Sie sind auf Seite 1von 10

---

~---------

--------

38

JERRY!>'lcBRlDE

Appendix III

Seminar fOT Composition 1919-1920 (Schwarzwaldschule)

Leo Brüsüger

Marianne Kirschner

Louise Flohn

Erny Estermann

Edith Komeiser

Erwin Ratz

Heinrich Fath

Lili Kowalska

Magda Schwarz

Grete Feuer

Malvide Kranz

Lisene Seybert

Gustav Fuchs

Friedrich Mahler

Christian Spanner-Hausen

Margit Halasz

Hedwig Massarek

Sofia Spatz

Helene Herschel

Hans Mayer

Lona Wassertrudinger

Alice Moller

39

SCHOENBERG AND SCHOPENHAUER

Pamela C. White

Feeling is afreadyJorm, the fdea is afready (he Ward.:

1. INTRODUCTlON TO DOCUMENTARY EVlDENCE:

SCHOENBERG'S LIBRARY

In one of Schoenberg's Bibles, 2 at Deuteronomy f.f.V Mose"), Chapter 22, there is an editorial subtitle which Schoen- berg underlined in red: "Vermischte Vorschriften, besonders der

IVlenschenliebe und des lYliileidens mit Tieren Gesetze wegen Sünden und Unkeuschheit" (Various prescriptions, especially of lo-,,'e and

compassioll, with laws against vice and unchasteness). On the next

page, which

paper marker is ripped in at the top cf the page. On it is viritten in red pencil, "Siehe Schopenhaueri" The passage meant is indicated by a red pencil in the margin at Deut. 22:6:

and ends with 23 :26, a manila

begins with Deut. 22:6

Vv'enn du auf dem V/eg findest ein Vogelnest auf einem Baum oder auf der Erde, mit Jungen oder mit Eiern, und dass die Mutter auf den Jungen oder auf den Eiern sitZI, so soilst du nicht die Mutter mit den Jungen nehmen.

(If on your way you find a bird's nest in a rree or on the ground, wiril young ones or witil eggs, and the mather sitting on the yaung or on The eggs, you shall not take toe mother wirh the yaung ones

)

This biI of marginalia which makes the connection bet\veen the Bible passage and Schopenhauer's concept of "Mitleid" (pity), belongs ro

a \vhole se ries of marginal inscriptions, underlinings and inserted

notes in the three complete Bibles in Schoenberg's Ebrary. ibis par- ticular 1907 Bible, probably the first Schoenberg owned, is listed in

'Arno!d Schoenberg, "Problems in Teaching Art" (1911), Sryle {md Idea, ed. Leonard Stein (New York: St. Manin's Press, 1975), p. 369.

Teswmenls,/1!ach der

deutschen ()bersefzungID. Marrill Lu/hers (Berlin: Britische und Ausländische Bibelgesell· schaft, 1907). Ar the Arnold Schoenberg Institute, Los Angdes.

zDle Bibel/oder die ganze/Heilige Schrifl/des/Allen und Neuen

40

PAMELA C. \VHITE

his own library catalogue,; wirh an entry date of Jan. 23, 1913. VIhen books do appear in this eatalogue-in which Schoenberg began in January 1913 to list presumably all his books aequired up to that date, and made his last entry in March 1918-it is of course then possible to co me mueh eloser to the period of time in which Schoen- berg was eoncerned with them, although there is the obvious caution that one may read a book wel! before buying a copy of one's own, and also one may buy a book and never read it. This sort of evidence can only be useful in conjunction wirh other clues. For example, many of the inseriptions oceur at various passages which eoncerned Schoenberg at different limes, as related in his letters or his vocal texts or essays. The passage from Deuteronomy just cited probably was part of Schoenberg's reading in preparation for Moses und Aron, since it is part of a section of law traditionally attributed to Mosaic revelation. Another useful indicator of when eertain marginalia were written is Schoenberg's handwriting. The "Siehe Schopenhauer" note not only pertains to Mosaic law, wh ich may suggest a possible connection with Moses und Aron, but it is written in Gothic script, whieh Schoen- berg abandoned after leaving Germany, and therefore a date not later than the period of writing Moses und Aron is indicated. In the same Bible, a lavish braided ribbon marker aceompanies a piece of paper laid in at Leviticus with "Versöhnungstag" (Yom Kippur or Day of Atonement) wrilten on it and three passages: "3

Mose 16," "23" and "27." This appears in Gothic writing, in the

purpie indelible peneil which Sehoenberg favored in sketches in the 1920's and early 1930's, and has to do with Schoenberg's coneern about the annulment of VOws on Yom Kippur and his re-entry imo the Jewish community, nullifying his earlier Christian conversion- a subjecr he was to address again in his unpublished notes to his

setting ofthe Kol Nidre, Op. 39 in 1938.'

3At the Arnold Sd'.Oenberg Institute. Adescription and lis[ of comems is published in Clara Steuermann, "From the Archives: Schoenberg's Librar)' Catalogue," JASf, 3/2 (1979), 203-18. References to the same cmalogue are also made in H. H. Stuckenschmidt, Amofd Schoenberg: His L!fe, World and Work, trans. H. Seade (New York: G. Schirmer, 1977), p. 183, but are not entirely consistem with the catalogue as it no\\' stands. 4 Arno ld Schoenberg, "To KaI Nidre," [co 1938], unpubtished notes to Ka! l\/feire, Op. 39 (in English), at the Arnold Schoenberg Institute.

SCHOENBERG .A."·W SCHOPEr\HAUER

41

Nlarkers and annotations in the Psalms and some of the Prophets

are more generally applicable-they \vere important to his thought

late in life, but they are also reflected earlier in the blessing passages

of Moses und Aron, Die Jakobsleiter, and Der Biblische Weg.

The Bibles are only a small portion cf the entire personal library preserved in the Schoenberg Nachlass. Hundreds of volumes are kept at the Arnoid Schoenberg Institute, many rieh in annotations, underlinings, and inserted notes and markers, all of which provide clues to when Schoenberg was reading them and what he "vas think- ing about at the time. Much is already known in a general '.,vay about Schoenberg's philo- sophical and literary interests and preferences, dra'vvn panIy from the authors whose texts he chose to set: Dehmel, Balzac, etc., and partly frem the company he kept and their recollections: comments by contemporaries reveal a shared interest in Karl Kraus, Arthur Schopenhauer, Friedrieh Nietzsche, and others.' The Schaenberg library, however, provides an excellent primary rescurce for more specific inquiries into this subjecL 6

2. SCHOENBERG AND SCHOPENHAUER:

DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE

The philosophy of Anhur Schopenhauer was planted firmly in Schoenberg's mind, generally , and also specifically in relation to Schoenberg's probings for the text ef lvJoses und Aron. The mar- ginalia described above demonstrate Schoenberg's interest in the philosopher. What further evidence exists concerning Schopen- hauer's influence on Schoenberg, and of what philosophical concepts does Ihis influence consist?

'See, for cxampie, imerviews with Schoenberg's comempo,aries in Joa" /\lkn Smüh, "Sprechstimme-Geschich(e: An Oral History of the Genesis of ,he Twelve-Tone Idea," Ph.D. diss. Princeron University, 1977. °Dctailed discussions of literary and philosophieal influeneö on Schoenberg's creative process, incorporating evidenee from Schoenberg's library, especially in connection with fin- de-sieck literary ini1uenees on early voca! texts, expressionist tCX'1S, Balzac, Schopenhauer and Kar! Kraus, are given in my Ph.D. dissertation, "Idea and Representation: Source- Criticai and Anaiytical Studies of Musie, Text and Religious Thought in Sehoenberg's 'Moses und Aron,'" Harvard University, 1983. A comple1:e listip.g of the coments of the personal Ubrary, including notes on insened papers and marginalia in Sehoenberg's hand, firsl assembled in connection wüh this research, lS eurrently in preparation for pubiication in the Jomnal.

42

?:\MELA C. WHrn:

Schoenberg owned alm ost all of the works of Schopenhauer in his private library by the year 1913. Extant in the collection are the Sämtliche Werke, all six volumes of the first Reclam edition, 1891,' edited by Eduard Grisebach. These are all entered by Schoenberg in his library catalogue with the date January 23, 1913. Marginal anno- tations appear in four volumes: in voL H, a marginal note" Jakobs- leiter!" on p. 264 of Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung; in Vol. IV, Parerga und Paralipofnena, in the essay "Von Dam, was Einer Vor- stellt" marginalia plus a small sheet tipped in, as well as a small sheet 01' notes inserted in "Baranesen und Marimen;" in Val. V, Über religion, many marginal notes plus two large pages tipped in dated "12/XI1.1914" and "5/12.1914"; and in Vol. VI, Farben- lehre, a brief note and a longer sheet dated "6.4.1922" as well as a separate sheet tipped in containing notes on God. In addition, one of the most well-worn books in the library is the Parerga und Para- lipomena: Kleine Philosophische Schriften, vol. 2, a second copy of the Reclam Werke. The Book is not listed in Schoenberg's own catalogue, and therefore was probably added to the collection after 1918. The margins of this book are heavily annotated, covering a wide range of topics, and there is heavy pencil underlining on every page, indicating very elose reading. Additional evidence exists for dating Schoenberg's interest in Schopenhauer, beginning as early as 1911, when Schoen'oerg made reference to Schopenhauer (Parerga und Paralipomena) in the first edition of the Harmonielehre.' The following year, Schoenberg also referred to Schopenhauer in two essays: "Gustav Mahler,''' and "The Relationship to the Text." '0 The two short essays inserted into the Schopenhauer Werke, Vol. V, both bear dates indicating a simi- lar, only slightly later period of interest: "12/XIl 1914," and "5!l2 1914." In addition, the quotation at the head of this article, from "Problems in Teaching Art" (1911)," already contains the words

'Reclam

pI.

nos.

2761-5,

1781-5,

2801-5,

2821-5,

2841-5,

2861-5,

date

ldenl~fied in

Art!~~r Hübscher, Schopenhauer-Bibliographie (StuHgart; F. Frommann-G. Holzboog, 198 i),

pp

.

.)-6.

 

STheory oJ Harmony,

trans,

R. Carter (Berkdey: Universü)' 01' California Press,

1978;

based on 3rd German ed., 1922), p. 414.

9Sly1e and Idea, pp. 457-8. I 0S{yleond !deo, pp. 141-2. "S{yle und !deo, p. 369.

SCHOEl\BERG A:-':D SCHOPEl\HAUER

43

"feeling" and "form," "idea/' and "word,)) the importance cf

which will 'oe described below. Schopenhauer continued to be important to Schoenberg through- out the 1920's as \veIl: an unpublished manuscript in the Nachlass entitled "Schopenhauer und Sokrates" is dated "Potsdach, 23.VII.

1927."

Oskar Adler was an important personal inf1uence on Schoenberg's philosophy and Da doubt abaut reinforced the latter's in te rest in SchoDenhauer. Schoenberg acknowledged Adler as an importam early influence on his philosophical thinking in the essay "My Evolu- tion" (1949):

Through him [Os kar Adler] llearned of the existence of

and he directed my first steps therein. He also slimu!aled my imeres[ in poeuy

arid phi!osophy and ail my acquaintance wirh ciassical music derived from piaying quanets \vith hirn, for even then he was already an excellem first

vioEnist.'2 (emphasis mine)

a [heo!y of music,

Adler's personal influence has also been described by CODl.:empo- raries of Schoenberg as communicating a specific im:erest in the philosophy of Schopenhauer. Lona Truding, one of the pianists in the Verein für musikalische Privataufführungen, and a student of Schoenberg at the Schwarzwald school seminar, is recorded as say- ing, ~'Oskar Adler was a great admirer of Schopenhauer and they were all Kantians. That was the time. Yes, Kantianism hadn't died out yet."'3 Karl Kraus, \vhose influence on Schoenberg \vas also very impor- rant in the formulation of his philosophieal, literary and political thinking, I ~ has also been described as deriving his philosophical orientation from Schopenhauer. Janik and Toulmin, authors cf

JiVittgenstein 's Vienna, have written:

Kraus himsetf \vas no philosopher, süll less a scicntisL If Kraus' s vic\vs haVe a philosophical ancestry, this comes most assuredly horn Schopenhauer; for alone among the great philosophers, Schopenhauer was a kindred spirit, a man of philosophical profundity, \vith a strang talent for poiemic and aphor~

i2S{)!!e and Idea, pp. 79-80.

':-Quoted from a personai imcrvlew in Joan Allen Smith, "Sprechsti!Eme-Göchichle,"

p.43.

:4This lOpic is discussed in detail in my Ph.D. dissertation, "ldea and Represcntation," pp. 126-34.

44

PA!'1iELA C. \\'1-111"E

ism, a literary as weIl as philosophicat genius. Schopenhauer, indeed, was the only philosopher \vho at aB appealed to Kraus.' 5

Schoenberg's use of his Schopenhauer vo]umes may be compared to his books by other philosophers: of Kant, Schopenhauer's direc! intel!ectual forebear, he owned practically everything: the Reclam

Sämtliche Werke in eight volumes, plus Kritik der reinen Verkunfl, Kritik der Urteilskraft, and Prolegomena zu einer jeden Kunfiigen Metaphysik, die als Wissenschaft wird auftreten können (also

undated Reclam editions). Of Hegel, no books at all! Of Nietzsche, who admitted a great debt to Schopenhauer," several works: Der

Face Wagner: Götzen Dämmerung, Nietzsche Contra Wagner, Um- wertung aller Werte, Dichtungen Vo!. VIII (pub!. 1904), Das Geburt der Tragödie Vo!. I (pub!. 1903), Also Sprach Zarathustra (pub!.

1906), and Gedichte und Sprüche (Pub!. 1901). Other philosophical writings in his library include one v01ume of Feuerbach, Ein Ver- mächtnis (1912); several volumes of Hemi Bergson; complete Werke, volumes (1910), Entweder/Oder, 2 vo1s. (1911), and Die Tagebücher, vo!. 2 of two volumes (1923) of S0fen Kierkegaard; the Wörterbuch der Philosophischen Begriffe by Rudolf Eisler (father of the com- poser Hanns Eisler), (published in Berlin in 1927 and like]y acquired there); as weIl as Aristotle, Nikomachische Ethik (1909); Hippocra- tes, Erkenntnisse (1907); and Plato, 8 volumes published in the years 1906-1910, including Platon Staat (1909), which contains a book- mark and one smal! annotation, and appears wel! worn. As for the dating of the period during which Schoenberg's interest in these other phi10sophers began, Schoenberg's own library cata- 10gue further confirms datings earlier than the 1920's for his reading of other philosophers. Schoenberg entered eleven volumes of Kant in the catalogue on January 23, 1913, with five of Bergson, four of Nietzsche and one of Swedenborg in 1913 as wel!. Feuerbach is

i5 Allan Janik and Stephen Toulmin, Wiugensrein's Vienna (New York: Simün and Schusrcr, 1973), p. 74. The ~ame amnors also liken Kraus [0 Kierkegaard, pp. 79 alle 179fr. Schopenhauer, Kant and Nietzsehe are all mentioned many times in Kraus' literaTY joumai,

Die Fackel.

IONierzsche wrmc of The Worid as Wit! and Idea [hat it was "a mirror in "vhieh I eSDl0u the wodd, life, and my o\\'n nature depicted wirh a frightfuJ grandeur," and "It seemed '-1.5 if Schopenhauer \vere addressing me personally. I feIt his enthusiasm, and seemed 1O see him before rne. Every Ene cried aloud for renunciation, denial, resignation." Trans. "Vii! Duram, The Story ofPhifosophy, 2nd ed. (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1961), p. 303.

SCI-IOE0iBERC AND SCHOPE;\H.·\LER

43

listed with one volume, an undated entry probably made between 1915 and 1918, as deduced from surrounding entries in Schoenberg's library catalogue. (Klerkegaard is not listed, moving the probable

date cf purehase of the [hree Kierkegaard volumes in the current

library to a date after 1918.) Schoenberg also made references ta Nierzsche in essays dated as early as 1911," also in 1922," and as late as 1947. "

It may be seen from these data that Schoenberg's interesr in Scho-

penhauer, Kant and Nietzsehe was wel! developed by 1913 (Schoen- berg was then 39 years old), and he had done extensive reading cf other philosophers by that time as \Nell.

Vlhat is rem ar kable by its absence is any evidence in Schoenberg's

library of the \vorks of Ludwig \Vittgenstein (1889-1951) and his cirde. \A/hile Wittgenstein's writings became available as early as 1914, there is no evidence that Schoenberg ever investigared 'Chis line of philosophical thought, although it was heing developed viTtually in his Oi,vn backyard. The curious intermingling of philosophers, artists and critics in Vienna at this time, and the resurgence of interest in Kant J Schopenhauer and Kierkegaard occurring simul- taneously witt "modernist" movements in philosophy like logical positivism, are described in more detail in Wittgenstein 's Vienna by Allan Janik and Stephen Toulmin. 20

3. THE INFLUENCE OF SCHOPENHAUER ON SCHOENBERG

The influence of Schopenhauer on Schoenberg's thinking can be seen in several different ways. First, the influenee 1S refleeted directly in Schoenberg's own essays, and philosophical 'Vvritings about music and other matters. Schopenhauer's use of the Platonic Idea (Idee) becomes extremely important. On the basis of the documentary evi- dence from Schoenberg's library, it seerns that it is primarily through Schopenhaner that Schoenherg became preoccupied wirh this con- cept of !dea, (Gedanke, Platonic Idee, or, as in Schopenhauer, Vor-

:7"Problems in Teaching An," Slyieand Idee!, pp. 365-8.

:s"i\bout Ornamems, Primitive RhYIhms, ete. and Bird Song," S!}'!!e und Idea, pp. 298-

302.

]:"Brahms the Progressive, " Style und Idea, pp. 398,414. 2vSee especiaHy pp. 18- i 9, 92-119.

46

PAMEL-\ C. \\"Hl: L

siellung)," and its Represenration (Darstellung)."

These concepts had become a commonplace by 1910 in virtually all fields of Viennese cultural debate," and were an importanr envi- ronmental influence on all creative artists of the time in one way or another. The discussion of these concepts inc!uded, for example, works before 1900 by science theorists Gustav Hertz (1887-1973) and Hermann Helmholtz (1821-1894), and inspired the linkage of philosophy and aesthetics with criticism of language (Sprachkritik) and theory of knowledge in the first decade of the twentieth eentury by such philosophers as Ernst Mach (1838-1916), Fritz Mauthner 1849-1923), Ernst Cassirer (1874-1945)" as wel! as Wittgenstein. Schoenberg did not own any writings by these authors, however, and there is no documenrary evidence that they played a direet role in the formulation of his thoughts about ldea and Represenration, as Schopenhauer's writings c1early did. The Platonic ldea in Schopenhauer is particularly expounded con- cerning art.

The trmh which lies at the foundation of all thaI we have hilherto said about an, is that the object of an, the Represemmion of which is the aim of the artist, and the knowledge of which must therefore precede his \vork as its germ and saurce, is an Idea in Plato's sense, and never anything else; tlor the par- Iicular thing, the object of common apprehension, and not the concept, thc object of rational thought and of science. cl

Schopenhauer even develops a specific view of the purpose of music, from which the connection with Schoenberg is easily drawn:

The Platonic Ideas are thc adequate objec[jfication of \vill. To excite or suggest the know!edgc of these by means of the Representation of particular things (for works of an are themselves always Represenrations of panicular things) is thc end of all thc other arts, which can only be attained b~l a corresponding change in the knowing subjecL Thus all these arts objectify the will indireclly

2'For example, sec Schopenhauer's uses cf the term Vorstellung, in Die V/ei! als }Vj/fe und Vorste{{ung, cd. 1 Berndl, Bibliothek der Philosophen 1lI; Schopenhauers !-Vake il!

(Munieh: Georg Müller, 1912), pp. 3rT; and Vorstellung as Platonic Idee, pp. 203fL 22Ibid., see especiall;.' Darstellung as expression of an, pp. 257ff.

"3 For funher discussion of [his phiJosophical debale, see Ja"ik a!ld Toulr:lin, 0]). ci,

pp. 31, 120-66.

2~See, for example, E. Cassirer, Philosophie der s)"mboiischen Formen, Tei! f: Dii? Sprach'.!

(Berlin: Bruno Cassirer, 1923). 25Trans. D. H. Parker in Schopenhauer, Selecrions (New York: CharJes Scribncr's Sons,

1928), p. 154.

SCHOENBERG A:--;D SCHOPENHAUER

onl)' by means of the ldeas; and since our world is nothing but the manifesta- tion of the Ideas in multiplicity, through their entrance into the principle of individualit)' (the form of the knowledge possible for the individual as such), musie also, since it passes over the Ideas, is emireI)! independent of the phe-

nomenai \\'orld. ignores it altogether, could 10 a cerrain extent exist if Ihere

\"

no warld at all, ,"vhieh cannot be said of the other arts. Music is as difi~ct

as

an objectifica[ion and cOPY of the whole will as rhe world rtse!f, nay, even as [he Ideas, ',vhose multiplied manifestation constitutes the world of indi- vidual things. Music is thus by no means like the other ans, Ihe copy of the Ideas, but the copy of the Will itself, whose objectivity the Ideas are. This 15 why the effect of music is so much more po\verful and peneLrating than that of the üLher ans, für [hey speak only of shadO\vs, bur it speaks of the [hing itself. ,6

Schoenberg adopted these cünstructs virtually \'vho1e. The most familiar expression of these ideas by Schoenberg in prose is the nov;, famous essay "New Music, Outmoded Music, Style and Idea'J (1946), in which the whole issue of the Idea and Represenration is thrashed out, and the Idea in any true art form is proclaimed as pri- mary, and style the servant \vhieh expresses it, and never the other \.vay around. 2i In the same year, in "Heart and Brain in I'!Iusic/ l Sehoenberg also stated that in \.vriting Verkiäne lVachr he "'t,:anted lO express the idea behind the poem."" Schoenberg's essays emitled "Der musikalische Gedanke, seine Darstellung und Durchführung," and "Der musikalische Gedanke und die Logik, Technik, und Kunst seiner Darstellung," unpublished manuscripts at the Arnold Schoen- berg Institute Archive, (dated "6.7.1925" and ~'21," "22," and "29.6.34" "'lith an earlier outline dated ~~5.6.34" and a later intro- duetion dated "Ende September 1934"),2'1 reflee! this artistic pre- occupation with Idea and RepresentaIion. Schoenberg dealt directly and not uneritically with Schopenhauer's "demand that the evaluation of works of an can only be based on authority" in ~'Criteria für the Evaluation of Music" (1946):

Unfortunately he does not say who bestows authority Dor how one can acquire i[; nor whe[her Ir \vill remain uncontested, and whal will happen if such an

26lbid., pp. 176-7.

rStpieand fdea, PD. 113-24.

:'''St:rfe cmd Idea, p: 55.

"~DcIailed descripIion 01' this

material

are

given

in

Akxander

Goeh:,

"Schoenberg's

Cedanke :vlanuscript," JAS! 2 (1977), pp. 4-25; also described in Rufer, The ~Yorks 0/ /-lrnofd Schoenberg, trans. Dika Newlin (London: Faber ar:d Faber, 1962), pp. 127-8.

48

PA\1ELA C, \VH1TE

authority makes mistakes. Mistakes like his own, when hc, disregarding Bee- thoven and Mozart, called Beliini's Norma the greatest opera. 30

Schoenberg criticized Schopenhauer's theory cf music D1uch earlier in "The Relationship to the Text" (1912), beginning lhe essay as follows:

Even Schopenhauer, who at first says something really exhaustive about the essence of music in his wonderful thought. The composer reveais the inmOSE essence of the \vorld and utters the most profound wisdom in a language \vhich his reason does not understand, just as a magnetie somnambulist gives dis- closures about things which she has no idea of when awake-even he loses himself later \vhen he tries to transJate details of Ihis language which {he reason does no{ undersland imo our terms. Ir mUSI, however, be dear to hirn that in this translation into rhe terms of human Ianguage, which is abstraction, reduc- [ion to the recognizable, the essential, the language of the \Vorld, \",hieh ouglll perhaps to remain incomprehensible and only perceprible, is lost. But even so he is justified in this procedure, sinee after all it is his aim as a philosoph er ro represent [he essence of the world, its un5urveyable weallh, in terms of con- cepts \vhose poverty is all wo easily seen through. '

He also referred to Schopenhauer's distinction between sorrow and sentimentality in regard to Mahler's music in his essay "Gusta'! Mahler" (1912;1948).

\iVhat is true feeling? Btil [hat is a quesIion of feeling! That can only be answered by feeling! Whose feelings are fight? Those cf the man who disputes the true feelings of anolher, cr Ehose of the man \vho gladly grams another his [fUe feelings, so lang as he says just \'ihat he has IO say? Schopenhauer expiains the difference between senümentality and tfue SOrrQ\\". He chooses as an exam- pie Penareh, 'ivhom the painters of broad $r[okes would surely caU sentimental, and shO\\'s [hat the differenee eonsists in this: true sorrow elevates itself w resignation, \vhile sentimemality is ineapable of that, but ahvays grieves and mourns, so that one has finally lost 'eanh and heaven together' . J:

Like the references to Schopenhauer in "The Relationship to the Text," the untitled essay dated "5/12 1914" inserted into Vol. V of the Schopenhauer Werke, Über Religion, also indicates that while Schoenberg took Schopenhauer's writings very seriously, he did not ab so rb them uncritically, whole. n In it, he criticizes Schopenhauer's

30Slyleand fdea, p. 136.

>IIbid., pp. 141~2.

32Ibid., p. 457. 33Thanks tO David Schwarzkopf, Harvard Music Library, far assislance in lranscfloing and [ranslating these unpublished essays.

SCHOE;\,BERG AND SCHOPE?\HAL!ER

49

attitude to\vard ludaism as careless and reDecting a personal a\'ersion or prejudice. He criticizes very particular statements of Schopen- hauer, pointing out that Judaism does not lack a messianic vision of hope, and further criticizing Schopenhauer's uncritical lise of the Ahasueras myth, citing the hardships of the chosen people as evi- dence that ludaism continues to exist against all odds, because it adheres to spiritual, not material rewards. (The shorter insened essay, "12/ XII 1914," 1S a curious and rnisogynist excursus, acknovv'l- edged by Schoenberg himself as fancifu!, expanding on a reference by Schopenhauer to jealousy, stating that male jealousy is needed to prevent women from fornicating \vith lo\ver life ferms and contami- nating the human species!) The 1927 unpublished essay "Schopenhauer und Sokrales" is also

a critical one, accusing Schopenhauer of indefensibly dismissing Socrates as a fiction of Plato. Schoenberg argues that Schopenhauer should knov-/ that great ideas cannot always be expressed easily·, and mal' be especial!y difficuit to pul on paper. Therefore, Socrales very likely did exist but needed Plato for expression-the very issue cf idea and Representation and the core issue of ]'vloses und Aron again. In addition to these direcr references, elements of Schopenhauer's thought seern to be echoed in oIher writings of Schoenberg as weIl. Schoenberg comes dose to quoring Schopenhauer's philosophy of art in a letter (c. 1913) to Emil Hertzka about the purpose of hls opera" Die Glückliche Hand":

The whole thing should have the eHeet (not of a dream) but of ehords. Of

music. Ir must never suggest symbois, cr meaning, or {hougt!s, but simply the

drags a meaning around with

it, at ieast not in [he form in which it (music) manifests irself, even though meaning is inherent in its naIUre, so wo this should simply be like sounds for the ey'e, and so far as I am concerned everyone i5 free to [hink or feel something similar to \vhat he [hinks or f,,;els \vhile hearing muslc. 3"

play 01' cola urs and forms. Just as music never

A sirnilar passage occurs in a charming letter of Schoenberg to \\1a1-

ter Koons of NBC, weilten in English in 1934. Note in addition to

3·~Arno!d Schol!nberg Leuers, ed.

Erwin Stein, trans.

Eithne \Vilkins and

ErnsI

Kaiser

(London: Faber and Faber, 1964; 1st German ed. 1958), p. 44.

50

?A:VELA C. WHlTE

the definition of music, the Schopenhauerian attention to the theme of fulfillment of desires:

Music is a simultaneous and a successive~ness of tones and tone combinarions, wh ich are so organized Ehat its impression on the ear is agreeable, and its im-

pression on the intelligence 1S comprehensibie, and that these Impressions have the po\',:er W influence occuit pans of our soul and of our sentimental spheres and that this influence makes us live in a dreamland of fulfilled desires, or in

adreamed hell of

What is water? H,O; and \ve can drink it, and can wash us by it; and Ir is transparent; and has no eolom; and we can use it to swim in and to ship; and it drives mills ' etc., ete., I know a nice and wuching story:

A blind man asks his guide: 'How looks milk?' The Guide ansvlI'ered: 'Milk looks \vhite.' The Blind Man: 'What's thm 'white'? I\'1ention a thing \vhich is white[' The Guide: 'A swan. It is perfect white, and iI has a long whire and bem neck The Blind Man: 'A bent neck'? How is Ihm'?' The Guide, imitating \vith his arm the form of a swan's neck, lets the blind man

feel the form of his arm The Blind Man (flowing softiy with his hand along the arm of (he Guide):

etc

, etc

,

,

'

'Nmv I know how looks milk.''':'

, ' 'Nmv I know how looks milk.''':' he preoccupation wirh the Idea and its Representation

he preoccupation wirh the Idea and its Representation is clearly written into the text of l'vioses Lind Aron. oe, For exam· ple, the first mention of "Gedanke" is made by ivloses in

connection with God: "Gott meiner Väter, Gott Abrahams, Isaaks und Jakobs, der du ihren Gedanken in mir \viederenveckt hasL" ("God of my father; God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, who has reawakened these ideas in me.") This passage may be compared to the Biblical passage from which it was drawn, Exodus 3:6: "And he [God] said, 'I am the God of your father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob'" echoed again at Ex. 3: 15 and 3:16. The concept of the Idea was Schoenberg's own addition to the original Biblical material.

,5 fbid., p

186,

.i6 A fun her brief descriptior. of the !dea (Gedanke) as cemral w SCho~,lberg's lhough:

especial!y in relation [Q /'/foses und Aron, is given in Odil Hannes S,cck, (Yluses und Am!!:

Die Oper A

Schön bergs und ihr biblischer sroffCvlunich: Kaiser, 1981), pp

42-4

SCHOE~BER(;

0

:\0 SCHOPENHAUER

51

Schoenberg's "'\:\/ort" or \Vord is also akin to the conceDt of

Representation Of Darstellung

powerful moment which eloses the musical portion of the opera as it was left by the composer, Moses addresse; God as the !de~ itself:

"Unvorstellbarer Gottl Unaussprechlicher, vieldeutiger Gedanke 1"

(" !nconceivable God! Inexpressible, ambiguous Idea!") Here the nominalism of Kant and Schopenhauer loudly resonates, equating

the ultimate ldea with the noumena which can never be directly known. In reaction to the salvation of the people in splte of their apostasy, Moses cries out in despair, "Lässt du diese Auslesung zu?

" ("Will you allow

this interpretation? Is Aron, my mouth, permined 'Co make this

Image?") The problem again is of Gedanken VS. Bild. "So habe ich mir ein Bild gemacht, falsch, wie ein Bild nur sein kann! So bin

ich geschlagen1 So \var alles \Vahnsinn, \vas ich gedacht habe,

C~So have I created an image, false as an image can only bel So I am

defeated! So all was madness that ! thought before.")-the ultimate realization that the nournena can never be fully kno'vvn-"und kann und darf nicht gesagt \verdenl 0 vVort, das mir fehlt!" ('-"and can and dares not oe spokenl 0 word, thou \vord that I lackl") The \vords of the opening formula '~Einziger, c\viger, allgegen- wärtiger, unsichtbarer und unvorstellbarer Gott" appear frequently

Darf Aron, mein Mund, dieses Bild machen?

At the end of Act II in the extr~mely

,"

throughout. Essential components cf Schoenberg's personal theol- ogy, in lvfoses und Aron they take on an invocational, almest incan- tational quality. The words also appear periodically by themselves or in pairs, for example, "unvorstellbar-unsichtbar" in Aron's \vords in Act 1, Scene 2, and, as nouns: "Allmächti2:er" or ;'der

,:, Allmächtiger." 01' all

due to the philosophical genesis of Schoenberg's o\\'n GOllesgedank.

unvorstellbar>? directly echoes the

language of Schopenhauer, the concept of ;'Vorstellung" and "Dar-

stellung" and the nominalist principle that nothing can oe kno\vn

in irs essence, but on1y incompletely through the senses

is directly expressed in the dialogue between Moses and Aron in Act I, Scene 2 in the oratorio, \vhen I\1oses says "Kein Bild kann Dir ein Bild geben vom Unvorstellbaren."

these adjectives, "unvorstellba;n is the bes~

h b

ar,

""

l. oget h ,er \Vltn .,

T

"U

.

"nSlC t

This though!

52

PA.\1EL.:\ C. WH

11.:

Aron responds with a similar thought: "Nie wird Liebe Ermüden sichs vorzubilden." Schoenberg's o\vn religious application of this Schopenhauerian concept is precisely in connection with the Biblical idea of a Chosen People. The people are happy or blessed precisely because they can think about or contemplate and love a God which in its essence is invisible and unknowable. This working out of Scho- penhauer's thought and terminology through a religious, and specif- ically Old Testament mode, is perfectly exemplified in the following excerpt from Act 1, Scene 2 in the oratorio text:

Moses: Nur im Menschen kann Gott bekämpft werden. Nur in seiner Vor- stellung. Gou aber übertriff[ jede Vorsle!!ung. Aron: Gebilde der höcbsten Phantasie, wie dankt sie dirs, dass Du sie reizes::

zu bilden. Moses: Kein Bild kann Dir ein Bild machen vom Unvorstellbaren.

Nie wird die Liebe ermüden siehs vorzubilden. Glückliches Volk das

so seinen GOlt liebt. Auserwählres Volk, einen einzigen GOll, e\-vig zu lieben mit tausendmal der Liebe mit der alle andern Volker ihre vielen Göuer lieben ~und sie wechseln. )Aoses: Auserwähltes Volk: ein in einzigen, ewigen, unvorstellbaren, allge- genwärtigen, unsichtbaren Gott zu denken. Aron: Unvorstellbar-unsichtbar-Volk, ausenvählt den einzigen zu liebe, I,virst Du ihn unvorstellbar wollen, \venn schon unsichtbar?

Aron:

Moses: \-Vollen? Kann Gott sein, dass wir ihn uns vorsle!!en können"? 'Nenn er sichtbar ist, kann er überblickbar sein? Wenn er überblickbar wäre, also nicht unendlich kann er dann ewig sein-wenn er endlich im Raum?"

This is the central conflict of the opera, the tension betv·/een Idea (God) and Representation"-the long chain of increasingly inac- curate communication from God as thing-in-itself at the very open- ing (\vordless sound, like Schopenhauer's description of music, com- muning direetly with the noumena or Will), IO God speaking out of the buming bush to Moses, through Moses to Aron, and from Aron and the priests IO the people.

37 This fundamenta! fact has been remarked upon by authors as diverse as Theodo!" .A.do,:w in "Sakrales Fragmem: über Schönbergs ':V1oses und :\roo'," Gesammelte Schriften, ::-\0.16, Musikalisches Schriften 3 (Frankfurt am ;vlain: Suhrkamp, 1971), pp. 454-75; Ka:I \Vörner in Schoenberg's 'ArIoses und Aroll,' trans. P. Hamburger (Londor:.: Faber and Faber, 1963); Hans Ke!ier in "Schoenberg's 'Moses und Aron,'" The Score 21 (1957), pp. 30-45; a!1d

David Lewin in "Moses und Aron': Some General

Remarks, and AnalYIlcal ~Oles fm"

Act I, Scene I," in B. Boretz and E. T. Cone, Perspeclives on Schoenberg and S!m')insk)

(New York: Vi. \V. Nonon, 1972), pp. 61-77.

SCHOE?'iSERG At"D SCHO?E:--iH.Ä.cER

53

This \\ias not a ne\v theme to Schoenberg. A development can be seen in Schoenberg's texts from expressionism, the portrayal of feel- ing, of ra\v emotion (either as an individual's unconscious, as in Erwartung~ or as essences of subjective states, as in the "Ich-drama"-

style Die glückliche Hand), to a more universal state-the ldea. Idea is equated in Jakobsleiler as weH as in jVloses und Aron with the holy, the universal. Die Jakobsleiter 1S the transitional \Vork, its music stylistically an amalgamation of Schoenberg's pre-twelve-tone compositional techniques, its text rooted in the rheosophical and

described in the previous

section. },;Joses und Aron inherits that stream cf development-the orgy scene still retains some of the features of the expressionistlc \\lorks

a decade earlier. The concept of Idea is used in this context as simiIar

to the

>,vhere archetypal images are eternally pre-existent. This transcends the more lyrical heroic image of the artist in Die glückliche Iiand. The dilemma 01' all art is the unattainability of the archetype-rhe loss of the archetype to the concrete expression of it. It is impossible to capture the archetype in a moment, on canvas, ete. The artisI's product is always something less than the unformed VIsion. In Sehoenberg's terms, Style ean hinder the Idea. The best use of style is to come as close as possible to expressing the 1dea, the pre-existant reality equated \vith the Ward, even \vith the Haly. Thus, in j'vJoses und Aron the religious level and the level of meaning as an allegory for the creative process are drawn tagether as the same mystery, with the word as Idea and Holy at onee. The concept of Gedanke is also expounded in a similar way in Der biblische Weg, Schoenberg's play about founding a new Jewish stare in Israel which just preceded his work on jVloses und Aron. As in ,Vloses und Aron, Schoenberg is concerned with the invisible and inconceivable God. The hero of rhe play, Max Aruns, is very similar to Moses and represents a kind of Schopenhauerian genius. The ring of Schopenhauer's philosophy is heard in Aruns' and his aid Pinxar's words:

S\vedenborgian I Strindbergian influence

Platonic archetype-the artist drawn from anoIher '"plane' 1

Aruns:

fulfillment

Our belief in an invisibie and inconceivable God offers no material

54

PA;v'IELA C. WHTI E

Pinxar: Our religion will never be a very popular oue: it is too inteHecmal

for that. Aruns: And for this very reason, our emire history is dominated by' religious struggles. Everything in [his history culminates tn an attempt to explain the pure concept of God. Everything tries to make [his concept compreht:!1sible and popular. H

Schoenberg links the concept of the Chosen People with Ihis com- prehension-that God cannal be known. The iengthy speech whieh concludes the play is a didactic exposition of this belief, applied to Schoenberg's vision of an ideal Jewish state, a political entity espoused to this philosophical and religious ideal:

The Jewish people lives for one ldea: the Idea of a single, immortal, etemal, and inconceivable God. Our only desire is to esrablish the mle of this concepL Perhaps this idea in irs purest form will some day rule all the wodd . Our destination is that of every aneient people: we muse spiritualize ourse!ves. We must disassociate ourselves f,om aB material things. But there ls one other goal: we must all learn to think the Idea of the one, etemal, invisible, and inconeeivable God. '0/e wish to lead our spiritual life and shall allow no onc to hinder us in so

doing. We wish to perfeet ourselves spirituaHy, \ve wish 10 be permitted to dream our dream of God iike all ancient peoples \vho have overcome materiaEsm and left it behind them.

End of the Drama"

11

3SArnold Schoenberg, The Bib!ica! Woy, trans. W. V. Blomster !rom t'r.-;:. or;,ginal P."2.'1U-

script, Berlin, Jdy 18, 1927, at the Schoenberg Institu[e (unpublished manuscript av~dabie

by counes)' of the 1ranslator).

3~ lbid., pp. 103-4.

SCHOE\'BERG A0JD SCHOPE!\iH.~_UER

55

APPENDIX: RELIGIOUS AND PHILOSOPHICAL WORKS IN SCHOENBERG'S LIBRARY

I. Bibles

Die Bibel/oder die ganze/Heilige Schrift/der Allen und /\/euen Teslamenls,/nach der deutschen OberselZung/D. lvfartin Luthers. BerEn: Britische und Auslän-

dische

Bibelgesellschaft,

1907. Annotated,

notes

and

braided

ribbon

marker

laid in.

Die Bibel/oder die ganze/Heilige Schrifl/der Alfen und /'v'euen Tes!arnents,/nach der deulschen Dberseizung/D. /l;1arfin LUlhers. Berlin: Preussisehe HauDt-Bibel-

gesellschaft, 1925. Annotated, notes laid in.

.

Die Heilige Schrijl//\/ach dem masorelischen Text neu übersetzt und erkidrt nebst

einer Einleilung von S. Bernfe!d, 3rd ed. Frankfun: Kaufmann, 1919. Annotated.

Das ]\leue Testament.

BerEn: Britische und Ausländische Bibelgesellschaft,

(missingpp.1-4,13-18.)

1901.

The /'v'ew Teslamen! in Hebre,',! and English. London: TriniIarian Bibie Societv,

n.d.

-

Psalter und Buch Hiob.

Leipzig:

Reclam,

n.d.

Selfbd.

[Listed

in

Schoenberg's

o\>,:n library caralogue, but now lost?]

11. Other Reiigious and Philosophica! Works

Adler, Oskar. Einführung in die Astrologie als Geheimwissenschaft. Vols. 1 and 2.

Vienna: Oskar Adier, one 1,'01. by Schoenberg.

1935. Hand\\'riucn dedicmion tO Schocnben<

~

Bound in

Das Testament der Astrologie: Einführung in die Astro!ogie als Geheini-

,vissenschafl, VoL 1. 2nd improved cd. \/ienna: 'vValter Krieg, 1950. Hand- \\Titten dcdication 1O Schoenberg. Adorno, Theodor. "Amwon eines Adepten, an Hans F. Rediich." Leuer in galle\'

~~Nov19~

.

Philosophie der neuen /vlusik. Tüübingen: J.C.B. Mohr, 1949. Dedicared to and annotated by Schoenberg.

Aristotel.

Nikomachische Efhik.

Trans.

(German)

Adolf

Lasson.

Jena:

Eugen

Diederich , 1909.

 

Bergson, Hemi. Schupferisehe Enrwicklung.

Trans.

Gertrud Kantorowicz.

Jena:

Diederich, i912.

Zeir und Freiheit: eine Abhandlung über die Unrni!lelbaren Bewuss!sein-

stalsachen. Jena: Diederich, 1911.

Eisler , Rudolf.

E. S. Minler u. Sohn, 1927-30. Feuerbach, Anse1m. Ein Vermächtnis. BerEn: Meyer u. Jessen, 1912.

Wörterbuch der Philosophischen Begrijj'e, 4rh ed. 3 vols. Berlin:

56

PA\1ELA C. \,"/}-llTE

Haggadah: Erzählung von Israels Auszug aus Aegypren. Für die heiden Abende des Pesach-Fesles. (Passover Haggadah in Hebrew and German.) 'henna: los. Schlesingers Buchhandlung, 1909.

Hippokrates. Erkenntnisse. (Greek-German) Trans. Theodor Beck. Jena: Diederich,

1907.

Josephus, Flavius.

Geschichte des Jüdischen Krieges.

Trans. (Germ an) Heinrich

Clementz. Berlin: Benjamin Harz, 1923. Signed by Otto Klemperer on page i. Kandinsky, \\-'assily. Über das Geistige in der Kunst: Insbesondere in der kla!erei. Munieh: Piper, 1912. Dedication cf author on page 1; two photographs of sketches laid in. Kant, Immanuei. Kritik der reinen Vernunft. Leipzig: Reclam, n.d.

Kritik der Urteilskraft. Leipzig: Redam, n.d. Prolegomena zu einer jeden künstigen jlderaphysik, die als Wissenschafr wird auftreten könne. Leipzig: Reclam, n.d. (Also 8 other volumes in a collection of Kant's works.)

Kierkegaard, Soren. Gesammelte Werke. Vols. land 2: Entweder/Oder. Trans. Wolfgang Pfleiderer and Christoph Schrempf. Vols. 6 and 7: Philosophische Brocken/Abschliessende unwissenschaftliche .Nachlschrift. Trans. H. Gottsched and Christoph Schrempf. Jena: Diederich, 1910-13. Die Tagebücher. 2 vols. Trans. Theodor Haecker. Innsbruck: Brenner,

1923. (VoL 1 missing.)

Der Koran. Abridged ed. E. Harder. Leipzig: Insel, n.d. [no. 172], Kraus, KarL Die Fackel. Selfod. Nos. 261-86 (1908-09), 293-314 (1910), 384!5- 405 (1913-15), 454-73 (1917), 474-507 (1918-19), 514-18 (1919-20 w! pp. miss- ing), 800-805 (1929), 890-905 (1934). Die Letzten Tage der lVienschheit: Trägodie in fünf Akien mit Vorspiel und Epilog. '/ienna: Verlag Die Fackel, 1918-19. Selfbd. Traumstück. Vienna: Verlag Die Fackel, 1922.

7 'lols. Leipzig: Verlag der Schriften von Karl Kraus,

1916-23. (Vol. VI missing; Vol. IV was a gift from Webern, \vith a letter laid in

Worte in

Versen,

daled 1919.)

Nietzsche,

Friedrich. Also Sprach Zarathustra: Ein

Buch für Alle und Keinen.

Leipzig: C. G. Naumann, 1906.

Gedichte und Sprüche. Leipzig: C. G. Naumann, 1901. Gift wüh inscrip-

tion: "In tiefer Verehrung 25.11.1905"

' Werke, Part I, Vol. 1: Die Geburt der Trägodie; Unzeilgemässe Bezrach!Ul!- gen. Leipzig: C. G. Naumann, 1903. Pan I, Vol. 8: Der Fall Wagner; G61:;;en- Dämmerung; j\iietsche contra Wagner; Umwethung alle Werrhe; Dichfungen. Leipzig: C. G. Naumann, 1904.

[by Webern?].

SCHOE~BERG AND SCHOPENHAUER

57

Plato. PlalOns Apologie und Kriton. Trans. (German) Friedrich Schleiermacher. Leipzig: Reclam, n.d. Selfbd.

---' Gasmzahl. 2nd ed. Trans. (German) Rudolf Kassner. Jena: Diederich, 1906. ---' Parmenides/Philebos. Trans. (German) Ouo Kiefer. Jena: Diederich, 1910, Phaidon. Trans. (German) Rudolf Kassner. Jena: Diederich, 1906.

---' PlalOns Phaidros. Trans. (German) Rudolf Kassner. Jena: Diederich, 1910. ---' Prolagoras/Theaitetos. Trans. (German) Kar! Preisendanz. Jena: Died-

erich,191O.

Staat. Trans. (German) Karl Preisendanz. Jena: Diederich, 1909.

Schopenhauer, Arthur. Sämtliche Werke, 6v01s. Leipzig: Reclam [1891]_ Annotated 1,'lith additional notes laid in.

- Parerga u. Paraiipomena: Kleine Philosophische Schriften, VoL 11. Leipzig:

Redam, [1891]. Annotated heavily.