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KERAMOS CERAMICS: A CULTURAL APPROACH Proceedings of the First International Conference at Ege University May

KERAMOS

CERAMICS: A CULTURAL APPROACH

Proceedings of the First International Conference at Ege University

May 9-13, 2011 İzmir

Edited by

R. Gül Gürtekin-Demir, Hüseyin Cevizoğlu, Yasemin Polat and Gürcan Polat

with the collaboration of Janine Elaine Su

Cevizoğlu, Yasemin Polat and Gürcan Polat with the collaboration of Janine Elaine Su BİLGİN KÜLTÜR SANAT

BİLGİN

KÜLTÜR SANAT YAYINLARI

KERAMOS CERAMICS: A CULTURAL APPROACH Proceedings of the First International Conference at Ege University May

KERAMOS

CERAMICS: A CULTURAL APPROACH

Proceedings of the First International Conference at Ege University

May 9-13, 2011 İzmir

Edited by

R. Gül Gürtekin-Demir, Hüseyin Cevizoğlu, Yasemin Polat and Gürcan Polat

with the collaboration of Janine Elaine Su

Polat and Gürcan Polat with the collaboration of Janine Elaine Su Muharrem Kayhan BİLGİN KÜLTÜR SANAT

Muharrem Kayhan

Polat and Gürcan Polat with the collaboration of Janine Elaine Su Muharrem Kayhan BİLGİN KÜLTÜR SANAT

BİLGİN

KÜLTÜR SANAT YAYINLARI

KERAMOS CERAMICS: A CULTURAL APPROACH

Edited by R. Gül Gürtekin-Demir, Hüseyin Cevizoğlu, Yasemin Polat and Gürcan Polat

ISBN: 978-605-85730-4-8

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be used or reproduced in any manner without written permission from the publisher except in the context of reviews.

Book Design by Mustafa Horuş

Edition 2015

Bilgin Kültür Sanat Yayınları Satış/Proje: Selanik 2 cad no: 68/10 Kızılay-Ankara Telefon: 0(312) 419 85 67 Web: www.bilginkultursanat.com e-mail: bilgin@bilginkitabevi.com

FOREWORD / VORWORT

Im Rahmen der Lehre und Forschung an der Edebiyat Fakültesi der Ege Üniversitesi belegt die antike Keramikforschung seit Jahrzehnten einen hervorragenden Platz. Mit Güven und Tomris Bakir sowie deren Kollegen und Schülern entstand ein Studienzentrum zur Erforschung antiker Keramik mit sichtbarer Breitenwirkung. Daraus erfolgte nicht zuletzt die Idee, 2011 in İzmir einen Kongress zu organisieren, der vornehmlich der Keramikforschung Kleinasiens und dessen strukturellem Umfeld gewidmet sein sollte: „Keramos. Ceramics: A Cultural Approach“. Ein guter Teil der Beiträge, die im Rahmen dieses Symposiums vorgetragen wurden, findet nun einen würdigen Platz in dieser Publikation.

Wenn auch bereits zahlreiche Veröffentlichungen zur Keramik antiker Städte der westlichen Kleinasiatischen Küste von Troja bis zur Halikarnass-Halbinsel vorliegen, bot diese Veranstaltung die Chance, verschiedene Aspekte der Kera- mik-Forschung in Kleinasien punktuell auf den neuesten Stand zu bringen, und bisher unbekanntes Material aus den in den letzten Jahren an vielen neuen Orten der Türkei durchgeführten Ausgrabungen kennen zu lernen. So konnten lokale Eigenheiten aus verschiedenen Problemperspektiven erörtert werden, ob von kleinasiatischen Fundplätzen oder von vorgelagerten Inseln (Lemnos).

In dieser Veröffentlichung werden spät-und subgeometrisches Gefäße aus karischem Gebiet (Mengefe-Region/Milas) vorgelegt, Herstellungszentren von archaischem Luxusgeschirr (insbesondere Karien/ Bozburun Halbinsel)) nachge- gangen, Essgewohnheiten und Ernährung anhand von lokalem Tafel-und Kochgeschirr behandelt (Gordion), unter- schiedliche Fundkeramik aus neuen Grabungsplätzen Westkleinasiens (Panayırdağ/Ephesos) präsentiert. In bedeuten- den ionischen Zentren werden ungewöhnliche Bestattungskonzepte beobachtet, und zur Schärfung zeitlicher Abfolgen, Fundvergesellschaftungen bearbeitet (Klazomenai). Archaische Keramiktraditionen weniger bekannter, inländischer Fundorte (z.B. Tabae) werden auf die lokale Bevölkerungsstruktur zurückgeführt, während spätklassische bis frühhel- lenistische, lokale Produktionen und deren attische Beeinflussung behandelt werden (Iasos, Priene).

Bei archaischer und hellenistischer Keramik aus Kalabrien und Sizilien werden strukturelle Fragen aufgeworfen, die für das Verständnis kleinasiatischer Waren hilfreich sein dürften. So ist die Auswertung kultureller Interaktionsele- mente von Bedeutung: auf welcher Weise sich z.B. Bildformen der Keramik der frühen griechischen Kolonisten auf die Produktionen der inländisch-sikulischen Werkstätten auswirkten. Ferner ergeben die Vergleiche, die bei der frühen „grauen Keramik“ über unteritalisch-sizilische Fundkomplexe zu ziehen sind, dass enge Beziehungen, via Euböa, zu Kleinasien bestanden. Für die in mittelhellenistischer Epoche weit exportierte sog. Magenta Ware wird Syrakus als eines der Produktionszentren vermutet, während für die Erforschung von Ernährung und Essgewohnheiten in Campa- nien des 3.-5. Jh. n.Chr., Form-Typologie, Waren-Verteilung, technische Eigenheiten und Fundvergesellschaftungen als stellvertretende Indizien zur Bewertung hinzugezogen werden.

Was die Spätantike betrifft, so wird die Herkunftsproblematik der in kilikischen Fundplätzen stark vertretenen spätrö- mischen C-Ware (sog. phokäische Ware) ebenso behandelt wie die Bandbreite der spätantiken Keramik von Kyme und ihre Aussage für Handel und Rang.

Die Beitragsvielfalt schließt mit Untersuchungen zur attischen Keramik und deren Exporten ab. Es sei hierbei auf einen Beitrag zu einem überlegenswerten ikonographischen Wandel von der spätprotoattischen zur früharchaischen, atti- schen Keramik und deren sozio-historischen Bedeutung hingewiesen, ferner auf die Töpfer-und Malerhände sowie die Organisation in der Werkstatt des Jenaer Malers und schließlich auf eine Neubetrachtung der rotfigurigen Keramik aus Fundplätzen des Bosporanischen Reichs.

Obgleich ein Teil der beim Kongress gehaltenen Vorträge für die Publikation nicht berücksichtigt werden konnten, bietet die vorliegende Veröffentlichung eine bunte Palette wichtiger Beiträge, für deren umsichtige Vorlage den Heraus- gebern bestens gedankt sei.

Andreas E. Furtwängler

TABULA GRATULATORIA

• Rosa Maria Albanese

• Rosina Leone

• Paul Arthur

• Kathleen Lynch

• Carolyn Aslan

• Sarrah Morris

• Andrea M. Berlin

• Yasemin Polat

• Iulian Bîrzescu

• Marcus Rautman

• Beate Boehlendorf-Arslan

• G. Kenneth Sams

• Andreas E. Furtwängler

• Gerald Schaus

• John H. Oakley

• Udo Schlotzhauer

• Sarah Japp

• Grazia Semeraro

• Ivonne Kaiser

• Evangelia Simantoni-Bournia

• Michael Kerschner

• Kaan Şenol

• Lori Khatchadourian

• Alexandra Villing

Contents

 

GİRİŞ

7

INTRODUCTION

8

APPROACHING EARLY ARCHAIC ATTICA:

A

CONTEXTUAL STUDY OF ITS EARLY BLACK-FIGURE POTTERY PRODUCTION

11

Alexandra Alexandridou

FOURTH-CENTURY BC BLACK AND RED GLOSS POTTERY FROM IASOS:

A

TECHNOLOGICAL APPROACH

25

Silvia Amicone

COOKING AND DINING IN LATE PHRYGIAN GORDION Galya D. Bacheva

40

“Sikelo-geometric” pottery between indigenous tradition and Greek influences Marco Camera

50

KLAZOMENIAN SARCOPHAGUS OR BATHTUB? THE USE OF BATHTUBS IN BURIAL CONTEXTS Hüseyin Cevizoğlu

61

LATE ROMAN C WARE/PHOCAEAN RED SLIP POTTERY FROM THE CILICIA SURVEY PROJECT (MISIS), TURKEY Jane E. Francis

73

GREY WARE IN SICILY, BETWEEN EAST AND WEST Massimo Frasca

83

ROMAN AND BYZANTINE POTTERY FROM THE NORTH-EAST AREA AGORA AT KYME (ALİAĞA, TURKEY). A QUANTITATIVE APPROACH Vincenzo Di Giovanni

92

MAGENTA WARE FROM SICILIAN FUNERARY CONTEXTS Alessandra Granata

104

BETWEEN LYDIA AND CARIA: IRON AGE POTTERY FROM KALE-I TAVAS, ANCIENT TABAE R. Gül Gürtekin-Demir, Yasemin Polat

115

Between adoption and persistence: Two regional types of pottery from late classical and early Hellenistic Priene Lars Heinze

137

G

2-3 WARE COSMETIC VASES RECONSIDERED: BETWEEN MYCENAEAN

AND ARCHAIC GREECE IN THE NECROPOLIS OF HEPHAISTIA ON LEMNOS Petya Ilieva

146

POTTERY WORKSHOP ORGANIZATION AND TRANSFORMATION AT THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE OF TIMPONE DELLA MOTTA BETWEEN 800 AND 650 BC:

A

CASE STUDY FROM NORTHERN CALABRIA, SOUTHERN ITALY

158

Jan Kindberg Jacobsen, Carmelo Colelli, Gloria Mittica, Søren Handberg

THE JENA DEPOSIT UNDER GLASS: INVESTIGATING THE PRODUCTION OF A CERAMIC WORKSHOP IN LATE CLASSICAL ATHENS Kleopatra Kathariou

166

SOME REMARKS ON NEWLY DISCOVERED GRAVES AT KLAZOMENAI Seval Konak Tarakçı

173

Archaic Pottery from PanayIrdağ, Ephesos: new evidence and first results Alexandra Ch. J. von Miller

184

ARCHAIC POTTERY OF COASTAL CARIA:

FINDS FROM A CREMATION BURIAL AT BYBASSOS Bekir Özer

197

A Cultural approach to the study of Late Athenian red-figure pottery from the Bosporan kingdom: advantages and disadvantages Anna Petrakova

208

Pottery as A proxy indicator for diet change in Late Antique Campania Girolamo F. De Simone, Caterina Serena Martucci, Gaetana Boemio and Serena D’Italia

218

A

GROUP OF BAND DECORATED CERAMICS FROM THE MENGEFE DISTRICT

IN THE CARIA REGION Ahmet Adil Tırpan, Zafer Korkmaz, Makbule Ekici

229

LATE ROMAN CERAMICS OF THE DELİ HALİL SETTLEMENT IN THE EAST CILICIA PLAIN Füsun TÜLEK

238

EAST GREEK KOTYLAI FROM KLAROS Onur Zunal

243

 

Figures

255

GİRİŞ

Ege Üniversitesi Arkeoloji Bölümü, kurucu öğretim üyeleri ve onların yetiştirdiği akademisyenlerin, diğer alanlardaki çalışmalarının yanı sıra seramik konusunda yürüttüğü araştırmalarıyla da tanınmaktadır. Seramik konusunda üstle- nilen bu misyonu, geleneğe dönüşmesini ümit ettiğimiz bir sempozyum ile gelecek nesillere aktarmayı hedefledik. Sem-

pozyumun ismi önemliydi ve amaca uygun bir başlık olmalıydı. Çok düşündük

gelen ve aynı zamanda “çömlekçilik sanatının kurucusunun ismi olan “KERAMOS”, bu görevi üstlendi. 9-13 Mayıs 2011 tarihleri arasında Ege Üniversitesi’nde gerçekleşen ilk sempozyuma, “KERAMOS Seramik: Kültürel Yaklaşım” adı altında genel içerikli bir başlık koyarak, hem sempozyumun geniş bir bilim adamı kitlesine ulaşmasının, hem de beş gün boyunca farklı konuların tartışılmasının önünü açtık. Sempozyumda Türkiye, İngiltere, İtalya, Romanya, Alman- ya, Avusturya, Avusturalya, Amerika, Kanada, Yunanistan, Rusya, Bulgaristan, Hollanda, Fransa ve Ukrayna gibi dünyanın dört bir yanından gelen farklı uluslara mensup bilim insanları tarafından sunulan 43 sözlü, 15 poster bildiri, sempozyumun amacına ulaştığının en önemli göstergesi olmuştur.

Sempozyumda yer alan antik dünyanın çok kültürlü yapısının incelendiği sunumlar ve tartışmalar, bu tip uluslararası sempozyumların bilim dünyası için ne derece önemli ve gereksinim olduğunu bir kez daha ortaya koymuştur. Konunun duayenleri ile genç bilim insanlarının bir araya getirilerek deneyimlerin, yeni araştırmaların ve yeni görüşlerin payla- şılmasına olanak tanıyan “KERAMOS”, seramik konusunda çalışan ve çalışacak olan yeni neslin ufkunu genişletmeyi görev edinmiştir. Özellikle benzer konularda çalışan, her birisi olaya farklı yaklaşım ve bakış açısı kazandıran bilim insanlarının aynı çatı altında bulunmaları, konunun derinlemesine tartışılmasını ve yeni görüşlerin ortaya çıkmasını beraberinde getirmiş ve getirecektir.

Sempozyuma gösterilen ilgi ve olumlu geri dönüşler, arkeoloji dünyasındaki bu gereksinime bir kez daha tanıklık etmiş ve “KERAMOS” sempozyumunun sürekliliğini kaçınılmaz hale getirmiştir. Bu kapsamda 4 yılda bir İzmir Ege Üni- versitesi ev sahipliğinde yapılması planlanan “KERAMOS” sempozyumunun, seramik konusunda daha özel konuları başlık olarak belirleyerek, arkeoloji dünyasına daha fazla katkı yaparak sürdürülmesi amaçlamaktadır.

Sonunda “çömlekçi kili” anlamına

R. Gül Gürtekin-Demir

Gürcan Polat

Yasemin Polat

Hüseyin Cevizoğlu

INTRODUCTION

The Department of Archaeology at Ege University is renowned for its research in various areas, especially for its expertise in ceramic studies. Originally these studies were carried out by the founders of the department and are presently continued by their students, who are now members of the academic staff. We therefore decided to support this tradition of encouraging the next generation of research with the organization of an international conference. The conference name was important and needed to serve our intentions. We thought carefully about this for a period of time … Finally, the title “KERAMOS,” which was a constant, was designated to fulfill our mission, and will be retained for future conferences. The Greek word “Keramos” is derived from its meaning, “potter’s clay,” and was also the name of the founder of ceramic art. The international conference “KERAMOS. Ceramics: A Cultural Approach,” held between May 9–13, 2011 at Ege University, gathered scholars studying ceramics either within the field of Classical Archaeology or in related research areas, and gave them the opportunity to share ideas in a variety of arenas. Participating scholars represented various countries, including Australia, Austria, Bulgaria, Canada, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Romania, Russia, Turkey, Ukraine, the United Kingdom and the United States. 43 oral and 15 poster presentations were featured. The discussions and contributions during the conference, which analyzed the multicultural structure of the ancient world, have once again proven how essential this type of international conference is for the scientific world. “KERAMOS” hopes to help extend the horizons of young scholars studying or planning to study ancient ceramics by bringing them together with established scholars to share experiences, recent research and new perspectives.

Due to the great interest in, positive feedback on and professional dialogue resulting from the first Keramos Conference, we have all realized how imperative such institutionalized opportunities are to the world of archaeology. Therefore, we aim to promote this type of institution with a quadrennial Keramos Conference, to be housed at Ege University under diverse themes and topics, in order to promote ceramic studies.

R. Gül Gürtekin-Demir Gürcan Polat Yasemin Polat Hüseyin Cevizoğlu

Acknowledgements

It would hardly have been possible to realise the conference and the production of the present proceedings without the support, cooperation and help of many individuals, colleagues and institutions. During the preparations of this organisation and this book, we have very much enjoyed working with them, and we would like to take opportunity to thank them for their efforts and contributions. Andreas Furtwängler, Mehmet Gökdemir, Muharrem Kayhan, Ayşegül Selçuki, Özcan Atalay, Nuran Şahin, Recep Meriç, Akın Ersoy, Şakir Çakmak, Kamil Okyay Sındır, Archaeological Museum of İzmir, Ümit Yolcu, Stefan Schneider, Nesrin Çetiner, Onur Kınalıbaş and “Güral Porselen”, Umut Devrim Eryarar, Mehmet Soydan, Yavuz Tatış, Kahraman Yağız, Seçil Çokoğullu, Ümit Güngör, Ergün Karaca, Onur Zunal, Ayşe Çelebi, Deniz Arkan, Rabia Aktaş Çıldır, Evren Açar, Ece Sezgin, Gencay Öztürk, Beste Tomay, Hamde Cesur, Melis Çobanoğlu, Uğur Candar, Ece Şentürk, Ertuğrul Kıraç, Sinem Çakır, Hazal Falay, Özer Erdin, Sena Yılmaz, Dilan Koşarsoy, Deniz Irmak, Nimet Kaya, Buse Acar, Nihan Aydoğmuş and the staff members of Faculty of Letters of Ege University are thanked for much-valued assistance, support and their kind efforts during the organisation of the conference. We thank the members of the scientific committee and reviewers for their scholarly expertise and professional advice, which helped us to improve the content of the present volume.

İzmir / Smyrna Agora / May 13, 2011

İzmir / Smyrna Agora / May 13, 2011

KERAMOS

CERAMICS: A CULTURAL APPROACH

BETWEEN LYDIA AND CARIA: IRON AGE POTTERY FROM KALE-I TAVAS, ANCIENT TABAE

R. Gül Gürtekin-Demir, Yasemin Polat

Ege Üniversitesi, Edebiyat Fakültesi Arkeoloji Bölümü, Bornova TR 35100, İzmir, TURKEY gul.demir@ege.edu.tr yasemin.polat@ege.edu.tr

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to present new evidence concerning the Iron Age pottery of the region located immediately southeast Lydia and northeast Caria. The scarce information obtained through survey research on the Iron Age material of this region provides limited information, especially regarding pre-Hellenistic pottery. As stated in several ancient literary sources, this region seems to have been co-inhabited by people of different cultures, making it difficult to construct definitive boundaries for Lydia, Caria, and perhaps Phrygia. The excavations carried out since 2008 at Kale-i Tavas (ancient Tabae) have exposed Iron Age pottery that supports the notion of cultural incorporation. The earliest pottery dates to the Late Bronze Age and shows affinities with that from Beycesultan. The bulk of the pottery belongs to the Anatolian Iron Age koine of the eighth through sixth centuries BC, which includes, in abundance, black-on-red and bichrome wares. The early black-on-red and bichrome wares have strong relations with pottery discovered at Sardis. This may be the result of Lydian cultural influence at Tabae or merely of a regional convention that influenced both the Lydian heartland and northeastern Caria. Other pottery groups include limited imported pottery, such as Late Geometric Greek pottery, as well as sixth-century-BC Corinthian pottery. Hellenistic pottery is rare, while Roman pottery is represented in Red Slip Ware, Eastern Sigillata A and B, and some local variants.

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Introduction

Kale-i Tavas, ancient Tabae, lies over a plain at the foot of Mount Salbakos (located in the modern town of Kale in Denizli province, Turkey), southeast of Aphrodisias in Caria. Livy describes it as bordering Psidia. 1 Strabo places the city on the frontiers of Phrygia. 2 This part of Caria—along with the southeastern border zones of Lydia, as also stated in several ancient sources—seems to have been co- inhabited by people of various cultures who may have been related to Carians, Lydians and Phrygians.

The excavations carried out since 2007 at Tabae have exposed Iron Age pottery that supports the notion of cultural incorporation. The excavations, directed by B. Ersoy, mainly focus on exposing the remains of the local Tavas and Menteshe Emirates, and of the Ottoman Empire. The excavations in 2007 and 2008 revealed a cistern from Late Antiquity that was originally built below ground level. 3 This square cistern, composed of two rectangular units, each bearing a barrel-vaulted ceiling, is separated by four piers. The cistern was already illegally dug out by looters who entered through the southeastern section, causing it to gradually fill with earth; therefore no stratum can be definitively associated with the finds. The remains discovered within the mixture of earth include pottery dating from the Late Bronze Age to the 19th century AD, as well as several coins, metal artifacts and fragments of marble statuettes.

This paper focuses on the Iron Age pottery discovered at the 2008 excavations of this cistern, as well as on relevant pottery discovered in another unstratified fill outside the Roman citadel. 4 The earliest pottery from these fills dates to the Late Bronze Age and shows affinities with that from Beycesultan. 5 The bulk belongs to the Anatolian Iron Age koine of the eighth through the sixth centuries BC, which

is abundant in black-on-red and bichrome wares. The excavations also revealed East Greek pottery of

the Late Geometric and Archaic periods. The pottery imported from the Greek mainland included Corinthian fragments possibly of the Protocorinthian or Transitional periods. There is no evidence of pottery dating to between the fifth and fourth centuries BC. The Hellenistic pottery here may be dated to between the third and first centuries. The Roman Red Slip Ware from the 2008 excavations is dated to between the first and fifth centuries AD.

Between Caria and Lydia: Dynastic, Cultic and Cultural Connections

The clearest information concerning the territorial division between Lydia and Caria comes from Herodotus, who states that an inscribed pillar set up by Croesus in Kydrara marked the boundaries between Phrygia and Lydia; this also must have declared a northern border for Caria. 6 Ancient literary sources, including Herodotus, Strabo and Xenophon, all describe the Maeander river as forming

a natural division between Caria to the south and Lydia to the north; Strabo further mentions that Lydians and Carians dwelled together on the plain of the Maeander. 7

1 Livy 38, 13.

2 Strabo 12.7. 2; 12.8.13.

3 B. Ersoy 2009, 43; B. Ersoy 2010, 301–302.

4 B. Ersoy 2010, 302–303.

5 Th e dating of the Late Bronze Age pottery was undertaken by F. Konakçı and E. Konakçı.

6 Herodotus 7.30.

7 Strabon 13.4.12, 13.4.17, 14.1.42, 14.2.1.

116

Between Lydia and Caria: Iron Age Pottery from Kale-i Tavas, Ancient Tabae

According to Plutarch the accession of Gyges to the Lydian throne, and thus the dynastic shift from the Heraklids to the Mermnads, was supported by Arselis, who was from Mylasa in Caria. Having killed Kandaules, the last Heraklid King, Arselis took the sacred double axe of the Lydian Kingdom. He later brought it to Caria and attached it to the statue of Zeus of Labraunda. 8 Herodotus and Strabo note that Lydians and Mysians were also admitted to the sanctuary of Carian Zeus. 9 The existence of cultic interrelations may further be supported by epigraphic research carried out by Lou Bengisu, who mentions an ancient Lydian mount called Karios and its temple (named for the son of Carian Zeus and the nymph Torrhebia) in the region of modern Gölcük, which includes ancient Torrhebia. 10

The recovery of Carian graffiti at Sardis may be indicative of Carians or Carian speakers in the Lydian capital, as suggested by Pedley. 11 Some of the Carian graffiti were discovered at “Puppy Burials”, including a standard assemblage of jug, oinochoe, skyphos, dish, and iron knife finds, as well as an immature canid skeleton 12 This presence of this graffiti, supported by ancient literary evidence of Caria- Lydia relations, led Pedley to suggest that the “Puppy burials” may have been a Carian ritual practice at Sardis. 13 However, Greenewalt has suggested that this was not a peculiarly Carian phenomenon, but perhaps “part of a common religious inheritance.” 14 Carian letters are also identified on some stone blocks, as mason’s marks belonging to the Lydian Archaic city wall at Sardis. 15

Intermarriages between Lydians and Carians are also observed: Alyattes took a Carian wife, from whom Croesus was born. Alyattes later campaigned against Caria while Croesus was a governor at Adramytteion. 16 Croesus also joined this campaign.

Another sign of Lydian control over Caria during the first half of the seventh century is when Gyges sent ancillary forces including Carians and Ionians to Egypt to support Psammetichus I in ca. 660 BC. This control seems to have continued until the end of the Lydian Kingdom in the mid-sixth century BC when the Persians sacked Sardis.

As for Lydian cultural testimony on Carian lands, Ratté’s research on Aphrodisias and on the upper Morsynus river valley, both in northeastern Caria, contributes a great deal to our understanding of aspects of Lydian cultural influence on this region of Caria. 17 Besides the Lydian type of pottery 18 and a Lydian inscription discovered at Aphrodisias 19 there seems to be considerable archaeological evidence suggesting the influence of Lydian funerary customs. In addition to the lion statues and an anthemion

8 Plutarch, Questiones Graecae 45 (Plutarch also claims the double axe was taken from the Amazon queen Hippolyte by Heracles and given to the Lydian queen Omphale).

9 Herodotus 1.171, Strabo 14.2.23.

10 Lou Bengisu 1996, 3.

11 Pedley 1974, 97 with references to Carian graffiti and inscriptions at Sardis in notes 17–18.

12 Greenewalt 1978.

13 Pedley 1974, 97–99.

14 Greenewalt 1978, 42, note 9.

15 Ratté 2009, 138, notes 13–14.

16 Nicolaus of Damascus, FGrHist 90F65.

17 Ratté 2009.

18 Mierse 1986, 413–424.

19 Carruba 1970, 195.

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discovered at Aphrodisias, 20 which may have served as grave markers as in Lydia, supplementary funerary evidence including phallus markers and tumulus burials with limestone chamber tombs were discovered in the Morsynus river valley, outside the city walls of Aphrodisias. 21

Survey research on the Iron Age pottery of this region has provided limited insight, especially with

respect to pre-Hellenistic pottery. Surveys carried out in this part of the region by Mellaart and French

in the early 1950s, and in southwestern Anatolia by Birmingham in 1963, revealed Iron Age pottery

similar to that attested at Tabae. Parallel examples are attested in this region at Medet Höyük, Sarayköy, Seller, Mancarlı, Yassıhöyük, Hacılar and Çamur Höyük, as well as in the Denizli-Burdur region. 22

Recent survey research and excavations in Caria, Pisidia and Lycia also reveal similar pottery. 23

The literary, archeological and epigraphic evidence suggest Lydian cultural influence penetrated northeastern Caria during the Mermnad dynasty of the seventh and sixth centuries, or even earlier,

during the time of the Heraklids. The presence of the Lydian pottery type at Tabae supports this notion.

As observed, the cultic, dynastic, and cultural evidence also support the notion of a multicultural society

spread across the Meander plain. Meanwhile, the imported Greek pottery also found at Tabae, although fragmentary in nature, sheds light on the types and origins of imported pottery in northeast Caria between the late eighth and late seventh centuries. The Hellenistic and Roman pottery may suggest new evidence for local production.

Provincial and Imported Lydian Pottery at Tabae: Technical Aspects

Studies concerning the individual schools, origins and local variants of Anatolian Iron Age pottery remain insufficient. Definitions and characterizations of regional styles, as well as chronological data and thus also distinctions from other regional pottery groups are lacking. However, studies on Lydian pottery both of Sardian and provincial production, along with limited publications on parallel Anatolian pottery, may contribute to our efforts to understand the pottery presented here.

A total of 102 pottery examples can be closely related to the Lydian pottery at Sardis. The related

pottery at Tabae features two main painting conventions: black on red (82 fragments) and bichrome (20 fragments). Judging visually, the fabrics of most examples (95 fragments, Figs. 1–3, Nos. 1–23), display a homogeneity that points to a single clay source, or to sources drawing from similar clay beds. This common fabric, which might be called provincial Lydian pottery, is red and porous, with a dense inclusion of tiny flecks of limestone, chamotte, and to a lesser degree, mica; it is frequently hard fired. The remaining pottery examples may be called non-local or imported Lydian/Lydianizing pottery: at least three pieces (one black on red [Fig. 4, No. 26] and two bichrome [Figs. 4–5, Nos. 27–28]) show

Sardian clay types and the rest (two black on red and two bichrome) are from distinct clay sources.

20 Ratté 2009, 140–141.

21 Ratté 2009, 141–147.

22 Mellaart 1955; Birmimgham 1964.

23 Mierse 1986 (Aphrodisias in Caria); Metzger 1972, 58–68, pls. 20–24 and Kuzucuoğlu and Tibet 2002, 248, fig. 3, no. 9 (Xanthos in Lycia); Corsten et al. 2010, 146, figs. 5–6 (Kibyratis in Psidia); Dörtlük 1977 and Çokay-Kepçe 2009, 35–59 (Burdur in Psidia).

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Sardian fabric is orange-red in color. It is soft and flaky and includes golden mica and tiny flecks of grit. Non-Local Type 1 clay (Fig. 4, No. 24) is red, fine and hard fired. Non-Local Type 2 clay (Fig. 4, No. 25) is also red and hard fired but includes tiny flecks of limestone. Non-Local Type 3 clay (Fig. 5, No. 30) is dark red, with a dense inclusion of golden mica, medium-sized quartz and tiny flecks of limestone temper. Finally, Non-Local Type 4 clay (Fig. 5, No. 29) is pinkish buff in color, soft and flaky, with a dense inclusion of tiny flecks of limestone. It is interesting to note here that popular and well-attested shapes of Lydian taste at Sardis and elsewhere—such as the lydion, lekythos, amphora or column krater—or popular painting conventions such as streaked and marbled wares, have so far not been discovered at Tabae.

Production centers

Total number of pottery

Number of bichrome

Percentage

Number of black on red

Provincial

95

11 (white bichrome)

93%

79

5

(red bichrome)

Sardian

3

2

(red bichrome)

3%

1

Non-local 1

1

 

1%

1

Non-local 2

1

 

1%

1

Non-local 3

1

1

(red bichrome)

1%

 

Non-local 4

1

1 (white bichrome)

1%

 

Table 1 Fabrics and painting conventions of Lydian/Lydianizing pottery at Tabae

1. Provincial Black on Red Pottery

Black-on-red painting was popular in western, central and southern Anatolia, as well as in Eastern Mediterranean cultures in Syria-Levant, Palestine and Cyprus, which have distinct regional and local applications in terms of shape, decoration and chronology. This painting convention was regionally produced and seems to be distributed among various neighboring cultures in the Eastern Mediterranean, Anatolia and a few centers in the Greek Islands. 24 It seems to be a commonly favored painting convention between about the eighth and sixth centuries BC of the Anatolian Iron Age.

The predominant convention at Tabae is black on red, and a variety of shapes are attested. The most common seems to be the stemmed dish, which is also a popular shape at Sardis. Three types are observed:

Type 1 has a flaring rim and a shallow bowl (Fig. 1, Nos. 1–2); Type 2 has a rounded and plain lip and a hemispherical bowl (Fig. 1, No. 3); Type 3 has an outwardly beveled rim and a shallow bowl (Fig. 1, No. 4). Multiple compass-drawn semi-circles around the exteriors seem to be a major decoration scheme on the stemmed dishes (Nos. 1, 3–4), whereas some of the others are differently ornamented, like with groups of vertical wavy lines (Fig. 2, No. 5) or simple horizontal wavy lines (No. 2). Multiple compass- drawn semi-circles also decorate the exteriors of black-on-red skyphoi and bowls. All the skyphoi have slightly everted lips (Fig. 1, No. 6). The bowls also bear other decorative features, such as linked, cross- hatched lozenges and horizontal wavy lines. They have everted and rounded rims (Fig. 1, No. 7). Other black-on-red vessels include one-handled jugs with hatched stripes (Fig. 2, No. 9) and wavy lines (Fig.

24 Gürtekin-Demir 2011, 359–62.

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1, No. 8); dinoi with multiple compass-drawn semi-circles or cross-hatched alternating triangles (Figs. 1–2, Nos. 10–11); and storage jars, commonly painted with concentric semi-circles and wavy lines (Fig. 2, Nos. 12–13).

Several examples of pitchers have also been discovered (Fig. 2, Nos. 14–15). They are painted with similar decorative patterns of wavy lines, concentric circles, semi-circles and multiple hooks. One example of a stand is decorated with pendant concentric semicircles (Fig. 2, No. 17) and may have supported a dinos or a krater.

Shape

Number

Stemmed Dish

28

Skyphos

3

Bowl

3

One-handled jug

6

Skyphos-krater

1

Dinos

2

Storage jar

3

Pitcher

16

Stand

1

Lid

2

Handle

5

Table 2. Shape distribution of black-on-red and bichrome wares from Tabae

The study of local Lydian pottery at Sardis may shed light on the black-on-red pottery discoveries at Tabae. The Sardis pottery seems to have been produced between about the eighth and sixth centuries BC. Two varieties of black on red may be named according the decorative patterns and their placement on the vessel: 25

The first is “geometric black on red”, which may also be named “early Lydian black on red”. The decorations—which commonly include multiple compass-drawn semi-circles and circles, double axes, wavy lines, latticed or cross-hatched geometric patterns—are applied with a thick brush in broad bands. Common shapes include stemmed dishes, bowls, one-handled jugs, pitchers, kraters and dinoi with high stands. Early Lydian black on red is attested from levels dating to the eighth and seventh centuries BC. In this respect, the examples of provincial black on red from Tabae (Figs. 1–2, Nos. 1–18) show close affinities with early Lydian black-on-red pottery. Examples of these are attested at a limited number of sites. Among the pottery collected during a survey carried out along the Hermus Valley, Lydian geometric black on red, possibly of Sardian or similar fabric, was attested at Özbektepe and Akçapınar. 26 Three sherds are also reported from Aigai in the Aiolis region. 27

25 Gürtekin-Demir 2011, 362–72.

26 Gürtekin-Demir, forthcoming.

27 Özver 2012, cat. nos. 22–25.

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Presumably from about the late seventh to the second half of the sixth century BC a new conception of black-on-red ware became popular. This variant is the Lydian “linear black on red”, which may also be termed “late Lydian black on red”. It is decorated with linear patterns in narrow bands, and with spiral bands probably applied with a multi-tipped brush. The provincial Lydian black on red at Tabae seems limited to early/geometric black on red since there are no provincial examples of the later type. Two examples of linear black on red (Fig. 4, Nos. 24–25) have fabric and surface treatments distinct from those of the provincial (Figs. 1–2, Nos. 1–18) and Sardian (Fig. 4, No. 26) examples and seems to be imported from elsewhere in Anatolia. No. 26, on the other hand, is an example of early/geometric Lydian black on red most probably produced at Sardis or its environs.

Having had a brief look at the Lydian black on red, the relevant pottery at Tabae seems to have many common decorative elements and schemes, as well as shape preferences consistent with those of early Lydian black on red from Sardis. The shapes at Tabae include table ware used for serving food (stemmed dish, bowl and possibly skyphos-krater), preparation of beverages (dinos), serving beverages (pitcher), drinking (skyphos and one-handled jug) and storage (jar).

These close similarities may be the result of Lydian cultural influence at Tabae or may be merely a regional convention that affected both the Lydian heartland and eastern Caria. The similarities may also be explained through the incorporation of a cultural entity that intertwined the Lydian, Carian and perhaps also the Phrygian regions. The notion of a sphere of cultural influence is also supported by comparable pottery from several surveys around the region.

Black-on-red and bichrome conventions are not purely Lydian inventions, but belong to local Iron Age Anatolian pottery trends uncovered at various sites from the coastal regions of western Anatolia to Lydia, Phrygia, Mysia, Psidia and Caria inland, and along the southern coast of Anatolia. The majority of bichrome and black-on-red pottery at Tabae follows the Lydian tradition, and thus this cultural interference is observed not only along the southeastern stretch of the Maeander, i.e., northeastern Caria, but also along its northeastern banks, i.e., southeastern Lydia. The survey carried out by R. Meriç in the 1980s revealed pottery from Özbektepe, Alaşehir that is very similar to early Lydian black on red and bichrome. 28

2. Provincial Bichrome Pottery

Bichrome pottery uses three colors: white, matt dark and bright red paints. It has two variants: white bichrome and red bichrome. The red bichrome seems to be a later version (presumably between the seventh and sixth centuries), where common decorative elements such as rows of pendant concentric semicircles or concentric hooks are applied on a well-burnished red clay surface. 29 White is conventional as an additional color often used on transitional bands. 30 On Lydian white bichrome of the eighth and seventh centuries, white is used as a slip color for spaces between decorated areas. 31 The decorative

28 Gürtekin-Demir, forthcoming.

29 Greenewalt 2010, 115, fig. 10; Cahill 2010, 479, no. 94.

30 Greenewalt 2010, 115, fig. 10.

31 Gürtekin-Demir 2002, 120–121, fig. 9.

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elements are painted dark and red colors. Common Lydian white bichrome patterns are cross-hatched or latticed triangles, zigzags, or other common geometric ornaments, along with checkerboards. Concentric semi-circles are popular, especially on dishes. The color combination and execution may be paralleled with Phrygian bichrome or polychrome wares. 32

There are a total of 16 provincial bichrome vessels at Tabae. 12 sherds are of white bichrome (Fig. 3, Nos. 20–23), while the rest exhibit elements of red bichrome (Fig. 3, No. 19). The use of concentric semicircles over white slip on white bichrome dishes with flaring rims (No. 20) at Sardis closely parallels the local Lydian pottery in the seventh-century levels of sectors ByzFort and HoB. 33 The groups featuring short, vertical, wavy lines on white bichrome (No. 21) are among the most common patterns practiced on Lydian bichrome vessels. 34 Although preserved in small fragments, the decorative elements of other provincial Lydian white bichrome at Tabae (Fig. 3, Nos. 22–23) mostly consist of hatched areas of geometric patterns. General characteristics, especially in the use of white spacey areas and hatched areas painted in dark colors with additional red coloring, call to mind Phrygian bichrome painting; however, the closest parallels are attested in local Sardis pottery. 35

3. Imported Black-on-Red and Bichrome Pottery

Among the finds at Tabae several black-on-red (Fig. 4, Nos. 24–26) and bichrome (Figs. 4–5, Nos. 27–30) pieces show distinct aspects of clay and surface treatment. They seem to be imported. The black-on-red dish fragment (No. 26), bichrome bowl fragment (No. 27) and bichrome dish fragment (No. 28) may have arrived from Sardis, judging by similarities in the fabric, which is friable and flaky and includes a considerable amount of mica. No. 26 seems to belong to early/geometric Lydian black on red, whereas No. 27 may be paralleled with the Lydian bichrome adaptation of wavy-line amphorae. 36 There are four singleton pieces of pottery of different fabrics (mentioned above): No. 24 (Non-Local Type 1) is a black- on-red dish fragment that may belong to a stemmed dish. It bears narrow-banded decorations of cross- hatching and spiral bands reminiscent of Lydian the late/linear black on red of the late seventh and the sixth centuries. 37 The decorative combinations of linear patterns within narrow bands are commonly subordinated by horizontal spiral bands; this may be paralleled in Cypro-Cilician black-on-red pottery. This type of decoration is frequently applied on dishes, bowls or stemmed dishes, and appears to have been a common sharing of Anatolian black-on-red pottery in the later seventh and the sixth centuries. 38 No. 25 (Non-Local Type 2) and No. 29 (Non-Local Type 4) are two other singleton pieces belonging to pitchers of late/linear black-on-red pottery. No. 30 (Non-Local Type 3), on the other hand, is a white bichrome fragment that may be paralleled in Phrygian pottery 39 rather than in those of Lydian origin.

32 Gürtekin 1998, 111–114; Gürtekin-Demir 2002, 120–121.

33 Greenewalt, Ratté and Rautmann 1993, 28–29, 31, fig. 26 (ByzFort); Inv. No. P63.606:5818 (HoB).

34 Gürtekin-Demir 2002, 120, fig. 9.

35 E.g., storage jar from HoB (Sardis inv. No. P63.606:5818); handle fragment from MMS/S (Sardis inv. no. P01.005:1126).

36 Gürtekin 1998, lev. 26, no. 80.

37 Gürtekin-Demir 2011, 368–372.

38 Gürtekin-Demir 2011, 371.

39 E.g., G. Polat 1993, 33, fig. 9; Sams 1994, fig. 62, pl. 37, no. 113.

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Imported Greek Pottery at Tabae The imported Greek pottery from Tabae includes fragments from the Geometric, Subgeometric and Archaic periods, as well as those from the Hellenistic and Roman periods. These imports are not so numerous when compared to the larger number of black-on-red and bichrome examples of Anatolian Iron Age pottery.

1. Geometric and Subgeometric Pottery

A few examples from the Late Geometric and Subgeometric periods were discovered at Tabae. Nos. 31–

32 (Fig. 6) have similar fabric, paint and surface treatment, and a well-burnished surface. The fragment

of a skyphos krater (No. 31) is decorated with a butterfly pattern, and its parallels are observed in the

so-called “Bird Kotyle workshop” which produces not only bird kotylai but also other shapes such as kraters and oinochoai. Parallels dating to the Late Geometric or to the second half of the eighth century are widespread throughout the Eastern Greek world. 40 The other fragment (No. 32) decorated with

concentric circles is quite similar to No. 31 and seems to be from the Late Geometric period. Concentric circles are among the most popular patterns during the Late Geometric and Subgeometric periods, and even in the Archaic period. Such vessels discovered at Miletus are dated to the Subgeometric period, 41 suggesting that the Protogeometric tradition continues well into the mid-seventh century. 42 Similar skyphoi painted with rows of concentric circles on a band between the handles are also attested elsewhere in Asia Minor, including Smyrna and Klazomenai. 43 Concentric circles are also common in Carian Geometric pottery. 44 Nos. 31–32 may belong to a subperiod within the Late Geometric, in the second half of the eighth century to judge from their parallels.

No. 33 (Fig. 6) is a kotyle rim fragment with zigzag metopal decoration. This typical type of pottery of the East Greek Subgeometric Linear style from the first half of the seventh century is abundantly observed at Ephesus. It seems to be one of the common pottery classes of southern and central Ionia; however, it is rarely found at Samos and Miletus. 45 Similar kotylai with nicked rims are also attested in Caria. 46 No. 33, with a simple rim, may be dated to the first half of the seventh century on the basis of its parallels.

Nos. 31–33 are examples of a type frequently observed among the pottery excavated from the Geometric levels around Ionia and in other regions of western Anatolia; however, this type of pottery is not reported much from inner Caria. Therefore, Nos. 31–33 may well be imported from coastal western Anatolia.

2. Corinthian Pottery

The two fragments painted with narrow bands seem to be Corinthian (Fig. 8, Nos. 42–43) and may be

40 Coldstream 1977, 247, 248, fig.78b; Özkan 2009, 57–78.

41 Kerschner 1999, 19–20, figs. 9.21–22.

42 Graeve 1978, 35, 36, fig. 1; Graeve 1975, 41, 49, 50, nos. 40, 45, abb. 15, 19.

43 Özgünel 1978, 24, fig. 30; Baç 1987, no. 8. Hürmüzlü 2003, 265–266, figs. 30, 57 (two skyphoi with concentric circles dated to the mid-seventh century are excavated from the Akpınar Necropolis in Klazomenai).

44 Özgünel 2006, lev. 28b, 36a, b, 74–75; Polat 2009, 140.6, 141, figs. 9, 143–144.

45 Akurgal et al. 2002, 181, taf. 1, No. 26, 51; Gassner 1997, taf. 1.1, taf. 78.1, 25–27.

46 Y. Polat 2009, 138.4, 139.7, 142.

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classified under the Linear Kotyle group. Linear Kotylai are among the common productions of the Protocorinthian period and continued to be used throughout the seventh century. 47

Another Corinthian fragment is a dish decorated with a row of vertical wavy lines over the rim (Fig. 8, No. 44). This type of flaring rim decorated with vertical lines is attested in Protocorinthian, Transitional, Early Corinthian and Middle Corinthian pottery. 48 These three fragments, taken together, are indications that Corinthian imports reached inner Caria.

3. East Greek Pottery

Three fragments of East Greek origin were excavated at Tabae (Fig. 9, Nos. 45–47). A banded bowl (No. 45) seems to date to the second half of the sixth century, to judge from its parallels. 49

No. 46 is a krater fragment decorated with a hastily painted wavy line placed immediately beneath the rim. Parallel examples are observed at many other sites, especially at Klazomenai in the sixth century. 50

A closed vessel sherd is decorated with a scroll (?) pattern, which may belong to the Fikellura group (No.

47). 51

4. Other Archaic Pottery

The origins of some pottery from Tabae (Fig. 7, Nos. 34–41) cannot easily be identified due to the small size of their pieces and a limited number of published parallels.

Two skyphos fragments (Nos. 34–35) seem to have no published parallels in terms of their decorative schemes. The reserved narrow band along the rim is hastily painted with a zigzag decoration with the effect of crosshatching. These two examples also have similar fabrics. Nos. 34–35 may be local Carian productions, to also judge by a parallel example with a crosshatched decoration found at Stratonikeia of the early seventh century. 52 No other parallel examples are reported from other centers. It can be suggested that Nos. 34–35 represent a new small group with distinct decorative schemes among other local Carian pottery. There are also other unique groups of pottery among local Carian productions. 53

A small group of pottery with banded decorations includes both open and closed shapes (Nos. 36–

39). These pottery examples, Nos. 36–37, look very much like Corinthian productions at first glance, especially in terms of surface treatment and decoration, which consists of parallel horizontal lines

reminiscent of Protocorinthian Linear kotyle. 54 However, the fabric includes a considerable amount

of mica that differs from conventional Corinthian clay, which suggests they are made using a different

47 Dunbabin 1962, 51–52, pl. 19, nos. 374, 378–380, 382.

48 Dunbabin 1962, 85–87, pl. 34, nos. 733, 745, 762; Amyx and Lawrence 1975, 51, pl. 33, no. 173.

49 For Eastern Greek parallels see Boardman and Hayes 1973, 23, fig. 9, no. 2038; Utili 1999, 155, 288, abb. 3.52; Y. Ersoy 2004, 57–58, figs. 17f–g.

50 Y. Ersoy 2004, 58–59, fig. 19a, b, e; Güngör 2004, 127, figs. 12, 14.

51 For parallels see Walter-Karydi 1973, 59, taf. 87, no. 639, abb. 126.

52 For the uncommon types of local Carian fragments see Bulba 2010, taf. 23, Ko. 39, Ko. 40, 52, 187.

53 Bulba 2010, taf. 23, Ko. 39, Ko. 40, 52, 18.

54 Dunbabin 1962, 51–52, pl. 19, nos. 374, 378–380, 382.

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clay source and are thus imitations of Corinthian pottery. One of the closed vessels (No. 39) is hard- fired, includes mica and limestone temper and is painted with a glossy black glaze. In this respect, it is reminiscent of Carian Late Geometric and Subgeometric vessels. 55

Two other pieces seem problematic since there are no published parallels. One of the fragments is a closed vessel and includes a high amount of mica; it has a rough-finished surface with concentric circles (No. 40). The other fragment is the neck of a closed shape. It is decorated with concentric full circles over a diluted white slip (No. 41).

5. Hellenistic Pottery

The Hellenistic pottery from Tabae includes several fragments of drinking cups, mugs, dishes, lekanai, pitchers and unguentaria that are dated to between the third and first centuries BC. No. 48 (Fig. 10) is a drinking cup fragment that has a long and everted rim and a plump body. It is glazed inside and out. The exterior glaze is black on the upper part and red on the lower part of the vessel. To extrapolate using the parallels, this example might have had handles on each side. 56 Similar pottery reported from the Athenian Agora is classified as an “Imitation of Palestinian Cup.” This class is very well attested in the early Hellenistic levels of the excavations at Palestine. It is also reported from Corinth, Eretria, Siphnos, Lemnos, Delos, Lesbos, Miletus, Tinos, Khersonnesos, Olbia, Alexandria and the Serçe Limanı shipwreck. 57 The earliest finds from the Athenian Agora postdate 200 BC; the majority of the pottery was excavated from a deposit that predates 165 BC. Other early examples come from Serçe Limanı and Tarsus; they have thickened rims and are dated to the third century. 58 The Mediterranean parallels seem to continue longer, into the second and perhaps even the first century. 59 A relevant example from Tarsus was identified as a skyphos. 60 The closest parallel to No. 48 is from Ephesus, from the southern gate of Tetragonos Agora. 61

No. 49 (Fig. 10) is a grey monochrome bowl that has an everted rim with a horizontal ridge on the interior similar to a phiale. The grey clay and grey glaze are very similar to that of traditional Hellenistic grey clay vessels (such as molded bowls, lamps and unguentaria). A close parallel from the Athenian Agora, in terms of shape and the ridge on the interior, is dated to between 200 and 110 BC. As also stated for this parallel from the agora, the provenance of No. 49 cannot easily be defined. 62

No. 50 (Fig. 10) is one of a common type of dark-glazed Hellenistic dish with an everted rim dating to between the second half of the second and the first centuries. 63 No. 51 (Fig. 10) is another dish fragment; it is red glazed and has a ridged rim. It may be an Ionian production of the third century. 64 Other

55 Özgünel 2006, 96, 126, lev. 14; Fazlıoğlu 1998, lev. 1–4, 57–58.

56 Rotroff 1997, figs. 22.391–394.

57 Rotroff 1997, 117–118.

58 Pulak and Townsend 1987, 45, figs. 16–17 (Serçe Limanı); Goldman 1950, 157 (Tarsus).

59 Rotroff 1997, 118.

60 Goldman 1950, 30–31, 216, 181.82, 122.82.

61 Gassner 1997, 49–51, taf. 7.122.

62 Rotroff 1997, 235, fig. 97.1610.

63 Ladstätter 2003, taf. 14.K175, 34; Gassner 1997, taf. 71. H.6, 231, 233.

64 Rotroff 1997, figs. 51.718–730; Élaigne 2007, figs.12.2288, 529–30, 545.

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Hellenistic pottery includes a large dish with ridged rim (No. 52, Fig. 10), a closed vessel rim fragment (No. 53, Fig. 10), a cup fragment (No. 54, Fig. 10) and an unguentarium (No. 55, Fig. 10).

6. Roman Pottery

The Roman pottery at Tabae is red slipped, has fine and hard-fired fabric with no visible inclusions. It is preserved in small fragments and is not found in datable contexts, thus making it difficult to define. The comparable examples attested from elsewhere contribute less than expected to our understanding of the provenance and dating of the relevant group of pottery.

No. 56 (Fig. 11) is a dish fragment with flaring rim and irregular grooves on the exterior; it is red slipped on the exterior and interior. Its parallels from Kibyra, dated to the second and the third centuries AD, belong to “Form 4” of Red Slipped Ware. 65 Among other Red Slipped Ware examples are Nos. 57–60 (Fig. 11), rim fragments of several open vessels. No. 60 has a straight-sided mouth, deep bowl and wheel- ridges on the exterior. Similar vessels are dated to between the third and fifth centuries AD. 66 No. 64 (Fig. 11) represents a type of mug with flaring short rim. Similar mugs from Sagalassos (Type 1A 160) were popular in the third century AD but were also used during the first half of the fourth century AD. 67 A single piece of rim fragment (Fig. 11, No. 65) belonging to Thin Walled Pottery group was also discovered among the Roman pottery from Tabae; the parallels for this fragment are attested from Ephesus, dated to the third quarter of the third century AD, and also from Sagalassos, dated to the first half of the fourth century AD. 68

There are also several body fragments of closed vessels (Fig. 11, Nos. 66–68) and base fragments of dishes or bowls of various sizes (Fig. 11, Nos. 69–72).

The excavations carried out in 2010 revealed a rich selection of 17 well-preserved Red Slip Ware vessels that contribute to the chronology and shape repertory of this group of ware. However, this group will be published separately and is not covered here. Included among the Roman pottery from the 2010 excavations are bowls of Eastern Sigillata B2 form VB (second half of the first century–first half of the second century AD), 69 late bowls of Eastern Sigillata B2 form VIII (late first century–second century AD), 70 hemispherical bowls of Eastern Sigillata A form XIX (late first century–early second century AD) 71 and dishes of Eastern Sigillata B1 form (first half of the first century AD). 72 This evidence strengthens 73 the suggestion that Red Slip Ware dated to between the first and fourth centuries AD consisted of some well-known classes (such as Eastern Sigillata A and B), as well as some uncommon types that may have been local.

65 Uygun-Dökü 2008, res. 19.8, 137, 146.

66 Hayes 2008, 239, fig. 38.1256 (Phocaea Form 3); Ladstätter 2008, 123, fig. 282.K.3 (Eastern Sigillata B).

67 Poblome 1999, 305, 351, fig. 15, no. 1, 4.

68 Ladstätter 2008, taf. 282.K.5, 123 (Ephesus); Poblome 1999, 305, 351, fig. 15, no. 2 (Sagalassos).

69 Hayes 2008, figs. 12.336, 31–40, 154.

70 Hayes 2008, figs. 13.404, 408, 414, 39, 159–160.

71 Hayes 2008, figs. 7.171, 30, 139.

72 Hayes 2008, figs. 7.191, 37, 141.

73 We are grateful to Bozkurt Ersoy, director of the Tabae Excavations, who kindly gave us the permission to publish this piece of information. The relevant Roman pottery will be published elsewhere.

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Catalog

Provincial Black on Red (Figs. 1–2)

1. Stemmed dish rim and body fragment. KT 2008, citadel, CIX/18. H: 0.013; D (rim): 0.29; L: 0.122; W:

0. 071; th: 0.01. Clay light red 2.5 YR 6/6. Flaring rim, shallow bowl. Decoration reddish black (2.5 YR 2.5 /1) over red slip 10 R 5/8. Int., a row of clumsily applied pendant concentric semi-circles framed with a single line below over rim plate. Ext., no decoration preserved.

2. Stemmed dish rim and body fragment. KT 2008, citadel, CIX/19. H: 0.007; L: 0.032; W: 0.035; th:

0.09. Clay reddish yellow (5 YR 6/6). Flaring rim. Decoration reddish black (2.5 YR 2.5/1) over light red (2.5 YR 6/6). Int., single horizontal line framed with a single line above and below over rim plate. Ext., no decoration preserved.

3. Stemmed dish rim and body fragment. KT 2008, citadel, CIX/18. H: 0.053; D (rim): 0.01; L: 0.046; W:

0.04; th: 0.006. Clay 5 YR 6/6 reddish yellow. Plain rim, deep and hemispherical bowl. Decoration 2.5 YR 2.5/1 reddish black over red slip (2.5 YR 5/8). Int., no decoration preserved. Ext., a row of pendant concentric semicircles along rim.

4. Stemmed dish rim and body fragment. KT 2008, citadel, CIX/18. H: 0.05; L: 0.059; W: 0.039; th: 0.011. Clay reddish yellow (5 YR 6/6). Beveled out rim, shallow bowl. Decoration very dark gray (5 YR 3/1) over light red (10 R 6/8). Int., no decoration preserved. Ext., a row of pendant concentric ¾ circles along rim.

5. Stemmed dish lower body fragment. KT 2008, citadel, CIX/19. L: 0.063; W: 0.11; th: 0.012. Clay light red (2.5 YR 6/8). Decoration dark reddish grey (10 R 3/1) over red (10 R 5/8) slip. Int., groups of vertical wavy lines within vertical straps framed with a single line on the left and right, single line encircling the central part of bowl. Ext., in between a broad band bordered with a single line above and below, groups of vertical wavy lines within vertical straps framed with a single line on the left and right.

6. Skyphos rim and body fragment. KT 2008, cistern. H: 0.032 D (rim): 0.106; L: 0.035; W: 0.079; th:

0.006. Clay reddish yellow (5 YR 6/6). Decoration very dark grey (5 YR 3/1) over reddish yellow (5 YR

7/6) slip. Int., no decoration. Ext., single line along lip, a row of pendant concentric ¾ circles along rim.

7. Bowl rim and body fragment. KT 2008, citadel, CIX/18. H: 0.025; D (rim): 0.11; L: 0.03; W: 0.038; th:

0.005. Clay light red (2.5 YR 6/6). Everted and rounded rim. Decoration reddish black (2.5 YR 2.5/1)

over red (2.5 YR 5/6) slip. Int., no decoration. Ext., a row of pendant concentric semicircles framed with a single line above.

8. One-handled jug rim and body fragment. KT 2008, cistern. H: 0.043; D (rim): 0.051; L: 0.042; W:

0.045; th: 0.004. Clay light red (2.5 YR 6/6). Decoration dark reddish grey (2.5 YR 3/1) over red (2.5 YR 5/6) slip. Int., no decoration. Ext., two rows of wavy lines each framed with a single line above and below.

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9. One-handled jug body fragment. KT 2008, cistern. L: 0.039; W: 0.041; th: 0.008. Clay reddish yellow (5 YR 6/6). Decoration weak red (2.5 YR 4/2) over red (2.5 YR 5/6) slip. Int., no decoration. Ext., latticed meander (?)

10. Dinos rim and body fragment. KT 2008, citadel, CIX/19. H: 0.035; D (rim): 0.02; L: 0.059; W: 0.093; th: 0.007. Clay light red (2.5 YR 6/6). Decoration very dark gray (5 YR 3/1) over red (2.5 YR 5/8) slip. Ext., single line below rim, alternately arranged pendant and ascendant cross-hatched triangles.

11. Dinos rim and body fragment. KT 2008, citadel, CIX/18. H: 0.026; L: 0.051; W: 0.044; th: 0.007. Clay reddish yellow (5 YR 6/6). Decoration dark reddish gray (2.5 YR 3/1) over red (2.5 YR 5/6) slip. Ext., single line below rim, a row of pendant concentric semicircles.

12. Storage jar shoulder fragment. KT 2008, cistern. H: 0.085; L: 0.049; W: 0.04; th: 0.017. Clay reddish yellow (5 YR 6/6). Ridge at the central part of shoulder. Decoration dark reddish gray (2.5 YR 3/1) over red (2.5 YR 5/6) slip. Two rows of pendant concentric semicircles (one above and the other below the ridge).

13. Storage jar shoulder fragment. KT 2008, cistern. L: 0.0062; W: 0.029; th: 0.01. Clay light brown (7.5 YR 6/4). Decoration dark reddish gray (2.5 YR 3/1) over red (2.5 YR 5/6) slip. Ext., from top to bottom, partially preserved pendant concentric semicircle, horizontal wavy line framed with asingle line above and below, single line, pendant concentric semicircles.

14. Pitcher shoulder fragment. KT 2008, citadel, C 7 Probe 1. L: 0.062; W: 0.052; th: 0.007. Clay light red (2.5 YR 6/6). Decoration dark reddish gray (2.5 YR 3/1) over red (2.5 YR 5/8) slip. Ext., pendant concentric semicircles.

15. Pitcher shoulder fragment. KT 2008, citadel, C 7 Probe 1. L: 0.058; W: 0.039; th: 0.006. Clay light red (2.5 YR 6/6). Decoration dark reddish gray (10 R 3/1) over red (2.5 YR 5/6) slip. Ext., two pendant concentric hooks.

16. Lid rim and body fragment. KT 2008, cistern. H: 0.043; D (rim): 0.182; L: 0.075; W: 0.059; th: 0.01. Clay light reddish brown (5 YR 6/4). Decoration dark reddish gray (2.5 YR 3/1) over red (2.5 YR 5/8) slip. Ext., horizontal wavy line framed with a single line above and below, ascendant concentric semicircles, single horizontal line.

17. Stand fragment. KT 2008, citadel, C7 Probe 1. H: 0.042; D (base): 0.25; L: 0.061; W: 0.097; th: 0.015. Clay reddish yellow (5 YR 6/6). Decoration very dark gray (5 YR 3/1) over red (2.5 YR 4/8) slip.

18. Handle fragment. KT 2008, citadel, CIX/18. L: 0.071; W: 0.044; th: 0.013. Clay red (2.5 YR 5/8). Strap handle. Decoration dark reddish gray (10 R 3/1) over red (2.5 YR 5/8) slip. Handle framed with a single vertical line to the right and left, within this area a latticed wheel pattern is framed with three horizontal lines above and below.

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Provincial Bichrome (Fig. 3)

19. Bichrome (red) closed vessel body fragment. KT 2008, cistern. 0.049; W: 0.039; th: 0.005. Clay reddish brown (5 YR 6/4). Decoration red (2.5 YR 5/6) and dark reddish gray (2.5 YR 3/1). Ext., red band bordered with a dark line above.

20. Bichrome (white) dish rim fragment. KT 2008, citadel, CIX/19. L: 0.054; W: 0.069; th: 0.01. Clay reddish yellow (5 YR 6/6). Flaring rim, shallow bowl. Decoration very dark gray (5 YR 3/1) and red (2.5 YR 6/8) over white (10 R 8/1) slip. Int., over the rim, rows of pendant and ascendant concentric semicircles, single red line at the beginning of bowl. Ext., painted red

21. Bichrome (white) storage jar body fragment. KT 2008, citadel, CIX/18. L: 0.047; W: 0.08; th: 0.013. Clay reddish yellow (5 YR 6/6). Decoration dark gray (7.5 YR 4/1) over very pale brown (10 YR 7/3) slip. Ext., groups of short vertical wavy lines in a horizontal band bordered with a single line above and below.

22.Bichrome (white) storage jar body fragment. KT 2008, cistern. L: 0.082; W 0.06; th: 0.011. Clay light reddish brown (5 YR 6/4). Decoration red (2.5 YR 5/6) and dark reddish gray (2.5 Y 3/1) over white (2.5 YR 8/1). Ext., from top to bottom, partially preserved frames of two concentric squares (one dark and the other red) framed with a cross-hatched border on the exterior; single horizontal red line; red band bordered with a dark line above.

23. Bichrome (white) storage jar body fragment. KT 2008, citadel, CIX/19. L: 0.06; W: 0.079; th: 0.01. Clay light red (2.5 YR 6/6). Decoration dark reddish brown (5 YR 3/2) and reddish yellow (5 YR 6/8) over white (2.5 Y 8/1) slip. Ext., two wide horizontal bands: 1. from left to right, dark cross-hatched area; vertical red band framed with dark lines to the left and right; dark cross-hatched square (?); below the first wide band is a red band framed with a single dark horizontal above and below; 2. a dark cross-hatched square (?) on the left and vertical red band framed with dark lines on the left and right.

Imported black on red and bichrome (Figs. 4–5)

24.Black-on-red dish body fragment. Non-Local Type 1 production. KT 2008, citadel, CIX/19. L: 0.031; W: 0.042; th: 0.011. Clay light red (2.5 YR 6/6). Decoration dark reddish gray (10 R 3/1) over red (10 R 5/6) slip. Int., from top to bottom, narrow horizontal band of ladder pattern framed with a single line above and below, cross-hatched band framed with a single line above and below. Ext., a row of spiral lines framed with a thicker line above and below.

25. Black-on-red pitcher shoulder fragment. Non-local Type 2 production. KT 2008, citadel, CIX/18. L:

0.024; W: 0.045; th: 0.005. Clay light red (2.5 YR 6/6). Decoration dark reddish brown (5 YR 3/2) over red (2.5 YR 5/6) slip. Ext., a row of dots in a narrow band on the upper part of the shoulder and below it a horizontal line.

26. Black-on-red closed vessel body fragment. Sardian production. KT 2008, cistern. L: 0.077; W: 0.034; th: 0.008. Clay burnt, light reddish brown (5 YR 6/3). Decoration black (5 YR 2.5/1) over dark reddish gray (5 YR 4/2) burnt slip. Ext., row of latticed squares.

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27. Bichrome (red) bowl rim and body fragment. Sardian production. KT 2008, cistern. H: 0.02; D (rim):

0.045; L: 0.023; W: 0.031; th: 0.005. Clay pink (5 YR 7/4). Slightly inverted thick rim. Decoration reddish brown (2.5 YR 5/4) and dark reddish gray (2.5 YR 4/1). Additional color white (2.5 Y 8/1). Int., red band over rim and below rim, single horizontal line framing upper border of white-painted band. Ext., painted plain white.

28. Bichrome (red) amphora shoulder fragment. Sardian production. KT 2008, cistern. L: 0.012; W: 0.058; th: 0.007. Clay reddish yellow (5 YR 7/6). Decoration between reddish yellow (5 YR 6/6) and red (10

R 4/6), and dark gray (5 YR 4/1). Additional color white (2.5 YR 8/1). Ext., from top to bottom, red-

painted band; white-painted band framed with a single dark line above and below; the rest painted

red; two-ended hook (right end not preserved) running down from top to bottom.

29. Bichrome (red) pitcher neck fragment. Non-Local Type 4 production. KT 2008, cistern. L: 0.041; W:

0.045; th: 0.005. Clay light red (2.5 YR 6/8). Decoration dusk red (2.5 YR 3/2) and red (10 R 5/8). Ext., red-painted above and a row of wavy lines framed with a single line above and below.

30. Bichrome (white) pitcher shoulder fragment. Non-Local Type 3 production. KT 2008, citadel, CIX/19.

L: 0.054; W: 0.06; th: 0.008. Clay pink (7.5 YR 7/4). Decoration very dark grayish brown (10 YR 3/2) over

very pale brown (10 YR 8/3). Ext., cross-hatched triangle witin cross-hatched chevron-triangles (?)

Late Geometric–Subgeometric (Fig. 6)

31. Skyphos-krater body fragment. K.T.08 CIX/19. L: 0.045; W: 0.067; th: 0.008; Clay reddish yellow (5 YR 6/6). Slightly micaceous with a small amount of quartz and limestone temper; porous. Decoration red (2.5 YR 5/8) int., yellowish red (5 YR 5/6) ext. Well-burnished int. and ext. Int., painted plain red. Ext., from top to bottom, single horizontal line; two vertical lines bordering the decoration to the left: a row of butterfly patterns framed with a single horizontal line above and below; two horizontal lines.

32. Closed vessel body fragment. K.T.08 CIX 19. L: 0.107; W: 0.083; th: 0.009; Clay reddish yellow (5YR 7/6). Slightly micaceous and limestone temper. Decoration red (10R 5/6). Ext., from top to bottom, concentric full circles; two horizontal bands.

33. Skyphos rim and body fragment. K.T.08 Cistern. H: 0.04; D (rim): 0.164; th: 0.006. Clay pink (5YR 8/4). Slightly micaceous. Decoration yellowish red (5 YR 4/6) int. and brown (7.5 YR 4/6) ext. Int., plain painted. Ext., five vertical lines framing left of the row of two parallel horizontal zigzags; a single horizontal line below.

Other Archaic Pottery (Fig. 7)

34. Skyphos rim and body fragment. K.T.08 Cistern. H: 0.026; D (rim): 0.108; th: 0.004. Clay pink (7.5 YR 8/4). Slightly micaceous, slightly porous. Decoration brown (7.5 YR 5/3) on the int. and ext. (7.5 YR 5/6). Int., plain painted. Ext., from top to bottom, a row of irregular net pattern framed with a single horizontal band above and below; horizontal band.

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35.

Skyphos rim and body fragment. K.T.08 Cistern. H: 0.03; D (rim): 013; th: 0.005. Clay pink (7.5 YR 8/4). Slightly micaceous; slightly porous. Decoration red (2.5 YR 5/8) on the int. and ext. Int., plain painted. Ext., from top to bottom, a row of irregular net pattern framed with a single horizontal band above and below; horizontal band.

36.

Skyphos body fragment. K.T.08 CIX/19. L: 0.029; W: 0.05; th: 0.004. Clay pink (7.5 YR 8/4). Slightly micaceous; slightly limestone temper. Decoration red (2.5 YR 5/8). Int., not painted. Ext., six parallel horizontal lines and a horizontal band below.

37. Skyphos body fragment. K.T.08 CIX/19. L: 0.045; W: 0.042; th: 0.004. Clay pink (7.5 YR 8/4). Micaceous. Decoration brown (7.5 YR 4/3). Int., not painted. Ext., eight parallel horizontal lines.

38.

Skyphos body fragment. K.T.08 Cistern. L: 0.028; W: 0.025; th: 0.004. Clay pink (7.5 YR 8/4). Slightly micaceous. Decoration red (2.5 YR 5/8) int. and brown (7.5 YR 4/2) ext. Int., plain painted. Ext., horizontal parallel lines.

39.

Closed vessel body fragment. K.T.08 CIX 19. L: 0.026; W: 0.038; th: 0.004. Clay pink (5 YR 7/4). Slightly micaceous. Decoration glossy black (7.5 YR 3/1). Ext., Parallel horizontal lines.

40.

Closed vessel body fragment. K.T.08 Cistern. L: 0.038; W: 0.034; th: 0.007. Clay light red (2.5 YR 6/5). Micaceous. Decoration reddish brown (5 YR 5/3). Ext., two partially preserved full circles.

41.

Closed vessel neck fragment. K.T.08 CIX 19. L: 0.064; W: 0.078; th: 0.008. Clay pink (5 YR 8/4). Micaceous. Decoration reddish yellow (5 YR 6/6) on both the int. and ext., and white slip (7.5 YR 8/1) on the ext. Int., plain red slipped. Ext., two concentric circles over white slip.

Corinthian Pottery (Fig. 8)

42. Skyphos body fragment. K.T.08 CIX 18. L: 0.03; W: 0.032; th: 0.004. Clay reddish brown (5 YR 6/4). Slightly micaceous. Decoration weak red (2.5 YR 4/2) int., red (2.5 YR 5/8) ext. Int., plain painted. Ext., parallel horizontal lines.

43. Skyphos body fragment. K.T.08 CIX/19. L: 0.032; W: 0.029; th: 0.004. Clay pink (7.5 YR 7/4). Slightly micaceous. Decoration reddish brown (5 YR 4/4) int. and brown (7.5 YR 5/8) ext. Int., plain painted. Ext., parallel horizontal lines.

44. Dish rim and body fragment. K.T.08 C7 Probe 1. H: 0.039; W: 0.044; th: 0.009. Clay very pale brown (10 YR 7/3). Slightly micaceous. Decoration very dark gray (7.5 YR 3/1). Ext., vertical wavy lines over rim; plain painted below rim.

Eastern Greek Archaic Pottery (Fig. 9)

45. Banded Bowl body and handle fragment. K.T.08 CIX 18. L: 0.044; W: 0.03; th: 0.005. Clay dark brown (10 YR 7/4). Slightly micaceous. Decoration dark brown (7.5 YR 3/4). Int., plain painted. Ext., two horizontal bands; handle projection plain painted.

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46. Krater rim and body fragment. K.T.08 C7 Probe. H: 0.05; D (rim): 0.038; th: 0.012. Clay reddish yellow (5 YR 6/6). Porous; sand and limestone temper. Decoration reddish gray (5 YR 5/2). Int., band along rim. Ext., band along rim; single horizontal zigzag.

47. Closed vessel body fragment. Fikellura Group. K.T.08 Cistern. L: 0.021; W: 0.025; th: 0.004. Clay pink (7.5 YR 7/4). Decoration dark brown (7.5 YR 3/2). Ext. partially preserved concentric scrolls (?).

Hellenistic Pottery (Fig. 10)

48. Bowl rim and body fragment. K.T.08 Cistern. H: 0.042; D (rim): 0.16; th: 0.003. Clay pink (5 YR 7/4). Decoration red (2.5 YR 4/8) int. and very dark gray (7.5 YR 3/1) ext. Flaring, thickened rim; plumb bowl. Int. and ext. plain painted.

49. Bowl rim and body fragment. K.T.08 Cistern. H: 0.015; D (rim): 138; th: 0.004. Clay light gray (2.5 Y 7/2). Decoration dark gray (2.5 Y 4/1). Flaring rim.

50. Dish rim and body fragment. K.T.08 Cistern. H: 0.014; D (rim): 0.2; th: 0.004. Clay reddish brown (5 YR 5/4). Decoration black. Thickened and outturned rim; shallow bowl. Single horizontal groove below rim. Int. and ext. plain painted.

51. Dish rim and body fragment. K.T.08 Cistern. H: 0.029; th: 0.007. Clay light reddish brown (5 YR 6/4). Decoration red (10 R 5/6). Flaring, thickened rim. Int. and ext. plain matt painted.

52. Lekane rim and body fragment. K.T.08 Cistern. H: 0.039; D (rim): 0.32; th: 0.006. Clay reddish yellow (5 YR 7/6). Decoration red (2.5 YR 5/6). Flaring, ridged rim; shallow bowl. Int., plain painted. Ext. partially painted.

53. Pitcher rim and neck fragment. K.T.08 Cistern. H: 0.029; th: 0.004. Clay pink (5 YR 7/4). Decoration red (10 R 5/6). Flaring rim; neck with nearly vertical sides. Int., not painted. Ext., plain painted on the rim.

54. Mug rim and body fragment. K.T.08 Cistern. H: 0.022; D (rim): 0.08; th: 0.003. Clay reddish yellow (5 YR 7/6). Decoration reddish brown (5 YR 4/3). Outturned hooked rim; nearly vertical sided. Int. and ext. plain glossy painted.

55. Unguentarium rim and neck fragment. K.T.08 CIX 18. H: 0.021; D (rim): 0.026; th: 0.002. Clay pink (5 YR 7/4). Decoration reddish gray (5 YR 5/2). Flaring rim; cylindrical, long neck. Not painted.

Roman Pottery (Fig. 11)

56. Dish rim and body fragment. K.T.08 CIX 19. H: 0.41; th: 0.006. Clay light red (10 R 6/8). Decoration weak red (10 R 5/4). Flaring rim. Int. and ext. plain matt slipped.

57. Dish rim fragment. K.T.08 Cistern. H: 0.28; D (rim): 0.258; th: 0.007. Clay pink (5 YR 7/4). Decoration red (10 R 5/8). Slightly flaring rim; flanged out. Int. and ext. plain matt slipped.

58. Dish rim fragment. K.T.08 Cistern. H: 0.023; D (rim): 0.272; th: 0.11. Clay reddish yellow (5 YR 7/6). Decoration light red (10 R 6/6). Slightly flaring rim; flanged out. Int. and ext. plain matt slipped.

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59. Bowl rim and body fragment. K.T.08 Cistern. H: 0.04; D (rim): 0.222; th: 0.006. Clay light red (10 R 6/6). Decoration red (10 R 5/6). Slightly flaring rim; flanged out. Int. and ext. plain matt slipped.

60. Bowl rim and body fragment. K.T.08 Cistern. H: 0.046; th: 0.008. Clay reddish yellow (5 YR 7/6). Decoration red (2.5 YR 5/6). Plain and straight-sided rim; sharp turn below rim. Int. and ext. plain matt slipped.

61. Bowl rim and body fragment. K.T.08 Cistern. H: 0.04; D (rim): 0236; th: 0.008. Clay light brown (7.5 YR 6/4). Decoration brown (7.5 YR 5/2). Slightly flaring, thickened rim; carinated below rim. Int. and ext. plain matt slipped.

62. Bowl rim fragment. K.T.08 Cistern. H: 0.024; th: 0.007. Clay reddish yellow (5 YR 6/6). Decoration red (2.5 YR 5/6). Plain rim; flanged out. Int. and ext. plain matt slipped.

63. Dish rim and body fragment. K.T.08 Cistern. H: 0.017; D (rim): 0.112; th: 0.004. Clay reddish yellow (5 YR 7/6). Decoration weak red (10 R 5/4). Slightly flaring lip; carinated below rim. Int. and ext. plain matt slipped.

64. Mug rim and body fragment. K.T.08 Cistern. H: 0.02; th: 0.004. Clay reddish yellow (5 YR 7/6). Decoration red (10 R 5/6). Flaring rim; single ridge on the ext. Int. and ext. plain matt slipped.

65. Mug rim and body fragment. K.T.08 C7 Probe 1. H: 0.029; D (rim): 0.066; th: 0.004. Clay reddish yellow (5 YR 7/6). Decoration red (2.5 YR 5/6). Slightly outturned rim; nearly straight-walled. Matt slipped on the int. and ext.

66. Pitcher rim, neck and handle fragment. K.T.08 Cistern. H: 0.053; D (rim): 0.058; th: 0.004. Clay light red (2.5 YR 6/6) with limestone temper. Decoration pink (5 YR 8/4). Outturned, wide rim; cylindrical neck; vertical strap handle starting from rim. Matt slipped ext.

67. Pitcher rim, neck and body fragment. K.T.08 CIX 19. H: 0.067; D (rim): 0.054; th: 0.005. Clay reddish yellow (5 YR 6/6). Decoration red (10 R 5/8). Thickened rim; slightly inward-curved long neck. Slipped ext.

68. Jar. Rim missing. K.T.08 CIX 19. H: 0.068; D (base): 0.038. Clay light red (2.5 YR 7/6). Decoration red (10 R 5/6). Short, flaring neck; spherical body, compressed mid-body; flat base. Slipped ext.

69. Open vessel base fragment. K.T.08. H: 0.025; D (base): 0.122; th: 0.007. Clay light red (10 R 6/6). Decoration light reddish brown (2.5 YR 6/3). Low ring base. Int. and ext. plain matt painted.

70. Open vessel base fragment. K.T.08 Cistern. H: 0.024; D (base): 0.092; th: 0.008. Clay pink (5 YR 7/4). Decoration light red (2.5 YR 6/6). Low ring base. Int. and ext. plain matt painted.

71. Open vessel base fragment. K.T.08 Cistern. H: 0.019; D (base): 012; th: 0.007. Clay light red (2.5 YR 6/6). Decoration light red (2.5 YR 6/6). Low ring base. Int. and ext. plain matt painted.

72. Open vessel base fragment. K.T.08 Cistern. H: 0.014; D (base): 0.042; th: 0.004. Clay reddish yellow (5 YR 7/6). Decoration red (10 R 5/8). Low ring base. Int. and ext. plain matt painted.

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1998 Karia Orientalizan Seramiği (unpublished PhD dissertation, Ege Üniversitesi, İzmir).

Gassner, V.

1997 Verena Gassner, Das Südtor der Tetragonos-Agora, Forschungen in Ephesos, Band 13/1, Vienna.

Goldman, H.

1950 Excavations at Gözlü Kule, Tarsus, the Hellenistic and Roman Period, Volume 1, Princeton.

Graeve, V. Von

1975

“Milet. Vorläufiger Bericht über die Grabungen im Südschnitt an der hellenistischen Stadtmauer 1966”, Istanbuler Miteilungen 25, 39–59.

1978

“Zur Milesischen Keramik im 8. und 7. Jh. v. Chr.”, in: G. Vallet (ed.), Les Céramiques de la Grèce de l’est et Leur Diffusion en Occident, Paris, 34–39.

Greenewalt, C. H. Jr., Ratté, C. and Rautmann, M. L.

1993 “The Sardis Campaigns of 1988 and 1989”, Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research, Volume 51, 1–43.

Greenewalt, C. H., Jr.

1978

Ritual Dinners in Early Historic Sardis. University of California Publications: Classical Studies 17 (Berkeley:

University of California).

2010

“Lydian Pottery (Lydia’da Çömlekçilik)”, in: N. D. Cahill (ed.), Lydialılar ve Dünyaları. The Lydians and Their World, 107–124, İstanbul.

Güngör, Ü.

2004 “The History of Klazomenai in the Fifth Century and the Settlement on the Island”, in: A. Moustaka, E. Skarlatidou, M.-C. Tzannes and Y. E. Ersoy (eds.), Klazomenai, Teos and Abdera: Metropoleis and Colony, Proceedings of the International Symposium Held at the Archaeological Museum of Abdera, Abdera, 20–21 October 2001, Thessaloniki, 121–132.

Gürtekin, R. G.,

1998 Lydia Seramiğindeki Yabancı Etkiler, (unpublished PhD Dissertation, Ege Üniversitesi, İzmir).

Gürtekin-Demir, R. G.

2002

“Lydian Painted Pottery at Daskyleion”, Anatolian Studies 52, 11–143.

2011

“An Eastern Mediterranean Painting Convention in Western Anatolia: Lydian Black-on-Red”, in: K. Duistermaat and I. Regulski (eds.), Intercultural Contacts in the Ancient Mediterranean. Proceedings of the International Conference at the Netherlands-Flemish Institute in Cairo, 25th to 29th October, 2008. Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta, 359–378. Leuven.

Forthcoming

“Lydian Pottery from the Hermus Valley”, in: R. Meriç (ed.), Hermos Vadisi Araştırmaları,

 

İzmir.

Hayes, J. W.

 

2008 Roman Pottery: Fine Ware Imports, The Athenian Agora, Vol. 32, Princeton, NJ.

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2003 Klazomenai-Akpınar Nekropolisi (unpublished PhD Dissertation, Ege Üniversitesi, İzmir).

Kerschner, M.

1999 “Das Artemisheiligtum auf der Ostterasse des Kalabaktepe”, Archäologischer Anzeiger, Heft 1, 7–51.

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Kuzucuoğlu, T. and Tibet, A.

2002 “Le materiel ceramique issu des Fouilles menees en 1995 et 2000 sur l’acropole Lycienne de Xanthos”, Anatolia Antiqua 10, 245–260.

Ladstätter, S.

2003

Keramik, Forschungen in Ephesos, Band 8/4, Vienna, 22–83.

2008

Römische, spätantike und byzantinische Keramik, Forschungen in Ephesos, Band 14/1, Vienna.

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1972 Fouilles de Xanthos. Tome IV. Les céramiques archaïques et classiques. De l’acropole lycienne, Paris.

Mierse, W. E.

1986 “Lydian Pottery at Aphrodisias”, in: M. S. Joukowski (ed.), Prehistoric Aphrodisias. An Account of the Excavations and Artifact Studies. Volume 1: Excavations and Studies, Rhode Island, 413–424.

Özgünel, C.

1978

“Spätgeometrische Keramik in Bayraklı (Alt-Smyrna)”, in: Les Céramiques de la Grèce de l’est et Leur Diffusion en Occident, Paris, 17–26.

2006

Karia Geometrik Seramiği, İstanbul.

Özkan, T.

2009 “Funde aus einem Spätgeometrischen Brandgrab”, Arkeoloji Dergisi 14, 2009/2, 57–78.

Özver, A.

2012 Aigai Arkaik Dönem Seramikleri (unpublished M. A. Dissertation, Ege Üniversitesi, İzmir).

Pedley, J. G.

1974 “Carians in Sardis”, Journal of Hellenic Sturdies 94, 96–99.

Poblome, J.

1999 Sagalassos Red Slip Ware Typology and Chronology, Studies in Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology II, Turnhout.

Polat, G.

1993 A Group of Phrygian Pottery from the Archaeological Museum of Istanbul, İstanbul.

Polat, Y.

2009 The Findings from a Late Geometric Period Grave Uncovered at Beçin”, Anatolia Antiqua 17,133–150.

Pulak, C. and Townsend, R.

1987 “The Hellenistic Shipwreck at Serçe Limanı, Turkey: Preliminary Report”, American Journal of Archaeology 91, 31–57.

Ratté, C.

2009 “The Lydians and Carians”, in: R. Rumscheid (ed.), Die Karer und die Anderen. Internationales Kolloquium an der Freien Universität Berlin 13. Bis 15. Oktober 2005, 136–147.

Rotroff, S.

1997 Hellenistic Pottery Athenian and Imported Wheelmade Table Ware and Related Material, The Athenian Agora 29, Princeton.

Utili, F.

1999 “Die Archaische Nekropole von Assos”, Asia Minor Studien Band 31, Bonn.

Uygun, Ç. and Dökü, E.

2008 “Kibyra Yerel Kırmızı Astarlı Seramiklerinden Örnekler”, Adayla 11, 133–163.

Walter-Karydi, E.

1973 Samische Gefässe des 6. Jahrhunderts v. Chr., Samos 6.1, Bonn.

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R. Gül Gürtekin-Demir, Yasemin Polat

Yasemin Polat R. Gül Gürtekin-Demir, Yasemin Polat No.1 No.2 No.3 Interior No.4 No.5 Exterior No.6 Fig.

No.1

Yasemin Polat R. Gül Gürtekin-Demir, Yasemin Polat No.1 No.2 No.3 Interior No.4 No.5 Exterior No.6 Fig.

No.2

Polat R. Gül Gürtekin-Demir, Yasemin Polat No.1 No.2 No.3 Interior No.4 No.5 Exterior No.6 Fig. 1:
Polat R. Gül Gürtekin-Demir, Yasemin Polat No.1 No.2 No.3 Interior No.4 No.5 Exterior No.6 Fig. 1:
Polat R. Gül Gürtekin-Demir, Yasemin Polat No.1 No.2 No.3 Interior No.4 No.5 Exterior No.6 Fig. 1:

No.3

Polat R. Gül Gürtekin-Demir, Yasemin Polat No.1 No.2 No.3 Interior No.4 No.5 Exterior No.6 Fig. 1:
Polat R. Gül Gürtekin-Demir, Yasemin Polat No.1 No.2 No.3 Interior No.4 No.5 Exterior No.6 Fig. 1:
Polat R. Gül Gürtekin-Demir, Yasemin Polat No.1 No.2 No.3 Interior No.4 No.5 Exterior No.6 Fig. 1:

Interior

No.4

Gürtekin-Demir, Yasemin Polat No.1 No.2 No.3 Interior No.4 No.5 Exterior No.6 Fig. 1: Provincial Black on

No.5

Exterior

Yasemin Polat No.1 No.2 No.3 Interior No.4 No.5 Exterior No.6 Fig. 1: Provincial Black on Red
Yasemin Polat No.1 No.2 No.3 Interior No.4 No.5 Exterior No.6 Fig. 1: Provincial Black on Red

No.6

Yasemin Polat No.1 No.2 No.3 Interior No.4 No.5 Exterior No.6 Fig. 1: Provincial Black on Red

Fig. 1: Provincial Black on Red (Nos. 1-6)

288

Between Lydia and Caria: Iron Age Pottery from Kale-i Tavas, Ancient Tabae

and Caria: Iron Age Pottery from Kale-i Tavas, Ancient Tabae No.7 No.8 N o . 9
and Caria: Iron Age Pottery from Kale-i Tavas, Ancient Tabae No.7 No.8 N o . 9

No.7

Iron Age Pottery from Kale-i Tavas, Ancient Tabae No.7 No.8 N o . 9 No.10 No.11

No.8

Iron Age Pottery from Kale-i Tavas, Ancient Tabae No.7 No.8 N o . 9 No.10 No.11
Iron Age Pottery from Kale-i Tavas, Ancient Tabae No.7 No.8 N o . 9 No.10 No.11

No.9

from Kale-i Tavas, Ancient Tabae No.7 No.8 N o . 9 No.10 No.11 N o .
from Kale-i Tavas, Ancient Tabae No.7 No.8 N o . 9 No.10 No.11 N o .

No.10

from Kale-i Tavas, Ancient Tabae No.7 No.8 N o . 9 No.10 No.11 N o .

No.11

Kale-i Tavas, Ancient Tabae No.7 No.8 N o . 9 No.10 No.11 N o . 1
Kale-i Tavas, Ancient Tabae No.7 No.8 N o . 9 No.10 No.11 N o . 1
Kale-i Tavas, Ancient Tabae No.7 No.8 N o . 9 No.10 No.11 N o . 1

No.12

Ancient Tabae No.7 No.8 N o . 9 No.10 No.11 N o . 1 2 No.13

No.13

Tabae No.7 No.8 N o . 9 No.10 No.11 N o . 1 2 No.13 No.14

No.14

No.7 No.8 N o . 9 No.10 No.11 N o . 1 2 No.13 No.14 N

No.17

o . 9 No.10 No.11 N o . 1 2 No.13 No.14 N o . 1

No.15

9 No.10 No.11 N o . 1 2 No.13 No.14 N o . 1 7 No.15
9 No.10 No.11 N o . 1 2 No.13 No.14 N o . 1 7 No.15

No.16

9 No.10 No.11 N o . 1 2 No.13 No.14 N o . 1 7 No.15
9 No.10 No.11 N o . 1 2 No.13 No.14 N o . 1 7 No.15

No.18

Fig. 2: Provincial Black on Red (Nos. 7-18)

289

R. Gül Gürtekin-Demir, Yasemin Polat

R. Gül Gürtekin-Demir, Yasemin Polat No.20 No.19 No.21 No.22 No.23 Fig. 3: Provincial Bichrome Pottery (Nos.

No.20

R. Gül Gürtekin-Demir, Yasemin Polat No.20 No.19 No.21 No.22 No.23 Fig. 3: Provincial Bichrome Pottery (Nos.
R. Gül Gürtekin-Demir, Yasemin Polat No.20 No.19 No.21 No.22 No.23 Fig. 3: Provincial Bichrome Pottery (Nos.

No.19

R. Gül Gürtekin-Demir, Yasemin Polat No.20 No.19 No.21 No.22 No.23 Fig. 3: Provincial Bichrome Pottery (Nos.

No.21

R. Gül Gürtekin-Demir, Yasemin Polat No.20 No.19 No.21 No.22 No.23 Fig. 3: Provincial Bichrome Pottery (Nos.

No.22

Gül Gürtekin-Demir, Yasemin Polat No.20 No.19 No.21 No.22 No.23 Fig. 3: Provincial Bichrome Pottery (Nos. 19-23)

No.23

Fig. 3: Provincial Bichrome Pottery (Nos. 19-23)

No.23 Fig. 3: Provincial Bichrome Pottery (Nos. 19-23) Interior No.24 Exterior No.27 No.25 No.26 Fig. 4:

Interior

No.24

3: Provincial Bichrome Pottery (Nos. 19-23) Interior No.24 Exterior No.27 No.25 No.26 Fig. 4: Imported Black

Exterior

Bichrome Pottery (Nos. 19-23) Interior No.24 Exterior No.27 No.25 No.26 Fig. 4: Imported Black on Red

No.27

Bichrome Pottery (Nos. 19-23) Interior No.24 Exterior No.27 No.25 No.26 Fig. 4: Imported Black on Red

No.25

Pottery (Nos. 19-23) Interior No.24 Exterior No.27 No.25 No.26 Fig. 4: Imported Black on Red Pottery
Pottery (Nos. 19-23) Interior No.24 Exterior No.27 No.25 No.26 Fig. 4: Imported Black on Red Pottery

No.26

Fig. 4: Imported Black on Red Pottery (Nos. 24-27)

No.26 Fig. 4: Imported Black on Red Pottery (Nos. 24-27) No.28 No.29 No.30 Fig. 5: Imported

No.28

Fig. 4: Imported Black on Red Pottery (Nos. 24-27) No.28 No.29 No.30 Fig. 5: Imported Bichrome

No.29

Fig. 4: Imported Black on Red Pottery (Nos. 24-27) No.28 No.29 No.30 Fig. 5: Imported Bichrome

No.30

Fig. 5: Imported Bichrome Pottery (Nos. 28-30)

290

Between Lydia and Caria: Iron Age Pottery from Kale-i Tavas, Ancient Tabae

and Caria: Iron Age Pottery from Kale-i Tavas, Ancient Tabae No.31 No.32 No.33 Fig. 6: Late

No.31

Iron Age Pottery from Kale-i Tavas, Ancient Tabae No.31 No.32 No.33 Fig. 6: Late Geometric and

No.32

Age Pottery from Kale-i Tavas, Ancient Tabae No.31 No.32 No.33 Fig. 6: Late Geometric and Sub-Geometric
Age Pottery from Kale-i Tavas, Ancient Tabae No.31 No.32 No.33 Fig. 6: Late Geometric and Sub-Geometric

No.33

Fig. 6: Late Geometric and Sub-Geometric Pottery (Nos. 31-33)

6: Late Geometric and Sub-Geometric Pottery (Nos. 31-33) No.34 No.35 No.36 No.37 No.38 No.39 No.40 No.41
6: Late Geometric and Sub-Geometric Pottery (Nos. 31-33) No.34 No.35 No.36 No.37 No.38 No.39 No.40 No.41

No.34

Late Geometric and Sub-Geometric Pottery (Nos. 31-33) No.34 No.35 No.36 No.37 No.38 No.39 No.40 No.41 Fig.
Late Geometric and Sub-Geometric Pottery (Nos. 31-33) No.34 No.35 No.36 No.37 No.38 No.39 No.40 No.41 Fig.

No.35

Geometric and Sub-Geometric Pottery (Nos. 31-33) No.34 No.35 No.36 No.37 No.38 No.39 No.40 No.41 Fig. 7:

No.36

and Sub-Geometric Pottery (Nos. 31-33) No.34 No.35 No.36 No.37 No.38 No.39 No.40 No.41 Fig. 7: Other

No.37

Sub-Geometric Pottery (Nos. 31-33) No.34 No.35 No.36 No.37 No.38 No.39 No.40 No.41 Fig. 7: Other Archaic

No.38

Pottery (Nos. 31-33) No.34 No.35 No.36 No.37 No.38 No.39 No.40 No.41 Fig. 7: Other Archaic Pottery

No.39

Pottery (Nos. 31-33) No.34 No.35 No.36 No.37 No.38 No.39 No.40 No.41 Fig. 7: Other Archaic Pottery

No.40

(Nos. 31-33) No.34 No.35 No.36 No.37 No.38 No.39 No.40 No.41 Fig. 7: Other Archaic Pottery (Nos.

No.41

Fig. 7: Other Archaic Pottery (Nos. 34-41)

No.40 No.41 Fig. 7: Other Archaic Pottery (Nos. 34-41) No.42 No.45 No.43 No.44 Fig. 8: Corinthian

No.42

No.41 Fig. 7: Other Archaic Pottery (Nos. 34-41) No.42 No.45 No.43 No.44 Fig. 8: Corinthian Pottery

No.45

Fig. 7: Other Archaic Pottery (Nos. 34-41) No.42 No.45 No.43 No.44 Fig. 8: Corinthian Pottery (Nos.

No.43

7: Other Archaic Pottery (Nos. 34-41) No.42 No.45 No.43 No.44 Fig. 8: Corinthian Pottery (Nos. 42-44)
7: Other Archaic Pottery (Nos. 34-41) No.42 No.45 No.43 No.44 Fig. 8: Corinthian Pottery (Nos. 42-44)

No.44

Fig. 8: Corinthian Pottery (Nos. 42-44)

No.45 No.43 No.44 Fig. 8: Corinthian Pottery (Nos. 42-44) No.46 No.47 Fig. 9: Eastern Greek Archaic

No.46

No.43 No.44 Fig. 8: Corinthian Pottery (Nos. 42-44) No.46 No.47 Fig. 9: Eastern Greek Archaic Pottery

No.47

Fig. 9: Eastern Greek Archaic Pottery (Nos. 45-47)

291

R. Gül Gürtekin-Demir, Yasemin Polat

R. Gül Gürtekin-Demir, Yasemin Polat No.48 No.51 No.49 No.52 No.50 No.53 No.54 No.55 Fig. 10: Hellenistic

No.48

R. Gül Gürtekin-Demir, Yasemin Polat No.48 No.51 No.49 No.52 No.50 No.53 No.54 No.55 Fig. 10: Hellenistic

No.51

R. Gül Gürtekin-Demir, Yasemin Polat No.48 No.51 No.49 No.52 No.50 No.53 No.54 No.55 Fig. 10: Hellenistic
R. Gül Gürtekin-Demir, Yasemin Polat No.48 No.51 No.49 No.52 No.50 No.53 No.54 No.55 Fig. 10: Hellenistic

No.49

R. Gül Gürtekin-Demir, Yasemin Polat No.48 No.51 No.49 No.52 No.50 No.53 No.54 No.55 Fig. 10: Hellenistic

No.52

No.50

No.53
No.53
Yasemin Polat No.48 No.51 No.49 No.52 No.50 No.53 No.54 No.55 Fig. 10: Hellenistic Pottery (Nos. 48-55)

No.54

Yasemin Polat No.48 No.51 No.49 No.52 No.50 No.53 No.54 No.55 Fig. 10: Hellenistic Pottery (Nos. 48-55)

No.55

Fig. 10: Hellenistic Pottery (Nos. 48-55)

No.53 No.54 No.55 Fig. 10: Hellenistic Pottery (Nos. 48-55) No.56 No.57 No.58 No.59 No.60 N o

No.56

No.54 No.55 Fig. 10: Hellenistic Pottery (Nos. 48-55) No.56 No.57 No.58 No.59 No.60 N o .

No.57

No.55 Fig. 10: Hellenistic Pottery (Nos. 48-55) No.56 No.57 No.58 No.59 No.60 N o . 6
No.55 Fig. 10: Hellenistic Pottery (Nos. 48-55) No.56 No.57 No.58 No.59 No.60 N o . 6
No.55 Fig. 10: Hellenistic Pottery (Nos. 48-55) No.56 No.57 No.58 No.59 No.60 N o . 6

No.58

Fig. 10: Hellenistic Pottery (Nos. 48-55) No.56 No.57 No.58 No.59 No.60 N o . 6 1
Fig. 10: Hellenistic Pottery (Nos. 48-55) No.56 No.57 No.58 No.59 No.60 N o . 6 1

No.59

Hellenistic Pottery (Nos. 48-55) No.56 No.57 No.58 No.59 No.60 N o . 6 1 No.62 No.66

No.60

Pottery (Nos. 48-55) No.56 No.57 No.58 No.59 No.60 N o . 6 1 No.62 No.66 No.63

No.61

(Nos. 48-55) No.56 No.57 No.58 No.59 No.60 N o . 6 1 No.62 No.66 No.63 No.67

No.62

48-55) No.56 No.57 No.58 No.59 No.60 N o . 6 1 No.62 No.66 No.63 No.67 No.64

No.66

No.63

No.57 No.58 No.59 No.60 N o . 6 1 No.62 No.66 No.63 No.67 No.64 No.65 No.68

No.67

No.64

No.65

No.60 N o . 6 1 No.62 No.66 No.63 No.67 No.64 No.65 No.68 No.69 No.70 No.71
No.60 N o . 6 1 No.62 No.66 No.63 No.67 No.64 No.65 No.68 No.69 No.70 No.71

No.68

No.69

o . 6 1 No.62 No.66 No.63 No.67 No.64 No.65 No.68 No.69 No.70 No.71 Fig. 11:

No.70

. 6 1 No.62 No.66 No.63 No.67 No.64 No.65 No.68 No.69 No.70 No.71 Fig. 11: Roman

No.71

Fig. 11: Roman Pottery (Nos. 56-72)

. 6 1 No.62 No.66 No.63 No.67 No.64 No.65 No.68 No.69 No.70 No.71 Fig. 11: Roman

No.72

292

Between Adoption and Persistence: Two Regional Types of Pottery from Late Classical and Early Hellenistic Priene

Lars Heinze

from Late Classical and Early Hellenistic Priene Lars Heinze Fig. 1: Hemispherical bowl with double-grooved rim

Fig. 1: Hemispherical bowl with double-grooved rim (Priene, Bu 6.7; inv. no. PR 01 K016)

double-grooved rim (Priene, Bu 6.7; inv. no. PR 01 K016) Fig. 3: Hemispherical bowl with grooved

Fig. 3: Hemispherical bowl with grooved rim (Priene, Bu 7.7; inv. no. PR 07 K220)

; i n v . n o . P R 0 7 K 2 2 0

Fig. 2: Hemispherical bowl with grooved rim (Priene, Bu 6.10; inv. no. PR 01 K053)

bowl with grooved rim (Priene, Bu 6.10; inv. no. PR 01 K053) Fig. 4: Hemispherical bowl

Fig. 4: Hemispherical bowl with grooved rim (Priene, unstratified; inv. no. PR 06 K001)

with grooved rim (Priene, unstratified; inv. no. PR 06 K001) Fig. 5: ‘Lebes type’ lopas (Priene,
with grooved rim (Priene, unstratified; inv. no. PR 06 K001) Fig. 5: ‘Lebes type’ lopas (Priene,

Fig. 5: ‘Lebes type’ lopas (Priene, Bu 6.7; inv. no. PR 01 K018)

‘Lebes type’ lopas (Priene, Bu 6.7; inv. no. PR 01 K018) Fig. 6: ‘Lebes type’ lopas

Fig. 6: ‘Lebes type’ lopas (Priene, D2 / 22.4; inv. no. PR 02 K457)

293