
RGNNGVUYKVJCPPWNGVUDGVYGGPKPCNVGTPCVGCPINGUQHETQUU 8+.„.#'„Z&+0„$48) &+05Q
2416'14/'6)4#61Q5GCD[IT 45OCNNHNCPCNOQUVXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
6JGRQTVCKVQHVJKUEQKP
CPFVJGPGZV KUWPFQWDVN[CVTWGNKMGPGUUQH,COGU+++CPFCTGOCTMCDNGGCTN[KPUVCPEGQH
4GPCKUUCPEGEQKPRQTVTCKVWTG

100
SCOTLAND



 

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6JQWIJDGVYGGPCPFTGCNRGCEGYKVJ'PINCPFYCUPGXGTTGCEJGFVJGTGYGTGNQPIRGTKQFUQH
CTOKUVKEG#PFVJG5EQVUEQWNFCNYC[UTGN[QPVJG(TGPEJ

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101
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QH(TCPEGCHVGTFGHGCVKPIVJG8KUKIQVJUVJG[TGVTGCVGFKPVQVJGOCKPRCTVQH5RCKPCPFCRCTVQH5QWVJGTP
(TCPEGCHVGTKPVJG/QQTKUJCTOKGUWPFGTGOKT#DFCT4CJOCPYGTGEQPSWGTGFD[%JCTNGU/CTVGN
CVVJG$CVVNGQH6QWTU

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CU YGNN CU KPVQ #TCIÉP 6JGKT VGTTKVQTKGU UVGCFKN[ FYKPFNGF WPVKN GXGPVWCNN[ VJGKT NCUV UVTQPIJQNF  
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102
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103
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104
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105
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106
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107
SPAIN - CALIPHAT


 

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108
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109
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110
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111
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6JCVVJG[EQWNFJCXGUWTXKXGFVJCVNQPIKUQYGFVQVJGKTUWDVNGFKRNQOCVKEOCPQGWXTKPIUQOGVKOGUEQ
QRGTCVKPIYKVJVJG5WNVCPQH/QTQEEQUQOGVKOGULQKPKPIHQTEGUYKVJ%CUVKNGʼnUMKPI6JWU5RCKPʼnUJKIJ
#TCDKEEWNVWTGYCURTGUGTXGF
#010;/175

   


 
 4GEVCPIWNCT&KTJGO)TCPCFC$QVJUKFGUCTCDKCPNGIGPF8IT (NCPETCEMHKPG 
2NKGIQ5GXKNNC#WEVKQPPQ 
+PVJGECVCNQIWGYCUVJGTGHGTGPEG/G

 4GEVCPIWNCT&KTJGO)TCPCFC$QVJUKFGUCTCDKCPNGIGPF8IT 445OCNNJQNGHKPG 


2NKGIQ5GXKNNC#WEVKQPPQ 

112
SPAIN - CASTILE and LEÓN

%#56+.'CPF.'¡0
+P VJG VJ EGPVWT[ VJG EQWPV[ QH %CUVKNG TCRKFN[ FGXGNQRGF KPKVKCNN[ WPFGT VJG TWNG QH .GÉP +P   
%QWPV (GTP±P )QP\±NG\ QH %CUVKNG UGK\GF KPFGRGPFGPE[ HQT JKU VGTTKVQT[ 6JG UGEQPF JCNH QH VJG VJ  
EGPVWT[ UCY VJG TKUG QH %CUVKNG VQ C NGCFKPI HQTEG EWNOKPCVKPI KP VJG ECRVWTG QH .GÉP D[ (GTPCPFQ +  

 YJQCFXCPEGFCUHCTKPVQ0CXCTTCCU5CPVCPFGT0QEQKPUCTGMPQYPHTQOVJKURGTKQF

#V(GTPCPFQʼnUFGCVJVJGFQOKPKQPYCUFKXKFGFCOQPIJKUVJTGGUQPU5CPEJQTGEGKXGF%CUVKNG#NHQPUQ
.GÉP CPF )CTEKC TGEGKXGF VJG VGTTKVQTKGU DGVYGGP )CNKEKC CPF 2QTVWICN
OCTMKPI VJG GOGTIGPEG QH VJG  
UVCVGQH2QTVWICNTGHGTVQŋ2QTVWICNŌ 5QQPCHVGTVJCVEQPVGPVKQPCTQUGDGVYGGP5CPEJQCPF#NHQPUQ
#NHQPUQGOGTIKPICUTWNGTQH%CUVKNGCPF.GÉP(KTUVMPQYPEQKPUCTGHTQOVJGRGTKQFCHVGTVJKUWPKQP

#NVJQWIJCNQPIVKOGWPFGTCIGOQPCTEJCHVGTEQOKPIQHCIG#NHQPUQ8++XGT[UWEEGUUHWNN[ECORCKIPGF
CICKPUVVJG/QQTUCUYJGPJGUGK\GF#NOGTÃC+PJGRTQENCKOGFJKOUGNHŋ'ORGTQTQH5RCKPŌ

#.(10518+





 

 &KPGTQ  6QNGFQ # %TQUU  #0(85 4': 4 %JTKUVQITCO CNRJC CPF QOGIC KP VYQ CPINGU    
61.'681#$%%IT 6TCEGUQHXGTFKITKUXGT[HKPG 
*KTUEJ5VQEMJQNO

#.(1051+QH#4#)10
 



 

 &KPGTQ6QNGFQ#*GCFN#0(854':4%TQUUYKVJUVCTKPVJGUVCPFVJCPINGU 61..'6#


#$%%IT &CTMRCVKPCXGT[HKPG 
/ÒP\\GPVTWO-ÌNP#WEVKQP
 PQ



 

 1DQNQ6QNGFQ#*GCFN#0(854':4%TQUUYKVJUVCTKPVJGPFCPFTFCPINGU 61..'6#


#$%%IT &CTMITGGPRCVKPCXGT[HKPG 
2NKGIQ5GXKNNC#WEVKQPPQ

113
SPAIN - CASTILE and LEÓN

.'¡0
#NHQPUQʼnU FGOKUG KP  NGHV VJG TGCNO VQ JKU UQPU FKXKFKPI KV DGVYGGP 5CPEJQ KP %CUVKNG CPF  
(GTFKPCPFQKP.GÉP1PEGCICKPVJGVGTTKVQTKGUYGTGUGRCTCVGF

2CTVKEWNCTN[ WPFGT #NHQPUQ +:
  VJGTG YCU C EQPUVCPV UVCVG QH YCT YKVJ %CUVKNG YKVJ .GÉP  
ITCXGN[ YGCMGPGF D[ VJG NQUU QH 2QTVWICN CPF VJG XKTVWCN KPFGRGPFGPEG QH )CNKEKC WPFGT #TEJDKUJQR  
&KGIQ)GNOKTG\QH%QORQUVGNC

9JGP#NHQPUQ+:FKGFKP.GÉPYCUTGWPKVGFYKVJ%CUVKNG#NHQPUQYCUYGFFGFVQ$GTGPIWGNCC
FCWIJVGTQH'PTKEQ+QH%CUVKNG6JGEQODKPCVKQP%CUVKNG.GÉPYQWNFPQYVQNCUVHQTIQQF


 

#.(1051+:


 &KPGTQ  5CNCOCPEC
!  # .QPI ETQUU YKVJ VJG NKODU GPFKPI KP RGNNGVU CPF UECNNQRU KP VJG CPINGU  
#.(105 4':4.KQPT'KPHTQPVCPFETQUUDGJKPF.'1#$XCT%%IT
2NKGIQ5GXKNNC#WEVKQPPQ %QTTQFGFCPFKTTGIWNCTHNCPXGT[HKPG 

 


 1DQNQ.GQP
! #%TQUUYKVJQPGUVCTKPGCEJCPING#0(105 4':4.KQPT.'1#$
%%IT 44'FIGDTGCMUHKPG 
2NKGIQ5GXKNNC#WEVKQPPQ

%#56+.'
5CPEJQFKGFCHVGTQPG[GCT6JGUWDUGSWGPVIQXGTPOGPVQH#NHQPUQ8+++YCUCDTWRVN[DTQWIJVVQCPGPF
D[ JKU KPECTEGTCVKQP D[ VJG .CTC F[PCUV[ 0QV WPVKN  EQWNF JG GUECRG HTQO JKU ECRVKXKV[ WUKPI  
QWVUKFG JGNR 0QT #NHQPUQ 8+++ PGKVJGT 'PTKEQ + JCF CVVCKPGF VJGKT IQCNUYKVJTGURGEVVQVJG/WUNKOU
0QPGVJGNGUUVJKPIUYGTGNQQMKPIRTQURGTQWUD[VJGVKOG(GTPCPFQ+++UQPQH$GTGPIWGNCCPF#NHQPUQ
+:QH.GÉPECOGVQRQYGTKP*KUCWVJQTKV[KPETGCUGFYKVJVJGFGOKUGQHJKUHCVJGTYJKEJGCTPGF
JKOVJGVKVNGQH-KPIQH.GÉP

#.(10518+++
 



 

 /QTCDGVKPQ6QNGFQ#&#2TÃPEKRGFGNQUECVÉNKEQU#NHQPUQJKLQFG5CPEJQC[ÐFGNG&KQU
[RTQV¾LCNG1PVJGGFIG(WGCEWPCFQGUVGFKPCTGP6QNGFQGNCPQFGNCGTC5CHCTF4$GVYGGP
ETQUU CPF #.( +O±P FG NC KINGUKC  FGN /GUKCU GN 2CRC  FG 4QOC NC )TCPFG 1P VJG GFIG 'P GN  
PQODTGFGN2CFTG[FGN'URKTKVW5CPVQGNSWGETG[GTC[HWGTCDCWVK\CFQUGUCNXCTG#$%%
(DIT 4#NOQUVGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
(TCPMHWTVGT/ÒP\JCPFNWPI#WEVKQP
 PQ

114
SPAIN - CASTILE and LEÓN

  

 1DQNQ6QNGFQ#*GCFT#0(854':4%TQYPGFJGCFT61.'68.##$%%EH
IT 4&CTMRCVKPCHKPG 
2NKGIQ5GXKNNC#WEVKQPPQ


 

 &KPGTQ  %WGPEC


!  # %TQUU   Q #0(85 Q 4': Q 4 $WUV N QXGT ECUVNG DGVYGGP UVCT CPF %  
%#56'.##$%%
EHCPF IT 4'ZVTGOGN[HKPG 
#0'$CTEGNQPC#WEVKQPPQ

 


 &KPGTQ1ECÇC
! #%TQYPGFDWUVN#0(854':4%CUVNGDGVYGGPUVCTCPF1%#56'.##$
%%IT 6TCEGUQHXGTFKITKUXGT[HKPG 
#0'$CTEGNQPC#WEVKQPPQ

%#56+.'CPF.'¡0
6JG HKTUV MKPI QH VJG WPKVGF %CUVKNG CPF .GÉP YCU (GTPCPFQ +++ *G XCUVN[ EQPVTKDWVGF VQ VJG
PGCT   
EQORNGVKQPQHVJG4GEQPSWKUVC+PVJGGPFQPN[)TCPCFCTGOCKPGF/QQTKUJCPFYQWNFUVC[UQWPVKN

6JWUHQWTTGIKQPUTGOCKPGFQPVJG+DGTKCP2GPKPUWNCVJGVYQOQUVKORQTVCPVDGKPI%CUVKNGCPF#TCIÉP

VJGHKTUVD[HCTNCTIGT#TCIQPCOWEJTKEJGTTGIKQP CPFVJGP0CXCTTCCPF2QTVWICN

6JGQPIQKPIDCVVNGDGVYGGPVJGFKHHGTGPVHTCEVKQPUTGKIPKVGFYJGP2GFTQ+
 YCUEQPHTQPVGF
YKVJ'PTKEQQH6TCUVCOCTCKNNGIKVKOCVGUQPQH#NHQPUQ:+CPF.GQPQTFG)W\O±P'XGPVWCNN['PTKEQ
OWTFGTU2GFTQCV/QPVKGNKPCPFUWEEGGFUJKOUVCTVKPIVJGJQWUGQH6TCUVCOCTG

7PFGT'PTKEQ+8
 ITGCVEQPHWUKQPTGKIPGF'PTKEQYCUEJKNFNGUU*GYCUUWEEGGFGFD[JKU
UKUVGT +UCDGNNC ,QCP ++ QH #TCIÉP OCPCIGF VQ YGF JKU UQP (GTFKPCPF VQ +UCDGNNG KP  ENGCTKPI VJG  
YC[HQTQPG5RCKP

('40#0&1+++
 


 

 &KPGTQ.GÉP#%TQUUYKVJQPGNKUKPGCEJCPING /10'6#.')+10+541TPCOGPVGFVTKFGPV


YKVJVJGNKODUGPFKPIKPQPGETQUUCPFVYQTKPIU#$%%IT 8GT[HKPG 
-ÒPMGT1UPCDTÒEM#WEVKQP
 PQ

115
SPAIN - CASTILE and LEÓN

#.(1051:




 

 &KPGTQ%WGPEC#+PUKZNKPGU#.(105854':%#56'..''6.')+10+546YQNKQPU
CPFVYQECUVNGUETGUEGPVNCDQXG#$%%IT 8GT[HKPG 
(TGNKP5V2CWNGP(GPQWKNNGV

  

 1DQNQPQOKPV#+PUKZNKPGU#.(105854':%#56'..''6.')+10+546YQNKQPU
CPFVYQECUVNGU#$%%a
EH IT 4/KPQTHNCPETCEMXGT[HKPG 
#0'$CTEGNQPC#WEVKQPPQ


 

 2GRKQP$WTIQU#%CUVNGQXGT$ #.(4':H%#56'..'4.KQPN H'6.')+10+5#$


%%IT 8GT[HKPG 
2NKGIQ5GXKNNC#WEVKQPPQ


 

 2GRKQP  5GXKNNC # %CUVNG QXGT 5 DGVYGGP VYQ RGNNGVU   H #.( 4':  %#56'..' H 4 .KQP N  
H'6H.')+10+5H#$%%IT (NCPETCEMHKPGVQXGT[HKPG 
2NKGIQ5GXKNNC#WEVKQPPQ


 

 0QXGP.GÉP#%CUVNGQXGT. /10'6#%#56'..'4.KQPNKPUKZHQKN '6.')+10+5


#$%%IT &CTMRCVKPCCNKVVNGYGCMN[UVTWEMCVVJGGFIGXGT[HKPG 
/ÒP\\GPVTWO-ÌNP#WEVKQP
 PQ

116
SPAIN - CASTILE and LEÓN


 

 0QXGP5GXKNNC#%CUVNGQXGT5 /10'6#%#56'..'4.KQPNKPUKZHQKN H'6.')+10+5


#$IT 6TCEGUQHXGTFKITKUQVJGTYKUGXGT[HKPGVQGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
/ÒP\\GPVTWO-ÌNP#WEVKQP
 PQ 

 

   

 /CTCXGFK2TKGVQPQOKPV#%CUVNG #.(4':%#56'.4.KQPT '6.')+10+5#$


%%IT &CTMRCVKPCVTCEGUQHXGTFKITKUXGT[HKPG 
/ÒP\\GPVTWO-ÌNP

 1DQNQPQOKPV#%CUVNGYKVJKPUSWCTG%#56'..'4.KQPYKVJKPUSWCTG.')+10+5#$
%%IT #NOQUVXGT[HKPG 
2NKGIQ5GXKNNC

+0(#06'&10'04+37'
 


 

 2GRKQPŠXKNC#%CUVNGQXGT# '4':%#56'..'4.KQPN '6.')+10+5#$


%%IT (KPG 
*ÌJP.GKR\KI#WEVKQP
 PQ

5#0%*1+8
 


 

 %QTPCFQ$WTIQU#%TQYPGFDWUVN5#0%++4':4%CUVNGDGVYGGP$CPFUVCT %#56'..'


.')+10+5#$%%IT /CIPKHKEGPVRQTVTCKVCNOQUVGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
&GNOQPVG$TWUUGN

117
SPAIN - CASTILE and LEÓN

 

   

 %QTPCFQ  %QTWÇC # %TQYPGF DWUV N  5#0%++ 4': 4 %CUVNG DGVYGGP UVCT CPF UECNNQR    
%#56'..'.')+10+5#$%%IT 6TCEGUQHGPETWUVCVKQPXGT[HKPG 
/ÒP\\GPVTWO-ÌNP#WEVKQP
 PQ
 %QTPCFQ%WGPEC#%TQYPGFDWUVN5#0%++4':4%CUVNGDGVYGGPDQYNCPFUVCT%#56'..'
.')+10+5#$%%IT 6TCEGUQHGPETWUVCVKQPXGT[HKPG 
&KXGTUGP 
'Z&GMMGTEQNNGEVKQP 
$QWIJV5EJWNOCP#OUVGTFCOFF

 

   

 5GKUGP$WTIQU#%TQYPGFDWUVN 5#0%++4':4%TQUUYKVJUVCTKPVJGUVCPF$KPVJGVJ


CPINGU %#56'..''.')+10+5#$%%IT 
6TCEGUQHGPETWUVCVKQPQVJGTYKUGXGT[HKPG 
2NKGIQ5GXKNNC#WEVKQPPQ

 5GKUGP  .GÉP # %TQYPGF JGCF N   5#0%++ 4': 4 %TQUU YKVJ UVCT KPVJGUVCPF.KPVJGVJ
CPINGU %#56'..''.')+10+5#$%%IT (KPG 
2NKGIQ5GXKNNC#WEVKQPPQ

 

   

('40#0&1+8
 
 2GRKQP5GIQXKC#%CUVNGQXGTVJTGGRGNNGVU (4':%#56'..'4.KQPN '6.')+10+5
#$%%IT +TTGIWNCTHNCPCPFUOCNNHNCPETCEMUXGT[HKPG 
(TCPEGUEJK$TWUUGN

#.(1051:+


 %QTPCFQ  6QNGFQ # %TQYPGF DWUV N  #.(105 4': 4 %CUVNG YKVJ 6 KP RQTVCN  %#56'..' '6  
.')+10+5#$%%IT (NCPETCEMFCTM2CVKPCXGT[HKPG 
/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP$CUGN

118
SPAIN - CASTILE and LEÓN


 

 %QTPCFQ  %QTWÇC # %TQYPGF DWUV N   #.(10585 Q 4': 4 %CUVNG QXGT UECNNQR  %#56'.'  
.')+15#$%%IT #NKVVNGYGCMN[UVTWEMCVVJGGFIGXGT[HKPG 
2NCVV2CTKU


 

 0QXGP  $WTIQU # %CUVNG YKVJKPUSWCTGQXGT$ #4':%#56'..'4.KQPTCORCPVNYKVJKP


USWCTG '6.')+10+5$#$%%IT #NOQUVGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
/ÒP\\GPVTWO-ÌNP 
6JG$CVVJGGPFQHVJGTGXGTUGNGIGPFKUPQVOGPVKQPGFKP#$

  

 0QXGP6QNGFQ#%CUVNGYKVJKPUSWCTG6KPRQTVCN #4':%#56'.'4.KQPTCORCPVNYKVJKP


USWCTG '6.')+10+5#$%%IT 
5NKIJVN[EQTTQFGFOKPQTHNCPETCEMXGT[HKPG 
0WO2NKGIQ5GXKNNC

2'&41+
 



 

 &QDNC
 OCTCX   5GXKNNC # %TQYPGF DWUV N  2'6485  &'+  )4#6+#  4':  %#56'..'   
'.')+10+5 4 %TQUU YKVJ VYQ NKQPU CPF VYQ ECUVNGU KP VJG CPINGU 5 KP VJG VJ CPING  2'6485   
&'+)4#6+#4':%#56'..''.')+10+5#$%%(DIT 
/KPQTHNCPFGHGEVQPVJGQDXGTUGPKEGRQTVTCKVCNOQUVGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
5EJWNOCP#OUVGTFCO

119
SPAIN - CASTILE and LEÓN


 

 4GCN  5GXKNNC # #TOU KP SWCVTGHQKN YKVJ VJTGG TKPIU CPF QPG 5 KP VJG CPINGU   2'6485  4':   
%#56'..''.')+10+542WPFGTETQYP &1/+085/+%*+#&+8 614'6')1
&+52+%+#/+0+/+%15/'15#$%%IT 
0KEGRCVKPCYGNNUVTWEMCPFGZVTGOGN[HKPGURGEKOGP 
5RKPM.QPFQP


 

  4GCN  5GXKNNC #%CUVNGKPSWCVTGHQKNQXGT5 2'64854':%#56'..''42WPFGT


ETQYP &1/+085/+%*+#&+8614#$%%IT 5NKIJVN[DGPVXGT[HKPG 
'NUGP$TWUUGN#WEVKQP
 PQ


 

  /CTCXGFKU  5GXKNNC %CUVNG KP UKZHQKN QXGT 5  ¢ 2'6485 G &'+ G )4#%+# G 4': G %#56'..' G  
.')+10+ 4 .KQP TCORCPV N KP UKZHQKN   ¢ 2'6485 ¢ &'+ ¢ )4#%+# ¢ 4': ¢ %#56'..' ¢  
.')+10+5#$%%IT +TTGIWNCTHNCPCPFCNKVVNGYGCMN[UVTWEMXGT[HKPG 
2NKGIQ5GXKNNC 


 

 /CTCXGFKU5GXKNNC#%CUVNGKPUKZHQKNQXGT5 2'64854':%#56'..''.')+10+54


.KQP TCORCPV N KP UKZHQKN   2'6485  4':  %#56'..'  '.')+10+5 #$  %%   
IT 5NKIJVN[DGPVXGT[HKPG 
2NKGIQ5GXKNNC 

120
SPAIN - CASTILE and LEÓN


 

 %QTPCFQ  $WTIQU # %TQYPGF DWUV HCEKPI  2'6485 4': 4 $ WPFGT %CUVNG   2'6485 4':  
%#56'.#$%%IT 5NKIJVN[EQTTQFGFXGT[HKPG 
/ÒP\\GPVTWO-ÌNP#WEVKQP
 PQ

'04+37'++
 


 

 4GCN6QNGFQ##TOUKPSWCVTGHQKNYKVJVJTGGTQUGVVGUCPFQPG6KPVJGCPINGU '04+%854':


%#56'..'  '.')+10+5 4 '0 WPFGT ETQYP   &1/+085  /+%*+  #&+8614  '6 ')1   
&+52+%+#/+0+/+%15/'15#$%%IT 'ZVTGOGN[HKPG 
5EJWNOCP#OUVGTFCO 
'Z/ÌYGUEQNNGEVKQP

 

   

 4GCN5GXKNNC#%CUVNGQXGT5KPSWCVTGHQKN '04+%854':%#56'..'4'0WPFGTETQYP


&1/+085/+%*+#&+8614G#$%%aIT 6TCEGUQHXGTFKITKUXGT[HKPG 
2NKGIQ5GXKNNC#WEVKQPPQ 
+++ 

 %TW\CFQ$WTIQU#%TQYPGFDWUVN$CPFTQUGVVGDGJKPF '04+%854':%#56'..'4.CVKP


ETQUU YKVJ 0  4  + KP VJG CPINGU  04+%85 4': %#56'..' #$  %%   IT  
%QTTQFGFHKPG 
2NKGIQ5GXKNNC#WEVKQPPQ 
04+UJQWNFDG'04+


 

 %QTPCFQ6QNGFQ#$WUVN'04+%854':46WPFGT%CUVNG%#56'..''.')+10+5#$
%%IT &CTMVQPGXGT[HKPG 
/ÒP\\GPVTWO-ÌNP#WEVKQP
 PQ

121
SPAIN - CASTILE and LEÓN

,7#0+
 


 

 4GCN$WTIQU##TOUKPSWCVTGHQKNYKVJHQWTTQUGVVGUCPFQPG$KPVJGCPINGU +1*#0+5&'+”


)4'%+#”4':”%#56'..'4+1*0WPFGTETQYP &1/+085”/+%*+#&+8614”'6')1
&+52+%+#/”+0+/+%15”/'15”#$%%IT 
0KEGFCTMVQPGCNOQUVGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
2NKGIQ5GXKNNC#WEVKQPPQ 
+++ 
+P//*%WPFGT,WCP++

 

 4GCN5GXKNNC#5WPFGTECUVNG +1*#0+54':%#564+70WPFGTETQYP +1*#0+5
4':.')+1#$%%IT 'ZVTGOGN[HKPG 
2NKGIQ5GXKNNC#WEVKQPPQ 
+++


 

 $NCPECFGN#IPWU&GK6QNGFQ#;WPFGTETQYPCPFDGVYGGP6CPF1%#6#G/80&+6G/+5G0
40KODCVGNCODYKVJETQUURGNNGVKPHTQPV#)085&'+38+61.+52#$%%
IT 6TGCVGFYKVJ\CRQPXGT[HKPG 
2NKGIQ5GXKNNC#WEVKQPPQ 
+++ 

 

 
 

 $NCPECFGN#IPWU&GK5GXKNNC#;WPFGTETQYP2'%#6#/80&+/+5'440KODCVGNCOD
YKVJETQUU5KPHTQPV#)085&'+38+61.+5#$%%IT 
5NKIJVN[EQTTQFGFHKPGVQXGT[HKPG 
2NKGIQ5GXKNNC#WEVKQPPQ 
+++

 %QTPCFQ  5GIQXKC # %TQYPGF JGCF N   +1* #0'5 4 %CUVNG DGVYGGP 5 CPF '   4':   
%#56'..'#$%%IT 8GT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP

122
SPAIN - CASTILE and LEÓN

'04+37'+++
 


 

 4GCN  5GXKNNC # #TOU KP SWCVTGHQKN YKVJ VJTGG UVCTU CPF QP 5 KP VJG CPINGU   '04+%85  &'+   
)4#%+#  4':  %#56' 4 '0 WPFGT ETQYP   &1/+085  /+%*+  #&+8614  ')1 &   
+52+%+#/+0+/+%15/#$%%IT (NCPFGHGEVQPVJGGFIGXGT[HKPG 
2NKGIQ5GXKNNC#WEVKQP
 PQ


 

 $NCPEC$WTIQU#$WPFGTECUVNGKPUKZHQKN '04+%85&'+)4#%+#4':4.KQPTCORCPVN


KPUKZHQKN '04+%85&'+)4#%+#4':#$%%IT 8GT[HKPG 
0WO2NKGIQ5GXKNNC


 

 $NCPEC%WGPEC#$QYNWPFGTECUVNGKPUKZHQKN '04+%85&'+)4#%+#44.KQPTCORCPV


NKPUKZHQKN '04+%85&'+)4#%+#4#$%%IT (KPGVQXGT[HKPG 
0WO2NKGIQ5GXKNNC


 

 $NCPEC6QNGFQ#6WPFGTECUVNGKPUKZHQKN '04+%85&'+)4#%+#4':4.KQPTCORCPVN


KPUKZHQKN '04+%85&'+)4#%+#4':#$%%IT 
0WO2NKGIQ5GXKNNC 5OCNNHNCPETCEMXGT[HKPG 

123
SPAIN - CASTILE and LEÓN

,7#0++
 



 

 &QDNC FG NC $CPFC  5GXKNNC # 5JKGNF YKVJ DCPF QP KV VYQ NKQPʼnU JGCFU CV VJG GPF QH VJG DCPF    
+1*#0'5&'+)4#%+#4':.')+10+54%TQUUYKVJVYQECUVNGUCPFVYQNKQPUKPVJGCPINGU
5QPVQRQHVJGETQUU +1*#0'5&'+)4#%+#4':%#56'..'#$%%
(DIT #NKVVNGYGCMN[UVTWEMXGT[HKPGURGEKOGPQPDTQCFHNCP 
/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP$CUGN

 


 %QTPCFQ6QNGFQ#%TQYPGFJGCFNYKVJVYQTQUGVVGUQXGTVJGETQYP+1*#0'5&'+)4#46
WPFGTECUVNG+1*#0'5&'+)4#%+#$%%IT 8GT[HKPG 
2NKGIQ5GXKNNC 
(TQONKUVPQXGODGTFGEGODGT PQ 
9CUNC[GFVQ,WCP+
 6JGTGHGTGPEG#$KUPQVUWTG6JGJGCFDTGCMUVJTQWIJVJGEKTENGQHRGNNGVU
5WEJCEQKPKUKPO[QRKPKQPPQVRQUUKDNGWPFGT,WCP+

'04+37'+8
 



 

 4GCN5GXKNNC#%TQYPGFDWUVNKPOWNVKNQDG '04+%85Ã%#4685Ã&'+Ã)4#%+#Ã4':Ã%


4#TOUKPOWNVKNQDGQXGT5 '04+%85Ã4':Ã%#56'..'Ã'6.')+10+5#$%%
IT 0KEGRQTVTCKVCPFVQPKPICNOQUVGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 

124
SPAIN - CASTILE and LEÓN


 

 4GCN5GXKNNC#%TQYPGFJGCFNYKVJHNQYGTKPHTQPV'04+%85%#4685&'+)4#%+#4':4
#TOUKPOWNVKNQDGQXGT5'04+%854':%#56'..''6.')+1#$%%IT
40KEGRQTVTCKVXGT[HKPG 
$CVCXKCFGP*CCI


 

  4GCN  $WTIQU # '0 WPFGT ETQYP KP OWNVKNQDG   '04+%75  4':  %#56'..' '64$
WPFGTECUVNGKPOWVNKNQDG '04+%85%#46854':%#56'#$%%IT 
448GT[HKPG 
2NKGIQ5GXKNNC#WEVKQPPQ


 

 4GCN5GXKNNC#*'0WPFGTETQYP:258+0%+6:254')0#6:24#TOUKPOWNVKNQDGWPFGT5
'04+%85&'+)4#%+#4':#$%%IT 
+TTGIWNCTHNCPCPFCNKVVNGYGCMN[UVTWEMCVVJGGFIGXGT[HKPG 
$CVCXKCFGP*CCI 


 

 %WCTVKNNQ%WGPEC#%TQYPGFDWUVHCEKPIDQYNN '04+%85”%#4685”4':”4%CUVNGKP


OWNVKNQDGQXGTDQYN '04+%85”4':”%#56'..'”'.#$%%IT (KPG 
2NKGIQ5GXKNNC#WEVKQPPQ 
+++ 
2QUUKDN[KP//*%WPFGTDNCPEC

125
SPAIN - CASTILE and LEÓN


 

 %WCTVKNNQ,CGP#%TQYPGFDWUVHCEKPI '04+%85G%#4685G&'+G)4#%+#G44%CUVNGQXGT


+#'0 KP OWNVKNQDG   '04+%85 G &'+ G )4#%+# G 4': G %#5 #$  %%   IT  
#NOQUVXGT[HKPG 
)CNCTKGFGU/QPPCKGU0GY1TNGCPU#WEVKQPPQ 


 

 %WCTVKNNQ$WTIQU#%TQYPGFJGCFHCEKPI '04+%8538#4685&'+)4%CUVNGQXGT


$ '04+%854':%#56+..'#$%%IT 
5OCNNHNCPETCEMHKPGVQXGT[HKPG 
$CVCXKCFGP*CCI

 


 $NCPEC6QNGFQ#%CUVNGQXGT6KPUKZHQKN '04+%85&'+)4#%+#4':4.KQPTCORCPV


KPUKZHQKN '04+%85&'+)4#%+#4':#$%%IT 
5NKIJVGN[EQTTQFGFXGT[HKPG 
2NKGIQ5GXKNNC 
.GIGPFPQVCUKP#$

 

   

 $NCPEC  6QNGFQ # %CUVNG QXGT 6 KP USWCTG   '04+%85 &'+)4#%+#4.KQPTCORCPVNKP
USWCTG '04+%85&'+)4#%+#$%%IT +TTGIWNCTHNCPXGT[HKPG 
2NKGIQ5GXKNNC
 $NCPEC%WGPEC#%CUVNGKPUSWCTGDGVYGGP%CPFDQYN '04+%85&'+)4#%+#4':4.KQP
TCORCPV N KP USWCTG HQWT RGNNGVU CTQWPF   :25 B 8+0%+6 B :25 B 4'0#6 #$  %%  
IT +TTGIWNCTHNCPCPFYGCMN[UVTWEMCVVJGGFIGCNOQUVXGT[HKPG 
2NKGIQ5GXKNNC 

126
SPAIN - COUNTY OF BARCELONA


 

 $NCPEC5GIQXKC#%CUVNGKPUSWCTGQXGTCSWGFWEV '04+%85ó&'+ó)4#%+#ó44%TQYPGF


NKQPTCORCPVN :2%Z8+0%+6Z:25Z4')0#$%%IT 
'FIGHCWNVUCPFYGCMN[UVTWEMCVVJGGFIGXGT[HKPG 
0WO2NKGIQ5GXKNNC

('4&+0#0&1CPF+5#$'..#
 



 

 4GCN  6QNGFQ


!  # #TOU QH %CUVKNG.GQP WPFGT ETQYP CPF QXGT GCING N 6 WPFGT VJG UJKGNF  
('40#0&85  '6  J'.+5#$'  4 %TQYPGF UJKGNF QH #TCIQP DGVYGGP : CPF :  &1/+05   
/+%0+#/.8614+%%%%6EHIT 
5OCNNFQWDNGUVTWEMXGT[HKPGYKVJPKEGRCVKPC 
4CWEJ9KGP#WEVKQP
 PQ 

%1706;QH$#4%'.10#
$CTEGNQPCJQNFUCNQPIJKUVQT[TQOCP8KUKIQVJKE%CTQNKPIKCP/Q\CTCDKE9KNHTGFŋGN8GNNQUQŌ

 YCUVJGNCUVMKPIVQDGCRRQKPVGFD[VJG9GUVHTCPEQPKCPMKPI#HVGTVJCVKPFGRGPFGPEGYCUCVVCKPGF
CPFRQYGTYCUVTCPUHGTTGFVJTQWIJJGTKVCIG

5KPEG CDQWV  VJG RQYGT QH VJG EQWPVU QH $CTEGNQPC KU XCUV 4COÉP $GTGPIWGT +++
  KP  
RCTVKEWNCT ITGCVN[ GZVGPFGF JKU FQOKPKQP RCTVU QH 5RCKP DWV CNUQ RCTVU QH (TCPEG NKMG %CTECUUQPG  
$G\KGTU CPF 5QWVJGTP 2TQXGPEG
D[ YGFFKPI &WNEKC QH 2TQXGPEG  4COÉP $GTGPIWGT +8
   
CFFGF#TCIÉP
OCTTKCIGKPYKVJ2GVTQPKNNCSWGGPCPFJGKTGUUVQVJGMKPIFQO#TCIÉP 

(TQOVJCVOQOGPVQP#TCIÉPCPF$CTEGNQPCHQTOGFQPGYJQNG

4#/10$'4'0)7'4+8
 

 


 &KPGTQ#5V[NK\GFJGCFHCEKPI$#4%+01
TGVTQITCFG 4%TQUUYKVJQPGTKPIKPGCEJCPINGEKTENGQH
RGNNGVUCTQWPF%%%TWIT 8GT[HKPG 
/ÒP\\GPVTWO-ÌNP#WEVKQP
 PQ

127
SPAIN - EMPURIES and URGELL

%1706;QH'/274+'5
-PQYPCUFKQEGUGKPVJGVJEGPVWT[KVYCUCPEKNNCT[VQVJGFKQEGUGQH)GTQPCUKPEGVJGDGIKPPKPIQHVJG
VJ EGPVWT[ +V DGECOG C EQWPV[ CV VJG GPF QH VJG VJ EGPVWT[ +P VJG EQWTUG QH VJG VJ EGPVWT[ VJG  
EQWPV[ 'ORWTKGU ICKPGF HQTOCN KPFGRGPFGPEG +P VJG VJ EGPVWT[ KV DGECOG HGWFCNN[ UWDQTFKPCVGF VQ  
#TCIÉPNQUKPICNNQHKVUUGNHIQXGTPCPEG+PKVYCUCPPGZGFD[#TCIÉP

*7)1+8
 QT*7)18
 

 


 &KPGTQ#.QPIETQUU21%+ 8)145YQTFH%1/'5'/24%%%TWIT


446TCEGUQHGPETWUVCVKQPXGT[HKPG 
#0'$CTEGNQPC#WEVKQPPQ

%1706;QH74)'..
7TIGNNQTKIKPCVGFKPCUCRCIWU#VVJGGPFQHVJGVJEGPVWT[KVYCUEQPXGTVGFVQEQWPV[WPFGT
'TOGPIQN +
  QH VJG EQOKVCN F[PCUV[ QH $CTEGNQPC 7TIGNN YCU CNYC[U ENQUGN[ CVVCEJGF VQ  
$CTEGNQPCCPFJCFVQCEMPQYNGFIGKVUUWRGTKQTKP$CTEGNQPC+PKVKUFGHKPKVKXGN[CPPGZGFD[VJG
MKPIFQOQH#TCIÉPQHYJKEJ$CTEGNQPCYCUCRCTV

/QUVKORQTVCPVEKVKGUYGTG#ITCOWPV
OKPVUKPEG CPF$CNCIWGT

'4/'0)1.:
 

  

 &KPGTQ  #ITCOWPV # %TQUKGT DGVYGGP VYQ DTCPEJGU YKVJRGNNGVU '4/'0)#8&85+4%TQUU
YKVJQPGRGNNGVKPGCEJCPING %1/'584)'..+%%%TWIT 
6TCEGUQHXGTFKITKUXGT[HKPG 
2NKGIQ5GXKNNC#WEVKQPPQ 
+8

 

 
 

6'4'5#FG'06'0<#
 
 1DQN
QPGUKFGF $CNCIWGT#%QCVQHCTOU6'4%1/%%%TWIT 
44(NCPETCEM(KPG 
#0'$CTEGNQPC#WEVKQPPQ

2'&41
 
 &KPGTQ  #ITCOWPV # %TQUKGT DGVYGGP VYQ DTCPEJGU YKVJ RGNNGVU   2'6485  &'+  )4#%+ 4  
%TQUUYKVJQPGRGNNGVKPGCEJCPING #%1/'574)'..+%%%TWIT 
45OCNNHNCPETCEMXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP#WEVKQP
 PQ 
'Z)TCPVNG[
&WRN  
'Z$NWPV

128
SPAIN - ARAGON

0#8#44#CPF#4#)¡0
1TKIKPCNN[0CXCTTCCPF#TCIÉPYGTGDQVJKPFGRGPFGPV

0CXCTTCGOGTIGFKPVJGVJEGPVWT[KVUOQUVKORQTVCPVUQXGTGKIPDGKPI5CPEJQ)CTEÃC
 YJQ
HQWIJV #DFCN4CJOCP +++ #HVGT CN/CPUQWTʼnU FGCVJ VJG /QQTKUJ FCPIGT JCF UWDUKFGF CPF 0CXCTTC  
WPFGT5CPEJQ)CTEÃC+++
 DGECOGVJGOCKPUVCVGKP0QTVJGTP5RCKP*KUUQP5CPEJQ)CTEÃC
+8
 YCUVJGNCUVCWVQPQOQWUUQXGTGKIPQH0CXCTTC

#PQVJGTUQPQH5CPEJQ)CTEÃC+++4COKTQ+
 YCUETQYPGFMKPIQH#TCIÉP*KUUQP5CPEJQ
++4COKTG\YCUMKPIQH#TCIÉPHTQOWPVKNHTQOMKPIQH0CXCTTCCUYGNN

7PVKN#TCIÉPCPF0CXCTTCYQWNFTGOCKPQPGMKPIFQO6JGOCKPUQXGTGKIPHTQOVJCVRGTKQFYCU
#NHQPUQ +
  $[ OCTTKCIG YKVJ 7TTCEC SWGGP QH %CUVKNG JG CNTGCF[ YCU TWNGT QXGT %CUVKNG  
CPF .GÉP #NHQPUQ + XCUVN[ GZVGPFGF JKU RTQRGTVKGU KP 5RCKP
D[ FGHGCVKPI VJG /QQTU CV 5CTCIQUUC KP  
 CUYGNNCUKP5QWVJGTP(TCPEG*GFKGFJGKTNGUUKP*GNGHVJKUNCPFUVQVJG-PKIJVUQHVJG
*QN[5GRWNEJTGVJG*QURKVCNNGTUCPFVJG6GORNCTU6JKUOGVYKVJJGCX[TGUKUVCPEGCPFPQDKNKV[ENGTI[
CPFVJGKTUWRRQTVGTUEJQUGJKUDTQVJGT4COKTQ+ŋGN/QPIGŌVQDGMKPI*GOCTTKGF#IPGUQH2QKVKGTU
CPF VJGKT FCWIJVGT 2GVTQPKNNC YQWNF D[ OCTTKCIG VQ 4COÉP $GTGPIWGT +8 QH $CTEGNQPC CEEQORNKUJ  

WPKVKPI#TCIÉPYKVJ$CTEGNQPC
9KVJ VJG FGOKUG QH /CTVKP +
  VJG %CVCNCP F[PCUV[ VJCV JCF TWNGF #TCIÉP UKPEG VJG VJ  
EGPVWT[ DGECOG GZVKPEV # UGTKQWU EQPHNKEV CTQUG QP VJG OCVVGT QH UWEEGUUKQP DGKPI TGUQNXGF D[ VJG  
CEEQTF QH %CURG KP  (GTFKPCPF QH 6TCUVCOCTG QH %CUVKNG KPJGTKVGF VJG MKPIFQO #NVJQWIJ JG  
DGNQPIGFVQVJGHCOKN[QHMKPIUQH%CUVKNGJGCUJKUUWEEGUUQTUCEVGFCUCRWTG#TCIQPKCP

5#0%*14#/+4'<


2GTKQFQFGRTGGOKPGPEKCCTCIQPGUC


 

 &KPGTQ  #TCIQP # *GCF N  H 5#0%+85 4': 4 %TQUU DGVYGGP VYQ DTCPEJGU  #4#)10  
%%a%TWIT 4+TTGIWNCTHNCPXGT[HKPG 
/ÒP\\GPVTWO-ÌNP#WEVKQP
 PQ 


 

 &KPGTQ  #TCIQP # *GCF T  5#0%+85 4': 4 %TQUU DGVYGGP VYQ DTCPEJGU  #4#)10 %%  
%TWIT 4'FIGHCWNVXGT[HKPG 
/ÒP\\GPVTWO-ÌNP#WEVKQP
 PQ

2'&41+FG*7'5%#



 


 &KPGTQ  #TCIQP # $WUV N  H 2'6485  4': 4 %TQUU DGVYGGP VYQ DTCPEJGU  #4#)10  
%%a%TWIT 4(NCPETCEMHKPGVQXGT[HKPG 
2NKGIQ5GXKNNC#WEVKQPPQ 

129
SPAIN - CATALANO-ARAGONESE

0#8#44#
5#0%*+1GN5#$+1
 

 


 &KPGTQ  0CXCTTC # $WUV N  H 5#0%+85 4': 4 %TQUU DGVYGGP VYQ DTCPEJGU CPF VYQ UVCTU  
0#8#4'%%%TWIT 4'FIGDTGCMUCPFKTTGIWNCTHNCPQVJGTYKUGXGT[HKPG 
2NKGIQ5GXKNNC#WEVKQPPQ 

%#6#.#01#4#)10'5'
#HVGTVJGWPKQPQH%CVCNQPKCYKVJ#TCIÉPPGYVGTTKVQTKGUYGTGTGIWNCTN[EQPSWGTGF+P8CNGPEKC
YCUVCMGP#PQVJGTOCKPKPHNWGPEGQP5RCPKUJOKPVYCUVJG$CNGCTKEEWNVWTG(TQOCPEKGPVVKOGUVJG
$CNGCTKE+UNCPFUJCFDGGP/QQTKUJRQUUGUUKQPOWEJVQVJGOCNEQPVGPVQH,CWOG+YJQKPCTOGF
CHNGGVCV6CTTCIQPC2CNOCYCUEQPSWGTGFUYKHVN[DWVRWUJKPIVJTQWIJVQVJGKPNCPFYQWNFVCMGCPQVJGT
VYQ [GCTU +DK\C UWTTGPFGTGF KP  DWV /GPQTEC TGOCKPGF C /QQTKUJ UVCVG /CNNQTEC YCU CNNQVVGF  
COQPI EQNQPKUVU QH OCKPN[ %CVCNCP FGUEGPV 4QWPF CDQWV  VJG $CNGCTGU TGICKPGF KPFGRGPFGPEG  
*QYGXGT WPFGT VJG TWNG QH ,CWOG +++ QH /CNNQTEC #TCIÉP RTQXQMGF C TGDGNNKQP CPF EQPSWGTGF VJG  
$CNGCTKEVGTTKVQTKGUQPVJGOCKPNCPF6JKUGPCDNGF2GFTQ+8QH#TCIÉPVQUWDFWGVJGGPVKTGMKPIFQOKP
#EQWRD[/CNNQTECʼnUETQYPHCKNGFVJGMKPIOGGVKPIJKUHKPCNFGHGCVCVVJG$CVVNGQH.NWEJOCLQT
 

#.(1051+
++QH#TCIQP 

 


 &KPGTQ  $CTEGNQPC # %TQUU DGVYGGP VYQ TKPIU  $#43+01 4 .QPI ETQUU  %+ 8+ 4' : %%  
%TWIT &CTMVQPGXGT[HKPGVQGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
/ÒP\\GPVTWO-ÌNP#WEVKQP
 PQ

  

 1DQNQ$CTEGNQPC#%TQUUDGVYGGPVYQTKPIU$#43+014.QPIETQUU%+8+4':%%
%TWIT 4'FIGHCWNVXGT[HKPG 
/ÒP\\GPVTWO-ÌNP#WEVKQP
 PQ

 


 &KPGTQ#TCIQP#&KCFGOGFDWUVN#0(154':4$TCPEJYKVJETQUUQPVQR#4#)10%%
%TWIT 4(NCPETCEMXGT[HKPG 
#0'$CTEGNQPC#WEVKQPPQ

130
SPAIN - CATALANO-ARAGONESE

2'&41+
++QH#TCIQP 

  

 1DQNQ  $CTEGNQPC # .QPI ETQUU YKVJ QPG TKPI KP GCEJ CPING  2'64 4'  :  4 %TQUU  
$#43+010#%%%TWIT 48GT[HKPG 
/ÒP\\GPVTWO-ÌNP#WEVKQP
 PQ

,#+/'+
 

 

   

 &KPGTQ$CTEGNQPC#%TQUU+#%1$ 4':45JKGNFQH%CVCNWP[C$#43+01%%%TW


IT &CTMRCVKPCXGT[HKPGVQGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
/ÒP\\GPVTWO-ÌNP#WEVKQP
 PQ 
&KPGTFG&QDNGPE8
 &KPGTQ$CTEGNQPC#.QPIETQUUYKVJVYQTKPIUCPFVYKEGVJTGGRGNNGVUKPVJGCPINGU+#%1$ 4':
4*GCFN $#43+01%%%TWIT 'ZVTGOGN[HKPG 
$QWTIG[2CTKU 
&KPGTFG6GTP8

 

   

 &KPGTQ  8CNGPEKC # *GCF N   +#%1$85 4': 4 .KU YKVJ ETQUU QP VQR   8#.'0%+' %%  
%TWIT 8GT[HKPG 
/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP$CUGN
 &KPGTQ  8CNGPEKC # *GCF N   +#%1$85 4': 4 .KU YKVJ ETQUU QP VQR   8#.'0%+' %%  
%TWIT (NCPETCEMXGT[HKPGVQGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
6QFGTK(NQTGPEG


 

 &KPGTQ#TCIQP#2CVTKCTEJCNETQUU+#%1$854':4*GCFN#4#)10%%%TW
IT 'ZVTGOGN[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP

131
SPAIN - CATALANO-ARAGONESE

#.(1051++
+++QH#TCIQP 


 

 %TQCV$CTEGNQPC#%TQYPGFDWUVN #.(1585&'+)4#%+#4':4.QPIETQUUYKVJVYKEG


VJTGGRGNNGVUCPFTKPIUKPVJGCPINGU%+8+6#5$#%J010#%%%TWIT 
5RKPM.QPFQP 8GT[HKPGVQGZVTGOGN[HKPG 

,#+/'++
 


 

 %TQCV$CTEGNQPC#%TQYPGFDWUVN+#%1$85&'+)4#%+#4':4.QPIETQUUYKVJVYKEGVJTGG
RGNNGVUCPFTKPIUKPVJGCPINGU%+8+6#5$#4J010#%%%TWIT 
$CVCXKCFGP*CCI 0KEGRCVKPCHNCPETCEMXGT[HKPG 

#.(1051+++
+8QH#TCIQP



 

 %TQCV  $CTEGNQPC # %TQYPGF DWUV N  #.(10585 &'+ )4#%+# 4': 4 .QPI ETQUU YKVJ VYKEG  
VJTGGRGNNGVUCPFTKPIUKPVJGCPINGU%+8+6#5$#4J010#%%%TWIT 
#NOQUVGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
$CVCXKCFGP*CCI

2'&41+++
+8QH#TCIQP 


 

 (NQTÃ2GTRKIPCP#5V,QJPVJG$CRVKUV5+1*#00'5$4(NGWTFGNKUQH(NQTGPVKPG#4#)
14':2%%%TWa(DIT 5OCNNUETCVEJGUCPFVGUVEWVCVVJGGFIGXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP#WEVKQP
 PQ 
'Z/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP$CUGNNKUV
 PQ 
'Z&TGGUOCPPEQNNGEVKQP++PQ 
)CODGTKPK

132
SPAIN - CATALANO-ARAGONESE


 

 %TQCV$CTEGNQPC#%TQYPGFDWUVN 2'6485¢&'+¢)4#%+#¢4':4.QPIETQUUYKVJVYKEG


VJTGG RGNNGVU CPF TKPIU KP VJG CPINGU  %+8+6#5 $#4%J010# %%  %TW   IT  
'ZVTCQTFKPCT[YGNNRTGUGTXGFGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
5EJWNOCP#OUVGTFCO 
'Z/ÌYGUEQNNGEVKQP

/#46+0+
 


 

 4GCN8CNGPEKC#%TQYPGFDWUVHCEKPI /#46+0&'+)4#%+#4':#4#4%TQYP


QXGTCTOU 8#.'0%+'/#+14+%#48/5#4%%%TWIT 8GT[HKPG 
$CVCXKCFGP*CCI

#.(1051+8
8QH#TCIQP

&KPCUVKC6TCUVCOCTC

 

   

  %TQCV  $CTEGNQPC # %TQYPGF JGCF N 4 .QPI ETQUU YKVJ VYKEG VJTGG RGNNGVU CPF TKPIU KP VJG  
CPINGU$#4%#010#%%a%TWIT 4#NOQUVXGT[HKPG 
/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP$CUGN
 &KPGTQ  /GPQTEC # %TQYPGF DWUV N   #.(10585 4': 4 #TOU KP SWCVTGHQKN    
/+014+%#48/%%%TWIT 6TCEGUQHXGTFKITKUXGT[HKPG 
/ÒP\\GPVTWO5QNKPIGP#WEVKQP
 PQ

('40#0&1++CPF+5#$'..#
8QH5RCKP 
6TCPUKVQ


 

  %TQCV  $CTEGNQPC # %TQYPGF DWUV N  ('4&+0#0&85 & )4 4 .QPI ETQUU YKVJ VYKEG VJTGG  
RGNNGVUCPFTKPIUKPVJGCPINGU%+8+6#5$#4%0010#%%%TWIT 
5OCNNUETCVEJGUCNOQUVXGT[HKPG 
#0'$CTEGNQPC#WEVKQPPQ

133
SPAIN - MALLORCA


 

 &WECV8CNGPEKC#6YQETQYPGFDWUVUETQYPDGVYGGPVJGO ('4&+0#0&85Z'.+5#$'6ZZ


55ZKPDQVVQOHKGNF4%TQYPGFUJKGNFQH%CUVKNG.GQPCPF#TCIQP 8#.'0%+'Z/#+14+%#
%%%%6EHCPPQVCVKQP%TW(DIT 
49GNNUVTWEMCPFGZVTGOGN[HKPGURGEKOGP 
(TCPEGUEJK$TWUUGN 
%TWUCHQPVVJKPMUVJCVVJKUEQKPDGNQPIUVQVJGRGTKQFQHVTCPUHQTOCVKQPQVJGTUVJKPMVJCVVJKUKUCNTGCF[VJGRGTKQFQH
VJG4G[GU%CVQNKEQU

/#..14%#
#HVGTVJG/QQTKUJFQOKPCVKQPWPVKN/CNNQTECYCUCRCTVQH%CVCNCPC#TCIÉPWPVKNCPFYQWNF
DGKPFGRGPFGPVCICKPHTQOVQ(TQOVJGPQPKVTGOCKPGFRCTVQH%CVCNCPC#TCIÉP

5#0%*1
 


 

 &QDNGT/CNNQTEC#%TQYPGFDWUVHCEKPIDGVYGGPVYQUVCTU¢4':¢/#+14+%#4 4.CVKPETQUU


¢ 5#%+85&'+¢)4# %%%TWIT 'ZVTGOGN[HKPG 
-WPUVWPF/ÒP\GP.WICPQ

,#+/'+++
 


 

 &KPGTQ/CNNQTEC#%TQYPGFJGCFHCEKPI 4':/#+14+%#48/4.CVKPETQUU +#%1$85


&'+ )4#%%%TWIT 8GT[HKPG 
$CVCXKCFGP*CCI 

  

 &KPGTQ/CNNQTEC#%TQYPGFDWUVHCEKPI 4':H/#+14+%#48/4.CVKPETQUU +#%1$85


&'+H)4#H%%%TWIT #NOQUVGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
0QVKP%TWUCHQPV

134
SPAIN - ARBECA and GERONA

#4$'%#
#010;/175


 

 5GP[CN#$KTFN46DGVYGGPVJTGGVKOGUVJTGGRGNNGVU%TWIT (KPGVQXGT[HKPG 


#0'$CTEGNQPC#WEVKQPPQ 
.C5GNXCFGN%COR

)'410#
%#4.15+
 

  

 &KPGTQ # %TQYPGF JGCF N %QWPVGTOCTM )  %#41.85  &  )  4 4 %QCV QH CTOU  %+8+6#5  
)'480&#%%a%TWIT %QKP(KPG%QWPVGTOCTMa8GT[HKPG 
0WOKUOCVKUEJG-TKPI4QVVGTFCO

4';'5%#61.+%15
9KVJ VJG QTFKPCPEG QH /GFKPC FGN %CORQ QP VJG VJ QH ,WPG  VJG PGY OQPGVCT[ U[UVGO YCU  
CFQRVGF +ORQTVCPV YCU VJCV VJG U[UVGOU QH %CUVKNG
WR VQ VJGP OCKPN[ IQNF CPF DKNNQP  CPF #TCIÉP  

OCKPN[UKNXGT JCFPQYDGGPEQODKPGFWPFGTQPGIGPGTCNU[UVGO


('4&+0#0&CPF+5#$'..'
 



 

 &QDNC'ZEGNNGPVG5GXKNNC#6YQETQYPGFDWUVUVWTPGFVQGCEJQVJGT5DGVYGGPVJGO:CDQXG 


('40#0&85<'.+5#$'6&'+)4#4%TQYPGFUJKGNFQH%CUVKNG.GQPCPF#TCIQPQPGCING
58$8/$4##.#48/6%%6(DIT #VVTCEVKXGURGEKOGPGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
5EJWNOCP#OUVGTFCO 
'Z/ÌYGUEQNNGEVKQP 
834

135
SPAIN - REYES CATOLICOS



 

 /CTCXGFK%WGPEC#%CUVNGKPUKZHQKNDQYN ('4&+0#0&85'6'.+5#$'6 4%TQYPGF


NKQP N KP UKZHQKN DGVYGGP RCVTKCTEJCN ETQUU CPF %  DQYN  4': Q '6 4')+0# Q %#6 Q .')   
%%6IT 8GT[HKPG 
0WO2NKGIQ5GXKNNC


 

 4GCNGU5GXKNNC#%TQYPGFUJKGNFQH%CUVKNG.GQPCPF#TCIQPDGVYGGP5CPFQ++++('40#0&85
Q'6Q'.+5#$'6Q&'+45KZCTTQYUDQWPFGFVQIGVJGTUSWCTGKPHKGNF 4':„'6Q4')+0#Q
%#56Q.')+10Q#4#)10Q)4#%%6IT 5OCNNHNCPXGT[HKPG 
6QFGTK(NQTGPEG


 

 4GCN$WTIQU#%TQYPGFUJKGNFQH%CUVKNG.GQPCPF#TCIQP('40#0&85„'6„0'.+5#45KZ
CTTQYU DQWPFGF VQIGVJGT $ KP HKGNF   & „ ) „ 4': „ '6 „ 4')+0# „ %#56 „ .')+1  GTOKPG  
%%6IT &KGFGHGEVXGT[HKPG 
5EJWNOCP#OUVGTFCO


 

 4GCN%WGPEC#%TQYPGFUJKGNFQH%CUVKNG.GQPCPF#TCIQP('40#0&85J'.+5#$6&)4
J 4 (KXG CTTQYU DQWPFGF VQIGVJGT % YKVJ VJTGG RGNNGVU KP HKGNF ã 4':  ('4')+0#  %#56   
.')+10#4#)1J%%6EIT 8GT[HKPG 
0WO-TKPI4QVVGTFCO

136
SPAIN - REYES CATOLICOS


 

 4GCN  )TCPCFC # %TQYPGF UJKGNF QH %CUVKNG.GQP CPF #TCIQP  ('40#0&85 „ '6 *'.+5#$ 4  
5GXGPCTTQYUDQWPFGFVQIGVJGT)KPHKGNF 4':„'64')+0#„%#56Q.+)%%6F
IT 'IFGHCWNVXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP


 

 4GCN6QNGFQ#%TQYPGFUJKGNFQH%CUVKNG.GQPCPF#TCIQPHKXGRGNNGVUCPF6KPHKGNF('40#0&85
„ '6 „ '.+5#$'6 „ &'+ „ ) 4 5KZ CTTQYU DQWPFGF VQIGVJGT   4':  '6  4')+0#  %#56   
.')+1#4#)15)%%6IT 8GT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP

 


 4GCN6QNGFQ#%TQYPQXGT/6CPFDGVYGGPICTNCPFU 4':Q'64')+0#Q%#56Q.'Q


4 5KZ CTTQYU DQWPFGF VQIGVJGT   ('40#0&85 Q '6 Q '.+5#$'6 Q %%6   IT  
#NOQUVXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP

 


 $NCPEC5GXKNNC#%TQYPGF(DGVYGGP5CPF5 ('40#0&85'6*'.+5#$'64%TQYPGF


;DGVYGGPVYQUVCTU 4':'64')+0#%#56.')%%6IT 8GT[HKPG 
#0'$CTEGNQPC#WEVKQPPQ 
(QTVJGRWPEJQH*QNNCPFCPF<GGNCPFQPVJGTGCNRKGEGCUYGNNCUVJGTGCNRKGEG
DQVJ5GXKNNC UGGCVVJG
GPFQH*QNNCPF
WPFGT-NQR 2CTV+PQCPF

137
PORTUGAL

21467)#.

9JGP)CTEKCYCUMKPIQH)CNKEKCVJGKUUWGCTQUGCUVQYJQOVJGPQTVJQHRTGUGPVFC[2QTVWICNDGNQPIGF
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)CTEKCʼnU DTQVJGT #NHQPUQ 8+ YCU MKPI QH %CUVKNG.¾QP # FGEKUKQP YCU OCFG VJG PQTVJGTP RCTV QH  
2QTVWICN YCU VQ EQOG WPFGT HQTGKIP UWRTGOCE[ #NHQPUQ CRRQKPVGF 4C[OWPF QH $WTIWPF[ YJQ YCU  
OCTTKGF VQ 7TTCEEC FCWIJVGT QH #NHQPUQ 8+ *G DGECOG EQWPV QH )CNKEKC 2QTVWICN CPF %QKODTC  
&GURKVG(TGPEJUWRRQTVJGEQWNFPʼnVCUUGTVVJKUENCKOCPFJCFVQUGVVNGHQT)CNKEKC*KURNCEGKP2QTVWICN
CPF%QKODTCYCUVCMGPD[JKUEQWUKP*GPT[QH$WTIWPF[YJQYCUYGFFGFVQ6GTGUCCPKNNGIKVKOCVG
FCWIJVGT QH #NHQPUQ 8+ 6JKU PGY EQWPV[ YCU PCOGF 2QTVWICN CHVGT KVU ECRKVCN 2QTVQ #V #NHQPUQʼnU  
FGOKUGKPKVDGECOGFGHCEVQKPFGRGPFGPV

9JGP*GPT[FKGF
 JKUUQP#HQPUQ*GPTKSWGUYCUPQV[GVQHCIG6GTGUCDGECOGIWCTFKCPHKTUVCU
KPHCPVC CPF NCVGT
  CU SWGGP 5JG VJGP EQORGVGF YKVJ JGT JCNHUKUVGT 7TTCEEC SWGGP QH %CUVKNG  
.¾QP#HQPUQ*GPTKSWGU
 KPEQPUQNKFCVGFKPFGRGPFGPEGD[JKUXKEVQT[CV5CQ/COGFG
PQVHCTHTQO)WKOCTCGUQXGT#NHQPUQ8++QH%CUVKNG%QKODTCVJGPDGECOGECRKVCNQHVJGEQWPVT[

6JGTKXCNT[DGVYGGPDQVJEQWPVTKGURGTUKUVGFWPVKNVJGRGCEGVTGCV[QH6Ð[QP,WN[[GVVKGUYGTG
OCKPVCKPGF #HVGT JG EQPSWGTGF VJG /QQTU KP VJG $CVVNG QH %CORQ1WTKSWG
 ,WN[   #HQPUQ  
*GPTKSWGU RTQENCKOGF JKOUGNH MKPI QH 2QTVWICN WPFGT VJG PCOG #HQPUQ + 6JG RQRG FKF PQV TGEQIPKUG  
JKO CPF KV YQWNF VCMG WPVKN VJG RCRCE[ QH #NGZCPFGT +++ KP  HQT JKO VQ TGEGKXG RCRCN  
CEMPQYNGFIGOGPV#HQPUQHCUJKQPGFJKUEQCVQHCTOUVQTGHNGEVJKUEQPSWGUVQHVJG/QQTKUJUQXGTGKIPU
VJCVJCFEQOOCPFGFJKOUQOWEJTGURGEVHKXGUOCNNGUEWVEJGQPUGCEJHKNNGFYKVJHKXGFQVUKPVJGUJCRG
QHCETQUU+VYQWNFDGEQOGVJGCTOUQH2QTVWICN



21467)#.70&'46*'$74)70&+#05



6JGTGEQPSWKUVCYCUEQOOGPEGFKPVJGOKFFNGQHVJGVJEGPVWT[5CPVCT¾OYCUECRVWTGFKP
YKVJ
HQTGKIP CKF QH VJG (NGOKPIU CPF VJG $TCDCPFGTU COQPI QVJGTU  CPF .KUDQP YQWNF UQQPHQNNQY9JGP
)GTCNFQ 5GO 2CXQT VQQM 'XQTC KP  JG ECOG KPVQ EQPHNKEV YKVJ .¾QP QT OQTG URGEKHKECNN[ YKVJ  
(GTFKPCPFQ++YJQYCUOCTEJKPIHQT$CFCLQ\

+P  5CPEJQ +
  XCPSWKUJGF VJG #NOQJCFU PGCT 5CPVCT¾O *G ECRVWTGF C /WUNKOKE  
UVTQPIJQNFKPVJG#NICTXGCPFTGUV[NGFJKUVKVNG&GK)TCVKC2QTVWICNKG5KNXKKGV#NICTDK4GZ+PVJG
#NICTXGTGCNOYCUGHHGEVKXGN[CPPGZGFVJTQWIJVJG6TGCV[QH$CFCLQ\VJCV-KPI#NHQPUQ+++
 
UKIPGFYKVJ%CUVKNG6JGDQTFGTYKVJ%CUVKNGYCUFGVGTOKPGFEQPENWUKXGN[KPVJG6TGCV[QH#NECPKEGUKP
 D[ &KPKU + 7PFGT JKO PCXCN GZRCPUKQP EQOOGPEGF CPF JG HQWPFGF VJG WPKXGTUKV[ QH .KUDQP KP  
YJKEJYCUUQQPOQXGFVQ%QKODTC

+PTQ[CNVKVNGU2QTVWICNCPFVJG#NICTXGCTGCNYC[UOGPVKQPGFUGRCTCVGN[QPVJGEQKPUQH#NHQPUQ+++HQT
KPUVCPEGDWVCNUQD[5CPEJQ+YJQCNTGCF[DQTGVJGUGVKVNGU

&+0+5+


7PFGT &KPKU GZRCPUKQP D[ UGC DGICP YKVJ VJG CKF QH )GPQGUGUGCHCTGTU6JGCIGQHGZRNQTGTUUGVKP
VJQWIJVJGOCLQTGZRNQTKPIGZRGFKVKQPUYQWNFPQVDGGODCTMGFWRQPWPVKNVJGVJEGPVWT[



 

 &KPJGKTQ#(KXGUJKGNFU#.)#$4++4%TQUUYKVJVYQETGUEGPVUCPFVYQUVCTUKPVJGCPINGU&
4':21468).)QOGUIT (NCPETCEMUCPFVTCEGUQHXGTFKITKUHKPGVQXGT[HKPG 
/ÒP\\GPVTWO-ÌNP#WEVKQP
 PQ

138
PORTUGAL

&KPKU YCU UWEEGGFGF D[ #NHQPUQ +8


  CPF VJGP D[ 2GFTQ +
  6JG NCVVGT YCU  
CUUCUUKPCVGFCPFJKUUQP(GTFKPCPFQ+
 CEEGFGFVQVJGVJTQPGEQPVGUVGFD[VJG6TCUV±OCTG
F[PCUV[ JQYGXGT
QPG QH VJG TGCUQPU 2QTVWICN YCU CNNKGF YKVJ 'PIGNCPF CPF %CUVKNG YKVJ (TCPEG   
(KPCNN[ KP #RTKN  C VTGCV[ YCU UKIPGF CPF ,WCP + QH %CUVKNG OCTTKGF $GCVTKEG
FCWIJVGT QH  
(GTFKPCPFQ  JGKTGUU QH 2QTVWICN (GTFKPCPFQʼnU FGOKUG RTQORVGF %CUVKNG VQ ENCKO VJG VJTQPG DWV VJG  

WRTKUKPIQHRTGXGPVGFVJKU

('40#0&1+




 

 6QTP¿UVJGDWUVQ#(KXGUJKGNFUKPSWCVTGHQKN ('4&+0#0&85&)4':21467)#.4


%TQYPGFDWUVNDGVYGGPETQUUCPF. 5+&05/+*+#+86140106+/'$)QOGU
IT +TTGIWNCTHNCPXGT[HKPG 
/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP&GWVUEJNCPF#WEVKQP
 PQ



 

 4GCN.KUUCDQP#(KXGUJKGNFUKPSWCVTGHQKN (G&G)G4':G21468)#.+'G#.)#4$++'4


(4 WPFGT ETQYP CPF QXGT .  ó '%+6 ó %'.80 ó '6'4#/ ó  #8:+.+8/ ó /'8/ ó  
#&1/+0+ó38+ó()QOGUIT 45OCNNFKGHCWNVCNOQUVGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
5RKPM<ÒTKEJ#WEVKQP
 PQ


 

 $CTDWFC  .KUUCDQP %TQUU YKVJ VJG UJKGNF QH 2QTVWICN KP EGPVTG CPF QPG ECUVNG KP GCEJ CPING    
('40#0&85  4':  21468#.+  #.) 4 %TQYPGF JGNOGV . DGJKPF   5+  &05  /+%*+   
#+86140106+/)QOGUIT #NKVVNGYGCMN[UVTWEMCVVJGGFIGXGT[HKPG 
5RKPM.QPFQP 
7PFGTVJG.QH#.)CTKPI 

139
PORTUGAL



 

 $CTDWFC  .KUUCDQP # %TQUU YKVJ VJG UJKGNF QH 2QTVWICN KP EGPVTG CPF QPG ECUVNG KP GCEJ CPING    
('40#0&854':21468)#.+#.)#4%TQYPGFJGNOGV.DGJKPF 5+&05/+%*+
#+86140106+/')QOGUIT #NKVVNGYGCMN[UVTWEMXGT[HKPG 
'NUGP$TWUUGN 
7PFGTVJG)QH#.)#CTKPI


 

 )TCXG.KUUCDQP#5JKGNFQH2QTVWICNDGVYGGPHQWTECUVNGU('40#0&854':21468)#4
( QP ETQYPGF UJKGNF QP ETQUUGF NCPEGU QXGT .   5+  &0 5  /+ %*+  #+8614  01  )QOGU  
IT 46TCEGUQHXGTFKITKUQVJGTYKUGXGT[HKPG 
/ÒP\\GPVTWO-ÌNP#WEVKQP
 PQ


 

 2KNCTVG  .KUUCDQP # (KXG UJKGNFU YKVJ RGNNGV QXGT VJG EGPVTGUJKGNF  5+  & 05  /+%*+  #& 4  
%TQYPQXGTETQUU.TCDQXG('40#0&854':21468)QOGUIT 8GT[HKPG 
/ÒP\\GPVTWO-ÌNP#WEVKQP
 PQ

  

 &KPJGKTQ # %TQUU YKVJ VYQ ETGUEGPVU CPF VYQ UVCTU KP VJG CPINGU   (  4': 21468)#.+  4  
5JKGNFQH2QTVWICN#.)#$$++)QOGUIT &CTMVQPGXGT[HKPG 
/ÒP\\GPVTWO-ÌNP#WEVKQP
 PQ

140
PORTUGAL

21467)#.70&'46*'*175'#8+<
 
6JG TGDGNNKQP QH  JCF C PCVKQPCN EJCTCEVGT KV YCU JQYGXGT UWRRQTVGF D[ PQDKNKV[ CU C HQTVTKIJV  
RTQVGUV CICKPUV VJG 6TCUV±OCTC F[PCUV[ 5JQTVN[ CHVGT VJCV RQYGT YCU WUWTRGF D[ ,QCQ QH #XK\  
ITCPFOCUVGTKPVJG1TFGTQH#XK\CDCUVCTFUQPQH2GFTQ+#HVGTJGFKURQUGFQHJKUGPGOKGUVJG%QTVGU
QH%QKODTC
EQWPEKNQHVJGMKPIFQO GNGEVGFJKO-KPI,QCQ+QPVJGVJQH#RTKN*GTGCHHKTOGF
JKUPGYCWVJQTKV[D[FGXCUVCVKPIN[DGCVKPIVJG%CUVKNKCPUQP#WIWUVCV#NLWDCTTQVC

6QEQPUQNKFCVGJKURQUKVKQPCPFVJCVQH2QTVWICNYKVJTGURGEVVQ%CUVKNGJGUKIPGFCVTGCV[YKVJ'PINCPF
QP/C[CV9KPFUQTCPFOCTTKGF2JKNKRRCCFCWIJVGTQHVJGFWMGQH.CPECUVGTʼnU

6JGVWTPQHVJGVJEGPVWT[UCYVJGGPFQH2QTVWICNʼnUTGEQPSWKUVC0QYGHHQTVUYGTGFKTGEVGFVQYCTFU
QVJGTVCTIGVUVQYCTFUVJGEQPSWGUVQH%GWVC
 #NE±EGT%GIWGT
 CPF6CPIKGTU
 CNNQH
YJKEJ YGTG HQQVJQNFU KP 0QTVJ #HTKEC CPF VQYCTFU VJG GZRNQTCVKQPU
KG VJG EQPSWGUV QH VJG #HTKECP  
EQCUV 


,1#1+



 

 4GCN FG  5QNFQU  .KUUCDQP


. ņ .$  # +*05 WPFGT ETQYP CPF QXGT . UKZ RGNNGVU KP HKGNF  
6'4#0'%+6 ó %'484 ó '6 ó  #&+8614+8/ ó 0146480 ó 37+ ó ( 4 (KXG UJKGNFU QH  
2QTVWICN KP SWCVTGHQKN CPF DGVYGGP . CPF $   +*05 ¢ &'+ ¢ )4# ¢ 4': ¢ 21 ¢ '6 ¢ # )QOGU  
IT 5NKIJVGN[EQTTQFGFQVJGTYKUGXGT[HKPG 
5EJWNOCP#OUVGTFCO 
/QFWNQOKPQT
OO  


 

 4GCN2QTVQ#+J05WPFGTETQYPCPFQXGT2KPOWNVKNQDG4KPHKGNF +*05ó&'+ó)4#4': 


214 '6 #4(KXGUJKGNFUQH2QTVWICNCPFHQWTECUVNGU #&+8614+8/ó015648/ó38+
)QOGUIT (NCPETCEMXGT[HKPG 
8GEEJK.QPFQP#WEVKQP
 PQ


 

 4GCNDTCPEQ.KUUCDQP#(KXGUJKGNFUQH2QTVWICNKPSWCVTGHQKN ('4&+0#0&85ó21ó'6ó


#.)#44;WPFGT%TQYP.Nó')%+'ó%''.)8/ó'6' #&+8614+8/ó0156480ó
38+)QOGUIT %QTTQFGFCNOQUVXGT[HKPG 
0WO-TKPI4 FCO 
6JGVGZVUCTGCNNDWVKNNGIKDNGCPFFKHHGTHTQOPQ+PVGTRWPEVKQPVJGTGVYQUVCTUQXGTGCEJQVJGTJGTG 

141
PORTUGAL


 

 4GCNDTCPEQ2QTVQ#(KXGUJKGNFUQH2QTVWICNKPSWCVTGHQKN +$05&'+)4#4':21'6


4;WPFGT%TQYP2N('%+6%'.8/'6' #&+8614+8/015648/38+)QOGU
IT 5OCNNHNCPXGT[HKPG 
*GP\GP#OGTQPIGP 
(TQONKUVHGDTOTVPQ

 

   

 $KNNQP4GCNFG5QNFQU.KUUCDQP#5JKGNFQH2QTVWICNDGVYGGPVYQTQUGVVGU +*05¢&¢)4#¢


4': ¢ 21 ¢ #. 4 %TQUU YKVJ QPG RGNNGVKPCPPWNGV KP GCEJ CPING   #&+8614+80 ¢ 0156480  
)QOGUIT 4&CTMVQPGXGT[HKPG 
/ÒP\\GPVTWO-ÌNP#WEVKQP
 PQ 
'Z/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP#WEVKQP
 PQ 
$CVJCNFC4GKU

 4GCN.KUUCDQP#(KXGUJKGNFUQH2QTVWICNKPSWCVTGHQKN +*05¢&'+¢)4#¢4':¢2144


+*05 WPFGT ETQYP CPF QXGT . HQTW TKPIU KP HKGNF DTCPEJ T CDQXG   #&+8614+8/ ¢ 015648  
)QOGUIT 6TCEGUQHGPETWUVCVKQPCNOQUVXGT[HKPG 
/ÒP\\GPVTWO-ÌNP#WEVKQP
 PQ 

 

   

 4GCN'XQTC#5JKGNFQH2QTVWICNDGVYGGP'CPF8 +*05 & ) 4': 2144.QPI


ETQUUYKVJQPGTQUGKPGCEJCPING #&+861480)QOGUIT 
5OCNNHNCPETCEMCNOQUVXGT[HKPG 
/ÒP\\GPVTWO-ÌNP#WEVKQP
 PQ

 4GCN.KUUCDQP#(KXGUJKGNFUQH2QTVWICN +*05¢&'+¢)4#¢4':4+*05WPFGTETQYP


CPFQXGT. 21468)#..+¢#.)#4)QOGUIT %QTTQFGFHKPG 
/ÒP\\GPVTWO-ÌNP#WEVKQP
 PQ 

142
PORTUGAL


 

 4GCN#5JKGNFQH2QTVWICNDGVYGGPHQWTNKU +*05ó&'+ó)4#ó4':4%TQUUYKVJQPG


RGNNGVKPCPPWNGVKPGCEJCPING 2 1ó)6ó#.)#4$++ó)QOGUIT 
&CTM2CVKPCXGT[HKPG 
/ÒP\\GPVTWO-ÌNP#WEVKQP
 PQ

(TQO VJG DGIKPPKPI QH VJG VJ EGPVWT[ 2QTVWIWGUG GZRCPUKQP UVCTVGF VQ VCMG UJCRG /CFGKTC YCU  
TGCEJGF KP  VJG #\QTGU KP  4KQ FGN 1TQ KP  CNN VJGUG GZRNQTCVKQPU VJG TGUWNV QH VJG  
GPFGCXQWTUQH*GPT[VJG5GCHCTGTVJG[QWPIGUVUQPQH,QCQ+

&7#46'
 
&WCTVGYCUCŋMKPIRJKNQUQRJGTŌ


 

 4GCN2TGVQ.KUUCDQP#'&WPFGTETQYPKPOWNVKNQDGYKVJUOCNN.DGVYGGPVJGO '&8#4&85 


4': 21464(KXGUJKGNFUQH2QTVWICNCPFHQWTECUVNGU '&8#4&85 4': 2146)QOGU
IT 4&CTMVQPGKTTGIWNCTHNCPCPFYGCMN[UVTWEMHKPGVQXGT[HKPG 
$CVCXKCFGP*CCI

#.(10518
 
#NHQPUQ8HKTUVJCFVQHTGGJKOUGNHQHTGIGPE[DWVJGFKFPQVUWEEGGFKPFKURQUKPIYJQNN[QHVJGOCKP
PQDNGJQWUGVJCVQH$TCICP\C 
#HVGTVJGFGOKUGQH2TKPEG*GPT[VJG0CXKICVQT
 #NHQPUQ8GPFGCXQWTGFVQGZRNQTGVJGEQCUVQH
#HTKEC+P#NHQPUQ8ICXG(GTPCQ)QOG\QTFGTUVQTGEQPPQKVTGOKNGUQHEQCUVRGT[GCT+P
 &KQIQ %CQ TGCEJGF VJG OQWVJ QH VJG %QPIQ $CTVQNQOGW &KC\ EKTEWOPCXKICVGF %CRG QH )QQF  
*QRGCPFNCPFGFKP%CNKEWVKP2QTVWICNʼnUOQFGTPCIGQHEQNQPKUCVKQPJCFDGIWP 
6QYCTFUVJGGPFQHJKUTGKIP
 #NHQPUQCVVGORVGFVQWPKVG2QTVWICNCPF%CUVKNGGPOGUJKPIJKOUGNH
KPVJG%CVCNCPUWEEGUUKQPCNYCT*GGXGPJCFVQUGGMTGHWIGKP0CPE[
 'XGPVWCNN[JGNQUVVJG
$CVVNGCV#NDWGTCCPFJCFVQCITGGVQRGCEG
#NG±EQXCU5GRVGODGT VJGGPUWKPIVTGCV[ITCPVKPI
2QTVWICNVJG VGTTKVQTKGU QH )WKPGC /CFGKTC VJG #\QTGU CPF VJG %CRG 8GTFGU CPF %CUVKNG VJG %CPCT[  
+UNCPFUCPFVJGEQPSWGUVQH)TCPCFC


 

 'URCFKO2QTVQ#*CPFYKVJUYQTFKPSWCVTGHQKN#YKVJVJTGGRGNNGVUNCPF2WPFGTJCPF#.(3&
#1+&52146)#++245JKGNFQH2QTVWICNKPSWCVTGHQKNYKVJQPGRGNNGVKPCPPWNGVKPGCEJCPINGð
#+86148/&1&38+)QOGUIT 5OCNNHNCPXGT[HKPGVQGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
/ÒP\\GPVTWO-ÌNP#WEVKQP
 PQ 
6JKUV[RGFCVGUDCEMVQ#WIWUVCPFEQOOGOQTCVGUVJGHQWPFKPIQHVJG1TFGTQHVJG5YQTFETGCVGFC[GCT
DGHQTGKPVJGCHVGTOCVJQHVJGUWEEGUUHWNGZRGFKVKQPCICKPUVVJG#TCDUKP#HTKEC 

143
PORTUGAL

,1#1++
 
#HVGT,QCQ++JCFFKURQUGFQHVJG$TCICP\CUJGTGUVQTGFEGPVTCNCWVJQTKV[CPFENGCTGFVJGRCVJVQYCTFUC
OQFGTPUVCVG 
7PFGTJKUTGKIPVJGNCUVUVTGVEJQH)WKPGCEQCUVYCUEJCTVGF



 

 8KPVGO.KUUCDQP#;WPFGTETQYPCPFDGVYGGP.CPFQ +1*#0'5++42'6#&)


4%TQYPGFUJKGNFQH2QTVWICNDGVYGGPVYQTKPIU +1*#0'5++42'6#&))QOGU
IT 8GT[HKPG 
9#)&QTVOWPF#WEVKQP
 PQ 
&)&QOKPWU)WKPGG

21467)#.70&'46*'*175'$4#)#0<#
HTQO 

6JG*QWUG$TCICP\CYCUVJGOQUVKPHNWGPVKCNPQDNGJQWUGQH2QTVWICN+VUNKPGCIGYGPVDCEMVQ,QCQʼnU
DCUVCTF UQP #HQPUQ EQWPV QH $CTEGNQU 6JKUF[PCUV[DGECOGKPETGCUKPIN[RQYGTHWN
FWECNFKIPKV[YCU
CVVCKPGF ,QCQYCPVGFVQEWTVCKNVJKURQYGTJGJCFVJGJGCFQHVJGTFFWMGQH$CTEGNQU
(GTFKPCPFQ 
EWVQHHCPFCNNRQYGTVCMGPHTQOVJKUJQWUG
 

9KVJVJGFGCVJQH,QCQ++VJG*QWUG#XK\DGECOGGZVKPEV/CPWGNVJGITGCVITCPFUQPQH%QWPV#HQPUQ
QH $CTEGNQU VJG UV FWMG CUEGPFGF VQ VJG VJTQPG 6JG $TCICP\C F[PCUV[ YCU TGJCDKNKVCVGF CPF  
(GTFKPCPFQʼnUUQP,CKOGDGECOGVJGVJFWMGQH$CTEGNQU

6JGNKPGQH/CPWGNVJG*QWUG$TCICP\CTGKIPGF2QTVWICNWPVKNVJGPVJG5RCPKUJMKPICUEGPFGFVQ
VJGVJTQPGDWVKPVJGVJFWMGQH$CTEGNQUDGECOGVJGPGYMKPIQH2QTVWICN6JGF[PCUV[YQWNF
EQPVKPWGWPVKNYJGP2QTVWICNDGECOGCRWDNKE

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 8KPVGO#(KXGUJKGNFUQH2QTVWICN /#08'.242'6#&)4%TQUUYKVJVJGNKODU


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 PQ #NOQUVXGT[HKPG
 
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144
ITALY - KINGDOM ITALY

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6JGJKUVQT[QH+VCN[KUXGT[FKHHGTGPVHTQOVJCVQHVJGTGUVQH'WTQRG6JTQWIJQWVVJG/KFFNG#IGUVJG
EQWPVT[EQPUKUVGFQHVYQRCTVUVJGPQTVJGTPRCTVYJKEJYCUHQEWUUGFQPVJGPQTVJCPFCUQWVJGTPRCTV
HQEWUUGFQPVJGGCUV+PDGVYGGPYCUVJGGEENGUKCUVKECNUVCVG6JKUFKXKFGYCUETGCVGFYJGP)TGIQT[VJG
)TGCVECNNGF2KRRKPVQJKUCKFVQDTKPIVJGCFXCPEKPI.QODCTFUVQCJCNV6JG.QODCTFUYGTGFGUVTQ[GF
CPFVJGRCTVQH+VCN[PQTVJQH4QOGDGECOGKPEQTRQTCVGFKPVJG%CTQNKPIKCP'ORKTGECWUKPIKVVQDGEQOG
HQEWUUGFQPVJGPQTVJ6JG$[\CPVKPGUJGNFRQYGTKPVJGUQWVJQH+VCN[YJKEJVJWUYCUQTKGPVGFVQYCTFU
VJGGCUV6JKUOCTMGFVJGRQKPVCVYJKEJVJGFGXGNQROGPVQHVJGUGVYQRCTVUFKXGTIGF



6JG0QTVJ


*GTGCUKPVJGNCVVGT[GCTUQHVJG%CTQNKPIKCP'ORKTGCMKPIFQOJCFUVKNNGZKUVGFKPVJGPQTVJVJKURCTVHGNN
VQVJG*QN[4QOCP'ORKTGKPVJGVJEGPVWT[1VVQ+EGOGPVGF1VVQPKCPTWNGCPFJCFJKOUGNHETQYPGF
GORGTQT KP 4QOG TGUVQTKPI %CTQNKPIKCP VTCFKVKQP *QYGXGT VJKU KPHNWGPEG YCPGF DGHQTG NQPI CPF VJG  
)GTOCPMKPIUJCFOQTGCPFOQTGFKHHKEWNV[VQUWUVCKPVJGKTCWVJQTKV[5QOGVKOGUVJG[OCPCIGFVQFQUQ
UQOGVKOGUVJG[FKFPQV

9JGPCWVJQTKVKGUFKUCRRGCTGFKPVJGGCTN[VJEGPVWT[FGPK\GPUUVCTVGFVQHQTOEQOOWPGUIQXGTPGFD[
NQECN PQDKNKV[ #U PQDKNKV[ IGPGTCNN[ JCF VTQWDNG IGVVKPI CNQPI COQPI VJGOUGNXGU HTKEVKQP CTQUG  
GXGT[YJGTG#NGCFGTYCUWTIGPVN[PGGFGFCPFETGCVGFKPVJGHQTOQHCPGZVGTPCNRQFGUV¯

6JG5VCWHGTUKPVJGHKIWTGQH(TGFGTKEM$CTDCTQUUCCVVGORVGFQPEGCICKPVQTGUVQTGVJGCWVJQTKV[QHVJG
)GTOCPMKPIUDWVJGUWHHGTGFCJWOKNKCVKPIFGHGCVCPFVJG2GCEGQH%QPUVCPEGFGUVTQ[GFYJCVKNNWUKQPU
YGTGNGHV.CVGT(TGFGTKEM++VTKGFVJGUCOGKP'OKNKC4QOCIPCDWVCICKPVQPQGHHGEV

&GPK\GPUCICKPVQQMEQPVTQNQHVJGKTVGTTKVQT[RWVVKPIKPEJCTIGC%CRKVCPQFGN2QRQNQYJQYQWNFQHVGP
DGCPKPHNWGPVKCNHKIWTGCPFFQOKPCVGIQXGTPCPEG(TQOVJKUUKVWCVKQPVJGUKIPQTKCURTQWVGF+VUJGCFVJG
UKIPQTG GHHGEVKXGN[ IQXGTPGF CPF QHVGP YCU HTQO C TGURGEVGF PQDNG HCOKN[ UWEJ CU VJG 8KUEQPVKU VJG  
'UVGUVJG%CTTCTCUVJG&G/GFKEKUCPFOCP[QVJGTU

7UWCNN[ C UKIPQTG HTQO CP KPHWGPVKCN EKV[ YQWNF VT[ VQ DGEQOG UKIPQTG KP CPQVJGT EKV[  QH YJKEJ VJG  
8KUEQPVKUQH/KNCPKPRCTVKEWNCTYGTGCUJKPKPIGZCORNGECWUKPIXCUVRCTVUQHPQTVJCPFEGPVTCN+VCN[VQ
DGEQOGEQPVTQNNGFD[LWUVCHGYPQDNGJQWUGU*QYGXGT+VCN[ECPPQVDGUCKFVQDGIQXGTPGFEGPVTCNN[KP
VJKURGTKQF

6JGTG YGTG HQWT KORQTVCPV EGPVTGU QH RQYGT KP VJG PQTVJ CPF VJG OKFFNG /KNCP C FWEJ[ WPFGT VJG  
8KUEQPVKU CPF VJG 5HQT\CU FQOKPCVKPI NCTIG RCTVU QH +VCN[ 8GPKEG TWNGF D[ KVU QYP EKVK\GPU VJG FQIG  
QPN[JQNFKPICEGTGOQPKCNQHHKEG(NQTGPEGTWPD[VJGVKVNGNGUU&G/GFKEKUCPFVJGGEENGUKCUVKECNUVCVG
YJKEJJCFVQOCPQGWXGTVJGUGFCPIGTQWURQNKVKECNYCVGTUCPFKPFQKPIVJKUCNUQJCFVQMGGRCPG[GQPVJG
UQWVJ



6JG5QWVJ


6JG $[\CPVKPGU YGTG HKTUV CVVCEMGF D[ VJG 0QTOCPU YJQ VQQM KORQTVCPV RCTVU QH 5QWVJ +VCN[ COQPI  
YJKEJ 5KEKN[ .CVGT ECOG VJG )GTOCP MKPIU YJQ CNYC[U UVTKXGF VQ QYP CNN QH +VCN[ (TGFGTKEM ++  
RCTVKEWNCTN[ UQ YKVJQWV OWEJ UWEEGUU JQYGXGT #HVGT VJCV VJG (TGPEJ #PLQWU UVGRRGF KP GXGPVWCNN[  

DTKPIKPIVJGETQYPQH5QWVJ+VCN[WPFGTVJGETQYPQH#TCIQP
9JGTGCUVJGPQTVJVQCEGTVCKPGZVGPVUCYKPHNWGPEGQHVJGRGQRNGKPRQNKVKEUVJGUQWVJYCUOCTMGFD[CP
QPIQKPIDCVVNGDGVYGGPPQDNGJQWUGUCUUGGPKPQVJGTRCTVUQH'WTQRGKPVJKURGTKQF


%QKPCIGTGHNGEVUVJGUGFGXGNQROGPVU+PVJGPQTVJCPFEGPVTGQH+VCN[YGKPKVKCNN[UGGEQKPUUVTWEMKPVJG
PCOGQHC)GTOCPMKPIVJGPEQKPUUVTWEMD[EQOWPGU
QPN[KPFKECVKPIVJGOKPVʼnUPCOG CPFHKPCNN[VJG
UKIPQTGUYJQYGTGKPFKECVGFQPEQKPUYKVJVJGKTPCOGU
YKVJVJGGZEGRVKQPQH(NQTGPEG 

+PVJGUQWVJEQKPUYGTGCNYC[UUVTWEMKPVJGPCOGQHCUQXGTGKIP




 -+0)&1/+6#.;

6JG.QODCTFUʼnCFXCPEGHWTVJGTKPVQ+VCN[KPVJGyURTQORVGFVJGRQRGUVQECNNQP%JCTNGOCIPG*KU
UQP2KRRKPFGHGCVGF&GUKFGTKWUKPCPF%JCTNGOCIPGRTQENCKOGFJKOUGNHMKPIQHVJG.QODCTFU6JG
%CTQNKPIKCP TGCNO PQY UVTGVEJGF KPVQ +VCN[ WPVKN LWUV UQWVJ QH 4QOG %JCTNGOCIPG CPF 2KRRKP ICXG  
YJCVGXGT $[\CPVKPG RQUUGUUKQPU VJG[ JCF EQPSWGTGF KP +VCN[ VQ VJG RQRG VJWU ETGCVKPI C UQOGYJCV  
KTTGIWNCT FKUVTKDWVKQP DGUKFG .QODCTF[ 6WUEKC CPF 5RQNGVQ VJGTG YCU VJG 2CVTKOQPKWO 2GVTK
VJG  
VGTTKVQT[ CTQWPF 4QOG CPF 6WUECP[ CPF VJG VGTTKVQT[ CTQWPF 4CXGPPC CPF 4QOCIPC YJKEJ VYQ  
VGTTKVQTKGU YQWNF TGOCKP EQPPGEVGF D[ C UOCNN EQTTKFQT  +V YQWNF TGOCKP VJKU YC[ WPVKN VJG FGCVJ QH  
.QWKUVJG2KQWU


(QTVJGRGTKQFYJGP+VCN[YCURCTVQHVJG%CTQNKPIKCP'ORKTGEQKPUUVTWEMKP+VCN[D[%JCTNGOCIPGCPF.QWKUVJG

2KQWUCTGENCUUKHKGFCU%CTQNKPIKCPCPFOGPVKQPGFKP2CTV+

145
ITALY - KINGDOM ITALY

9JGPVJGGORKTGETWODNGFVJG4GIPWO+VCNKEWOTGVCKPGFCFGITGGQHCWVQPQO[KVUECRKVCN2CXKC#UVJG
KORGTKCNVKVNGFGXQNXGFQPVJGQNFGUVUQPQH.QWKUVJG2KQWU.QVJCTKWU+VJGMKPIUQH+VCN[CNUQDQTGVJG
VKVNG QH GORGTQT 6JG OQUV KORQTVCPV MKPI YCU .WFQXKEQ ++
C ITGCVITCPFUQP QH %JCTNGOCIPG  YJQ  
FGHGPFGF +VCN[ CICKPUV VJG #TCDU 9JGP JG FKGF KP  C UWEEGUUKQPCN FKURWVG KIPKVGF KP %CTQNKPIKCP  
EKTENGU
YJKEJVQCPKORQTVCPVFGITGGTGXQNXGFCTQWPFVJGKORGTKCNVKVNG 6JGRQRGRNC[GFCEGPVTCNTQNG
KPVJKUFKURWVG#HVGTVJG+VCNKCPVJTQPGJCFDGGPQEEWRKGFD[UGXGTCN%CTQNKPIKCPU
COQPIYJQO%JCTNGU
VJG$CNF VJG%CTQNKPIKCPGTCGPFGFWNVKOCVGN[KP

6JGP$GTGPICTKQQH(TKCWN
CUQPQH)KUGNCUKUVGTQH.QVJCTKWU+CPFYGFFGFVQ'DGTJCTFQH(TKCWN CPF
)WKFQQH5RQNGVQECOGVQVJGHQTG$WVVJGRTK\GQHVJGKORGTKCNVKVNGFTGYCPQVJGTRTGVGPFGT#TPWNHQH
%CTKPVJKCYJQYCUMKPIQH'CUV(TCPEKC*KUCFXCPVCIGYCUVJCV2QRG(QTOQUWUJCFECNNGFHQTJKUCKF
KP VJG HGWF DGVYGGP $GTGPICT CPF )WKFQ +P  #TPWNH RWUJGF VJTQWIJ VQ 4QOG CPF YCU ETQYPGF  
GORGTQTD[VJGRQRGKP(GDTWCT[7RQPJKUEQTQPCVKQPJQYGXGTJGJCFVQTGVWTPVQJKUJQOGNCPF
NGCXKPI VJG VGTTKVQT[ HQT )WKFQʼnU UQP .CODGTV VQ VCMG CHVGT YJKEJ KP  CV VJG FGOKUG QH .CODGTV  
MKPIUJKR FGXQNXGF VQ $GTGPICT 6JG HKTUV YCU MKPI
 CPF YCU ETQYPGF GORGTQT KP   VJG  
UGEQPF YCU EQWPVGTMKPI
  )WKFQ VQQ DGECOG GORGTQT  KP   CPF YCU UWEEGGFGF D[  
.CODGTV JKU UQP YJQ YQWNF DG GORGTQT HTQO  VQ  *KU UWEEGUUQT .QFQXKEQ +++ YQWNF DG  
GORGTQTHTQOVQ

*WIQ QH #TNGU VQQM QXGT CHVGT $GTGPICTKQ + FKGF KP  VJG HQTOGT CNUQ C FGUEGPFCPV QH .QVJCTKWU +  

  YJQ JCF ITGCV RQNKVKECN KPHNWGPEG *KU UQP .QVCTKQ ++ EQMKPI HTQO  VQ  YGFFGF  
#FGNJGKF
FCWIJVGT QH 4WFQNH ++ MKPI QH $WTIWPF[  YJQ YQWNF DGEQOG VJG YKHG QH 1VVQ + 6JG  
UWEEGUUQTQH$GTGPICTKQ+YCUJKUITCPFUQP$GTGPICTKQ++
 *GYQWNFDGFGVJTQPGFKPHCXQWTQH
1VVQ+VJGEQWPVT[GODCTMKPIWRQPCPGPVKTGN[PGYGTC

7PVKN 1VVQ + EQKPU CTG NKUVGF WPFGT -KPIFQO QH +VCN[ 6JGUG EQKPU KOKVCVG VJG HQTO QH %CTQNKPIKCP EQKPU GPVKTGN[  


%QKPUHTQOCHVGTVJKURGTKQFCTGNKUVGFWPFGTVJGKTTGURGEVKXGOKPVU
UQOGVKOGUVJGGORGTQTʼnUQYPKUUWGUDWVOQTG
QHVGPEQOWPGUOKPVGFŋKPVJGPCOGQHőŌ

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 &GPKGT  /KNCPQ # %TQUU YKVJ QPG RGNNGV KP GCEJ CPING   * %#41.85 +/2'4 4 %CTQNKPIKCP  
VGORNG   :2+56+#0#4%++%+1 $KCIIK  XCT %0+ 8  XCT /)  /'%   

WPURGEKHKGFOKPV IT 440KEGVQPGUOCNNHNCPETCEMQVJGTYKUGGZVTGOGN[HKPGQPDTQCFHNCP 
8KPEJQP2CTKU 
6JGVGZVKUVJGUCOGCUYKVJ/'%YJQCVVTKDWVGUKVVQ/KNCPCFFKPICSWGUVKQPOCTMJQYGXGT6JG/'%EQKPJCUC
UOCNNGT FKCOGVGT
KPPGT EKTENG  VJCP VJG EQKP KP JCPF $KCIIK JCU LWUV QPG %JCTNGU VJG $CNF EQKP
WPFGT /KNCP  
$KCIIK DWVVJCVNCEMUVJGKPKVKCN*

$'4'0)#4+1+




 

 &GPCTQ  /KNCPQ # %TQUU YKVJ QPG RGNNGV KP GCEJ CPING   $'4'0)#4+5 4': 4 %CTQNKPIKCP  
VGORNG:2+56+#0#4'.+)+1$KCIIKIT 4'ZVTGOGN[HKPG 
6QFGTK(NQTGPEG 
$KCIIKJCU4+KPUVGCFQH4':CPF:2+6+#0#4%+1HQTVJGTGXGTUG

146
NORTH AND MIDDLE ITALY

0146*CPF/+&&.'+6#.;
9JGP1VVQ+QEEWRKGF+VCN[CPFYCUETQYPGFGORGTQTD[VJGRQRGKP+VCN[GPVGTGFCPGYGTC%NQUG
VKGUDGVYGGP+VCN[CPFVJG)GTOCP'ORKTGYQWNFFGVGTOKPGVJGRQNKVKECNEQWTUGHQTCXGT[NQPIRGTKQFQH
VKOGCNDGKVOQTGITGCVN[UQKPVJGDGIKPPKPIVJCPNCVGTQP

#HGYEQPFKVKQPUYGTGCVVCEJGFVQVJGEQTQPCVKQPQH1VVQ+VQGORGTQTJGYQWNFJGPEGHQTVJJCXGCUC[
KPVJGEJQKEGQHVJGRQRGCPFVJGOCTITCXGUYQWNFDGUWDQTFKPCVGVQ4QOG

#UVJGGORGTQTUʼnKPHNWGPEGYCPGFOCP[EKVKGUYQWNFFGXGNQREQOWPGUWUWCNN[RTGEKRKVCVGFD[PQDKNKV[
YJQ YQWNF VJGP IQXGTP 6JKU NGF VQ HGWFU COQPI VJG OCKP HCOKNKGU $GHQTG NQPI C PGGF HQT CWVJQTKV[  
CTQUG CICKP YJKEJ YCU RTQXKFGF D[ CVVTCEVKPI CP GZVGTPCN RQFGUV¯
KPXCTKCDN[ CRRQKPVGF HQT C UJQTV  
VKOG 

6JGPGZVUVGRYCUVJGETGCVKQPQHCEKV[IQXGTPOGPVQHVJGRGQRNGVJGRQRQNQ#UVJGUGDQFKGUYGTGPQV
ECRCDNG QH GHHKEKGPV IQXGTPCPEG CP GZGEWVKXG YCU UQWIJV KP VJG HQTO QH C ECRKVCPQ FGN RQRQNQ  
5QOGVKOGUVJGUGHWPEVKQPCTKGUYQWNFDGEQOGTWNGTU6JGUGHQTOUQHEKV[TWNGCTGV[RKECNHQT+VCN[

6JGFGXGNQROGPVQHOWPKEKRCNCWVQPQO[FQOKPCVGFRQNKVKEUKPVJG*KIJCPF.CVG/KFFNG#IGU$GVYGGP
VJGVJCPFVJEGPVWT[RTQURGTKV[KPETGCUGFCPFEQOWPGUUVCTVGFGOGTIKPIKPOCP[RNCEGUEQKPEKFKPI
YKVJVJGFGCVJQH/CVKNFCQH%CPQUUC
UGGWPFGT6WUEKC KP#EQOWPGYCUETGCVGFYJGPUQOGVJKPI
EJCPIGFGIYJGPCŋEQPUQNGŌYCUKPUVCNNGF/QUVEQOWPGUUCYCUVTWIINGHQTRQYGTDGVYGGPOCKP
EQPVGPFGTUYJKEJVQQMCXCTKGV[QHHQTOU+P+VCN[EKVK\GPT[GPLQ[GFHTGGFQOYJGTGCUVJGRGQRNGQHC
EQPVCFQYQWNFJCXGVQRC[VCZGUVQVJGNQECNUKIPQTKC6JGEQODKPCVKQPQHDGKPIGEENGUKCUVKECNN[JGCFGF
D[DKUJQRU
CUEQPEKXKUPQVCUFQOKPWU YJKEJGPVCKNGFCEQNNGEVKXGFGRGPFGPE[QPVJGGORGTQTVJTQWIJ
VJG DKUJQR
KORGTKCN KOOGFKCE[  CPF VJG HTGGFQO QH VTCFG EKVKGU GPLQ[GF URCYPGF C UVTQPI OWPKEKRCN  
EQPUEKQWUPGUUKPVJGKTEKVK\GPU

2QYGT YCU VTCPUHGTTGF HTQO GRKUEQRCE[ VQ EQOOWPCN EKV[ IQXGTPOGPVU CUCOCVVGTQHEQWTUGYKVJQWV
CP[KPVGTHGTGPEGQHVJQUGKPRQYGT0GYNGCFGTUJKREQPUEKQWUN[CFQRVGFVJGRQNKVKECNVGTOEKXKVCU

6JGVTCPUKVKQPHTQOCIGPGTCNCUUGODN[
CTGPIQ VQCUOCNNEKTENGQHEQPUKINKQFGETGFGP\CPGEGUUKVCVGF
VJG TGRNCEGOGPV QH VJG EQPUWN YKVJ C RQFGUV¯ 6JG TWNG VJCV JG JCF VQ DG CVVTCEVGF GZVGTPCNN[ YCU  
FGVGTOKPGFD[(TGFGTKEM$CTDCTQUUC

+P VJG VJ EGPVWT[ OCP[ EKVKGU FGXGNQRGF C EKVK\GPT[ YKVJ C RQRWNKUVKE EJCTCEVGT YJKEJ GXGPVWCNN[  
GXQNXGF VQ VJG RQRQNQ C RQNKVKECN KPUVKVWVKQP UGGMKPIVQCEVKXGN[KPXQNXGDTQCFUVTCVCQHVJGRQRWNCVKQP
6JKUKPVWTPECWUGFCVQRNC[GTVQGOGTIGYKVJKPVJGRQRQNQVJGITCPFKFKRQRQNQ

#VCEGTVCKPRQKPVUGNHIQXGTPGFEQOWPGUYGTGTGRNCEGFD[UKIPQTKCUYJKEJITCFWCNN[CFQRVGFEQOWPG
VCUMU6JWUEQOWPGUJCFGXGPVWCNN[NGFVQVJGVGTTKVQTKCNUWRTGOCE[QHUQXGTGKIPU

6JGVTCPUKVKQPHTQOGRKUEQRCNTWNGVQOWPKEKRCNIQXGTPOGPVRQUGFCHQTOKFCDNGRTQDNGOHQTVJG)GTOCP
GORGTQTU+VVQQMWPVKNVJG2GCEGQH%QPUVCPEGKPVQDTKPIVJKUFGXGNQROGPVVQCJCNV6JKUVTGCV[
UVKRWNCVGFVJGEQPFKVKQPUVJCV(TGFGTKEM$CTDCTQUUCCPFVJG/KNCPNGF.QODCTF.GCIWGKPKP8GPKEG
JCF CITGGF WRQP +V YCU UVKRWNCVGF KP /CTEJ#RTKN QH  KP 2KCEGP\C CPF TCVKHKGF D[ (TGFGTKEM  
$CTDCTQUUCCPF*GPT[8+
YJQYCUMKPIQH+VCN[ QP,WPG(TKGFTKEJ$CTDCTQUUCÒDGTNKGUUFGP
-QOOWPGPFKGKP4QPECINKCDGCPURTWEJVGP4GICNKGPIGIGPGKPGGKPOCNKIGQFGTL·JTNKEJG)GNF\CJNWPI
Y·JTGPFUKEJFKG5V·FVG\WT.GKUVWPIFGU(QFTWODGKLGFGO+VCNKGP\WIXGTRNKEJVGVGP5GKPG5VGNNWPICNU
1DGTJGTT YWTFG PGDGP FGO 6TGWGKF FGT -QOOWPGP FCFWTEJ HGUVIGUEJTKGDGP FCUU FKG HTGK IGY·JNVGP  
-QPUWNP XQO MCKUGTNKEJGP 0WPVKWU WPF CNNG HÒPH ,CJTG XQO -CKUGT UGNDUV KPXGUVKGTV YGTFGP OWUUVGP  

(TGFGTKEM$CTDCTQUUCVTCPUHGTTGFVQVJGEQOWPGUVJGTGICNKCVJG[JCFPGIQVKCVGFKP4QPECINKCCICKPUVC
UKPING QT C [GCTN[ RC[OGPV YJKNG VJG EKVKGU RNGFIGF VQ RC[ C HQFTWO GCEJ VKOG VJG GORGTQT ECOG VQ  
+VCN[#RCTVHTQOVJGQCVJQHNQ[CNV[QHVJGEQOWPGUJKURQUKVKQPCUQXGTNQTFYCUEGOGPVGFD[VJGHCEV
VJCVVJGHTGGN[GNGEVGFEQPUWNUYGTGTGSWKTGFVQDGKPXGUVGFD[VJGKORGTKCNGPXQ[CPFGXGT[HKHVJ[GCTD[
VJGGORGTQTJKOUGNH 
.F/ 

#PQVJGTV[RKECNN[+VCNKCPRJGPQOGPQPKUVJGEQPVTCUVDGVYGGPVJG)WGNHUCPFVJG)JKDGNNKPGU$QVJVGTOU
CTG TGCNN[ QH )GTOCP QTKIKP )WGNH KU +VCNKCP HQT 9GNHCPF)JKDGNNKPGUYCU+VCNKCPHQT9CKDNKPIGPVJG
[QWPIGTDTCPEJQHVJG5CNKCP*QWUG(QTUQOGDQF[DQTPKP(NQTGPEGVJKUFKHHGTGPEGYQWNFPQVJCXGDGGP
XGT[ ENGCT CNVJQWIJ KV YCU XGT[ ENGCT VJCV VJG VYQ VGTOU FGPQVGF VYQ QRRQUKPI HCEVKQPU )WGNHU YGTG  
U[PQP[OQWU YKVJ IQQF RCVTKQVKUO )JKDGNNKPGP YGTG CU QRRQUGF VQ VJG )WGNHU UWRRQTVGTU QH VJG  
GORGTQTCPFVJGCPVKRQRG

5QOGVKOGUVJGKPHNWGPEGQH4QOGYQWNFDGUKIPKHKECPVUQOGVKOGUKVYQWNFPQV#VVJGKPUVKVWVKQPQHVJG
2CVTKOQPKWO 2GVTK C ITGCV OCP[ EKVKGU HGNN WPFGT 4QOG CWVJQTKV[ 9JGP VJG KPHNWGPEG QH VJG RQRGU  
FGETGCUGFOCP[EKVKGUYKVJFTGYHTQOGEENGUKCUVKECNCWVJQTKV[


(QT VJG RGTKQF KP YJKEJ EGTVCKP EKVKGU HGNN WPFGT GEENGUKCUVKECN CWVJQTKV[ VJGKT EQKPU JCXG DGGP KPENWFGF WPFGT  

ŋ4QOGŌ

+P VJG VKOG YJGP VJG RQRGU TGUKFGF KP #XKIPQP CVVGORVUYGTGOCFGVQHQTEGCEJCPIG+P2QRG
+PPQEGPV8+CRRQKPVGF%CTFKPCN#NDQTPQ\
 CUXKECTQHVJGGEENGUKCUVKECNUVCVG#NDQTPQ\YCU
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151
ITALY - MILANO

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HQTVJKUUGGWPFGT#ODTQUG 

)#.'#<<1++8+5%106+
 


 

 2GIKQPG#*GNOGVETGUVGFYKVJFTCIQPQXGTUJKGNFCPFDGVYGGPVYQDTCPEJGUYKVJDWEMGVUCTKUKPIHTQO
HNCOGU KP SWCVTGHQKN  )#.'#< 8+%' %1/'5 Ő & Ő /'&+1.#0+ Ő 22 Ő %ʼn 4 'PVJTQPGF 5V  
5KTKWUYKVJETQUKGTCPFDNGUUKPIJCPFŐ5Ő5+485óó2#22+#ó$KCIIKIT 
+TTGIWNCTHNCPXGT[HKPG 
*QNNGTUDGTIGT/ÒPEJGP 
1PVJKUCPFVJGPGZVEQKP5V5KTWUKUPQNQPIGTYGCTKPIVJGRCNNKWO
UGGWPFGT#ODTQUG 


 

 2GIKQPG#*GNOGVETGUVGFYKVJFTCIQPQXGTUJKGNFCPFDGVYGGPVYQDTCPEJGUYKVJDWEMGVUCTKUKPIHTQO
HNCOGU KP SWCVTGHQKN  )#.'#< 8+%' %1/'5 Ő & Ő /'&+1.#0+ Ő 22 Ő %ʼn 4 'PVJTQPGF 5V  
5KTKWUYKVJETQUKGTCPFDNGUUKPIJCPFŐ5Ő5+485óó2#22+#ó$KCIIKIT 
9GCMN[UVTWEMXGT[HKPG 
*QNNGOCP'PUEJGFG 
$KCIIKRTQXKFGUVJGPCOG2#2+#KPUVGCFQH2#22+#

166
ITALY - SAVOIA

5#81+#

6JG QNFGUV PCOG KU ŋ5CRCWFKCŌ


KP 4QOCP KORGTKCN VKOGU C VGTTKVQT[ KP VJG UQWVJGTP ,WTC CPF CTQWPF  
)GPGXC +PVJG$WTIWPFKCPUECOGJGTG6JGVGTTKVQT[GZRCPFGFVQ%JCOD¾T[%NGTI[JWPIQPVQ
VJGPCOGŋ5CDCWFKCŌCPFKP%JCTNGOCIPGʼnUVKOGŋ5CDQKCŌYCUWUGF
VJGEQWPVKGU.[QP/CWTKGPPGCPF
)GPGXQKU .CVGTVJKUYQWNFDGEQOGVJGUQWVJGTPRCTVQH*CWVG$QWTIQIPG

+PVJGVJEGPVWT[CEQWPV[GOGTIGF*WODGTV+
 KUEQPUKFGTGFVJGRTQIGPKVQTQHVJG*QWUG
QH5CDCWFKC*KUUQPUCOQPIYJQOVJGPCOG#OCFGQCNTGCF[QEEWTGFEQPUQNKFCVGFVJGVGTTKVQT[-KPI
4WFQNH+++QH$WTIWPF[ITCPVGFKVUTWNGTUCPWODGTQHRTKXKNGIGUYJKEJYCUEQPVKPWGFWPFGTVJG5CNKCPU
YJKEJCNNQYGFVJGOVQRTGUUCJGCFKPVQ9CNNKUCPFVJG5WUCXCNNG[

6JG )TGIQTKCP TGHQTOCVKQP VJG +PXGUVKVWTG %QPVTQXGTU[ CPF VJG GZVGPUKQP QH VJG HGWFCN U[UVGO  
PGEGUUKVCVGF C TGQTKGPVCVKQP *WODGTV ++
  VJWU GUVCDNKUJGF C ŋHGWFCN OQPCTEJ[Ō %QWPV  
#OCFGQ+++
 RTQOQVGFOQPCUVKENKHGDWVCNUQFKFOWEJVQHWTVJGTVJGEQPUVTWEVKQPQHECUVNGU
6JG5WUCXCNNG[HQTOGFVJGDCUGQHQRGTCVKQPUHTQOYJGTGCPCVVCEMQP6QTKPQYCUOQWPVGF*KUUKUVGT
#FGNCKFGYCUYGFFGFVQ.QWKU8+QH(TCPEG
 CPF(TGPEJRQUUGUUKQPUYGTGCESWKTGFEQPUGSWGPVN[
6JGTGYCUCENQUGEQPPGEVKQPVQVJGRQRGYJKEJNGFVQEQPHNKEVYKVJ(TGFGTKEM$CTDCTQUUC

+P*WODGTV+++FKGFYKVJQWVJGKTU6JGPQDNGHGWFCNNQTFUVJQWIJVCEJCPIGQHEQWTUGKORGTCVKXG
YJKEJYCUEQORNGVGFD[6JQOCU+
 *KUTGCNOUVTGVEJGFHTQOYGNNKPVQ(TCPEGVQVJGQWVGT
NKOKVUQH2KGOQPVG6JGCTVQHWPKVKPIFKHHGTGPVRQRWNCVKQPITQWRUYCUJQPGFVQRGTHGEVKQPD[VJGEQWPVU
6JGTGYGTGVYQTGUKFGPEGUQPGKP/CWTKGPPGCPFQPGKP2KGOQPVG5WUC+PVJGNCVGVJEGPVWT[VJG
TGUKFGPEGYCUEGPVTCNKUGFKP4KRCKNNGQPVJG.CMG)GPGXC6JGEQWPVUHWPEVKQPGFCUICVGMGGRGTUQHVJG
#NRU

5CXQKCUCYKVUHKPCNINQT[FC[UWPFGT#OCFGQ8+++
 +P'ORGTQT5KIKUOWPFGNGXCVGF
JKOVQFWMG*GDTQWIJVVJGEQWPVT[VQVJTKXG#TGENWUGKP4KRCKNNGCU#PVKRQRG(GNKZ8CPFECTFKPCN

DKUJQRQH)GPGXCJGYCUCOQPIVJGOQUVKPHNWGPVKCNUQXGTGKIPUQHJKUVKOG
#HVGT JKU FGCVJ 5CXQKC HGNN XKEVKO VQ EQWTV KPVTKIG +V CNNQYGF (TCPEG VQ UGK\G UKIPKHKECPV RCTVU QH VJG  
VGTTKVQT[

9##&6.#0&
#HVGT 6JQOCU + VJG VGTTKVQT[ HGNN CRCTV 5CXQKC + WPFGT #OCFGQ +8 2KGOQPV + WPFGT 6JQOCU ++ CPF  
5CXQKC++WPFGT2KGTQ++ 
#HVGT VJG FGOKUG QH 6JQOCU ++ JKU VGTTKVQT[ HGNN KPVQ 5CXQKC +++ WPFGT #OCFGQ 8 9CCFVNCPF WPFGT  
.QFQXKEQ+%CVGTKPCUQNF9CCFVNCPFVQ#OCFGQ8+QH5CXQKCKP 
9CCFVNCPFKUKFGPVKECNYKVJVJG5GKIPGWTKG8CWF.WFQXKEQYCUITCPVGFVJGTKIJVQHOKPVHQT0[QP
PGCT
)GPGXC D[4WFQNH6JGDKUJQRUQH)GPGXCCPF.CWUCPPGEQPUGSWGPVN[QRRQUGFVJKUTKIJV

.1&18+%1+FK5#81+'
 



 

 &GPKGT0[QP#%TQUUYKVJQPGVTGHQKNKPVJGUVCPFQPGRGNNGVKPVJGVJCPINGU .1&18+%85


46GORNGYKVJVTGHQKNKPEGPVTGCPFYCXGFNKPGCVDQVVQO & 5#$#8&+#$QWFGCWIT
'FIGHCWNVCNKVVNGYGCMN[UVTWEMCVVJGGFIGXGT[HKPG 
(KPP-GPFCN 
'Z,(%JQYPEQNNGEVKQP 
0QVKP$KCIIK 
1DXGTUGVGZVGPFUYKVJVJTGGFQVUQXGTGCEJQVJGT

167
ITALY - SAVOIA

5#81+#
#/#&'18+++EQPVG
 
6JKU KU C EQPVKPWCVKQP QH 5CXQKC +++ WPFGT #OCFGQ 8 #OCFGQ 8+++ YCU C ITGCVITGCVITCPFUQP QH  
#OCFGQ8*GCUUWOGFQHHKEGCUEQWPVKP+PJGDGECOGFWMGCPFJGUVGRRGFFQYPKP
*GYKVJFTGYVQ4KRCKNNGYJKEJJGNGHVYJGPKPVJGEQWPEKNQH$CUNGWPFGTVJGPCOG(GNKZ8GNGEVGF
JKOCPVKRQRGQRRQUKPI2QRG'WIGPG+8

 


 1DQNQ FK DKCPEJGVVQ  0[QP # %QCV QH CTOU KP SWCVTGHQKN   #/'&'85  %1/'5 4 %TQUU  
YKVJQPGUOCNNETQUUKPGCEJCPING &'5#$#8&+#$KCIIK%WFC\\QHIT 
8GT[HKPG 
/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP&GWVUEJNCPF#WEVKQP
 PQ

#/#&'18+++FWEC
 

 

   

 /G\\QITQUUQEJKCDNGUG0[QP#%QCVQHCTOUKPSWCVTGHQKNYKVJETQUUGUKPVJGCPINGU #/'&'85


ETGUEGPV&8:„5#$#8&+'4%TQUUKPSWCVTGHQKN %*#$ „+0„+6#.„/#4„24+0$KCIIK
%WFC\\QDIT 8GT[HKPG 
/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP&GWVUEJNCPF#WEVKQP
 PQ

 3WCTVQEJKCDNGUG%JCODGT[#-PQVDGVYGGP('46 #/'&'85óQ&8:Q5#$4%TQUU 


+0„+6#.+#„/#4%*+1$KCIIK%W\\CFQCIT 
&CTMRCVKPCVTCEGUQHXGTFKITKUXGT[HKPG 
%TQUUDQVVQP[ETQUUYKVJCVTGHQKNCVGCEJGPF 
8CTKQWUGZRNCPCVKQPUGZKUVHQTVJGNGVVGTU('46 
(QTVKVWFQGKWU4JQFWOVGPWKV
#OCFGQ8+%QPVG8GTFGKPFGNKXGTGF4JQFGUQHVJG5CTCEGPU  
(QTVKVWFKPKUGVTGNKIKQPKUVKVWNWU
(QTVKVWFGCPFTGNKIKQWUPGUUUKIP  
(QGFGTGGVTGNKIKQPGVGPGOCZ
(KFGNKV[CPFTGNKIKQPUJCNNRTGUGTXGWU 1PVJGEQKPUQH8KEVQT#OCFGQ+ 
6QWVTGVQWTPGTCGP(TCPEG
KHTGCFKPCTGVTQITCFGOCPPGT 
#NNYKNNTGVWTPVQ(TCPEG  
(COC'VGTPKVC4GNKIKQPG6TKQPHQ
(COGGVGTPKV[TGNKIKQPCPFVTKWORJ  
(GTVQHVJG.CVKP(GTTG
RQYGTHWN 
(TQOECVCNQIWG-ÒPMGT
 
('46CNUQQEEWTUKP%CUCNG/QPHGTTCVQ
PQ 


 

 3WCTVQ UCXQKCTFQ  %JCODGT[ # ( ' 4 6 DGVYGGP VYQ FQWDNGF NKPGU   #/'&'85  „ &8: „  
5#$  4 %TQUU YKVJKP FQWDNGF USWCTG   +0 +6#.+# „ /#4%*+1 $KCIIK  %WFC\\Q C  
IT 8GT[HKPGVQGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP&GWVUEJNCPF#WEVKQP
 PQ

168
ITALY - SAVOIA


 

 3WCTVQ UCXQKCTFQ  %JCODGT[ # ( ' 4 6 DGVYGGP VYQ FQWDNGF NKPGU   #/'&'85  „ &8: „  
5#$  4 %TQUU YKVJKP FQWDNGF USWCTG   +0  +6#.+# „ /#4%*+1 $KCIIK  %WFC\\Q C  
IT 8GT[HKPGVQGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP&GWVUEJNCPF#WEVKQP
 PQ


 

 3WCTVQUCXQKCTFQ+XTGC#('46DGVYGGPVYQFQWDNGFNKPGU #/'&'85„&8:„5#$ Q4


%TQUUYKVJKPFQWDNGFUSWCTG +0„+6#.+#„/#4 „240TQUGYKVJURKMGU$KCIIK%WFC\\Q
M
! IT +TTGIWNCTHNCPXGT[HKPGVQGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP&GWVUEJNCPF#WEVKQP
 PQ

#/'&'1+:
 
#OCFGQ+:YCUVJGITCPFUQPQH#OCFGQ8+++
#OCFGQ8+++JKUUQP.WFQXKEQ
CPFVJGNCVVGTʼnUUQP#OCFGQ+: 


 

 3WCTVQ # ( ' 4 6 DGVYGGP VYQ FQWDNGF NKPGU   #/'&'85 „ &8: „ 5#$  Q 4 %TQUU YKVJKP  
FQWDNGFUSWCTG +0„+6#.+#„/#4„240JCPF$KCIIK%WFC\\QCXCTIT 
40KEGRCVKPCXGT[HKPG 
/ÒP\ICNGTKG/ÒPEJGP#WEVKQP
 PQ

%#4.1+
 
#HVGT VJG FGOKUG QH #OCFGQ +: JKU UQP 2JKNKDGTV CEEGFGF VQ VJG VJTQPG
  CHVGT YJQO JKU  
DTQVJGT%CTNQ+
 UWEEGGFGF6JGOGFKGXCNUQXGTGKIPNKPGQH5CXQKCGPFGFYKVJ%CTNQʼnUUQP
%CTNQ++
 


 

 (QTVGVJV[RG#%QCVQHCTOUDGVYGGPVYQTKPIU -#41.85Ő&8:Ő5#$#+&'14)TGCV-


DGVYGGPHQWTTKPIU 24+0%'25Ő+0Ő+6#.+#$KCIIK%WFC\\QEIT 
&CTMVQPGXGT[HKPG 
8KPEJQP2CTKU 
$QVJ$KCIIKCPF%WFC\\QOGPVKQPCUNGIGPF5$&KPUVGCFQH5#$#+&'1

169
ITALY - TORINO and ASTI


614+01
6QTKPQYCUQTKIKPCNN[C4QOCPEQNQP[
%QNQPKC,WNKC#WIWUVC6CWTKPQTWO 6QYCTFUVJGGPFQHVJGVJ
EGPVWT[ KV DGECOG CP KPFGRGPFGPV FKQEGUG +VU HKTUV DKUJQR YCU /CZKOWU
  6QTKPQ RNC[GF C  
OGFKCVKPITQNGKPVJGEQPHNKEVDGVYGGP6JGQFGTKECPF)WPFQDCNF

#HVGT  VJGTG YCU C FWEJ[ 6QTKPQ .QWKUVJG2KQWUVWTPGF6QTKPQKPVQCPKORQTVCPVEGPVTG#TQWPF
6QTKPQYCUVJGEGPVTGQHCOCTM9JGPKP%QPVGUUC#FGNJGKFFKGFVJGOCTMGPFGF+PVJGVJ
EGPVWT[ VJG EKV[ YCU EQPVTQNNGF D[ VJG DKUJQRU
VJG[ JCF DGGP QHHKEKCNN[ CEMPQYNGFIGF D[ (TGFGTKEM  
$CTDCTQUUC 'RKUEQRCNRQYGTNGHVXKTVWCNN[PQTQQOHQTVJGEQOOWPGVQFGXGNQR6JGEQPUQNGUCNNECOG
HTQOVJGDKUJQRʼnUKPPGTEKTENG

#TKHVQEEWTGFYJGP6QTKPQKPLQKPGFVJG.QODCTF.GCIWG
$KUJQR)KCEQOQTGOCKPGFHCKVJHWNVQ
(TGFGTKEM++ +PVJGTGYCUCRQFGUV¯YJQUWDFWGFVJGHCOKNKGU5VKNNVJGEQOWPGYCUPQVCDNGVQ
EJGEM VJG CFXCPEG QH 5CXQKC #HVGT JCXKPI DGGP TWNGF D[ %JCTNGU Fʼn#PLQW CPF )WINKGNOQ 8++ QH  
/QPHGTTCVQHTQOVQV6QTKPQYCUEQPSWGTGFD[5CXQKCKP

#HVGTVJGFGCVJQH6JQOCU++
UGGCNUQWPFGT5CXQKC VJGVGTTKVQT[QH2KGOQPV++GOGTIGFWPFGT6JQOCU
+++ 6JG NCVVGTʼnU UQP (KNKRRQ DGECOG RTKPEG QH #EJCKC VJTQWIJ JKU YKHG +UCDGNNC 2TKPEGUU QH #EJCKC  
6JGKTUQP,CEQRQTGEGKXGF2KGOQPVDCEMKPCPFYQWNFDGVJGVKVWNCTRTKPEGQH#EJCKCCUYQWNFJKU
UQPU#OCFGQCPF.WFQXKEQ+UCDGNNCʼnUHCVJGT)WKNNCWOG++
 CESWKTGFVJGTKIJVQHOKPVKP
(KNKRRQ+UCDGNNCʼnUVJKTFJWUDCPFYCUTGNKGXGFQHJKUHGWFCNTKIJVJQYGXGTTGEGKXGFKVDCEMNCVGT
YJGPVJGFCWIJVGTYCKXGFJGTTKIJV

6JG RTKPEGU QH #EJCKC CRRQKPVGF C XKECT KWFGZ +P  #OCFGQ 8+ ITCPVGF VJG EKV[ C PWODGT QH  
RTKXKNGIGU+P.WFQXKEQQH5CXQKC#EJCKCFKGFYKVJQWVKUUWG6JGOCKPNKPGVJCVQH#OCFGQ8+++
VJGPCPPGZGFVJGFWEJ[QH2KGOQPVVQ5CXQKC

#HVGT  VJG OKPV QH 6QTKPQ YCU WUGF D[ VJG FWMGU QH 5CXQKC  KU VJG [GCT VJCV #OCFGQ 8+++  
KPJGTKVGF2KGOQPV
.7&18+%1VKVWNCTRTKPEGQH#%#+#
 


 

 3WCTVQ # %TQUU QP DCPF CPF YKVJKP SWCVTGHQKN   .8&18+%85 &  5#$#8&  4 %TQUU    
24+0%'25#%*#+'61 ó$KCIIKIT 4+TTGIWNCTHNCPXGT[HKPG 
6QFGTK(NQTGPEG 
$KCIIKRTQXKFGU'% CUVJGGPFQHVJGQDXGTUGVGZVDWVJGTGKVENGCTN[TGCFU61 

#56+
7PFGT VJG 4QOCPU VJKU YCU VJG EQNQP[ QH *CUVC +P  #UVK YCU YCU OCFG CP GRKUEQRCN UGG
DKUJQR  
RCUVQT +VYCUVJGHKTUVEKV[VQDGEQPSWGTGFD[VJG.QODCTFUCHVGTYJKEJKVDGECOGCFWEJ[7PFGTVJG
(TCPMU#UVKYCUVJGEGPVTGQHCEQWPV[

#TQWPFVJGEQWPV[EGCUGFVQGZKUVCPF$KUJQR$TWPKPIYJQJCFTGEGKXGFVJGECUVNGQPVJGJKNNHTQO
*WIQCPF.QVJCTKWUKPYCURWVKPEJCTIG
CEMPQYNGFIGFD[1VVQ+KP 

(TQOVQVJGEKVK\GPUKPETGCUKPIN[CESWKTGFRQYGTCPFVJG[HWPEVKQPGFDGUKFGVJGDKUJQR6JKU
YCUCEMPQYNGFIGFD[(TGFGTKEM$CTDCTQUUC

$GHQTGVJGTGYCUCJCTFEQPHTQPVCVKQPYKVJVJGOCTITCXGUQH/QPHGTTCVQ5VKNNVJGEKV[HCKNGFVQ
KPETGCUGKVURQYGT#VVGORVUD[6JQOCUQH5CXQ[GP
 CPF%JCTNGUQH#PLQW
 VQUWDLWICVGKV
YGTGVJYCTVGF6QYCTFUVJGGPFQHVJGVJEGPVWT[CRQRQNQGOGTIGFWPFGTCECRKVCPQCPFCRQFGUV¯
+P  #UVK NQUV KVU KPFGRGPFGPEG CPF UWTTGPFGTGF VQ 4QDGTV QH #PLQW 6JGP VJG VGTTKVQT[ HGNN VQ VJG  
OCTITCXGUQH/QPHGTTCVQCPFVQVJG8KUEQPVKU6JGOCTTKCIGQH8CNGPVKPC
FCWIJVGTQH)KCP)CNGC\\Q 
CPF&WMG.QWKUQH1TN¾CPUDTQWIJV#UVKWPFGT1TN¾CPUUYC[

%1/70'
 

 


 &GPCTQ # 4': KP HKGNF  Ő %804#&85 ++ 4 %TQUU   Ő #56'05+5 Ő $KCIIK  8CTGUK   
IT 6TCEGUQHXGTFKITKUXGT[HKPGVQGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP$CUGN

170
ITALY - MONFERRATO


%#5#.' /10('44#61
/QPHGTTCVQ KU HKTUV FQEWOGPVGF KP VJG FGGF VQ KVU DGUVQYCN KP  D[ $GTGPICT + VQ 5V )KQXCPPK  
&QOPCTWOKP2CXKC+P1VVQ+CEMPQYNGFIGFVJGGUVCVGQH/CTITCXG#NGTCOWUKPEQOKVCVW#SWGPUK
5CQPGPUKPGEPQP#UVGPUKGV/QPVKUHGTTCVK.CVGT/QPHGTTCVQYCPFGTGFVQVJGYGUV
VJGECUVNG6WTTKUPGCT
8KNNCFGCVK +VVJGPDGECOGCHKZGFVGTTKVQT[GCUVQH#UVK

1FFQCPF)WINKGNOQ+++CPF+++FGUEGPFGFHTQO/CTITCXG#NGTCOWU7PVKNVJGVGTTKVQT[TGOCKPGF
QPG VJGP VJG 1FFQPG NKPG UGRCTCVGF 6JG PCOG OCTITCXGU QH /QPHGTTCVQ KU HKTUV FQEWOGPVGF WPFGT  
4CKPGT
  )WINKGNOQ +8 D[ JKU OCTTKCIG VQ ,WFKVJ DGECOG VJG WPENG QH (TGFGTKEM  
$CTDCTQUUCYJKEJGNGXCVGFJKOVQJKIJPQDKNKV[*GYCUCUVCNYCTVQH(TGFGTKEMʼnUCPFVQQMRCTVKPVJG
PF%TWUCFG5GXGTCNQHJKUEJKNFTGPRNC[GFTQNGUKPETWUCFGTUVCVGURCTVN[VJTQWIJOCTTKCIG

7PFGT$QPKHCEKQ++
 VJGUKIJVUYGTGUGVQP+VCN[CICKP*KUUQP)WINKGNOQ8++
 
YCUCPKORQTVCPVHKIWTGKPVJGVKOGYJGPVJGEQOWPGUYGTGTGRNCEGFD[UKIPQTKCU6JGFGCVJQHJKUUQP
)KQXCPPK+OGCPVVJGGPFQHVJG#NGTCOKEKTGCNO

+TGPG VJG FCWIJVGT QH C UKUVGT QH )KQXCPPK + YCU OCTTKGF VQ VJG $[\CPVKPG GORGTQT #PFTQPKMQU ++  
2CNCKQNQIQU 6JGKT UQP 6GQFQTQ+2CNCKQNQIQU
 VJGPTQUGVQRQYGT6JGTGYCUCOQOGPVʼnU
FTGCO QH DGEQOKPI GORGTQT QH $[\CPVKWO HQT JKO DWV KV VWTPGF QWV VQ DG CP KNNWUKQP CPF JG JCF VQ  
UGVVNGHQT/QPHGTTCVQ*GKUVJGHKTUVQPGVQJCXGOKPVGF

*KU UQP )KQXCPPK ++
+ 
  URGPV OQUV QH JKU NKHG YCIKPI YCT HKTUV CPF HQTGOQUV YKVJ VJG  
OKIJV[UKIPQTKCUQHVJG5CXQ[UCPFVJG8KUEQPVKUDWVCNUQVJGUOCNNGTQPGU*GTWNGF#UVK8GTEGNNKCPF
0QXCTCHQTCUJQTVRGTKQFQHVKOG#NQPIUGTKGUQHUWEEGUUQTUHQNNQYGFCNNQHVJGOQHNGUUEQPUGSWGPEG

YKVJVJGGZEGRVKQPQH6GQFQTQ++ 

0QVWPVKNWPFGT)WINKGNOQ8+++
+ 
 YQWNFVJGOCTITCXKCVGDGTGUVQTGFVQKVUQNFUVCPFKPI
JG
YCUUWRRQTVGFD[JKUDTQVJGT%CTFKPCN6JGQFQTQ 7PFGTJKO%CUCNGYCUGNGXCVGFVQFKQEGUGD[2QRG
5KZVWU+8+PVJG/KFFNG#IGU%CUCNGYCU%CUCNG5CPVʼn'XCUKQ
CHVGTVJGOQPCUVGT[ KVHGNNKPHKGHVQVJG
DKUJQRQH8GTEGNNKCPFNCVGTDGECOGKPFGRGPFGPVCHVGTVJG5VCWHGTUTWNGEJCPIGFJCPFUCHGYVKOGU+P
VJGVJEGPVWT[%CUCNGDGECOGVJGECRKVCNQHVJG2CNCKQNQIQUGUYJQCNUQGUVCDNKUJGFVJGKTEQWTVVJGTG
CHVGT/KNCPGUGGZCORNG&GURKVGJKUVJTGGOCTTKCIGU)WINKGNOQ+JCFPQEJKNFTGPCPFYCUUWEEGGFGFD[
JKUDTQVJGT$QPKHCEKQ
 6JGPECOGVJGNCVVGTʼnUUQP)WINKGNOQ++
 VJG2CNCKQNQIQU
NKPGGPFKPIYKVJVJGFGCVJUQH$QPKHCEKQ++CPF)KCPIKQTIKQCHVGTYJKEJ%CUCNG/QPHGTTCVQFGXQNXGFVQ
VJG)QP\CICU

)+18#00++2#.'1.1)1
 


 

 )TQUUQ#%TQUU +1*'5Z/#4%*1/16+5#4'CINGNYKVJUJKGNFQH%CUCNGQPDTGCUV


5¢+1*'5¢'8#0)'.+56#¢$KCIIK8CTGUKIT 
44+TTGIWNCTHNCPCPFCNKVVNGYGCMN[UVTWEMCVVJGGFIGXGT[HKPG 
4CWEJ9KGP#WEVKQP
 PQ 
6JGTGKUUQOGVJKPIDGHQTG+1*'5KPVJGQDXGTUGVGZV 
6JGNCUVRCTVKUFKHHKEWNVVQTGCF%QWNFVJKUDGVJGOKPV!6JGTGYCUOKPVKPIKP%JKXCUUQ#UVKCPF/QPECNXQ

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(QWPFGF KP  $% CU CP QWVRQUV CICKPUV VJG )CWNU 6JG HKTUV DKUJQR YCU ,QJCPPGU OGPVKQPGF KP VJG  
U[PQFQH/KNCPKP6JGDKUJQRʼnUUWRTGOCE[EQPVKPWGFVQDGVJGTGCNTGCUQPHQTRTQURGTKV[+P
/CVKNFCQH6WUEKCITCPVGFVJTGGTGRTGUGPVCVKXGUQHVJGŋJQOKPGUUŌQH%TGOQPC%TGOCCPFVJGKUNCPFQH
(WNEJGTKCKPHKGH+VHQTOUVJGHKTUVOGPVKQPQHCEQOWPG%TGOQPCYCUNQ[CNVQ(TGFGTKEM$CTDCTQUUC
GCTPKPIVJGEKV[OCP[RTKXKNGIGU+PVJG.QODCTF.GCIWGYCULQKPGF#HVGTVJGRGCEGQH%QPUVCPEG

  EQPHNKEV CTQUG YKVJ VJG PGKIJDQWTKPI UVCVGU PQVCDN[ /KNCP YJKEJ JQYGXGT YCU TQWVGF KP   
CPF%TGOQPCFTCYKPIWRQPVJGKTCNNKCPEGYKVJ(TGFGTKEM++

+P  CP GZVGTPCN RQFGUV¯ YCU RWV KP EJCTIG CP CTTCPIGOGPV VJCV DGECOG FGHKPKVKXG KP  6JG  
EQOWPCNG UVTWEVWTG DTQMG FQYP WPFGT 2QFGUV¯ 7DGTVQ 2GNCXKEKPQ
  (QNNQYKPI VJG $CVVNG CV  
$GPGXGPVWOKPVJG)JKDGNNKPGUYGTGTGRNCEGFYKVJVJG)WGNRJUCUCNNKGUCPFVJG%CXCNECDÈHCOKN[
TQUGVQRQYGT6JGKTJGIGOQP[YQWNFNCUVWPVKNYJGP#\\QPG8KUEQPVKUWDLWICVGFVJGEKV[#HVGT
VJGFGCVJQH)KCP)CNGC\\Q7IQNKPQ%CXCNECDÈCPF%CDTKPQ(QPFWNQ
 HQTOGFVJGUKIPQTKC
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KVYQWNFDGRCTVQHVJG
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44'ZVTGOGN[HKPG 
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6JGNGVVGTU24+CTGRCTVQH+/2'4#614 
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176
ITALY - PARMA and EMILIA

2#4/#
2CTOC YCU HQWPFGF KP  $% +P VJG VJ EGPVWT[ VJGTG YCU C FGENKPG DWV YJGP 4CXGPPC HGNN VQ VJG  
1UVTQIQVJU VJG EKV[ HNQWTKUJGF CICKP &WTKPIVJG)QVJKE9CTUCPFWPFGTVJG.QODCTFUITQYVJUNQYGF
FQYPCDKVDWV2CTOCʼnURQUKVKQPDGVYGGP.QODCTFKCCPF6WUEKCEQPVKPWGFVQDGQHKORQTVCPEG6JWUVJG
EKV[ECOGWPFGTVJGKPHNWGPEGQHVJG%CPQUUCHCOKN[CPFVJG1DGTVGPIJK+VEJQUGVJGUKFGQHVJGGORGTQT
FWTKPIVJG+PXGUVKVWTG%QPVTQXGTU[
%CFCPWUGXGPDGECOGCPVKRQRGCU*QPQTKWU++  
+P0KITQ)TCUUQHTQO/KNCPYCUCRRQKPVGFRQFGUV¯KP2CTOC#HVGTVJG2GCEGQH%QPUVCPEG2CTOC
CNNKGFYKVJ%TGOQPC4GIIKQCPF/QFGPCCICKPUV2KCEGP\C7PFGT(TGFGTKEM++2CTOCFGXQNXGFVQVJG
)WGNRJU CPF C RGTKQF QH HNQTGUEGPEG GPUWGF
  +P  2CTOC GUVCDNKUJGF KVU QYP OKPV #  
PWODGT QH RTQOKPGPV HCOKNKGU JGNF UYC[ +P VJG RGTKQF WPVKN  VJG TGRWDNKE OKPVGF YKVJ VYQ  
GZEGRVKQPUCPF+PKVHGNNVQVJG8KUEQPVKUYJQUVC[GFWPVKNGZEGRVHQT
CUOCNNKPVGTTWRVKQPCHVGT

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#Ő$KCIIK8CTGUKIT 6TCEGUQHXGTFKITKUGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
(KPCTVG/KNCPQ#WEVKQP
 PQ 
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2JKNKRQH5YCDKC 
 

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4GIIKQ YCU HQWPFGF D[ VJG 4QOCP EQPUWN / #GOKNKWU .GRKFWU KP  $% 6JG HKTUV UKIPU QH  
%JTKUVGPFQOFCVGHTQOVJGTFCPFVJGVJEGPVWT[CPFVJGHKTUVDKUJQRYCU(CXGPVKWU
 6JGEKV[ʼnU
RCVTQPUCKPVKU$KUJQR2TQURGTWU
UQOGVKOGUOKZGFWRYKVJ2TQURGTQH#SWKVCKPG  
#HVGT VJG DQQO WPFGT VJG %CTQNKPIKCPU C ECVJGFTCN QXGT VJG ITCXG QH 5V 2TQURGT YCU TC\GF D[ VJG  
*WPICTKCPUKP
VJGOQPCUVGT[5V2TQURGTYQWNFDGDWKNVJGTGKP  
+P%QPTCF++ITCPVGF$KUJQR6GW\QVJGEQOKVCNVKVNG5QQPVJG%CPQUUCUUGK\GFVJGEQWPV[&WTKPI
VJG+PXGUVKVWTG%QPVTQXGTU[/CVKNFCQH6WUEKCTGRNCEGF$KUJQR)CPFWNHYJQYCUNQ[CNVQVJGGORGTQT
 YKVJ #PUGNO QH .WEEC
  #HVGT /CVKNFCʼnU FGCVJ 
  VJG EQOWPG ECOG KPVQ DGKPI 6JG  
.QODCTF.GCIWGYCULQKPGF+PVJGFQOKPCPVPQDKNKV[YCUQWUVGFCPFCECRKVCPQFGNRQRQNQECOG
KPVJGKTRNCEG+PVJGKPHNWGPVKCNPQDNGHCOKN[FC5G\\QYCUFTKXGPHTQO4GIIKQ 
#UCTGCEVKQPQPVJGUWRTGOCE[QHVJGRQRQNQCPWODGTQHPQDNGHCOKNKGUQHHGTGFVJGUKIPQTKCVQ1DK\\Q
Fʼn'UVG VJKU JGTCNFGF VJG FGENKPG QH 4GIIKQ (TQO  VQ  VJG 8KUEQPVKU VTKGF VQ TGUVQTG QTFGT  
'RKFGOKEUCOQPIUVQVJGTURTGXGPVGFVJGOHTQOCEJKGXKPIKV#HVGTVJGFGCVJQH)KCP)CNGC\\Q8KUEQPVK

 1VVQDQPG6GT\KCESWKTGFVJGUKIPQTKCDWVUQQPJCFVQDQYVQVJG8KUEQPVKUCPFVJG'UVGU+P
4GIIKQWNVKOCVGN[HGNNVQVJG'UVGU 

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 )TQUUQ # )TCKP OKNN  ¢ *'4%8.'5 ¢ &8: VQMGP 4 $WUV QH 5V 2TQURGTQ HCEKPI  VQMGP 5 Ő  
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40KEGRQTVTCKVHNCPFGHGEVXGT[HKPG 
/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP$CUGN 
$QVJVJGQDXGTUGCPFVJGTGXGTUGVGZVCTGRTGEGFGFQTIKTFGFD[CŋU[ODQNŌ+VUOGCPKPIGUECRGUOG&QGUVJKUJCXG
CP[VJKPIVQFQYKVJVJGHNQWTOKNN!

177
ITALY - MODENA and BOLOGNA

/1&'0#
1TKIKPCNN[ C 4QOCP OWPKEKRKWO /WVKPC %JTKUVGPFQO UQQP ICKPGF HQQVJQNF CPF /QFGPC YCU CP  
GRKUEQRCNUGGKPVJGVJEGPVWT[

#VVJGITCXGQH$KUJQR)GOKPKCPWU
Ŏ YJQYQWNFNCVGTDGTGXGTGPEGFCURCVTQPUCKPVQHVJGEKV[
CNQPIVJG8KC'OKNKCJKUUWEEGUUQT6JGQFQNWUGTGEVGFCECVJGFTCNVJCVYQWNFIQQPVQDGVJGEKV[EGPVTG
%QPSWGTGFD[VJG.QODCTFUVJGEKV[YCUTGDWKNVD[%WPKRGTVKP1VJGT.QODCTFMKPIUCNUQDWKNV
KORQTVCPVDWKNFKPIU

+P  /QFGPC TGEGKXGF UKIPKHKECPV RTKXKNGIGU QH .QWKU VJG 2KQWU # HQNNQYGT QH .QWKU VJG 2KQWU  
#WVTCOOWUDGECOGEQOGUQH/QFGPC#HVGTVJCVVJGEKV[UWHHGTGFXKQNGPVCVVCEMUQHVJG*WPICTKCPU

6JGDKUJQRUYGTGXGT[RQYGTHWNCPFRNC[GFCEGPVTCNTQNGKPVJG+PXGUVKVWTG%QPVTQXGTU[$KUJQR'TKDGTV

  EJQUG VJG UKFG QH VJG GORGTQT VQ TKF JKOUGNH QH VJG KPHNWGPEG QH /CVKNFC QH 6WUEKC YJQ  
FQOKPCVGF VJG EQPVCFQ /CVKNFC CVVGPFGF VJG EQOOGPEGOGPV QH YQTM HQT VJG EQPUVTWEVKQP QH VJG  
ECVJGFTCNYKVJVJGKORQTVCPVTGNKGHD[9KNKIGNOWU

#HVGT/CVKNFCʼnUFGCVJKPCEQOWPGECOGKPVQDGKPI6JGEKV[HQWIJVCNQV
CNUQYKVJ$QNQIPC CPF
GXGPVWCNN[ YCU EGFGF VQ VJG OCTSWKU QH (GTTCTC 1DK\\Q Fʼn'UVG KP  $TKGHN[ VJGTG YCU C EKV[  
IQXGTPOGPV
 DWVCHVGTKPVGTPCNEQPHNKEVVJGEKV[WNVKOCVGN[HGNNVQVJG'UVGUKP

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 )TQUUQ # (  & Ő %  YKVJ VJTGG RGNNGVU CTQWPF   +/2'4#614 4 )TGCV /   &' /86+0#  
$KCIIK8CTGUKXCTIT 'ZVTGOGN[HKPG 
6QFGTK(NQTGPEG

$1.1)0#
9JGPVJG$QKKNGHVVJGKTJQOGNCPF)CWNCVVJGDGIKPPKPIQHVJGVJEGPVWT[$%VQOKITCVGGCUVYCTFRCTV
QHVJGOYGPVVQVJGUQWVJCPFUGVVNGFKP$QKQPKC
$QNQIPC +VU.CVKPPCOGKU$QPQPKC

6JKURNCEGVJCVVJG$QKKEJQUGVQUGVVNGJCFDGGPCP'VTWUMKCPUGVVNGOGPVYJKEJVJG[FGUVTQ[GF.CVGTKV
YQWNFEQOGVQDGC4QOCPUGVVNGOGPV

9JGP %JTKUVGPFQO YCU KPVTQFWEGF KU WPMPQYP CU KU VJG RGTKQF QH OCTV[TFQO QH 5V 8KVCNKU CPF 5V  
#ITKEQNC

9JGTGCU $QNQIPC UWHHGTGF HTQO VJG )QVJU VJG .QODCTFU HQWPFGF EJWTEJGU VJGTG 1PG QH VJG HKTUV  

DKUJQRU5V2GVTQPKWU
 NKGUDWTKGFKPVJG$GPGFKEVKPGOQPCUVGT[QH5V5VGHCPQ
%JCTNGOCIPGTGVWTPGF$QNQIPCVQVJG*QN[5GG6JGEKV[ITGYFWTKPIVJGVJCPFVJEGPVWT[6JG
EKV[NC[KPVJGURJGTGQHKPHNWGPEGQHDQVJVJG#TEJDKUJQRTKE4CXGPPCCPFVJG*QWUG%CPQUUC1VVQPKCP
CWVJQTKV[CPFCEQWPVCRRQKPVGFD[VJGMKPIEQWPVGTDCNCPEGFVJGUGHQTEGUDWVCNUQRTGXGPVGFVJGDKUJQR
HTQOJCXKPICP[TGCNKPHNWGPEGQXGTVJGEKV[

6QYCTFU VJG GPF QH VJG VJ EGPVWT[ VYQ DKUJQRU YGTG KPUVKVWVGF
QPG D[ VJG RQRG VJG QVJGT D[ VJG  
CPVKRQRG +PVJGVGTTKVQT[UGRCTCVGFHTQO4CXGPPCCPFUWDQTFKPCVGFVQ4QOG

+P  C EQOWPG GOGTIGF +V HQTOGF CP CNNKCPEG YKVJ VJG QVJGT EQOWPGU KP VJG 2Q RNCKP IQKPI  
CICKPUV VJG RNCPU QH (TGFGTKEM $CTDCTQUUC YJQ YCPVGF VQ TGUVQTG TQ[CN CWVJQTKV[ 6JWU KV LQKPGF VJG  
.QODCTF .GCIWG 6JG EQOWPG YCU NGF D[ NQECN PQDKNKV[
YJKEJ YCU VQTP D[ KPVGTPCN FKUCEEQTF   
4GRNCEKPIVJGEQPUWNGUYKVJCRQFGUV¯DTQWIJVKPHTQOVJGQWVUKFGFKFPQVKORTQXGVJGUKVWCVKQP+P
VJGIWKNFUCEEGFGFVQEKV[IQXGTPOGPV+PVJGQHHKEGQH%CRKVCPQFGN2QRQNQYCUETGCVGF
CNUQHKNNGF
GZVGTPCNN[ 

$QNQIPC HQTEGHWNN[ QRRQUGF (TGFGTKEM ++ PQVCDN[ KP VJG $CVVNG QH (QUUCVC
  KP YJKEJ 'P\Q  

DCUVCTFUQPQH(TGFGTKEM++IQXGTPQTKP'OKNKC4QOCIPCYCUVCMGPECRVKXG
#HVGT VJG FGCVJ QH (TGFGTKEM ++ $QNQIPC PQV QPN[ EQPVTQNNGF /QFGPC DWV CNUQ PGCTN[ CNN VJG EKVKGU QH  
4QOCIPC6YQHCOKNKGUYGTGQHEGPVTCNKORQTVCPEG)GTGOGKCPF.CODGTVC\\K
VJGNCVVGTYQWNFNQUGVJG
UVTWIING HQT FQOKPCPEG KP   +P  CP GXGPV VQQM RNCEG YJKEJ YQWNF JCXG HCTTGCEJKPI  
EQPUGSWGPEGU 4WFQNH QH *CDUDWTI UWTTGPFGTGF JKU ENCKOU VQ $QNQIPC CPF 4QOCIPC KP HCXQWT QH VJG  
*QN[5GG

6JKUJGTCNFGFCVKOGQHITGCVEQPHWUKQP4QOGQ2GRQNKCVVGORVGFVQVCMGCFXCPVCIGQHVJGVWTOQKNCPF
WUWTRRQYGT1PGQHVJGNGCFGTUQHVJGGPUWKPITGXQNV6CFFGQ2GRQNKUVGRRGFHQTYCTFCPFTGUVQTGFVJG
RGCEG*QYGXGTJKUUQPEQWNFPQVEQPVKPWGVJKUCPFUQNFVJGUKIPQTKCVQ)KQXCPPK8KUEQPVK6JGNCVVGTʼnU
TGRTGUGPVCVKXG )KQXCPPK FC 1NGIIKQ UQNF VJG EKV[ VQ VJG RCRCN NGICVG %CTFKPCN #NDQTPQ\
UGG WPFGT  
4QOG 

+PVJGEQOWPGYCUTGUVQTGFCPFVJGQNFHGWFUVJCVJCFDGGPUOQNFGTKPICNNCNQPIKPUVCPVN[HNCTGF
WR+PVJGGPF)KQXCPPK+$GPVKXQINKQGOGTIGFXKEVQTKQWU*KUHCOKN[TGKIPGFWPVKNHCEKNKVCVGFD[
VJG UWRRQTV QH 8GPKEG /KNCP (NQTGPEG CPF VJG *QN[ 5GG VJWU RTQXKFKPI C DCNCPEG QH RQYGTU KP VJKU  
TGIKQPVQYJKEJVJGEKV[YCUQHETWEKCNKORQTVCPEG

178
ITALY - BOLOGNA

 

   

4'27$$.+%#
 
 $QNQIPKPQ RKEEQNQ # + 2 4 6 ETQUUUJCRGF YKVJ RGNNGV KP EGPVTG CPF QPG RGNNGV KP GCEJ CPING     
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5NKIJVN[QHHEGPVTGGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
6QFGTK(NQTGPEG

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YKVJTKPIKPEGPVTG /#6'4Q568&+$KCIIK8CTGUKIT 
46TCEGUQHGPETWUVCVKQPXGT[HKPGVQGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
*WK\KPIC&GNHV 
6JKUV[RGQHEQKPYCUUVTWEMFWTKPIVJGTGXQNWVKQPU
'5R  
6GZVQDXGTUG$QPQPKCTGXGTUG/CVGTUVWFKQTWO 
'5
  .GU N¾IGPFGU $QPQPKC FQEGV QW $QPQPKC OCVGT UVWFKQTWO UG OCKPVKGPPGPV ¯ VTCXGTU VQWVGU NGU  
T¾XQNWVKQPU RQNKVKSWGU
6JG NGIGPFU $QPQPKC FQEGV QT $QPQPKC OCVGT UVWFKQTWO EQPVKPWGF VJTQWIJQWV VJG RQNKVKECN  
TGXQNWVKQPU 

6JG RQRGU OKPVGF KP $QNQIPC HTQO  VQ  (QNNQYKPI VJG RCRCN TGKIP $QNQIPC HGNN VQ (KNKRRQ  
/CTKC 8KUEQPVK YJQ OKPVGF KP $QNQIPC WPVKN  #HVGT VJCV ECOG VJG UKIPQTGU $GPVKXQINKQ FC 5CPVG  
$GPVKXQINKQ
  CPF )KQXCPPK ++ $GPVKXQINKQ
  6JG EQKPU WPFGT VJGUG VYQ TWNGTU  
ECPPQVDGVQNFCRCTV

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 )TQUUQPG # .KQP YKVJ HNCI UVCPFKPI HCEKPI QXGT UJKGNF QH $GPVKXQINKQ  Q $1010+# Q /#6'4 Q  
568&+148 Q 4 'PVJTQPGF 5V 2GVTQPKQ YKVJ ETQUKGT CPF OQFGN QH VJG EKV[  5 2'6410+  &'   
$1010+#$KCIIK8CTGUKIT 4&CTMVQPGVTCEGUQHXGTFKITKUXGT[HKPG 
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 )TQUUQ # .KQP YKVJ HNCI UVCPFKPI HCEKPI KP SWCVTGHQKN   $1010+  #  &1%'6 4 'PVJTQPGF 5V  
2GVTQPKQYKVJETQUKGTCPFOQFGNQHVJGEKV[52'6410+&5$KCIIK8CTGUKIT
9GCMN[UVTWEMKPRCTVUXGT[HKPG 
/ÒP\ICNGTKG/ÒPEJGP#WEVKQP
 PQ

179
ITALY - RAVENNA and VERONA

4#8'00#
4CXGPPC YCU CP GRKUEQRCN UGG UKPEG VJG GCTN[ PF EGPVWT[
VJG HKTUV DKUJQR YCU 5V #RQNNKPCTKU  6JG  
KORQTVCPEG QH VJG DKUJQRU KP 4CXGPPC KU TGHNGEVGF KP VJG HCEV VJCV $KUJQR 7TUWU DWKNV C ECVJGFTCN
5V  
4GUWTTG\KQPGCNUQMPQYPCU$CUKNKEC7TUKCPC  
+PVJGNCVGVJEGPVWT[VJG'ZCTEJCVGQH+VCN[YCUGUVCDNKUJGFVQUVCXGQHHVJG.QODCTFU#HVGTVJG[JCF
DGGPFGHGCVGFVJGEKV[YCUTGVWTPGFVQVJG*QN[5GG 
9JGP4QOCPIGPGTCN0CTUGUEQPSWGTGF4CXGPPCKPJGIQXGTPGFVJGVGTTKVQT[HQTCRGTKQFQHVKOG+PJKU


RNCEG YCU VCMGP D[ 2TCGHGEVWU 2TCGVQTKQ .QPIKPWU +P  KU VJG HKTUV OGPVKQP QH VJG GZCTEJ QH 4CXGPPC
GZCTEJ  

εςαςχοξ QTKIKPCNN[YCUVJGEQOOCPFGTKPEJKGHQHCNCTIGOKNKVCT[WPKV0CTUWUHQTKPUVCPEGYCUVJGGZCTEJQHVJG
4QOCPU 6JGGZCTEJQH4CXGPPCDQTGVJGVKVNGRCVTKEKWUGVGZCTEJWU
+VCNKCG .CVGTVJKUYCUNKOKVGFVQ4CXGPPC 
#HVGT VJCV VJG CTEJDKUJQRU JGNF UYC[ QXGT C NCTIG VGTTKVQT[ GZVGPFKPI VQ 'OKNKC
CFFKVKQPCN VGTTKVQTKGU  


UVTGVEJKPIHTQO+UVTKCVQ5KEKN[YGTGQYPGF  
7PFGT5CNKCPTWNGVJGUEJKUOQHVJGCTEJDKUJQRUQH4CXGPPCCPFVJGCPVKRQRG9KDGTVQEEWTGF7PFGTVJG
5VCWHGTUVJGVGTTKVQT[TGEGKXGFUKIPKHKECPVQHHKEKCNCPFHGWFCNTKIJVU 
5JQTVN[ DGHQTG  C EQOWPG ECOG KPVQ DGKPI DWV VJG CTEJGRKUEQRCN CWVJQTKV[ QH 4CXGPPC UVKHNGF KVU  
EQOWPGʼnUITQYVJKPEQORCTKUQPVQQVJGT+VCNKCPEKVKGU#HVGTVJGHCNNQHVJG5VCWHGTU4CXGPPCYCUNQ[CN
VQ4QOG

#010;/175#4%+8'5%18+
VJEGPVWT[ 

  


 )TQUUQ # 8  2 Ő 5 KP HKGNF   #4%+'2+5%1 4 %TQUU YKVJ VJTGG RGNNGVU DQWPFGF D[ NKPG KP VYQ  
CPINGUCPFQPGRGNNGVKPVJGQVJGTCPINGU &'4#8'0#$KCIIK8CTGUKIT 
0KEGVQPGGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
6QFGTK(NQTGPEG

  


 &GPCTQ # 8  2 Ő 5 KP HKGNF  #4%+'2+5%14%TQUUYKVJVJTGGRGNNGVUDQWPFGFD[NKPGKPVYQ
CPINGU &'4#8'0#$KCIIK8CTGUKIT 8GT[HKPG 
6QFGTK(NQTGPEG
8'410#
8GTQPCYCUCEKV[CNTGCF[WPFGTVJG4QOCPUKVUWHHGTGFWPFGTOKITCVKPIRGQRNGUFWTKPIVJGOKITCVKQP
RGTKQF +P VJG .QODCTF RGTKQF KV DGECOG C FWECVGFWTKPIVJG%CTQNKPIKCPRGTKQF2KRRKPUVC[GFKPVJG
EKV[+VRNC[GFCEGPVTCNTQNGKP$GTGPICTʼnUVKOGKPVJGEQPHNKEVDGVYGGP)WKFQCPF.CODGTVQH5RQNGVQ
YJKNG4WFQNH++QH$WTIWPFKCJGNFTGUKFGPEGVJGTG

6JKPIU EJCPIGF PQVCDN[ YJGP KP  1VVQ + CHVGT JKU EQTQPCVKQP KP +VCN[ HQWPFGF VJG OCTM 8GTQPC  
6JKUOCTMECOGWPFGTJKUDTQVJGT*GPT[QH$CXCTKC+PVJGFWEJ[QH%CTKPVJKCYCUHQWPFGFCUC
UGRCTCVKQPQH$CXCTKC#RGTUQPCNWPKQPYCUGUVCDNKUJGFDGVYGGPVJKUPGYFWEJ[CPFVJGOCTM8GTQPC
%QPUGEWVKXGN[VJG'RRGPUVGKPGTUCPFVJG<·JTKPIGPHCOKN[TWNGF
UGG$TGKUICW5WPFICW +PVJGU
EQOWPGUECOGKPVQDGKPIKP8GPKEGDWVVJKUHCKNGFVQUVCDKNKUGVJGRQNKVKECNUKVWCVKQPKP.QVJCT+++
ICXGVJGOCTMVQ*GPT[VJG2TQWFWPFGT%QPTCF++CPF(TGFGTKEM$CTDCTQUUC*GTOCPPXQP$CFGPYCU
OCTITCXG QH 8GTQPC CPF CHVGT VJG 2GCEG QH %QPUVCPEG (TGFGTKEM $CTDCTQUUC DGUVQYGF KV QP 1DK\\Q Fʼn  
'UVG+PYGHKTUVGPEQWPVGTVJGPCOGŋ/CTEJKC6CTXKUKPCŌCPCOGVJCVYCUCNUQWUGFD[(TGFGTKEM
++YJGPJGYCPVGFVQUVTGPIVJGPJKURQUKVKQPKP0QTVJ+VCN[

#HVGT VJG FGOKUG QH (TGFGTKEM ++ VJG EKV[ EQWPEKN DGECOG GUVCDNKUJGF
CNDGKVVJG'UVGUUVKNNTGVCKPGFVJG
OCTITCXKCNVKVNGQH6TGXKUQFWTKPIVJGPFJCNHQHVJGVJEGPVWT[ +PCECRKVCPQFGNRQRQNQYCU
KPUVCNNGFKPVJGHKIWTGQH/CUVKPQ+FGNNC5ECNC+VYQWNFDGVJGUVCTVQHVJG*QWUG5ECNKIGTYJKEJYQWNF
TGKIPWPVKN#HVGTVJGFGCVJQH/CUVKPQ+8GTQPCEJCPIGFKPVQC5KIPQTKCFGKWTGWPFGT/CUVKPQʼnU
DTQVJGT#NDGTVQ++VUCYKVUCRQIGGWPFGT%CPITCPFG+
VJGDKIFQI KPVJGRGTKQFYJGPKV
JGNFUYC[QXGT8GPKEG'OKNKCCPF6WUECP[9JGPVJGTGRWDNKEUQH8GPKEGCPF(NQTGPEGYGTGFGHGCVGF
D[ /KNCP 8GTQPC ECOG WPFGT )KCPICNGC\\Q 8KUEQPVK
  6JGKT TWNG NCUVGF WPVKN  YJGP  
(TCPEGUEQ 0QXGNNQ UKIPQTG QH 2CFQXC VQQM 8GTQPC 6JKU YQWNF NCUV QPN[ DTKGHN[ HQT KP  VJG  
VGTTKVQT[ECOGWPFGTVJGTGRWDNKEQH8GPKEG

180
ITALY - RAVENNA

1661+
 


 
 &GPCTQ#%TQUU1661+/2'4#6144%TQUU8'410#$KCIIKIT 
4+TTGIWNCTRCVKPCXGT[HKPG 
/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP$CUGN 
8'410#KUYTKVVGPCVVJGVQR8'CVVJGDQVVQO41KPVJGOKFFNGVQYCTFUVJGUKFG0#

('&'4+%1++



  

 &GPCTQRKEEQNQ#.QPIETQUU(4+4%*%+ 4.QPIETQUU8'410#$KCIIKIT


8GT[HKPG 
$GTPCTFK6TKGUV 
6GZVQPQDXGTUGFKHHKEWNVVQTGCF6JGCDQXGVGZVYCUCFQRVGFHTQO$KCIIK


 

 )TQUUQ#.QPIETQUUYKVJEKTENGKPEGPVTG%+8+%+8+ ó8'ó41ó0#ó4.QPIETQUUYKVJ


EKTENGKPEGPVTG8'410# %+ 8+ %+ 8+$KCIIKIT 
0KEGVQPGGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
6QFGTK(NQTGPEG 
$QVJVJGQDXGTUGCPFVJGTGXGTUGUJQYVYQVTKCPINGUDGVYGGPVJG8CPFVJG+
JGTGKPFKECVGFCU .QQMKPICVVJG
NCTIGT NGVVGT
84  8'4 KP YJKEJ  KU GSWCN VQ VJTGG VTKCPINGU  #U VJG URCEGU DGVYGGP VJG UOCNNGT NGVVGTU CTG  
PCTTQYGT KV KU UCHG VQ CUUWOG VJCV VJGUG VYQ VTKCPINGU UJQWNF KP HCEV JCXG DGGP VJTGG VTKCPINGU VJWU TGCFKPI 8'+  
VYKEG

 

   


$#461.1/'1CPF#0610+1FGNNC5%#.#
 
7PFGT$CTVQNQOGQʼnUDTQVJGT#PVQPKQ5ECNKIGTUWRTGOCE[GPFGF
 3WCVVTKPQ # .CFFGT YKVJ HKXG UVCIGU  ó $  61.1/'85 4 %TQUU  ó #0610+85 $KCIIK   
IT (NCPETCEMXGT[HKPG 
*GP\GP#OGTQPIGP 
(TQONKUVPQ

)+#0)#.'#<<18+5%106+
 
 &GPCTQ#)CPF<WPFGTQOGIC Ő&Ő/.+Ő8'410'Ő<% 4(NQTKCVGFETQUU %1/'5
8+46868/$KCIIKIT 45OCNNHNCPETCEMCPFYGCMN[UVTWEMXGT[HKPG 
*WK\KPIC&GNHV 
7PFGT/KNCPYGUGGCUKOKNCTEQKP
PQ VJQWIJYKVJQWV8GTQPC

181
ITALY - TRENTO and MANTUA

64'061
6JGFKQEGUG6TGPVQEQORTKUGFVJG#FKIG8CNNG[HTQO#NCKPVJGUQWVJVQ/GTCPQKPVJGPQTVJRNWUVJG
XCNNG[U DTCPEJKPI QHH VJCV QPG (TQO  6TKFGPVWO KU FQEWOGPVGF CU FKQEGUG %JTKUVKCPKUCVKQP GPFGF  

WPFGT8KIKNVJGNCVGTRCVTQPUCKPVQHVJGEKV[(TQOVJGVJEGPVWT[KVYCURCTVQH#SWKNGKC
*GPT[++EGFGFVJGEJWTEJQH6TGPVQVQVJG6TGPVQEQWPV[KP%QPTCF++CFFGFVJGEQWPVKGU8GPQUV[
CPF$QN\CPQ

+PVJG+PXGUVKVWTG%QPVTQXGTU[VJGUKFGQHVJGGORGTQTYCUEJQUGP(TGFGTKEM++HQTDCFG$KUJQR#NFGTKEJ
CNNUGEWNCTCEVKXKVKGUKPCPFCRRQKPVGFCIQXGTPQT

%QWPV /GKPJCTF ++ QH 6KTQN
  DTQMG VJG GPUWKPI FGCFNQEM YJGP JG NCTIGN[ VQQM CYC[ VJG  
DKUJQRUʼn TKIJVU CPF UQWTEGU QH KPEQOG NKOKVKPI VJGKT RQYGT VQ VJG FKQEGUG (TQO  VJG *CDUDWTI  
*QWUG TWNGF 6KTQN CPF GZVGPFGF KVU KPHNWGPEG VQ VJG KPXGUVKVWTG QH VJG DKUJQRU QH 6TGPVQ #FFKVKQPCNN[  
6TGPVQYCUDGUGVD[VJG5ECNKIGTUCPF8GPKEG+PVJGGCTN[VJEGPVWT[8GPKEGQEEWRKGF4QXGTGVQCPF4KXC
7PFGT (TGFGTKEM $CTDCTQUUC C EQOWPG HQTOGF KP VJG EKV[ DWV JG ETWUJGF KV KP HCXQWT QH VJG DKUJQR  
YJQUGCWVJQTKV[QXGTVJGEKV[JCFPGXGTTGCNN[DGGPSWGUVKQPGF

8'5%18+
 


 

 )TQUUQ # $WUV N  Ő'25Ő64+&'06+Ő4 (KPHKGNF Ő+/2'4#614 ó$KCIIK


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#TUGV0WOOWU/KNCPQ

/#067#
2TGUWOCDN[CP'VTWUMKCPUGVVNGOGPVQTKIKPCNN[%JTKUVGPFQOYCUKPVTQFWEGFGCTN[/CPVWCUWHHGTGFCNQV
HTQOOKITCVKPIRGQRNGU
VJGOGGVKPIQH#VVKNCCPF2QRG.GQVJG)TGCVQPVJG/KPEKQKP +PVJGVJ
EGPVWT[ KV YCU C $[\CPVKPG UVTQPIJQNF +P  CPPGZGF D[ VJG .QODCTFU 'RKUEQRCN EKV[ FWTKPI VJG  
%CTQNKPIKCPCIG+PKVUHKTUVEQOGUKU/CPVWG6JGDKUJQRUTGEGKXGF
$GTGPICT1VVQ+++ TKIJVUCPF

RTKXKNGIGU
+P/CPVWCECOGWPFGTVJGOCTMQHVJG*QWUG%CPQUUC7PFGTVJKUJQWUGCEGTVCKPRTQURGTKV[YCU
CVVCKPGF'RKUEQRCE[GZVGPFGFKVUKPHNWGPEG

+P  NQ[CNV[ YCU UYQTP VQ (TGFGTKEM $CTDCTQUUC 6JG EKV[ DGKPI C OGODGT QH VJG UV .QODCTF  
.GCIWG VQQM RCTV KP VJG $CVVNG QH .GIPCPQ
  CPF YCU KPFGRGPFGPVN[ TGRTGUGPVGF CV VJG 2GCEG QH  
%QPUVCPEG

6QYCTFUVJGFGENKPGQHVJG5VCWHGTUKP+VCN[CITGCVEJCPIGVQQMRNCEG2KPCOQPVG$QPCEQNUKRWUJGFCUKFG
5CODQPKHCEKQCPF#\\Q8++Fʼn'UVG+PJGDGECOGECRKVCPQFGNRQRQNQFK/CPVC

+PVJG$QPCEQNUKUKPVWTPYGTGRWUJGFCUKFGD[.WKIK)QP\CIC
KPVJGUCOG[GCT.QWKUVJG$CXCTKCP
UCPEVKQPGF)QP\CICʼnUQXGTNQTFUJKR 6JG)QP\CICUECOGHTQONQYGTPQDKNKV[HTQOVJGVKOGQH/CVKNFC
QH6WUEKC
UGGWPFGT/QFGPC CPFJCFDGIWPVJGKTTKUGKPVJGUJCFQYQHVJG$QPCEQNUKU6JG
)QP\CICUYQWNFTWNGWPVKN

+PVJG)QP\CICUDGECOGXCUUCNUVQVJG8KUEQPVKU9JGPCETKUKUUVTWEM/KNCP
WRQPVJGFGCVJQH
)KCP )CNGC\\Q 8KUEQPVK KP   VJG )QP\CICU YGTG CDNG VQ GZRCPF VJGKT GUVCVG UWDUVCPVKCNN[ +P   
/CPVWCDGECOGCOCTITCXKCVG
CEMPQYNGFIGFD['ORGTQT5KIKUOWPF CPFKPCFWEJ[
D[%JCTNGU8 
9JGP VQYCTFU VJG GPF QH VJG VJ EGPVWT[ VJG +VCNKCP DCNCPEG QH RQYGTU HGNN CRCTV CPF VJG (TGPEJ  
KPXCFGF(TCPEGUEQ)QP\CIC
 HQWIJVVJG(TGPEJCV(QTPQXQQPVJG6CTQ
 

8'5%18+
 


 

 &GPCTQUEQFGNNCVQ#%TQUU /#068'4'Ő52WPFGTQOGIC 8+4)+.+85$KCIIK


8CTGUKIT 8GT[HKPGVQGZVTGOGN[HKPG 

182
ITALY - FERRARA

('44#4#
(GTTCTCGOGTIGFKPVJGVJEGPVWT[
VJGEQWTUGQHVJG2QDGKPIOQTGVQVJGUQWVJCVVJCVVKOG(GTTCTC
GOGTIGF CV VJG RNCEG YJGTG VYQ UWDUKFKCTKGU OGV  VJG NCVVGTFC[ 2QFGNVC ECOG KPVQ DGKPI KP VJG VJ  
EGPVWT[ +VUPCOGKUHKTUVOGPVKQPGFKPYJGP.QODCTFMKPI&GUKFGTKWURTQOKUGF2QRG5VGHCPQ++VQ
TGVWTPVJGFWECVWU(GTTCTKCG

6JGTGKUPQGXKFGPEGHQTGRKUEQRCE[DGHQTGVJGVJEGPVWT[6JG(GTTCTCDKUJQRUPGXGTCVVCKPGFEQOKVCN
FKIPKV[9JCVKUFQEWOGPVGFKUVJCVKP6G
Q FCNFQH%CPQUUCYCUITCPVGFVJGEQWPV[QH(GTTCTCKP
HKGH$KUJQRCPFEKVK\GPUYGTGUWDLWICVGFD[JKUUWEEGUUQT$QPKHCEGQH%CPQUUC
OCTITCXGQH6WUEKCCPF
EQWPV QH (GTTCTC   *KU FCWIJVGT  /CVJKNFG YCU EQWPVGUU QH (GTTCTC VQQ
  6JG  
EKVK\GPU QRRQUGF JGT DWV UJG KPIGPWQWUN[ GORNQ[GF (GTTCTCʼnU CTEJGPGOKGU 8GPKEG CPF 4CXGPPC VQ  
UVTKMGFQYPVJGTGUKUVCPEG
 

#HVGT/CVJKNFGʼnUFGCVJVJGEQOWPGGOGTIGF2QYGTNC[KPVJGJCPFUQHVJGNCTIGNCPFQYPGTUCPFRGVV[
PQDKNKV[ #U VJG EKVK\GPU YGTG KPUKIPKHKECPV HGWFU EJKGHN[ CTQUG DGVYGGP VJG PQDNG HCOKNKGU
#FGNCTFK  
5CNKPIWGTTCCPFHTQOVJGUVJCNHQHVJGVJEGPVWT[VJG'UVGU 

+P#\\Q8++Fʼn'UVGFGHGCVGFVJG5CNKPIWGTTCUYKVJVJGCKFQH8GPKEG6JGEKV[NQUVVJG2QVTCFGVQ
8GPKEG 1P  (GDTWCT[  1DK\\Q ++ Fʼn'UVG
ITCPFUQP QH #\\Q  YCU FGENCTGF UKIPQTG QH VJG EKV[  
'UVGJGIGOQP[QXGTVJGEKV[YQWNFNCUVWPVKN
KPVGTTWRVGFVYKEGD[8GPKEGCPF4QDGTVQH
#PLQW 

%1/70'
EC 

 

   

 &GPCTQ#(&4%ETQUUUJCRGFKPHKGNFYKVJRGNNGVKPEGPVTGHKXGRGNNGVUCTQWPF +/2'4#6144


%TQUU ('4#4+#$KCIIK8CTGUKIT 48GT[HKPGVQGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
6QFGTK(NQTGPEG 
+HVJGUGEQOWPGEQKPUYGTGPQVUVTWEMDGHQTGCRRTQZVJKUEQKPOWUVJCXGDGGPUVTWEMKPVJGPCOGQH(TGFGTKEM++
0QUCPFCTGVJGUCOGKOQ6JG%0+PQFKHHGTU%0+CPF%0+ 
#EEQTFKPIVQ$KCIIKVJGYGKIJVUJQWNFNKGCVITITHQTVJGQDQNG6JGYGKIJVUQHVJGEQKPUKPJCPFNKG
DGVYGGPVJQUGXCNWGU

 &GPCTQ#(&4%ETQUUUJCRGFKPHKGNFYKVJRGNNGVKPEGPVTGHKXGRGNNGVUCTQWPF Ő+02'4#614


4%TQUU ('4#4+#$KCIIK8CTGUKIT 45NKIJVGN[EQTTQFGFXGT[HKPG 
/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP$CUGN 
6JGKPKVKCNETQUUQPVJGTGXGTUGKUCHQTMGFETQUU 

0+%1.1+++F '56'
 



 

 /CTEJGUKPQ#%*+1ETQUUUJCRGFKPHKGNFYKVJRGNNGVKPEGPVTGú0+%*1. Ő/#44)TGCV#


YKVJKPHQWTRGNNGVUüŐ&'Ő('Ő4#Ő4+$KCIIK8CTGUKIT 
44&CTMRCVKPCUOCNNUETCVEJQPVJGTGXGTUGXGT[HKPG 
/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP$CUGN

183
ITALY - PADOVA

'4%1.'+F '56'
 

 


 )TQUUGVVQ#4KPIYKVJFKCOQPFŐ*'4%8.85Ő&8:Ő('44#4+#'4%TQYPGFFQWDNGJGCFGF
GCINGüŐ/86+0#'ŐŐ4')++ŐŐ%$KCIIK8CTGUKIT 
45NKIJVGN[DGPVHKPGVQXGT[HKPG 
*WK\KPIC&GNHV

2#&18#
.GIGPFJCU2CFWCHQWPFGFD[VJG6TQLCP#PVGPQTKP$%

6JG RGTKQF HTQO  $%
4QOCP OWPKEKRKWO  WPVKN VJG GPF QH VJG PF EGPVWT[ YCU QPG QH DNQQO HQT  
2CFQXC&GENKPGUGVKPWPFGT&KQENGVKCP

6JG HKTUV %JTKUVKCP EQOOWPKV[ EQKPEKFGF YKVJ 5V ,WUVKPC F[KPI C OCTV[TʼnU FGCVJ QP  1EVQDGT+VU
HKTUVDKUJQRYCU%TKURKPCRRTQZ

+P  UWDLWICVGF D[ 6JGQFGTKE KP  VCMGP D[ VJG .QODCTFU #HVGT $GTGPICT + JCF TGUVQTGF VJG  
EJWTEJʼnUQNFRTKXKNGIGU
 2CFWCKPDGECOGRCTVQHVJG/CTM8GTQPCHQWPFGFD[1VVQ++P
VJGDKUJQRUQH*GPT[+++TGEGKXGFVJGTKIJVQHOKPV&WTKPIVJGKPXGUVKVWTGEQPVTQXGTU[VJGDKUJQRUVQQM
VJGUKFGQHVJGGORGTQT
FWGVQYJKEJCOQPIUVQVJGTVJKPIU$KUJQR2GVGTYCUFGRQUGFD[2QRG2CUEJCNKU
++CPFTGRNCEGFYKVJ$KUJQR5KPKDCNFWU 

+P  C EQOWPG ECOG KPVQ DGKPI CPF VJG HKTUV EQPUWNGU CUUWOGF QHHKEG +P VJG EQWTUG QH JKU +VCNKCP  
ECORCKIPU (TGFGTKEM $CTDCTQUUC DTQWIJV 2CFWC WPFGT FKTGEVKORGTKCNEQPVTQN+PVJGEKV[LQKPGF
VJG8GTQPGUG.GCIWGCICKPUV(TGFGTKEM$CTDCTQUUCCPFKPCPFKVLQKPGFVJG.QODCTF.GCIWG
6JG HKTUV RQFGUV¯ YCU #NDGTVQ FK 1UC HTQO /KNCP KP6JGRGCEGQH%QPUVCPEGKPJCFOQTG
EQPUGSWGPEGUHQT2CFWCVJCPHQTQVJGTEKVKGU6JGQRRQUKVKQPQHVJGQVJGTEKVKGUOGCPV2CFWCEQWNFJCTFN[
GZRCPF9JGTGCUVJGEQOWPGFKFEWTDVJGRQYGTQHVJGOCIPCVGUVJGKTKPHNWGPEGYCUPQVFKOKPKUJGF+P
VJGWPKXGTUKV[YCUHQWPFGF

(TGFGTKEM ++ VTKGF VQ EWTD VJG RQYGT QH VJG EKVKGU 'XGP VJG .QODCTF .GCIWG EQWNF PQV RTGXGPV  
(TKGFTKEJʼnUDCUVCTFUQP'\\GNKPQHTQOVCMKPIVJGOCTM
 DTKPIKPI8KEGP\C2CFWCCPF6TGXKUQ
WPFGTJKUUYC[+P2CFWCVJGUWRTGOCE[QH'\\GNKPQ
UKPEG YCUGPFGFKPD[C)WGNRJHCEVKQP
NGFD[VJG'UVGU9KVJVJGCKFQH*GPT[8++8GTQPCYCUCDNGVQDTKPIVJGOCTMWPFGTKVUEQPVTQN

#VVJGDGIKPPKPIQHVJGVJEGPVWT[VJG%CTTCTCUYGTGEJCORKQPUQHVJGEQOWPCNU[UVGOQRRQUKPIVJG
&GNNC5ECNCU6JG[OCPCIGFVQGUVCDNKUJCUKIPQTKC
 YKVJHKTUVUKIPQTG)KCEQOQ+
Ŏ CUKVU
ECRKVCPQFGNRQRQNQ2CFWCYCUPGXGTVJGNGUUEQPSWGTGFD[%CPITCPFGFGNNC5ECNCKP9JGTGCUVJG
%CTTCTCUTGVCKPGFVJGKTKORQTVCPVRQUKVKQPVJG&GNNC5ECNCUGZGTVGFTGCNRQYGT

6JG 5ECNKPIGTU CVVCEMGF KOOGFKCVGN[ RTQORVKPI 2CFWC VQ ECNN HQT VJG CRRQKPVOGPV QH C XKECTKU D[  
(TGFGTKEM QH #WUVTKC #HVGT VJG 5ECNKPIGTU JCF TWNGF HQT VGP [GCTU 8GPKEG NCWPEJGF CP CVVCEM VJCV  
DTQWIJVFQYPVJG&GNNC5ECNCU6JWUVJG%CTTCTCUICKPGFVJGWRRGTJCPFCICKP#HVGTJCXKPIUGRCTCVGF
HTQO8GPKEGKP(TCPEGUEQKN8GEEJKQUQWIJVVQHQWPFCVGTTKVQTKCNUVCVGKP0QTVJ'CUV+VCN[VQPQ
CXCKNJQYGXGT+PVJGEKV[DTKGHN[HGNNVQVJG8GPGVKCPUDWV(TCPEGUEQ0QXGNNCFC%CTTCTCTGVQQM
EQPVTQNQHVJGEKV[CUUQQPCU

#HVGT VJG 8KUEQPVK JCF FKGF KP  2CFWC VWTPGF CICKPUV /KNCP CPF EQPSWGTGF 8GTQPC # [GCT NCVGT  
8GPKEGVQQM(TCPEGUEQ0QXGNNCVQIGVJGTYKVJJKUUQPUECRVKXG+VYCUVQDGVJGRTGEWTUQTVQCRGTKQFKP
YJKEJ2CFWCYCUTWNGFD[8GPKEG

4'27$$.+%#
 

  

 &GPCTQRKEEQNQUEQFGNNCVQ#5VCTYKVJUKZTC[U %+8+6#545VCTYKVJUKZTC[U &'2#&8#


$KCIIKIT (KPGVQXGT[HKPG 
5KOQPGVVK(NQTGPEG

184
ITALY - PADOVA

7.4+%1FK8#.5''
 



 

 )TQUUQCSWKNKPQ#'CINGT ó2#&8#]4')+#]4.QPIETQUUü%+8+6#5$KCIIK


IT 8GT[HKPG 
#UVCFGN6KVCPQ#WEVKQP
 PQ 
7NTKEQFK8CNUGGRTKOQ8KECTKQRGT(TGFGTKEQF #WUVTKC

+#%121++FC%#44#4#
 



 

 %CTTCTKPQFC5QNFK#'PVJTQPGF5V2TQUFQEKOQYKVJETQUKGTCPFEJWTEJ2TKPHKGNF 5 24 


&1%+/85 4.QPIQTPCOGPVGFETQUU+CPF#KPVJGUVCPFPFCPINGUHQWTTKPIUKPVJGTFCPF
VJCPINGU %+8+6 2#&$KCIIKIT 4GXGTUGCNKVVNGQHHEGPVTGXGT[HKPG 
/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP$CUGN

(4#0%'5%1+FC%#44#4#
 



 

 %CTTCTKPQ FC  5QNFK 6YQ VTKFGPVU QXGT GCEJQVJGT QTPCOGPVGF D[ HQWT YJGGNU CPF DGVYGGP (  (    
(4#0%+5%+&'%#4#4+#45V2TQUFQEKOQUVCPFKPIYKVJETQUKGTCPFDNGUUKPIJCPFDGVYGGP0
+Q52415&1%+/85Q$KCIIKIT 5OCNNGFIGHCWNVXGT[HKPG 
/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP$CUGN 
$KCIIKRTQXKFGU$<HQTVJGNGVVGTUPGZVVQVJGUCKPVVJKUEQKPJQYGXGTJCU0+

185
ITALY - VENEZIA

8'0'<+#
(TQOVJG4QOCPTGIKQP8GPGVKCUVTGVEJKPIHTQOVJG#NRUVQVJG#FTKCVKE5GCVJGEKV[CPFUWTTQWPFKPI

RTQXKPEGQH8GPKEGITCFWCNN[FGXGNQRGF
2QYGTYCUJGNFD[VJGOCIKUVGTOKNKVWOYJQYCUUWDQTFKPCVGVQVJGGZCTEJQH4CXGPPCYJQKPVWTP
ECOGFKTGEVN[WPFGTVJG$[\CPVKPGGORGTQT

8GPKEGYCUNQ[CNVQ$[\CPVKWO+PVJGTGYCUC&WZ
HTQOYJKEJVJGVGTOFQIGYQWNFDGFGTKXGF 
.Q[CNV[VQ$[\CPVKWORTGXCKNGFGXGPYJGPVJG.QODCTFUVQQM4CXGPPC
 CPFCHVGTVJGEQPSWGUVQH
VJG.QODCTFTGCNOD[%JCTNGOCIPG
 6JG8GPGVKCPURTGHGTTGFCHCTQHHTWNGTQXGTQPGPGCTD[

%JCTNGOCIPGʼnU EQTQPCVKQP DTQWIJV CDQWV C EQPHNKEV DGVYGGP VJG $[\CPVKPG GORGTQT CPF VJG YGUVGTP  
GORGTQT 6JKU RTQORVGF %JCTNGOCIPG VQ EQPSWGT $[\CPVKPG CTGC KP VJG 8GPGVKCP NCIQQP PQVCDN[ VJG  
ECRKVCN 4KCNVQ
NCVVGTFC[ 8GPKEG  6Q TGVTKGXG VJG 8GPGVKCP RQUUGUUKQPU $[\CPVKWO CEMPQYNGFIGF  
%JCTNGOCIPGVQDGGORGTQTKPDGKVTGNWEVCPVN[&QIG#IPGNNWU2CTVKEKCEQ
 KPRCTVKEWNCTOCFG
CECUGHQTVJG2GCEGQH#CEJGP
 GPCDNKPI8GPKEGVQTGOCKPKPVJG$[\CPVKPGURJGTGQHKPHNWGPEG

7PFGTVJKUFQIGʼnUUQPVJGTGNKEUQHVJGGXCPIGNKUV5V/CTEYGTGVTCPUHGTTGFHTQO#NGZCPFTKCVQ4KCNVQ

4KXWUCNVWUXGT[PGCTVQVJGFQIGʼnUJQWUG6JGFQIGʼnURCNCEGYQWNFNCVGTDGDWKNVENQUGVQKV 

#U $[\CPVKPG RQYGT FYKPFNGF KP VJG VJ EGPVWT[ CWVQPQO[ FCYPGF HQT 8GPKEG 6JG OCKP QDUVCENG  
VQYCTFUCWVQPQO[YCUVJGEQPHNKEVDGVYGGPVJGHCOKN[ENCPUCPFVJGFQIG

#TQWPF  VJG ETKVKECN RJCUG YCU QXGT CPF 8GPKEG EQWNF FGXGNQR KPVQ C EKV[ QH TGIKQPCN KORQTVCPEG  
8GT[UQQPVJG8GPGVKCPUUVCTVGFNQQMKPIGCUVVQVJG+UNCOKEEQWPVTKGU

7PFGT&QIG2KGVTQ+8%CPFKCPQ
 YJQYCUNKPMGFVQJKIJPQDKNKV[KFGCUQPCHGWFCNUQEKGV[
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#PVQPKQYCUVJGOQUVUKIPKHKECPVOGODGTJKUVQTKECNN[QHVJG8GPKGTHCOKN[*GYCUEQOOCPFGTKPEJKGH
QHVJGHNGGVKP%TGVGCPFYCUEJQUGPFQIGCUCEQORTQOKUG5GXGTCNGRKFGOKEUDTQMGQWVFWTKPIJKUTGKIP
CPFVJGTGYCUCECVCUVTQRJKEHNQQFKP


 

 &WECVQ#5V/CTEWUCPFVJGFQIG&8:#061 Ő8'0'4+Ő5Ő/Ő8'0'6+4%JTKUVUVCPFKPI


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$QWIJV5EJWNOCP#OUVGTFCOFF 
5/8GPGVKHTQODQVVQOVQVQR

193
ITALY - VENEZIA


 

 )TQUUQ#5V/CTEWUCPFVJGFQIG&8:Ő5Ő/Ő8'0'6+#0618'0'4+14%JTKUVQPVJTQPG
DGVYGGP+%CPF:%:YKVJTKPIKPHKGNF$KCIIK)CODGTKPKIT 'ZVTGOGN[HKPG 
-WPUVWPF/ÒP\GP.WICPQ 
4KPIYKVJCJQQMOKPVOCUVGTUKIPQH/CTEQ$CHHQ 
%JTKUVUVKNNDGVYGGP+%:%


 

 )TQUUQ # 5V /CTEWU CPF VJG FQIG DGVYGGP VYQ UVCTU  &8: 5/ 8'0'6+ #061 8'0'4+1 4  
%JTKUV QP VJTQPG    6+$+ Ő .#85 Ő Ő<Ő).14+#Ő$KCIIK)CODGTKPKIT
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%JTKUVPQYIKTFGFD[CVGZV 
2CR


 

 )TQUUQ#5V/CTEWUCPFVJGFQIGDGVYGGPVYQUVCTU&8:Ő5Ő/8'0'6+#061Ő8'0'4+1
4%JTKUVQPVJTQPG Ő6+$+Ő.#85ŐŐ<Ő).14+#Ő$KCIIK)CODGTKPKIT
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0+%1.16410
 


 

 6TQPQ
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/CTEWUYKVJDQQM5#0%685/#4%85$KCIIK)CODGTKPKIT 
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#GU4WFG%JKCUUQ#WEVKQP
 PQ 
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FQIGʼnURQUKVKQPKPIQXGTPCPEGYCUEQPUKFGTGFUQCTTQICPVVJCVJGYCUKOOGFKCVGN[TGNGCUGFHTQOJKUFWVKGUCUFQIG

194
ITALY - VENEZIA


 

 $CICVVKPQ#$WUVQHVJGFQIGN0+%1.#85641085&8:4.KQPQH5V/CTEWUNYKVJDCPPGT
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/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP 
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 /CTEGNNQ # &QIG MPGGNKPI KP HTQPV QH 5V /CTEWU # KP HKGNF  &8: +1 /1%'0+)1 Ő Ő 5 Ő / Ő  
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).14+#Ő$KCIIK)CODGTKPKIT 5NKIJVGN[EQTTQFGFXGT[HKPG 
/ÒP\\GPVTWO-ÌNP

  

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&CTMRCVKPCXGT[HKPG 
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 PQ

195
ITALY - AQUILEIA

#37+.'+#
6JGQNFPCOGQH#SWKNGKCKU#INGK#INGKCQT#INCTVJGTGCUQPYJ[KVUEQKPUCTGECNNGF#INGKCPU

#SWKNGKCYCUHQWPFGFKP$%#HVGTJCXKPIRNC[GFCTQNGQHMG[KORQTVCPEGKPKVKCNN[#SWKNGKCKP
NQUVCNNUKIKPKHKECPEGYJGPKVYCUEQPSWGTGFCPFFGUVTQ[GFD[#VVKNC

#HVGTVJGU[PQFQH#TNGUKP#SWKNGKCYCUCPGRKUEQRCNEKV[#EEQTFKPIVQNGIGPF5V/CTEWUCPFJKU
CRRTGPVKEG *GTOCIQTCU HQWPFGF VJG EKV[ +P VJG VJ EGPVWT[ KV CESWKTGF OCP[ VGTTKVQTKGU
COQPI VJGO  
8GPKEG  6JG RCVTKCTEJCN VKVNG YCU KPUVKVWVGF D[ 2QRG 2GNCIKWU +
  6JG 6JTGG%JCRVGT  
%QPVTQXGTU[
HQTVJKUVGTOUGGWPFGT%QOQ NGFVQCTKHVKPVJGGEENGUKCUVKECNCPFRQNKVKECNWPKQP+P
VJG FKQEGUG $TKZGP YCU NQUV %JCTNGOCIPG UGV VJG PQTVJ DQTFGT KP  VJG 4KXGT &TCXC
VJKU KP  
EQPPGEVKQPYKVJVJGHQWPFKPIQHVJGFKQEGUGQH5CN\DWTI 6JGRCVTKCTEJUOCPCIGFVQCOCUUCUKIPKHKECPV
VGTTKVQT[YJKEJYCURTQVGEVGFD[KOOWPKV[CPFVJGMKPI2CVTKCTEJ2QRRQDWKNVVJGECVJGFTCN

2CVTKCTEJ 5KIGJCTF KP  TGEGKXGF VJG EQWPVKGU (TKCWN
YKVJ CVVCEJGF FWECN CWVJQTKV[  +UVTKC CPF  
%CTPKQNC 6JG VYQ NCVVGT EQWPVKGU YGTG UQQP NQUV DWV YGTG YQP DCEM WPFGT RCVTKCTEJ 8QNIGTQ
  
 +PCTKIJVQHOKPVCHVGTVJGGZCORNGQHVJG(TKGUCEJGTRHGPPKIGYCUCESWKTGF

#SWKNGKCʼnURTQURGTKV[TGCEJGFKVUCRQIGGWPFGT2CVTKCTEJ$GTVJQNFQH#PFGEJU/GTCPKC
 YJQ
OQXGFVJGTGUKFGPEGVQ7FKPG)TGIQTQH/QPVGNQPIQ
 YCUVJGHKTUV+VCNKCPRCVTKCTEJ

6JG CWVJQTKV[ QH VJG RCVTKCTEJU FYKPFNGF 1PN[ /CTSWCTF QH 4CPFGEM
  YCU CDNG VQ CUUGTV  
RCVTCKTEJCN RQYGT QPEG OQTG 6JGP %CTPKQNC HGNN VQ *CDUDWTICPFVJG8GPGVKCPQTICPKUCVKQPOQFGNQH
RQYGTYQWNFRTQXGUGOKPCNKPVJGHWTVJGTFGXGNQROGPVQHVJGRCVTKCTEJUVCVG+VYCUTGCNN[LWUVCOCVVGT
QHVKOGDGHQTGVJGVGTTKVQT[YQWNFEQOGWPFGT*CDUDWTIQT8GPKEG

+P  VJG 8GPGVKCPU EQPSWGTGF VJG GPVKTG RCVTKCTEJCVG RTQORVKPI 2CVTKCTEJ .QFQXKEQ 6TGXKUCPG  

  VQ TGPQWPEG JKU YQTNFN[ RQYGTU YKVJ VJG EQPUGPV QH VJG RQRG CICKPUV CP CPPWCN UWO  
%QPHNKEV EQPVKPWGF DGVYGGP *CDUDWTI CPF 8GPKEG QXGT VJG QEEWRCVKQP QH VJG QHHKEG QH RCVTKCTEJ  
4GEQPEKNKCVKQPYCUPQVDTQWIJVCDQWVWPVKN2QRG$GPGFKEV:+8KPUVGRRGFKPCVVJGKPUVKICVKQPQH
/CTKC6JGTGUKCCPFFKUUQNXGFVJGRCVTKCTEJCVGTGRNCEKPIKVYKVJVYQPGYFKQEGUGU

#SWKNGKCEQKPCIGKPKVKCNN[GOWNCVGFVJG(TKGUCEJRHGPPKIGCFQRVKPICYGKIJVQHDGVYGGPCPFIT
5VCTVKPI YKVJ 9QNHIGT
  C FKUJ HQTO YCU EJQUGP YJKEJ YCU EQOOQP KP 0QTVJ +VCN[ CPF  
YQWNF DG CFQRVGF KP C NQV QH VJG UWTTQWPFKPI VGTTKVQTKGU 6JG CINGKCPU JCF C NCTIG CTGC QH EKTEWNCVKQP  
.CUVUVTWEMKP

24+/+2#64+#4%*+
VJEGPVWT[



 

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4/KPQTHNCPETCEMXGT[HKPG 
5EJWNVGP(TCPMHWTV#WEVKQPPQ 
6JGTGXGTUGOCVEJGU$GTPCTFKDWVKPVJCVECUGVJGQDXGTUGYQWNFJCXGVQTGCF2#YJKEJKUOKUUKPIJGTG

 

   

 &GPCTQ # $WUV HCEKPI ETQUKGT N CPF UVCT T 4 %TQUU YKVJ QPG RGNNGV KP GCEJ CPING $GTPCTFK E  
$KCIIKIT 46TCEGUQHXGTKFITKUXGT[HKPG 
/ÒP\\GPVTWO-ÌNP#WEVKQP 
PFJCNXGVJEGPVWT[
 &GPCTQ # $WUV HCEKPI ETQUKGT N CPF UVCT T ETQUU CDQXG 4 6JTGG VQYGTU QP CTEJ ETQUUGU CDQXG  
$GTPCTFKC$KCIIKIT 48GT[HKPG 
0WOKUOCVKEC9KGP#WEVKQP
 PQ 
PFJCNXGVJEGPVWT[

196
ITALY - AQUILEIA

)16+(4'&1




 

 &GPCTQEQPNGVVGTG)16+
 #$WUVQHVJGRCVTKCTEJHCEKPIYKVJETQUKGTCPFDQQM)16+QP
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449GCMN[UVTWEMCVVJGGFIGCUWUWCNXGT[HKPG 

-WPUVWPF/ÒP\GP.WICPQ 

2'..')4+01++
 



 

 &GPCTQEQPNGVVGTG2+.+
 #$WUVQHVJGRCVTKCTEJHCEKPIYKVJETQUKGTCPFDQQM2+.+QPDQQM
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440KEGFCTMRCVKPCYGCMN[UVTWEMCVVJGGFIGCUWUWCNXGT[HKPG 
-WPUVWPF/ÒP\GP.WICPQ

81.%*'41
 



 

 &GPCTQ EQP CSWKNC


!  # 2CVTKCTEJ UGCVGF QP VJTQPG YKVJ ETQUU CPF DQQM  -'42 81.( 4  
0KODCVGGCINGTQPJKNN%+8+6#5Ő#38+.')+#$GTPCTFK$KCIIKIT 
44/CIPKHKEGPVFCTMVQPGGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
$GTPCTFK6TKGUV

197
ITALY - AQUILEIA

$'461.&1
 

 

 
 

 &GPCTQEQPCSWKNC#2CVTKCTEJUGCVGFQPVJTQPGYKVJETQUUCPFDQQM$'461.&85Ő24'CING
QXGTGFKHKEGYKVJRQTVCN %+8+6#5Ő#38+.')+#$GTPCTFKC$KCIIKIT 
44(KPGRCVKPCGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
5CPVCOCTKC4QOG

 &GPCTQEQPNC$GCVC8GTIKPG#2CVTKCTEJUGCVGFQPVJTQPGYKVJETQUKGTCPFDQQM$'461.&85Ő2
Ő 4 $WUV QH /CTKC YKVJ TCKUGF JCPFU   Ő %+8+6#5 Ő #38+.')+#  $GTPCTFK C $KCIIK   
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.CP\/ÒPEJGP#WEVKQP
 PQ 
(TQO*GNDKPI#WEVKQPPQ

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 &GPCTQEQPIKINKQKPEGTEJKQRGTNKPCVQ
 #2CVTKCTEJUVCPFKPICPFJQNFKPIDQQMŐ)4')14+ Ő
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4&CTMVQPKPIHNCPETCEMUXGT[HKPGVQGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
.CP\/ÒPEJGP#WEVKQP
 PQ

 &GPCTQEQPCSWKNC
CHVGT #2CVTKCTEJUGCVGFQPVJTQPGYKVJETQUKGTCPFDQQMŐ)4')14+8 Ő
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48GT[HKPGVQGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
-TKEJGNFQTH(TGKDWTI#WEVKQP
 PQ

4#+/10&1
 





 &GPCTQ EQP $GCVC 8GTIKPG


  # /CTKC UGCVGF YKVJ EJKNF  Z 4#+/1 Z 0&8  2# Z 4 'CING  
NQQMKPINZ#38+.'ZZ)'05+5Z$GTPCTFK$KCIIKIT 40KEGVQPKPIXGT[HKPG 
.CP\/ÒPEJGP#WEVKQP
 PQ

198
ITALY - AQUILEIA


 

 &GPCTQ EQP DCUVQPK FGEWUUCVK


 VQ   # 2CVTKCTEJ UGCVGF QP VJTQPG YKVJ ETQUKGT CPF DQQM  
4#+/80&8Ő2#46YQETQUUGFNKU #38+.')'05+5$GTPCTFK$KCIIKIT 
4(KPGVQPGXGT[HKPG 
)CPU#TPUDGTI

0+%1. FG$1'/+#
 


 

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YKVJSWCVTGHQKNKPEGPVTG 2#6-'ð#38+.')'$GTPCTFKC$KCIIKIT 8GT[HKPG 
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 PQ

(+.+221
 

 


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NQQMKPIN 2#64+/%*#ó#38+.'05+5$GTPCTFKC$KCIIKIT 8GT[HKPG 
4CWEJ9KGP#WEVKQP
 PQ

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*GTOCIQTCUQPNKQPVJTQPGYKVJHNQTKCVGFUVCHHCPFDNGUUKPIJCPFó5 *'4'/#%*14#5Q$GTPCTFK
C$KCIIKIT 8GT[HKPG 
4CWEJ9KGP#WEVKQP
 PQ

199
ITALY - AQUILEIA


 

 &GPCTQ EQP EKOKGTQ # 5JKGNF QH #SWKNGKC WPFGT JGNOGV DGVYGGP VYQ TQUGVVGU   +1#0'5 ó 2  
#64+*#4$WUVQH5V*GTOCIQTCUHCEKPI 5#0685ó*'4/#%*14#5$GTPCTFKC$KCIIK
IT 6TCEGUQHXGTKFITKUCPFKTTGIWNCTHNCPXGT[HKPG 
-WPUVWPF/ÒP\GP.WICPQ

#0610+1+%#'6#0+
 


 

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NQQMKPINó#38ó+.'ó)'0ó5+5$GTPCTFKC$KCIIKIT 
9GCMN[UVTWEMCVVJGGFIGXGT[HKPG 
6QFGTK(NQTGPEG

#0610+1++2#0%+'4#
 


 

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*GTKPGM9KGP 
3WGUVC OQPGVC ½ UVCVC KOKVCVC FC RCTVG FK 0KEQNÈ 7LNCM TG FK $QUPKC
 
6JKU EQKP JCU DGGP EQRKGF D[  
0KEQNÈ7LNCMMKPIQH$QUPKC
 

.1&18+%1++
 


 

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#38+.'$GTPCTFK$KCIIKIT 8GT[HKPG 
6QFGTK(NQTGPEG 
3WGUVC OQPGVC ½ UVCVC KOKVCVC FC RCTVG FK 0KEQNÈ 7LNCM TG FK $QUPKC
 
6JKU EQKP JCU DGGP EQRKGF D[  
0KEQNÈ7LNCMMKPIQH$QUPKC
 

200
ITALY - TRIESTE

64+'56'
6TKGUVG UWHHGTGF VJG UCOG HCVG CU VJG FKQEGUGU KP GCUVGTP 8GPKEG CPF +UVTKC VJG HQTOCVKQP QH VJG  
GEENGUKCUVKECN RTQXKPEG QH #SWKNGKC VJG 6JTGG%JCRVGT %QPVTQXGTU[
RCTVKEKRCVKQP QH VJG DKUJQRU QH  
6TKGUVGKPVJGUEJKUOCVKEU[PQFQH)TCFQTGVWTPVQ4QOCPQTVJQFQZ[
UGGWPFGT%QOQ CPPGZCVKQPVQ
VJG 4GIPWO +VCNKCG #HVGT .QVJCKT +++ JCF DGUVQYGF VJG VGTTKVQT[ QP ,QJP VJG DKUJQRU GZGTEKUGF TQ[CN  
RTKXKNGIGUKPVJGVQYP$KUJQRUWPFGTVJG1VVQPKCPUCPF5CNKCPUYGTGWUWCNN[QH)GTOCPFGUEGPV6JG[
YGTGWPFGTVJGRCVTKCTEJCVGQH#SWKNGKC

+PCRCTVQHVJGEKVK\GPUQTICPKUGFVJGOUGNXGUKPCEQOWPG+PCVTGCV[YKVJ8GPKEGGPUWGF
YJKEJCNUQCEMPQYNGFIGFRCTVKCNCWVJQTKV[QH8GPKEGQXGT+UVTKC6JGEQOWPGTGEGKXGFNGICNTKIJVUHTQO
VJGDKUJQRU

(QT C DTKGH RGTKQF VJG 4CPHK HCOKN[ YCU UKIPQTG VJGP VJG KPUVKVWVG QH VJG 2QVGUVCU %QPUKNKWO
  
OGODGTU EQPUQNKFCVGFCV[RGQHEQOWPGVJCVYCUOQTGRTGXCNGPVKPVJG2QRNCKP.KVVNGKUMPQYPCDQWV
IQXGTPCPEG KP VJKU RGTKQF 6JG EKV[ EQWPEKN RGTHQTOGF RQNKVKECN CDQWVHCEGU DGVYGGP 8GPKEG #SWKNGKC  
VJG NQTFU QH &WKPQ CPF VJG EQWPVU QH )ÌT\ #HVGT VJG %JKQIIKC 9CT 8GPKEG UWTTGPFGTGF KVU ENCKOU VQ  
6TKGUV

+PRQYGTHGNNVQ&WMG.GQRQNF+++QH#WUVTKCYJQJQYGXGTNGHVKPVCEVVJGCWVJQTKV[QHVJGEQOWPG
+PVJGEKV[HGNNVQVJG*CDUDWTI*QWUG

)+8#4&1
 


 

 &GPCTQ#$KUJQRUGCVGFQPVJTQPGYKVJETQUKGTCPFDQQM )+8#4&85'2+5%124)TGCVVQYGT


DGVYGGP VYQ UOCNNGT VQYGTU QP YCNN YKVJ RQTVCN   %+8+6#5 Ő 6'4)'568/ $GTPCTFK 6[RG )  
$KCIIKIT 
445OCNNUETCVEJGUQPVJGTGXGTUGQVJGTYKUGYGNNUVTWEMCPFGZVTGOGN[HKPGURGEKOGP 
5CPVCOCTKC4QOG

.'10#4&1+
 

  

 &GPCTQ#$KUJQRUGCVGFQPVJTQPGYKVJETQUKGTCPFDQQM.'1#4&85'2Ő45V)KWUVQUVCPFKPI
YKVJRCNONGCHDGVYGGPVYQVQYGTUUVCTT%+8+6#56'4)'5$GTPCTFK6[RG.$KCIIKIT
/ÒP\GPWPF/GFCKNNGP$CUGN 40KEGRCVKPCGZVTGOGN[HKPG
 
6JGVJTGGFQVUCVVJGDGIKPPKPIQHVJGQDXGTUGVGZVCTGVJGUCOGCUQPVJGHKTUVHKQTKPQF QTQ

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NGCHU %+8+6#56'4)'568/$GTPCTFK6[RG#4$KCIIKIT 
4'FIGHCWNVXGT[HKPGVQGZVTGOGN[HKPG 
$GTPCTFK6TKGUV 
6JKUKUTGCNN[CFGPCTQUEQFGNNCVQDWVVJGOCPPGTQHUVTKMKPIJCUCNNDWVGTCUGFCP[VTCEGUQHVJKU+VKUPQVFCOCIGF

201
ITALY - TUSCIA

675%+#
2TKQT VQ &KQENGVKCPʼnU TGHQTO VJKU VGTTKVQT[ RTCEVKECNN[ EQTTGURQPFGF VQ HQTOGT 'VTWTKC CPF YCU ECNNGF  
6WUEKC +P VJG PF JCNH QH VJG VJ EGPVWT[ VJGTG YCU C 6WUEKC CPPQPCTKC
KG VJG TGIKQP 'OKNKC  CPF  
6WUEKCWTDKECTKC
VJGTGIKQPUQWVJQH#TPQ 

(TQOVQ6WUEKCYCUWPFGTVJG.QODCTFUCUCFWEJ[KVUECRKVCN.WEEC6JGTKUGQH%JTKUVGPFQO
OGCPVVJGEKVKGUDGECOGOQTGKORQTVCPV


+P (TCPMKUJ VKOGU 6WUEKC ITGY KP WPKV[ 6JG EQWPVU QH .WEEC IQXGTPKPI VJG VGTTKVQT[ YGTG ITCPVGF VJG VKVNG  
ŋOCTITCXGUQH6WUEKCŌ6JGVGTTKVQT[YCUFKXKFGFKPVQEQWPVKGUOQUVN[TWNGFD[(TCPMKUJPQDNGHCOKNKGU#HVGTVJG

[GCT6WUEKCFGXQNXGFVQVJGNQTFUQH%CPQUUC
6JG RTQIGPKVQT QH VJG %CPQUUC HCOKN[ RTGUWOCDN[ YCU #FCNDGTV #VVQ
PF JCNH QH VJG VJ EGPVWT[  JKU QTKIKPCN  
PCOG%CPWUKC*GUVGOOGFHTQOVJGEQWPV[.WEECCUKPFKECVGFD[VJGKTCPEGUVTCNPCOGFGEQOKVCVW.WEGPUK6JG[
OCKPVCKPGFVKGUYKVJ.QVJCKTCPF#FGNJGKFNCVGTYKVJ1VVQ+7PFGTVJGNCVVGTVJGUKORNGXCUUCNVQVJGMKPICPFVJG
DKUJQR QH 4GIIKQ KP 'OKNKC KP VJG PF JCNH QH VJG VJ EGPVWT[ DGECOG VJG EQWPV QH 4GIIKQ /QFGPC CPF /CPVWC
#HVGT JKU FGCVJ KP  JKU UQP CPF UWEEGUUQT 6GQFCNF DGECOG OCTITCXG QH (GTTCTC 6GQFCNF YCU OCTTKGF VQ 8KNNKC  
CPF LWUV CU JKU HCVJGT UVTQXG VQ GZRCPF JKU GUVCVG *G PQV QPN[ UGK\GF UGEWNCT RQYGT DWV CNUQ URKTKVWCN CWVJQTKV[  

OQUVN[D[HQTEG%CPQUUCRQYGTPQYGZVGPFGFVJTQWIJQWVVJG'OKNKCTGIKQP+P6GQFCNFFKGF
*KU UWEEGUUQT $QPKHCEG YCU EQPPGEVGF VQ VJG MKPIU CPF GORGTQTU $QPKHCEG CEEWOWNCVGF RQUUGUUKQPU VJTQWIJ JKU  
OCTTKCIGVQ4KEJKNFG+PJGCESWKTGFVJGOCTITCXKCNFKIPKV[QH6WUEKCRTGUWOCDN[KPTGVWTPHQTJKUUWRRQTVQH
VJG MKPIU CPF GORGTQTU $QPKHCEG YCU MKNNGF KP  CPF JKU YKFQY $GCVTKEG OCTTKGF )QFHTG[ YKVJ VJG $GCTF QH  
7RRGT .QTTCKPG YJQ QRRQUGF VJG GORGTQT +V YCU VJG HKTUV UVGR FQYP VJG RCVJ QHFKUNQ[CNV[VQVJGGORGTQTQHVJG

*QWUG%CPQUUC
$GCVTKEG CPF )QFHTG[ RNC[GF EGPVTCN TQNGU FWTKPI VJG PQOKPCVKQP QH 0KEQNCU ++ CPF #NGZCPFGT ++ $GCVTKEG CPF  
/CVKNFCYGTGVJGQPN[PQDNGUKPXQNXGFKPVJG+PXGUVKVWTG%QPVTQXGTU['XGPCHVGT)QFHTG[ʼnUFGCVJKP$GCVTKEG

MGRVQPUWRRQTVKPICTGHQTOQHVJGRCRCE[+P$GCVTKEGFKGFCPF/CVKNFCJGTFCWIJVGTTWNGFD[JGTUGNH
+P  UJG ITCPVGF RTQVGEVKQP VQ )TGIQT[ 8++ YJGP JG HGNV VJTGCVGPGF D[ VJG CFXCPEKPI *GPT[ +8 6JTQWIJ VJG  
OGFKCVKQP QH #DDQV *WIQ QH %NWP[ CPF /CVKNFC JGT FCWIJVGT VJG DCP YCU NKHVGF
YCNM VQ %CPQUUC KP   +P  
 UJG EGFGF JGT GUVCVG KP +VCN[ CPF .QTTCKPG VQ VJG EJWTEJ CPF TGEGKXGF VJGO DCEM KP HKGH 6JG OCTTKCIG QH  
/CVKNFC
 VQ9GNH8
 CTTCPIGFD[7TDCP++KPYQWNFNCUVQPN[GKIJV[GCTUCWPKQPVJCVRQUGFCVJTGCV
VQVJGGORGTQT+PVJGKORGTKCNDCPYCUKORQUGFQPJGT9JGPKVYCUTGXQMGFNCVGTUJGTGPGYGFJGTDGUVQYCN
VQ VJG EJWTEJ KP  9JGP KP  *GPT[ +8 YCU ETQYPGF GORGTQT /CVKNFC PQOKPCVGF JKO JGKT VQ JGT GUVCVG  
9KVJJGTFQWDNGVGUVCOGPV
RQRGCPFGORGTQT UJGETGCVGFCEQPHNKEVVJCVYQWNFNCUVNQPI
/CVKNFKPGNCPFU +P
/CVKNFCFKGFEJKNFNGUUCPFYCUKPVGTTGFKP2QNKTQPGPGCT/CPVWC
KP7TDCP8+++JCFJGTTGOCKPUVTCPUHGTTGFVQ

4QOGYJGTGUJGNKGUDWTKGFKPVJG5V2GVGTʼnU$CUKNKEC 
/CVKNFCʼnU NCPFU YGTG EQORTKUGF QH KP 'OKNKC /QFGPC 4GIIKQ /CPVWC $TGUEKC %TGOQPC (GTTCTC 2CTOC CPF  
8GTQPCKP6WUEKC(NQTGPEG2KUCCPF5KGPC
HQTYJKEJVJTGGVGTTKVQTKGUQPN[CHGYRTKXKNGIGUYGTGJGNFD[JGT RNWU
VGTTKVQTKGU KP .QTTCKPG +P  *GPT[ 8 UGK\GF VJG GUVCVG %QPTCF +++
  VTKGF VQ UGK\GVJGRQUUGUUKQPUDWV
VJGRQRGTGUKUVGFCPFITCPVGF.QVJCKT+++
 CPFJKUUQPKPNCY*GPT[VJG2TQWFVJGGUVCVGKPHKGH
 6JG
TKIJVUVQVJGUGNCPFUTGOCKPGFKPKORGTKCNJCPFUWPVKN(TGFGTKEM++TGPWPEKCVGFVJGOKPVJG)QNFGP$WNNQH'IGT+P
VJG OGCPVKOG VJG RTQDNGO JCF UQNXGF KVUGNH CP[YC[ FWG VQ VJG HQTOCVKQP QH EQOWPGU YJKEJ JGNF TGCN RQYGT     
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