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Forschungen in Lauriacum

Band 15

Forschungen in Lauriacum
herausgegeben von
Gesellschaft fr Landeskunde und Denkmalplege Obersterreich
Museumverein Lauriacum
Obersterreichisches Landesmuseum

Museum der Stadt Enns

akten
des 5. sterreichischen Numismatikertages
Enns, 21.22. Juni 2012
herausgegeben von
Michael Alram, Hubert Emmerig und Reinhardt Harreither

Enns Linz 2014

Gedruckt mit freundlicher Untersttzung:


Mnze sterreich AG
Historisch-Kulturwissenschaftliche Fakultt der Universitt Wien
Institut fr Numismatik und Geldgeschichte der Universitt Wien
Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien, Mnzkabinett
Abteilung Documenta Antiqua, Institut fr Kulturgeschichte der Antike, sterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften
Stadtgemeinde Enns

Historisch-kulturwissenschatliche Fakultt

Die verwendete Papiersorte ist aus chlorfrei gebleichtem Zellstoff hergestellt,


frei von surebildenden Bestandteilen und alterungsbestndig.
Copyright 2014 by
Gesellschaft fr Landeskunde und Denkmalplege Obersterreich
Museumverein Lauriacum
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Satz und Layout: Andrea Sulzgruber
Herstellung: Plchl Druck GmbH, A-4240 Freistadt
ISBN 978-3-902299-09-3

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Vorwort  Vii


Programm 

iX

Festvortrag
Bernward Ziegaus
Die Werkzeuge der keltischen Mnzmeister Funde und Forschungen 

Vortrge
Marc Philipp Wahl
Das System der Deinomeniden: Motivwanderungen auf westgriechischen Mnzen im
5 Jahrhundert v chr 

33

Lucijana eelj Mato Ilki


Money circulation in Liburnia in the pre-imperial period: preliminary report 

43

Martina Griesser Ren Traum Klaus Vondrovec


Korrosionserscheinungen an antiken Bronzemnzen 

55

Karl Strobel
Vorrmischer und frhrmischer Geldverkehr in Noricum: Fragen und Tendenzen 

67

Martin Ziegert
Zwischen Innovation und Tradition. Die Mnzprgung Vespasians  101
Ursula Pintz
Neue Erkenntnisse zu den Eisenmnzen der Austria Romana  109
Slavica Filipovi Tomislav eparovi
Die sptantike Nekropole in Zmajevac (Kroatien). bersicht ber die numismatischen Funde.
Ein Beitrag zur Erforschung des Umlaufs von Mnzen am Donau-Limes in Pannonien  119
Nikolaus Schindel
Zur kushano-sasanidischen Mnzprgung  133

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Hubert Emmerig
Mnzfunde des Mittelalters und der Neuzeit in sterreich: Die Erschlieung
eines Quellenbestandes Der Fundkatalog am Institut fr Numismatik und
Geldgeschichte der Universitt Wien (FK/ING)  143
Roman Zaoral
Silver and Glass in Trade Contacts between Bohemia and Venice  149
Petr Schneider
Ein Beitrag zur Oberlausitzer Mnzgeschichte im 13. Jahrhundert  167
Dagmar grossmannov
Beitrag zur Typologie der mhrischen Mnzen der zweiten Hlfte des 13. Jahrhunderts  177
Herfried E. Wagner
Geflschte Gegenstempel auf Prager Groschen  185
Anna Fabiankowitsch
1683 und die Mnzfunde in Wien, Niedersterreich und dem Burgenland  199
Jrgen mhlbacher irene mhlbacher
Der Diskurs gesellschaftlicher Erinnerungskultur am Beispiel bundesdeutscher
Silbermnzen Ein erster Werkstattbericht  215
Bernhard Prokisch
Funde religiser Medaillen in Obersterreich. Ein erster Bericht  219
Karl Peitler
Dem Johanneum, einer Anstalt, in der ich Stifter und Vaterland ehre und liebe
Die Schenkungen Anton Prokesch von Ostens an das Mnzkabinett des Universalmuseums Joanneum  235

Vi

Lucijana eeLjM ato i Lki

Money circulation in Liburnia in the pre-imperial period:


preliminary report*
The term Liburnia used in this paper refers to the geographical area of the North-eastern Adriatic
as deined by the ancient authors Pliny the Elder and Florus1. According to the latter, the northern
border of this territory was marked by the river Raa (lumen Arsia) in modern-day Istria and its
southern border by the river Krka (lumen Titius) in present-day central Dalmatia (ig. 1).
The region is limited to a narrow strip of the coast deined to the north and east by the mountain range of Velebit, the Croatian Littoral (Hrvatsko primorje) and the Kvarner Gulf with the
neighbouring islands. The borderline in the hinterland is very hard to deine because of the lack
of proper excavations and the paucity of research into extant material. For this reason we have
limited our study to the coastal area and the hinterland of northern Dalmatia, namely the regions
of Ravni Kotari and Bukovica, while also taking into account inds in Lika (in the trans-Velebit
region) as well as the area beyond the river Krka. The issue of the south-eastern border of Liburnia
is still open to debate, as is the deinition of the territories of Ditiones and Delmatae2 From the
ancient sources it is clear that at least in some phases the area beyond the river Krka, for example
Promona3, was Liburnian. Thus, in our study we have also taken into consideration the inds from
the Drni and Knin area, which we may assume had close connections with the territory of Liburnia as far as trade and the exchange of goods were concerned, despite being a separate ethnic and
political entity.
The period under consideration is the end of the 4th and the beginning of the 3rd century Bc
up to the end of the 1st century BC and the beginning of Roman imperial coinage. In general,
numismatic inds from Liburnia in the pre-imperial period have never before been systematically
studied4. The exceptions to this are the hoards which are speciic to the regions of Liburnia and
Iapodia and have constituted the focus of all previous numismatic studies5. Unlike these publications, our study will focus on single inds from the settlement context, which are a very important
indicator of widespread use of coinage as a means of exchange among the Liburnians.

This paper represents a preliminary report on the latest numismatic inds from the territory of ancient Liburnia
which will be published in the monograph Coinage and money circulation in Liburnia in the pre-imperial period
(From the oldest inds until the reform of Augustus in the years 23 to 19 BC)
Arsiae gens Liburnorum iungitur usque ad lumen Titium (Plin. nat. hist. 3, 139); ... Rursus incontinente colonia
Iader ... inde ... Colentum insula ... ostium Titii luminis. Liburniae inis et initium Delmatiae Scardona in amne
eo XII passuum a mari. (Plin. nat. hist. 3, 140141); Illyrii seu Liburni sub extremis Alpium radicibus agunt inter
Arsiam Titiumque lumen longissime per totum Hadriani maris litus effusi. (Flor. epit. 1. 21. 1).
On the problems of Liburnias borders see: . Batovi, Liburnska grupa, 339ff.; S. ae, Liburnija, 6481;
B oLuji, Povijest Japoda, 107134; M. ael Kos, Appian, 182188; M. Zaninovi, Delmati, 33ff.
s ae, Pogranine, 87ff.; S. ae, Prilozi, 2ff.; S. BiLi-DujMui, Promona, 27ff.; M. ael Kos, Appian,
345346.
A recently-published review of south Italian coins from the eastern Adriatic includes some inds from the territory
of Liburnia, . Batovi, Predrimski, 10ff.; also M. DuBoLni-GLavan V glava, Prilog.
i mirnik, Coin hoards, 3349; S. ae, Liburnija, 484498; M. crawFord, Coinage, 219ff

43

Lucijana eelj Mato Ilki

Fig. 1: Map of numismatic sites in Liburnia

To date we have noted more than 300 coins from 30 known sites, most of which are preserved in museums and private collections and have not been previously published (ig. 2)6 it should
also be pointed out that museum collections hold many more coins which can be attributed to this
period but whose provenance is unfortunately unknown. All of them belong to well-known types
from the area, and even if they were to be taken into consideration they would merely increase the
statistics without having any inluence on our interpretation.
Preliminary analyses show that the main concentration of pre-imperial coins is found in the
native settlements of northern Dalmatia (igs. 1, 2). The reasons for this are obvious, as this fertile
area was one of the most densely inhabited in the eastern Adriatic coast during the Hellenistic
period7. However, it should also be emphasized that in the area below the Velebit Mountains and
the Liburnian part of Istria few excavations have taken place and little research published on
inds, particularly with regard to numismatic material. Thus the present picture of coin distribution
relects the state of research rather than the actual situation.

44

It is also important to mention here that this does not represent the inal number either of sites or inds, as a revision of records in several museums is still outstanding, and in the meantime we have been offered more inds for
our publication from private collections. The current rough estimate is 500 coins.
s ae, South Liburnia 65ff.

Money circulation in Liburnia in the pre-imperial period

Fig. 2: Coins distribution by site (per number)

Fig. 3: Coins distribution by type (per number)

Preliminary analyses clearly show that the most numerous inds are coins attributed to Carthage and Numidia, followed by Roman Republican coins from the earliest period onwards. These
are also the most widespread coin types in Liburnia. Other inds include Ptolemaic coins together
with coins from Apollonia and Dyrrachium, Issa, Heracleia, Pharos and other Greek cities in Greece
itself as well as south Italy and Sicily, but in relatively small quantities, especially compared to
central and south Dalmatia, where these types predominate8. Here we should also emphasise the
presence of coins from Apulian cities together with rare Hispanic and Celtic coins. Furthermore,
it should be pointed out that most of them are made of bronze while silver coins are rare (ig. 3).

Z. dukat i mirnik, Pre-Roman coinage 175ff.; B. k irigin, Greeks in Central Dalmatia 293ff.; P. PoPovi, Novac
Skordiska 155, ig. 29; J. Brunmid, Natpisi i novac 47ff.

45

Lucijana eelj Mato Ilki

The typology tells us that the most common type is the late Carthaginian coin dating to the second
half of the 3rd and the irst half of 2nd century BC with the head of Tanit/Persephone and the horse
standing right (ig. 4) or horse standing right with its head turned (ig. 5). These bronze coins have
been found at 11 sites.

Fig. 4: Carthage, c. 200146 BC; AE, 27 mm, 15.14 g;


SNG Cop 409413, SNG Milano xIV 4350;
Podgrae (Asseria), private collection

Fig. 5: Carthage, 221210 BC; AE, 21 mm,


3.25 g; SNG Cop 307314, SNG
Milano xIV 2124, MAA no. 88;
Senj (Senia), Gradski muzej Senj

Numidian coins are invariably represented by the type with a laureate bearded head on the
obverse and a prancing horse on the reverse, dating to the end of the 3rd and the 2nd century Bc
and attributed to King Massinissa and his successors (ig. 6-9)9. These bronze coins have been
found at eleven sites so far.

Fig. 6: Numidia, Massinissa and his successors, 208148


BC and later; AE, 27 mm, 12.22 g; SNG Cop
504517, SNG Milano xIV 117, MAA no. 18;
Podgrae (Asseria), private collection

Fig. 8: Numidia, Massinissa and his successors,


208148 BC and later; AE, 26 mm, 14.78 g;
SNG Cop 504517, SNG Milano xIV 117,
MAA no. 18; Drni area, private collection

46

Fig. 7: Numidia, Massinissa and his successors, 208148


BC and later; AE, 27 mm, 12.38 g; SNG Cop
504517, SNG Milano xIV 117, MAA no. 18;
Slivnica, Lergova gradina, private collection

Fig. 9: Numidia,
Massinissa
and
his
successors, 208148 BC and later; AE,
27.9 mm, 7.76 g; SNG Cop 504517,
SNG Milano xIV 117, MAA no. 18;
Ljuba, private collection

Figs. 7 and 8 have been published in: M. iLki D FiLiPi V k ramBerger, Ususret no. 20 and no. 16.

Money circulation in Liburnia in the pre-imperial period

Roman Republican coins are present in Liburnia from the middle of the 3rd century BC. They
were used during the whole period and are very common in the region (ig. 1011). It should be
mentioned that we also found earlier cast bronze coinage and even a number of pieces of ramo
secco bars10. These bronze and silver coins were found at 13 sites.

Fig. 10: Roman Republic, as, 152 BC, Rome; 33 mm, 18.57
g; RRC 204/2; Omialj (Fulinum), Arheoloki
park i zbirka u osnivanju Mirine-Fulinum

Fig. 11: Roman Republic, Mark Antony,


denarius, 43 BC; 19 mm, 3.32 g; RRC
488/2; kabrnje, private collection

Greek coins found in this area derive from Greek Adriatic cities, for example a coin from
Issa (ig. 12) displaying the head of the goddess Athena in Corinthian helmet on the obverse and
the goat on the reverse, dating to the 3rd century Bc11, or a coin from the unknown Adriatic city
of Heracleia and several coins issued by the Illyrian king Ballaios (ig. 13)12. We also ind coins
from Dyrrachium dating to the 2nd century BC (ig. 14)13 and coins of the Achaean league (3rd/2nd
century BC) which are also found in central Dalmatia14. The Syracusan coins found were all issued
by Hieron II.15

Fig. 12: Issa, 3rd C BC; AE, 22.5 mm, 7.01 g; J. Brunmid,
Natpisi i novac 11; Podgrae (Asseria), private
collection

10
11
12

13

14
15

Fig. 13: Ballaios; AE, 17 mm, 2.79 g; J. Brunmid, Natpisi i novac 910; Ostrovica,
Zaviajni muzej Benkovac

m iLki D FiLiPi V k ramBerger, Ususret nos. 33 and 34.


Fig. 12 was published in: M. iLki D FiLiPi V k ramBerger, Ususret no. 24.
Fig. 13 was published in: I. mirnik, Nalazi starog novca 90, Tab. 1, 2; M. iLki D FiLiPi V k ramBerger,
Ususret no. 31. The question of the chronology of Ballaios coins is still open to debate. Traditionally these coins
have been dated to between 167135 BC (J. Brunmid, Natpisi i novac 88), but the latest inds from Polish excavations of a Hellenistic house in Risan, Montenegro, indicate that these coins should in fact be dated to the 3rd
century Bc, r cioek, Great hoard 712; P. dYcZek, Preliminary 4550.
We only have a photograph of the Dyrrachium drachm from Ljuba, and we have no access to data regarding
weight and diameter.
m BonaiM anDini, Coin inds at Ploa 159160.
. Batovi, Predrimski 29.

47

Lucijana eelj Mato Ilki

Fig. 14: Dyrrachium; AR, drachm; H. ceka,


Questions 188, no. 27; Ljuba

Fig. 15: Celts, Taurisci; AE (?), tetradrachm,


19.5 mm, 4.16 g; Samobor/A, R. gBl,
TKN 2789; Ljuba, private collection

Although Celtic coins are quite rare in this area we ind them at ive Liburnian sites. They all
belong to the well-known Tauriscan type of tetradrachm with male head/Apollo and horse (ig. 15).
They date to the 2nd/1st century Bc16
The Apulian coins found derive from the cities of Luceria (ig. 16), Teate (ig. 17), Arpi, and
Brundisium (ig. 18), and together with the coin from Bruttium (ig. 19) all date to the end of the
3rd century Bc17

Fig. 16: Apulia, Luceria, before 217 BC; AE, quincunx,


27 mm, 14.34 g; SNG Milano III 9498,
Podgrae (Asseria), private collection

Fig. 18: Calabria, Brundisium, 20089


BC; AE, semis, 19 mm, 7.71 g;
SNG Milano III 1527; Podgrae
(Asseria), private collection

16

17

48

Fig. 17: Apulia, Teate, c. 217 BC; AE, quadrans,


22 mm, 13.52 g; SNG Milano III 140;
Cathedral, Senj (Senia), Gradski muzej
Senj

Fig. 19: Calabria, Bruttium, 208205 BC; AE, 27


mm, 14.42 g; SNG Milano IV/2 75; Podgrae
(Asseria), private collection

On Tauriscan coins see: P. Kos, Leksikon, Taurisci 340342; R. gBl, TKN 99100. On the chronology of Tauriscan coinage see most recently P. kos a emrov, Ljubljanica 381395.
According to crawFord these coins are related to the events of the Second Punic War. M. crawFord, Coinage
6469; A. guidarelli, Identiicazione 80ff.

Money circulation in Liburnia in the pre-imperial period

Rare Hispanic coins from three Liburnian sites all derive from the city of Castulo (Castulo
Tarraconensis) in a rich mining area and date to the second half of the 2nd century BC to the beginning of the 1st century Bc18
When did coinage irst start to appear in Liburnia? It would seem that this occurred at the
beginning of the 3rd century BC, becoming more common towards the middle of the century. From
this period on it is very common and we ind different types of coins until the 1st century BC when
Roman Republican coins predominate, as they do in the whole of the eastern Adriatic. The earliest
coins found are Roman Republican, together with a few examples from Greek Dalmatian colonies
and carthage From the 2nd century BC onwards Numidian and Ptolemaic coins become more common. The domination of Roman and North African coinage in the Liburnian region is still a subject
of debate. What we know about this problem is based mainly on the study of the hoard evidence,
and the explanations presented in the literature are that: a) coins were collected as valuable metal
or b) isolated pieces are evidence for the movement of individuals such as pilgrims or soldiers et
cetera19. However, the numerous inds from settlements suggest that these explanations are too
simple and do not explain their quantity and distribution in the native settlements. We suggest that
these coins were used in everyday transactions.
As further evidence that this money circulated and was used in the region of northern part of
eastern Adriatic we present archaeological inds from the Hellenistic period on Cape Ploa, where
the remains of a maritime sanctuary dedicated to the Greek hero Diomedes were found (Pliny the
Elder 3, 141 names it promunturium Diomedis)20

Fig. 20: Origins of coin types found in the Hellenistic sanctuary on Cape Ploa (promunturium Diomedis)

18
19
20

One coin from Liburnian territory has been recently published in: M. DuBoLni-GLavan V glava, Prilog 99.
m crawFord, Coinage 221ff; S. ae, Liburnija 484498.
L eelJ, Promunturium Diomedis; S. ae L eelJ, Finds 163ff.; B. k irigin s ae,Archaeological evidence; S. ae, Promunturium 21ff

49

Lucijana eelj Mato Ilki

The sanctuary is situated on the most dangerous part of the eastern Adriatic route, on a promontory noted for its sudden weather changes, dangerous currents and abruptly veering winds.
It has been synonymous with danger for mariners of all periods, as it was for the Greeks who
founded the sanctuary. However, the foundation of the sanctuary only makes sense within the
context of onward travel into the northern Adriatic, that is, through Liburnian waters21 although
literary tradition gives us a picture of the Liburnians as enemies of the ancient Greeks, archaeological research suggests that this is not in fact the case, at least from the end of the 4th century
Bc22. It seems that they discovered common interests and from this period on the regular eastern
maritime route was established. Furthermore, it would appear that all parties beneited from this,
and that Diomedes sanctuary also came to symbolize this peaceful coexistence. The numismatic
and ceramic evidence related to the Greek colonies at Issa, Pharos and Heracleia on Liburnian
sites supports this thesis. If we take a look at numismatic inds from Cape Ploa (ig. 20) it is
clear that almost all coin types present on the eastern Adriatic coast are found here. The highest
concentration comes from western Greece, followed by Italy and northern Africa. Given that the
coins were votive offerings left by sailors we may presume that they were brought to the sanctuary
from successful voyages and deliberately deposited in the sanctuary as a token of the destination
for which they sought now divine favour. These inds are also a very good indicator of money
circulation in the northern Adriatic.
If we look at the spatial distribution of coin types, especially in respect of the evidence provided by hoards, it is evident that in the south and deeper hinterland as well as the Danube region
the system of coinage of Apollonia and Dyrrachium forms the model. On the middle Dalmatian
islands, following the domination by local coinage of the Greek poleis, we ind emissions related
to the Illyrian region (Apollonia, Dyrrachium, Illyrian kings). In general there appears to be a very
strong connection in central and south Dalmatia with the south-east, in spite of strong penetration
by Roman Republican money. By contrast, in the Alpine and Pannonian regions a different type
of Celtic coinage predominates, while Roman Republican coins spread gradually from the west.
Situated between these two large geographical zones is the Liburnian-Iapodian region, where the
North African and Roman Republican money dominated. How can this phenomenon be explained?
There is no doubt that the occurrence of this coinage must be related to Liburnian maritime
trade. Relations with the western coast of the Adriatic, especially the area of Picenum and Apulia,
were well established from the early Iron Age onwards and persisted during the Hellenistic period.
It appears that political changes in Italy and the arrival of Romans on the Adriatic did not seriously
affect the exchange of goods between the two coasts. On the contrary, it seems that the irst contacts and good relations with the Romans (conirmed by later literary sources) were established
during this phase and the appearance of Roman coins was a direct consequence of this. It could
also explain the presence of coinage from Apulian cities from the period of the Second Punic War,
which is not otherwise widespread outside Italy.
The appearance of Celtic coinage in northern Dalmatia must also be connected to the trade
with the caput Adriae. This is conirmed by Strabo, who mentions the role of Aquileia in trade with
the region of Noricum, the people of Taurisci and the Pannonians. Shellish, wine and olive oil
were exchanged for slaves, leather, gold and iron et cetera23, as also conirmed by archaeological
inds, in particular those made on the Magdalensberg24. Analyses of these inds indicate intensive
trade contacts with Aquileia during the late Republican period. With the foundation of this colony

21

22
23
24

50

s BiLi-DujMui,Archaeological excavations 485486; S. BiLi-DujMui,Excavations 123ff.; L. eelJ, Promunturium Diomedis 387392.


s ae, Corcira 83ff.
Strab. 5, 1, 8. C 214.
e schindler-k audelka s ZaBehlickY-scheFFenegger, commerce 151ff

Money circulation in Liburnia in the pre-imperial period

the eastern Adriatic route was transformed into one of the major commercial seaways leading to the
northernmost part of the Adriatic25. This is conirmed by evidence from Cape Ploa, where there
is an enormous quantity of material from the 2nd and 1st centuries BC26. As the major part of this
route passes through Liburnian waters it should be assumed that the Liburnians also participated in
this trade, at least before the domination of Italian traders in the second half of the 1st century Bc
The hardest phenomenon to explain is the presence of Carthaginian and Numidian coinage
in the area of Liburnia. It remains unclear whether it arrived here via Italy or whether there were
more direct contacts with the western Mediterranean and North Africa. We believe that further
study of other types of archaeological material, in particular pottery, will contribute in providing
a solution to this problem.

acknowledgments
We would like to express our gratitude to institutions and people who kindly helped us with material and information:
Arheoloki muzej Zagreb, Pomorski i povijesni muzej Hrvatskog primorja Rijeka, Arheoloka zbirka Osor, Gradski muzej
Senj, Arheoloki muzej u Zadru, Muzej ninskih starina, Zaviajni muzej Biograd na moru, Zaviajni muzej Benkovac,
Gradski muzej ibenik, Muzej hrvatskih arheolokih spomenika u Splitu; T. araLica,t.BiLi,t.Brajkovi,Z.Brusi,
M.auevi,i.erina,s.erina,i.urkovi,M.urkovi,M.DuBoLniGLavan,D.Duca,Z.ettinGerstari,
D. FiLiPi, v. GLava, s. GLuevi, Z. kinDa, P. kouL, v. kraMBerGer, B. LjuBovi, M. Metrov, i. MiLeusni,
i.Mirnik,D.Mrai,M.raDovi,M.reBi,r.starac,t.eParovi. Special thanks for inancial support to Professor
s.ae, University in Zadar (project no. 269-2690754-3143, the Croatian Ministry of Science and Technology) and to
the director of the Town museum in Senj B.LjuBovi. We also wish to thank P. kos and P. vison for supplying helpful
comments and information.

BiBliograPhY
. Batovi, Liburnska grupa

. Batovi, Liburnska grupa. In: Praistorija jugoslavenskih zemalja 5. Sarajevo 1987,


339390.
. Batovi, Predrimski
. Batovi, Predrimski novci iz june Italije na istonom jadranskom primorju. Diadora
25 (2011) 745.
s BiLi-DujMui,Archaeological excavations
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skupa odranog 24. do 26. rujna 1998. godine u Splitu. Split 2002, 485497.
s BiLi-DujMui,Excavations S. BiLi-DujMui,Excavations at cape Ploa near ibenik, Croatia. In: I Greci in Adriatico 2 Hesperia 18 (2004) 123140.
s BiLi-DujMui,Promona
s BiLi-DujMui,Promona: the site and the siege. In: Dalmatia: Research in the Roman
Province 19702001, Papers in honour of J. J. Wilkes (British Archaeological Reports,
International Series 1576). Oxford 2006, 4158.
m BonaiManDini, Coin inds at Ploa
m BonaiManDini, The coin inds at Ploa promontory. In: I Greci in Adriatico 2
Hesperia 18 (2004) 151161.
J Brunmid, Natpisi i novac
J Brunmid, Natpisi i novac grkih gradova u Dalmaciji. Split 1998.
h ceka, Questions
h ceka, Questions de numismatique illyrienne. Tirana 1972.
r cioek, great hoard
r cioek, Great hoard of 4656 coins of king Ballaios from Risan. Novensia 21 (2010)
712.
m h crawFord, Coinage
m h crawFord, Coinage and Money under the Roman Republic. Italy and the Mediterranean Economy Berkeley Los angeles 1985
S. ae, Liburnija
S. ae, Liburnija u razdoblju od 4. do 1. stoljea prije nove ere. Unpubl. Diss. Zadar
1985

25
26

s ae L eelJ, Finds 168.


L eelJ, Promunturium Diomedis

51

Lucijana eelj Mato Ilki


S. ae, Pogranine

S. ae, Pogranine zajednice i jugoistona granica Liburnije u kasno predrimsko i u


rimsko doba. Diadora 11 (1989) 5991.
S. ae, Prilozi
S. ae, Prilozi povijesti Liburnije u 1. stoljeu prije Krista. Radovi Zavoda za povijesne
znanosti HAZU u Zadru 35 (1993) 135.
S. ae, Promunturium
S. ae, Promunturium Diomedis (Plin. Nat. hist. 3, 141). Radovi Filozofskog fakulteta
u Zadru 35(22) (1997) 2144.
s ae, Corcira
S. ae, Corcira e la tradizione greca dellespansione dei Liburni nellAdriatico orientale. In: Grki utjecaj na istonoj obali Jadrana. Zbornik radova sa znanstvenog skupa
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Dr. sc. Lucijana eelj


Domovinskog rata 4, 23000 Zadar, Kroatien
lucijana.seselj@optinet.hr
Dr. Mato Ilki
Department of Archaeology, University of Zadar
Obala kralja Petra Kreimira IV. 2, 23000 Zadar, Kroatien
milkic@unizd.hr

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