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first contact

film material nº 4 Film Material No. 4 is published on

the occasion of the exhibition
The Fourth Wall  at

information Koch Oberhuber Wolff , Brunnenstraße 9, Berlin

Published by Spector Books Leipzig 
and Archive Books, Berlin / Turin 
on ‘the fourth wall’ — spector 

January 2010 Edited by Paolo Caffoni & Clemens von Wedemeyer   

by Anne M. Lovell

THE Tasaday controversy reflects both the

post-independence crisis of anthropology in
the 1950s and 1960s and the subsequent shift
in its paradigms and methods. In a reversal of
the earlier colonial anthropologist’s impor-
tance, a ‘native’ Filipino from the politically
and economically powerful elite controls ac-
cess to the people he will bill as untouched
by civilization, at least before their encounter
with him, in 1971. Films and photographs pro-
jecting a gentle, unrepressed, loving people
find receptive Western audiences during an
era of sexual liberation, the hippie revival of
the noble savage myth, emerging ecological
consciousness and pacifist desires in the wake
of the brutal Vietnam War. Simultaneously,
anthropologists are embracing new interpre-
tations of the culture of hunters and gatherers,
the category of societies to which the Tasaday
belong. Hunters and gatherers are now seen
as cooperative and inter-dependent, rather
than caught up in a Hobbesian state of per-
petual competition. And by 1972, Marshall
Sahlins will have published his famous study,
Stone-Age Economics, which posits‘primitive’
societies as affluent, rather than struggling for
Elements of truth claims under colonialism
never lay solely in the hands of anthropolo-
gists; colonial administrators, explorers and
Picture by Claude Levi Strauss, Tristes Tropiques, 1955

missionaries were often anthropologists them-

selves, or at least produced literature about the
people they studied. But the Tasaday contro-
versy emerges at a time when these figures
multiply. The Journalist, the Filmmaker (docu-
mentary and docu-drama), the Human Rights
Activist, the Adventurer and the Writer con-
tribute their efforts to the construction of facts.
The revival of the Tasaday controversy in the
mid 1980s re-assembles these figures in aca-
demic attempts to establish, once and for all,
whether the Tasaday story is a hoax. In the end,
such long-accepted anthropological methods
like ethno-botany, archeology and linguistics
meet with a skeptical audience among anthro-
pologists, by then wary of how styles of cul-
tural description contribute to truth claims and
norities in the Philippines called the PANAM IN BY wearing masks, painting the skin or attuned to invisible mediations – the Fourth

The Story Foundation, was instrumental in negotiating

the group’s exposure to and protection from
tattooing it, people indicate that human
beings distinguish themselves from nature.
Wall – that obfuscate ethnographic authority.
Anne M. Lovell is an anthropologist at

of the Tasaday the outside world. He created a reserve to pre-

vent exploitation of the tract of rainforest that
was the Tasaday’s natural habitat, and set con-
The mask, like art in general, separates
us from nature. It creates a tangible identity,
a culture. The limits of one’s own culture
CESAMES , Université Paris Descartes.

trols on the media attention and scientific in- are often transcended in order to investigate
vestigation of their lifestyle, language and other lives and other cultural settings. The paper you are looking at …
diet. In 1972 the Marcos regime declared the Excerpt from ‘Found Footage’, see p. 2.
preserve a restricted area. The declaration of … combines research material and com-
martial law in the Philippines that same year International conferences of anthropolo- mentaries as a guide for the exhibition The
The Tasaday were a group of 26 people made it difficult to access Mindanao for many gists were anxious to learn the truth. The pre- Fourth Wall . It was edited in such a way
found living in the rain forest of Mindanao, a years to come. vailing opinion of those conducting follow-up to help you understand what links disparate
southern island in the Philippines. Before they In 1986, 15 years after the Tasaday’s dis- investigations held that contact with the Tas- events since 1971, when the Tasaday were
were found in 1971, their lives had purported- covery, a journalist searching for the group aday were at least in part a directed event, but discovered, until now. These facts and
ly been untouched by contact with other civi- managed to reach their now abandoned dwell- controversy and inconsistency accompany their echoes were the starting points for an
lisations, and unchanged since the Stone Age. ing caves. He found the Tasaday nearby, now most arguments. inquiry on that imaginary boundary between
Cave dwellers who wore only leaves and used inhabiting houses, smoking cigarettes and Even after the Philippine parliament is- reality and representation, which created
stone tools, they immediately became a sen- wearing blue jeans. The Tasaday made the sued a statement declaring the authentici- the ‘fourth wall’.
sational subject for photographers, reporters headlines again, but now their history was ty of the Tasaday, many people today remain You can read more about found footage
and anthropologists. The eccentric and con- unclear. Had the isolated group in the forest unconvinced that they were any more than (p.2), brutalist architecture (p.3), explorers,
troversial millionaire Manuel Elizalde Jun- changed so radically in 15 years, or had skilled one of the biggest hoaxes in the history of an- cannibalism (p.4) and well-known actors (p.6).
ior, head of an agency for the protection of mi- actors deceived the world earlier? thropology. C.W.
 First Contact / January 2010

Tasaday looking out of their cave into the

rain forest in 1972 when they were visited
by a team of anthropologists and reporters by
helicopter. Photo: John Nance.

2009, Digital video, 4:3, 31 min.

found footage
Tasaday watch themselves. The Tasaday watch the television program 20/20 (ABC news) in which they are being accused of performing a
A selection of found footage ranging from stone age life for strangers. Photo: John Nance, 1988
news reports and feature films to anthro-
pological documentaries are arranged in
mutual commentary, drawing relations be-
tween separate regions of the world and Media ‘disembowel’, and ‘devour’pre-existing films bricolage that alludes to both the represented
in order to make new works of – possibly – art. material, as well as metaphorical or expres-

differing eras of interpretation and trans- But why tear apart films to make new ones? sionistic uses, opening up new spaces for re-
lation. Misinterpretation appears to be in- There are at least three incentives for this kind flection and storytelling. The information that
herent to all cases of media attention to pre- of activity: recycling, repurposing, and recon- is embedded in the source material (true to the
viously isolated groups. Sections cover textualizing.The acceleration of technological format of the period in which it was created)
‘Exploration’, ‘The Uncontacted’, ‘Expec- inventions for the moving image art rapidly offers a way of bringing its own particular his-
tations’, ‘First Contact’, ‘Reporting’, and shortens the lifetime of a medium, creating tory back in its own terms. Using the form of
‘Examination’, and, while remaining open- an ever-growing graveyard of ‘dead’ formats the montage, the images are ‘detoured’ into a
ended, the film also touches on the Tasaday and their images. It is the creative mind that new context, for political, essayistic, documen-
controversy and possible hoax. The com- turns the industry’s scrap field into a play- tary, or narrative purposes, creating new cin-
mentary proposes the thesis that the cam- ground, a laboratory for experimentation.The ematic phrases and dialogues between the dif-
era and the mask are related devices which by Sylvia Schedelbauer work process can be compared to that of a ‘mad ferent contexts, times, and narratives, similar
generate ‘culture’ through concealment scientist’, who builds a ‘Frankenstein’ out of to the concept of hyper-linking.
and division. In the expanding commercialization of the bits and pieces of ‘cannibalized’ films, while Finally, found footage films interrogate new,
homogenized media-landscape of the West- surfing the waves of enhanced media obsoles- playful ways to subvert mainstream media,
Thanks to Craig Baldwin in San Francisco, ern world, found footage film practice has be- cence. beating it with its own language, all the while
where Clemens von Wedemeyer gathered archival
come one way of negotiating many contem- Rather than using pre-existing material to examining the body and flesh of it. A perfect way
footage for this video.
porary issues: Public domain, intellectual illustrate something in an indexical way (as to exploit a mountain of bones: orphaned films,
Editors: Janina Herhoffer, property rights, Open Source, Fair Use, dé- was often practiced in the early compilation rescued films, stolen films, and forgotten films.
Clemens von Wedemeyer tournement, Appropriation Art, film essays, documentary of the 1930s and 1940s), the con- Silvia Schedelbauer is a filmmaker who
Speaker: Stephen Jacob as well as documentary and narration. One temporary experimental maker may create a lives in Berlin and San Francisco
Sound Editor: Thomas Wallman such nexus of the found footage practice is
San Francisco, which has a vibrant and ener-
gized community of filmmakers, media and
anti-copyright activists, pioneering thinkers
on the electronic frontier, and archivists. In
the face of disappearing public space and in-
creasing corporatization of public and private
images, one unique archive is that of Ameri-
can filmmaker Craig Baldwin. Comprising a
collection of about 2500 educational, propa-
ganda, industrial, narrative, and amateur films,
2009, 2 channel installation, HD video loop, as well as animations, newsreels, TV commer-
16 :9, 6:30 min. cials, and early kinescopes, Baldwin not only
uses his archive to create his own films, but
makes this treasure trove, developed over
wood three decades of dedicated collecting, availa-
ble to an international community of filmmak-
Shot from a helicopter, the front projection ers, both emerging and well established.
simulates the gaze of an observer pursuing The unusual thing about Baldwin’s praxis
someone hiding in a forest, while the rear is that – unlike other archives that offer cop-
screen shows a view inside the forest. ies of the source material ( leaving the origi-
nal film intact) – filmmakers sit down at one
Camera: Frank Meyer of Baldwin’s basement editing benches and
Editor: Janina Herhoffer
physically cut out shots of 16mm films, taking
Production Manager: Fabienne Bideau
home with them a purchased reel containing
Photo by Wayne Miller, 1955

Produced in collaboration with Utopics,

a myriad of sequences that they wish to use.
11 t h Swiss Sculpture Exhibition ,
Biel/Bienne, Simon Lamuniere In this way, the source films are not preserved
in their archived condition, but get torn apart,
disassembled, and are provisionally spliced
together again until, over the course of time,
they dwindle down to their core. This practice
can metaphorically be describedas ‘media can-
nibalism’, a strategy in which artists ‘rip apart’,
 First Contact / January 2010


A Fortified
Island in the
City of

by Francesco Manacorda

The brutalist architecture of the Barbican

Estate was the outcome of a commission to
architects Chamberlin, Powell and Bon who
were briefed to rebuild a whole area of the city
that had been bombed during World War II.
Covering more than 40 acres, its design was
indebted to Le Corbusier’s innovative archi-
tectural solutions, including the redirection
of all motorised circulation underground to
obtain a vast pedestrianised zone. The whole
complex was constructed with defensive ar-
chitecture from middle ages to recent bunkers
as an architectural motif – to which its name
is also associated: a barbican is the defensive
gate outside fortified medieval castles. The es-
tate has more than 2,000 flats and an Art Cen-
tre that includes a theatre, a concert hall, three tower has been built with fake balconies lus- Barbican Centre Drawing. Described by the Queen as ‘one of the wonders of the modern
cinemas, two art galleries and a conservato- ciously invaded by different species of plants world’, the Barbican Centre is an imposing collection of the finest in British arts. The building
ry. The nature of the architectural project and that now cover it completely. The Barbican itself is a labyrinth and finding your route from the station or car park is an adventure in itself.
its details have made this complex a tempo- Estate can be seen as symptomatic of Britain’s Staircases twist around each other, directing lost patrons into mysteriously empty mezzanines,
ral oxymoron: on the one side it represents the attitude towards modernity and change: em- where odd snatches of music are the only guide back to the main lobby. One of the pleasures of
biggest modernist intervention in the UK, em- bracing the future while blatantly indulging in such a huge venue is to arrive early for whatever you plan to see and go exploring.
bracing the future and the technological ad- the stratified past.
vantages of concrete; on the other hand, its Francesco Manacorda is a freelance
vast hand hammered concrete surfaces are
similar to cave walls and rely on handcraft la-
bour, thereby neutralising the economic ad-
curator based in London.
Film Time a fresh one in the next. The narration in film is
linear, but filmic time is reversible. Film can
in fact grant immortality. If imagining this ut-
vantages of brutalism’s signature material ‘bé- ter unlikelihood is too far-fetched for the me-
ton brut’(untreated cement). The design of the dium, then it is utopian, unfounded.
theatre overlaps the cave-like elements with a A camera circles above a forest, with only
science fictional atmosphere coming straight the tops of the trees in view, yet our eyes are
out of 1950s space invasion movies. The con- captivated in expectation. It is film’s very
servatory is another such paradox: to hide the bearings in time that arouse the expectations.
theatre’s fly tower, the architects built a space When these are sustained, the viewer forgets
for tropical plants to grow in the middle of the him / herself in return.
concrete island. With a result reminiscent of a by Angelika Stepken In ‘The Fourth Wall’ the fiction of the film
J.G. Ballard story and Robert Smithson’s fas- is fragmentary. Real time thrusts itself be-
cination for ruins in reverse, the windowless Film time replaces real time. Only film tween elements of film time, as if there were
time counts in cinema. This is due to our in- continuity between the one and the other. Is
2009, 16 mm film loop, B/W, 3 min. stinctively sensory orientation in time. As the exhibition like an epic film? Or like an ex-
The Family of Man. Edward Steichen mo- soon as the passage of time is implied, we en- ternalized organ, that wants to fool us with the
ves a scaled spectator through the exhibition ter into a story. Whereas in the 19th century, foretelling of lived time?
model.  intro the photographic image was understood as an The film time is located here in space, dur-
objective ‘pencil of nature’, film doesn’t simu- ing the experience of walking through the dis-
The photography exhibition ‘The Family Shot in black and white 16 mm, the film late the tangible, but instead the regularities ofplay. An alternation transpires between exhi-
of Man’, curated in 1955 by Edward Steichen features an actress who later appears in the lived time. Real time slips away in film.Where bition display and film time, real space and
for the Museum of Modern Art of New York, installation’s final film The Gentle Ones, does this loss occur? filmic narration. During this alternation the
aimed to show ‘the essential oneness of man- a record of a play inspired by the Tasaday Once films are no longer exclusively viewer becomes aware of different states of
kind throughout the world’. Steichen selected and staged in the Barbican Theatre. The shown in the black box and dream factory of the art work, of different levels of ‘fictionali-
503 pictures by 273 photographers from 68 actress looks directly into the camera, as cinema – now having entered the object-ori- zation’.
countries, and grouped them around themes in an ethnographic portrait or a screen test. ented, lighted exhibition rooms – their dis- The various thresholds to fiction trans-
relevant to all cultures, such as love, children, Hands enter the frame, making up her face play becomes problematic: whereas exhibi- form the exhibition space into an editing room.
and death. The show was criticised for a naive or checking the lighting for the camera. tion spaces are designed as dialectical tours of Just as film time is made credible through
view on  mankind, neglecting material condi- works, screening rooms must support aban- montage of the images, here the viewer finds
tions; photographs were made to submit to the Cast: Laura Eagland donment to film time. It’s not the dialogue be- a wealth of connecting points among the sev-
Camera: Clemens von Wedemeyer, Frank Meyer
theme. Steichens disregard for the individua- tween physical positions that matters, but de- en filmic sites of the work. However, the view-
Producers: Tracy Bass, Pinky Ghundale
lity of a photograph was compounded by Paul Production Manager: Mark Gibbons localization, the surrender to the brain’s power er moves through space as rather than with-
Marvin Rudolph’s exhibition design. The  ar- 1st Assistant Director: David Dickson to synthesize and experience sequences of im- in a film, relationships fail to develop in time,
chitect, known for his spatially complex Bru- Art Director: Emma Landolt ages as an ‘interminable’ time. or in a (film) story, remaining disparate and
talist concrete structure, displayed to mural Photographer: Sheila Burnett Film aspires to credibility, not in its ca- questionable. Upon leaving the editing room,
size some prints while others were free han- Costume Designer: Heather MacVean pacity as a recording medium, but as a time one recalls one’s self as a possible protagonist
ging or overlapped with different pictures. At Hair/Make-up: Danielle Hooker simulator. Film can wind time forwards and who has roamed on location through the vari-
the close of the exhibition’s highly successful backwards, show simultaneity in succession ous chapters of a DVD, with no way of finding
American tour, the show travelled abroad to and show sequences simultaneously, and make the film’s end.
37 countries under the auspices of the United the impossible probable. We follow the mon-
States Information Agency. In the words of the tage of the images: lapsed time becomes plau- Angelika Stepken is a curator and writer,
historian Nicholas J. Cull, ‘Rather than cras- sible history. The research scientist in ‘Against currently director of the Villa Romana, 
sly presenting America to the world, America Death’ who has supposedly been made immor- Florence. 
presented the world to the world, and gained tal through a shamanic ritual is able, thanks
credit thereby’. to a filmic loop, to slit his own throat in one
scene and change out of his bloody shirt into
 First Contact / January 2010

Elizalde embracing Kuletaw during a July,

1971 meeting at the edge of the forest with
Bilangan, Balayam and Mahayag watching.
Photo: John Nance

1983, 16 mm film transferred to video, 15 min.

a message from
the stone age
Directed by John Nance — A Message from
the Stone Age is a film made solely from
photographic stills which John Nance took
of the Tasaday in the early 1970s. It relates
the story of their contact with Manuel
Elizalde Jr. and the Panamin Foundation,
sometimes posturing in the point of view of
the group ‘members’, and strongly conveys
First Contact final pages, Hemley mythologizes this mo-
ment, when the Tasaday travel to the place be-
yond the forest, ‘where the eyes see too far’, to
1980 ethnography attempts to capture the dis-
tinct history and narrative of Ilongot head-
hunters. Similarly, in First Time, his fellow
Nance’s belief in their humanistic rele- meet this bringer of good fortune prophesied anthropologist Richard Price pieces togeth-
vance, as in his final voice-over statement: by their ancestors. er from myths, songs, and contemporary en-
‘The Tasaday are us and we are them; all Two vantage points, two views: the gravings a sense of how Saramaka maroons
members of the human family’. dense forest carpet below, the strange giant – escaped slaves who settled in the rainfor-
by Anne M. Lovell bird above. Two narrative structures as well, ests of Surinam – view their place and identity
This film can be seen on Youtube. through which ‘First Contact’ is refracted. within a larger historical process.
© Oregon Historical Society Motion Picture ‘their history as a people begins with our The now recognized European myth that a The numerous genres of borrowed film,
visit on June 7, 1971’. This is Manuel Elizalde, non-Western and/or subaltern people’s histo- from newsreels to ethnographic documenta-
the wealthy Filipino businessman, notorious ry begins at the moment they encounter West- ry, projected in ‘The Fourth Wall’ installation,
playboy, sometime politician and Presidential ern civilization had yet to be questioned by an- constitute just as many distancing devices that
Adviser on National Minorities to Ferdinand thropologists when the Tasaday controversy displace coevalness, or the juxtaposition of
Marcos, speaking. The citation opens Robin began. At the other end of the Filipino archi- temporalities.They leave us caught between a
Hemley’s book, Invented Eden. The Elusive, pelago, anthropologist Renato Rosaldo would supposedly timeless present of their subjects
Disputed History of the Tasaday. In the book’s soon lay the groundwork for this critique. His and the present time of the film-maker.

the interviews
subsequent years as the head of the AP office Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World in which
in Manila. natives are fenced off in reservations.
It was meeting the Tasaday that most Agreeing, Frand states that just such reser-
distinguished the island jungle from that of vations are the only hope for the future, since
Vietnam: Here was a community Nance they would prevent the active destruction
describes as peaceful and living in full har- of what he considers to be the ‘living past’.
mony with nature – in great contrast to most This idea is of particular interest to von
global inhabitants at the time. His books Wedemeyer and he is prompted to suggest
most likely inspired flower people in the U.S., that we are the ones the so-called savages
and Nance knows of people who named must be protected from. Frand concurs, stat-
2008, HD video, 55 min. their children ‘Tasaday’after his book. The 2009, HD video, 35 min. ing that opportunities for future anthropolog-
Tasaday and their way of life had a huge ical and scientific research can only be
impact on the ideology of the 1970s. guaranteed through isolation. He also refers
How to Re-establish the He recounts the first meeting of this group How to Deal With the to the cautionary tale of a fellow explorer,
Truth About the Tasaday? with the helicopter of Manuel Elizalde in Uncontacted? who in his quest to fully understand the way
June 1971. The Tasaday were well aware that of life of a Brazilian tribe, partook in a ritual
this contact would change their way of life: that had a lasting adverse affect. In inter-
‘Ubus Tasaday, Ubus’, which means acting in ways in which the consequences are
‘The end of the Tasaday, the end’. Much unknown and possibly fatal, both for the
of the interview centres on the Tasaday hoax individual and for the group, Frand continues,
INTERVIEW WITH JOHN NANCE theory, first put forth by both a Swiss and INTERVIEW WITH GEOFFREY FRAND explorers themselves contribute to the prob-
a Filipino journalist in 1986, which Nance de- lem of what he terms cultural contamination.
Columbus, Ohio, November 2008 nounces as the real hoax and a conspiracy London, UK, April 2009 Von Wedemeyer and Frand go on to
In this interview with Clemens von against the Tasaday. The following resulting Clemens von Wedemeyer interviews lecturer, discuss who has the right to determine the
Wedemeyer, reporter and photojournalist shift in public opinion about the Tasaday cost ethnographer and actor Geoffrey Frand liberty and future of secluded ethnic groups.
John Nance recounts his experiences as Nance his membership in Magnum among following a lecture he gave at the Barbican Frand insists that society today should reject
one of the first people to visit the Tasaday in other things, as he was forced to bear the Centre at the invitation of an investment the idea of such global contact and exchange
1971 and to bring this small cave-dwelling stigma of being the person who had banking firm. and enforce their continued isolation for
community to the attention of the wider photographed ‘a living zoo’. Nance claims Frand discusses the diverse consequences a minimum of 500 years. This is to be done,
world. that even after official institutions vouched of making first contact with isolated groups, he maintains, through the creation of
Nance is best known for his books The for the authenticity of the Tasaday, the hoax like those living deep in the rainforests new borders, including physical, illusory,
Gentle Tasaday, the children’s book Lobo of theory continues to persist, and therefore of Brazil. He explains that today’s society and psychological ones.
the Tasaday, and the picture book Discovery he is trying to reestablish the truth about the has a responsibility to preserve such groups
of the Tasaday. Tasaday through new platforms like the and that the best possible means of doing
Clemens von Wedemeyer met John internet. Von Wedemeyer asks whether the so is to prevent all contact with them. While
Nance in his home in Columbus, Ohio. Tasaday weren’t exploited by different forc- recognising the immediate scientific signifi-
The interview begins with Nance recalling es, and Nance explains that part of the income cance of studying the means of their exist-
his experience of the Vietnam war, and in from the sale of his books still helps the ence and survival, he argues that prolonging
particular the differences between the atmos- Tasaday and other minorities in the Philip- their isolation is of greater importance and an
phere of the jungle there and in the Philip- pines. invaluable resource for society in the future.
pines, where Nance spent most of the Von Wedemeyer points to the similarity with
 First Contact / January 2010

young unknowns, have all watched Cannibal he dies … not in my case, because I found I

National Holocaust, and found inspiration from it for

their own films. I don’t believe — couldn’t believe. I lost total confidence in my-
self, when I was robbed in the Amazonian. I

Geographic Several horrible movie ‘copies’ followed

the making of Cannibal Holocaust but also An Interview with
just felt like a total failure. I thought: Why did
I allow myself to be here? I’ve let down my

and the there were well made tributes to the movie

and to my movie direction and stage-manag-
Benedict Allen mother, my father, I’ve let down myself, be-
cause I made a mess of my plans. So believ-

Lost Inspiration ing, which were innovative for their time. In

the best possible way, it completely changed
my life, which was already eventful enough, Benedict Allen is
ing in something that I couldn’t even see, what
I didn’t have any evidence for would be im-
possible. So I lost belief totally in myself –
and dulcis in fundo, I also started to receive re- an author, explorer, TV the only thing that made me survive were the
quests to appear as an actor in cameo roles. In filmmaker-presenter things I knew about, certainly my girlfriend
the middle of all this chaos, I felt the loss of a and international mo- and my mum. I just walked out of the forest
precious piece which marked the start of my tivational speaker who for their sake. I think I have to make an effort
cannibal film production. is best known for his even if I don’t want to, because I’ve been so
Precisely 32 years after the first cannibal arduous expeditions selfish. Do you know what I mean?
by Ruggero Deodato movie, Last Cannibal World, that made me to remote corners of CvW – Did you feel you have to punish your-
well known worldwide, an anthropologist from the globe. These jour- self?
I shot Last Cannibal World in 1976 and Germany came to interview me, Clemens. This neys are realized not with a satellite phone, BA – No, no, no. I thought I had to withstand
Cannibal Holocaust in 1979. After twenty Teutonic Clemens – anthropologist, producer, GPS or any of the usual ‘backups’ but by un- whatever the environment or the forest would
years in quarantine and several difficult proc- director, editor, and everything else – was the dertaking a test journey after a period of train- give me. Even if I didn’t want to, because I had
esses involving both censors and the legal sys- only one among many other interviewers who ing alone with a remote indigenous commu- been so stupid, and I had to get home. So it was
tem, a group of young American people made brought me something which I had lost and nity. These and other ventures are depicted not about punishment. That is an even more
a film similar to Cannibal Holocaust : The by then forgotten: National Geographic, Vol. in his ten books – including two best sellers complicated thought (laughs). No, I just had to
get out. And I have never believed in God, but
Blair Witch Project. The authors, the actors in- 142, No. 2, August 1972. – and six BBC television series. Clemens von
maybe that is another motive for an explorer.
volved in Cannibal Holocaust, and I had rest- A find! A real find. After 32 years, up Wedemeyer interviewed him during his visits
Livingstone lost his faith in God more and more.
ed easy, and then when this movie premiered, popped the magazine which first led me into to London. Certainly not in my case. Maybe there is an emp-
its undeserved success woke us up from our the cannibal world. Excerpt :
tiness there, that’s why explorers have a lot of
lethargy. The emergence of this ‘young talent’ I would like to thank the photo journal- Benedict Allen – I think I have a clear idea of demons usually. Some of them were beaten by
provoked much debate and the mass media ist John Launois, who recently passed away. where I come from. In Britain and in Europe, their fathers when they were little, so they want
began to examine reasons behind the film’s I was so inspired by his photos and from them I mean British culture within Europe. And I to prove themselves to the world. Otherwise ex-
success. The unanimous response across the I constructed the whole path that lead to Last think that gives me the confidence to go. And plorers have struggled about their lives and they
globe from young people was that The Blair Cannibal World. His documentation was so if you loose that sense of where you come want to show or do something important. In my
Witch Project is just a copy of the movie Can- necessary for me to convince the actors to im- from, and who you are, then you go mad. case I don’t know what it is.
nibal Holocaust which was shot by someone itate some of the rituals and to persuade them Clemens von Wedemeyer – Does that include CvW – Somebody else has to find out.
named Deodato in late 1979. of the accuracy of my research and inspiration. religion? Do you believe? BA – Yes! – CvW – I mean that is what the an-
I was inundated with attention from jour- They were also invaluably useful in making BA – I don’t believe. And it‘s a problem. I’ve thropologist says: You need a view from out-
nalists, television crews from around the the costumes, the location-scouting and the heard people say that when you are going side to understand.
world, and young fans. From that point on I re- special effects. to die, everyone becomes religious. Every- BA – Yes, yes I need to get an anthropologist to
ceived many invitations to festivals and con- That edition of National Geographic was one believes in God, everybody prays, when study me! (laughs).
ferences, many questions were raised about at the end of the filming so worn out that
the animals there were killed; about the Indig- somehow it didn’t make it back to my house
enous people we employed, the way we creat- in Rome. Harvard students
ed the special effects, the truth about some of
the scenes and about the way of shooting. An-
I should have always told the journalists
who interviewed me about this precious docu-
and Amazon Indians
other point was that important directors such mentation that was so very helpful to me. But help identify the
as Quentin Tarantino, Joe Dante, Oliver Stone,
Eli Roth, Stuart Gordon and several other
who knows if anyone would have believed me.
I want to repay Clemens his kindness with a brain’s lie detector
signed copy of the film, although it doesn’t by Steve Connor, Science Editor
seem to me to be enough to balance the delight
I felt to have this magazine back. Thanks Cle- A ‘cheating centre’ in the brain has been 2009, 35 mm film transferred to HD video loop,
mens and thanks to John Launois. identified by scientists with the help of Har- 16:9 /1.85:1, 9 min.
vard students, a tribe of Amazonian Indians
Originally published in the magazine and a man who cannot handle money. The
Nocturno, Rome, 2009, after Clemens von findings suggest two million years of human against death
Wedemeyer’s visit to Rome. evolution have led to a specialised set of brain
cells devoted to the critically important social Shot in 35mm film in a Barbican flat in
task of detecting whether someone is a cheat London, an explorer tells his anthropolo-
or a liar. Discovering that the centre functions gist friend about an experience with a pre-
just as well in members of a remote Amazon viously uncontacted group in the jungle
tribe as in the minds of well-educated Harvard and a ritual he underwent which he claims
undergraduates demonstrated its basic role in granted him immortality. When his friend
human biology, the scientists said. fails to believe him, the explorer demon-
2008, HD video, 35 min. Two studies published yesterday in the Pro- strates his inability to die, and the scene
ceedings of the National Academy of Scienc- seamlessly loops back to its beginning.
How to Create an
es have shown that cheat-detection is a uni- Like the endlessly repeating film, the ex-
versal feature of human nature and that it is plorer is frozen in a loop outside real time
Unbelievable Fiction? performed quite separately from the other due to his immortal status.
tasks of the brain. Anthropologists and evo-
lutionary psychologists have long suspected Explorer: James Rochfort
Friend: Geoffrey Burton
that humans must be gifted in detecting cheats
because of the importance of reciprocal coop- Producers: Tracy Bass, Pinky Ghundale
eration in social behaviour. Production Manager: Mark Gibbons
INTERVIEW With RUGGERO DEODATO ‘For social exchange to evolve in a species, 1st Assistant Director: David Dickson
individuals must be able to detect cheaters’, Editor: Janina Herhoffer
Rome, Italy, October 2008 say the researchers, led by Leda Cosmides Director of Photography: Frank Meyer
Director of the 1979 cult film Cannibal and John Tooby, of the University of Califor- Focus Puller: Oliver Ledworth
Camera Assistant: Pearce Crowley
Holocaust and Last Cannibal World (1976), nia at Santa Barbara. The scientists studied a Grip: Alex Coverley
Ruggero Deodato talks with Clemens brain-damaged patient, known only by the ini- Steady Cam Operator: Barney Davies
von Wedemeyer about the making of his films Clemens von Wedemeyer meets Mister tials RM, who was quite normal in all respects Gaffer: Mathias Beier
and his experiences of working with actors Cannibal in his house in Rome. Deodato except that he was naive when it came to in- Sound Recordist: Nigel Batting
and extras in the jungles of Malaysia and displays the August 1972 issue of National teracting with other people and had difficul- Sound Editor: Thomas Wallmann
elsewhere. During the interview, von Wede- Geographic featuring the Tasaday story. ty with money. ‘RM’s differential impairment Foley artist: Foley Studio Berlin
Production Designer: Imogen Hammond
meyer shows Deodato the August 1972 indicates that being able to detect potential
Art Director: Emma Landolt
issue of National Geographic featuring the cheaters may be a separable component of the Art Department Assistant: Charlotte McEwan
Tasaday story. The director is surprised human mind’, say the researchers. They sug- Costume Designer, Stylist: Heather MacVean
and explains that he was inspired for the film gest the cheating centre is in the limbic sys- Hair/Make-up: Danielle Hooker
Last Cannibal World directly and openly tem of the brain. A separate series of tests of Special Effects: Artem
from pictures he saw in this magazine and Harvard undergraduates and the Shiwiar tribe Digital Effects: Andreas Tröger
turned it a cannibal story. found even people living the simplest exist-
English Translation: Barbara Mattei ence were just as good at detecting cheating.
Thanks to Elisabeth Giers and The Independent,
Gabriele Gaspari Tuesday, 13 Aug. 2002
 First Contact / January 2010


From Fiction to
Staging Truth

2009, 3 channel video installation, 4:3, 13 min. by Francesco Manacorda

The story of the Tasaday discovery repre-

reception sents the quintessential example of multiple
truths attached to a single event. Narrated by
Reception is a three-screen projection and different individuals, the contact, its televised
documents the celebrations at the Barbican version and the debate that it brought about
Conservatory following the theatrical are texts that need decoding and whose con-
premiere there of The Gentle Ones. ‘First tradictions put their genuineness in question.
contact’ takes place between members of What is verifiable in the representations we
the audience and the actors who had per- have been shown, and what is staged and part I have taken these photographs of the assistance, training in forest-friendly agri-
formed roles as cave-dwellers based on the of a performance? If it was real, was it ma- Tasaday over more than 30 years, starting culture, trade, and conduct a major effort to
Tasaday. Significantly, this interaction be- nipulated by the media reporting it or by the when they were living in caves in the South- secure titles to their land by government Cer-
tween observed and observing reflects the public’s projections? If it was a performance, ern Mindanao Philippine rainforest in 1971. tification of an Ancestral Domain, which will
point at which the ‘fourth wall’ is broken. what was the author’s intention in terms of As time passes, the photos show the Tasaday make the land fully their own. The final stages
public reception and social and political con- as their lifestyle changes and they acquire of the land acquisition process are continu-
Cast: Drew Calden, Karl Brown. Josh Hart, sequences? spouses from a tribe outside the forest, ing. Most of these efforts were supported with
Kae Yukawa, Kesty Morrison, Brett Curry, Lewis The news of an uncontacted tribe living sim- and then develop new  ways of living – ac- money and administrative help from Friends
Goody, Kingsley Ben-Adir, Elisa Lombardi,
ilarly to the way historians established that quire clothing, houses, gardening, farming, of the Tasaday, an orgnization based in
Natalie Codsi, Parinay Mehra, Tony Maskell,
Ryan Finch and Lois Graham humans were living in the Stone Age is what schools for their children, regular medical the U.S. John Nance
instantly fired the imagination of remote TV
Writers: Leis Bagdach, Clemens von Wedemeyer spectators from all over the world. It even ditional theatre the fourth wall is an imag-
Producers: Tracy Bass, Pinky Ghundale prompted a visit by Gina Lollobrigida in pos- inary barrier that the actors need in order to
Production Manager: Mark Gibbons sible attempt to re-enact the myth of the beau- pretend that their actions are real and the au-
1st Assistant Director: David Dickson
Director of Photography: Frank Meyer
ty and the beast. The possibility of time travel- dience is not there, in the Tasaday story there
Gaffer: Wayne King ling to what romantically could be conceived are as many invisible walls as versions of the
Sound Recordist: Nigel Batting as the golden age of genuine humanity, re- event. From one point of view, the wall seems
Sound Editor: Thomas Wallmann motely relegated to the past made suddenly necessary to the spectators who needed to be-
Production Designer: Imogen Hammond present and unadulterated by civilisation is, lieve that the action was real to satisfy their
Art Director: Emma Landolt even today, too tempting to resist. Even if the own desires, or it could have been staged by
Costume Designer: Heather MacVean original discovery was genuine, the projec- the discoverers (Elizalde) for political or self-
Hair/Make Up: Gina Anderson, Danielle Hooker
Stills Photographers: Joachim Mueller-Ruchholtz, tion of the spectators of such reported events aggrandising reasons, or else another fourth
Sheila Burnett created a demarcation of territory similar to wall could be the transparent lens of the cam- A family scene . Foyer of the Barbican Art
the one separating stage and stalls. If in tra- eras that framed and defined their subject. Centre, 2008. Photo: C. von Wedemeyer

hoped to avoid the charades by putting a 90- fact more sensational and impressive than the
degree mirror behind his camera lens, and mere romantic idea of so-called ‘primitives’

Belayem Tasaday
pretending to be testing the camera. The 12- remaining uncontacted into the 20th centu-
year-old boy Lobo, acrobatically swinging on ry. Charles Darwin, exploring the Tierra del
liana vines in front of the caves, provided an- Fuego from the Beagle in 1833, commented
other fascinating motif, but eventually inter- on the natives’ talented use of body language:
est in an all-natural lifestyle waned, and the ‘All savages appear to possess, to an uncom-
Tasaday were left in peace. mon degree, this power of mimicry’. This skill
It wasn’t until many years later that cam- seems much more developed in them than in
eras from the West returned their attention to the so-called civilized. While Darwin attrib-
these talented mime artists. In 1986, after 12 uted this to their more highly developed sen-
years of isolation in a protected reservation sory perception, one could rather cite the evo-
under the state of emergency declared during lutionary necessity of oral transmission, also
the Marcos’ dictatorship, the Tasaday were re- aided by gesticulation during narration.
visited by a Swiss journalist who claimed that During first contacts between ethnologists
they had only acted out their Stone Age exist- and isolated groups, it would seem necessary
by Clemens von Wedemeyer ence in the 1970s, and had been pawns of an to begin by using familiar gestures so as to de-
external power seeking attention and political velop a common sign language. Perhaps Dar-
When a group of 26 people in the rainfor- gain. This was confirmed by Lobo and other win should have included mime artists along
est of Mindanao, Philippines showed their Tasaday in interviews on camera. Indeed an with the painters and writers he took on his
dwelling caves to visitors from the West for interesting possibility: 26 local farmers strip journeys to aid in communication. In the case
the first time in the summer of 1971, it seemed themselves of their clothes and begin to live of Belayem, might the high art of pantomime
an immense coincidence that in the 20th cen- in caves, feed themselves from the forest and testify not to willful duplicity, but rather give
tury people could be living a Stone Age exist- let their hair grow long, and act as if they had proof of the authenticity of isolated ‘savages’
ence although a settlement was located only always done so. Their act had so impressed existing in the 20th century? When viewing
30 miles away. Reportedly it was the dense, the western media that deforestation had been the original footage of the Tasaday, I find it
mountainous jungle that had sheltered the The irrepressible Balayam imitating halted and a reservation erected for their pro- hard to believe that a group of peasants might
Tasaday people from ‘discovery’ for so long. a photographer. Picture: John Nance tection. A battle broke out among anthropolo- have convincingly imitated a Stone Age peo-
The Tasaday themselves exclaimed that the gists, and in an effort to end the controversy, ple. Would an actor, already playing a role in
forest was their world, and that they were fear- now presented a human zoo to the world. Be- the government of the Philippines issued an which he builds stone tools, weave in a second
ful of flat land ‘where the eye sees too far’. As layem mimicked the helicopter pilot, the jour- official statement confirming the authenticity theatrical layer of pantomime into the simple
NBC, National Geographic and NDR began nalist smoking a pipe, and – as pictured here – of the Tasaday. act of natural survival in the jungle? Perhaps.
with filming the following year, one member the photographers. On the older video footage The hoax theory has, however, prevailed: Either way Belayem was an accomplished ac-
of the group frequently stood out in front of he appears ready to clown around at any mo- today the majority of Wikipedians on the In- tor, even more so in the case of a fraudulent
the camera: Belayem, an unmarried man who ment. Soon Belayem was so adept at posing ternet believe that the Tasaday were some play!
was in his mid-twenties at the time. Due to his for the cameras, that he perhaps knew which kind of a staged act. This might be the lega-
talent for mimicry and ability to recount ex- gestures were most likely to please and which cy of Belayem: how logical that his ingenious A german version of this text was previously
periences with startlingly accurate gestures, actions might most impress his viewers. The games and poses in the perfect mise-en-scène published in Cargo Film Medien Kultur,
journalists from NBC dubbed him the ‘Mar- journalists observing also knew which takes of the jungle would be judged as ‘bigger than Issue 4, December 2009
cel Marceau of the Stone Age’. Soon he was to broadcast for an American audience in the life’ and therefore untrue. The implausibility
imitating the photographers and cameramen, era of the Vietnam War and the Hippie move- of such a lifestyle being reenacted so success-
who felt they had rediscovered paradise and ment. Anthropologist Irenäus Eibl-Eibesfeldt fully as to deceive experts and the media is in
 First Contact / January 2010

Joseph Mazilier as Jocko .

Two dancing figures depicted in their paral-
lel roles in the sentimental drama Jocko or the
Brazilian Ape. Their pas de deux is choreo-
graphed as a sequence of mirror images: the
child prays and the ape copies the attitudes.
[…] Through this symmetrical and sentimen-
tal plot, Jocko emphasises a fundamental
equivalence between ape and human; through
its balletic and pantomimic interludes, it high-
lights physical and behavioural similarity.
2009, HD video, 16:9, 28 min. Originally published in: Jane R. Goodall, Per-
formance and Evolution in the Age of Darwin:
Out of the Natural Order, London & New York,
the gentle ones Routledge, 2002: p. 50.

The Gentle Ones was initially inspired sequels and remakes that eventually lead to
by the Tasaday, who were secretly au- the 1993 parody. In the movie, Schwarzeneg-
diotaped in their caves. The transcrip- ger is Dutch, the commander of a special forc-
tions of the tapes, which were published es team whose mission is the recovery of a
in John Nance’s book, The Gentle Tasa- crashed helicopter in the region of Val Verde.
day: A Stone Age People in the Philippine He encounters a mysterious invisible alien,
Rain Forest (1975), give one the impres- whose sole purpose seems to be to collect hu-
sion that the recordings had been script- man heads. Schwarzenegger, as an actor of in-
ed and staged, whether or not one believes ternational fame, was recognized as the hero
in the authenticity of the original material. of a series of films that focused on the defeat
The probable isolation of the Tasaday can of a ‘monstrously different’ foe, a classical
be compared to the training technique of Cold War-age Hollywood theme. The ‘pred-
actors who detach themselves from the out- ator’ was played by former basketball player
side world for the duration of rehearsals. Kevin Peter Hall, whose sheer size brought
The intention was to show actors employ- him to interpret ‘monstrous’ physical roles in
ing just such a technique, in preparation
for a play that was inspired by the Tasaday, The Fourth Wall known world, who ate those missionaries try-
ing to export religious salvation, and a whole
movies by wearing a mask.
As foreshadowed in Last Action Hero’s
on stage. They could even live on the stage
– isolated yet fully immersed in the sub- and new way of life.
At the beginning of another era – after the
promotional image, on October 7th, 2003, ten
years after the film’s release, Schwarzenegger
ject matter – in an effort to make their play
more ‘real’. the Production crisis of the modern age – when the Western
world is on the verge of swallowing its last ho-
overcame the barrier between reality and fic-
tion: he exploited his movie fame to get elect-
Cast: Natasha Baria, Shalini Baria, Kingsley
Ben-Adir, Karl Brown, Drew Caiden, Natalie
of Otherness rizon, the nascent industry of mass entertain-
ment in Los Angeles, gives birth to the myth of
Hollywood actors. What ‘distinguished’ Hol-
ed as thirty-eighth Governor of California.
As the self-appointed Western hero in doz-
ens of films, the task could not have prov-
Codsi, Andrew Duffus, Iana Eastmond, Tyrone
Eastmond, Ryan Finch, Annabel Foley, Tess lywood stars from the rest of the world popula- en difficult for him. Two other actors from
Foley, Lewis Goody, Lois Graham, Rebecca tion was the unconditional belief that the char- Predator’s cast have been candidates in vari-
Hallam, Ellen Jennings, Elisa Lom bardi, acters and heroes they exemplified in movies, ous elections, but with mixed results. The road
Tony Maskell, Mirella McGee, Parinay Mehra, coincided with the real individuals who play travelled by Schwarzenegger had already
Kesty Morrison and Emily Page them. And so a mythic aura began to devel- been opened by another Hollywood charac-
op around the profession of acting, which had ter: Ronald Reagan, the American president
Writer: Leis Bagdach
Editor: Janina Herhoffer
by Paolo Caffoni previously been considered quite ordinary. of the Cold War era, had previously been
Producers: Tracy Bass, Pinky Ghundale Hollywood stars gave rise to a new genealogy both Governor of California and a Hollywood
Production Manager: Mark Gibbons At the beginning of the Modern era there of myths built on the overlapping of real life actor, although not with the same success.
1st Assistant Director: David Dickson was a journey. During the 15th century Euro- and entertainment, and by consecrating them
Director of Photography: Frank Meyer pean culture, then ‘Western’ culture, discov- the world of film voraciously irrupted within
Focus Puller: Oliver Ledworth ered its own identity – albeit partially uni- the boundaries of real life.
Grip: Alex Coverley
fied – through the attainment of a symbolic The function of myth, in its entertain-
Sound Recordist: Nigel Batting
Boom Operator: Brendan Crehan elsewhere. Across the ocean the West was no ment-related aspects, allows the viewer sit-
Sound Editor: Thomas Wallmann longer the all-encompassing representation ting in a dark room to cross that psychological
Production Designer: Imogen Hammond of a reality, but the partialization of a partic- threshold of disbelief after which the repre-
Art Director: Emma Landolt ular historical moment, of a specific reality sentation becomes identical to the object pre-
Art Department Assistant: Charlotte McEwan and cultural construction. Contact with in- sented. That mythical boundary, described by
Costume Designer: Heather MacVean digenous peoples from different genealogies, Cartesian materialism as a physical threshold
Costume Assistants: Katie Hill,
Emma Heath, Holly Freeman
in a part of the world until then unknown, al- in one’s brain where the order of presentation
Hair/Make Up: Gina Anderson, Danielle Hooker lowed for the acknowledgment by Europe- corresponds to the order of perception, now
an explorers of a certain differential identity, appears to be nothing more than a pricey cul- FROM fiction to reality : President
through the discovery of a wholly other iden- tural sophistication. Such cultural sophisti- Reagan having a photo taken with Arnold

Set-Specificity tity. A journey that began as an exploration of

the eastern borders of the known world thus
became the much deeper discovery of com-
cation – we might call it ‘fourth wall’ – is the
tool that grants the entertainment industry its
key role in the future developments of Amer-
Schwarzenegger at the Republican National
Convention in Dallas, Texas, 1984.
mon cultural roots. ican society and, by extension, the rest of the graphs/vips.html. Courtesy Ronald Reagan Library.
After this first contact with difference, world.
and seeing its mirror image in it, the Western In the poster for Last Action Hero, Arnold The journey undertaken by a generation
by Francesco Manacorda world acquired strength, invigorating its roots Schwarzenegger jumps towards the audience of movie characters into a lost forest, where
and beliefs to the point of exorcising the end and bursts with a kick out of the screen. The something completely ‘other’ lies awaiting, is
As the starting point for research or as a that would naturally come after the course of movie is a parody of the action genre, popular the continual re-enactment of the voyage of
situation to respond to, Clemens von Wede- events. After exorcising death, the West con- since the early eighties. It tells the story of Jack the first explorers to the pristine land, beyond
meyer used the Barbican Estate as a film lo- tinued to dramatically expand over several Slater/Schwarzenegger – the main character an imaginary horizon, in an endless drift from
cation to which a narrative was matched and centuries reaching a global dimension, until in a string of genre movies – and of his magi- the imaginary to the real.
adapted. The theatre was used as a cave, sim- the era of globalization, in which it ultimate- cal passage from the world of fiction to reali- ‘The Fourth Wall’ is not the classical piece
ilar to that in which the Tasaday were living, ly swallowed its own horizon. What we now ty. That occurs through an encounter between of architecture, it is the attempt to re-design
which actors inhabited pretending not to be need to question is how its institution has sur- character Slater and actor Schwarzenegger something different, an otherness. It is the de-
on stage; the conservatory featuring a cement vived the ultimate limit to this expansion, how at the premier of ‘their’ new film. Last Ac- sire to connect a physiological border with a
clad tropical forest was used to stage a meet- – once free of horizons – the West has man- tion Hero is director John McTiernan’s sec- system of interests, like the inner surface of a
ing between actors and audience to allude to aged to produce an otherness to reflect its mir- ond consecutive flop: the year before, in 1992, triangle. It is a cultural system able to preserve
meetings between explorers and undiscov- ror image in, and hence legitimate itself. McTiernan’s Medicine Man had told the sto- the actual order of things. The Western world,
ered groups; the walkways served as an urban The use of myth in Western culture has ry of a scientist (Sean Connery) researching in search of its long-lost otherness, wears a
jungle set for a screen test of an actor clear- always served to justify a rationally inexpli- a cure for cancer in the Brazilian rain forest, mask and plays a different role on stage. In an
ly dressed up as an untamed ‘savage’; a flat cable dimension. Ancient Greece resorted to and living in close contact with a local popu- endless alternation of roles, it recreates that
in the Cromwell tower was used as the house myth to explain the existence of gods without lation threatened by the invasion of bulldoz- horizon where it can once again find its own
of an explorer decorated with trophies of real giving material evidence, the myth of Aryan ers of their pristine natural habitat. The movie reflection and survive.
and intellectual travels. The whole Barbican racial superiority served to justify a scientifi- poster reads: ‘He turned his back on civili-
utopian project was used as a framework to cally unsupported biological claim. In times zation. Only to discover he had the power to Paolo Caffoni is editor of Archive books,
ask questions relating to the consequences of of famine, to explain why food such as hu- save it’. The same rain forest was also the set Berlin.
first contacts in anthropology and to the fabri- man flesh was morally objectionable, Catho- of McTiernan’s first hit: his 1987 blockbust-
cation of truth in theatre, television, explora- lic anthropology resorted to the myth of canni- er Predator had grossed sixty million dollars
tions and scientific research. bal populations living at the boundaries of the in the United States alone, spurring a series of
 First Contact / January 2010

forest exhibition

utopic romantic
no no no

decisive romantic utopic decisive

Uncontacted Raw Material

mimetic playful mimetic playful

yes yes yes

Hybridisation don’t know

Mixed Footage

no no no

utopic decisive utopic decisive

Isolation Fiction / Theatre

playful mimetic
yes yes yes

François Clouet, Porträt
der Elisabeth von Österreich, 1571 .
Oil on wood, 36 × 26 cm. Musée du Louvre,
Paris.—This Portrait inspired Lévi-Strauss’
no theory of the ‘modèle réduit’, or works of art
REFUSAL as ‘miniature models’ and other theories of
artworks in his book The Savage Mind.

decisive utopic



Colophon The project ‘The Fourth Wall’was commissioned by For the project we would like to thank: Film Material No. 4 – First Contact (The Fourth Wall).
Barbican Art Gallery and first exhibited from May 28th to August 30th, Sarah Aguilar; Craig Baldwin, ATA San Francisco; Yvonne Brandl; Edited by Paolo Caffoni & Clemens von Wedemeyer.
2009 at The Curve, Barbican Art Centre, London.  Kate Bush; Köken Ergun; Anselm Franke; Christian Burgess and Designed by Till Gathmann Translated by: Anamarie Michnevich,
Additional funding was provided by Medienboard Berlin-Branden- Lisa Evans at the Guildhall School of Music and Drama; Vincenzo Latronico. Copy edited by: Michèle Faguet.
burg, IFA, and the British Arts Council. Curated by Francesco Daniel McClean; Nanna Heidenreich; Alexander Koch; Teresa Thanks to Chiara Figone, Carsten Humme. 
Manacorda. Assistant Curator: Corinna Gardner; Film Producers: Hoefert de Turegano; Simon Lamuniere; Anne M. Lovell; Rosalind Photo credits as mentioned; please contact us, if we could not reach
Tracy Bass, Pinky Ghundale Nashashibi; Sam Clark, Kodak; Len Thornton, Soho Film Lab; the author. Film Material No. 4 / The Fourth Wall is produced by
Production Company: Intensive Care Productions Ltd, Nikolaus Oberhuber; Susanne Pfeffer; Mark Sladen and Garrick KOCH OBERHUBER WOLFF, Berlin and published by Spector
David Dickson Video installation equipment: Eidotech, Berlin Jones; Panalux London; Toni Racklin, Barbican Theatre; Books, Leipzig & Archive Books, Berlin / Turin on occasion of
Joachim Reck; Stagecoach Chorleywood; Maya Schweizer; the exhibition ‘The Fourth Wall’ at KOCH OBERHUBER WOLFF
Manuel Segade; Holm Taddiken; Take Two; Arnold von Wedemeyer; in Berlin from Jan. 22 to Mar.10th 2010.
UT Architects: Tim Bauerfeind & Henning von Wedemeyer; Email:,, 
Andrew Wilson; Jocelyn Wolff.

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