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LITERATURE LIST


H. Schaefer, Kuhn-Bussius, Methodik zur quantitativen Bestimmung der menschlichen
Talgsekretion, Arch. klin. exp. Derm. 238/1970, 429-435
Bei Milchglas nimmt die Lichtdurchlssigkeit durch Aufdruck kleiner Fettmengen stark zu. Diese
Transmissionszunahme kann photometrisch erfat und durch Wgung des abgenommenen Fettes auf
der Mikrowaage geeicht werden. Sie ist daher zur quantitativen Bestimmung des
Hautberflchenfettes geeignet. Durch vergleichende Messung mit bekannten, auf die Stirn
aufgetragenen Vaselinmengen sind Rckschlsse auf den Fettfilm und damit die Talgdrsenfunktion
menschlicher Haut mglich. Eine ins einzelne gehende Testbeschreibung wird am Schlu der Arbeit
gegeben.

M. Gloor, U. Schulz, G.Wieland, I.Wieland, H.C.Friedrich, Beitrag zur quantitativen Bestimmung
der Hautoberflchenlipide in der Praxis, Dermatologica 27.12.71
Es wird ber Bestimmungen der Menge der Hautoberflchenlipide (casual level und replacement sum)
mit Hilfe des Osmiumsuretest nach Brun et al. an 33 Versuchspersonen und mit Hilfe des
Milchglastests nach Schfer und Kuhn-Bussius an 14 Versuchspersonen berichtet. An der
symmetrischen Krperstelle wurden jeweils exakte gravimetrische Lipidbestimmungen nach der
Methode von Honsig vorgenommen. Zustzlich wurde die Zusammensetzung der
Hautoberflchenlipide dnnschichtchromatographisch analysiert. Im Gegensatz zum Milchglastest
erwies sich der Osmiumsuretest als aussagekrftig. Die Zusammensetzung der Hautoberflchenlipide
beeinflut das Ergebnis beider Methoden nur wenig.

Tronnier, Brunn, Vergleichsuntersuchungen des Hautoberflchenfettes Hautgesunder und
Aknekranker, Berufsdermatosen, 79-88, 1972
Mit Hilfe einer aus Sulen-, Dnnschicht und Gaschromatographie sowie IR-Spektroskopie
kombinierten Methode wurde eine Vollanalyse der Hautoberflchenlipide bei Aknekranken im
Vergleich zu hautgesunden Kontrollpersonen durchgefhrt. Aus den Mittelwerten von je 5 Probanden
ergab sich: 1. Die Menge der Oberflchenlipide ist bei der Akne gering erhht. 2. Bei der Auftrennung
in die einzelnen Fraktionen waren in der Kontrollgruppe u.a. die Triglyzeride, bei der Akne dagegen
die freien Fettsuren vermindert. 3. Die Verteilungen im brigen entsprachen unter Bercksichtigung
methodischer Unterschiede den Angaben in der Literatur. 4. Die mglichen Auswirkungen der
gefundenen Differenzen auf die Pathogenese der Akne bezglich der Gesamtverteilung auf die
Fraktionen (z.B. Spreitung) und der Kettenlnge (z.B. Reizwirkung) werden erwhnt.

Tronnier, Methodisches zum Nachweis des Hauttalgs unter besonderer Bercksichtigung der
Akne, Vortrag anllich der Tagung der Gesellschaft Deutscher Kosmetik-Chemiker e.V., 14.16-
03.74
Die Problematik der Hautfettbestimmung wird beschrieben, die in der uneinheitlichen
Zusammensetzung, in der unterschiedlichen Lokalisation und in der verschieden vollstndigen
Gewinnung des Hauttalgs begrndet ist. Vor - und Nachteile der verschiedenen Methoden werden,
teilweise unter Heranziehung eigener Versuche, dargestellt. Von den drei fr die Seborrhoe und die
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Erkrankungen des seborrhoischen Formenkreises in Frage kommenden Strungen im Hauttalgsystem,
nmlich in der Menge, in der Zusammensetzung und im physikalischen Verhalten des Talgfilms auf
der Hautoberflche, scheint letzterem die wesentlichste Rolle zuzukommen. Dies konnte aus
zahlreichen Untersuchungen einerseits bei der Akne und anderseits bei der Seborrhoe abgeleitet
werden. Auf die Bedeutung des Verhltnisses von Talgmenge zur Spreitungsfhigkeit fr die
Ausbildung von Comedonen bei Akne wird anhand vergleichender Talguntersuchungen mit
verschiedenen Methoden und unter Glucocorticoid-Medikation hingewiesen. Die bei Akne
vorliegende Strung in dieser Relation wird an weiteren experimentellen Befunden errtert.
Tronnier, H.Kuhn-Bussius, Zur Brauchbarkeit optischer Methoden fr die Bestimmung des
Hautoberflchenfettes, Hautklinik Dortmund, Kosmetologie 06/1974
F. Greiter, S. Doskoczil, Forschung in der Kosmetik, sterreichische Chemie-Zeitschrift, Juni 1976
Diese Arbeit ist ein Versuch, sinnvolle Forschung in der Kosmetik zu beschreiben und zu begrnden.
Nur neuere Methoden werden beschrieben. Bekannte Prfungsverfahren einschlielich
Spektralphotometrie und Gaschromatographie drfen als blich vorausgesetzt werden. Spezieller Wert
wird auf das Gebiet des Sonnenschutzes gelegt. Auch die Notwendigkeit besonderer Emulsionsformen
wird behandelt. Es wird daran erinnert, da die Kosmetik nicht nur die Aufgabe des Schmckens
(Kosmein), sondern vor allem auch der Reinigung, der Pflege und des Schutzes der Haut hat. Es wird
ausgefhrt, da kosmetische Prparate, die zum Teil im Grenzbereich Kosmetik-Pharmazie liegen,
einen Beitrag zur Fitnebewegung leisten knnen. Es wird allerdings auch unmiverstndlich
dargelegt, da Irrefhrung in der Kosmetik abzulehnen ist und eine weit gehende Deklaration der
Kosmetikprparate notwendig erscheint.
Nur die Werbung geht glatt unter die Haut, Test 01/1978

Tronnier, Differenzierte Feuchtigkeitsmessungen an der menschlichen Haut, rzliche
Kosmetologie 308, 1980
Differentiated moisture measurements on human skin are carried out by means of the demonstration of
resonance frequency measurements, resistance measurements and condensor methods. Furthermore,
the importance of applying the appropriate base in therapy and cosmetics depending on the individual
hydration condition is demonstrated.

Tronnier, Memethoden zur Prfung kosmetischer Prparate und Grundstoffe, Parfmerie und
Kosmetik 61, 1980

D. St Lger, J.L. Leveque, Les mthodes quantitatives des lipides de surface chez lhomme,
International journal of cosmetic science, 1980
Three main methods to measure quantitatively surface lipids in man have been used. A comparison of
the information they produce and their routine practicabilities are given. Adaptation and
standardization of the Schaeffer and Kuhn-Bussius method, using a photoelectric absorptiometer and
ground glass plates are described. This procedure, applied to thirty-two adults, demonstrated the
quantitative nature of the sampling mechanism. A mathematical approach gives the precise definition
of the casual-level. This procedure shows that casual-level values appear to be correlated with skin
types.
J.B. Dawson, D.J. Barker, D.J. Ellis, E. Grassam, J.A. Cotterill, G.W. Fisher, and J.W. Feather, A
theoretical and experimental study of light absorption and scattering by in vivo skin,
Vol.25.No.4, 695-709, Phys.Med.Biol. 1980.
A theoretical treatment has been developed for the optical properties of a layered structure which
absorbs and scatters light. This theory predicts that the logarithm of the inverse of reflectance (LIR) of
the surface should be a useful parameter for the examination of that structure. This approach has been
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applied to a study of skin in vivo. An instrument was constructed for use in clinical situations to
measure the LIR spectrum of skin over the visible region of the spectrum (450-760 nm). The
contributions to the observed spectra made by pigments and the skin structure were deduced by
reference to the theoretical model. Numerical indices were used to quantify the changes in skin
haemoglobin content following the application of vasoconstricting preparations.
Schrader, Untersuchungen wasserretinierender Kosmetika auf der Haut, Parfmerie und
Kosmetik 62, 1981
Mit dem Corneometer zur Bestimmung der aktuellen Feuchtigkeit der oberen Hautschichten gelingt
es, kosmetische Produkte auf ihren Hydratationseffekt - besonders im Stratum Corneum- zu
berprfen. Fr diese Untersuchungen wurden eine W/O-Emulsion, eine O/W-Emulsion sowie ein
Gesichtswasser herangezogen, die zugleich mit einem entsprechenden Wirkstoff der Haut auch Wasser
zufhren. Es wurden alternativ geprft - neben dem jeweiligen Placebo: Harnstoff, Desamidokollagen,
Natriumsalz der Pyrrolidoncarbonsure und Kollagenhydrolysat. Der Effekt bei einigen Wirkstoffen
zeigt auch bei 120 Minuten nach der Applikation noch deutlich erhhte Werte gegenber der
Kontrolle, whrend bei anderen eine Exsikkation gemessen wurde. Die Resultate dieser Prfungen
lassen weitere Untersuchungen mit anderen Wirkstoffen sinnvoll erscheinen.
S. Dikstein, Instrumental Analysis in Individual Cosmetic Consultation, Cosmetics & Toiletries,
Vol. 98, Nov. 1983
K. Zeller, H. Huben, Sebumetrische Messungen des Casual Level der Hautoberflchenlipide bei
einem studentischen und einem geriatrischen Kollektiv hautgesunder Probanden, Aktuelle
Dermatologie, Juni 1983
Fr dermatologische Reihenuntersuchungen wre es wnschenswert, die in der Regel makroskopische
Einschtzung des seborrhoischen oder sebostatischen Hautstatus mittels eines einfachen, leicht
transportablen Megertes objektivieren zu knnen. Es wurde daher an zwei altersunterschiedlichen
Probandengruppen (223 Junioren, 116 Senioren) untersucht, ob mit einem neuen
reflexphotometrischen sog. Sebumeter eine quantitative Untersuchung bezglich des
Hautoberflchenfettfilmes mglich ist. Das Gert erwies sich vor allem im Hinblick auf eine
semiquantitative Objektivierung des exsikkativen oder sebostastischen Hornschichtstatus brauchbar.
Darber hinaus wurden auch Geschlechtsunterschiede ermittelt. Anwendungsmglichkeiten bestehen
bei Einstellungsuntersuchungen fr ekzemgefhrdete Feuchtberufe (z.W. Friseure, Maurer,
Stukkateure) sowie zur Frherkennung der sog. Alterssebostase.
Dikstein, Shabtay,Orgad, Distribution of sebum measurement in normal adult women, 4
th

International Symposium on Bioengin. & The Skin, 09/83
Simon, Cosmetic effect in relation to hydration of the skin proved by changed electric
conductivity, rztliche Kosmetologie, 256-259 ,1984
Several skin care products have been investigated. The skin resistance was measured with a dermotest
apparatus. Computer processing revealed that complex cosmetic treatment causes a decrease of skin
resistance (i.e. an increase of the skin hydratation) as compared to the control side.The results are
supported by the opinions of the treated subjects.
U. Huschka, A. Schulewsky, Hauttalgsekretion und Haarshampoos, rztliche Kosmetologie, 1984
Mit insgesamt 1520 Messungen wurde an 20 Probanden der Einflu von vier Haarshampoos, die
unterschiedliche Antischuppenwirkstoffe enthielten, auf die Rckfettung der behaarten Kopfhaut und
der Stirn sebumetrisch mit der Kunststoffbandmethode untersucht. Im Gegensatz zu anderen Berichten
war bei 85% unserer Probanden der Ausgangsfettspiegel auf der behaarten Kopfhaut nach der Wsche
innerhalb von 24 Stunden wieder erreicht; die vollstndige Rckfettung der Stirn erfolgte bei 90% der
Probanden zwischen 2 und 5 Stunden. Die nderung der Rckfettung war durch Fettmessungen im
kinetischen Bereich nach 2, nach 5 und 24 Stunden wesentlich empfindlicher bestimmbar als im
Steady-state nach 72 Stunden. Die nach den ersten Haarwschen einsetzende nderung der
Rckfettungsgeschwindigkeit verstrkte sich ber mindestens 3 Wochen und war erst nach diesem
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Zeitpunkt eindeutig bewertbar. 0,6% Pyrithiondisulfid fhrte zu leicht verstrkter Rckfettung, 0,2%
Pyrithiondisulfid mit 7% Dinatriumundecylensuremonothanolamidosulfosuccinat war neutral, eher
sebostatisch wirksam, 0,5% Octopirox fhrte zur Verstrkung der Rckfettung. Am behaarten Kopf
und an der Stirn war die Wirkung der Inhaltsstoffe in der Regel gleichgerichtet.
Werner, The water content of the stratum corneum in patients with atopic dermatitis, Acta Derm
Venereol 66:281-284, 1984
M. Gloor, M. Gehse, E. Wlfle, Beeinflussung der Hornschichtfeuchtigkeit durch waschaktive
Substanzen, rztliche Kosmetologie, 15/1985
Bei 32 hautgesunden Versuchspersonen wurde der Wassergehalt der Hornschicht vor und nach
Anwendung einer 3-bzw.6%igen Tensidlsung (3mal tglich ber 4 Tage) bestimmt. Bei weiteren 20
gesunden Versuchspersonen wurde die gleiche Untersuchung mit einer 3-bzw 6%igen Seifenlsung
vorgenommen. Die Messungen erfolgten mit Hilfe der Infrarotspektroskopie und der
Kapazittsmessung der Hornschicht. Eindeutig war mit beiden Methoden ein Dehydratationseffekt
sowohl durch die Seife als auch durch die Tensidlsung nachweisbar, der bei der Tensidlsung
quantitativ weitgehend unabhngig von der Konzentration der waschaktiven Substanzen war, bei der
Seifenlsung jedoch bei der 6%-Lsung weniger ausgeprgt als bei der 3% Lsung. In der zweiten
Stunde nach der letzten Waschung kam es nach Anwendung der Tensidlsung zu einem deutlichen
Rehydratationseffekt, der nach Anwendung der Seife nicht in gleichem Ausma zu beobachten war.
Der Rehydratationseffekt war unabhngig von der Konzentration der waschaktiven Substanz. Beim
Vergleich der Methoden erwies sich der Rehydratationseffekt als eindrucksvoller, wenn man die
infrarotspektroskopischen Mewerte zugrunde legte. Wie infrarotspektroskopische Untersuchungen
nach Strippen der Haut zeigen, erstreckt sich die Dehydratation der Hornschicht nur auf deren
oberflchlichste Anteile.
Dikstein, Courage, Verteilung von Talgspiegelmessungen bei gesunden erwachsenen Frauen,
rztliche Kosmetologie, 15, 41-44, 1985
The sebumeter measures the amount of fats on the skin by absorbing it onto a thin plastic strip and
measuring its transparency. The range of values relevant to medicocosmetics was established by
asking experienced cosmeticians to define and classify the skin of over 150 women according to
Dry (insufficient sebum level),Normal or Oily. The skin was then measured by Sebumeter. 70-
80 % agreement is present between the cosmeticians definition of Dry or Oily skin at the
extremes, but in the middle the definition is casual. Tabulating the data into histograms permits in
finding the best balance between the subjective cosmetic definition and the instrumental reading. On
the forehead, Sebumetric readings of less than 90, and on the cheek and neck readings of less than 60
mean Dry skin. Sebumetric readings of more than 200 on the forehead, more than 160 on the cheek,
and more than 100 on the neck, mean Oilyskin. The advantage of using objective instrumental
readings in place of observational methods is the prevention of misdiagnoses.
de Pedova, Tosti, Veronesi, Gelatin-Cystine in Seborrheic Alopecia, J. Appl. Cosmetol. 04-06/1986
The gelatin-cystine spherules seem to be able to affect the regulation of sebum genesis. In the order to
demonstrate the sebum normalizing property performed by this product, a study was carried out on 60
subjects affected by seborrheic alopecia. A signifiant reduction of seborrhea was observed in 30% of
the subjects taking the gelatin-cystine spherules for the period established. It was also observed a
significant reduction of serine, proline, glycine, alanine, cystine, valine, leucine and methionine is
always found and a parallel increase of glutamin acid, phenilalanine and argine.
Morganti, Randazzo, Cardillo, Role of insoluble and soluble collagen as skin moisturizer, J. Appl.
Cosmetol. 10-12/1986
The normal state of skin hydration depends mainly on the water content present at the stratum
corneum level. In order to evaluate the water-binding property of soluble and insoluble animal
collagen, and in order to compare its abilities in cutaneous hydratation, both the long and short-term
water-binding capacity of human skin was tested in vivo. First data shows that the presence of
soluble native collagen is indispensable in order to obtain a long-lasting hydrating effect.
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Dikstein, Katz, Maibach, Instruments for measuring stratum corneum moisture content,
International Journal of Science,289-292, 1986, 8
P. Thune, T. Gustavsen, Comparison of two photoelectric techniques for quantitative
measurement of skin surface lipids, Acta Derm Venerol 1987
Zlotogorski, Distribution of skin surface pH on the forehead and cheek of adults, Arch Derm Res,
1987
The skin surface pH on the forehead and cheek of 574 men and women aged 18/95 was measured. No
differences were found between men and women regarding forehead and cheek pH distribution. The
group over the age of 80 showed higher pH values on both the forehead and the cheek. In 89% of the
subjects measured, the skin surface pH on the cheek was higher than on the forehead. The central
90%, i.e., the representative range, for the population below the age of 80 is between 4.0-5.5 on the
forehead and between 4.2-5.9 on the cheek.
Tronnier, Dermatologische Bewertung von Kosmetika und Krperpflegemitteln, rztliche
Kosmetologie, 374-398, 1987
The practitioning dermatologist is interested in body care products and cosmetics because of their
potential side-effects which may be allergic or primarily toxic. In view of skin physiology also
cosmetics and body care products having special effects, such as light and skin protective preparations,
deodorants and antiperspirants, dandruff and hair removing products, washing products and
preparations which are supposed to have an anti-wrinkle effect on the skin, are of interest to the
dermatologist. These preparations claiming a certain effect are opposed to the series of cosmetics
which to some extent also make this claim, but on the whole have general effects such as improvement
of the hydration of the horny layer and influence on the pH-value of the skin effects which, however,
are also assigned to some special products. These preparations contain a number of active substances
the effects of which are at least controversial and often difficult to prove. So, it is pointed out to the
fact that just in case of body care products and cosmetics the effect of the basic substances used is
essentially responsible for the effects of care.
E. Berardesca, G. Borrini, G. Gabba, R. Borlone and G. Rabbiosi, Evidence for Elastic Changes in
Agend Skin Revealed in an In Vivo Extensometric Study at Low Loads. Bioengineeing Skin 1986
An in vivo extensometric study of skin for different age groups is described. Seventy nine healthy
male subjects entered the study. They were classified into six age groups (19 years and under, 20 to
29, 30 to 39, 40 to 49, 50 to 59, 60 and over). Measurements were taken on the unexposed forearm at a
very low load (7.8 N) with a specially built extensometer. Highly significant (P < 0.0001) increasing
levels were recorded among the age groups. The authors discuss the relationship between the data and
ageing changes in the elastic fibre network, suggesting that this method may be useful in monitoring
wrinkling.
Dikstein, Comparison of the Sebumeter and the Lipometer, Bioeng. Skin, 197 - 207, 3, 1987
Die Instrumente Lipometer und Sebumeter wurden durch gleichzeitige Messungen der zuflligen
Lipidwerte an nebeneinander liegenden Stellen derselben Person verglichen. Der Koeffizient der
Bestimmung zwischen den Instrumenten ist 92%. Das Sebumeter ist geeigneter fr die Messungen
eines raschen Screenings.
Korting, Bau, Baldauf, pH-Abhngigkeit des Wachstumsverhaltens von Staphylococcus aureus
und Propionibacterium acnes, rztliche Kosmetologie,01/02/1987
Five different cutaneous isolates of staphylococcus aureus and seven of propionibacterium acnes were
investigated in a buffered liquid medium with respects to the dependence of their growth on different
pH-values kept constant. With both species a strong dependence of the growth rate on the pH-value
was found. The S. aureus strains showed a distinct value of optimum of growth at pH 7.5 with P. acnes
a range of optimum growth could be determined between pH 6.0 and 6.5. The conclusion can be
drawn that even minor shifts of the skin pH from its normal value of 5.5 towards more alkaline values-
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as they result from washings with soaps- remarkably enhance the growth of P. acnes while a similar
phenomenon could only be expected from major shifts with respects to S. aureus.
Muti, Barrico, Berino, Gelentano, Measurement of cutaneous sebum: reproducibility at different
cleansing conditions, J. Appl. Cosmetol. 07-09/1987
Hevert, Berz, Hndewaschen ohne Wasser, Arbeitsmedizin, Sozialmedizin, Prventivmedizin, 1987
Within the feasibility stage of ORDET (Prospective Study on Hormones and Diet in Breast Cancer
Etiology) a reproducibility study on the measuring of cutaneous sebum has been carried out. The
Schwarzhaupt SM410 Sebumeter was used for the assessment of the sebum production. 11
measurements were taken from the forehead, back and nape over 36 hr. period, on 9 women ranging in
age from 28 to 61 years. A good reproducibility was observed for all measurements and sebumeter
discrimination capacity for different levels of sebum production appears particularly high for the
forehead. The use of forehead sebum measurement has proved to be suitable for epidemiological
studies.
Schrader, Bielfeldt, Die Beeinflussung der Hautfeuchtigkeit und Hautgltte durch den
Biokatalysator Adenosintriphosphat (ATP), rztliche Kosmetologie,1988, 372-378
Sehr geringe Mengen ATP-Dinatriumsalz (0,005%,0,05%) wurden in einem feuchtigkeitsspendenden
Gesichtstonic eingesetzt. Gemessen wurde die Beeinflussung der Hautfeuchtigkeit und der Hautgltte.
Obwohl die Grundlage erwartungsgem bereits befriedigende Wirkungen, insbesondere was die
Hautfeuchtigkeit anbelangt, erzielt, fhrt der Zusatz sehr geringer Mengen ATP noch zu einer
dramatischen Wirkungssteigerung.
Blichman, Serup, Assessment of skin moisture measurement of electrical conductance,
capacitance and transepidermal water loss, Acta Derm Venereol 1988
Experiments on skin moisture were undertaken using three different equipments, i.e. the Skicon 100
and Corneometer CM 420 hydrometers, and the ServoMed EP1 evaporimeter. Studies included ten
healthy volunteers. Water was applicated to test sites on the forearm and the palm of the hand, and
effects monitored by the three methods. Parallel increases in conductance, capacitance and
transepidermal water loss were registered lasting about five min. The Skicon-100 was more sensitive
for measurement of increased hydration while the Corneometer CM 420 might be more sensitive for
measurement of decreased hydration. Inter- and intra- individual variations were minor with all
instruments. According to reproducibility studies the Corneometer CM 420 was more accurate than
the Skicon-100. Technical experiments indicated that the Corneometer CM 420 depicts changes of
hydration down to a depth of 0.1 mm while the Skicon-100 measures very superficially. In
conclusion, both hydrometers were relevant and valid for assessment of skin moisture. The methods
are supplementary, and their combined use is recommended.
D.van Neste, J.L. Antoine, A vehicle controlled study of the effects of hydrating agents in a
human model of rough dermatitic skin, Bioeng. skin, 4/1988
Rough dermatitic skin (RDS) sites induced by sodium laurylsulphate (SLS, aqueous solutions at
10%,5% and 1% left under occlusion for 48 hours, distilled water served as a 0% SLS control; ten
subjects) showed increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and increase cutaneous blood flow
values (CBFV) which lasted from day 1 to days 5 to 7. There were no significant changes of skin
electrical properties (COND) 24 hours after removal of the SLS patches. However, this lag phase was
followed by a gradual decrease of COND (days 2 to 5). Normal COND values were again recorded
around day 7 after the initial insult, along with elimination of the superficial SLS induced flake.
COND was correlated with clinical scores of roughness. Finally, almost complete recovery of RDS
was observed by day 10 with normal TEWL, CBFV and COND. A time course study of TEWL,
CBFV and COND showed epidermal repair after daily topical treatment with the vehicle alone tested
or the vehicle with hydrating agents (HA) (10% urea and 5% lactic acid).When compared with
untreated skin or vehicle treated RDS patches, COND was higher at HA treated sites. Under the
experimental conditions proposed in this study, COND did not reflect the acute changes of barrier
function of the skin as accurately as TEWL or CBFV measurements. It generated a signal closely
H\litlist\studies 12/06


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related to the feeling of roughness, hence allowing instrumental monitoring of the epidermal healing
underneath the superficial scale. Finally, it provided quantitative data in relation to substantivity of
topically applied hydrating agents onto experimentally induced RDS in human skin.
E. Beradesca, H.I. Maibach, Racial Differences in Sodium Lauryl Sulphate induced cutaneous
irritation: black and white, Contact Dermatitis 18: 65-70, 1988
The different reactivity of black and white skin after exposure to sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) has
been investigated. 9 white and 10 black male volunteers entered the study. The tests were performed
on the back at 3 sites: untreated skin, skin pre-treated with occlusion and skin pre-delipidized. Irritant
reactions were elicited applying 0.5% and 2.0% SLS via Finn chamber patch tests and monitored by
means of laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV), transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and stratum corneum
water content (WS). Higher TEWL, LDV, and WC values were recorded for 2.0% SLS when
compared to 0.5% SLS and baselines. Pre-treatment with short-term occlusion generally increased
values, while delipidization produced flattening of the data more detectable in whites than in blacks.
Significant TEWL differences for two concentrations were recorded in whites for the occluded site
(P<0.02) while in blacks in the untreated (P<0.04) and delipidized (P<0.03) sites. LDV revealed
significant changes in the untreated and pre-occluded white skin (P<0.05 and 0.01, respectively). In
blacks, the values were significantly different only in the pre-occluded skin (P<0.01). Water content
correlated with the visual score and was greatly increased in sites with strongly positive reactions
(P<0.01). It appears that there are significant differences in the modulation of irritation, in the
behaviour of water barrier function and of the erythematous response between blacks and whites.
Clinical correlations are discussed.
H.I. Maibach, E. Patrick, Session VI: Hair, Sebaceous Glands and Nails, 7
th
International
Symposium of Bioengineering and the Skin, 1988
Tronnier, Die Haut als Grenzschicht, Kosmetik International 8/88
Als uere Begrenzung des Organismus ist die menschliche Haut wie kein anderes Organ
Umwelteinflssen ausgesetzt. Eine seiner wesentlichsten Aufgaben ist es, diese Umwelteinflsse
abzuwehren, zu neutralisieren oder soweit zu modifizieren, da sie den Organismus nicht gefhrden.
Einen Teil insbesondere akuter Schdigungen vermag die Haut ber verschiedene Rezeptoren, die sie
insgesamt auch zu einem Sinnesorgan machen, zu erkennen. Gegen andere, insbesondere relativ
schwache und chronische Noxen vermag die Haut mit Anpassungsvorgngen, erwhnt sei nur die
Hornschichtverdickung oder die Pigmentbildung, zu reagieren. In dem Thema Die Haut als
Grenzschicht mchte ich zu drei Komplexen Stellung nehmen, die entweder zur Zeit zum Teil
kontrovers diskutiert werden oder von denen ich glaube, da sie thematisch aus Ihrer Arbeitsrichtung
von Interesse sein knnten.
Fiorentini, Becheroni, Iorio, Hyaluronic acid: analytical procedures for purity determination,
polymerization degrees and comparative instrumental tests in vivo, International Journal of
cosmetic science 26.29/09/88
Recent studies have shown that hyaluronic acid is an important molecule in cosmetics, although there
are different, sometimes controversial theories about its role. This work is an analytical contribution to
the characterization and a control of hyaluronic acid. The main techniques used are UV, GCP or SEC,
IR and corneometry. Surveys conducted with the aid of these techniques have allowed a better
knowledge of the molecular weight determination and of the uniform quality of commercial supplies.
These procedures may be of application for quality control and promote further investigation on the
biological tissular role played by hualuronic acid in topical cosmetic products. The analytical results of
a study of the evaluation of oil/water (o/w) emulsions containing hyaluronic acid of different origins
are reported. The analytical data obtained from cutaneous hydratation control apparatuses were
compared statistically. The choice of hyaluronic acid, made through screening and evaluation by the
above-mentioned techniques, ensures the optimal formulation of the finished product and a quality
standard of the active principle.
H\litlist\studies 12/06


8
Nissen, Physikalische Memethoden in der Kosmetik, Kosmetik International, 18 - 22, 11/1988
Bei der Anwendung physikalischer Memethoden in der kosmetischen Praxis sind grundstzliche
Gesichtspunkte zur Messung sowohl hinsichtlich der Methoden als auch der Versuchsdurchfhrung zu
beachten. Die anwendbaren Meverfahren sollten einfach und ohne groen technischen, personellen
und finanziellen Aufwand mglich sein. Diese Bedingungen werden von einigen Megerten erfllt.
Mit ihrer Hilfe kann in kurzer Zeit eine exakte Hautdiagnose gestellt und die kosmetischen
Wirkansprche bestimmter Produkte berprft werden.
J.W. Feather,D.J. Ellis,G. Leslie, A portable reflectometer for the rapid quantification of
cutaneous haemoglobin and melanin, Phys.Med.Biol., Vol.33, 711-722, 1988
A portable reflectance instrument for the rapid quantification of cutaneous haemoglobin and melanin
is presented. Light emitting diodes (LEDS) are used to illuminate the skin and a silicon photodiode to
detect the light diffusely reflected from the surface. Reflectance measurements are made at only three
wavelengths and the problem of pigment quantification consequent upon this are discussed. In
addition to quantification of haemoglobin and melanin, qualitative information on the redox state of
blood may also be obtained. Measurements made on a port wine stain, which had been treated with
576 nm cw laser radiation at times between 1 and 6 months previously, provided information on the
vascular response to this thermal injury. Despite the treated area visually appearing normal at 6
months post-treatment the measured levels of deoxygenated and total haemoglobin were still markedly
higher than those in the adjacent uninvolved skin. The cutaneous pigment indices are insensitive to
skin movements and almost all body sites are suitable for measurement.
J.W. Feather, D.J. Ellis, G. Leslie, A portable reflectometer for a rapid quantification of
cutaneous haemoglobin and melanin, Vol.33, No 6, 711-722, Phys.Med.Biol., 1988.
A portable reflectance instrument for the rapid quantification of cutaneous haemoglobin and melanin
is presented. Light emitting diodes (LEDS) are used to illuminate the skin and a silicon photodiode to
detect the light diffusely reflected from the surface. Reflectance measurements are made at only three
wavelengths and the problems of pigment quantification consequent upon this are discussed. In
addition to quantification of haemoglobin and melanin, qualitative information on the redox state of
the blood may also be obtained. Measurements made on port wine stain, which had been treated with
576 nm cw laser radiation at times between 1 and 6 months previously, provided information on the
vascular response to this thermal injury.
P. Morganti, S.D. Randazzo, Lutilizzazione degli indici di correzione per il trattamento cosmetico
della cute secca e desidratata, Il Prodotto Chimico, April 1989
Solaroli, Manifestazioni seborroiche e desquamative del capillizio, trattate con un nuovo
preparato a base di urea e acido salicilico, La Medicina Estetica, 13.04.1989
Seborrhea and desquamation of the scalp treated with a new preparation based on urea and salicylic
acid. The activity of salicylic acid and urea from particular lotions was studied in vivo by measuring
the possible antiseborrheic effect. We used the modified photometric technique (Sebumeter SM 810)
which permits measurement of casual levels (CL) or sebometric index (SI); although this is less
accurate then a sebum excretion rate (SER) assessment, but there is some correlation between (SER)
and (CL). In the study of 30 patients we have employed the method described to assess the
bioavailability of Keratolytic and Keratoplastic agents incorporated in topical formulations; in this
way we have shown the benefit of these preparations.
Th. Frdin, Specific determination of epidermal water by optothermal infrared spectometry,
Regional Symposium, Copenhagen, 15.06.89

Christa W. Blichmann, Effects of single application of a moisturizer, Regional Symposium,
Copenhagen, 15.06.89
Anders Winther, Effects of repailed application of a moisturizer, Regional Symposium,
Copenhagen, 15.06.89
H\litlist\studies 12/06


9
Desai, Kosmetische Spezialprodukte aus nachwachsenden Rohstoffen, Vortrag anllich des SCC
annual meeting, New York, 02.-04.12.1988, Parfmerie und Kosmetik, 6/89
Special cosmetic products bases on regrowing raw materials. Some new cosmetic specialities based on
regrowing raw materials are introduced. These chemicals are harmless from the toxicological and
dermatological point of view. Moreover, they possess interesting cosmetic properties such as
gentleness, anti-irritation, emolliency and moisture regulation. The new bio-raw materials presented
here offer various possibilities for a wide use in all fields of the grooming cosmetics.
Rimpler, Zur Wirksamkeit von Kosmetika, Teil1: Messung der Hautfeuchtigkeit, Beauty Nr. 2/89
S. Dikstein, The normal range of the skins parameters, o.V., o.J.
In order to define the normal values of any measurement, we have to study its variation in the
population according to age, sex, etc. We wish to present the normal biological variation and the age
dependency of the following parameters on the forehead skin of women: Indentation, as measured by
low-pressure indentometry; Elastic recovery (rebound), as measured by low-pressure indentometry;
Skin slackness, as measured by levarometry, and Skin surface pH, as measured a by pH meter
equipped with a planar surface electrode. Statistical analysis showed age dependence of these
parameters. The mean values at the ages of 20 and 70, were respectively; low pressure
indentation:0.043-0.054 cm, elastic recovery: 80.5%;-65.5%; levarometry (slackness). 0.037-0.068
cm; and skin surface pH:5.25-5.61. The correlation coefficient was low but significant at p<0.05 for
indentometry, elastic recovery and skin surface pH (0.21- 0.32-0.16) and good for levarometry (0.57).
The above measurements and calculations allowed us to decide on the normal versus desired
range. In analogy, for an antipyretic drug we need to know at what body temperature to start using it
and what the desired normal temperature is. Such analysis is very important if we wish to develop
skin care products with scientifically proven value to combat aging aspects of the skin.
Bosio, Teresa Anfossi, Silvia Audi, Grivetta, Indici biofisici della cute in rapporto allet
determinati in elastometria cutanea, Incontri di cosmetologia, 06/89
Lindagine condotta mediante limpiego del CUTOMETER SEM 474; il pricipio di funzionamento
dello strumento si basa sulla possibilit di misurare, mediante uno speciale sensore optoelettronico,
laltezza della cute aspirata allinterno di una sonda da una depressione di 250 mBar (2,3). I risultati di
ogni singola determinazione vengono presentati sotto forma di grafico delle deformazioni cutanee
dove in ordinata indicata laltezza in mm della cute aspirata nella sonda ed in ascissa sono indicati i
tempi a cui il parametro altezza viene rilevato. Si osserva di norma il seguente comportamento:rapido
e lineare incremento del parametro altezza seguito da una fase di crescita lenta fino al ragiungimento
del valore della massima deformazione cutanea indotta dalla forza applicata.
C. Torresani, D. Rastelli, M. E. Berioli, G.De Panfilis, Valutazione dellefficacia di un emulsione
cosmetica a base di aqua termale sulfurea, Incontri di Cosmetologia, 07/89
Lo studio stato condotto su un gruppo di 20 pazienti, 13 femmine e 7 maschi, di et compresa tra 21
e 43 anni. Il trattamento consistito in due applicazioni giornaliere di una emulsione O/A contenente
per il 79% acqua termale sulfureo-solfato-calcica, per un periodo di quattro settimane. Durante tale
periodo stato escluso qualsiasi altro trattamento ed i pazienti sono stati invitati ad effettuare la
detersione del viso esclusivamente con acqua. I pazienti sono stati controllati prima dellinizio del
trattamento, nonch al 7, 14, 21 e 28 giorno del trattamento stesso. La valutazione quantitativa
della seborrea stata effettuata mediante sebometro reflettometrico Sebumeter SM 410 della ditta
Schwarzhaupt. Come gruppo di controllo, stato scelto un gruppo di 10 pazienti, omogeneo per sesso,
et e patologia. Tali pazienti sono stati trattati, secondo le stesse modalit, con una emulsione placebo
contenente i soli eccipienti e priva del principio attivo.
E. Berardesca, G.Borroni, G.F. Secchi, Valutazioni dermatologiche e misurazioni cutanee nella
detersione con latte di soia atomizzato, Incontri di cosmetologia, 06/89
P. Morganti, S.D. Randozzo, Gli indici di idratazione e di emolienza per la verifica dello stato
cutaneo, Incontri di Cosmetologia No. 3, 07/89
H\litlist\studies 12/06


10
Per la misurazione sia del sebo di superficie che dell idrazione cutanea ci si serviti di un sistema
computerizzato denominato Dermotest Hytech dato dallunione del Sebometer SM 810 PC et del
CORNEOMETER CM 820 PC, opportunamente collegati ad un PC mediante un adeguato programma
di utilizzazione. Utilizzando il Dermotest Hytech possibile ottenere direttamente sia i valori
sebometrici espressi in mg/cm che i valori della idratazione cutanea espressi in CV (corneometer
values).
o.A., Kosmetik-Tests, Stiftung Warentest, 07/89
U. Zeidler, Einflu des pH-Werts von Krperreinigungsmitteln auf die Hautquellung, Forschung
Klinik Praxis, 1989
The epidermis, especially the horny layer, frequently comes into contact with cosmetic cleansing
agents containing surfactants. Interactions are characterized among other things by swelling processes.
Swelling was investigated on isolated pig epidermis which had been treated with different surfactants
at varying pH-values. With increasing pH-value, anionic surfactants increased epidermal swelling,
whereas it decreased by treatment with cationic surfactants. Amphoteric surfactants increased swelling
in both acid and basic solution and formed a minimum in the neutral range. The degree of
ethoxylation, the chain lengh and the type of anionic group changed the swelling behaviour
characteristically at varying pH value. The results obtained show that swelling, as an osmotic process,
is primarily attributable to ionic interactions between the surfactant ions and the amphoteric protein
structure, but it is also influenced by hydrophobic interactions. Increased swelling of the superficial
skin layer can favor the extraction of lipids and moisturizing factors, thereby promoting dryness and
roughness of the skin. Therefore, the knowledge of the swelling behaviour can contribute to the
development of improved cleansing agents leading to minimal swelling.
M. Gehse, pH-Wert der jungen und der reifen Haut und seine Beeinflussung durch waschaktive
Substanzen, Kosmetik International 08/89
L. Nogueira, D. Gabrielle, New techniques to assay skin care products, D & CI 09/89

Elsner, Maibach, Ein PC/AT - gesttztes Datenerfassungssystem fr das Hautphysiologielabor,
Workshop Computer in der Dermatologie, 6.10.1989
Fr die quantitative Untersuchung physiologischer Parameter des Hautorgans wurde eine Reihe
nichtinvasiver Methoden entwickelt, die Anwendung v.a in der Dermatopharmakologie und der
Dermatotoxikologie gefunden haben. Zu diesen Methoden zhlen die Evaporimetrie zur Messung des
transepidermalen Wasserverlustes, konduktive und kapazitative Verfahren zur Messung des
epidermalen Wassergehaltes und die Messung der Hautdurchblutung mittels des Laser-Doppler-
Verfahrens. Die Reproduzierbarkeit von Evaporimeter- und Laser-Doppler-Messungen wird durch
dynamische Vernderungen der Megren beeintrchtigt. Ferner fallen bei experimentellen Studien
mit den genannten Gerten erhebliche Datenmengen an, deren manuelle Erfassung unkonomisch ist.
Wir haben daher ein Datenerfassungssystem emtwickelt, mit dem die Mewerte von Hautoberflchen-
Thermistor, Evaporimeter, Kapazitometer, pH-Meter und Laser-Doppler direkt in ein Spreadsheet auf
einem PC eingelesen und sofort statistisch ausgewertet werden knnen. Hardwareseitig besteht das
System aus einem AT-kompatiblen Computer mit 2 seriellen Schnittstellen und einem Metrabyte
DAS-16-A/D-Board, das die simultane Erfassung von bis zu 16 Datenkanlen erlaubt. An Software
werden Lotus 1-2-3 und Lotus Measure eingesetzt. Der Aufbau des Systems und Einsatzmglichkeiten
werden erlutert.
S. Bonazzi, Gazzaniga, Skin plastoelasticity modifications due to application of a reconstructed
moisturizing compound, 3
rd
international congress on cosmetic dermatology, Wien, 27.-29.10.1989
M. Rieger, Skin, water and moisturization, Cosmetics & Toiletries Vol. 104, 12/89
Van Neste, L. Ghys, J.L. Antoine, J.P. Riboux, Pharmacological modulation by Cetirizine and
Atropine of the Histamine - and Methacholine- Induced wheals and flares in human skin, Skin
Pharmacology Reprint, Vol. 2 No. 2 (pp. 93 - 102) 1989
H\litlist\studies 12/06


11
This study was planned to verify wether different methods for the measurement of skin reactivity, i.e.,
wheal and flare area, wheal trickness, skin capacitance and transepidermal water loss, were or were not
able to discriminate between intradermally injected agonists (histamine and methacholine). For
evaluating agonist/antagonist interactions, we adopted a cross-over, double- blind, placedo-controlled
study designed to compare the effects of cetirizine and atropine. The intradermal injection of agonists
elicited the appearance of wheal and flare reactions and, after histamine, the skinfold thickness was
significantly increased. Skin capacitance and transepidermal water loss measurements reflected sweat
gland activation after methacholine injection but were, respectively, not or less affected by histamine
dry skin prick test or saline; hence, both methods appear very sensitive for in vivo testing of
cholinomimetic agents. Cetirizine inhibited all the specific skin modifications induced by histamine
challenge, wheals, flares and increase thickness, without affecting the methacholine-induced
perspiration. This would further support the H1 specificity of this anti-H1 agent in vivo. However, at
the agonist/antagonist ratios tested in view of the safety of the test persons, we were unable to
objectivate methacholine blockade by atropine.
H. Nougaigui, J.L. Antoine, M.L. Masmudi, van Neste, J.M. Lachapelle, tude invasive et non-
invasive du pouvoir protecteur dune crme silicone et de son excipient vis--vis de lirritation
cutane induite par le laurylsulfate de sodium, Ann. Dermatol. Venereol. 116:1989, S. 389 - 398
Invasive and non-invasive studies of the protective effect of a silicone-containing cream and its
vehicle on cutaneous irritation induced by sodium laurylsulphate. The purpose of our study was to
evaluate the protective effect of a new silicone-containing barrier-cream (Anthydro TM) and its
vehicle (AnthydroTM without silicone) in the prevention of cutaneous irritation by detergents: We
therefore planned a study in several stages, using an anionic surfactant well known for its irritant
properties: sodium laurylsulphalte (SLS) in aqueous solution. In a first series of experiments, the
protective effect of the AnthydroTm cream against SLS was studied by invasive methods on guinea-
pigs in order to determine histologically the protective effect of the cream when a 10 p.100 SLS
solution was applied on the skin under occlusion during 24 hours (Square chambersTm, Van der
Bend). Typical and reproducible lesions were apparent, and the protected sites were compared with the
unprotected sites. In parallel, we used non-invasive methods (conductivity, transepidermal water loss
and cutaneous blood flow) to determine in humans the protective effect of AnthydroTm cream in
comparison with unprotected sites after application during 24 hours of patches soaked with a 5 p. 100
SLS solution on the foreams of 13 adult and healthy volunteers (Silver patch testsTm, Van der Bend).
In both experiments the AnthydroTm cream was effective in reducing the SLS- induced cutaneous
irritation. In a second series of experiments, the AnthydroTm barrier-cream was compared with its
base (AnthydroTm without silicone) in terms of effectiveness, following the same experimental
procedure (invasive on guinea-pigs, and non-invasive on humans). The base was shown to be effective
in protecting against irritation. However, the histological lesions were less intense when the skin was
protected by AnthydroTm than by its vehicle. Concerning the non-invasive methods in humans, no
signifiant statistical differences appeared in the measurement of various parameters between the sites
protected by AnthydroTm and the sites protected by the vehicle. These results lead us to suggest the
existence of an essentially mechanical protective effect in which the silicone plays a very small part in
terms of effectiveness. These experimental results necessitates further investigations to be extrapolated
to occupational conditions without test performed in industries and well-conducted epidemiological
investigations.
J.L. Antoine, J.L. Contreras, D. van Neste, ph Influence on surfactant-induced skin irritation,
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, Band 37, 1989, 3, 96 - 100
Even though various experimental methods have been proposed for in vitro testing of detergents such
as SLS ( sodium laurylsulfate) no absolutely relevant clinical information can be inferred from them as
to the irritancy of a given compound. In particular the relative importance of pH needs further
assessment. This study reports on in vivo evaluation of skin function changes under given
experimental conditions with SLS applied at 3 different pH values. There is a dramatic increase of
transepidermal water loss (TEWL), i.e. a substantial reduction in the barrier function of the skin, when
SLS is applied under occlusion for 48 H. The alkaline control solution (NaOH pH 9) induced low-
H\litlist\studies 12/06


12
grade, but significant TEWL increases, as compared to the other controls ( distilled water pH7; HCl
pH5), which had no influence on TEWL. The changes obtained with the controls were much lower
than those observed with SLS. The barrier-function changes induced by the surfactant SLS could,
however, promote transepidermal passage of acid and/or alkaline molecules, hence increasing toxic
damage of the skin; yet no such effects could be observed, indicating that the main effects are due to
detergency. Assessment of cutaneous blood flow values (CBFV) by laser Doppler velocimetry showed
increased values after SLS. When pH-adjusted SLS solutions were compared, there was neither a
difference in relation to pH nor did the control solutions induce any significant CBFV change. This
study reveals that TEWL and CBFV are probably the most reliable methods to investigate acute
irritancy by SLS. Accordingly, pH cannot be considered as a major contributive factor of irritancy
when SLS solutions are applied under occlusion (48H). The current level of sebaceous secretion and
the electrical properties of the skin surface were not parameters to evaluate acute SLS-induced skin
damage, but longitudinal studies are presently being conducted in order to assess their significance in
monitoring epidermal repair after SLS insults.
K. Schrader, Optimierung eines kosmetischen Pflegeproduktes auf die menschliche Haut, H+G
Zeitschrift fr Hautkrankheiten 12/89
After explaining the idea and purpose of cosmetic products, we report on the course of development
these products usually take: marketing briefing, selection of the raw materials, serial experiments and
stability tests, and finally, dermatophysiological efficacy tests. In particular, we deal with the
application of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and its moisturing and smoothing effect on human skin.
Our results are discussed in details.
K.H. Schrader und St.Bielfeld, Vergleichende experimentelle Untersuchungen zwischen
Hautoberflchenprofil und der Hautfeuchtigkeit, Parfmerie und Kosmetik, Nr 2/89
Kosmetische Wirkungen von Pflegeprodukten an der menschlichen Haut sind oft sehr gering und
demzufolge auch nicht so einfach nachzuweisen. Hufig ist es deshalb nicht mglich, diese geringen
Vernderungen anhand eines Prfkriteriums zu dokumentieren. Zu den wichtigsten Parametern zur
Charakterisierung der kosmetischen Hautwirkungen ist die Hautrauhigkeit sowie die Hautfeuchtigkeit
von groer Bedeutung.
V. Rogiers, Assessment of skin surface hydration: the need for standardized conditions in
capacitance measurements, Lecture held at the congress of CIE Cosmetic Ingredients Europe, 21.-
23.03.1990, Wiesbaden
The practical usefulness of the CORNEOMETER CM 820, a commercially available apparatus for
measuring stratum corneum moisture content, has been evaluated on the skin of normal volunteers.
Factors such as cleaning procedure intragroup and regional variations, temperature and humidity have
been examined. Under well-defined conditions of skin cleaning, environmental temperature and
relative humidity large site-to-site variations occurred. However when selected areas, , 2/4 and on
the forearm, were studied, constant hydration values were measured for the individual spots for at least
1 month, although they differed significantly among each other. On the contrary, corresponding areas
on the right and left forearm had exactly the same hydration value for at least 1 month. When the
efficacy of moisturizing creams has to be tested, well-defined areas of one forearm may serve as
controls, whereas on the corresponding areas of the other forearm the samples may be applied. Age
seemed to be an important additional factor influencing skin hydration, whereas gender had no effect.
When the efficacy of moisturizing creams was tested it appeared that some w/o creams had a
significantly higher effect than o/w creams and this was dependent on the skin type involved. Creams
with 10% glycerol exhibited significantly higher hydration values than those without. In conclusion,
simple capacitance measurements are very useful for assessment of skin surface hydration on the
condition that standardized conditions are rigorously taken into account.
W. Gehring, M.Gloor Die Bedeutung des pH-Wertes bei der Hautreinigung (The importance of the
pH in skin cleansing), Parfmerie + Kosmetik, 04/90
The irritant potential of the pH was determined according to morphological criteria by using frozen
sections of human skin. In vivo the dehydrating effect on the cornea was analysed by means of
H\litlist\studies 12/06


13
corneometry and infrared spectroscopy after washing the skin with a surfactant solution adjusted to
different pH values. No morphological changes were produced in the range of pH 4-pH 8. The least
dehydration of the cornea was caused by surfactant solutions which were adjusted to an acidic pH.
C. Artmann, M. Ghyczy, H.G. Pratzel, J. Rding, Influence of various liposome preparations on
skin humidity, Parfmerie + Kosmetik, 05/90

The influence of similar liposome dispersions with varying phospholipid composition on the hydration
of the skin was investigated by measurements of the capacitive resistance in human skin. The
phospholipids influence the hydration behaviour of the liposomes on the skin.
Celleno, Valutazione dermatologica dei prodotti per la detersione della cute, Cosmesi
Dermatologica, 30/1990
The authors report the results and the methods of the dermatological and cosmetological evaluation of
16 solid products for cleaning the skin (traditional soaps, neutral soaps, syndets).There is a growing
need for valid and reliable tests to evaluate the cosmetic properties and the safety of cosmetics. Data
obtained in this field will contribute to the protection of both the consumer and the cosmetic industry.
G. Campagnoli, L. Celleno, S. Grifeo, A.G. Nume, C. Ronchi, Valutazione dellattivita
sebonormalizzante di unemulsione a base di lipoaminoacidi, Cosmesi Dermatologica 39/1990
Aim of the present study is to investigate thoroughly a new class of compounds, the lipoamino-acids.
These are molecules with sebum-normalizing and antimicrobial activity, useful in the cosmetologic
treatment of seborrheic and preacneic skin. The experience is based on the instrumental measurement
of sebumetry and pH-metry in 21 subjects, selected according to sebometric parameters above the
physiologic limits (group A), and on the evaluation of the onset of allergic symptoms in 20 different
subjects (group B) following 27 day treatment with a suitable preparation. Results show a sebum-
normalizing activity also following 7 day treatment, with no case of intolerance and/or sensitization.
C. Torresani, Utilizzo del fango termale sulfureo nel trattamento della cute seborroica, Cosmesi
Dermatologica, 1990
In the present study the efficacity of mud containing sulphurous thermal water, in the treatment of the
face seborrheic skin was evaluated. The results provided evidence for effectiveness as well as
tolerability of the treatment. Mechanism by which sulfur and, in particular, sulphurous thermal mud
operate in the sebaceous secretion are discussed with regard to literature data.
Rigano, Evaluation of sebum build-up on scalp: washing frequencies and tensioactive strength,
8
th
international symposium Bioengineering and the skin, Stresa / Italia, June 90
The right hygiene conditions for hair and scalp are not clearly related to definite washing frequencies,
and it is generally accepted by dermatologists that a delicate shampoo composition cannot be harmful
to the scalp equilibrium, even with frequent or daily washes. It is still controversial whether the so-
called rebound effect has any relation with shampoo frequencies and to interactions with the
sebaceous glands activity. Sebum production and the sebaceous secretions spreading on hair and scalp
has been evaluated after daily detersion with shampoo compositions of different irritative potentials.
Other washing frequencies have been also controlled: every 4-5 days and 9-10 days. Sebumetry, bulb
observation and optical properties of hair have also been checked. A relationship is outlined among
shampoos irritative power, qualitative and quantitative sebum secretions and washing frequencies.
Mild shampoo formulations do not show any influence on sebaceous secretions, even at high detersion
frequencies.
A.O.Barel, Non-invasive measurement of the viscoelastic properties of human skin with the
suction method, 8
th
international symposium Bioengineering and the skin, Stresa / Italia, June 1990
Elsner, Mechanical properties of human vulvar skin, 8
th
international symposium Bioengineering
and the skin, Stresa / Italia, June 1990
H\litlist\studies 12/06


14
Using a newly developed suction device, the mechanical properties of forearm and vulvar skin were
studied in 22 healthy women, 12 before and 10 after the menopause. The ratio between viscous
deformation (Uv) and elastic deformation (Ue) and the biological elasticity, i.e. the ratio between
immediate recovery (Ur) and total deformation (Uf), were both significantly lower in vulvar than in
foream skin. Ur/Uf decreased significantly with load in vulvar, but not in foream skin, whereas Uv/Ue
was not load-dependent in either site. Uv/Ue remained constant with age in both test sites, whereas
Ur/Uf was significantly lower in post-menopausal women in both foream and vulvar skin. In vulvar,
but not in forearm skin, Uv/Ue was significantly correlated with body height which may be an
indicator of mechanical connective tissue properties. Viscous deformation plays a lesser role and
biological elasticity is decreased in vulvar compared to foream skin. Despite differences in mechanical
parameters at both sites, age-related changes seem to be similar.
Teresa Anfossi, Influence of environment factors on skin elastometric patterns, 8
th
international
symposium Bioengineering and the skin, Stresa / Italia, June 1990
G. Jemec, Relation between scaling evaluated by the D-SQUAMETM Tape and skin hydration
evaluated by capacitance measurement, 8
th
International Symposium Bioengineering and the skin,
Stresa / Italia, June 1990
F. Pouzaud, Pharmaskin ou la reconqute de la cosmtologie, PraxiPharm, 04.10.1990
R. Mehl, La cosmtologie active arrive lofficine, Le quotidien du Pharmacien, 08.10.1990
o.A., La mthode Pharmaskin, Lcho des labos, 27.10.1990
Frank Hevert, Kenngren eines betrieblichen Hautreinigungsmittels, Arbeitsmedizin,
Sozialmedizin, Prventivmedizin, 08/90
F.P., Reconqurir la cosmtologie, Le moniteur, 13.10.1990
o.A., Biomtrologie cutane, Actualits Pharmaceutiques, Nov. 1990
Ing-Marie Bergbrant, Jan Faergemann, The role of Pityrosporum ovale in Seborrheic Dermatitis,
Seminars in Dermatology, 12/90
This paper discusses the relation between the lipophilic dimorphic yeast Pityrosporum ovale and
seborrheic dermatitis. A review of studies concerning the microbiology in seborrheic dermatitis and
immune reactions to P ovale are given. In our own studies with quantitative cultures, no significant
difference was found in the number of P ovale in patients compared with controls, or between healthy
and lesional skin in the patient group. IgG serum antibodies against P ovale cells estimated with
indirect immunofluorescence did not show any difference between patients and controls, but a
significant difference was found when a P Ovale protein extract and ELISA were used. Immunological
investigation on serum samples were done on 30 patients with seborrheic dermatitis. Defects were
found in their T-cell function. The number of Povale is of importance in those individuals who are
susceptible to seborrheic dermatitis and the development of the disease depends on the way their
immune system reacts to the antigens derived from P Ovale.
A.B. Cua, H.I. Maibach, K.P. Wilhelm, Elastic properties of human skin: relation to age, sex and
anatomical region, Dermatologica Research, 1990
Using a recently developed noninvasive, in vivo suction device for measuring skin elasticity, we
evaluated age, sex, and regional differences in the visco-elastic properties of skin. A total of 33
volunteers participated in the study consisting of (a) 8 young females, (b) 9 old females, (c) 8 young
males and (d) 8 old males. Measurements were performed on 11 anatomical regions; three different
loads were applied: 100, 200, and 500mbar. The parameters used were: immediate distension (Ue);
delayed distension (Uv); immediate retraction (Ur) ; and, final deformation (Uf). To compare between
subjects and anatomical regions, relative parameters independent of skin thickness were calculated:
Uv/Ue, the ratio between the viscoelastic properties of skin and immediate distension, and Ur/Uf,
which measures the ability of the skin to regain its initial position after deformation. Generally, Uv/Ue
increased while Ur/Uf decreased with aging. Responses were variable with respect to load applied.
H\litlist\studies 12/06


15
Variability, within anatomical regions was also noted. However, differences between the sexes were
not statistically significant for most regions. These findings are in congruence with earlier studies
suggesting the differences are mainly attributable to alterations in the elastic fiber network. This
procedure provides a simple, quantitative assessment of elastic properties of the skin. Its application
may help in future investigations of other connective tissue disorders.
Seiler, Rckfettung: Balsam fr die Altershaut, Moderne Geriatrie, 03/91

A.O. Barel, P. Clarys, Ann de Romse, Wessels, Non-invasive electrical measurements for
evaluating the water content of the horny layer: comparison between capacitance and
conductance measurements, Abstracts of the Conference on Prediction of Percutaneous Penetration,
Brussels, 10.-12.04.1991
The measurement of the hydration state of the stratum corneum is an important factor in dermato-
cosmetic research. This parameter is used for characterization of skin surface and for the evaluation of
the efficacy of skin moisturing products. Different electrical measurements were developed for
studying skin hydration. When applying an alternating voltage to the skin, the horny layer behaves
similar to a simple electric circuit where a resistor and a capacitor are connected in parallel. The
sensitivity, performance and practical use of one instrument which measures mainly the contribution
of the capacitance properties of the skin (Corneometer) was compared with an instrument which
measures the contribution of the conductance properties of the skin (Skicon). An evaluation of the
efficacy of moisturing preparations (O/W and W/O emulsions) on the skin was carried out in vivo
using two types of instruments. The influence of environmental factors such as the relative humidity
was evaluated by measuring the same skin under increasing relative humidity ( from 30 to 80%).
D. van Neste, Comparative study of normal and and rough human skin hydration in vivo:
Evaluation with four different instruments, Journal of Dermatological Science, 1991
Appropriate monitoring of skin hydration during clinical and/or experimental trials needs devices with
acceptable reproducibility and sensitivity under conditions ranging from increased, and normal to low
hydration. The aim of this study was to compare the variation of electrometric data generated by 4
different instruments (Skicon Hygrometer, 2 CM420 and a CM820 corneometer) in normal and
experimentally damaged skin displaying surface roughness. Rough skin sites were observed during the
healing process after repeated tape stripping of stratum corneum in humans (e.g. 10-14 days after
insult). They displayed lower conductance and /or capacitance levels as compared to normal skin sites
of the same subjects. The Skicon hygrometer showed higher variability as compared to the
corneometers and was less sensitive, in relative terms, in the rough skin sites. This device also showed
a moderate zero drift and re-zeroing was repeatedly utilized during the experiment. When the
corneometer data were plotted against the hygrometer data, the slope of the regression line generated
by the CM420a was different from CM420b and from CM820; the two latter were not significantly
different from each other. Hence, comparison of absolute data obtained under comparable conditions
(in this case CM420a and CM420b) in a single laboratory should not be made without prior
calibration. Standards for evaluating interinstrumental variation are currently unavailable.This aspect
of the measurement of electrical properties of the skin has not been investigated in great details and
has often been neglected in the past. Our findings also indicate that a constant control over the
performances of a particular device should further improve the reliability of the data.
R. Bhm, M. Ghyczy, S. Hager, The influence of liposomes from Soybean, lecithin on the
efficacity of fungicides, Internationales Symposium ber Pflanzenschutz, University Gent/Belgium,
07.05.1991
Lecithin is a mixture of phospholipids and oil that arises during the processing of oil seeds.
Phospholipids are components of all living organism. They fulfill two functions:
the emulsification of water insoluble substances, for example in blood and in the digestive tract;
the formation of compartments as the major component of biological membranes. Phospholipids
are one of the most commonly used emulsifiers in foodstuffs. Liposomes are vesicles in water
H\litlist\studies 12/06


16
comprised of phospholipids organized in double membranes, the same organization as occurs in
biological membranes. Liposomes have become of practical significance in medicine and
cosmetics. In this study, liposomes were produced from soya lecithin and were tested in the
treatment of grape vines. The liposome dispersion was used as an additive in the spray cocktail at
a concentration of 0,4%.

A. del Pozo, Carras Cosa, Dispensacion dermofarmaceutica: Apoyo technologico al rol del
Farmaceutico, Departemento de farmacia, Unitad docente de Farmacia Galenica, Universidad de
Barcelona, 1991
E.Fiquet, J.P. Marty, C.M. Vincent, tudes des proprits hydratantes de la crme hydratante
Visage
Neutrogena, Ralits Thrapeutiques en Dermato-Vnrologie, 31.10.1991

V. Parison, Validation dune nouvelle mthode de mesure de llasticit cutane: le Cutometer.
Application ltude de leffet de lhydratation sur les proprits biomcaniques de la peau,
Thse pour le diplme de docteur en Pharmacie, 29.11.1991
Elsner, Maibach, AT-based Data Aquisition and Analysis System for the Skin Bioengineering
Laboratory, 1991
In recent years, bioengineering instruments have found wide application for the non-invasive
evaluation of functional properties of human skin. These devices measure transepidermal water loss
(evaporimetry), skin hydration (methods based on conduction, impedance, and capacitance), skin
blood flow (laser Doppler velocimetry, photoplethysmography), friction (friction meter), and
mechanical properties (e.g. twistometer, suction devices), and allow the investigator to generate
considerable data which requires documentation and analysis. Although some instruments meanwhile
offer interfaces for the transfer of data into personal computers, integrated data acquisition systems
supporting the whole spectrum of instruments used in the laboratory are lacking. We have developed
an inexpensive data acquisition and analysis system for our skin bioengineering laboratory which
allows the acquisition of data from several instruments simultaneously or in sequence. The data are fed
into a spreadsheet on a personal computer and conversions and basic statistics are computed
automatically. The system consists of an AT-compatible PC with two serial interfaces and an analog-
digital conversion board. The software is an industry-standard spreadsheet (Lotus 1-2-3) with an
instrument set (Lotus Measure). Using this system, we considerably improved the precision of our
measurements and the scientific productivity in our skin bioengineering laboratory.
Check-up Cosmetologique et Biometrologie Cutanee, Special Dermo-cosmtologie, No. 289, Juillet
1991
La notion de Check-Up cutane a toujours exprime un souci de rigueur pour definir des besoins
cutanes et des reponses performantes. Une logique, aujourdhui scientifique, qui sassuie sur des
connaissances precises de la physiologie cutanee pour interpreter les differents etats de la peau et
proposer de veritables methodes de correction; cest lavenement dune cosmetologie de soins,
rigoureuse.
F.Mrot, J.P. Borthier, P. Denis, Ph. Masson, Incidence du diametre de la sonde sur les mesures
delasticite cutanee, Congres SFC-ISIPCA, Versailles (France), 16-18 Novembre 1992
Pour chaque catgorie de peau ltirement maximal moyen augmente en fonction du diamtre de la
sonde / selon la classification adopte, ltirement maximal moyen est significantivement plus
important pour la catgorie peaux relaches / la disparti des rsultats individuels obtenus avec les
trois sondes suggre limpliation de structures cutanes diffrentes.

P. Agache, P. Creidi, B. Faivre, Assessment of skin hydration and softening effects of colloidal oat
fraction containing cream, J. Appl. Cosmet. 1-6, Jan.- March 1992
A concentrated colloidal oat fraction in a O/W cream has been compared with a reference O/W
emollient cream for stratum corneum hydrating and skin surface softening effects in a double-blind
H\litlist\studies 12/06


17
randomized study in 10 healthy female volunteers whose skin had been made dry and irritated by
repeated applications of sodium dodecylsulfate. Stratum corneum hydration was assessed through
conductance measurements. Skin surface smoothness was evaluated through a visual plus tactile
subjective assay and by profilometry of skin surface casts. All methods demonstrated recovery of the
skin following one weeks treatment with either product. This improvement was sustained a week
later. It is concluded that the tested oat extract enriched cream has a hydrating and softening effect on
the skin surface which is similar or superior to that of a conventional O/W strongly moisturizing
cream.
Y. Guiserix, La vente scientifique, Cosmetica Distribution, 02/92

P. Busch, K. Schumann, H. Verbeek, Die Entwicklung der Hautkosmetik in den letzten 25
Jahren,
Parfmerie + Kosmetik 02/92

A.O. Barel, P. Clarys, C. Eeckhout, P. Gross, J. Taeymans, Influence of short daily exposure to
thermal water on the hydration state of the skin, Threat to the Skin, 1992

A.O. Barel, P. Clarys, Ann de Romse, B. Wessels, Misurazioni ellectriche non invasive per la
misurazioni dellidratazione dello strato corneo: confronto tra misure di capaci (capacitanza) e
di conductibilit, Cosmetics & Toiletries 04/92
R.Wolf, E.Tur, D.Wolf, M.Landau, The effect of smoking on skin moisture and on surface lipids,
International Journal of Cosmetic Science 14/92
In the present retrospective study we investigated the effect of smoking on the moisture and surface
lipid levels of the skin. We analysed data from the files of 576 female clients treated in a Tel-Aviv
cosmetic parlour. Measurements have been conducted by the same cosmetician, by commercially
available equipment, on every client receiving cosmetic treatment, regardless of the nature of the
treatment. Results demonstrated a significant difference of skin moisture in the various smoking
groups: women who smoked 11-20 cigarettes per day showed significantly lower mean values than the
non-smoker group, as expected. Moreover, women before or after menopause showed no significant
differences in their moisture measurements. The surface lipid variables showed no significant
differences in mean over the four smoking groups. We believe that the objective of the study was
achieved, and that the results, indicating decreased skin moisture in smokers, will serve well in anti-
smoking campaigns. We also believe that the present study will stimulate other investigators to
conduct similar studies that will provide answers to many questions which still remain open.
o.A., Quantitative evaluation of sebaceous secretion on the forehead: comparison between the
SebumeterTM and a microporous film (SebutapeTM), 9
th
international symposium
Bioengineering and the skin, Sendai / Japan, 19.-20. October 1992
The Sebutape technique seems to be a reliable and as fast procedure to obtain numerical values
concerning the amount of skin surface lipids. The technique with the Sebutape is more time
consuming but has the advantage to examine a greater surface of the skin, to protect the evaluated
region and the Sebutape leaves the possibility for further quantitative lipid determination. Direct
scanning of the Sebutape instead of scanning of an enlarged picture of the Sebutape results in a more
standardised method with a greater surface that can be used for evaluation. The correlation between
the Sebumeter and between the Sebutape technique increased from r=0,73 to r=0,94 when using direct
scanning of the Sebutape instead of indirect scanning of the Sebutape.
W. Gehring, M. Gloor, Angelika Post, ber den Einflu der Hautwaschung auf den pH-Wert
(About the effect of skin-washings on pH-value), Parfmerie + Kosmetik, 11/92
H\litlist\studies 12/06


18
A report is given about the effect of skin-washings with sodium lauryl sulfate on alkali-neutralisation,
pH-value, moisture int he stratum corneum on the skin surface (infrared spectroscopy) and in the depth
(corneometry). Capacity for alkaline neutralisation, pH-value and moisture in the depth of the stratum
corneum normalized very slowly. In contrast, moisture in the upper stratum corneum normalized after
only four hours. Repeated washings after two and five hours respectively did not lead to any
significant changes in the mechanisms of regenerations. Changes of pH-value and moisture in the
stratum corneum normalized in a similar way after the first and second washing. The relationship
between the capacity of the skin for alkaline neutralisation and the water-binding substances in the
depth of the stratum corneum is discussed.
A. Cohen-Letessier, E. Fiquet, J.P. Marty, C.M. Vincent, valuation des proprits de la crme
hydrophile lipophile (Evaluation of a water/oil emulsion (Effadiane)), Les Nouvelles, 11/92
Effadiane is a water/oil emulsion, its effect on the skin hydration has been investigated in human
volunteers by non invasive technics: the transepidermal water loss measurement to verify and
occlusive effect, the corneometric measurement to demonstrate the direct water uptake by the horny
layer. The emulsion persistency on the skin surface has been evaluated by sebumetry. Good
correlation has been established between the hydration power and the persistency of the emulsion over
time.
Giorgio Mazzola, Gianfranco Secchi, Alessandro Teglia, Relationship between Chemical
Characteristics and Cosmetic Properties of Protein Hydrolysates, 17
th
IFSCC Congress,
Yokohama / Japan, 10/92
More than 20 protein hydrolysates, taken from the market or especially prepared for the test, of animal
and vegetable origin and with significantly different molecular characteristics were tested and
compared with respect to three cosmetic properties: substantivity to hair, reduction of sodium
laurylsulfate (SLS) irritation and foaming. Peptide adsorption on hair was evaluated on virgin and
damaged tresses after incubation with 2,5% hydrolysate solutions, re-extraction with 50C hot water
and high ionic strength solution and quantification after fluorescamine reaction. Inhibition of induced
SLS skin and eye irritation was evaluated by visual scoring, moisture content of the horny layer
(Electric Capacitance, EC) and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements after skin chamber
application and by Eytex methodology. Foaming properties were evaluated by standard Ross-Miles
method. Molecular size, net charge and hydrophobicity were studied as important parameters affecting
these cosmetic properties and were related to the origin of hydrolysates and the characteristics of the
manufacturing process.
Masahiro Nishimura and Takuo Tsuji, Measurements of Skin Elasticity with a New Suction
Device - Relation to Age, Sex, Anatomical Region, Sun-Exposure and Comparison with
Deseased Skin-,
Jpn J Dermatol: 1111-1117, 1992
Using a recently developed in vivo suction device for measuring skin elasticity, we evaluated age, sex,
and regional differences in the elastic properties. Skin elasticity decreased with aging at all anatomical
regions. Differences between the anatomical regions in the same age groups were significant, but no
significant differences were noted between the sexes. The measurements in patients with skin deseases
(PSS and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome) showed interesting results. This procedure allows assessment of
skin elasticity, and its application to deseased skin, particularily connective tissue disorders may be
helpful for diagnosing, deciding progression and evaluating therapeutic effects.
A. Barel, P. Clarys, In Vivo Evaluation of Skin Ageing: Relations between Viscoelastic Properties
and Skin Surface Roughness Parameters, 9
th
ISBS Meeting, Japan, October 19 +20, 1992
Ageing of the skin is clearly characterized by changes in a variety of physical parameters related to the
dermis. We have studied the influence of age on the mechanical properties of the skin and on skin
roughness. Both physical properties are correlated with modifications in the structure of the papillary
and reticular dermis.
H\litlist\studies 12/06


19
P.G. Agache, D. Varchon, Ph. Humbert, A. Rochfort, Non-Invasive Assessment of Biaxial Youngs
Modulus of Man in Vivo, 9
th
ISBS Meeting, Japan, October 19 +20, 1992
The elastic modulus (E) is a major parameter of the skin mechanical behaviour. Unfortunately up to
now only its variation could be currently estimated in vivo, and without access to absolute differences.
P.J. Frosch, A. Kurte, Efficacy of Skin Barrier Creams, Contact Dermatitis,1993
An improved human model for the quantification of skin barrier creme (BC) is described. In contrast
to the previously published procedure the back instead of the forearm and a total of 4 irritants are used.
Due to the larger area 3 BC formulations can be simulaneously compared to the control field which
received the irritant only without BC-pretreatment. On 10 human volunteers the irritants 10% sodium
lauryl sulfate (SLS), 1% sodium hydroxide (NaOH), 30% lactic acid (LA) and undiluted toluene
(TOL) were applied via large Finn chambers for 30min, 5x during the first week and 4x during the
second one. Taktosan Salbe (water-in-oil emulsion) and RAWI speerschutzcreme (oil-in-water
emulsion) had been applied 30 min before contact with the irritants. In order to assess reproducibility
and interindividual variation the BC RAWI was tested in duplicate. Irritant cutaneous reactions were
quantified by 4 parameters: erythema score, transepidermal water loss, blood flow volume and stratum
corneum hydration by measuring capacitance. The results showed marked differences in efficacy.
Taktosan suppressed significantly the irritation of SLS, NaOH and LA, apparent in nearly all
parameters. RAWI caused significant inhibition of the SLS irritation and a positive trend against
NaOH and LA was observed. Both BC failed against TOL. The results of the suplicate testing with
RAWI showed a good reproducibility. The dogma that oil-in-water emulsions are primarily effective
against lipophilic irritants and water-in-oil emulsions against hydrophilic ones needs to be re-evaluated
on the basis of our findings.
This model seems to have potential for further studies on BC and might elucidate the complex
interaction of BC with irritants.
K.P. Wilhelm, A.B. Cua, H.I. Maibach, In Vivo Study on Age-Related Elastic Properties of Human
Skin, Noninvasive Methods for the Quantification of Skin Functions, 1993;190:203

G. Yosipovitch, E. Tur, O. Cohen, Y. Rusecki, Skin Surface pH in Intertriginous Areas in NIDDM
Patients, Diabetes Care, Volume 16, No. 4, April 1993
We measured the skin surface pH and moisture in the axillary, inframammary, inguinal, and forearm
skin with a pH meter with a flat-glass electrode and skin corneometer. The subjects were 50 NIDDM
patients from the diabetic outpatient clinic at Bellinson Medical Center, Petah Tiquva, Israel, and 40
healthy control subjects from hospital personnel. The main outcome measures were skin surface pH,
skin moisture, and skin culture for Candida.
A.Triebskorn,M.Gloor, Noninvasive Methods for the Determination of Skin Hydration,
Noninvasive Methods for Quantification of Skin Functions, 1993
In 1953, Blank showed that water makes up 10%-20% of the stratum corneum. As soon as the amount
of water decreases below 10%, the skin develops a rough and dry looking appearance. Kligman in
1963, maintained that the lipids of the skin surface were of no essential significance for the appearance
of the horny layer, rather that the appearance of the skin is mainly due to the water content of the
horny layer. Based on the postulated affiliation between stratum corneum hydration and the
macroscopic aspect of the skin, diverse methods for assessing horny layer hydration have been
developed.
H. Tronnier, Wirksamkeitsnachweis fr Kosmetika, SFW-Journal, 119. Jahrgang, 5/1993
Ein Wirksamkeitsnachweis ist, wie zahlreiche Publikationen beweisen, oftmals selbst in der Medizin
nicht einfach. Gelingt er noch bei einem Vergleich eines wirkstoffhaltingen Prparates gegen ein
Placebo, so ist oft ein Unterschied in der Effektivitt zwischen zwei wirkstoffhaltigen Prparaten nicht
mehr zu finden oder wenigstens nicht mehr statistisch zu sichern.
H\litlist\studies 12/06


20
R. Nring, J .Stork. B. Born, B. Labrot, H. Mann, P. Saake, M. Spallek, Transepidermaler
Wasserverlust bei Atopie, Dermatosen 41, Heft 3, 1993
Bei 279 Meitarbeitern wurde der Atopie-Score bestimmt, an vier verschiedenen Krperstellen
(Unterarmstreckseite, Unterarmbeugeseite, Handrcken und Handflche) wurde der Transepidermale
Wasserverlust (TEWL) gemessen. Es zeigt sich, da der Atopie-Score und der TEWL unabhngige
Gren sind.
V. Bousquet, D. Redoules, I. Raynal, G. Dahlem, Y. Gall, Les principales techniques dobjectivation
des effets des dermo-cosmtiques, Cosmtologie, 1993
La mise au point de produits dermo-cosmtiques de plus en plus performants grce aux progrs de la
galnique a entran le dveloppement dun ensemble de mthodes dvaluation visant mesurer leurs
effets directement sur la peau et de la manire la plus objective.
R. Marks,C. Edwards, Methods to aid the coice of shade from a range of colour disguise
cosmetics, University of Wales College of Medicine, 26 May 1993
The range of cosmetic camouflage products for major disfiguring skin conditions are well known, and
are available in a wide range of shades. They require considerable skill and training for their blending
and application which also needs a finishing layer of powder for best effect. These products are
admirably suited to their use on major blemishes, but would be difficult to apply by a consumer at
home for minor blemishes.
A.O. Barel, P. Clarys, Study of the Stratum Corneum barrier function by Transepidermal water
loss (TEWL) measurements.
Comparison between two commercial instruments: Evaporimeter and Tewameter, (Studio sulla
funzione barriera dello strato corneo per mezzo della perdita di umiditaper traspirazione cutanea
(TEWL). Confronto tra due strumenti: Evaporimeter e Tewameter), Cosmetics & Toiletries
Ed.It.n. 1/94
The measurement of Trans Epidermal Water Loss (TEWL) is an important non invasive method for
assessing the efficiency of the skin as a protective barrier. As a consequence, the measurement of
TEWL provides information concerning the integrity of the epidermis in normal, irritated and diseased
skin situations, concerning the effects of chemicals on the surface of the skin and concerning the
objective evaluation of occlusive pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations. In the past different non
invasive methods and instruments have been developed to measure TEWL. Until recently, the only
commercial available TEWL instrument was the Evaporimeter made by Servomed, Sweden, based
on the open chamber evaporation gradient method. This widely used instrument, measures the water
evaporation gradient developed from the skin surface in an open chamber system. Hygrosensors
coupled with thermistors measure at two different distances from the skin surface, the water
evaporation at the skin surface. Recently a new instrument based on the same principle of
measurement of the water evaporation gradient in an open chamber, was developed and became
commercially available: Tewameter TM 210 made by Courage+Khazaka, Germany. It is the purpose
of this chapter to compare the two commercial instruments under identical experimental conditions.
The following parameters will be comparatively analyzed and described: general technical description
of the probes and the instruments, evaluation of the accuracy, reproducibility and range of TEWL
measurements and a comparative study of some typical applications of TEWL measurements in
dermato-cosmetic research. TEWL-measurements were carried out with both instruments after
stripping, occlusion and the treatment with irritant detergents.
Jeanne Duus Johansen, Dorte Ramsing, Gunhild Vejlsgaard and T. Agner, Skin barrier properties
in patients with recessive x-linked ichthyosis, Second International Symposium on Irritant Contact
Dermatitis (ISICD), Zurich, April 14-16, 1994
Recessive X-linked ichthyosis (RXLI) is scaling disorder of the skin with the biochemical abnormality
known to be steroid sulphate deficiency.
In epidermis levels of cholesterol are decreased and levels of cholesterol sulphate increased. The
influence of this disturbed lipid composition of the epidermis with respect to skin barrier function was
H\litlist\studies 12/06


21
examined in the present study. Skin response to patch testing with sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) 0.5%
for 24 hours was evaluated in 13 patients with RXLI and 15 age- and sex-matched controls. Basal skin
properties and skin response to SLS were studied by measurement of transepidermal water loss
(TEWL), skin hydration (electrical capacitance), and erythema index.
No statistically significant difference in basal TEWL was found between RXLI patients and controls.
Skin hydration, as reflected by electrical capacitance of the skin, was significantly decreased in
patients with RXLI. After exposure to SLS TEWL was significantly increased in control subjects as
compared to ichthyosis patients (p=0.047). Increase in TEWL after SLS-exposure was statistically less
for RXLI patients than for controls (p=0.0049). No statistically significant difference in erythema
index was found between the two groups in basal values or in values obtained after SLS-exposure. The
implication of the study is a better understanding of the skin barrier function in scaly disorders.
A.M. Grunewald and M. Gloor, Value of barrier creams against skin damage due to repeated
washings, Second International Symposium on Irritant Contact Dermatitis (ISICD), Zurich, April 14-
16, 1994
The aim of our study was to evaluate the protective effect of barrier creams onto irritant contact
dermatitis. Therefore the following skin function parameters were evaluated: corneal lipids
(sebumetry), water content of the corneal layer (corneometry), transepidermal water loss (TEWL), pH
of the skin, skin reddening (colorimetry) and skin blood flow (laser doppler flow). We did
standardized washings of both arms on the first and the 8
th
day. The subjects were asked to wash 5
times daily for one week.
In a first study we evaluated the irritating effect of repeated washings with 0.01 mol/l sodium lauryl
sulphate solution on 20 subjects. We were able to show that there is a more than 12 hours lasting
change in skin function parameters after one week of repeated washings. Concerning corneometry,
corneal lipids, tewl, pH and laser doppler flow there were highly significant differences before and
after repeated washings (p<0.01). In a second study we evaluated the irritation reducing effect of 3
barrier creams on 15 subjects for each cream. Using the same method as in our first study, one selected
arm was additionally treated with a barrier cream 5 times daily. Barrier creams had a highly significant
(p<0.01) effect on laser doppler flow, corneometry and tewl. Nevertheless they were not able to offer
complete protection. The different barrier creams showed significant differently positive effects onto
skin function parameters.
A. Kurte and P.J. Frosch, What is the optimal time course of application for barrier creams?,
Second International Symposium on Irritant Contact Dermatitis (ISICD), Zurich, April 14-16, 1994
There is no scientific data on the optimal timing of barrier creams (BC) regarding the contact with the
irritant. Most of all it is totally unclear whether the application before contact with the irritant is more
effective than afterwards. Therefore we studied a popular BC (Atrix Handcreme, Beiersdorf) in our
recently described Repetitive Irritation Test on human volunteers with four standard irritants and
changed the mode of BC application as follows: 30 min before the irritant, 30 min before and 30 min
after the irritant, and 30 min after the irritant only. On normal back skin of 10 volunteers the 4 irritants
were applied via large Finn chambers for 30 min: 10% sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) 1%, sodium
hydroxide (NaOH), 30% lactic acid and undiluted toluene. Control fields received the irritant only.
Cutaneous irritation was quantified by use of non-invasive bioengineering techniques (TEWL), blood
flow volume, capacitance for stratum corneum hydration) and a clinical score for erythema. The
results showed marked differences regarding the 3 types of application of BC. Overall, best protection
was observed when the BC was applied before and after the irritants; significant differences vs control
were found for nearly all parameters. The application before the irritant was almost as effective as
before and after for SLS and NaOH, but markedly less effective for lactic acid. For the latter irritant
the third mode of BC application (only afterwards) showed striking efficacy, but was least efficacious
for the other irritants. The results demonstrate that the degree of inhibition of irritancy depends on the
time sequence of BC application. Usage before and after the irritant may be more effective than only
one application. For some irritants the application after the irritant may be just as effective as the
application before. This observation may have important implications for work places where BC
cannot be used before or during working hours.
H\litlist\studies 12/06


22
Ch. Mnzberger, U.F. Haustein and U. Elefant, Effects of UVA- and UVB-radiation on
transepidermal water loss, water content of the horny layer and skin surface lipids, Second
International Symposium on Irritant Contact Dermatitis (ISICD), Zurich, April 14-16, 1994
In the last year many studies have provided important new knowledge concerning the benefits and
risks of skin exposure to sunlight and ultraviolet radiation, among them the acute and chronic effects
on damage of the skin barrier. We examined the transepidermal water loss, the water content of the
horny layer and the amount of skin surface lipids in relation to low dose UV-radiation. The
transepidermal water loss was measured with the TEWAMETER TM 210 , the water content of the
horny layer with the CORNEOMETER CM 820 and the skin surface lipids with the SEBUMETER
SM 810 PC (all from Courage and Khazaka GmbH). The ultraviolet radiation of 25 healthy adults was
performed with UVA (Philips TL-K 40W/09N) and UVB (Philips TL 20W/01).
One time radiation with UVA as well as with UVB did not show significant changes on all measured
biophysical parameters. Transepidermal water loss, the water content of the horny layer and the
amount of skin surface lipids were not different before radiation and 5 minutes, 1, 2 and 24 hours after
radiation. On the contrary cumulative radiations 4 times per week resulted in damage of the skin
barrier and showed changes of the biophysical parameters measured.

E. Tur, Z. Eshkol, Sarah Brenner and H.Il Maibach, The cumulative effect of subthreshold
concentrations of irritants, Second International Symposium on Irritant Contact Dermatitis (ISICD),
Zurich, April 14-16, 1994
The aim of the present study was to assess the cutaneous response to repetitive applications of
subthreshold concentrations of the same irritant or a combination of irritants, using objective non-
invasive measurements as well as visual scoring. Ten subjects were patch-tested to determine the
minimal irritant dose (MID) to dilutions of aqueous sodium lauryl sulphate and lactic acid. Each
subject was then patch-tested for a period of 24 h with half of MID of each chemical (10 patches of
each). At 25 h additional patches were applied over the same sites, containing five successive twofold
dilutions of each irritant, starting with half of MID. Each chemical was thus applied onto itself and
onto the other chemicals as well. In addition, combinations of half the MID of each substance and
twofold dilutions of the other were also applied for two consecutive periods of 24 h. At 25 and 49 h
the cutaneous changes were monitored by using the non-invasive methods of laser Doppler flowmetry
and reflectance spectrophotometry, in addition to visual scoring.
No visual changes were detected, whereas significant differences between the various patch-testing
combinations were detected by the instrumentation. Cutaneous blood flow over sites treated with half
the MID of one substance increased upon an additional 24 h period of occlusion with half the MID of
the other substance (p<0.05), and in several occasions even with a quarter of the MID. Repeated
application of certain combinations of the substances resulted in an elevated blood flow as well.
Reflectance spectrophotometric measurements gave similar results, with the additional finding of an
elevation upon reapplication of the same substance (p<0.05).These results may provide initial insight
into the interaction between the skin and irritants. Although no visual alterations could be detected, the
noninvasive instruments were able to detect cutaneous responses to consecutive applications of
subthreshold concentrations of various combinations of two chemical irritants. The detectable changes
obtained with the addition of a quarter of the MID on top of half of it suggest an augmentation of the
response.
G.Zeller, N.Y. Schrer and G. Goerz, Patch testing of dental alloys, Second International
Symposium on Irritant Contact Dermatitis (ISICD), Zurich, April 14-16, 1994
Complaints about allergies to dental alloys encounter frequently the dermatologists or dentists
office. Standardised patch tests may then be performed on the patients back. However, the stratum
corneum provides a barrier against transepidermal waterloss (TEWL) as well as unlimited penetration
of chemicals. The quality of the barrier varies between the different regions of the body (oral, back,
arm). In this context, we posed the question, whether the current standardised patch test procedure of
dental alloys on the back is optimal. Therefore, we performed triplicate patch tests on 30 patients with
oral complaints to dental alloys. Patch tests were applied on the back and the insides of both upper
H\litlist\studies 12/06


23
arms. The skin surface of one arm was pre-treated with acetone wipes in order to disturb the stratum
corneum barrier prior to the application of the patch test. The individual TEWL was measured prior
and after to the acetone wipes. The patch test procedure was performed according to the
recommendations of the German contact dermatitis group. Of the 30 patients tested, 15 patients
revealed reactions to dental alloys. Thereof, 5 (33%) patients reacted in triplicate, 8 (53%) reacted
only on their arms (duplicate) and 2 (13%) reacted only on the acetone-pre-treated arm. Reactions to
benzoylperoxide (7), cadmiumchloride (6), sodiumthiosulfatoaurate (4) and zincchloride (4) were
observed. We conclude, that patchtesting of dental alloys may better be performed on the upper arm,
where the physiological stratum corneum is thinner, yet disruption of the epidermal barrier with
acetone wipes in general, is not necessary to prevent false negative results on the back.

Vera Rogiers and Diane Roseeuw, TEWL measurements in patch test assessment: The need for
standardisation, Second International Symposium on Irritant Contact Dermatitis (ISICD),
Zurich, April 14-16, 1994.
When soap, shower and shampoo formulations are brought in contact with skin, irritation may occur
which can be assessed by TEWL measurements. Of utmost importance is that the methods involved
are well standardised. The aim of this study was to develop such standardised conditions for TEWL
measurements and patch testing. For TEWL measurements the TEWA-meter was used. Several of the
factors studied play an important role: the measuring probe should be warmed up to body temperature
(30.9 1.0C) before measurements are carried out; the pressure on the measuring probe must be kept
constant; a shielding box should only be used when excessive air turbulence can occur; the location of
the measurements site on the body is a variable. Corresponding places on the right left forearm exhibit
the same TEWL; the environmental temperature and relative humidity must be kept constant; cleaning
procedures of the skin may affect TEWL measurements. Factors of minor importance seem to be age
and sex of the volunteers. Under standardised conditions the reproducibility of the TEWL
measurements on the forearm of 20 female volunteers between 23-27 years old during one month was
high: CV = 5% at the individual level and 10% at the group level. For patch testing different methods
were compared taking into account the factors that affect TEWL measurements. When aqueous
detergent solutions (1% sodium laurylsulfate (SLS) in desionised water was taken as a reference) were
patch tested, factors affecting TEWL measurements were found to be the volume of the detergent
solution on the patch, the occlusiveness of the dressing, the use of an appropriate blank, the occlusion
time and the reading time after air exposure. When under these standardised conditions the irritancy
potential of two new non-ionic surfactants, caprilyl/capryl glucoside and decyl glucoside, was
measured on the forearm of 13 volunteers (female between 20-29 years old) versus the amphoteric
surfactant cocoamidopropylbetaine and the anionic SLS, the following ranking was found: water <
alkyl glucosides < betaine < SLS.


S.M. John, U. Gdecke and H.J .Schwanitz, Bioengineering of the skin as a tool for primary
prevention of occupational skin disease? A nine-months experience, Second International
Symposium on Irritant Contact Dermatitis (ISICD), Zurich, April 14-16, 1994
Introduction: Which factors influence individual susceptibility to develop dermatitis in wetwork?
Little is known so far, even less has been incorporated in legal requirements. To date, in Germany,
youths at risk are presently - if at all - screened for irrelevant disorders like acne. An objective
instrumentary for efficient pre-employment counselling in wetwork is needed.
Methods: Prospective studies are the only valid study design when the role of endogenous factors such
as skin sensitivity is to be investigated. A prospective cohort study in hairdressers apprentices was
designed correlating anamnestic and clinical findings (e.g. Erlangen atopy score) with bioengineering
methods (transepidermal water loss [TEWL], microcirculation [LDF], pH, sebum, temperature). The
intended observation period is to be three years (full educational cycle), the observation intervals were
3 months in the first year of training, and will then be 6 months.
Results: The results of the first nine months of the study are now available, including 4 investigations
in 3-months-intervals in the first year of training, and will then be 6 months.
H\litlist\studies 12/06


24
Results: The results of the first nine months of the study are now available, including 4 investigations
in 3-months-intervals. So far 92 junior apprentices were investigated, 62 within the first 20 days of
professional training. Within the observation period 25 (27%) developed moderate or severe
occupational dermatitits at any one stage, 39 (43%) developed mild dermatitis, 28 (30%) apprentices
did not develop dermatitis (yet). 6 of 92 left the profession for reasons other than the skin, 7 (8%) had
to give up for occupational skin disease. Clinical parameters (Erlangen atopy-score) so far do not
significantly correlate the development of contact dermatitis, nor do the investigated bioengineering
parameters (including TWL) compared to unaffected controls. However, there was a significant
increase of RWL within the first six months of training in cases and controls, which afterwards
normalized in unaffected individuals.
Conclusion: The aim of this study is to develop a skin sensitivity score (SSS) as an objective and
predictive parameter in wetwork by combination of (a) clinical and (b) non-invasive bioengineering
parameters. This aim has not yet been reached. More epidemiological data is needed. Work-related
monitoring using bioengineering methods may become of importance for early diagnosis of
occupational contact dermatitis.

P.G.M. Van der Valk and G. Zarafonitis, Horny layer thickness as assessed functionally by
sellotape stripping and transepidermal water loss does not predict sodium lauryl sulphate skin
irritations, Second International Symposium on Irritant Contact Dermatitis (ISICD), Zurich, April 14-
16, 1994
To elicit an irritant or allergic skin reaction a chemical has to penetrate the skin. The horny layer plays
an important role as a barrier for most chemicals. Therefore it seems likely that horny layer barrier
function is important in preventing allergic and irritant contact dermatitis. Differences in horny layer
barrier function may account for differences in susceptibility to irritants. The thickness of the horny
layer may be an important factor in barrier function. If it is assumed that by sellotape stripping a layer
of corneocytes is removed with a constant thickness both between subjects and within subjects and
permeability constants do not vary the thickness of the horny layer can be estimated according to
Ficks law by the number of strips needed to increase permeability. Transepidermal water loss
(TEWL) has been suggested as an indicator for horny layer barrier function. Stripping the skin with
sellotape increases transepidermal water loss according to Ficks law. We studied the correlation
between the number of sellotape strips needed to remove a constant functional part of the horny layer
as assessed by transepidermal water loss with the response of the skin to a standardised irritant
stimulus. In 20 subjects a site on the volar side of the forearm was tapestripped until TEWL was 40
g/m/h. On the contralateral side of the other forearms skin was patch tested 48 hours to sodium lauryl
sulphate (SLS) 3%. Redness of the exposed skin was read semi-quantitatively on a 0-4 scale after the
exposure.
The results are presented in the table.
Erythema 1.35 0.67 r = 0.12* NS
TEWL 43.97 16.60 r = 0.15 NS
Strips 29.25 12.41

Mean erythema score, mean TEWL (g/m/h) score and mean number of strips *Correlation coefficient
between erythema and TEWL score with the number of strips (NS = not significant).
The number of strips needed to increase TEWL till 40 g/m/h did not predict skin irritation. The lack
of correlation may be explained by:
1. Permeability constants vary significantly between subjects:
because the horny layer thickness and the quality of the barrier are inversely related for
sellotape stripping removes a layer with varying thickness inversely related to the barrier
quality of the horny layer.
2. Other factors than differences in barrier function do account for differences in susceptibility to SLS.
H\litlist\studies 12/06


25

B. Gabard, P. Treffel, F. Charton-Picard and R. Eloy, Irritant reactions on hairless micropig skin:
A model for testing barrier creams, Second International Symposium on Irritant Contact Dermatitis
(ISICD), Zurich, April 14-16, 1994
Occupational dermatoses are most numerous among recognized occupational diseases and their
frequency is increasing. Skin barrier creams (SBC) are designed to prevent or reduce the irritancy or
hazardous materials in the working and/or home environment. Used repeatedly, detergents, organic
solvents or cutting oils presumed to be responsible for the development of numerous chronic irritant
dermatitis.
Many methods have been used to identify the potential protective efficacy of SBC but up to now, there
is no widely accepted model. Main difficulties reside in the wide range of possible irritants and in the
obvious need to reproduce the frequent repetition of a low-grade exposure.
We looked for an animal model that would present the following characteristics:
pharmacological reactions similar to the ones of human skin, allowing a meaningful
comparison of the irritant reactions to be made;
possibility of easily repeating applications of various concentrations of the irritants;
possibility of quantifying the irritation with non-invasive skin measurements techniques.
For these purposes, we chose the Yucatan hairless micropig (YHP), the skin of which is known to be
very close to human skin, at least morphologically. In a first preliminary stage, the following
experiments were conducted:
1. Physiologic characterisation of the normal YHP skin with repeated measurements on different sites
of skin colour (Minolta Chromameter), skin hydration (Courage + Khazaka Corneometer) and
transepidermal water loss (TEWL; Servomed evaporimeter);
2. Measurements of the skin reactions to histamine (Pricktest), aqueous methylnicotinate, NaOH,
aqueous Na-lauryl sulfate (NaLS) and toluene;
3. Occlusive application of different cutting oils.
The results show the following similarities and differences with known properties of human skin:
1. YHP skin showed lower L*- and b*-, but similar a*-values, skin hydration slightly lower but TEWL
similar compared to known Caucasian skin data. Site differences were detected.
2. Reactions to histamine, toluene and NaOH were well characterised and took place in a
concentration range similar to the one used in corresponding experiments on human skin. This was
also the case for NaLS, although the reaction showed a strong erythema, a decrease of hydration
changes but little barrier impairment as measured with TEWL. YHP skin proved very insensitive to
Methylnicotinate.
3. It was also shown that some cutting oils could provoke a measurable irritation after a single
occlusive patch application.
In conclusion, these experiments to be completed to better characterise the properties of the YHP skin
but these preliminary results appear to support the use of this animal model in thinking about a near-
practise test system for SBC.
L.A. Scott, S.A. Pitts, P.S. Horn and C.K. Kappes, Use of instrumental techniques for skin safety
applications, Second International Symposium on Irritant Contact Dermatitis (ISICD), Zurich, April
14-16, 1994
When properly conducted and interpreted, patch testing is a valuable tool for predicting the allergenic
and irritant potential of a test material. Patch test results are currently evaluated via the use of visual
grading schemes which require trained clinical graders to obtain accurate and reproducible results.
Due to the element of subjectivity associated with any visual grading technique and the potential for
interlaboratory variation despite common visual descriptors, alternative nonsubjective methods were
evaluated. This study was initiated to evaluate the sensitivity of various non-invasive instrumental
H\litlist\studies 12/06


26
techniques to detect the skin response following repeat patch test exposure to mild skin irritants. The
instruments evaluated including the ServoMed Evaporimeter, Minolta Chroma Meter, DiaStron
Dermal Erythema Meter, IBS Skicon, Corneometer and Nova Dermal Phase Meter. A repeat patch test
was conducted with 0.0% to 0.15% Sodium Lauryl Sulfate applied to the outer aspect of the upper arm
in a randomized fashion. Following acclimation to room conditions maintained at 20-25C and a
relative humidity of 30-35%, baseline instrumental values were established at each patch test site prior
to treatment. Patches were applied for a 24 hour exposure duration each, on Friday, Monday and
Wednesday. Instrumental and visual measurements were obtained daily. Colorimetric and
transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements correlated highly (r>0.95) with our historic visual
grading scheme, successfully detecting treatment differences in a dose dependent fashion. Minolta
Chroma Meter (a*) results agreed with both the DiaStron Erythema meter and TEWL measures with
Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.99 and 0.97, respectively. In contrast, skin hydration measures
failed to detect treatment differences predicted by other quantitative methods. Given the ease of use,
the Minolta Chroma Meter was further validated for patch test applications under non-acclimated
room conditions. Minolta a* values, assessed as the difference from baseline (a* post treatment-a* at
baseline), have accurately detected treatment differences for a variety of surfactant formulations.
Historically, the Minolta a* value has been the sole endpoint used to evaluate the skin response. To
increase the sensitivity of the Minolta Chroma Meter for patch test applications, alternative models are
being explored which utilize the L*, a* and b* co-ordinates of the CIE system as a function of
repeated patch test exposure. This program supports the use of the Minolta Chroma Meter for patch
test applications and provides a strong opportunity to standardise patch test results.

A. Hannuksela and M. Hannuksela, Irritant effects of a liquid detergent in wash and chamber
tests,
Second International Symposium on Irritant Contact Dermatitis (ISICD), Zurich, April 14-16, 1994
Irritant properties of a detergent can be tested by using patch and chamber tests and various kinds of
use tests. The aim of the present study was to compare the results of use and 12 mm Finn Chamber
tests.
The study subjects (10 atopic and 11 non-atopic medical students) washed the outer aspects of their
upper arm with a liquid detergent for one minute twice daily for one week. 48 h chamber tests with
five concentrations of the same detergent in water were concurrently applied to the upper back skin.
Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), electrical capacitance and skin blood flow were measured to
quantify the reactions on day 0, 2, 5 and 7. Irritant dermatitis developed equally in the atopics and
non-atopics in the wash test, whereas in the chamber in the TEWL was significantly higher in the
atopics than in the non-atopics. The chamber test results thus predicted poorly the results of the wash
test.
P. Treffel, B. Gabard and E. Bieli, Stratum corneum (SC) dynamical function measurements after
irritant and moisturizer application, Second International Symposium on Irritant Contact Dermatitis
(ISICD), Zurich, April 14-16, 1994
This study was conducted on the ventral forearm of 6 healthy volunteers. Sorption-Desorpiton Test
(SDT) and Moisture Accumulation Test (MAT) were performed with a Nova DPM 9003. Each test
was quantified by 3 parameters. SDT: Pre-Hydration State (PHS), Hygroscopicity (H), Water Holding
Capacity (WHC). MAT:PHS, Water Accumulation Velocity (WAV), Water Accumulation (WA).
W. Matthies, Assessment of skin compatibility of consumer products / Current strategy and
methods in industry (exemplified on a dishwashing liquid), Second International Symposium on
Irritant Contact Dermatitis (ISICD), Zurich, April 14-16, 1994
Improvement of skin compatibility is a priority task in formulating consumer products. Experience
shows, that control of typical skin diseases like desiccation eczema of the hands may be reached by
adequate protection and skin care, but these proportions being not always followed by the consumer.
Therefore, it is a special task for industry to optimize products with respect to skin compatibility using
milder surfactants, refattening agents, or other caring substances, whenever possible.
H\litlist\studies 12/06


27
Decisive instruments for improvement of formulations are standardised test models, which help
comparing characterising and quantifying effects of formulations for their differentiation, and
generating use related data.
Modern laboratories work with in vitro secreening, e.g. cell culture techniques, skin explants or
physiologic membranes in order to evaluate toxic effects of substances and formulations (Neutreal red
test, skin culture, HET-CAM Model on the Chorioallantoic membrane of hens eggs). After generating
those screening data, further investigation can be performed directly in human volunteers, if general
toxicity for man can be assessed as negligible and local tolerance is foreseeable good.
In humans maximal short term exposition (contact with undiluted product) can be tested in an open
epicutaneous test after Burckhardt. This model is suitable for classification of products according to
their irritation potential, but also for assessment of use conditions, when the product is intended to be
used for short time contact with the skin, only.
Occlusive patch test techniques are useful for comparison of numerous variants in the same individual
regarding primary irritation and kinetics of local toxic effects. Besides primary irritation mainly
chapping and dryness reactions give hints for different mechanisms of action of substances on or in the
stratum corneum. Assessment of the in-use situation needs test methods, which reflect the foreseeable
overuse/misuse or the real home use condition. Measurements of physiologic function with physical
methods (Laser Doppler Flow, TEWL, Capacity, pH-value measurement, image analysis etc) enable
the investigator to objectify results and to survey studies with larger numbers of participants who are
using products under real use conditions. As an example results with a new dishwashing liquid show,
that this procedure is suitable to demonstrate improvement of products towards better compatibility
which also can be experienced by the consumer condition.


Peter J. Frosch and Antonius Kurte, Efficacy of skin barrier creams (IV). The repetitive irritation
test (RIT) with a set of 4 standard irritants, Contact Dermatitis, 1994. 31. 161-168
An improved human model for the quantification of skin barrier creams (BCs) is described. In contrast
to the previously published procedure, the back, instead of the forearm, and a total of 4 irritants are
used. Due to the larger area, 3 BC formulations can be simultaneously compared to the control field,
which receives the irritant only, without BC-pre-treatment. On 10 human volunteers, the irritants 10%
sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), 1% sodium hydroxide (NaOH), 30% lactic acid (LA) and undiluted
toluene (TOL) were applied via large Finn Chambers for 30 min, 5 x during the 1
st
week and 4x during
the 2
nd
week. Taktosan Salbe (water-in-oil emulsion) and RAWI Speerschutzcreme (oil-in-water
emulsion) were applied 30 min before contact with the irritants. In order to assess reproducibility and
interindividual variation, the BC RAWI was tested in duplicate. Irritant cutaneous reactions were
quantified by 4 parameters: erythema score, transepidermal water loss, blood flow volume and stratum
corneum hydration by measuring capacitance. The results showed marked differences in efficacy.
Taktosan significantly suppressed irritation by SLS. NaOH and LA, which was apparent in nearly all
parameters. RAWI caused significant inhibition of SLS irritation, and a positive trend against the
NaOH and LA was observed. Both BCs failed against TOL. The results of duplicate testing with
RAWI showed good reproducibility. The dogma that oil-in-water emulsions are primarily effective
against lipophilic irritants, and water-in-oil emulsions against hydrophilic irritants, needs to be re-
evaluated on this basis of our fndings. This model seems to have potential for further studies on BCs
and might elucidate the complex interaction of BCs with irritants.
Ph. Masson, P. Blin, R. Urbaniak, F. Mrot, Influence of Operative Procedures on Cutaneous
Deformations following Measurement of Skin Elasticity by Vertical Stretching, 18
th
International
IFSCC-Congress, Venice, October 1994
Numerous systems are available for experimenters in order to evaluate the biomechanical properties of
the skin and especially its elasticity. The principle of the cycle vertical stretching-relaxing process
under partial vacuum is operated by different equipment using probes of different sizes and especially
2.8 and 13 mm providing various (cutometer 0-500 millibars) or fixed tensile strengths. Each inventor
H\litlist\studies 12/06


28
praises the merits of his own equipment and its specificity without the support of any objective and
comparative analysis able to provide the possibility of justification and evaluation of the comparative
advantages.
B. Seybold, K. Seidel, K. Beck-Devalle, F. Hevert, K. Klein, T.L. Diepgen, Distribution and
Variation of Basic Physiological Characteristics of Uninvolved Skin in the General Population -
a Bioengineering Study, The 10
th
International Symposium on Bioengineering & the Skin,
Cincinnati, Ohio, June 13-15, 1994
T.L. Diepgen, M. Fartasch, A. Huner and U. Funke, Bioengineering Methods in Occupational
Dermatology, The 10
th
International Symposium on Bioengineering & the Skin, Cincinnati, Ohio,
June 13-15, 1994
E. Berardesca, G.P. Vignoli, F. Distante, P. Brizzi, G. Rabbiosi, Effects of Water Temperature on
Surfactant Induced Dermatitis, The 10
th
International Symposium on Bioengineering & the Skin,
Cincinnati, Ohio, June 13-15, 1994
O.A. Barel, P. Clarys, R. Lambrecht, In Vivo Study of the Mechanical Properties of the Human
Skin with the Suction Method (Cutometer), The 10
th
International Symposium on Bioengineering &
the Skin, Cincinnati, Ohio, June 13-15, 1994
T. Krusche, W.I. Worret, Mechanical Properties of Keloids in Vivo During Treatment with
Intralesional Triamcinolone Acetonide, The 10
th
International Symposium on Bioengineering & the
Skin, Cincinnati, Ohio, June 13-15, 1994
F. Panisset, D. Varchon, P. Agache, Ph. Humbert, Assessment of Human Stratum Corneum
Tangent Modulus in Vivo, The 10
th
International Symposium on Bioengineering & the Skin,
Cincinnati, Ohio, June 13-15, 1994
P. Elsner, H.I. Maibach, Biophysical Properties of Human Male Genital Skin, The 10
th

International Symposium on Bioengineering & the Skin, Cincinnati, Ohio, June 13-15, 1994
K.P. Wilhelm, Evaluation of a new opticoprofilometric technique for the Assessment of the Skin
Surface Topography, The 10
th
International Symposium on Bioengineering & the Skin, Cincinnati,
Ohio, June 13-15, 1994
Asserin, Agache, Humbert, Checking the Mechanical Performance of a Skin Suction Meter: the
Cutometer, The 10
th
International Symposium on Bioengineering & the Skin, Cincinnati, Ohio, June
13-15, 1994
M.Ghyczy, J. Greiss Th. Kovats, Liposomes from Vegetable Phosphatidylcholine, Cosmetics &
Toiletries, July 1994
The structure of the skin, especially the stratum corneum with its important function as a barrier to
minimize transepidermal water loss (TEWL), has been extensively studied and reviewed. During the
proliferation of epidermal cells and their migration from the basal layer to the upper layer of the
stratum corneum, cell differentiation is accompanied by a tremendous change in metabolic activities.
Ch. Baudry, C. Loufrani, Les Meilleures Crmes Hydratantes, Le Guide DAchat, No. 273, Mai
1994
F. Deleixhe-Mauhin, C. Pirard-Franchiomont, G. Rorive, G.E. Pirard, Influence of Chronic
Haemodialysis on the Mechanical Properties of Skin, Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
1994; 19: 130-133
Certain features of the skin of patients undergoing chronic haemodialysis suggest an ageing process.
Seventy-two haemodialysed patients were studied by a non-invasive technique using the Cutometer
SM 474 to determine biomechanical properties of the skin. Patients undergoing chronic haemodialysis
showed some impairment of changes in viscous properties of skin similar to chronological age, while
specific changes directly related to elasticity were minimal.
H\litlist\studies 12/06


29
A. Teglia, G. Secchi, Cutaneous Effects of Anionic Detergents by means of TEWL and
Profilometric Measurements, 18
th
International IFSCC-Congress, Venice, October 1994
The repeated use of anionic-based detergents is reported to induce adverse events on the human skin,
such as alteration of the stratum corneum barrier function and increase of roughness. Our investigation
focused on quantification and comparison of the protective effects of mild surfactants and protein
derivatives in simple and complex tenside systems based on sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium laureth
sulfate and sodium C14-16 olefin sulfonate. Cocamidopropyl betaine, cocamidopropylamine oxide
and alkyl polyglucoside were used as mild surfactant additives; wheat proteins with different average
molecular size were tested. The variations in skin permeability were assessed by TEWL
measurements. The changes in skin surface morphology were analysed by three-and two-dimensional
roughness parameters of the skin relief. Exposure models were based on the soap chamber test and on
standardised washing procedures. Proteins and mild surfactants show comparable efficacy in the one-
day occlusion tests, but better results were observed for proteins in the occluded and open repeated
exposures.
Y. Takema, Y. Yorimoto, M. Kawai and G. Imokawa, Age-related Changes in the Elastic Properties
of Human Facial Skin, British Journal of Dermatology, 1994.
Using recently designed, commercially available, non-invasive instruments, we measured the
thickness and elasticity of the skin of the face and ventral forearm in 170 women, and evaluated the
effects of age and exposure to sunlight. Skin thickness decreased with age in ventral forearm skin,
which has limited exposure to sunlight, but increased significantly in the skin of the forehead, corners
of the eyes, and cheeks, which are markedly exposed to sunlight
S.La Mendola, F. Rinaldi, M.C. Salvadori, F. Clemente, Competence and satisfaction. A Study of
the Hair and Shampoo of 1.000 Users of a Trichology Service, 18
th
International IFSCC-
Congress, Venice, October 1994
The awareness which 1.000 users of the medical trichology service at the San Raffaele Hospital of
Milan have of the conditions of their scalps is first issue tackled in this study. The self-assessment that
each person makes of their own hair conditions is compared to data measured by means of sebumetric
instruments. A high degree of incompetence is recorded and correlation with some personality traits of
the subjects illustrate this.
Some aspects of the impact of different competence levels on behaviour are evaluated. In addition, the
level of satisfaction expressed by these users about the shampoo used are examined, taking into
account the relationship with some subjective variables.
C. Trullas, J. Coll, C. Pelejero, J. Vilaplana, S. Sirigu, C. Dederen, Cosmetological Activity of
Glycolic Acid Incorporated in a New Topical Delivery System (W/O/W Emulsion), 18
th

International IFSCC-Congress, Venice, October 1994
The cosmetological potential of alpha hydroxyacids (AHAS) is still evolving. The powerful research
in physicochemistry has provided a promising new delivery system, the multiple emulsion W/O/W
which could permit a controlled and sustained release of AHAS , modifying their efficiency and
safety. The cosmetological activity and safety of a W/O/W multiple emulsion containing 3% of
glycolic acid has been assessed by bioengineering methods using several tests. A six-hour test and 30-
days study for comparison of the effects of 3% glycolic acid in two delivery systems W/O/W multiple
emulsion and O/W emulsion were conducted. The cutaneous biophysical variables evaluated were
electrical capacitance of stratum corneum, skin surface lipids, transepidermal water loss,
biomechanical properties, blood flow and skin surface topography. The safety of 3% glycolic acid in
the two delivery systems was determined using patch testing and assessment of cutaneous responses
by visual scoring and biophysical non-invasive methods (evaporimetry, laser doppler flowmetry,
reflectance spectophotometry).
S. Sirigu, S. Giogilli, C. Dederen, Functionality and Mildness of Solid Detergents: A Study of
Correlation among Formulative Aspects, Instrumental Data and Sensorial Results, 18
th

International IFSCC-Congress, Venice, October 1994
H\litlist\studies 12/06


30
The aim of our study was to find a correlation between chemical and formulative aspects of different
solid detergents and their features of functionality, skin mildness and sensorial properties. Eight
different products were chosen for the test: five syndets, two combars and one alkaline soap. Several
cutaneous parameters were investigated in vivo, by using different techniques of measure. The
cutaneous innocuity was evaluated on 15 volunteers by means of an occlusive 48 hours patch test.
Skin compatibility (respect of pH physiological values, skin barrier functionality and skin roughness)
was evaluated on 12 subjects before and after repeated standard washing with the products.
Measurements were taken for TEWL, pH skin colorimetry and image analysis. Sensorial performances
were assessed, according to the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis method by a panel of 12 well
trained evaluators. Results obtained from different methods were then correlated. As far as the
cutaneous compatibility is concerned, correlations were found between visual and colorimetric
evaluations of acute irritation, and between acute irritation and composition. No correlation was found
between repeated wash test results and acute irritation. A good correlation was evidenced by
comparing instrumental dryness and roughness evaluations with the correspondent skin sensorial
perceptions. Sensorial foam evaluations were well correlated to the composition.

C. Letawe, D. Castelli, GE. Pierard, Les Nouvelles Dermatologiques, Nouv.Dermatol.C.C.I. 1994;
13-No 4
Une tude ouverte a t ralise avec le Cold cream fluide Kfrane dans lindication de la xrose
atopique. Les valuations cliniques et biomtrologiques, incluant la squamomtrie, la capacitance et la
perte insensible en eau, on rvl aprs quinze jours dapplications biquotidiennes, une correction de
la xrose que devient trs nette aprs un mois de traitement.
W. Courage, Hardware and Measuring Principle: Corneometer, Biogengineering of the Skin:
Water and the Stratum Corneum, edited by: Peter Elsner, Enzo Berardesca, Howard I. Maibach,
1994.
The degree of moisture of the stratum corneum (SC) is an important factor when medically evaluating
the skin function. The importance of this parameter in dermatology has already been described and
discussed in detail in the literature. Generally, four different measuring methods for skin moisture are
practiced: infrared spectroscopy, resonance frequency, impedance, and the Corneometer capacitance
methods. Impedance and Corneometer methods are widely used today.
Ron A. Tupker, Prediction of Irritancy, Bioengeneering of the Skin: Water and the Stratum Corneum,
1994, Chapter 7
All substances are damaging to some people under some circumstances. This statement by Kligman
stresses the importance of extrinsic and intrinsic factors in skin irritancy. The dichotomy of extrinsic
and intrinsic also appears in the theory concerning the pathogenesis of chronic irritant dermatitis.
Wether or not this type of dermatitis will develop depends on the balance between the sum of all
harmful influences. (detergents, shampoos, solvents, dry wind, blow heaters, etc.) on the one hand, and
the repair capacity of the skin on the other hand. Chronic irritant contact dermatitis is one of the most
frequently encountered skin diseases and constitutes the ultimate purpose of performing predictive
irritancy testing, division into extrinsic and intrinsic yields two main categories: (1) predictive irritance
testing of various substances aimed to select the least irritating substance and (2) predictive irritancy
testing with one or more standard irritant(s) aimed to select a population that is at risk for chronic
irritant contact dermatitis. This chapter deals with some methodological considerations in predictive
irritancy testing. Animal irritancy tests such as the Draize assay are still commonly used. However, it
is known that different species exhibit varying reactivity, especially toward agents with low irritant
potency. This chapter focuses therefore on human skin testing.
Donald R. Wilson, Howard I. Maibach, TEWL and the Newborn, Bioengeneering of the Skin: Water
and the Stratum Corneum, 1994, Chapter 11
Dermatological science made great strides in the 19
th
century utilizing mans own tools-a history,
visual inspection, and palpitation. However, some areas of investigation defy such evaluation; for
example, historical, visual, or palpatory changes defy discernment. Practical examples include
H\litlist\studies 12/06


31
nonerythematuous irritation and subclinical forms of disease. It is in this area that measurement of
transdermal water loss (TEWL) find strong advocates and provides information not otherwise
obtainable. In addition, TEWL is an easily measured, noninvasive estimate of the integrity of the
skins water barrier, which has proven its usefulness in many related academic and commercial fields.
The noninvasive nature of TEWL measurement makes it an especially attractive technique for
neonatal studies where research ethics is of great concern. The TEWL techniques employed in
neonatal research originate from successful applications on adult human and animal models.
Historically, dermatoxicology and pharmacology investigations have used TEWL to assess the local
effects of drugs, occlusive materials, and other substances applied to the skin.TEWL has played a
valuable part in identifying the function of strateum corneum (SC) lipids. The cosmetic industry
employs TEWL to evaluate moisturizer efficacy and to evaluate the irritation and barrier destruction
potentials of soaps and solvents. The measurement is also useful in monitoring the recovery processes
of wound healing and SC rejuvenation. The transdermal patch industry uses TEWL to help predict the
permeability of cadaver skin for drug diffusion studies in vitro. In the clothing industry, TEWL is
useful in examining fabric irritation mechanisms and occlusive effects. TEWL has also helped
characterize types of dermatitis. This chapter focuses specifically on TEWL as it is applied to
investigating the barrier function of neonatal skin.
Bernard Gabard, Pierre Treffel, Hardware and Measuring Principle: The NovatmDPM 9003,
Bioengeneering of the Skin: Water and the Stratum Corneum, 1994, Chapter 15
Standard methods used to evaluate the hydration state of the skin surface have focused on visible skin
characteristics such as rough, scaly surface. Besides the fact that only dryness and not hydration
can be evaluated by this method, clinical evaluation of the severity of the lesions is subject to two
main criticisms: variation between observers and nonparametric description (i.e. ordinal data) for
quantification. Therefore, development of commercially available measurement devices that allow for
quantitative evaluation of the skin function and provide continuous data is an important advance in
experimental dermatology. In particular case of the hydration of the stratum corneum (SC), most
instruments use electrical methods to quantify moisturization, such as the Skiconand the
Corneometer which have gained acceptance. A third is now available, the NOVATMDPM 9003,
which will be described here.
S.R.. Hartmann, H. Pietsch, G. Sauermann, R. Neubert, Untersuchungen zur Hautvertrglichkeit
von alkoholischen Hndedesinfektionsmitteln, Dermatosen 42, 6, 241-245, 1994
Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit war die Untersuchung der Wirkung von alkoholischen
Hndedesinfektionsmitteln auf die menschliche Hautoberflche hautgesunder, volarer Unterarme.
Die Untersuchung erfolgte im Rahmen einer Cross-over Studie ber einen Beobachtungszeitraum von
acht Monaten an 56 randomisiert ermittelten Probanden unter praxisrelevanten Bedingungen. Die
Studie fand von September 1992 bis April 1993 statt. Die 56 Probanden waren Mitarbeiter einer
pharmazeutischen Firma. Ein Unterarm aller Mitarbeiter wurde volar im Durchschnitt sieben mal pro
Arbeitstag im Rahmen der Vorschriften ber die hygienische Hndedesinfektion behandelt. Der
andere Kontrollunterarm blieb whrend des gesamten Beobachtungszeitraums unbehandelt.
Behandelte Areale konnten mit den unbehandelten Arealen verglichen werden. Die Erfassung und
Beurteilung mglicher Hautzustandsvernderungen erfolgte durch dermatologische Bewertung und
durch sechs weitere Untersuchungsmethoden. Bestimmt wurden: Grad der Schuppung der Haut
(Abschuppungsrate), Hautfeuchtigkeit, Haut-pH-Werte, transepidermaler Wasserverlust (TEWL),
Hauttemperatur und Hautmikrotopographie. Der Einflu saisonaler Gegebenheiten wie
Auentemperatur und Luftfeuchtigkeit auf unbehandelte wie behandelte Areale konnte durch die
vergleichende Versuchsanordnung bercksichtigt werden. Die Abschuppungsrate lag an den
behandelten Arealen an den meisten Mezeitpunkten unter dem Niveau der unbehandelten Areale. Der
TEWL lag an den behandelten Arealen zu jedem Mezeitpunkt hochsignifikant ber dem Niveau der
unbehandelten Areale.
J. Bettinger, M. Gloor, W. Gehring, Influence of a pretreatment with emulsions on the
dehydration of the skin by surfactants, Int.Journal of Cosmetic Science 16, 53-50, 1994
H\litlist\studies 12/06


32
Improving the water content of the horny layer of the skin is of great importance in dermatology
(atopic dermatitis, ichthyosis etc.) and in cosmetics (to soften the skin surface
[1]. It is believed that emulsion bases lead to hydration of the stratum corneum [2]. The hydration is
believed to last a few minutes if an o/w-emulsion is used [3] and a few hours in the case of w/o-
emulsions [4].The present study addresses whether the hydrating effect really does last for such a short
time. Literature also proposes an increase in water content by using urea, which is a component of
many dermatological skin-care ointments [3, 5-8].
G. Marti-Mestres, J. Passet, H .Maillols, V. van Sam, J.J. Guilhous, J.P. Mestres, B. Guillot,
Evaluation exprimentale de lhydratation et du pouvoir occlusif in vivo et in vitro dexcipients
lipophiles et de leurs mulsions phase huile continue, Int.Journal of Cosmetic Science 16, 161-170,
1994
Une tude a t ralise sur trois mulsions eau dans huile et leurs phases grasses respectives, vaseline,
huile de paraffine et huile damande douce, en vue de comparer luers propritis occlusives et par voie
de consquence leur influence sure lhydratation cutane. Une mthode in vitro utilisant des cellules
de type Patel a permis dans un premier temps de classer les diffrentes mulsions et leurs phases
grasses en fonction de leur permabilit la vapeur deau, ce qui conduit par ordre croissant de degr
docculsion : huile damande douce, huile de paraffine et vaseline. Pour les tudes in vivo chez
lhomme, linfluence de lapplication des mmes substances sur la petere insensible deau (PIE) et
lhydratation cutane a t mesure avec un vaporimtre et un cornomtre. Les diffrentes pahses
grasses, utilises pures, augmentent lhydratation par effet occlusif, ce phnomne tant objectiv par
les mesures de PIE. Par contre pour les mulsions correspondantes, il semblerait que laugmentations
de lhydratation ne fasse pas intervenir de mcanisme occlusif.
A. Teglia, G. Secchi, New protein ingredients for skin detergency: native wheat protein-
surfactant complexes, Int.Journal of Cosmetic Science 16, 235-246, 1994
The cutaneous tolerability of detergent formulations can be improved by means of suitable additives.
Exogenous proteins, for example, are able to reduce the skin irritation potential of surfactants
according to a double mechanism: they complex the surfactant molecules lowering the concentration
of their free monomeric species; they link to the skin keratin forming a protective colloidal layer that
shields the denaturing attack of surfactants. Protein derivatives used as additives for detergency are
usually prepared by partial hydrolysis of animal sclero-proteins or plant reserve proteins. The main
purpose of the hydrolytic cleavage is to make them water soluble and suitable for liquid products.
Native, non hydrolysed wheat proteins have been recently introduced as active ingredients for
detergents. Water solubility and stability are obtained by means of complexion with surfactants which
also increases their actual hydrophobicity, an important parameter affecting cosmetic properties of
proteins.
G. Borroni, C. Zaccone, G Vignati, G.P. Vignoli, E. Berardesca, G. Rabbiosi, Dynamic
Measurements: Sorption-Desorption Test, Int.Journal of Cosmetic Science 16, 217-222, 1994
Probably no concept in physiology of the skin has been so improperly used as the term hydration of
the stratum corneum (SC), for the simple reason that the SC is physiologically poor in water and is
one of the tissues in the human body with the lowest water content. The SC of the human skin is dry.
Despite the frequent use of the term hydration with regard to the SC, this is not even exceptional
when compared with the most external layers of the integument of many other animal species. Rather
than hydration of the SC, we need to speak about critical or optimal dehydration, given the
progressive but controlled tendency of water in the human skin to decrease from the innermost to the
outmost layers of the SC. The SCs dryness is a factor favouring the integrity of the underlying
organism and is a means through which the skins barrier function is carried out. The exceptional
poverty of water in the SC, and hence its high hygroscopicity, has encouraged the development of a
simple but ingenious research approach: bathing the SC with water and seeing for how long it remains
damp.
M. Lodn, M. Lindberg, Product Testing-Testing of Moisturizers, Bioengineering of the Skin:Water
and the Stratum Corneum, 275-288, 1994
H\litlist\studies 12/06


33
Moisturizers are used to restore and/or to maintain a normal function of the stratum corneum (SC).
Mostly they are used on the indication of so-called dry skin. When performing product testing of
moisturizers, bioengineering devices are used for evaluating how these products affect the function of
SC, the main diffusion barrier in the skin. Biophysical measurements of dry skin need to be carefully
evaluated. A number of highly developed noninvasive methods for the study of skin physiology have
appeared during recent years and a number of papers on the use of these methods are now being
published.
D. Van Neste, Skin Hydration in Detergent-Induced Irritant Dermatitis, Bioengineering of the
Skin:Water and the Stratum Corneum, 223-232, 1994
It is a thermodynamic rule that water escapes passively through the body surface of a homeothermic
living organism and returns into a cool and dry environment. There is a consensus in viewing the
primary role of the epidermis as a producer of a structurally highly ordered hydrophobic domain
usually confined to the extracellular spaces within the stratum corneum (SC). Indeed, after terminal
differentiation, corneocytes are embedded in a continuous meshwork of lipid bilayers. The aim of the
specialized domain is to prevent desiccation of the body. In this concept, programmed cell death of SC
cells makes them like missiles with a lipid load synthesized in the cell after launching and extruding
from the cell after completion of the differentiation program. Recently it became clear that flux of
water through the SC is a regulatory mechanism for cell proliferation.
P. Clarys, C. Eeckhout, J. Taeymans, P. Gross, A.O. Barel, Influence of short daily exposure to
thermal water on the hydration state of the skin, Threat to the Skin, 333-337, 1994
The thermal Kurzentrum of Lenk (Switzerland) is one of the spas recognized by the Department of
Health of Switzerland as a centre specialized in the treatment of rheumatic patients. Part of the typical
3-week cure in the centre consist of daily bathing in hot thermal water containing high concentrations
of salts and sulphur (sulphates and hydrogen sulphide). According to recent data from balneo-
therapeutic treatments, the sulphur which penetrates the skin is oxidized and provokes various
physiological responses in the skin: vasodilatation in the microcirculation, an analgesic influence on
the pain receptors and inhibition of the immune response.
J.D. Bscher, B.C. Lippold, Messung feuchthaltender Effekte an menschlicher Haut, Krankenhaus-
pharmazie, 15. Jahrgang, Nr. 12, 1994
Die Wirkung von Feuchthaltern auf die Barriere Stratum corneum wird mit einem Corneometer
bestimmt. Diese nicht invasive und einfache Methode erlaubt quantitativ, die Vernderung der
Hornschichthydratation zu messen. Glycerol, Natriumthioglycolat, Natriumlactat, Harnstoff,
Propylenglycol und Natriumedetat erhhen significant (7-12%), Diethylenglycolmonoethylether
(Transcutol) erniedrigt schwach in 10%-iger Lsung die Hautfeuchte, 2-Butanol und Ethanol bleiben
praktisch ohne Einflu.
Dr. H.P. Nissen, Comparative Studies of Skin Roughness Measurements by Profilometry and a
New Image Analysis System, Cosmetic and Toiletries Manufacture World-wide, Jan. 95
The characterisation of the effects of skin care products on the topography of the horny layer is a
valuable component in the substantiation of treatment products efficacy. Skin roughness is a very
important parameter in the characterization of cosmetic skin properties. Smooth, supple skin is a
perceptible effect that can be achieved by means of cosmetic skin care products. Up to now, however,
it has been difficult to record the roughens of the skin and to define it satisfactorily by measuring
technique. In this study a new method for computer assisted structural analysis of the skin surface is
presented, which uses a special image analysis technique. This new method is compared with the
profilometry and the conventional image analyser technique.
I. Diepenbrock, U. Heinrich, H. Tronnier, Der Einflu von Nikotin auf die Haut, Parfmerie und
Kosmetik 12/95
Die Beschaffenheit der Haut als grtes menschliches Organ ist wie keine zweite ein Gradmesser fr
das Alter des gesamten Organismus. Nicht selten lassen sich durch ihren Zustand Rckschlsse auf
vorhandene Erkrankungen schlieen. Der Einflu des Rauchens nun auf die Hautelastizitt besttigt
H\litlist\studies 12/06


34
um ein weiteres die oben genannte Feststellung. Aufgrund des Vergleichs von quantitativen
Messungen der Hautelastizitt bei Rauchern und Nichtrauchern ber verschiedene Altersgruppen lie
sich eindeutig feststellen, da die Elastin- und Kollagenfasern eine lngere Zeit bentigen, um wieder
in ihre ursprngliche Ausgangslage zurckzukehren. Weiterfhrende Untersuchungen ergaben sogar
einen verstrkten Abbau der elastischen Fasern. Auf jeden Fall lt sich fesstellen, da die Haut bei
Rauchern um durchschnittlich 11 Jahre lter ist als bei Nichtrauchern vergleichbaren Alters.
J. Ennen, S Jaspers, G. Sauermann, U. Hoppe, Measurement of Biomechanical Properties of
Human Skin,Cosmetic and Toiletries Manufacture World-wide, Jan. 95
The biomechanics of skin comprises a complex interrelashionship and interaction of three layers -
epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue. Assessment of the mechanical properties of the skin by
noninvasive techniques has turned out to be a difficult task. The intimitate interconnection of the
different tissue compartments of the skin, the anisotrophy, and time dependance of the mechanical
properties, as well as the regional variations in skin make biomechanical measurements more difficult
than other types of skin measurement. Measurement of those parameters of skin that describe the
biomechanical properties of the skin are currently performed mainly by two different mechanical
modes. Firstly, the test mode of torsion is represented by a rotating disc and guard ring torque
measurement. Secondly, the mechanical test mode of elongation is represented by the instrumentation
of a suction device. The mechanical parameters of extensibility and elastic recovery, both represented
in a biological elastic modulus of skin, can be measured by both approaches. In this paper the
characteristics, the similarities, and the differences of both bioengeneering techniques of
characterizing the biomechanical properties of skin are described.
J.W. Fluhr, W. Gehring, M. Gloor, Analyse der Hautrauhigkeit bei Personen unterschiedlicher
Altersgruppen mit dem Visiometer, Akt.Dermatol. 21, 151-156 - 1995
An 40 hautgesunden Probanden wurde mittels eines neuartigen Verfahrens (Visiometer) in vier
distinkten Altersgruppen an Ober- und Unterarmen, Ober- und Unterschenkel sowie am Nacken und
Rcken das Hautrelief untersucht. Die Untersuchung mit dem Visiometer beruht auf der Analyse eines
Silikonabdruckes mittels EDV-gesttzer CCD-Videokamera. Altersunterschiede konnten nur am
Rcken nachgewiesen werden. Hingegen fanden sich im direkten Vergleich der Lokalisationen
bereinstimmende Hautrauhigkeitswerte am Oberarms, Unterarm, Oberschenkel sowie am Rcken,
die sich signifikant unterschieden. Ein Geschlechtseffekt konnte nicht nachgewiesen werden.
A.M. Grunewald, M. Gloor, W. Gehring, P. Kleesz, Barrier Creams, Dermatosen 43, Heft 2 - 1995
Repetitive washing with 0.01 mol/l sodium lauryl sulphate solution for one week was followed by a
measurable skin function disorder as evaluated by corneometry, laser Doppler flowmetry, and
transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements. The application of commercially available barrier
creams (Marly Skin , Saniwip, Tactosan) as well as the application of well-defined oil-in-water
emulsions containing 10% urea or 10% glycerol, respectively, significantly reduced skin function
deterioration following repetitive washings. Urea and glycerol containing oil-in-water emulsions were
at least as effective as the most effective commercial barrier cream Tactosan and had the additional
advantage of better user acceptance.
Th. Krusche, W. Worret, Mechanical properties of keloids in vivo during treatment with
intralesional triamcinolone acetonide, Arch.Dermatol Res 287-293, 1995
The mechanical properties of 17 keloids in 9 patients before and during treatment with intralesional
triamcinolone acetonide were studies using a recently developed noninvasive suction device for
measuring skin elasticity in vivo. Each keloid was treated with intralesional injections of 10 mg/ml
triamcinolone acetonide without local anaesthetic at intervals of 3 weeks. A total of four
measurements per keloid were performed, before treatment and 3 weeks after the first, second and
third treatments. The parameters used were: immediate distension (Ue), delayed distension (Uv),
immediate retraction (Ur) and final distension (Uf). Relative parameters independent of skin thickness
were calculated: Uv/Ue, the ration between the viscous and the elastic deformation of the skin, and
Ur/Uf, representing the ability of the skin to return to its initial position after deformation (biological
H\litlist\studies 12/06


35
elasticity). After three injections of triamcinolone acetonide a marked decrease in Uv/Ue and a less-
pronounced increase in Ur/Uf compared with baseline values was observed. These findings indicate
that the main effect of intralesional steroids on the connective tissue of keloids is a decrease in
viscosity due to a loss of ground substance. This method provides a noninvasive quantitative
assessment of the mechanical properties of scars and is well suited to comparative studies on the
efficacy of various scar therapies.
Th. Krusche, Keloidbehandlung / Neues Gert objektiviert den Therapieerfolg, Medical Tribune
Nr. 5, 03.02.1995
Cutometer, mit dem die mechanischen Eigenschaften des Keloids gemessen werden. Die Sonde saugt
mit Unterdruck das Keloidgewebe an, auf dem Bildschirm erscheint die gemessene Elastizittskurve.
G.E. Pirard, R. Kort, C. Letawe, C. Olemans, C. Pirard-Franchimont, Biomechanical assessment
of photodamage, Skin Research and Technology 1:17-20, 1995
Background/Aims: Intrinsic aging and photoaging may present different biomechanical properties.
Dorsal and volar forearm skin is differently exposed to UV-light. The object was to derive a cutaneous
extrinsic aging score (SEAS) representative of UV aging, i.e. the global photoaging corrected for
intrinsic aging.
Visiomtre SV 400 : lalternative pour mesurer le relief cutan, Cosmtologie No. 2, 28, Janvier
1995
P. Soto, C. QueilleRoussel, B. Soler, A. Clucas, Evaluation of a New Moisurizing Cream using a
Mini Regression Test, AAD-Congress, New Orleans, February 1995
Xerosis is a very common condition affecting at least 75% of persons over the age of 64 (1) and also a
significant number of younger people. Although not associated with significant physical instability, it
is uncomfortable and esthetically unacceptable to many patients. Treatment is based on the use of
moisturizers, of which a large variety are available commercially.
H.Dobrev, In Vivo Noninvasive Study of the Elastic and Viscoelastic Properties of Human Skin
after a Short Term Appliation of Topical Corticosteroids, 6
th
Congress of Dermatology and
Venerology, Pleve, Bulgaria, May 11-13, 1995
A noninvasive, in vivo suction device for measuring skin elasticity (Cutometer SEM 474, Courage +
Khazaka electronic GmbH, Kln, Germany) was used to determine the alteration in the mechanical
properties of the skin after a short term application of 5 commercially available topical corticosteroids
as ointments and creams. 25 volunteers (20 female and 5 male, aged 16-54 years) were investigated.
The following relative parameters, independent of skin thickness, were caluclated and compared: R2
(Ua/Uf) - gross, R5 (Ur/Ue) - net, R7 (Ur(Uf) - biologic elasticity and R6 (Uv/Ue) -
viscoelastic/elastic ratio. Corticosteroid ointments increase the purely elastic parameters R2, R5
/p<0.05/, R7 as well as the parameter of viscoelasticity R6 /<0.001/. Corticosteroid creams alter the
elastic parameters weakly while increase the viscoelastic parameter R6 significantly /p<0.05/. These
effects of topical corticosteroid formulations are probably due to the hydration of the stratum corneum
and softening of keratin, which imporve the epidermal mechanical properties. On the other hand as a
result of dermal oedema and some biochemical effect on the ground substance perhaps, the friction
between the fibres is reduced and interstitial fluid movement is facilitated through the fibrous network.
The applied noninvasive method can be useful for an evaluation and comparison of local effects of the
different dermatologic topicals on the elastic and viscoelastic properties of human skin.

L Celleno A Vasselli, M.V. Tolaini, A. Mastroianni, F. Macchia, Verifica di tollerabilit ed
accetabilit cosmetica di detergenti cutanei: confronto di metodiche, Cosmesi Dermatologica 45,
1995
La detersione cutanea un atto igienico ma reppresenta altresi un important momento cosmetologico e
dermatologico. Infatti solamente se il prodotto utilizzato cosmetologicamente ben accettato essa
risulta un atto gradevole. Inoltre spesso luso di tensioattivi o saponi tradizionali si traduce in
unalterazione del film idrolipidico superficiale. Se a questo fa seguito lesposizione e il
danneggiamento della strato corneo, pu innescarsi quel meccanismo che conduce alla comparsa della
H\litlist\studies 12/06


36
dermatite irritativa da contatto, facilitando anche linsorgenza della dermatite allergica da contatto
(1,2).
V. Couturaud ,J. Coutable, A. Khaiat, Skin biomechanical properties: in vivo evaluation of
influence of age and body site by a non-invasive method, Skin Research and Technology 1: 68-73,
1995
The stratum corneum is covered by a network of microdepressions which have been classified by
Hashimoto (1). Escande (2) introduced the concept of microdepressionary network, mDN,
representing Hashimotos primpary [I] and secondary [II] lines. The primary lines are visible, and
represent the deepest furrows delimiting 3- to 4-sided polygons. Their anatomic base is at the level of
the dermal-epidermal junction, the furrows surrounding a group of papilla (3). The secondary lines are
inside these figures and cross all or parts of their surface. Their presence is noticeable only from the
stratum granulosum.
Jong-il Kim, Hae-kwang Lee, Technologies of Skin Bioengineering, The Society for Investigative
Dermatology, Sheraton Chicago Hotel, Chicago, May 24-28, 1995
Clinical improvement of amino propane sulfonic acid and its quantitative measurement with a new
opticoprofilometry.
I. Tausch, J. Gamller, W.J .Kessler, Beurteilung der protektiven und pflegenden Potenz von
Lichtschutzprparaten mit biophysikalischen Methoden, Wissenschaft Dt.Derm. (43), 1995
Whrend einer zehntgigen UV-Bestrahlung wurden die Eigenschaften zweier Lichtschutzprparate
(LSF6,LSF20) untersucht. Als Vergleich dienten unbehandelte als auch mit der jeweiligen Grundlage
behandelte Hautareale. Es wurde die Intensitt des UV-Erythems mit einem Farbmegert, die
Hautfeuchtigkeit mittels der Corneometrie und die Hautoberflchenstruktur durch Profilometrie
beurteilt. Beide Lichtschutzprparate unterdrckten das UV-Erythem vollstndig, der
Feuchtigkeitsgehalt der Haut und die Faltentiefe blieben unverndert. In den Arealen, die einer
zehntgigen UV-Bestrahlung ohne Lokalbehandlung ausgesetzt waren, traten deutliche Erytheme,
Feuchtigkeitsverluste und eine Zunahme der Faltentiefe auf. Die Anwendung der Grundlagen allein
zeigte nur bei einem Prparat eine leichte Lichtschutzwirkung. Neben den UV-protektiven
Eigenschaften, die bei beiden Lichtschutzprparaten gleich gut waren, sind die herausragenden
pflegenden Eigenschaft der LSF20-Emulsion hervorzuheben.
L. Zissova, Hr .Dobrev, Quantitative Investigation of Sebum Excretion in Seborrhoeic Dermatitis
of the Scalp Treated with Ketoconazole 2% Shampoo, 2
nd
Congress of the ECMM, Brussels, April
27-29, 1995
The quantity of sebum excretion before, during and after treatment with Ketoconazole 2% shampoo /
Nizoral , Janssen Pharmaceutica, Belgium / in 20 patients with seborrhoeic dermatitis of the scalp,
aged 16-40 years, was studied.
G.E. Pirard, Relevance, Comparison, and Validation of Techniques, Handbook of Non-Invasive
Methods and the Skin, J. Serup G.B.E.Jemec, 1995
Measuring in an objective way is always in need of additional breakthrough. Dermometrology and
bioengineering have been and remain closely associated in the search for improvements of quantitative
noninvasive assessments. The pre-bioengineering times and the descriptive phase of dermometrology
are behind us. Ingenious researches pioneered methods that may now look crude, time-consuming, and
sometimes lacking in reproducibility.
A.O. Barel, P. Clarys, Measurement of Epidermal Capacitance, Handbook of Non-Invasive
Methods and the Skin, J. Serup, G.B.E. Jemec, 1995
The presence of an adquate amount of water in the stratum corneum is important for the following
properties of the skin: general appearance of a soft, smooth, well-moisturized skin, in contrast to a
rough and dry skin; of a flexible skin, in contrast to a brittle and scaly skin; and of an intact barrier
function allowing a slow rate of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) under dry conditions. As a
consequence, the in vivo determination of the degree of hydration of the horny layer is an important
factor in the characterization of normal and pathological situations of this layer, of an actinic aged
H\litlist\studies 12/06


37
skin, of irritated skin conditions, and, finally, in the assessment of the effciency of various
moisturizing topical products. As pointed out by Tagami, the use of various dermatocosmetic products
in order to restore softness, smoothness, and moisture in very dry skin is widely practised in western
countries.

A.O. Barel, P. Clarys, Comparison of Methods for Measurement of Transepidermal Water Loss,
Handbook of Non-Invasive Methods and the Skin, J. Serup G.B.E.Jemec, 1995
The measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) is an important noninvasive method for
assessing the efficiency of the skin as a protective barrier. The stratum corneum forms a barrier against
diffusion of water through the epidermis and constitutes the main obstacle to the penetration of
molecules coming in contact with the surface of the skin.
A.O. Barel, W. Courage, P. Clarys, Suction Method for Measurement of Skin Mechanical
Properties: The Cutometer , Handbook of Non-Invasive Methods and the Skin, J. Serup
G.B.E.Jemec, 1995
The mechanichal properties of the human skin have been extensively studied in the past most in vitro
and less in vivo. Skin is a complex organ which as many other biologicals, presents in a combined way
the typical properties of elastic solids and viscous liquids. As a consequence the mechanical
properties of the skin are called viscoelastic. Typical properties of viscoelastic materials are nonlinear
stress-strain properties with hysteresis (the stress-strain curves obtained on loading will not be
superposed on the curves obtained by unloading). Furthermore the deformation of the skin is time-
dependent with a typical phenomenon of creep. The creep is characterized as an increasing
deformation of the skin in function of time when a constant stress is applied on this material. The
viscoelastic properties of the skin are due to the components of the skin: collagen fibers and elastin
fibers impregnated in a ground substance of proteoglycans.
E. Berardesca, H.I. Maibach, Racial Differences in Skin Function: An Update, Cosmetics &
Toiletries Magazine Vol. 110, October 1995
The most prominent characteristic of racial and ethnic groups is skin color. However, despite the
visible color differences, documented anatomical and ultrastructural differences are only minimal.
Furthermore, controversy remains as to wether these features also have a functional relevance in skin
physiology. Some aspects of skin physiology may indeed have practical implications on the racial
incidence and prevalence of some diseases, including skin cancer, acne and pigmentation disorders. In
recent years, scientists have devoted much work to further characterizing racial differences and have
published reviews of their objective techniques.
H.P. Nissen, H. Biltz, R. Muggli, Borage Oil, Cosmetics & Toiletries Magazine Vol. 110, October
1995
Researchers have discussed use of polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements to treat atopic dermatitis
(AD) for more than half a century. Oil from evening primrose seeds has attracted special attention
because it contains -linolenic acid (GLA). Morse et al found that oral administration of this oil
significantly reduces the general severity of AD, in a dose-dependant manner. The fatty-acid profile of
blood lipids in AD patients shows an increase in the proportion of linoleic acid, with a decrease in
arachidonic acid and other metaboilites of linoleic acid. These findings suggest defective functioning
of the enzyme -6-desaturase in AD. In a previous communication, we reported that systemic
administration of evening primrose oil leads to smoother skin. This evidence has provoked much
interest as to wether topical application gives similar results.
Y. Ghane, A. Hner, M. Fartasch, T.L. Diepgen, Entwicklung eines Testmodells zum
Wirksamkeitsnachweis von Hautschutzprparaten, 38. Tagung der Deutschen Dermatologen
Gesellschaft, Berlin, 29. April - 03. Mai 1995
Die irritative Wirkung hautbelastender Arbeitsstoffe soll durch das Auftragen von
Hautschutzprparaten reduziert werden. Bisherige, fr den Wirksamkeitsnachweis eingesetzte
H\litlist\studies 12/06


38
Methoden tragen der Arbeitsplatzsituation nicht gengend Rechnung, in der subtoxisch-kumulative
Handekzeme durch den wiederholten Kontakt mit relative gering irritativen Substanzen entstehen.
H. Tronnier, Neues zum Wirkungsnachweis von Krperpflegemitteln, 38. Tagung der Deutschen
Dermatologen Gesellschaft, Berlin, 29. April - 03. Mai 1995
H.C. Korting, Rationale der Hautreinigung mit sauren Syndets, 38. Tagung der Deutschen
Dermatologen Gesellschaft, Berlin, 29. April - 03. Mai 1995
W. Gehring, M. Fischer, M. Gloor, Die Bedeutung von rckfettenden Substanzen in
Waschlsungen, 38. Tagung der Deutschen Dermatologen Gesellschaft, Berlin, 29. April - 03. Mai
1995
Cetiol HE wird als rckfettende Substanz tensidischen Waschlsungen zugegen, um die
Hautfreundlichkeit zu verbessern. Der Effekt von 5% Cetiol HE wurde im Waschversuch an 15
gesunden Probanden in vivo und in vitro am Gefrierschnitt menschlicher Haut (GMH) sowie
Kammerpenetrationstest (KPT), zwei bewhrten Irritationsmodellen, berprft. Als Meparameter in
vivo galten die Hornschichtfeuchtigkeit (Kapazittsmessung) und der transepidermale Wasserverlust
(Evaporimeter)
W.I. Worret, Th. Krusche, Objektive Nachweismethoden zur berprfung von
Narbentherapeutika, 38. Tagung der Deutschen Dermatologen Gesellschaft, Berlin, 29. April - 03.
Mai 1995
Es gibt mehrere Methoden, um hypertrophe Narben und Keloide der Hautoberflche anzugleichen.
Intralsionale Triamcinolon-Injektionen gelten dabei als Standardbehandlung.
Th. Krusche, W.-I. Worret, nderung der mechanischen Eigenschaften von Keloiden whrend
Behandlung mit intralsionalem Triamcinolonacetonid, 38. Tagung der Deutschen
Dermatologischen Gesellschaft in Berlin, 29.04.-03.05.1995
P. Elsner, Nichtinvasive Techniken in der Hautphysiologie, 38. Tagung der Deutschen
Dermatologen Gesellschaft, Berlin, 29. April - 03. Mai 1995
Nichtinvasive Techniken (Synonyma: Bioengineering-Verfahren, biophysikalische Meverfahren)
haben in den vergangenen Jahren in verschiedenen dermatologischen Forschungsgebieten Eingang
gefunden. Dazu zhlen insbesondere die Hautphysiologie, die Dermatopharmakologie und
Dermatotoxikologie, die Allergologie und die Berufsdermatologie, aber auch die Erforschung der
Kollagenosen, der Vernderungen der Altershaut (dermatologische Gerontologie) un die Onkologie.
F. Distante, E. Berardesca, Transepidermal Water Loss, Bioengineering of the Skin: Methods and
Instrumentation, CRC Press 1995
Measurements of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) is widely used to characterise the water barrier
function of skin, both in physiological and pathological treatments on diseased skin. In vivo TEWL
can be measured according to three different techniques.
F. Distante, E. Berardesca, Hydration, Bioengineering of the Skin: Methods and Instrumentation,
CRC Press 1995
The development of commercially available measurement devices that allow for the quantitative
evaluation of skin function and provide continuous data is an important advance in experimental
dermatology. Indeed the measurement of skin hydration has gained considerable interest in recent
years because the water content of the stratum corneum influences various physical characteristics of
the skin such as barrier function, drug penetration, and mechanical properties. Generally, three
different commercially available methods for evaluating skin moisture are used: capacitance,
impedance, and conductance.
P. Elsner, Skin Elasticity, Bioengineering of the Skin: Methods and Instrumentation, CRC Press 1995
Mechanical properties of human skin have interested dermatologists and bioengineers for a
considerable time, as differences between biomechanical skin parameters at various skin sites and
changes with age and disease are obvious. Objective functional assessment of skin mechanics was
necessary in order to correlate mechanical properties with anatomical and biochemical findings.
H\litlist\studies 12/06


39
P. Elsner, Sebum, Bioengineering of the Skin: Methods and Instrumentation, CRC Press 1995
While the epidermal barrier function depends largely on intercellular lipids in the stratum corneum,
skin surface lipids are mainly from sebum. Sebum is an oily mixture of lipids, keratin, and cellular
membrane structures excreted by the sebaceous glands.
J.Welzel, pH and Ions, Biogeninering of the Skin: Methods and Instrumentation, CRC Press 1995
In the early part of the century skin pH was investigated using colorimetric methods. pH indication
showed changes in different pH ranges. A large area of skin was required for the use of several
indicators. A simplification of this method was the foil colorimetry in which indicator-impregnated
sheets of adsorbing strips were placed on the skin with a drop of water.
Ch. Edwards, The Mexameter MX 16, Biogeninering of the Skin: Methods and Instrumentation,
CRC Press 1995
The Mexameter MX 16 TM (Courage and Khazaka Electronic GmbH, Germany) is a dual instrument
incorporating a melanin index and an erythema index meter. Both of these are based on the diffuse
remittance spectrometry principle, whereby a measurement is made of the absorbency of a volume of
tissue at specific wavelengths, from which the concentration of absorbing pigment can be estimated
and used to construct a pigment index.
Kein Aha Erlebnis, Test Gesichtspflegemittel mit Fruchsuren, Test 10/95
Sind Pflegemittel mit Fruchtsuren wirklich die Kosmetik der Zukunft, die Wunschtrume von ewig
jugendlichem Aussehen wahr werden lt ? Oder reizen die Mittel vor allem die Haut, wie andere
Fachleute vermuten ? In neun dieser Tiegelchen und Tpfchen schauten wir genauer hinein.
Ph. Girard, L. Violin, A. Denis, M. Maurice, Comparison of three methods for measuring in vivo
skin hydration on humans, depending on epidermal depth: NMR Spectroscopy, Transient
Thermal Transfer and Corneometry, IFSCC- In Between Congress, Montreux, Switzerland, 18-
20 September 1995
The aim of this study is to determine the more convenient method of measuring skin hydration at
several epidermal depths. Two in vivo, non invasive, quantitative and innovative methods - Nuclear
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy! (NMRS) and Transient Thermal Transfer (TTT)- and
conventional corneometry are compared.
G.E. Pirard, Nikkels-Tassoudji, Pirard-Franchimont, Influence of the Test Area on the
Mechanical Properties of Skin, Dermatology 1995, 191: 9-15
New advances in bioengineering have provided commercially available devices for measuring the
mechanical properties of skin in vivo. Reproducibility of data and methodological approaches have not
yet been thoroughly studies. Objective: To study the reproducibility and the influence of the area of
the test site on the values of biomechanical variable yielded in a normal population. Method: A 500-
mbar suction was transmitted to the skin through Cutometer probes equipped with a 2- or 8-mm
opening. Results: The best reproducibility was obtained for the maximum distension of skin and for
the biological elasticity. The values of the standard biomechanical ratios were almost the same for
both probes. Linear correlations were found between parameters of elasticity.
N. Nikkels-Tassoudji, F. Henry, C. Letawe, C. Pirard-Franchimont, P. Lefbre, G.E. Pirard,
Mechanical Properties of the Diabetic Waxy Skin, S. Karger, Basel, 1995
Background: In some diabetic patients, the skin of the hands has a waxy appearance. Objective: To
study subclinical skin stiffening in diabetic patients using a noninvasive, in vivo suction device
measuring skin extensibility and elasticity. Skin thickness was also measured by high-resolution
ultrasonography. Methods: Evaluations were made on the dorsum of the hands and on the volar aspect
of the forearms. Results: In type 1 diabetic patients, the extensibility of skin was decreased while
values of thickness and elasticity were increased. These alterations were most prominent on the hands.
Similar modifications, although less pronounced, were also found in type 2 diabetic subjects.
Conclusion: The reported biomechanical changes indicate the presence of subclinical skin stiffening in
H\litlist\studies 12/06


40
many patients with diabetes mellitus. Such noninvasive biometrological evaluations could be used for
monitoring, rating and correlating some diabetes-associated disorders.
G.E. Pirard, R. Kort, C. Latawe, C. Olemans and C. Pirard-Franchimont, Biomechanical
Assessment of Photodamage, Skin Research and Technology 1995.
Background/Aims: Intrinsic ageing and photoaging may present different biomechanical properties.
Dorsal and volar forearm skin is differently exposed to UV-light. The object was to derive a cutaneous
extrinsic ageing score (SEAS) representative of UV ageing, i.e. the global photoageing corrected for
intrinsic ageing.
G.E. Pirard, C. Letawe, A. Dowlati and C. Pirard-Franchimont, Effect of Hormone Replacement
Therapy for Menopause on the Mechanical Properties of Skin, Jags 43:662-665, 1995.
Objective: To evaluate the effect of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for menopause on the
mechanical properties of the skin in healthy women.
Design: A group of 114 women, including 43 nonmenopausal controls, 46 menopausal women with
HRT and 25 menopausal women without HRT, participated in the study. Mechanical properties of the
skin were measured on the volar forearm using a computerized suction device.
R. Dawber, Skin Surface Biopsy and the Follicular Cast, CRC Press 1995, chapter 5.5, pp. 121-123.
The technique of skin surface biopsy (SSB) was first described by Marks and Dawber. It is a simple,
non-invasive method, removing only dead tissue, used to study the stratum corneum as a cohesive
membrane, its constituent corneocytes and their relationship to each other, the many types of
pathology within this compartment, and a vast array of microorganisms that may colonize or invade
the layer.

M. Viatour and G.E. Pirard, A Computerized Analysis of Intrisinc Forces in the Skin, BSL
Clinical Experimental Dermatology Paper, 15/8/1995.
The skin of the volar forearm is a site selected for many biometrological studies. We studied the
influence of forearm position when evaluating the surface topography and mechanical properties of
the skin in normal young adults. Optical profilometry of skin replicas and the suction biomechanical
method (Cutometer, 2 and 8 mm probes) were used in combination with evaluation of the thickness
and sliding mobility of the dermis and dermohypodermal tissues.
K.Articus, K.P. Wilhelm, Das Skinvisiometer-ein neues Gert zur Bestimmung der Hautrauheit,
Parfmerie und Kosmetik, Nr. 9/95.
Die Rauheit der Hautoberflche kann nicht direkt gemessen werden, da willkrliche Bewegungen des
Probanden die Messung stren. Daher wird ein Silikonabdruck der Haut angefertigt. Eine
Diamantnadel, deren Spitze auf der Oberflche des Abdruckes aufliegt, wird ber den Abdruck
bewegt. Dabei hebt und senkt sie sich entsprechend der Oberflchenstrukture des Abdruckes. Die
Bewegung der Nadel wird - elektronisch verstrkt - auf Papier aufgezeichnet. Die resultierende Linie
stellt ein Profil der Oberflche dar. Gem den Definitionen der DIN Normen (2) werden dann an
Hand der Profillinie die verschiedenen Rauheitsparameter bestimmt (Tab.1). Da die Nadel mit
konstanter Geschwindigkeit gleichmig ber die Oberflche bewegt werden mu, stellt dieses
Verfahren hohe Anforderungen an die Mechanik des Gertes und die Aufzeichnung des Profils dauert
mehrere Minuten. Das Skinvisiometer benutzt eine andere Methode, um den Silikonabdruck der
Oberflche auszuwerten. Es ist dadurch in der Lage, die gesamte Oberflche eines 6,5 mal 5mm
groen Silikonabdruckes in Sekunden einzulesen.
J. Ennen, S. Jaspers, G. Sauermann, U. Hoppe, P. Gerson, Measurement of Biomechanical
Properties of Human Skin, Cosmetics and Toiletries Manufacture Worldwide 1995
The biomechanics of skin comprises a complex interrelationship and interaction of three layers -
epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue. Assessment of the mechanical properties of the skin by
non-invasive techniques had turned out to be a difficult task. The intimitate interconnection of the
different tissue compartments of skin, the anistrophy, and time dependence of the mechanical
H\litlist\studies 12/06


41
properties, as well as the regional variations in skin make biomechanical measurements more difficult
than other types of skin measurement.
T. Heinzelmann, K. Mller-Decker, J.J. Levy, F. Marks, Proinflammatory Eicosanoids and
Interleukin-1 in Suction Blister Fluid from Primary Irritated Human Skin, Skin Pharmacology
Society: 12
th
Annual Meeting 1995
In order to establish an alternative or supplement to the Draize test, an in vitro skin irritancy test was
developed with human keratinocyte-derived proinflammatory interleukin-1 and eicosanoids as in
vitro parameters. These are currently validated for their relevance and reliability: In a clinical study the
eicosanoid
and the IL-1a content of a human suction blister fluid (SBF) and skin inflammation (clinical syptoms,
transepidermal water loss TEWL) of irritant and vehicle-treated skin are evaluated. Here, the data after
application of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) are presented.
K. Stephanek, J.J. Levy, A. Kescks, The Local Reaction Followed Topical Application of
Leukotriene B4 on Healthy Human Skin, Skin Pharmacology Society: 12
th
Annual Meeting 1995
The archidonic acid-derived metabolite leukotriene B4 (LTB4) seems to play an important role in the
pathogenesis of several skin diseases like psoriasis, leukocytoclastic vasculitis and atopic dermatitis.
K. Matsuzaki, N. Kumagai, S. Fukushi, O. Ohshima, M. Tanabe, H. Ishida, Cultured Epithelial
Autografting on Meshed Skin Graft Scars: Evaluation of Skin Elasticity. Burn Science Publishers,
Inc. 1995
Many patients with meshed skin graft scars compalin of the scars unsightly appearance and hardness.
Since 1989 we have shaved away meshed skin graft scars and then resurfaced the area with autologous
cultured epithelium in nine patients. This method improved the disfigurement of meshed skin graft
scars, with minimal sacrifice of normal donor skin. Furthermore, autologous cultured epithelium
grafted areas had high skin elasticity compared with meshed skin graft scars, as measured with a
noninvasive suction device.
E. Weihaar, R. Sabel, C. Smith, M. Coibau, E.-M. Rpke, H. Gollnick, Does a New Lipidizing
Agent in a Medical Soap Prevent Lipid Loss Induced by Repetitive Washing, Skin Pharmacology
Society: 12
th
Annual Meeting 1995
Skin care e.g. choosing a suitable soap is an important factor in preventing skin disease. Various
medical soaps claim to minimize the strain put on the skin by repetitive washing. The aim of this study
was to determine wether a new relipidising agent in a medical soap which supposedly counteracts lipid
loss induced by repetitive washing leads to a significant change in transepidermal waterloss, pH,
sebum excretion and 8 epidermal lipids.
J. Woodruff, Testing time, Cosmetics, June 1996
In his continuing series on impending EC cosmetics-legislation, John Woodruff looks at the
requirements for proof of efficacy, and takes a trawl around available testing facilities.
St. Seidenari, B. Belletti and G. Pellacani, Short Communication, Skin Research and Technology
1996.
Application of water under occlusion increases hydration of the stratum corneum, thereby swelling the
corneocytes and promoting the uptake of water into intercellular lipi domains (1). Hydration values, as
measured by capacitance, remain higher for 20 min after soaking skin with tap water (2). Equalisation
of water diffusion between the stratum corneum and ambient air occurs within 20 min (3). Water, re-
emitted from a 24-h occlusion site, is recorded as increased TEWL values (4).
Ha J.H, Jo N.S, Lee H.K, Kim J.I, Lee B.G, Park W.J, The Depigmentation Effect of A New
Material Extracted from Paper Mulberry and ist Comparison by Three Colorimetric
Instruments, Proceedings of the 19
th
IFSCC Congress, October 1996
Skin color varies depending on age, racial background, seasonal change and pigmentation disorder.
Whiter skin color is a desire of oriental women. Various whitening beauty cosmetic products for
H\litlist\studies 12/06


42
inhibiting pigmentation process prevails in the market. Measuring skin color is a popular clinical tool
for evaluating depigmentation effect of these products. Therefore, the cosmetic scientists need to
develop new effective depigmenting ingredients as well as powerful measuring tool for skin color.
D. Khazaka, Claim Support & Efficacy Testing. A New System to Analyze Skin Roughness and
Wrinkles, Active Ingredients, International Conference Paris, November 1996
From the 1 January 1997 all cosmetic products and raw materials have to fulfill the 6
th
Amendment
regarding product information package, ingredient labeling and claim support.
Meanwhile there are a range of objective skin analyzing instruments on the market helping to satisfy
the new needs of efficacy testing and claim support arising from this Amendment.
The parameters of the skin which can be determined objectively are sebum, moisture, pH-value of the
skin (hydrolipidic film), viscoelasticity and micro circulation of the skin, skin color (melanin and
erythema index), transcutaneous oxygen pressure, temperature and thickness of the skin.
A brand new system to evaluate skin roughness and wrinkles is now commercially available: the
SKIN-VISIOMETER SV 400 . It differs from other roughness measuring systems by its economical,
accurate and quick measuring principle.
A specially blue dyed silicon skin replica is analyzed by light transmission in a slide projector
according to their heights and depths. By means of a digitalization unit the replica is visible on a
monitor in 256 gray levels or false colors. Standard roughness parameters (e. g. Ra, Rt, Rz, etc.) are
calculated for the profile of a single line. Also the average parameters of up to 180 lines in a circle or a
square can be determined within a second. The software of the SKIN-VISIOMETER SV 400 offers
many possibilities to the user as calculation of 3-dimensional parameters like surface or volume, or the
display of a perspective image for marketing use. All data can be stored, printed out and exported to
statistical programs.
K. De Paepe, P. Vandamme, M.P. Derde, D. Roseeuw, V. Rogiers, Ceramides/Cholesterol/ Free
fatty acids ontaining body lotions: Effect on TEWL of aged and SLS-damaged skin, Active
Ingredients International Conference Paris, November 1996
Thus the basic question still remains unanswered, namely if it is possible, considering the galenic
difficulties involved in a correct formulation, to devleop efficient cosmetic products by adding
essential barrier lipids. If will be a challenge for the cosmetic industry to look for suitable solutions.
One of these could be an increased interest in basic research of the barrier function of the skin leading
to products that can either protect the barrier and keep it in good condition or restore a damaged
barrier.
U. Griesbach, High Molecular Weight Chitosan A Multifunctional Biopolymer as an Active Ingredient
for Skin and Hair Care, Active Ingredients International Conference Paris, November 1996
Hydagen CMF as a high molecular hydrocolloid is an excellent active agent for the entire skin care
range as well as in decorative cosmetics. However, on account of the cationic character and the high
molecular weight, this chitosan product is not compatible with anionic surfactants and can therefore
not be used in surfactant skin cleansing products containing anionics.
J. Bettinger, J. Fluhr, M. Gloor, W. Gehring, Have oil/water emulsions a dehydrating effect on the
horny layer?, Kosmetische Medizin 1996 1: 46-49
The emulsifiers used in wash solutions, which have a dehydrating effect on the horny layer of the skin,
have a large hydrophilic and a small lipophilic moiety. Such oil/water (o/w) emulsifiers are also used
in o/w emulsions, although here combined with emulsifiers, which are responsible for the consistency
of the emulsion. Under repeated use of the o/w emulsions, the emulsifiers remain on the skin after
evaporation of the water component. It can be assumed that on renewed contact with water by
showering, bathing or sweating, this can form a wash solution, resulting in skin dehydration. The
intention of the present work was to answer this question.

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Alessandro Teglia, Antonella Mondelli, Influence of cosmetic treatments on the intercorrelations
of skin elasticity, hydration and microrelief, 19
th
IFSCC Congress Sydney, October 1996
Skin Hydration, elasticity and surface microtopography are important cutaneous parameters reflecting
sensory/aesthetic qualities of the skin and have been largely adopted as indicators of the effectiveness
of cosmetic treatments. Several studies have been made about the influence of environmental and
biological factors on them, while little is known about their correlation. Aim of our study was to
investigate their intercorrelation and possible influence of cosmetic applicartions on their relationship.
30 healthy volunteers were subject to the study over a period of one year. 7 skin sites for each
longitudinal half of the body were taken as test areas: volar aspect of the forearm (3sites), upperarm,
breast cheek, forehead. The subjects divided into two groups were properly instructed to apply twice a
day a W/O emulsion (1
st
group) and an O/W emulsion (2
nd
group) on the test sites of a half of the
body; contolateral untreated sites were used as controls. Biophysical measurements of skin hydration,
mechanical properties and surface geometry were made at regular intervals over the test period for
each volunteer. The data collected were submitted to statistical analyses for cross-correlation and
differences of the means. The following variables were considered: electric capacitance EC as measure
of the hydration of the horny layer; the viscoelastic to elastic ratio Uv/Ue and the biological elasticity
Ur/Uf as mechanical properties of the skin; mean roughness depth Rz and coefficient of skin
estensibility LD as parameters of the skin surface microtopography. Age of the subjects was
considered as biological variable. On untreated skin were observed: significant correlation of
topographycal and mechanical parameters with age; correlation of Rz with Uv/Ue (direct) and with
Ur/Uf (inverse); correlation of LD with EC (inverse) and with Ur/Uf (direct). Correlation of
mechanical properties with hydration was not significant. Treatment with W/O emulsion increases
significantly hydration, elasticity and skin smoothness; intercorrelation of biophysical variables does
not show important variations. The baseline correlation of microrelief parameters with age was
reduced. Treatment with O/W emulsion increases moderately hydration and smoothness but does not
effect the elastic properties of the skin; correlation of Rz with biological elasticity and viscoelastic
component loses significance. Exposure of the skin to different type of emulsions ca effect selectively
the cutaneous biophysical parameters and vary their intercorrelation.
N. Issachar, I. Gall, C. Gall, C. Carduner, M.C. Poelman, The Behaviour of Sensitive Skin Against
Lactic Acid Aggression. Proceedings of the 19
th
IFSCC Conference, Sydney.10/96
There is an important need for screening methods which can detect and distinguish the relative
discomfort caused by cosmetic formulations for an increasing part of the population.
Indeed when certain materials are applied to the skin, some persons report subjective complaints such
as burning, stinging, itching, tight feeling, and sometimes, exhibit signs of irritation. This peculiar
susceptibility is not hardly documented. The aim of our study was to find a quantitive test to identify
subjects who present this unusual susceptibility to cosmetic products, using lactic acid as a stinging
reagent.
A preselection of reactive subjects stingers among volunteers was firstly carried out by application
of a 10% aqueous solution of lactic acid on the nasolabial fold. The stinging effect is scored each
minute during 10 minutes, over a range from 0 (no stinging) to 3 (severe stinging). The mean values
allow to select 15 stinger and 15 stinger volunteers. The kinetic of skin pH of the stingers and non
stingers after lactic acid application under the same conditions was checked.
The data pointed out that the kinetic of the pH-sensitive skin is significantly different from normal
skin: pH increases faster fon sensitive skin than on normal skin.
These findings support the suggestions that individuals who behave as stingers may have an enhanced
buffering ability, or a more permeable stratum corneum, compared to people with normal skin.
The measurement of the recovery of the cutaneous pH in subjects with sensitive skin versus normal
skin could be a useful tool for a better understanding of this phenomenon.
A. Herpens, U. Maerker, V.Schreiner, U. Hoppe, Estimation of epidermal turnover by
semiautomatic measurement of corneocyte area. Proceeding of the 19
th
IFSCC Congress,Sydney
10/96
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44
Different approaches and cosmetic ingredients have been described as being able to enhance the
epidermal turnover (ET) of the skin of the elderly, for example peeling of the stratum corneum (SC)
and/or topical application of alpha-hydroxyacids and retinoids.
Measurement of the efficacy of such procedures currently relies on estimation of the rate of
disappearance of a stratum corneum coloration achieved by covalent binding of dyes to structural dyes
or lipids of the SC (SC transmits time studies, 1, 2). But these methods should be considered with
great care because there are possible sources of artefact.
We present a method and measurement protocol we believe to be less susceptible to such pitfalls, more
closely related to changes in the mitotic activity of the epidermal cells, delivering reliable and
producible results and significantly less invasive to human volunteers. Our method mainly relies on
exfoliative cytology with assessment of the parameter corneocyte area(CA), which is well-known to
be closely related to ET as shown by its strong dependance on age (3,4).
A. Teglia and G. Secchi, Minimizing the Cutaneous Effects of Anionic Detergents Cosmetics and
Toiletries Magazine Vol. 111, August 1996
Evaluating the protective efficacy of proteins and mild surfactants via transepidermal water loss and
profilometric measurements.
J. Welzel, K.P. Wilhelm, and H.H. Wolff, Skin permeability barrier and occlusion: no delay of
repair in irritated human skin. Contact Dermatitis 1996, 35
It has been reported that occlusive treatment of skin results in a reduction of barrier repair activities in
hairless mice. In contrast, the clinically observed benefit of occlusion in the treatment of hand eczema
and other chronic skin diseases with a perturbed barrier function is well-known. While the beneficial
effect of occlusion has been proven for the treatment of psoriasis, there are no controlled clinical
studies of the effect of occlusion on irritated human skin. We have therefore evaluated the effect of
various occlusive treatments on repair of the human skin permeability barrier under controlled
experimental conditions. Barrier perturbation was induced either by application of sodium lauryl
sulfate(SLS) or by repeated tape stripping. This was followed by treatment with different occlusive
and semipermeable dressing, partly after pretreament with petroleum. Repair of water barrier function
was evaluated by daily measurements of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) for 1 week. SLS irritation
and tape stripping led to a 6 fold increase in TEWL as a sign of severe water barrier perturbation,
followed by a stepwise decrease over the following days. Occlusion did not significantly delay barrier
repair as measured by TEWL. Only in tape-stripped skin did TEWL stay at high levels during
treatment with self-adhesive dressings. This may be explained by damage of newly-formed stratum
corneum caused by changing of these membranes. Our results indicate that, in contrast to earlier
observations in hairless mouse skin, permeability barrier repair activities are not significantly delayed
by occlusive treatment in human skin.
K.Paepe, P. Vandamme, M.P. Derde, D. Roseeuw, V. Rogiers, Ceramides/Cholesterol/ Free Fatty
acids containing body lotions: Effect on TEWL of aged and SLS-damaged skin. Active
Ingredients, International Conference Paris, November 1996
Total removal of the sratum corneum or perturbation of the barrier lipids by the use of solvents or tape
stripping will lead to a significant increase in water loss through the upper layers of the skin, followed
by a cascade of metabolic events in the epidermis, including an immediate secretion of new formed
lamellar bodies (Lee et al.,1994)
There are several categories of skin conditions or disorders, in which the skin is generally considered
to be dry and rough, with an impaired lipid barrier and an increased TEWL (Thestrup- Pederson,
1995). The effect on the barrier function seems to be dependant on the type of lipids affected. It has
even been suggested that a linear relationship could exist between the total amount of lipids removed
from the stratum corneum and the degree of barrier disruption (TEWL). The TEWL thus seems to be a
signal for barrier repair and regulates the recovery by initializing the burst of lipid synthesis. Barrier
repair usually occurs over a period of 6 hours to 3 days (Jass and Elias, 1991). Whereas epidermal
lipid synthesis is clearly linked to barrier functions, the nature and origin of signals that initiate and
propagate the biosynthetic response are still a subject of current studies (Nickhoff & Naidu, 1993;
H\litlist\studies 12/06


45
Wood et al., 1994). Transcutaneous water loss itself is not the regulatory signal alone since the
removal of barrier lipids also allows a simultaneous, passive loss of extracellular calcium and
potassium ions. Under basal conditions these ions inhibit the onset of new lipid synthesis (Lee et al.,
1994). In addition to ion depletion which may be one of the stimuli for lipid synthesis, chronic or
acute barrier disruption leads to the generation of epidermal and dermal cytokines, growth factors and
other interleukines that in turn triggers epidermal hyperplasia and dermal inflammation (Elias, 1994).
S. Seidenari, B. Belletti, G. Pellacani, Time Course of Skin Changes Induced by Short-term
Occlusion with Water: Evaluation by TEWL, Capacitance, and B-scanning Echography. Skin
Research and Technology, Vol. 2 No.1 February 1996.
Application of water under occlusion increases hydration of the stratum corneum, thereby swelling the
corneocytes and promoting the uptake of water into intercellular lipid domains. Hydration values, as
measured by capacitance, remain higher for 20 min after soaking skin with tap water. Equalisation of
water diffusion between the stratum corneum and the ambient air occurs within 20 min. Water, re-
emitted from a 24h occlusion site, is recorded as increased TEWL values.
B-scanning techniques, based on segmentation, enable the visual observation of the dynamics of
changes due to inflammatory processes in the skin and the quantitive assessment of epidermal and
dermal components of skin reactions. The effects of simple occlusion with a test chamber are
assessable using the echographic evaluation of dermal edema.
The aim of our study was to investigate the sonographic aspects of hydration, as documented by
measurements of TEWL and capacitance, induced by a short-term occlusion with water.
F.L. Ruedisueli, N.J. Eastwood, N.K. Gunn, T.G.D. Watso, Skin pH in Dogs of Different Breeds.
Skin Research and technology,Vol. 2, No.1 February 1996
Normal skin pH in humans ranges from pH 5.4-5.9, but can vary between anatomical sites. No such
pH data are known for dogs. In this study skin pH was measured in dogs of diffrent breeds,
demonstrating variation between measuring sites, breeds, sex, and coat colour. All animals were fed
the same commercial dry dog food. Skin pH was measured with a flat membrane skin pH meter
(Courage and Khazaka, Germany) on the head, pinna, flank, axillar and inguinal region. All sites were
clipped except head amd pinna. The mean pH for 12 Labradors, measured over 5 days, for flank, head,
and pinna were (mean SE) 7.48 0.04, 8.10 0.06 and 6.11 0.03, respectively. Inguinal and axillar
measurements showed day-to-day variability. For interbreed comparison skin, pH on the flank was
measured on three male and three female Miniature schnauzers 7.25 0.17, Springer spaniels
6.65 0.08, Yorkshire terriers 7.71 0.13, and Labrador retrievers 7.13 0.10. The overall data showed
effects of site (p<0.001), sex (p<0.001; males>females<9, neutering (p<0.01; neutered>entire),
colour(p<0.01;black>yellow) and breed(p<0.01) and a sex effect within breeds. These findings
demonstrate that skin pH measurements are possible in dogs and that the variability due to site , sex,
breed, and cost may be important in the aetiology and management of dermatalogical disorders in
relation to susceptibility, hypersensitivity,and treatment response.
K.P. Wilhelm, proDERM institut for applied Dermatological Research GmbH. Schenfeld, Germany.
Client-Server based On-Line Data Acquisition for Skin Bioinstrumentation Devices.
During dermatological safety and efficacy studies, huge amounts of data- both instrumental data as
well as evaluator scores may accumulate. We have developed an integrational data with on-line data
acquisition capability. The program runs in a Macintosh network. A graphical interface facilitates data
entry. A multilevel password system secures unauthorised use. In order to comply with GCP/GLP
requirements all data entries and any possible changes relating to experimental studies- both scores
and instrumental values -are secured in a log file together with date, time, and initials of the person
entering the data. The program can at present acquire data from: Chromameter (Minolta), Tewameter,
Corneometer, pH-Meter, Sebumeter, Mexameter, (all Courage and Khazaka). However, the open
architecture would easily allow to incorporate more instruments with a serial interface. Data can be
exported in DOS, windows or Macintosh format for easy import into any spreadsheet or statistics
programs. The program has been completely validated and successfully used in a contract research
H\litlist\studies 12/06


46
organisation for over 12 months. Automatic data acquisition has proven to be very useful tool to
facilitate and speed up data analysis and to enhance the quality and reliability of test results.
D.A. Comes, E.J. Fendler, M.J. Dolan and R.A. Williams, Bioengineering Instrumentation:
Automation and Use. Skin Research and Technology,Vol.2, No.4, Nov. 1996
Objective: The increasing complexity and use of bioengineering skin test instrumentation has created a
critical need for unified software that controls the instruments, collects and stores data, performs
analysis, and generates reports. In this study, user-friendly software programs were developed and
applied to perform panel testing on a large number of test subjects utilising bioengineering skin test
instrumentation.
Methods/Results: Generic software programs were developed to integrate and automate operation,
data storage, and data analysis of multiple bioengineering skin instruments. The software was applied
to the following instruments:- Courage and Khazaka - Sebumeter SM810, Corneometer CM 820, skin
pH-meter 900, Tewameter TM210; Minolta Chromameter CR300, and NOVA DPM 9003.
Conclusions: Automation of skin bioengineering instrumentation allows evaluation studies to be
performed using a large number of test subjects (with multiple variables). This greatly increases the
statistical validity of data and overall efficiency, whilst negating the historical constraints which
required a large commitment of resources.
K.P. Wilhelm, Possible Pitfalls in Skin Hydration Measurements. Skin Research and
Technology,Vol. 2, No.4, Nov 1996.
Stratum Corneum (SC) and the outermost skin layer adapts quickly and efficiently to variable outside
relative humidities by means of binding or releasing water. The water content (WC) of SC greatly
influences the appearance , surface contour and feelingof the skin. A broad range of cosmetic and
pharmaceutical products aim to increase WC of SC. However, the visual appearance of dry and
rough, or hydrated and soft skin is not only determinedby the SC WC, but also by the quantity and
the quality of intercellular lipids. It is therefore almost impossible to determine the WC of SC visually.
Various instruments utilising electrical methods, eg capacitance, impedence, resistance and
conductance, are commercially available for the objective measurement of SC hydration. However, all
methods may be influenced by various surces of disturbance. Additionally, systematic errors in the
study design may invalidate the results independant of the methodology behind the instrument.
Care has also been taken in the interpretation of the data obtained. Various specific examples of
possible pitfalls in skin hydration measurements as well as a strategy to avoid them will be presented.
F. Henry, G.E. Pierard, Biomechanical Properties of Striae Distensaie of Pregnancy. Skin
Research and Technology, Vol. 2 No. 4 Nov. 1996
Backround and Objective: Striae Distensae of pregnancy is a common finding. There is currently a
lack of information about the rheological properties of such lesions. The purpose of this study was to
compare the mechanical properties of striae distensae before and after delivery.
Patients and methods: A total of 79 primigravid entered the study. Rheological properties of the skin
were evaluated in vivo using a CUTOMETER equipped with a 2-mm probe.
Results: Mechanical properties of striae distensae developing during pregnancy resembled those of the
surrounding skin. By contrast, significant differences were yielded during post-partum. Extensibility
of striae distensae was increased although parameters of elasticity remained normal.
Conclusion: Rheological properties of striae distancae of pregnancy vary in time. This might reflect
the changes in hormones and in the mechanical stresses normally setting the skin under tension.
A. Barel, Evaluation of Stratum Corneum hydration: Comparison between Electrical
Capacitance (Corneometer CM 825) and Conductance (Skicon 200) Measurements. Skin
Research and Technology Vol.2 No. 4 Nov. 1996
In vivo determinations of the hydrationof the superficial laayers of the epidermis can be carried out
using electrical instruments. We compared the conductance (microSiemens) at high frequency
H\litlist\studies 12/06


47
(3.5Mhz) and a recent version of the corneometer, CM 825, designed to measure the capacitance at
high frequency (1.0 Mhz). Calibration of the capacitance instrument is now possible using filter paper
impregnated with a moiturising aqueous solution and with solvents of different dialectic constant. The
detection depth of the probe can be evaluated when covering the moistened filter paper with plastic
foil of variable thickness. The accuracy, sensivity and reproducibility of the measuring capabilities of
both instruments were compared in vivo on subjects with a wide range of hydration state of the horny
layer.
P.M. Clarys,A.O. Barel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium, The Influence of a Single
Topical Corticosteroid Application on the Hydration State of the Stratum corneum. Skin
Research and Technology, Vol.2, No.4, Nov 1996.
The impact of vehicle properties on stratum corneum hydration and bioavailability of active
substances is well known. As demonstrated by the reports on side effects after prolonged treatment
with topical corticosteroids, the active substance may equally effect the integrity of the stratum
corneum. Few studies evaluate the short term effects of topically applied corticosteroids. In our
experiment, we evaluated the influence of a single topical corticosteroid application on the stratum
corneum hydration. Two different corticosteroid molecules were tested as well as the influence of the
applied quantity, the time, the corticosteroid concentration and the influence of a moisturiser (urea).
One of the tested corticosteroid caused drying of the skin while the other did not. The addition of urea
caused an increase of stratum corneum hydration.
P.M. Clarys, A.O. Barel, Sebumetry: A comparison between Lipid Collection Techniques. Skin
Research and Technology, Vol.2, No.4, Nov.1996
Recently, several methods have been developed for the collection of skin surface lipids. We compared
3 of those measurement techniques: the Sebutape, the Sebufix, and the Sebumeter. Lipid sampling
with the Sebufix and with the Sebumeter takes only 30 seconds while lipid sampling with the Sebutape
takes 1 hour. As demonstrated by several authors application of a film on the skin surface may
interfere with several skin properties such as skin temperature, skin hydration, and skin surface water
loss. Our experimental set was designed in order to make a comparison between the 3 measurement
techniquesand in order to evaluate the effect of Sebutape application on the above skin parameters.
Comparison of the lipid quantification with the 3 techniques delivered a good correlation. The
Sebutape seems to have no or only a minor influence on skin temperature and TEWL. The hydration
state of the statum corneum increased significantly during the Sebutape application.
J. Effendy, H. Loeffler, and R. Happle Dept. of Dermatology, University of Marburg, Germany.
Experiences with Patch Testing with Sodium Laurel Sulphate as a Tool PredictingHuman Skin
Susceptibility. Skin Research and Technology,Vol.2, No.4, Nov 1996.
Compared with the alkali resistance test (ART), a widely used method employing sodium hydroxide, a
24h patch testing with 0.5% aqueous sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) has been tested for predictng
human skin susceptibility to an irritant. Forty patients (age range from 20 to 60) with an active irritant
contact dermatitis (ICD), 40 patients in whom ICD had cleared, as well as 40 healthy volunteers
serving as controls were tested. Skin responses to SLS were assessed both visually and by the
measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) as an indicator of stratum corneum integrity. A
significant increase in erythema scores and TEWL has been induced by SLS, and the increase in
TEWL was even more pominent in patients with active ICD. On the other hand, a decrease in alkali
resistance was only found in patients with active ICD, but not in patients with healed ICD. This study
suggests that the SLS test, unlike ART, may provide a non-invasive tool predicting a possible
consitutional skin susceptibility or indicating a subclinically impaired skin barrier function.
E.J. Fendler, et al, Automated Techniques for Determination and Analysis fo TEWL Data. Skin
Research and Technology,Vol.2,No.4, Nov 1996.
Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurement is an extremely useful technique for the assessment
of the skin barrier function. Although many publications in the bioengineering field report TEWL
data, few have defined TEWL steady state (stabilisation time) conditions.
H\litlist\studies 12/06


48
Theoretically, in measuring TEWL, steady state is the point in time when the rate of water vapour
entering the measuring probe is equal to the rate exiting the measuring probe. This time may vary for
different subjects and different skin types.
Using mathematical formulations, a procedure was developed to establish each subject TEWL steady
state condition. This procedure accomodate inter-personal variations as well as instrumental
measurement errors.
Conclusion: An objective method was developed which allows determination and analysis of steady-
state TEWL data. This method can be applied to any time-dependant measurements which approach a
steady state value.
J. Habig, E. Vocks, F. Kautzky, M. Dahm, S. Borelli, Influence of single UVA and UVB irradiation
on surface structure and viscoelastic properties of the skin in vivo.
The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of single irradiation either with UVA
(dosage:50J/cm), or UVB(dosage IMED) on surface structure and viscoelastic properties of the skin.
Biophysical measurements by means of profilometry and cutometry were carried out on normally sun-
protected skin areas directly before and 24 hours after irradiation. UVA induced neither immeasurable
changes in skin surface structure (expressd by the profilometrically calculated parameters of roughness
Ra and RxDIN and the parameter Wt reflecting depths of furrows) nor in its viscoelastic properties
(expressed by the cutometrically calculated ratio Uv/Ue reflecting viscosity and the ratio Ur/Uf
reflecting biological elasticity). However, a single dry-thermogenic dose of UVB radiation was
followed by significant increase in the depths of furrows, increase in viscosity and decrease in
biological elasticity.
De Vroey, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Studie van het Microrelif van de Hiud aan de Hand van een
Lichttransmissie-methode.
Lautenschlger, Dr. H., Mnchengladbach, Khlschmierstoffe - Forderung des modernen
Hautschutzes. Mineralltechnik 6/96
Skin protection is a large topic in the field of metal working industry basically by use of metal
working fluids. Both user, manufacturer, and distributor of lubricants take a strong interest in
prophylactic skin protection measures. For that reason, high demands are made on lubricants, its
handling and skin protection measures.
these demands are followed by newly developed lubricants and skin protection measures concerningits
chemical compounds and measuring technique. Todays tendencies and the increasing all-embracing
way of personal attitude are clearly demonstrated by the need to furnish evidence of compatibility and
effect. Physical and chemical parameters of lubricants and skin protection measures as well as its skin
compatibility are specifically taken into account.
Yosipovitch, G. MD; Maibach Howard I. MD, Skin Surface pH: A Protective Acid
Mantle.Cosmetics & Toiletries Magazine Dec 1996.
J. Habig, E. Vocks, F. Kautzky, M. Dahm, S. Borelli, Einflu einmaliger UVA- und UVB-
Bestrahlung auf Oberflchenbeschaffenheit und viskoelastische Eigenschaften der Haut in vivo,
Hautarzt 47, 1996
The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of single irradiation either with UVA (dosage:
50J/cm2) or UVB (dosage: 1 MED) on surface structure and viscoelastic properties of human skin.
Biophysical measurements by means of profilometry and cutometry were carried out on normally sun
protected skin areas directly before and 24 hours after irradiation. UVA induced neither measurable
changes in skin surface structure (expressed by the profilometrically calculated parameters of
roughness Ra and RzDIN and the parameter Wt reflecting depths of furrows) nor in its viscoelastic
properties (expressed by the cutometrically calculated ratio Uv/Ue reflecting viscosity and the ratio
Ur/Uf reflecting biological elasticity). However, a dry themogenic dose of UVB radiation was
followed by significant increase in the depth of furrows, increase in viscosity and decrease in
biological elasticity.
H\litlist\studies 12/06


49
Voegeli, Rainer; Meier, Jrg, Doppler, Stefan; Strzebecher, Jrg, PhD;Girard,Phillippe,PhD;
Elastase and Tryptase Determination on Human Skin Surface.Cosmetics and Toiletries Magazine
Vol.111 July 1996.
The skin, as an organ enveloping the body, mainly functions to seal and mediate the body from the
environment. Various biochemical and biophysical systems help maintain the integrtiy of this exposed
organ via complex physiological processes with well-defined interactions between cells and enzymatic
reaction cascades. These systems involving proteinases include:
Immune system, which protects from damage of pathogenic microorganisms
Melanin-forming system that prevents radiation damage
Keratinocytes, which form the horny layer that protects from mechanical,physical and chemical
damage.

H. Gerny, IV Medizinische und Kosmetische Behandlungen, Kosmetik und Dermatologie, Krause
& Pachernegg Verlag GmbH, Wien.
Die Langzeitwirkung einer Pflege kann nur dann einigermaen beurteilt werden, wenn ein klar
definierter Ausgangspunkt bezglich des aktuellen Hautzustandes und Hauttypes gegeben ist. Die
Bestimmung des Hauttypes ist ein sehr komplexer Vorgang, da viele usserliche Einfle auf unser
Hautbild einwirken. Auch ist die Haut hormonell empfindlich und stellt ein Bild unseres Innenlebens
dar. Da der Zustand der inneren Schichten ohne chirurgische Manahmen nicht definitiv beurteilbar
ist, kann nur die Summe aller Beobachtungen durch Auge, Lupe, und Woodlampe sowie Apparativer
Hilfsmittel einen approximativen Anhaltspunkt ber den Zustand der Haut geben. Es ist
empfehlenswert, nach dem 35. Altersjahr von Zeit zu Zeit eine Hautbeurteilung durchfhren zu lassen,
um die Pflege nach dem aktuellen Hautbedrfnis anzupassen.
Richard Marks, A Deeper Look Into The Superficial Layers Of The Skin, Retinoids Today and
Tomorrow 1996, Issue 43.
The boundary of self from non-self is defined by the outermost part of the skin. It provides the
chemical barrier that grudgingly permits the egress of water and impedes the penetration of microbes,
xenobiotics and other antigens.
Ulrike Heinrich , Potwierdzanie Dzialania Kosmetycznego. Pollena 2/97
Proof of cosmetic efficacy. In the following some methods, which have proven to be relevant in
establishing cosmetic efficacy are shown. With the help of these methods and a special study design,
it is possible to determine and to evaluate the character and extent of the influence cosmetics have on
skin care and smoothing effects.
Zuang, Valerie, Zastosowanie Corneometru CM 820 Do Oceny Nawodnienia Skory Ludzkiej.
Pollena 2/97
The use of Corneometer CM 820 to evaluate the Hydration of Human Skin. Directive 93/35/EEC on
the testing of cosmetics requires that evidence is provided to support the efficacy claims made for
marketed products. In order to fulfil this requirement without resorting to the use of animals, non-
invasive skin bioengineering techniques are now being employed with human volunteers. These
techniques provide quantitative and objective data, if the measurements are performed under
rigorously standard conditions. Inthis study, a non-invasive instrument, the Corneometer CM 820,
which measures skin capacitance, has been used to evaluate the short term effects of three
commercially available moisturisers, by monitoring the water content of the stratum corneum at
different treated test sites of human skin (inner forearm) in comparison with that at an untreated site.
A standard reference material (20% glycerol in distilled water) was employed, so that results could be
compared between laboratories and to avoid differences relating toinstrumentation and methodologies.
Measurements with the Corneometer CM 820 were taken at the baseline visit, bafore product
application, and at 1, 3, and 6 hours post application, at each test and control site.
H\litlist\studies 12/06


50
Articus,K.; Khazaka,G .;Wilhelm, K.-P.; The Skin Visiometer-A Photometric Device for the
Measurement of Skin Roughness. Bioengineering of the Skin: Skin Surface Imaging and Analysis.
1997 CRC Press,
Since 1959, When Tronnier presented a stylus profilometer as a tool to quantify the surface of the
human skin, several author have used this device to quantify the effect if cosmetic and pharmaceutical
products on the skin. A profilometer works like a phonograph. A diamond stylus is placed on the
surface of a plastic replica of the skin, and the stylus is moved linearly across the surface. By
transducing the horizontal and vertical movement to a recording unit, a two-dimensional (2D) profile
line is drawn. The profile line is used to calculate roughness parameters. Profilometers have been
used for many years, so that the machines have reached a high stage of development and the
calculation of various roughness parameters has been standardised in many countries. In 1979, Hoppe
showed that the anisotropic surface of the human skin cannot be reliably quantified by profilometric
measurements in one direction, but that severaldirection have to be measured to obtain a more correct
roughness value of the human skin. Later Hoppe et al. applied the fast fourier analysis as a three-
dimensional (3D) parameter on 3D skin surface recordings that were achieved by combining several
parallel 2D profile scans of the surface to overcome the disadvaantages of 2D parameters. In the
meantime, other investigators have also applied 3D parameters on skin surface data.
Unfortunately, the movement of the stylus is very time-consuming, and though faster systems have
been invented, where the diamond stylus is replaced by optical measurement systems that use laser
beams and thus avoid contacting the surface, the 3D recording of a replica of a skin area still takes
several minutes up to hours. Also, the precise movement of the stylus makes heavy demands on the
mechanics of the movement mechanism. The photometric device that we present in this article
overcomes these problems by applying a photometric measurement principle that needs no horizontal
or vertical displacement of a stylus and records the 3D surface of a skin area in a split second.
A. Barel, P. Clarys, I. Manou, Objective Evaluation of the Cosmetic Use of Some Selected
Essential Oils as Active Ingredients in Skin Care Products, Conference Proceedings - IN-
COSMETICS 97
K.-P. Wilhelm, Skin Hydration Measurements: General Considerations and Possible Pitfalls,
Conference Proceedings - IN-COSMETICS 97
J. Wiechers, A Suppliers Contribution to Performance Testing of Personal Care Ingredients,
Conference Proceedings - IN-COSMETICS 97
Current cosmetic formulations address a wide variety of customer needs. This variety requires a
plethora of personal care ingredients. In order to create excellent new products, it is essential that the
formulator not only knows the physical properties of the component (s)he chooses, but also the skin
performance that these products may have. In order to facilitate the selection process for the
formulator, we have investigated the effect of our products against some of the most prominent claim
areas of cosmetic products: skin moisturisation, elasticity, substantivity and mildness.
Clinical evaluation of a depigmenting cream: TRIO-D in melasma of the face, Nouvelles
Dermatologiques Vol.16 1997
To evaluate the depigmenting activity of TRIO-D (combination of Hydroquinone-Alpha Hydroxy
Acids (AHA)-ascorbic acid derivative) in melasma of the face, a doouble blind, randomized,
multicentric study versus excipient was conducted in 38 women. They were divides in two parallel
groups and had applied to each hemiface, twice daily, either the verum or the excipient on the
pigmented spots during 8 weeks. The objective assessment was done through the measurement and the
comparison before and after treatment with the melanic index: Mexameter. A clinical evaluation of
the area and the intensity of the pigmented spots was assessed with Visual Analog Scales. The
objective as well as the subjective results show a significant loss of pigmentation of the spots treated
with TRIO-D cream compared with the excipient cream since the first month of treatment. The
efficacy of TRIO-D cream is similar whatever the duration of melasma.
H\litlist\studies 12/06


51
J. Bettinger, J. Fluhr, M. Gloor, W. Gehring, Have Oil/Water Emulsions a Dehydrating Effect on
the Horny Layer, Euro Cosmetics 3/997
Since oil/water emulsifiers can be considered as surfactants which have a strong dehydrating effect,
this study investigates the question of whether the usage of o/w emulsions also has a dehydrating
effect on the skin. In 5 groups, each with 10 experimental subjects, five different o/w emulsions were
used. One arm of each subject was treated with the emulsion over 3 days. Both arms were then washed
with pure water and subsequently the moisture content of the horny layer measured with a
corneometer. For unpretreated skin in all cases the washing lead to dehydration; none of the o/w
emulsions led to any additional dehydrating effect.
M. Klsgen Radez, Wirkungskontrolle bei der Kosmetikherstellung - Kein Problem mit einem
neuen System zur Hautprofilvermessung, Euro Cosmetics 3/97
W. Gehring, Einflu von Ceramiden auf die Barrierefunktion der Haut in Abhngigkeit von
ihrem Vehikel, SFW 4/97
Ceramide stellen einen wesentlichen Bestandteil der epidermalen Barrierelipide dar. In dem hohen
Gehalt der Barrierelipide an Ceramiden wird ein wesentlicher Parameter fr die epidermale
Barrierefunktion und ein grundlegender Faktor fr das Wasserbindungsvermgen der Hornschicht
gesehen. Gegenstand der Untersuchungen war es, den Einflu einer einmaligen Ceramidanwendung in
einer W/O- und einer O/W-Emulsion sowie in liposomaler Formulierung auf die Barrierefunktion der
Epidermis und die Hydratation des Stratum corneum zu untersuchen. Die Untersuchungen wurden
vergleichend bei einem gesunden Kollektiv, bei experimentell induzierter trockener Haut - soweit es
mglich war - auch bei Atopikern durchgefhrt. Untersucht wurden zwei Phytoceramide und drei
analoge synthetische Ceramide.
J.W. Fluhr, W. Gehring, J. Bettinger, M. Gloor, Skin Visiometer SV 400 zur
Hautrauhigkeitsmessung: EDV-gesttzte Transmissions-Profilometrie, Kosmetische Medizin
18/1997
The Skin Visiometer SV400 is a high speed device with good reliability to measure the skin
roughness. The measurement principal of the Skin Visiometer is based on light transmission of a
silikone replica and the light-measurement with a CCD-camera. The great disadvantage of the Skin
Visiometer is, in comparison to conventional profilometers, the missing validity. This new device
could help to analyse skin roughness in studies with dermatologic and cosmetic products, light
protection and skin aging effects.
J.R. Mekkes, D.N.H. Enomoto, R. Hoekzema, J.D. Bos, C.de Borgie P.M.M. Bossuyt, Quantification
of cutaneous sclerosis in patients with generalized scleroderma with a skin elasticity meter,
American Academy of Dermatology, 55
th
Annual Meeting March 1997
A skin score, a subjective assessment of skin elasticity, is widely used in patients with systemic
sclerosis. Although this scoring method is regarded as validated and accepted tool, the interobsever
and intraobserver reproducibility are relatively poor. Aim of the study: To investigate whether the
recently developed SEM 474 cutometer, which exerts a controlled vacuum force to the skin, can
measure skin elasticity more objectively.
D.A. Comes, M.J. Dolan, E.J. Fendler, T.K. Turner, R.A. Williams, Effects of Alcohol Gel on Human
Skin, American Academy of Dermatology, 55
th
Annual Meeting March 1997
Alcohol has been historically recognized as a safe and effective topical antiseptic with the undesirable
characteristic of skin drying. The formulation of alcohol gels may mitigate or eliminate the drying
effect of the alcohol. This study was initiated to evaluate the effects of alcohol gels on the skin.
D.A. Comes, M.J. Dolan, E.J. Fendler,R..A. Williams, A Unified Approach to the Evaluation of
Occupational Irritant Dermatitis, American Academy of Dermatology, 55
th
Annual Meeting March
1997
Occupational irritant dermatitis has historically been evaluated by utilizing visual observation. These
clinical observations od skin condition and results from patch testing have limited sensitivity and some
H\litlist\studies 12/06


52
degree of variability among trained evaluators. Recent advances in skin bioengineering
instrumentation and techniques have reduced the variability among investigators and have increased
the sensitivity of evaluation to the detection of subclinical levels of irritation. A software program has
been developed by our lab to integrate and automate the operation, data storage, and data analysis of
multiple skin bioengineering instrumentation.
H. Zhai, H.I. Maibach, N. Poblete, A Stripped Skin Model to Predict the Irritation Potential of
Topicals In Vivo in Man, American Academy of Dermatology, 55
th
Annual Meeting March 1997
An in vivo human model was utilized to predict the irritation potential of barrier creams after partial
removal of stratum corneum with cellophane tape stripping.
M. Arens-Corell, Reinigung und Pflege der Babyhaut, Kosmetische Medizin 1997 18,2
Baby skin is highly sensitive concerning dehydration and irritation. Mild cleansing agents with
maximum skin compatibility and adaptation of the pH of the cleansing product to 5.5 in accordance
with the developing acid mantle of the skin are necessary. For skin care water-in-oil emulsions with a
strong protective effect are predominantly used. Occlusion has to be avoided. Skin compatibility and
care effect should be examined by Dermatologists. The diaper region must be protected from urine and
feces by mild cleansing and special creams.
H. Tronnier, An Irritation-Test for the Evaluation of Sensitive Skin, Tensides and Barrier-
Cremes, Kosmetische Medizin 1997 18,2
Two variants of an irritation model are described, both of which are suitable for testing the irritation
properties of surfactants as well as for determining the protective effect of skin ointments. This model
can also be used to assess individual skin sensitivity in evaluations of possible occupational eczema
and the length of time the subject in question is likely to remain in his/her present job. It may also
prove useful for assessing job suitability.
M.Gloor,S. Schermer, W. Gehring, Ist eine Kombination von Harnstoff und Glycerin in
Externagrundlagen sinnvoll, Zeitschrift fr Hautkrankheiten H+G 7 (72) 1997
The influence of a monotherapy with glycerol and urea, respectively, on the stratum corneum
hydration against exsiccation by a tenside solution and on the skin - smoothing effect was investigated
in comparison with a combination therapy with glycerol and urea. Here, an increase of 5% in the dose
of urea in an oil-in-water did not produce significant advantages with regard to the stratum corneum
hydration and the protective effect against the dehydration by tenside solutions. In contrast to this an
increase in the dose of glycerol of over 5% in an oi-in-water-emulsion proved to be efficient under
both criteria. With regard to the stratum corneum hydration and the protective effect against
exsiccation by tensides, the combination of 5% glycerin and 5% urea was superior to a monotherapy,
with exception of the oil-in-water-emulsion containg 10% glycerin. With regard to the smoothing
effect only the combination of 5% urea and 5% glycerin produced a significant advantage.
G. Sauermann, T. Mann, U. Hoppe, K. Takahashi, M. Tagawa, Skin Care Efficacy of Phospholipids,
IFSCC and 4
th
Hungarian Congress on Cosmetics and Household Chemicals, Budapest 1997
Goal of the study: The question was investigated whether phospholipids dispersed in a basic vehicle
formulation display skin care potential.
M.Fartasch, Praktischer Einsatz von Bioengineering-Methoden in der Berufsdermatologie:
Mglichkeiten und Grenzen, 3. Dermatologisches Alpenseminar Berchtesgaden 1997
Nicht-invasive hautphysiologische Memethoden (bioengineering methods) bieten neue
Mglichkeiten zur Erfassung der unterschiedlichen Reaktion der Haut auf die Irritation. Schdigungen
der Haut, die zunchst nicht sichtbar sind, knnen durch einige dieser Meverfahren bereits frhzeitig
registriert werden.
M.Gebhardt, C. Hersmann, A. Bauer, R. Bartsch, U. Wollina, W. Schneider, M. Stadeler, P.
Grieshaber, Erfassung von Hautschdigungen im Rahmen einer Untersuchung von
Auszubildenden des Bcker- und Konditorhandwerks, 3. Dermatologisches Alpenseminar
Berchtesgaden 1997
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53
In einer dermatologischen Verlaufsuntersuchung von Auszubildenden sollen Faktoren evaluiert
werden, die die Vorhersage des Auftretens von berufsbedingten Hautproblemen ermglichen und
prmorbide oder Risikozustnde charakterisieren helfen.
J.C. Espejo, J.F. Vozmediano, Valoratin de la hidratacin cutnea por mtodos de exploracin
no invasivos, Piel Vol.12 No.6 1997
T. Russo, V. Landeryou, L. Hall, Polyglycerol Esters, A New Class of Active Skin Moisturisers,
Cosmetics and Toiletries Manufacture Worldwide 1997
This research has demonstrated that skin moisturisation properties of PGEs can be documented
through the use of quantitative measurements. The substantivity studies have demonstrated that high
HLB PEGs have the ability to be retained within the stratum corneum and are not easily removed via
water washing. This substantive nature provides longer lasting skin moisturizing benefits. The
independant research study at Clarkson University has provided new insight into the mechanism by
which PEGs moisturise the skin.
R. Wachter, M. Hofmann, C. Panzer, E. Stenberg, HydagenCMF, Multifunctional Agents of
Biomarine Origin, Cosmetics and Toiletries Manufacture Worldwide 1997
Chitosan is a natural polymer which is obtained from the shells of marine crustaceans. Different
qualities of these cationic polymers were developed for the cosmetic industry according to a new
process and tested in comparison with other film formers.
Gute Pflege fr die Fltchen, Tagescremes fr die reife Haut, Stiftung Warentest, Juli 1997
Siliconas Para La Industria Del Cuidado Personal, Ciencia & Cosmetica, Ao 8 No. 14
Formulatin de productos para el cuidado de la piel y del cabello, de bellezea, para el afeitado y
antitranspirantes/desodorantes. Usando fluidos, emulsiones y antiespumantes de siliconas
suministrados por Dow Corning.
W. Meuling, A. Franssen, D. Brouwer, J. van Hemmen, The influence of skin moisture on the
dermal absorption of propoxur in human volunteers: a consideration for biological monitoring
practices, The Science of the Total Environment, 1997
A large number of workers in agriculture are exposed daily (through skin contact) to pesticides either
directly during mixing and loading or indirectly due to contact. The aim of this study was to
investigate the influences of skin moisture on the dermal uptake of the pesticide propoxur.
L. Pereira, M. Melo, I. Jaco, S. Abrunhosa, L. Rodrigues, Nonparametric System Analysis
Approach for the Characterization of Skin Hydration Dynamics, Poster, IN COSMETICS/ISCD
Conference, Dsseldorf 4-7 May 1997
L. Rodrigues, P. Pinto, P. Quaresma et al., Testing the Biological Efficacy of Facial Moisturising
Creams, Short-Term and Long-Term Studies, Poster, IN COSMETICS/ISCD Conference,
Dsseldorf 4-7 May 1997
P. daSilva, P. Pinto, N. Galego et al., Assessment of the Biological Effects of Human-like
Ceramides, Poster, IN COSMETICS/ISCD Conference, Dsseldorf 4-7 May 1997
P. Quaresma, N. Silva, L. Gouveia et al., Effect of Post-occlusive Hydration on Human Skin
Profile Evaluated by Light Transmission Optometrical Analysis, Poster, IN COSMETICS/ISCD
Conference, Dsseldorf 4-7 May 1997
J.-L. Lvque, Non-Invasive Methods for Efficacy Substantation: Importance and Limits, IFSCC
Conference Mexico 25-27 September 1997
In the 1970s and 80s, the first measurements for the efficacy of cosmetics using non-invasive
methods were obtained, and the surprise was not in being able to show that these products had real and
measurable effects, but rather showing how significant and variable these improvements could be.
H\litlist\studies 12/06


54
Today these methods remain indispensable but they must be used, as with all instruments, with care
and with a critical approach so necessary for avoiding technical errors and misinterpretation. Since
they can only provide indirect measurements, they cannot individually give a complete picture of the
complexity of clinical phenomena and even less decribe the totality of a cosmetic property where, the
pleasure of application, the sublety in the effect experienced and the result obtained in comparison to
expectations and their own self-image, is blended together with the evaluation of the consumer.
B.K. Sun, H.K. Lee, J.C. Cho, J.I. Kim, Clinical Improvement of Skin Aging by Retinol Containing
Products: With Non-Invasive Methods, IFSCC Conference Mexico 25-27 September 1997
Retinol as well as RA (retinoic acid) is well known to have many benificial effects on (photo)aged
skin. But the skin irritation potential and unstable condition of the products containing them have been
some problems in their cosmetic uses. So, retinol containing gel product (MDC gel) was developed for
less skin irritancy and more stability in cosmetic products. To examine the clinical effects of retinol
containing product, we used clinical non-invasive assessment techniques on 40 volunteers for 6
months maintaining double-blind test conditions. According to our results, the use of retinol
containing product improved skin color and hydration level slightly. But there was no statistical
difference. There was no erythema reaction compared to the use of RA. Especially, the skin elasticity
increased above 20% and skin wrinkles od crowsfeet region decreased more than 10%. Besides the
instrumental analysis, a large majority of volunteers felt that their skin was improved in the case of
wrinkles, elasticity, hydration and color.
Hong-Keun Ji, Young-Hwan Jeon, Study on Stability, Efficacy, and Effect of a Cream Containing
5% of Retinyl Palmitate, IFSCC Conference Mexico 25-27 September 1997
Retinyl Palmitate, the skin normalizer, is useful to promote greater skin elasticity, to diminish lipid
peroxidation and skin roughness following UV exposure, and promote a youthful general skin
appearance. In manufacturing creams, Retinyl Palmitate (RP), which is a derivative of retinol, is used
since retinol is easily oxidized by heat and light. However, only a small mount of retinyl palmitate is
used since using a large amount of it may be harmful to its stability. In this study, thermal stability and
UV stability of W/O-, W/S-, O/W-and MLV-type creams containing 5% of retinyl palmitate and 10%
of tocopheryl acetate (TA) are measured by Chroma Meters, and the content of RP is quantitatively
analyzed by HPLC at 25C and 45C. Also, how RP has been changed by heat, light, etc. is measured
by HPLC, and toxicity of the changed substance is studied. Particle size of each type of the cream is
measured, cellular renewal is measured by using DHA (dihydroxyacetone) and Chroma Meters in
order to study their efficacy and effect, moisture content is measured by using Corneometer and
Tewameter, and how much wrinkles are improved is studied by using Image Analyzer. Development
of MLV-type cream containing 5% of RP and 10% of TA, and satisfying conditions for better creams
has been successful.
M. Klsgen-Radez, Putting Claims to the Test, SPC Oktober 1997
The pressure is on to substantiate your product claims or drop them altogether. Michael Klsgen-
Radez of Courage + Khazaka explains how high-tech equipment is making this possible in skin care.
D. Khazaka, Claim Support and Efficacy Testing, Industry Supplier News 1997

V. Zuang, C. Rona, F. Distante, E. Beradesca, The Use of a Capacitance Device to Evaluate the
Hydration of Human Skin, J.Appl.Cosmetol. 15 July-Sept.1997
In this study , the CorneometerCM 820 has been shown to be a sensitive and useful tool, able to
quantify skin hydration in a rapid and inexpensive way. The study has been designed in such a manner
as to avoid as much as possible the limitations of the instrument. However, even then the results have
to be interpreted with caution, bearing in mind that the instrument only gives relative information on
the water content of the stratum corneum and not absolute values.
H. Tronnier, M. Wiebusch, U. Heinrich, Results of the Skin Surface Analysis by Means of SELS,
Akt. Dermatol. 23, 1997
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55
Surface evaluation of living skin (SELS) is a new optical-photoanalytical process. Four important
parameters, determining the surface structure of the skin (scaling, roughness, wrinkling status and
smoothness) can be recorded simultaneously. At the same time the image of the studied skin area can
be used either directly or converted to colors chosen arbitrarily to represent different temperatures.
The usefulness of the method is shown through examples of relevant influences on the skin surface
and their effect on the SELS values, as well as by the results of comparative treatments of several
weeksduration. Constitutional, topical and age dependant skin surface structures can also be recorded
by means of this method.
A .Pagnoni, A. M. Kligman, T. Stoudemayer, Image Analysis of Cyanoacrylate Follicular Biopsies,
CRC Press, chapter 9, pp. 113-119, 1997.
The cyanoacrylate follicular biopsy (CFB) is the most reliable tool to sample the follicular contents of
facial skin. In 1971, Marks and Dawber introduced the cyanoacrylate skin surface biopsy to study
the stratum corneum. This polymer removes the outermost horny layer as a sheet. They showed how
this quick and convenient method could be used to examine the glyphic pattern, to search for fungi, or
to study diseases in which the stratum corneum is prominently involved.

B.C. Murray, R.R. Wicket, Correlations between Dermal Torque Meter, Cutometer, and
Dermal Phase Meter measurements of human skin, Skin Research and Technology 1997-3
The Dermal Torque Meter (DTM) and the Cutometer are instruments that measure mechanical
properties of skin. The NOVATMDermal Phase Meter (DPM) measures the stratum corneum(SC)
hydration level. The objectives of this study were to determine which parameters of the DTM data
curves were most sensitive to changes in SC hydration level, which of the two instruments (Cutometer
or DTM) was most sensitive, and what correlations existed between the Cutometer and DTM data.
A.O. Barel, P. Clarys, In vitro calibration of the capacitance method (Corneometer CM 825) and
conductance method (Skicon-200) for the evaluation of the hydration state of the skin, Skin
Research and Technology 1997-3
A major problem with electrical measurements of the capacitance of the skin using the well known
capacitance method (Corneometer) resides in the fact that the results of this instrument are expressed
as arbitrary capacitance hydration units that are not directly related to real electrical units or to the
water content of the horny layer. The purpose of this study was to establish a calibration of the
capacitance method using a simple in vitro simulation system of the horny layer.
E. Beradesca, EEMCO guidance for the assessment of stratum corneum hydration: electrical
methods, Skin Research and Technology 1997-3
The improvement of stratum corneum hydration is one of the most important claims in the cosmetic
industry. Objective assessment of moisturization can be done with devices based on electrical methods
provided these instruments are used in a appropriate manner.
P. Clarys, I. Manou, A.O. Barel, Influence of temperature on irritation in the hand/forearm
immersion test, Contact Dermatitis Vol.36 No.5 1997
As indicated by in vitro experiments the penetration of irritants through the skin is significantly
influenced by the temperature of the solution. In vivo experiments, demonstrated equally a significant
influence of temperature in surfactant-induced skin irritation. In order to evaluate the irritant potential
of detergent solutions under normal user conditions, we used the hand/forearm immersion test. We
compared 2 detergents with different anionic character in a repetitive immersion protocol (30 min
immersion on 4 consecutive days). The solutions were tested at 2 temperatures (37C and 40C). The
irritation was quantified by assessment of the stratum corneum barrier function (transepidermal water
loss), skin redness (a*colour parameter) and skin dryness (capacitance method). Both detergents
affected the integrity of the skin in a significant way. The anionic content as well as the temperature of
the solutions were found to be determinative for the irritant potential, with a stronger response for
higher anionic content and temperature, respectively.
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56
M. Lodn, Barrier recovery and influence of irritant stimuli in skin treated with a moisturizing
cream, Contact Dermatitis, Vol.36, No.5, 1997
Moisturizers are used daily by many people to alleviate symptoms of clinically and subjectively dry
skin. Recent studies suggest that certain ingredients in creams may accelerate the recovery of a
disrupted barrier and decrease the skin susceptibility to irritant stimuli. In the present single-blind
study, a moisturizing cream was tested for its influence both on barrier recovery in surfactant-damaged
skin and on the susceptibility of normal skin to exposure to the irritant sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS).
Parameters measured were transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin corneometer values, indicating
degree of hydration. Treatment of surfactant-damaged skin with the test cream for 14 days promoted
barrier recovery, as observed as a decrease in TEWL. Skin corneometer values also normalized more
rapidly during the treatment. In normal skin, use of the test cream significantly reduced TEWL after
14 day of treatment, and irritant reactions to SLS were significantly decreased. Skin corneometer
values increased after only one application and remained elevated after 14 days. In conclusion, the
accelerated rate of recovery of surfactant-damaged skin and the lower degree of SLS-induced irritation
in normal skin treated with the test cream may be of clinical relevance in attempts to reduce contact
dermatitis due to irritant stimuli.
A. Di Nardo, S. Seidenari, P.W. Wertz, A. Giannetti, Barrier impairment in atopic dermatitis skin
correlates with an alteration in ceramide stratum corneum composition, Australian Journal of
Dermatology: Abstracts 19
th
World Congress of Dermatology, Sydney, June 1997
Atopic dermatitis skin shows a tendency to be easily irritated and appears dry. This clinic pecularity
corresponds to impaired barrier function and to increased TEWL values. A few studies suggest that a
reduced amount of total ceramides (especially of ceramide 1) deriving from epidermal keratinocytes
are responsible for functional abnormalities of the skin of atopic dermatitis (AD) patients. The aim of
the present study was to analyze the relationship between epidermal lipids and barrier impairment in
atopic dermatitis skin.
I. Tausch, K. Bohnsack, A. Schlermann, F. Rippke, J. Grassmller, Efficacy of Eucerin 10% urea
cream and Aquadrate cream in the treatment of xeroderma, Australian Journal of Dermatology:
Abstracts 19
th
World Congress of Dermatology, Sydney, June 1997
To compare the efficacy and safety of a 10% urea containing cream (Eucerin 10% Urea Cream) with
AquadrateCream and demonstrate essential similarity in the treatment of xerosis a doubleblind
intraindividual comparative study according to GCP standards was performed.
H. Blitz, M. Schidelko, H.P. Nissen, H. Driller, Skin mechanics measured in vivo: A new and
accurate model more sensitive to age and moisturising treatment, Australian Journal of
Dermatology: Abstracts 19
th
World Congress of Dermatology, Sydney, June 1997
Measurements of skin mechanics are required to better understand the condition of human skin and
loss of elasticity in the epidermis. The study presents a new method which shows that cosmetic
products are capable to induce significant changes in the mechanical properties of human skin after an
application twice a day for one week.
I. Effendy, H.I. Maibach, In vivo functional changes in human stratum corneum induced by
substances with known irritation properties, Australian Journal of Dermatology: Abstracts 19
th

World Congress of Dermatology, Sydney, June 1997
Functional changes in stratum corneum of normal human skin induced by repeated application of all-
trans retinoic acid (RA), glycolic acid (GA) and calcipotriol was investigated in 6 healthy volunteers
in comparison with sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), a standard irritant. RA (0.1%) in ethanol, GA (12%)
in water, calcipotriol (0.005%) ointment and SLS (1%) in water were applied with occlusion for 60
minutes once a day, over a period of 2 weeks (5 consecutive days weekly) on dansyl chloride-labelled
skin and on untreated skin. Changes in stratum corneum were examined utilizing noninvasive
bioengineering techniques.
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57
D.A. Comes, M.J. Dolan, E.J. Fender, R.A. Williams, Treatment of contact dermatitis in the health
care and automotive occupations, Australian Journal of Dermatology: Abstracts 19
th
World
Congress of Dermatology, Sydney, June 1997
Irritant and allergic contact dermatitis is a serious problem in many occupations. Among those with
the most severe problems are automotive and body shop technicians and health care professionals.
However, there is a dearth of studies which objectively characterize the extent of contact dermatitis in
these occupations.
T. Hariya, K. Inoue, Y. Umino, H. Ichikawa, Alteration of physiological parameters and the
amount of skin slgA in sensitive skin, Australian Journal of Dermatology: Abstracts 19
th
World
Congress of Dermatology, Sydney, June 1997
In recent surveys, more than 30% of healthy female as well as patients suffered from certain skin
diseases such as atopic dermatitis or rosacea-like dermatitis believe that they have sensitive skin, and
the population of this group has been expanding. It has been reported that a symptom of atopic
dermatitis is influenced by exacerbating factors such as physical conditions. In this study, we
examined the effects of these excerbating factors on skin physiological parameters and secretory lgA
amount in healthy female volunteers with sensitive skin.
R.A. Tupker, The value of transepidermal water loss measurement in skin irritancy testing,
Experimental Dermatology Vol 6 No 5, ISICD and ISBS Meeting Rome 2-4 October 1997
Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurement is a highly sensitive method to determine barrier
function impairment of the stratum corneum. By means of TEWL measurement it is possible to
discriminate between detergents according to their irritancy, using different types of exposure
methods. The same holds true for other irritants that exert their irritant action by impairing the barrier
function of the skin.
A.Di Nardo, A. Conti, M. Martini, S. Seidenari, In vivo assessment of n-alkyl-sulfate-induced skin
irritation: By means of non invasive methods, Experimental Dermatology Vol 6 No 5, ISICD and
ISBS Meeting Rome 2-4 October 1997
Sodium Lauryl sulfate is the most frequently used model for studying in vivo irritation. It is also one
of the most frequent surfactants in soap preparations and cosmetic emulsions. To investigate the
irritant potential of sodium salts of n-alkyl sulfates with different carbon chain length (n=8, 12, 14) we
applied these substances on the volar forearm of 10 human healthy volunteers aged 24 to 35.
A.O. Barel, R. Lambrecht, P. Clarys, B.M. Morrison, M. Paye, Comparative study of the effect on
the skin of two soap bars in normal use and in the soap chamber test, Experimental Dermatology
Vol 6 No 5, ISICD and ISBS Meeting Rome 2-4 October 1997
A double-blind study of the normal use during 10 weeks of two soap bars (soap and a syndet) was
carried out on 25 female subjects. Eventual skin changes were evaluated by bioengineering
measurements during the ten weeks treatment. Characterization of the skin was carried out using
measurements of the skin colour, hydation, skin surface pH and TEWL.
D.A. Comes, M.J. Dolan, E.J. Fendler, R.A. Williams, Characterization and treatment of
occupational contact dermatitis, Experimental Dermatology Vol 6 No 5, ISICD and ISBS Meeting
Rome 2-4 October 1997
During the last two decades, bioengeneering techniques have emerged as highly effective tools for the
evaluation of skin condition. Studies have been performed to assesss the potential of skin
bioengineering instrumentation and techniques for the evaluation and treatment of occupational skin
condition. Using large panels of automotive technicians, bioengineering techniques, such as TEWL
and skin hydration, were used to characterize the extent of contact dematitis and the effectiveness of
intervention with protective moisturizing creams.
G. Richter, St. Gromann, Comparison of special skin protective creams and ointment basis
(German Pharmacopoeta DAB10) in different irritation models, Experimental Dermatology Vol 6
No 5, ISICD and ISBS Meeting Rome 2-4 October 1997
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58
Skin irritation was performed with sodium lauryl sulphate (1% and 2%, big Finn Chamber, 30 min,
day 1 to 5 and 8 to 11, volar side of the right forearm) or with the skin disinfectant Sterillium (open,
30 min, 3 times daily, day 1 to 5 and 8 to 11, volar side of the left forearm), respectively on all 21
human volunteers. Assessment data: Tewameter-, Chromameter-, Corneometer-data and visual score.
E. Schnetz, O. Kuss, H. Merck, P. Elsner, P.J. Frosch, M. Lange, T.L. Diepgen, M. Fartasch,
Development and evaluation of an in vivo test model for cumulative irritation - first results of a
multi center study, Experimental Dermatology Vol 6 No 5, ISICD and ISBS Meeting Rome 2-4
October 1997
The aim of this multi center study is the development of a protection factor for barrier creams. The
first step is to find a test model which produces reliable results and is reproducible in all centers and
easy to handle. We tested a cumulative irritation model over 14 days with a break at the weekend.
D.A. Comes, M.J. Dolan, E.J. Fendler, T.K. Turner, and R.A. Williams, Physiological and
Microbiological Effects of Topical Alcohol Gel Use, GOJO Industrie, Inc. 1997
F. Stb, G. Sauermann, and U. Hoppe, Evaluation of Moisturizers, Bioengineering of the Skin
CRCPress Skin Surface Imaging and Analysis 1997
The stratum corneum (SC) skin of human consists of 15 or more layers of dead corneocytes,
depending on the skin site. The water content of the outermost layers of SC is very low in comparison
with the innermost part of SC and the lower layers of the epidermis. Therefore, the existence of a
physiological relevant water gradient in stratum corneum can be generally assumed. Along this
gradient, water diffuses passively from the living part of the epidermis to the skin surface. this normal
physiological transeqidermal water loss depends on an intact barrier function of SC and appears to
also be important for the transepidermal signalling and regulation of the cell renewal rate in the
epidermal basal keratinocyte layer. The water content of the stratum corneum is influenced by
endogenous and exogenous parameters and can even be modulated by environmental humidity.
JS. Dikstein, Inna Oreper, Liquid Make-up and Skin Surface pH. Skin Research and Technology,
Vol.2, No.4, Nov 1996.
It was suggested that, if a cosmetic agent changes the skin surface pH outside its normal range for
more than 3 hours, then a chronic study is indicated to show lack of undesirable side effects
(Biogeng.and Skin 1, 57-58, 1985), since it is desirable to keep any skin parameter within its
representative or desired range.
D.R. Black, J.M. Lagarde, C.M. Auzoux, Y. Gall, IRPF Centre JL Alibert, CHU Rangueil, , An
Improved Method for the Measurement of Scalp Sebum. Skin Research and Technology, Vol.2,
No.4, Nov 1996.
M.Lodn, ACO Hud, R&D, Danderyd, Sweden, Measuring Hydration of the Skin: A Practical
Approach. Skin Research and Technology,Vol.2, No.4, Nov 1996.
A.O. Barel, Mechanical Function of the Skin: State of the Art. Skin Research and Technology,
Vol.2, No.4, Nov 1996.
A. Di Nardo, C. Cota, L. Mantovani, S. Seidenari, Evaluation of Organic Solvent-Induced Damage
by Non Invasive Measuring Methods. Skin Research and Technology, Vol.2, No. 4, Nov 1996.
D.A. Comes, E.J. Fendler, M.J. Dolan, and R.A. Williams, Work Cream Effectiveness with a Heavy
Duty Skin Cleanser. Skin Research and Technology,Vol.2, No.4, Nov 1996.
M.A. Francomano, K. Mantovani, P. Pepe, A. Di Nardo and S. Seidenari, Basline Biophysical Skin
Parameters in Subjects with Sensitive Skin. Skin Research and Technology, Vol. 2, No. 4, Nov
1996.
H. Dobrev, Age-Related Changes in Skin Mechanical Properties. 5
th
National Conference of
Gerontology and Geriatry, October 1996
J.W. Wiechers, A Suppliers contribution to performance testing of personal care ingredients.
SFW-Journal, 123. Jahrgang 14/97
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59
Current cosmetic formulations address a wide variety of customer needs. This variety requires a
plethora of personal care ingredients. In order to create excellent new products, it is essential that the
formulator not only knows the physical properties of the components (s)he chooses, but also the skin
performance that these products may have. In order to facilitate the selection process for the
formulator, we have investigated the effect of our products against some of the most prominent claim
areas of cosmetic products: skin moisturisation, elasticity, substantivity, and mildness.
H. Drobrev, In Vivo Study of Skin Mechanical Properties in Scleredema of Buschke. Derma
1029. October 1997
A non-invasive, in vivo suction device was used to investigate the mechanical properties of the skin in
a patient with scleredema of Buschke. Clinical scoring of skin induration and measurements of skin
elasticity were performed over 9 anatomic regions on admission and after 3 (on discharge), 17 and 28
months. Immediate distension, final distension and immediate retraction were significantly decreased,
while the viscoeleastic to elastic ratio was significantly increased in the patient as compared to the
healthy controls. Delayed distension and biological elasticity were preserved. Low value of skin
distensibility correlated with a severe skin induration (p<<0.001). The changes were more expressive
with the 8 mm-diameter measuring probe than the 2 mm-diameter probe. The method applied can be
used for objective and quantitative assessment of skin involvement in scleredema of Buschke.
H. Dobrev, In Vivo Study of Skin Mechanical Properties in Patients with Systemic Sclerosis. 5
th

Nat.Congress of Theumatology in Sofia, November 1997.
Background: Measurements of skin elasticity are more sensitive than the skin severity score and very
appropriate for an evaluation of sclerodermatous skin.
H. Dobrev and L. Zissova, Effect of Ketoconazole 2% Shampoo on Scalp Sebum Level in Patients
with Seborrhoeic Dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereal, Stockholm 1997
Twenty patients with scalp seborrhoeic dermatitis were treated twice weekly with ketoconazole 2%
shampoo for 4 weeks. Clinical assessment, culture for P. ovale on Dixon broth and lipid measurement
at two places were made before treatment and after 2 and 4 weeks. Significant improvement of the
severity of seborrhoeic dermatitis (p<0.001) and negative mycological tests by 19 (95%) of patients
were observed. The scalp lipid content remained unaltered in 11 patients with an initial lipid value
over 220 g/cm but increased those with lower initial values.
H. Dobrev, Changes of Epidermal Hydration after Single Application of Different Moisturizers.
1
st
Balkan Congress of Medicine, October 1997
H. Dobrev, Use of Cutometer to Assess Dermal Oedema in Erysipeals of the Lower Legs. 1
st

Balkan Congress of Medicine, October 1997
H. Dobrev, In Vivo Study of Skin Mechanical Properties in Erysipelas of the Lower Legs. 1
st

Balkan Congress of Medicine, October 1997
H. Dobrev, Value of the Non-Invasive Skin Bioengineering Investigations in Patients with
Scleroderma (Review). 5
th
National Congress of Rheumatology, November 1997
D.W. Ramsing, T. Agner, Preventive and Therapeutic Effects of a Moisturizer. Acta
Dermatovenereologica, September 1997
P. Clarys, I. Manou, A. Barel, Relationship Between Anatomical Skin Site And Response To
Halcinonide And Methyl Nicotinate Studied By Bioengineering Techniques. Skin Research and
Technology 3/1997
Regional differences in percutaneous penetration and skin properties are well documented. However,
only a few studies have investigated the relationship between substance penetration and specific skin
characteristics in function of the body region. It was our aim to evaluate the physiological effect of
topically applied substances in function of skin parameters determined at different body regions.
P.Clarys, R.Lambrecht A.O. Barel, Does Lipid Sampling With The Sebutape Technique Disturb
The Skin Physiology? Skin Research and Technology 3/1997.
H\litlist\studies 12/06


60
Lipid sampling with the Sebutape technique takes at least 1 h in order to obtain a representative
follicular pattern. Subsequent morphometric analysis reveals different parameters on the sebum
excretion. However, application of Sebutape may disturb the normal skin physiology, and hence
sebum excretion, due to an occlusive effect. The aim of the present sutdy was to evaluate whether
collection of skin surface lipids with Sebutape influences skin parameters such as TEWL, skin
temperature and stratum corneum hydration.
Eva-Maria Rpke, W. Augustin, H. Gollnick, Lipidbestimmung der Hautoberflche mittels
Cyanoacrylattechnik, Kosmetische Medizin Vol. 18, 2; 1997, pp. 130-134.
Epidermale und Sebumlipide sind ein permanentes Untersuchungsgebiet in Studien ber Akne und die
Barrierefunktion der Haut. Unser Ziel war es, eine Methode zur Anwendung zu bringen, die einerseits
eine nichtinvasive Probengewinnung beinhaltet, das heit, die den Patienten mglichst wenig belastet
und andererseits schnell und unkompliziert auszufhren ist.

L. Rodriges, P. Pinto, N. Galego, L.M. Pereira, Usefulness of Mathematical Modelling Application
To Comparative Testing. Skin Research and Technology 3/1997.
L.Rodrigues, P.Pinto, N.Galego, M.Fitas, L.M. Pereira, Skin Permeation Fundamentals-Effects On
Skin Physiological Properties Through Electrical Modulation. Skin Research and Technology
3/1997.
St. Seidenari, Follow Up of Inflammatory Diseases Using 20 MHz Sonography. Skin Research and
Technology 3/1997.
N.Issachar, Y.Gall, M.T.Borell, M.C.Poelman, pH Measurements During Lactic Acid Stinging Test
in Normal and Sensitive Skin. Contact Dermatitis 1997
Ch Fox, Cosmetic and Pharmaceutical Vehicles: Skin Care, Hair Care, Makeup and Sunscreens.
Cosmetics & Toiletries, January 1998
The author surveys 39 articles and patents from the past four years for advances in the science and
technology of cosmetic and pharmaceutical vehicles. Here, in Part 2 of a two-part series, topics
include hair-care vehicles, lipsomes, makeup, shampoos, skin-care vehicles, sticks and sunscreen
vehicles.
Beweiskraft der Tests. Beauty Forum 1/98
Fr jedes Hautproblem bietet die Kosmetikindustrie die wirksame Patentlsung - zumindest laut
werbekrftiger Aussagen.
W.D. Becker, J. Bajor, K. Hoyberg, S. Hillmer, D.M.D. Thiboutot, H. Knaggs, Measurement of
Human Surface Sebum Levels. AAD, Orlando, March 1998
Hongbo Zhai, Ya-ching Chang, Malkiat Singh, H.I. Maibach, An In Vivo Nickel Allergic Contact
Dermatitits (ACD) Human Model For Topical Therapeutics. AAD, Orlando, March 1998
MP. Vienne, S. Cours Darne, C. Lauze, P. Dupuy, Repairing Effect and Tolerance of Amerma Oat
Milk Treatment Cream and Aveeno Moisturizing Cream on Damaged Skin, AAD, Orlando,
March 1998
M. Morrison, Y. Cartiaux, M. Paye, Charbonnier, H. Maibach, Demonstrating Invisible (Subclinical)
Sodium Lauryl Sulfate Irritation with Squamometry, AAD, Orlando, March 1998
S.A.Barkovic, Y. Appa, G. Payonk, A Clinical Evaluation of a Glycolic Acid Hand Treatment with
Retinyl Palmitate and an SPF 15 on Photoaged Hands, AAD, Orlando, March 1998
S. dos Santos Guerra Filho, Evaluation of Potential Irritation of Cosmetic Products, International
Cosmetic Expo98, Miami February 1998
The continual need in the cosmetic industries for developing products with low irritation or
sensibilizing potential has forced constant improvements in evaluation techniques utilized by the
testing laboratories. The scientific literature is extensive in papers discussing the direct correlation
H\litlist\studies 12/06


61
between the increse of the TEWL in parallel with the skin irritation in products. It is not appropriate to
generalize this fact because in some cases the increased TEWL is not matched at the same intensity by
skin irritation. We have evaluated emulsion and tensoactive systems utilized in hair products, and our
conclusion is that in some systems the TEWL increase did not necessarily correlate to the irritation
due to the molecular weight of the tensoactive utilized. The evaluation of a formulation must include
both TEWL and irritation tests simultaneously.
Glttende Wirkung im Vordergrund. Dermaforum Mrz 1998
G. Gallacher, H.I. Maibach, Is Atopic Dermatitis a Predisposing Factor for Experimental Acute
Irritant Contact Dermatitis?, Contact Dermatitis Vol. 38 No. 1, January 1998
Proclivity to acute irritant contact dermatitis has been reviewed by comparing the response in patients
with atopic dermatitits to controls. Although several controlled studies demonstrate such a poclivity,
others do not, suggesting that the mechanisms involved are complex.
H. Lautenschlger, H.P. Nissen, W. Wieland, Neue Untersuchungen zur Hautvertrglichkeit von
Khlschmierstoffen. Arbeitsmedizin Sozialmedizin Umweltmedizin, Heft 12, Dezember 1997
Khlschmierstoffe sind sehr weit verbreitete Arbeitsstoffe, insbesondere in der metallverarbeitenden
Industrie. Aus arbeitsmedizinischer Sicht steht die Hautvertrglichkeit dieser Produkte im
Vordergrund. Die vorliegende Messungen und Daten zum transepidermalen Wasserverlust und zur
Chromametrie zeigen, da Khlschmierstoffe hinsichtlich ihrer akuten Hautvertrglichkeiten und der
Langzeitwirkungen auf die Haut differenziert werden knnen. Dadurch werden sowohl dem Hersteller
als auch dem Verwender mebare Kriterien bezglich der Auswhl dieser Arbeitsstoffe an die Hand
gegeben.
T. Fischer, C. Greif, W. Wigger-Alberti, P. Elsner, Instrumentelle Methoden zur Bewerbung der
Sicherheit und Wirksamkeit von Kosmetika, Kursprogramm Sicherheitsaspekte in der Kosmetik,
Basel, Mai 1998
Durch die Erfordernisse eines Wirksamkeits- und Sicherheitsnachweises fr Kosmetika gewinnen
nichtinvasive biophysikalische Memethoden zunehmend an Bedeutung. Neben der Bestimmung des
transepidermalen Wasserverlustes und der Messung der Hautfeuchtigkeit, des Oberflchenfettes, des
pH-Werts, und der Elastizitt kommen der Bestimmung des Oberflchenreliefs, der Farbe und der
Hautdurchblutung groe Bedeutung zu. Mit diesen Methoden knnen u.a. die
hautfeuchtigkeitsfrdernden, glttenden und straffenden Wirkungen von Topika sowie der Grad der
Irritation durch Externa valuiert werden. Zur Messung der Vergleichbarkeit dieser unterschiedlichen
Funktionsparameter sind standardisierte Mebedingungen erforderlich.
Th. Gassenmeier, W. Pittermann, S. Nieveler, Th. Frster, M. Kietzmann, Experimentally induced
epidermal barrier perturbation: Measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) using the
isolated perfused bovine udder skin (BUS) model. Poster Henkel 5/1998
R. Vanbever, D. Fouchard, A. Jadoul, N. De Morre, V. Prat, JP Marty, In vivo Noninvasive
Evaluation of Hairless Rat Skin after High-Voltage Pulse Exposure. Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin
Physiol 1998
Short high-voltage pulses have recently been shown to dramatically increase and expedite transdermal
drug transport via a mechanism bypothesized to involve electroporation. This study addresses
tolerance issues of the method in vivo in hairless rat. Chromametry, transepidermal water loss
(TEWL), laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and corneometry were jointly used for noninvasive sensing
of skin biophysical parameters. Slight increases in skin redness, TEWL and LDF values followed the
application of electric pulses. The changes in skin capacitance were nonisignificant. The magnitude of
the alterations depended on the electrical features of the pulses. When compared to iontophoresis,
high-voltage pulses did not induce stronger alterations of skin functions. This report provides the first
in vivo demonstration of the safety of the high-voltage pulses proposed for transdermal delivery.
H\litlist\studies 12/06


62
Dr.R. Ward, The Human Factor - SPC March 1998
With the proposed ban on animal testing on the horizon, Dr. Rachel Ward looks at the ethical aspects
of human volunteer testing.
J. Hart, Ch. Polla, Oat Fractions. Cosmetics & Toiletries March 1998
Clinical and in vitro studies demonstrate the ability os specific topically applied oat fractions (oat -
glucan, hydrolyzed oat protein and oat extract) to provide targeted benefits in the skin care and hair
care.
M. Arens-Corell, J. Welzel, HH Wolff, Beurteilung von Hautreinigungsmitteln fr trockene und
empfindliche Haut. Kosmetische Medizin 1/1998.
Die zunehmende Problematik trockener und empfindlicher Haut in der Bevlkerung macht die
Entwicklung geeigneter Reinigungsmittel notwendig. Ihre Hautvertrglichkeit und minimierte
Austrocknungwirkung kann in dermatologisch kontrollierten Anwendungsbeobachtungen unter
Einbeziehung der Messung hautphysiologischer Parameter objektiv geprft werden. Das Beispiel
eines Duschls und einer Waschemulsion fr trockene und empfindliche Haut zeigt, da durch einen
hohen lanteil ebenso wie durch die Auswahl milder Syndetsubstanzen bei Anpassung des pH-Wertes
im Hautphysiologischen, leicht sauren Bereich die Hautreinigung unter Praxisbedingungen ohne
Austrocknung und Irritationen mglich ist.
Einflu des pH-Wertes von Kosmetika. Kosmetische Praxis 2/98
Der saure Oberflchen-pH-Wert der Haut erfllt wichtige Schutzfunktionen. ber die Einwirkung von
Reinigungsprodukten auf die Residentflora, die Barrierefunktion und die Regeneration der Haut liegen
umfassende Untersuchungen vor. Wie abersieht es beim pH-Wert von Hautpflegeprparaten aus, die
auf der Haut verbleiben ?
Sauer und alkalisch. Kosmetische Praxis 2/98
Der pH-Wert der Hautoberflche schwankt zwischen 5,0 und 6,0. Da Lsungen mit einem pH-Wert
kleiner als 7 sauer reagieren, zeigt die Haut demnach eine saure Reaktion. Dieser Suremantel hemmt
die Aktivitt krankmachender Bakterien und Pilze. Mit ein wichtiger Grund diesen Sureschutzmantel
nicht zu zerstren.
JW Fluhr, G Vrzak, M Gloor, Hydratisierender und die Steroidpenetration modifizierender Effekt
von Harnstoff und Glycerin in Abhngigkeit von der verwendeten Grundlage. H+G 4/1998
Ausgangspunkt war die bekannte hydratisierende Wirkung von Harnstoff und Glycerin auf die
Hornschicht bei Anwendung in Externagrundlagen, die bekannte penetrationsfrdernde Wirkung von
Harnstoff auf Dermatokortikosteroide sowie der penetrationsfrdernde Effekt von Glycerin, der frher
fr Hexylnikotinat nachgewiesen worden war. berprft werden sollte die
Konzentrationsabhngigkeit der Wirkung von Harnstoff und Glycerin, die Abhngigkeit der Wirkung
dieser Wirkstoffe vom verwendeten Vehikel und die Penetrationsbeeinflussung fr Hydrokortison
durch Glycerin. Untersucht wurden insgesamt 49 Versuchspersonen, die Hydratisierung wurde mit
Hilfe der Corneometrie und Skicon-Methode gemessen, die Wirkstoffpenetration fr Hydrokortison
mit Hilfe des Blanchingeffektes. Die Untersuchungen zeigen, da Harnstoff und Glycerin in allen
verwendeten O/W- und W/O-Grundlagen eine vergleichbare hydratisierende Wirkung aufweisen. Eine
Steigerung der Harnstoff- Konzentration von 5 auf 10% erbrachte keine eindeutigen Vorteile, whrend
10% Glycerin unabhngig von der Grundlage effektiver als 5% ist. Harnstoff wirkt nicht in jedem
Vehikel penetrationsfrderned auf Steroide, sondern nur in der verwendeten wasserreichen O/W-
Emulsion. Glycerin beeinflute bei den vorliegenden Untersuchungen die Hydrokortisonpenetration
nicht.
H. Zhai, Y-H. Leow, H.I. Maibach, Human Barrier Recovery After Actue Acetone Perturbation:
An Irritant Dermatitis Model. Clinical and Experimental Dermatology, Vo. 23 No. 1 January 1998
H\litlist\studies 12/06


63
The Efficacy of a topical agent in barrier recovery was evaluated after acetone-induced acute water
loss barrier disruption in vivo in humans. The upper back of several volunteers was rubbed with
acetone-soaked cotton balls until elevated rates of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) occurred.
P. Grimes, Cosmetic Issues For Ethnic Women, 3
rd
Int.Symposium on Cosmetic Efficacy, May 1998
P.Teofoli, G.Monticone, O.De Pita, M. Ribuffo, Hydroquione Or Kojic Acid For The Treatment Of
Malasma Colorimetric Evaluation And Effects On Skin Barrier Function (TEWL) And
Hydration. 3
rd
Int.Symposium on Cosmetic Efficacy, May 1998
E.J.Thumm, C.Bayerl, E.G. Jung, Evaluation Of The Efficacy Of Cosmetic Products By Using
Profilometry. 3
rd
Int.Symposium on Cosmetic Efficacy, May 1998
H. Tronnier, M. Weibusch, U. Heinrich, R. Stute, Surface Evaluation Of Living Skin. 3
rd

Int.Symposium on Cosmetic Efficacy, May 1998
J.W. Fluhr, M. Gloor, W. Gehring, Protective Value of Bath Oils With Different Solvent
Characteristics Against Irritation. The Journal of Investigative Dermatology, Vol. 110, No. 4, April
1998.

J.I.Ademola, A.Cua, S. Amin, P.Liu, J. Avalos,L. Miller, M. Miller, N. Scrofani, A. Anigbogu, H.I.
Maibach, Dermatopharmacokinetics Of Topical Formulations In Human Stratum Corneum. The
Journal of Investigative Dermatology, Vol. 110, No. 4, April 1998.

W.D. Becker, J.S. Bajor, K. Hoyberg, S. Hillmer, D. Thiboutot, H. Knaggs, Measurement Of Human
Surface Sebum Levels. The Journal of Investigative Dermatology, Vol. 110, No. 4, April 1998.
J. Gottfreund, T. Meyer, Die Bedeutung des pH-Wertes 5,5 in Emulsionen. Kosmetische Medizin
Nr. 3, 1998.
Es wird die Bedeutung des pH-Wertes 5.5 in Emulsionen dargestellt. In einer W/O-Emulsion wurde
der pH-Wert der Wasserphase auf einen Wert von 5,5 eingestellt. Es lie sich zeigen, da der durch
Umwelteinflsse tiefe pH-Wert der Haut sich an 5,5 anpat. Bei der Auswahl der Rohsteoffe fr den
Fettkrper einer Emulsion mssen die speziellen Bedingungen, die durch den pH-Wert bedingt sind,
bercksichtigt werden.
Irene Tausch, Betsy Hughes-Formella, Andrea Schlermann, F. Rippke, Harnstoff-ein wichtiger
Wirkstoff in der Dermatotherapie. Kosmetische Medizin Nr. 3., 1998.
Die hydratisierenden eigenschaften der Prparate Eucerin 10% Urea Lotio und Eucerin Salbe 10%
Urea wurden in kontrollierten klinischen Prfungen ber 4 Wochen an insgesamt 78 Patienten mit
trockener Haut bei atopischen Ekzem im erscheinungsfreien Intervall im Vergleich zu der
wirkstoffreien Grundlage (Lotio) bzw. zu unbehandelter Haut (Salbe) geprft. Beide Prparationen
fhrten im Vergleich zu den Ausgangswerten zu einer signifikanten Erhhung des Wassergehaltes der
Hautoberflche.
W. John Kitzmiller, L. Singer, D. Page, M. Visscher, R.R. Wickett, Use of Noninvasive Biophysical
Techniques to Compare Effects of Laser Resurfacing and Dermabrasion on Perioral Skin. 12
th

ISBS, Boston, 06/98 (Skin Research and Technology, Vol.5 No. 2, May 1999 )

St.B. Hoath, D.E. Bare, K.A. Munson, M.O. Visscher, R.R. Wickett, Changes in Stratum corneum
Hydration, Acidity, And Optical Properties in Newborn Infants During The First Hours of Life.
12
th
ISBS, Boston, 06/98. (Skin Research and Technology, Vol.5 No. 2, May 1999 )

G.Yosipovitch, A. Mayan, M. David, P. Merlov, L. Sirota, Transepidermal Water Loss, Stratum
corneum Moisture and Skin Surface pH of the New Born Infant in Different Body Areas, 12
th

ISBS, Boston, 06/98.( Skin Research and Technology, Vol.5 No. 2, May 1999)

R.R. Warner, K.J. Stone, Y.L. Boissy, N.Lilly, M.J. Spears, Electron Microscopy of Hydrated Skin:
Water Disrupts the Barrier Lipids. 12
th
ISBS, Boston, 06/98.
H\litlist\studies 12/06


64
E.J. Fendler, B. Hammond, R.A. Williams, M.J. Dolan, A Controlled Use Trial Of Protective Hand
Cream in The Metal Working Industry. 12
th
ISBS, Boston, 06/98.
J. Fluhr, M.Gloor, F. Distante, S. Lazzerini, E. Berardesca, Glycerol Modulates Recovery of
Barrier Function In Vivo. 12
th
ISBS, Boston, 06/98.
P. Clarys, A.O Barel, Percutaneous Penetration Models In Vivo - Evaluation By Means Of Non-
Invasive Biophysical Measurement Techniques. 12
th
ISBS, Boston, 06/98.
B. Gabard, Dry Skin and the Cosmetic Benefit of Moisturization. 12
th
ISBS, Boston, 06/98.
M. Paye, G. Gomes, Ch. Zerweg, GE Pierard, GG Grove, A Hand Immersion Test in Laboratory-
Controlled Usage conditions: A Need For Sensitive and Controlled Assessment Methods. 12
th

ISBS, Boston, 06/98.
E. Berardesca, S Lazzerini, F. Pirot, M. Singh, H.I. Maibach, Racial Differences in pH and TEWL
Gradient into Superficial Stratum Corneum, 12
th
ISBS, Boston, 06/98.
R. Lambrecht, P. Clarys, B. Gabard, A.O. Barel, Relation Between Capacitance Measurements and
Biomechanical Skin Properties Under Different Hydration Conditions. 12
th
ISBS, Boston, 06/98.
B.M. Morrison, Y. Cartiaux, M. Paye, V. Charbonnier, H.I. Maibach, Demonstrating Invisible
(Subclinical) Sodium Lauryl Sulfate Irritation with Squamometry. 12
th
ISBS, Boston, 06/98.
Ph. Humbert, H. Zahouani, N. Bizouard, J. Asserin, J.Arnaud-Battandier, Evaluation of Efficacy of
an Anti-Aging CreamContaining Anti-Glycation Agents and Vitamins Using a Non-Invasive
Method. 12
th
ISBS, Boston, 06/98.
P.Y. Rizvi, St. Kaplan, B.M. Morrison, Seasonal Skin Changes as Measured by Biophysical
Instruments. 12
th
ISBS, Boston, 06/98.
A.O. Barel, P. Clarys, Skin Surface Color Measurements - A Comparison Between the
Chromameter and the Mexameter. 12
th
ISBS, Boston, 06/98.
J.W. Fluhr, E. Berardesca, M. Gloor, W. Gehring, Protective Value of Bathoils with Different
Solvent Characteristics Against Different Irritation. 12
th
ISBS, Boston, 06/98.
K. Articus, C.A. Brown, K.P. Wilhelm, Scale Sensitive Fractal Analysis Using the Patchwork
Method for the Assessment of Skin Roughness. 12
th
ISBS, Boston, 06/98.
M. Willard, D. Tonucci, L. Harnisch, J. Bowman, L. Jorgensen, W. Dressler, Modified Mini-
Regression Moisturization Protocol to Evaluate Different Moisturizer Technologies Using
Biophysical and Clinical Measurements. 12
th
ISBS, Boston, 06/98.
J.W.Wiechers, T. Barlow, Skin Moisturization and Elasticity Originate From at Least Two
Different Mechanisms. 12
th
ISBS, Boston, 06/98.
D. Black, M.T. Borrel, S. Delprat, Y. Gall, Hair Tensile Testing with Automated Parameter
Calculation. 12
th
ISBS, Boston, 06/98.
R.R. Warner, Y.L. Boissy, S.A. Lang, Microscopy of Lipid Structure in the Outer Stratum
Corneum: The Effects of Age, Skin Grade and Frequent Soap Use. 12
th
ISBS, Boston, 06/98.
E.H. Braue, J.S. Graham, J.L. Martin, J.E. Zallnick, C.R. Nalls, P. Matterson, L.W. Mitcheltree,
Comparison of Skin Thickness Measuremnt Techniques Using the DermaScan C Ultrasound
Imaging System. 12the ISBS, Boson, 06/98
J.W. Wiechers, V. Wortel, C. Oakley, T. Barlow, Looking at the Skin: Skin Color. Cosmetics &
Toiletries, Vol. 113, August 1998
P.Y. Rizvi, Seasonal Skin Changes as Measured by Biophysical Instruments. Poster 12
th
ISBS
Boston, 06/98.
H\litlist\studies 12/06


65
C.M. Schempp, C. Blmke, J. Schule-Mnting, E. Schpf, J.C.Simon, Der Einflu verschiedener
Salzlsungen auf die Ultravioloett-B-vermittelte Induktion von Erythem und Pigmentierung.
Hautarzt 6/98.
Die Kombination von Salzwasserbdern mit anschlieender UV-Bestrahlung wird seit langem bei der
Behandlung der Psoriasis und der atopischen Dermatitis eingesetzt. Ziel der vorliegenden Studie war
es, die photosensibilisierenden Eigenschaften von 2 handelsblichen Badesalzen, Salz aus dem Toten
Meer und Kochsalz zu untersuchen. Testareale der Unterarmbeugeseiten von 10 Probanden wurden fr
15 min mit Salzlsungen in onzenbtrationen von 1%,3%,5% und 15% inkubiert und anschlieend mit
einer erythematogenen UV-B-Dosis bestrahlt. Zum Vergleich diente leitungswasser+UVB und UVB
allein.
H. Tronnier, Neuere Wirkstoffe in der Kosmetik. Kosmetische Medizin Nr. 2-1998
Eine Reihe neu oder wieder entdeckter Wirkstoffe fr die Kosmetik wird vorgestellt und kritisch
beleuchtet. Manches ist an Wirkungen an der Haut nachgewiesen, anderes bisher nur in Modellen und
dann einfach auf die Haut bertragen worden. Fr den Wirkungsnachweis bedeutet das aber speziell in
der Kosmetik, da dieser zur Bewertung prophylaktischer Manahmen, die ja erst nach Jahrzehnten
zum Tragen kommen, natrlich kaum gefhrt werden kann, und hier ein Rckgriff auf eine
Beeinflussung von Mechanismen, die zu einer Alterung, vor allem einer vorzeitigen fhren, erfolgen
mu.
W. Gehring, F. Schwan, Th. Meyer, M. Gloor, Eignung von Emulsionen als Vehikel fr
verschiedene Ceramide. Kosmetische Medizin Nr. 2-1998
In einer O/W-Emulsion wurden ein Phytoceramidgemisch und 2 synthetische Ceramide bei intakter
Barrierefunktion und nach Lipidextraktion untersucht. Einmalige Applikation der Ceramide in beiden
Vehikeln hat keinen Effekt auf die Barrierefunktion der Epidermis erkennen lassen, der auf den
Ceramidgehalt zurckzufhren ist. Zwei Stunden nach Applikation der Formulierungen wurde ein
Barrierefunktionstest mit Nikotinsureester durchgefhrt. Nur durch die syntetischen Ceramide in der
O/W-Emulsion konnte nach Lipidextraktion eine Reduktion des Nikotinsure-Erythems festgestellt
werden.
T. Fischer, C. Greif, W. Wigger-Alberti, P. Elsner, Instrumentelle Methoden zur Bewertung der
Sicherheit und Wirksamkeit von Kosmetika. Aktuelle Dermatologie, 8/9-1998
Durch die Erfordernisse eines Wirksamkeits- und Sicherheitsnachweises fr Kosmetika gewinnen
nichtinvasive biophysikalische Memethoden zunehmend an Bedeutung. Neben der Bestimmung des
transepidermalen Wasserverlustes und der Messung der Hautfeuchtigkeit, des Oberflchenfettes, des
pH-Werts, und der Elastizitt kommen der Erfassung des Oberflchenreliefs, der Farbe und der
Hautdurchblutung groe Bedeutung zu. Mit diesen Methoden knnen u.a. die
hautfeuchtigkeitsfrdernden, glttenden und straffenden Wirkungen von Topika sowie der Grad der
Irritation durch Externa evaluiert werden. Zur Messung und Vergleichbarkeit dieser unterschiedlichen
Hautfunktionsparameter sind standardisierte Mebedingungen erforderlich.
Y. Nishimori, H. Tsuruoka, K. Matsumoto, M. Kawai, A. Pearse, C. Edwards, R. Marks, A new
Approcah for the Improvement of Photoagend Skin Through Collagen Fiber Bundle
Reconstruction Mechanism. 20
th
IFSCC Congress Cannes, 09/1998.
Many anti-wrinkle and anti-photoaging cosmetics contain retinoic acid (RA) or RA-derived chemicals
to induce the production of connective tissue components. However, this approach does not always
produce longlasting or satisfactory results. Investigations of injured skin reveal that the ultrastructural
condition of dermal connective tissue, especially dermal collagen fiber bundles, is an extremely
important factor affecting both the mechanical properties and surface profiles. Photoaging is skin
injury caused by solar radiation. Our research indicates that restoration of the ultrastructural changes
of ther dermal collagen fiber bundles is more important than simple promotion of the production of
cnnective tissue components.
H\litlist\studies 12/06


66
B. Varangot, S. Marull, R. Voultoury, V. Couturaud, Normal and Dry Skin Evaluation of
Corneocyte Size as a Function of Depth in the Epidermis by Tape Stripping and Image Analysis.
Poster - 20
th
IFSCC Congress Cannes, 09/1998.
I. Le Fur, S. Lopez, F. Morizot, M. Dubourgeat, Ch. Guinot, E. Tschachler, Comparison of Malar
and Frontal Zones by Bioengineering Methods for Different Cosmetic Skin Type Groups of
Women. Poster - 20
th
IFSCC Congress Cannes, 09/1998.
F. Merot, S. Rullier, Ph. Masson, Use of the Mexameter MX 16
TM
for the Assessment of the Sun
Protection Factors (UVB and UVA). Poster - 20
th
IFSCC Congress Cannes, 09/1998.
G. Leone, S. Siladji, G.F. Secchi, M. Carducci, M. Fazio, A New Challenge For High SPF
Sunscreens: The Outdoor Dynamic Test - Product Evaluation - 20
th
IFSCC Congress Cannes,
09/1998.
E. Camel, L. Arnaud-Boissel, C. Farrugio. J.P. Guillot, Modification of Biomechanical Properties
of the Skin by Cosmetics: Dream of Reality ? From Experimental Laboratory Data to Consumer
Perception. 20
th
IFSCC Congress Cannes, 09/1998
Y. Yazan, M. Seiller, S. Avcier, M. Demirel, Comparison of Glycolic, Lactic and Glycolic + Lactic
Acids in Multiple Emulsion Systems. 20
th
IFSCC Congress Cannes, 09/1998
D. Khazaka, Assessing Hydration of the Skin - A Practical Approach to the Measurement with
the Corneometer CM825

. Euro Cosmetics 10/98


The measurement of the moisture content of the skin surface is one of the most important parameters
in cosmetics. This study describes the advantages of the capacitance method of the Corneometer CM
825

concerning the influence of products on the skin, occlusion effects and the penetration depth of
the scatterfield.
J.W. Fluhr, S. Lazzedni, F. Distante, M. Gloor, E. Beradesca, Effects of Prolonged Occlusion on
Stratum Corneum Barrier Function and Water Holding Capacity. Stratum Corneum II
Symposium, Cardiff, 09/98.
Occlusion is used in clinical practice to enhance transcutaneous penetration and drug delivery to the
skin. Occlusion can also be generated by the professional use of protective garments, gloves and
cosmetics.
D. Black, A. Del Pozo, S. Diridollou, J.M. Lagarde, Y. Gall, Assessment of Emollient Effects on the
Stratum Corneum of Wingter Dry Skin Using A Multiple Measurement Approach. Stratum
Corneum II Symposium, Cardiff, 09/98.
A randomised single-blind study was carried out on 13 female volunteer subjects aged 21-43, (mean
35 yrs), with the aim of assessing the effects of a glycerine/vaseline based emollient cream on the
stratum corneum of winter dry skin.
J.W. Wiechers, A. Barlow, Skin Moisturisation and Elasticity Originate From at Least Two
Different Mechanisms. Stratum Corneum II Symposium, Cardiff, 09/98.
O. Barel, P. Clarys, B.Gabard, In Vivo Evaluation of the Hydration State of the Horny Layer: The
Use of Electrical Measurements for Claim Support. Stratum corneum II Symposium, Cardiff, 09/98
J.W. Fluhr, W. Gehring, M. Gloor, S. Lazzerini, P. Kleesz, E. Berardesca, Comparative Study of 5
Instruments Measuring Stratum corneum Hydration in Vitro. Stratum Corneum II Symposium,
Cardiff, 09/98.
A.V. Schreiner, Zeden, G. Gercken, U. Hoppe, P.Gerson, Comparison of Barrier Properties of
Different Layers of Stratum Corneum of Xerotic Skin of Elderly and Normal Skin. Stratum
Corneum II Symposium, Cardiff, 09/98
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P.M. Mller, R. Jermann, The Skin.IFSCC Magazine, Vol.1 No. 1, 1998
The authors inroduce a novel psycho-physical approach to determining subjective skinfeel involving
weights on panelists volar forearms. Through this method and by determining defferentiation
threshold values, the authors demonstrate that sin moisturized with a liposomal formulation performs
better than skin dehydrated with sodium dodecyl sulfate and aqueous ethanol.
H. Zhai, Preventing Irritant Dermatitis. Cosmetics&Toiletries, October 1998
The author reviews the role of moisturizers in preventing irritant dermatitis with testimonial and
controlled experimental data.

D.S. Orth, J. Widjaja, L. Ly, N. Cao, Stability and Skin Persistence of Topical Products.
Cosmetics&Toiletries, October 1998.
Using sevel commercially available cosmetic and OTC-drug products, the authors determined the
chemical stability of selected topical ingredients in a hydroalcoholic vehicle with 2% hydroquinone.
H. Tronnier, Empfindliche Haut. Kosmetische Medizin 4, 10/98
Eine einheitliche Ursache fr eine empfindliche Haut gibt es nicht. Zahlreiche
Funktionsabweichungen, die anamnestisch zu erfassen und mit geeigneten Methoden zu bestimmen
sind, knnen individuell das Muster einer empfindlichen haut abgeben oder die Grundlage einer
empfindlichen haut darstellen. Wesentlichen Einflu knnen psychogene Faktoren haben.
EnviroDerms Skin Breakthrough. Engine Repair and Remanufacture, 01/98
Until now, prevention of occupational skin disease was very much a hit and miss affair. There was no
practical way of detecting unseen damage to the skin from working practice or contact with chemicals.
F.Morizot, I. Le Fur, E. Tschachler, Sensitive Skin. Cosmetics & Toiletries Vol.113, November 1998
Studies on skin reactions to irritant substances and topical preparations have a long history. Clinical
signes and symptoms of irritant reactions in the dermatological sense are well defined and are
synonymous with skin inflammatory reactions.
Uta Bornschein, Der Schu ins Waschwasser.... Die Schwester/Der Pfleger 12/98
Die Ganzkrperwaschung der Patienten durch Pflegende ist im Krankenhaus eine tglich
wiederkehrende Verrichtung. In vielen Einrichtungen ist dafr ein Pflegestandard geschaffen worden.
Dabei kommt es oft zu einer Diskussion um en Waschwasserwechsel, und dies nicht nur aus
hygienischen Gesichtspunkten.
H. Knaggs, J. Bajor, W. Becker, The Sebumeter and Its Use. Mediscript 12/98
The Sebumeter is a quick and easy tool to use in measuring skin surface lipids. The type of lipids
sampled largely depends on the body site at which the measurement is taken. The Sebumeter has most
commonly been used to measure skin lipids on the forehead which consist predominantly of sebaceous
gland-derived lipids or sebum.

H. Tronnier, Ergebnisse der Hautoberflchenanalyse mit SELS.Kosmetische Medizin Nr. 5, 1998
Nach einer Beschreibung des Meprinzips und der Durchfhrung der SELS-Methode sowie einem
Eingehen auf bereits publizierte Studienergebnisse wird ber 3 weitere Untersuchungsreihen berichtet.
Dabei konnte gezeigt werden, da die gltte der Haut SE
sm
mit einer Verbesserung der zellulren
Kohsion korreliert ist.

C. Greif, W. Wigger-Alberti, M. Arens-Corell, P. Elsner, Beurteilung einer Krperlotion fr
trockene und empflindliche Haut. Kosmetische Medizin Nr. 5, 1998.
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68
In einer offenen kontrollierten Anwendungstudie ber 3 Wochen wurde an 30 Probanden eine Body
Milk auf Hautvertrglichkeit und Wirksamkeit getestet. Dazu wurden folgende hautphysiologische
Parameter erfat: Hautfeuchtigkeit, transepidermaler Wasserverlust, Hautelastizitt, pH-Wert sowie
Hauttemperatur.
N.Y. Schrer, Beeinflussung der epidermalen Barriere durch Externa. Kosmetische Medizin Nr.
5,1998.
Beim Studium der Beeinflussung der epidermalen Barriere durch Externa ist ein Studium der
Hautphysiologie genau so wichtig, wie das der Externa, ihrer kosmetischen Wirkstoffe und ihrer
Galenik. Gerade in vivo unterliegen die meergebnisse vielen, meist nur teilweise greifbaren, intra-
und interindividuellen Einflssen.

H. Tronnier, Beitrag zur Hautvertrglichkeit von Krperpflegemitteln. Kosmetische Medizin
6/1999
Wenn auch die Zahl der Nebenwirkungen durch kosmetische Prparate und Krperpflegemittel, vor
allem der allergischen, sehr gering ist, gibt es doch gerade bei empfindlichen Patienten Hautzustnde,
fr die eine weitere Maximierung der Vertrglichkeit fr den Dermatologen wnschenswert ist.

Ch. Packham, The first in a series of articles aimed at helping to prevent damage to health in the
workplace. Engine Repair and Remanufacture, January 1999.
Most people working in the engineering industry will at some time be exposed to chemicals, the range
of which, is enormous and includes substances, such as the solvents used in paint spraying or to
degrease engine components; this includes metal working fluids, epoxy resin compounds, and even the
skin cleanser used by the mechanic or fitter to clean hands after work.

H. Tronnier, M. Wiebuch, U. Heinrich, R. Stute, Surface Evaluation of Living Skin-
SELS.Experimental Dermatology-Vo. 6, No.5, 10/1997

B.Chadoutaud, L.Curtil, C.Veret, F.Alais-Gallou, Evaluation objective en double avuegle de la
performance hydratante et de la rmanence de duex mollients corporels E/H et H/E dans le
traitement des peaux sches et trs sches. Les Nouvelles Dermatologiques, Vol. 18 No. 2 Feb.99
Cette tude en double aveugle randomise chez 20 volontaires peau sche et trs sche, concerne
lanalyse controlatrale de lactivit hydratante de deux mulsions

H.Tronnier, C.M. Heeks, M. Wiebuch, U. Heinrich, Comparative Measurement of Skin-Hydration,
Poster at Clinical Dermatology Update, 03/99.

K. De Paepe, P. van Damme, M. Paule Derde, D. Roseeuw, V. Rogiers, Body Lotions Enriched with
Skin Identical Lipids: A TEWL Study of Aged Skin and SLS-Induced Scaly Skin. Euro
Cosmetics 2 Vol. No. 7, 02/99.
Recently, it has been shown that both the qualitative lipid composition of the intercellular lamellar
sheets of the straum corneum (SC) are important for the maintenance of the barrier function of the
skin. In order to investigate whether supplementation of major barrier lipids to skin care products
could exert a beneficial effect on a damaged barrier function as measured by transepidermal water loss
(TEWL), a body lotion, with known composition, was enriched with ceramides, cholesterol and fatty
acids using a weight ration of 50 / 25 / 25, the appropriate ration found in the SC.

U. Berndt, U. Hinnen, D. Iliev, P. Elsner, Eignung hautphysiologischer Memethoden als
Screening-Verfahren zur Identifizierung ekzemgefhrdeter Personen. Allergologie 3, 03/1999

Bauer, R. Bartsch, M. Stadeler, U. Vollina, P. Elsner, Evaluierung von prdiktiven Parametern fr
die Entwicklung von Handekzemen im Ausbildungsverlauf bei Auszubildenden des Bcker- und
Konditorhandwerks. Allergologie 3, 03/1999

H\litlist\studies 12/06


69
M. Bock, H.J. Schwanitz, Modulation der epidermalen Permeabilittsbarriere durch die topische
Anwendung von CO
2
imprgniertem Wasserklinische und hautphysiologische
Untersuchungen. Allergologie 3, 03/1999

T.Fischer, W. Wigger-Alberti, C. Greif, P. Elsner, Irritative Wirkung von abrasiven
Reinigungsmitteln auf die Barrierefunkton der Haut. Allergologie 3, 03/1999

C.Greif, W. Wigger-Alberti, M. Arens-Corell, P. Elsner, Beurteilung einer Krperlotion fr
trockene und empfindliche Haut. Allergologie 3, 03/1999

V. Rosenberger, A. Klotz, K.P. Wilhelm, Nachweis der Wirksamkeit einer traubenkernl- und
harnstoffhaltigen Creme anhand biophysikalischer Untersuchungen. Allergologie 3, 03/1999

L. Halkier-Sorensen, Hautschutz bei Reinigungspersonal, TWDermatologie Heft 6,
November/Dezember 1994
Berufsttige, die an ihrem Arbeitsplatz hautreizenden Substanzen ausgesetzt sind, sollten zum
Hautschutz Feuchtigkeitsprparate verwenden. Zur berprfung der Wirksamkeit eines solchen
Prparates wurde eine Feldstudie mit 111 Arbeitskrften aus dem Reinigungs- und Kchenbereich
durchgefhrt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, da die Probanden generell von der Verwendung des
Feuchtigkeitsprparates profitieren. Vor allem aber fr jene Personen, die bereits mit Hautirritationen
vorbelastet sind, erscheint die Anwendung eines Feuchtigkeitsprparates unverzichtbar.

Hong-Geun Ji, Bong-seok Seo, Retinyl Palmitate at 5% in a Cream: Its Stability, Efficacy and
Effect. C&T, 03/99.
This paper evaluates the stability, efficacy and effect of retinyl palmitate at 5% in four different cream
formulations: w/o water-in-silicone, o/w and multilamellar vesicles.

J.S.C. English, J. Ratcliffe, H.C. Williams, Irritancy of industrial hand cleansers tested by repeated
open application on human skin. Contact Dermatitis, Vol. 40, No. 2
The aim of this study was to compare the irritancy potential of 2 industrial hand cleansers with a brand
leader of mild childrens hand cleanser and with an emollient.The products were tested using
repeated open application tests (ROATs) on the forearms of 40 subejcts. Scoring of signs and
symptoms (itching or burning), transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and stratum corneum hydration
(Corneometer) evaluated responses.

E. Barany, M. Lindberg, M. Loden, Biophysical characterization of skin damage and recovery
after exposure to different surfactants. Contact Dermatitis, Vol. 40, No. 2
The majority of adverse skin reaction to personal-care products are presumed to be caused by irritant
substances, like surfactants. In this study, different aspects of the irritant reaction after a single
exposure to 8 surfactants were characterized during 2 weeks.

M. Paye, G. Gomes, C.R. Zerweck. G.E. Pierard, G.L. Grove, A hand immersion test under
laboratory-controlled usage conditions: the need for sensitive and controlled assessment
methods. Contact Dermatitis, Vol. 40, No. 3
Exaggerated test conditions were frequently used to investigate the cutaneous tolerance of detergent
products in the past. As the sensitivity of newly designed biometric methods is steadily improving, the
trend towards more realistic test conditions should be encouraged.

E. Schnetz, O. Kuss, J. Schmitt, T.L.Diepgen, M. Kuhn, M. Fartasch, Intra- and inter-individual
variations in transepidermal water loss on the face: facial locations for bioengineering studies.
Contact Dermatitis Vol. 40, No. 3
The volar forearm is the favored location for bioengineering studies. However, transepidermal water
loss (TEWL), which is an important indicator of the function of the epidermal barrier, shows regional
variations, and for the evaluation of cosmetic formulations, facial skin would be more suitable. In this
H\litlist\studies 12/06


70
study, we have compared 10 facial locations with 1 test site on the volar forearm for absolute TEWL
values, reproducibility, and correlation. Measurements were performed over 3 consecutive days.

H+G Band 74, Heft 6, 1999. Hautmegerte unentbehrlich fr Klinik + Praxis
Eine Notwendigkeit fr die dermatologische Praxis ?
Die apparative Bestimmung von Hautparametern

C.Packham, Bio-engineering and the skin. AOHNP(UK) 1999
In this article a modern approach to the age-old problem of irritant contact dermatitis is examined.

L.Rodrigues, P.Pinto, N.Galego, P.A. Da Silva, L.M. Pereira, Transepidermal water loss kinetic
modeling approach for the parameterization of skin water dynamics. Skin Research and
Technology, Vol.5 No. 2, May 1999
The evaluation of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) is one of the methods most frequently used in
studies involving skin water dynamics. However, TEWL does not provide a direct measurement of
epidermal barrier function, being rather a surrogate effect of it. In particular, when external stimuli
change cutaneous water balance, these stimuli must be taken into account in order to achieve a
rigorous interpretation of the results.

L. Rodrigues, Y.R.Salgueiros, N.Galego, P.Pinto, N.Silva, I.Z.Ferro, Study on the In Vivo
Performance of Two Capacitance Systems: Assessment of the Experimental Reproducibility and
sensitvity. Skin Research and Technology, Vol.5 No. 2, May 1999
The epidermal water content is one of the most fundamental indicators for cutaneous functional
evaluation. The major role of water in the skin physiological and pathophysiological processes is
actually well known and recognised and for it, the reinforcement or re-establishment of these
properties, through a wide variety of topical formulations, including cosmetics, is a frequent objective
of therapeutical intervention.

P.Clarys, K.Alewaeters, A.O.Barel, Comparative Study of Skin Color Using Different
Bioengineering Methods. Skin Research and Technology, Vol.5 No. 2, May 1999

A.O.Barel, K.Alewaeters, P.Clarys, Optical Imaging Using UV Light for the Determination of
Photoageing. Skin Research and Technology, Vol.5 No. 2, May 1999

U. Maerker, P.Behm,Dr.Schreiner, NIR-Spektroskopie und Haut Poster Bad Neuenahr 1999

W.D.Becker, S.Hillmer,M.A.Presser, A Clinical Model for Surface Sebum Measurement Poster
Arbois 1999

E.Schnetz, O.Kuss, J.Schmitt, T.L.Diepgen, M.Kuhn, M.Fartasch, Intra- and inter-individual
variations in transepidermal water loss on the face: facial locations for bioengineering studies.
Contact Dermatitis 40, 1999.
The volar forearm is the favored location for bioengineering studies. However, transepidermal water
loss (TEWL), which is an important indicator of the function of the epidermal barrier, shows regional
variations, and for the evaluation of cosmetic formulations, facial skin would be more suitable. In this
study, we have compared 10 facial locations with 1 test site on the volar forearm for absolute TEWL
values, reproducibility, and correlation.
M.Frschle, I. Frei, Elastisch und geschmeidig. Kosmetik International 6/99

E. Thumm, E..G. Jung, Ch. Bayerl, berprfung der Auswirkung von Kosmetika auf
Hautrauhigkeit, Feuchtigkeitsgehalt und Barrierefunktion der Haut. Kosmetische Medizin 3 Juni
1999
H\litlist\studies 12/06


71
In einer seitenkontrollierten Studie wurde drei Kosmetikprparate auf liposomaler Basis hinsichtlich
ihrer Auswirkung auf a)Hautrauhigkeit (Skin Visiometer SV 500), b) den Feuchtigkeitsgehalt des
Stratum corneum (Corneometer CM825) und c) die Hautbarrierefunktion bzw. den transepidermalen
Wasserverlust/TEWL (Tewameter TM 210) untersucht.

H.Tronnier, U.Heinrich, Diagnostik und Behandlungskontrolle seborrhoischer Kopfschuppung
mit bildanalytischem Verfahren. Kosmetische Medizin,2 Mai 1999-07-15
Nach kurzem Eingehen auf die Klinik der (seborrhoischen) Kopfschuppung und ihre Pathogenese
sowie die Therapie wird auf die konischen Nachweisverfahren auf der Kopfhaut hingewiesen. Eine
neue bildanalytische Methode, basierend auf lteren Untersuchungen, wird beschrieben. Gemessen
wird dabei die Schuppenzahl (SZ), die durch Schuppen bedeckte Meflche (SF), aus denen sich eine
relative Schuppengre errechnen lt (SG). Auerdem werden prozentual die Schuppengren in 9
Klassen ausgewiesen.

S.Tamburic, G.Abama, Moisturizing Potential of d-a-Tocopherol. Cosmetics&Toiletries, 05/1999
Moisturizing products are designed with the intention of improving skin condition and appearance by
increasing skin hydration. The classic approach to this problem involves the use of occlusive
ingredients (to decrease the level of transepidermal water loss) and humectants (to imporve the water-
binding ability of the stratum corneum.

W.Pittermann, Tierversuchsfrei forschen mit dem Rindereuter-Modell. Parfmerie und
Kosmetik, Nr. 3/99.
Haut und Schleimhaut sind nicht nur wegen der anatomischen und funktionellen Unterschiede
Zielorgane besonderer Art. In der regulren Sicherheitsprfung fr den Arbeits- und
Verbraucherschutz werden sie als mgliche Angriffspunkte fr lokal oder systemisch schdigende
Rohstoffe oder Chemikalien behandelt. Im Mittelpunkt der kosmetischen Forschung steht jedoch die
Pflege von Haut und Schleimhaut sowie die Wirksamkeit von Inhaltsstoffen und Formulierungen.

H.Tronnier, Empfindliche Haut. Seminar Hausarzt Praxis Mrz/April 1999
Die Empfindlichkeit der Haut hat keineswegs nur somatische Aspekte und Ursachen, sondern auch
psychogene. Sie wird damit partiell vergleichbar mit anderen menschlichen Empfindungen, deren
Existenz niemand bestreitet, deren Definition aber alles andere als einfach ist. Kann man einer Haut
ihre Empfindlichkeit ansehen?
W.Voss,G.Schlippe,M.Breuer, Tests on Cosmetics Scientific Standards. SFW-Journal 4/99
In general, body care articles and cosmetics have only a low allergy potential. The probability that
toxic-irritative reactions will arise after proper use is even lower.But especially with patients with
sensitive skin, unclear skin reactions, which can frequently be confused with allergies, can arise. The
cosmetics manufacturers, however, would like to produce safer products and naturally want to avoid
that type of problem from the start.
E.Schnetz, O.Kuss, J.Schmitt, T.L.Diepgen, M.Kuhn, M.Fartasch, Intra- and inter-individual
variations in transepidermal water loss on the face: facial locations for bioengineering studies.
Contact Dermatitis 40, 1999.
The volar forearm is the favored location for bioengineering studies. However, transepidermal water
loss (TEWL), which is an important indicator of the function of the epidermal barrier, shows regional
variations, and for the evaluation of cosmetic formulations, facial skin would be more suitable. In this
study, we have compared 10 facial locations with 1 test site on the volar forearm for absolute TEWL
values, reproducibility, and correlation.

N. Yokoi, F. Mossa, J. M. Tiffany, A. J. Bron, Assessment of Meibomian Gland Function in Dry
Eye Using Meibometry, Arch Ophtalmol, Vol. 117, June 1999, www.archophtalmol.com.
Meibomian gland disease is a common condition that is often symptomatic. Meibomian gland
dysfunction (MGD) is a term adopted by Jester et al. chiefly to describe obstructive meibomian gland
H\litlist\studies 12/06


72
disease. The primary disease is common, but there is a strong association between MGD and certain
forms of skin disease such as atopic and seborrheic dermatitis.

J.W.Wiechers, V.A. Wortel, Creating Effective Claim Support Packages. C&T July 1999
It is interesting to study the history of ceramides as an example of what can happen to ingredient
claims. Unilever scientists identified ceramide 1 as a functional skin lipid in 1982 and many scientific
papers have since been written to describe the beneficial skin effects of ceramides. The name of this
ingredient was popularized by Elizabeth Arden, a company belonging to the Uniliver group, when
they launched Ceramide Time capsules in 1990.

M. Maruno, FC Facco, PA Rocha Filho, Hydration, Oily and PH of Skin In Vivo Evaluation After
Application of Both Simple and Complex Emulsions Containing Hydrolyzed Proteins. IFSCC
May 1999

RG Azzini, L Licursi, PA Rocha-Filho, Colour Evaluation In Vitro Method of Facial Powders.
IFSCC May 1999

SH Perez Damonte, GM Cuomo, RL Galimberti, Evaluacion Instrumental de la Piel Sensible.
IFSCC May 1999

N Arnejo, SRL Fabriquimica, Evaluacion del Poder de Retencion de Agua de Los Agentes
Humectantes. IFSCC May 1999
A. Castro, A. Vargas, Alternativas Naturales en el Tratamiento del Fotoenvejecimiento. IFSCC
May 1999

A.M. Vargas, A. Castro, Proteina de Soja: Evaluacion de su Efecto Hidratante. IFSCC May 1999

A.De Castro, A.M.Vargas, Evaluacion del efecto hidratante de la proteina de soja. Actualizaciones
Terapeuticas Dermatologicas y Esteticas, Vol. 22 No. 5, Sept/Oct 1999

A.De Castro, A.M.Vargas, Evaluacion del tratamientodel prurito con el residuo lipidico de la
cebada. Actualizaciones Terapeuticas Dermatologicas y Esteticas, Vol. 22 No. 5, Sept/Oct 1999

C. Rojas, A. Castro, L. Castro, R. Brito, Utilizacion del Residuo Lipidico de la Cebada en el
Tratamiento del Prurito. IFSCC May 1999

W.Schlter-Wigger, P.Elsner, Klinische Prfung der Wirksamkeit von vier kommerziellen
Hautschutzprparaten im repetitiven Irritationstest (RIT). 2. Poster Preis ICPCD Zrich, 10/1995

A. Vexler, I. Polyansky, R. Gorodetsky, Multi-Parametric Examination of Irradiated Skin in
Breast Cancer Patients. Skin Research and Technology, Vol.5 No. 2, May 1999

B. Gabard, Dry Skin and the Cosmetic Benefit of moisturization. Skin Research and Technology,
Vol.5 No. 2, May 1999

Y. Kawasaki, D. Quan, K. Sakamotor,R. Cooke, H.I. Maibach, Influence of Surfactant Mixutres on
Intercellurlar Lipid Fluidity and Skin Barrier Function. Skin Research and Technology, Vol.5 No.
2, May 1999
Surfactant mixtures are used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical formulas in order to establish product
efficacy while maintaining mildness and skin lipids. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)
technique of the spin labeling method with a nitroxide spin probe is a valuable method in the study of
biological membranes. The objective of this study was to define the influence of surfactant mixtures
on intercellular lipid.

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M. Puschmann, A. Melzer, H.P. Nissen., Hautglttende, hautelastische und hautschtzende
Wirkung einer Urea-Ceramid-Kombination. Kosmetische Medizin Nr. 4, 1999-11-22
Sebostase ist ein hufiges dermatologisches Krankheitsbild. Sie wird durchexogene Faktoren, (Klima,
Waschgewohnheiten) und/oder konstitutionelle Faktoren wie Alter und atopische Hautdiathese
hervorgerufen. Eine auffllige Hufung derartiger Sympotome findet sich in der kalten Jahreszeit. Hier
ist das Klima (Temperatur, Luftfeuchtigkeit) sowohl im Freien als auch in den gebuden als wichtiger
Kofaktor anzusehen. Zur Therapie trockener Haut werden traditionell Salben/Fettsalben, lbder
sowie harnsoffhaltige Zubereitungen eingesetzt.

A.Fendl, Einzelheiten der Hautdiagnose. Natrlich schn / Grundlagten der Ganzheitskosmetik
Handwerk und Technik 1999

Gut gepflegt, Test Stiftung Warentest Nr. 11, 1999
Eingecremt von Kopf bis Fuss dat tut gut. Muss es aber die teure Bodylotion aus der Parfmerie
sein? Muss es nicht, zeigte der Test.

H. Tronnier, Wirksamkeit von Kosmetika Anspruch,Wirklichkeit und Perspektiven, 13.
Symposium der DGK Bad Neuenahr, 1999

St. Bielfeldt, H.Khler, J.Gamller, Minimalinvasive Verfahren in der Werksamkeits- und
Vertrglichkeitsprfung von Kosmetika. 13. Symposium der DGK Bad Neuenahr, 1999

Corinne Stoltz, How Can the Special Needs of Mature Skin be Catered For ? Cosmetics &
Toiletries 03/2000

H.E.Packham, c.L. Packham, Skin Bioengineering as a Contribution to Product Performance and
Safety. Cosmetics & Toiletries 03/2000
W. Pittermann, Th. Gassenmeier, S. Nieveler, Th. Frster, M. Kietzmann, Experimentally Induced
Epidermal Barrier Perturbation: Measurement of Transepidermal Water Loss (TEWL) Using
the Perfused Bovine Udder Skin (BUS) Model. IFSCC Vol. 3, No. 1, January/March 2000-04-12
This paper describes the measurement of the TEWL under in vitro conditions using the isolated
perfused Bovine Udder Skin (BUS) model.

S. Lopez, I. Le Fur, F.Morizot, G. Heuvin, Ch. Guinot, E. Tschachler, Transepidermal Water Loss,
Temperature and Sebum Levels on Womens Facial Skin Follow Characteristic Patters. Skin
Research and Technology, Vol. 6 No. 1, February 2000.
The aim of this study was to compare the biophysical properties of different facial zones.

A.E.Sagiv, A.Ingber, S. Dikstein, A Novel In Vivo Model in Guinea Pigs for Dry Skin Syndrome.
Skin Research and Technology, Vol. 6 No. 1, February 2000.

J.W.Wiechers, Relative Performance Testing: Introducing a tool to Facilitate Cosmetic
Ingredient Selection. Cosmetics & Toiletries, 112 (9) 79-84, 1997.

J.W.Wiechers, Multifunktionelle Mischungen: Eine neue Workstoffgeneration ? Parfmerie &
Kosmetik, 79 (11) 36-38, 1998.

J.W. Wiechers, Verbraucher messen etwas anders. Vergleich objektiver und subjektiver
Hautfeuchtigkeitsbestimmung. Parfmerie und Kosmetik, 80 (4) 50-56, 1999.

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J.W. Wiechers, M. Lder, F.J. Groenhof, A. Barlow, Building Skin Functionality Into
Formulations. IFSCC 2, 34-40, October-December 1999.

J.W.Wiechers, A. Barlow, Just below the Skin Surface: Skin Hydration. Cosmetics & Toiletries 114
(12) 47-53, 1999

J.W. Wiechers, Efficacy Testing of Cosmetic Ingredients. In: Hincal, A.A., and de Jong (Eds.)
Recent Advances in Pharmaceutical, Cosmetic and Food Excipients. Minutes 9
th
Int. Pharmaceutical
Technology Symposium, Editions de Sant, Paris, 126-138 Book Chapter, 1999

J.W. Wiechers, Combining Clinical and Sensory Assessment of Skin Moisturisation. XXth
Conference of the Int.Federation of the Societies of Cosmetic Chemists, Cannes (Poster) 09/1999.

J.W. Fluhr, M.Gloor, S.Lazzerini, P.Kleesz, R.Grieshaber, E.Berardesca, Comparative study of five
instruments measruing stratum corneum hydration (Corneometer CM 820 and CM 825, Skicon
200, Nova DPM 9003,DermaLab). Part II. In vivo. Skin Research and Technology, Vo. 5, No. 3,
August 1999

G.Gacic-Vukavljak, Sebum Control Performance with Powdered Silicone Elastomers. Personal
Care Ingredient Asia Conference, Bangkok, March 2000.

J.W.Wiechers, C.Oakley, V.Wortel, T.Barlow, Comparison of Skin Colour Measuring
Methodologies on Asian Skin. Personal Care Ingredient Asia Conference, Bangkok, March 2000.

K.P.Wittern, F. Stb, R. Wolber, T. Blatt, R. Keyhani, V. Schreiner, U. Schnrock, Wirkstoffe und
ihre Wirkprinizpien. 13. Symposium der DGK, Bad Neuenahr, 1999

A.M. Koehler, H.I. Maibach, Skin Hyporeactivity in Relation to Patch Testing. Contact Dermatitis,
Vol.42, No. 1, January 2000
False-negative patch tests are clinically relevant. Skin hyporeactivity has been suggested as one
possible cause. Evidence supports that failure to respond to a specific antigen might be due either to a
faulty immune response, a defective inflammatory response or both. Thus, skin hyporeactivity may
have clinical relevance in routine patch testing.

J.Brasch, M.Httemann, E. Proksch, Iontophoresis of Nickel Elicits a Delayed Cutaneous Response
in Sensitized Individuals that is Similar to an Allergic Patch Test Reaction. Contact Dermatitis,
Vol.42, No.1, January 2000.

M.Fischer, I.-M.Schneider, R.Neubert, W. Wohlrab, ber den Eionfluss methylverzweigter
Fettsuren auf die Barrierefunktion des Stratum Corneum. Dermatosen / Occup.Environ. 47, 225-
229, 1999

F.Rippke, V.Schreiner, H.J. Schwanitz, Das saure Hornschichtmilieu. Dermatosen / Occup.Environ.
47, 225-229, 1999

M.O.Visscher, S.Maganti, K.A. Munson, D.E. Bare, S.B.Hoath, Early Adaptation of Human Skin
Following Birth: a Biophysical Assessment. Skin Research and Technology, Vol.5, No. 4,
November 1999

I.Le Fur, S. Lopez, F. Morizot, Ch. Guinot, E. Tschachler, Comparison of Cheek and Forehead
Regions by Bioengineering Methods in Women with Different Self-Reported Cosmetic Skin
Types. Skin Research and Technology, Vol.5, No. 3, August 1999

T.Barlow, J.W.Wiechers, MeasuringSkin Hydration.C&T, December 1999

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G.Kutz, D.Peltner, Aktuelle Formulierungskonzepte moderner Hautkosmetika am Beispiel der
trockenen Haut. Kosmetische Medizin Nr. 5, 1999

L.Rodrigues and the EEMCO Group, EEMCO Guidance to the In Vivo Assessment of Tensile
Functional Properties of the Skin. Part 2: Instrumentation and Test Modes, 1999.

J.E. Arrese, P. Pierard- Franchimont, G. E. Pirard, V. Goffin, Biometrology applied to
cyanoacrylate skin surface strippings. A review of the Lige experience, Dermatologia Clinica n.
3/ 1999, pp. 93-97.
The cyanoacrylate skin surface stripping (CSSS) is a time-honoured method to harvest in a single
procedure a sheet of the superficial stratum corneum and follicular casts as well. Such sampling is
currently used to assess non-invasively various physiological and pathological aspects of the skin .

L.M.Harnisch, M.K.Raheja, L.K.Lockhart, A.Pagnoni, Substantiating Antiaging Product Claims.
C&T Vol.114,No.10, October 1999.

Ch. Houghton, New Natural Oils. Cosmetic Science&Business 2000

A.A. Fendl, Einzelheiten der Hautdiagnose. Natrlich Schn, 1999

S.Tamburic, Changing the Skin Surface. Parfmerie + Kosmetik 11/12, 1999

M.Puschmann, A.Melzer,H.P.Nissen, Hautgttende, hautelastische und hautschtzende Wirkung
einer Urea-Ceramid-Kombination. Kosmetische Medizin Nr.4, 1999

V.Rogiers, EEMCO Guidance for the Assessment of the Transepidermal Water Loss (TEWL).
EEMCO Group 1999.

L.Rodrigues, P.Pinto, L.M.Pereira, The Quantitative Assessment of the In Vivo Barrier
Function. 13
th
ISBS Jerusalem, March 2000 and Skin Research and Technology, Vol. 6, No. 3,
August 2000.

L.F.Gouveia, J.Tavares, L.Rodrigues, Mathematical Modelation of Cutometer Acquired Signals.
13
th
ISBS Jerusalem, March 2000.

J.W.Fluhr, O.Kuss, T.Diepgen, S.Lazzerini, A.Pelosi, E.Beradesca, Testing for Irritation with a
Multiparametric Approach: Comparison of Eight Parameters and Five Different Irritation
Models. 13
th
ISBS Jerusalem, March 2000 and Skin Research and Technology, Vol. 6, No. 3, August
2000.

J.Lbbe, D.Perrenoud, Skin Irritancy of Alcoholic Skin Disinfectants. 13
th
ISBS Jerusalem, March
2000 and Skin Research and Technology, Vol. 6, No. 3, August 2000

H.Fadhli, C.Edwards, S.Gaskell, R.Marks, Differences between normal skin and Unaffected
Psoriatic Skin are Demonstrated by Cutometer and Uniaxial Extensometry, and Confirmed by
Measurement of Elastic Fibre Content. 13
th
ISBS Jerusalem, March 2000.

D.Black, A.Del Pozo, S.Diridollou, JM, Lagarde, Y.Gall, Stratum Corneum Barrier Function
Assessment Using the Sorption-Desorption Test and Laser Doppler Flowmetry. 13
th
ISBS
Jerusalem, March 2000 and Skin Research and Technology, Vol. 6, No. 3, August 2000

F.Henry, O.Martalo, G.E.Pierard, Liminar Perception Threshold of Cutaneous Distension. 13
th

ISBS Jerusalem, March 2000.

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EA Sagiv, S.Dikstein, The Efficiency of Humectants as Skin Moisturizers in Presence of Oil. 13
th

ISBS Jerusalem, March 2000 and Skin Research and Technology, Vol. 6, No. 3, August 2000

JW Fluhr, A.Pelosi, L.Lazzerini, F.Distante, S.Dikstein, E.Berardesca, Corneocyte Surface Area is
Influenced by Hormonal Status in Humans: Assessment with the Noninvasive VIC-Method
(Videomicroscopic Imaging of Corneocytes). 13
th
ISBS Jerusalem, March 2000.

F.Li, E.Conroy, M.Visscher, R.Wickett, Influence of Formulations Containing Salt and Glycerin on
the Electrical Properties of Skin: Correlation Between Single Treatments and Long-Term
Results. 13
th
ISBS Jerusalem, March 2000.

A.M.Matta, P.Muret, Ph.Humbert, In Vivo Calibration of the Corneometer CM820 and the
Evaporimeter EP1 Servomed for the Assessment of the Water Content of the Upper Part of the
Epidermis Using a Water Sorption Desorption Test. 13
th
ISBS Jerusalem, March 2000.

I.Le Fur, C.Guinot, S.Lopez, F.Morizot, V.Lambert, E.Tschachler, Age-Related Reference Ranges
for Skin Biophysical Parameters in Healthy Caucasian Women. 13
th
ISBS Jerusalem, March 2000
and Skin Research and Technology, Vol. 6, No. 3, August 2000

A.O. Barel, K.Alewaeters, P.Clarys, Non-Invasive Bioengineering Study of the Effects on the
Human Skin of a Direct Electric Current. 13
th
ISBS Jerusalem, March 2000.

G.Pellacani, S.Seidenari, Functional Non-Invasive Tests for the Assessment of the Stratum
Corneum Hydration Kinetics in Children Affected by Atopic Dermatitis. 13
th
ISBS Jerusalem,
March 2000.

K.De Paepe, JM Lagarde, Y.Gall, D.Roseeuw, V.Rogiers, Study of the Human Skin Microrelief by
a Standardised Light Transmission Method. 13
th
ISBS Jerusalem, March 2000 and Skin Research
and Technology, Vol. 6, No. 3, August 2000

A.Leal, J.Alves, L.Rodrigues, Usefulness of Transcutaneous Indictors as Predictors of Peripheral
Dysfunction. 13
th
ISBS Jerusalem, March 2000 and Skin Research and Technology, Vol. 6, No. 3,
August 2000.

JP Hachem, K.De Paepe, E.Vanpe, L.Kaufman, V.Rogiers, D.Roseeuw, Combination Therapy
Improves the Recovery of the Human Skin Barrier Function: An Experimental Model Using
Contact Allergy Patch Test Combined with TEWL Measurements. 13
th
ISBS Jerusalem, March
2000 and Skin Research and Technology, Vol. 6, No. 3, August 2000

K.Janssens, K.De Paepe, D.Roseeuw, V.Rogiers, Lack of Correlation between Stratum Corneum
Hydration and Scaling Pattern: Evaluated by Corneometry and Squamometry. 13
th
ISBS
Jerusalem, March 2000 and Skin Research and Technology, Vol. 6, No. 3, August 2000.

A. Markowetz, Die Pflege reifer Haut. Dermatologie & sthetik 3/2000-10-13
Reife Haut bentigt eine andere Pflege als junge Haut. Es bestehen einige Unterschiede, denen bei der
Pflege Rechnung getragen werden muss. Reife Haut ist in der Regel besonders trocken und bentigt
daher eine gute Feuchtigkeitszufuhr und eine Verbesserung des Hautgefhls.

H.E.Packham, Skin Bioengineering as a Contribution to Product Performance and Safety, C&T,
2000

V.Lambert, I. Le Fur, Ch. Guinot, F. Morizot, S. Lopez, E.Tschachler, Comparaison des Parametres
Biophysiques Cutanes en Hiver et en ete chez des Femmes Caucasiennes. IIime Congrs de la
Socit DIngnierie Cutane, Juin 2000
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D.Black, A.Del Pozo, J.M. Lagarde, Y. Gall, Seasonal variability in the biophysical properties of
stratum corneum from different anatomical sites. Skin Research and Technology, Vol. 6, No. 2,
May 2000

H.Zhai, F.Brachman, A.Pelosi, A.Anigbogu, M.B.Ramos, M.C. Torralba, H.I. Maibach, A
bioengineering study on the efficacy of a skin protectant lotion in preventing SLS-induced
dermatitis, Skin Research and Technology, Vol. 6, No. 2, May 2000

Rode, U. Ivens, J. Serup, Degreasing method for the seborrheic areas with respect to regaining
sebum excretion rate to casual level, Skin Research and Technology, Vol. 6, No. 2, May 2000

J.Min Choi, J. Young Lee, B. Kee Cho, Chronic Irritant Contact Dermatitis: Recovery Time in
Man. Contact Dermatitis 42, 2000
Chronic irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is a common skin disease, especially in the workplace, but
determining the recovery time of chronic ICD is not easy. To measure the recovery time of chronic
ICD, we examined the skin reactivity to a model surfactant, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), on previous
chronic ICD and normal sites by visual grade and non-invasive instruments.

W.Baschong, C.Artmann, J.Rding, Comparison of Skin Moisturization Attained by
Supplementing the NMF in the Skin or by Applying Water Binding Molecules on the Skin
Surface. SFW April 2000
Skin moisture can principally be improved either by hydrophilic substances binding water on the skin
surface (humectants), or by enriching the natural moisturizing factor (NMF) of the skin.

O.Doucet, L.Ferrero, D.Fouchard, V.Decherf, L.Zastrow, Description of a new Type of O/W
Emulsion Allowing the Formation of Liquid Crystals After Application Onto the Skin. Interest
for Creating Intensive and Long Lasting Moisturizer. XXIst IFSCC Congress 2000, Berlin
Most of the topically-applied products leave onto the skin surface a cream-residue which is of
particular importance in the regulation of the bio-disponibility of the active ingredients. Once the
spreading phase onto the skin is over, the evaporation of some volatile compounds, such as water,
promptly modifies their intial structure.

A.Teglia, A.Mondelli, Short Term Effects of Hydrophilic Ingredients on the Hydration
Parameters of the Stratum Corneum. XXIst IFSCC Congress 2000, Berlin
Though the real benefit of raising the skins water content is not fully explained, it is evident to
everyone that without an adequeate amount of water, skin displays undesirable perceivable changes
(brittleness, flakiness, roughness) and its protective function tends to be impaired.

A.Teglia, A.Mondelli, Short Term Effects of Hydrophilic Ingredients on the Hydration
Parameters of the Stratum Corneum. XXIst IFSCC Congress 2000, Berlin
Though the real benefit of raising the skins water content is not fully explained, it is evident to
everyone that without an adequeate amount of water, skin displays undesirable perceivable changes
(brittleness, flakiness, roughness) and its protective function tends to be impaired.

O.Tanno, Y.Ota, R. Hikima, M.Matsumotor, M.Ota, S.Inoue, An Increase in Endogenous Epidermal
Lipids Improves Skin Barrier Function. XXIst IFSCC Congress 2000, Berlin
Stratum corneum lipids, especially ceramides, cholesterol, and fatty acids, play a critical role in the
formation and maintenance of the epidermal permeability barrier.

Young-Dae Kim. Bong Rae Cho, Polyoxypropylene-Polyoxyethylene Tocopheryl Ethers: A Series
of Novel Amphiphiles from Tocopherol for Functional Cosmetics. XXIst IFSCC Congress 2000,
Berlin.

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E.Camel, L.Arnaud-Boissel, S.Schnebert, M.Neveu, S.K.Tan, J.P.Guillot, Does Asian Skin Induce
Significant Changes in Sun Protection Factor (S.P.F.) Determination, Compared to Caucasian
Skin: One of the First In Vivo Correlation. XXIst IFSCC Congress 2000, Berlin

D.T.Floyd, H.I.Leidreiter, Performance-Driven: New Silicone CoPolymers.Global Cosmetic
Industry September 2000
Experimenting with Dimethicone Copolyols for personal-care products.

St.Herman, Skin Deep. Global Cosmetic Industry September 2000
With a growing ethnic population in the U.S., large and small marketers need to turn their attention to
skin-care products.

S.Diridollou, A.Pavy-Le Traon, A.Maillet, F.Bellossi, D.Black, F.Patat, J.M.Lagarde, M.Beron,
Y.Gall, Characterisation of Gravity-Induced Facial Skin Oedema Using Biophysical
Measurement Techniques. Skin Research and Technology, Vol. 6, No. 3, August 2000
In humans, the microgravity environment can be expected to induce swelling of facial tissues and
shrinking of the tissues in the lower limbs, together with a loss in body weight. To evaluate fluid shifts
in skin, the head-down bed-rest model was used. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the
appearance of facial oedema in subjects undergoing antiorthostatic bed-rest at an angle of 10.

S.Sakai, S.Sasai, Y.Endo, K.Matue, H.Tagami, S.Inoue, Characterization of the Physical Properties
of the Stratum Corneum by a New Tactile Sensor. Skin Research and Technology, Vol. 6, No. 3,
August 2000.
The physical properties of the stratum corneum (SC) change with its water content which is regulated
by the presence of water solutes (natural moisturizing factors) and lipids in the SC, and are considered
to be responsible for the induction of desquamation, skin surface roughness and fine wrinkles.

F.Li, E.Conroy, M.Visscher, R.Wickett Influence of Formulations Containing Salt and Glycerin on
the Electrical Properties of Skin:Correlation Between Single Treatments and Long-Term
Results. Skin Research and Technology, Vol. 6, No. 3, August 2000

A.M.Matta, P.Muret, Ph.Humbert, S.Makki, P.Agache, In Vivo Calibration of the Corneometer CM
820 and the Evaporimeter EP1 Servomed for the Assessment of the Water Content of the Upper
Part of the Epidermis Using a Water Sorption-Desorption Test. Skin Research and Technology,
Vol. 6, No. 3, August 2000.

A.Zlotogorski, S.Dikstein, Skin Surface Sebum on the Forehead and Cheek of Adults. Skin
Research and Technology, Vol. 6, No. 3, August 2000

L.F.Gouveia, J.Tavares, L.Rodrigues, Mathematical Modulation of Cutometer acquired signals.
Skin Research and Technology, Vol. 6, No. 3, August 2000

S.M.John, W.Uter, H.J.Schwanitz, Relevance of Multiparametric Skin Bioengineering in a
Prospectively-followed Cohort of Junior Hairdressers. Contact Dermatitis, Vol.43, No. 3,
September 2000.
There is conflicting evidence concerning predictors of individual susceptibility to develop irritant
contact dermatitis in wet work. A cohort of initially 92 hairdresser apprentices was prospectively
followed for 3 years.

M. Takahashi, Recent Progress in Skin Bioengineering and its Application to Evaluationof
Cosmetics. SFW Journal, September 2000.
With the advances in skin bioengineering technology, great progress has been made in the techniques
used for testing the efficacy of cosmetics to the skin ranging from the physical properties to the
biochemical characteristics of the skin.

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A.Morita, K.Kobayashi, I.Isomura, T.Tsuji, J.Krutmann, Ultraviolet A1 (340-400nm) Phototherapy
for Scleroderma in Systemic Sclerosis. AAD 2000
The presence of an inflammatory infiltrate consisting of helper T cells and a dysregulated matrix
metabolism leading to excessive deposition of collagen are two pathogenetic factors responsible for
the developments of fibrosis and sclerosis in patients with systemic sclerosis. In previous studies,
ultraviolet A1 (UVA1) radiation phototherapy was shown to deplete skin-infilltrating T cells through
the induction of T-cell apoptosis and to up-regulate the expression of matrixmetalloproteinase-1
(collagenase-1) in dermal fibroblasts.

N. Vidakovic, M. Primorac, M. Stupar, G. Vuleta, In Vivo Study: Influence of Polyacrylic
Anticellulite Gels on Hydration and pH-Value of the Skin. SFW-Journal 11-2000
The effect on hydration and pH-value of the skin has been investigated on 22 female subjects during
the thirty-day treatment. The following formulations have been tested: polyacrylic gel with 2% of
caffeine, ployacrylic gel with propylene-glycol plant extract of Ivy 2%, Horse Chestnut 2%,
Seaweed 1,5%, as well as ployacrylic gel with caffeine and above-mentioned plant extracts.
P.Clarys,K.Alewaeters, R.Lambrecht, A.O.Barel, Skin Color Measurements: comparison Between
Three Instruments: The Chomameter, the DermaSpectrometer, and the Mexameter. Skin
Research and Technology 2000.
Two types of skin reflectance instruments are available nowadays for the determination of skin color:
a tristumulus colorimeter (Chromameter from Minolta) using the CIE L*a*b* color system and the
narrow-band simple refelctance meters (DermaSpectrometer from Cortex and Mexameter from
Courage-Khazaka) using the erythema/melanin indices. The purpose of this study was to compare the
capabilities of the three instruments (sensitivity, repeatability and correlation) in vitro and in vivo.

Joyce Ryan, Potencial Umectante do d--Tocoferol. Cosmetics&Toiletries (Edicao em Portugues),
Vo.12, set/out 2000.

M.F.Silva, L.B.Silva, P.J.Rolim Neto, D.P.Santana, leo de Babau: Novo Adjuvante Lipofilcio.
Cosmetics&Toiletries (Edicao em Portugues), Vo.12, set/out 2000.

K.De Paepe, J.M.Lagarde, Y.Gall, D.Roseeuw, V.Rogiers, Microrelief of the Skin Using a Light
Transmission Method.Arch.Dermatol.Res (2000)
The recently developed Skin Visiometer, based on light transmission through blue-coloured silicone
replicas, was used to study skin microrelief. Calibrated metal plates displaying lines with depths
between 6 and 361 m, were used to determine the accuracy, sensitivity and reproducibility of the
technique as well as the parameters of importance during measurement.

D.Schmid, A.Lang, T.Allguer,Ch.Bayerl, E.G.Jung, Beurteilung der Vernderung der
Hautbeschaffenheit durch die Heilpflanzensfte Brennnessel und Lwenzahn. Akt.Dermatol.
2000.
Wir fhrten eine Anwendungsbeobachtung ber die Beeinflussung von objektiven und subjektiven
Parametern der Hautbeschaffenheit durch die Kombination der Heilpflanzensfte Brennnessel und
Lwenzahn bei gesunden Probandinnen durch. Zehn Probandinnen (Versuchsgruppe) nahmen ber 6
Wochen die Kombination der Heilpflanzensfte oral ein, gleichzeitig erhielten sie eine standardisierte
Krperpflege mit Basiscreme DAC, weitere 10 Probandinnen (Kontrollgruppe) benutzten lediglich die
standardisierte Krperpflege mit Basiscreme DAC.

M.Winnefeld, M.A.Richard, M.Drancourt, J.J.Grob, Skin tolerance and Effectiveness of Two Hand
Decontamination Procedures in Everyday Hospital Use. British Journal of Dermatology 2000.
Hand decontamination is crucial to control nosocomial infections. The utility of hand decontamination
is related not only to its antimicrobial effectiveness, but also to ist acceptability by hospital staff.

A.Sirvent, D.Doyen, P.Girard, The safety and efficacy of cosmetic products. Personal Care, Jan.01

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W. Gehring, M. Gloor, Der Effekt von Dexpanthenol bei experimentell geschdigter Haut. H+G
(76) 1-7, 2001
Im Rahmen einer randomisierten vehikelkontrollierten, doppelbilinden Studie wurde Dexpanthenol in
zwei unterschiedlichen lipophilen Vehikeln im repetitive Waschtest untersucht.

C.Pierard-Franchimont, O.Martalo, A.Richard, A.Rougier, GE Pierard, Sebum rheology evaluated
by two methods in vivo. Split-face study of the effect of a cosmetic formulation. Eur J Dermatol,
Sept. 1999

M.Winnefeld, M.A.Richard, M.Drancourt, J.J. Grob, Skin tolerance and effectiveness of two hand
decontamination procedures in everyday hospital use. British Journal of Dermatology 143, 2000.
Hand decontamination is crucial to control nosocomial infections. The utility of hand decontamination
is related not only to its antimicrobial effectiveness, but also to its acceptability by hospital staff.

H.Dobrev, In vivo Study of Skin Mechanical Properties in Psoriasis Vulgaris. Acta Derma, 3/1999

H.Dobrev, Non-invasive Monitoring of the Mechanical Properties of Keloids during
Cryosurgery. Acta Derm Venereol, 1999

J.Grudeva-Popova, H.Dobrev, Biomechanical measurement of skin distensibility in scleredema of
Buschke associated with multiple myeloma. Clinical and Experimental Dermatology, 2000

H.Dobrev, Evaluation of the photoprotective activity of topical indomethacin, betamethasone
valerate and emollients by means of non-invasive measurements of the skin elasticity.

H.Dobrev, Photoaging and Skin Elasticity. National Session of Young Scientists, May 2000

H.Dobrev, Changes in Skin Elasticity after an Application of Emulsions containing urea and
alphahydroxy acids. 7
th
National Congress of Dermatology and Venereology, May 2000

H.Dobrev, Influence of telegrammatherapy on the skin physiology. 7
th
National Congress of
Dermatology and Venereology, May 2000

H.Dobrev, Treatment of psoriasis vulgaris with hydrocolloid occlusive dressins in combination
with betamethasone dipropionate 0.05% cream. 7
th
National Congress of Dermatology and
Venereology, May 2000

H.Dobrev, Use of Cutometer to assess epidermal hydration. Skin Reserach and Technology 2000.

H.Dobrev, Immediate effects of cosmetic series for men Karo Royal on the skin water content
and pH. 7
th
National Congress of Dermatology and Venereology, May 2000

H.Dobrev, Assessment of cosmetical products by means of measurements of the epidermal water
content and residual lipid film on skin surface. 7
th
National Congress of Dermatology and
Venereology, May 2000

Prof. Ph. Humbert, Melanin And Erythema Measurements By The Mexameter MX 16, Universit
de Franche-Comt, Laboratoire dIngnirie et de Biologie Cutnaes, 2000.

N.Ota, T.Horiguchi, N.Fujiwara, N.Kahibuchi, Y.Hirai, F.Mori, Identification of Skin Sensitivity
through Corneocytes Measurements. IFSCC Magazine-vol.4, No.1 2001
Surveys conducted in many nations suggest that up to 50% of cosmetic users believe they have
sensitive skin and products specifically designed for this skin type have become an important cosmetic
category. In developing such products, objective assessment of the degree and the type of sensitivity is
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desirable. Unfortunately, currently available methods, including measurements of trans-epidermal
water loss (TEWL) and lactic acid stinging test do not correlate well with self-assessed sensitivity and
cannot be used to identify persons who are more prone to develop adverse skin reactions than other
users.

B.D.Park, J.K.Youm,, S.Jeong,E.H.Choi, S.Hun, The Effectiveness of Multi-Lamellar Emulsion
damaged skin. Personal Care Ingredients Asia, March 2001

H.Song, The Effects of Inositol Extracted from Rice on the Skin. Personal Care Ingredients Asia,
March 2001

K.Mijyajmoto, Quantitative comparison of the differences in facial skin aging and Skin
Biophysical Properties in Japanese femals living in south and north part of Japan, and global
research expansion on Caucasians, East Asians, Indian Asian and Latinos. 5
th
ASCS, March 2001

L.Rigano, F,Distante, A.Bonfigli, E.Berardesca, Functional map of normal and sensitive facial
skin for trans-epidermal water loss, capacitance and microcirculation. 5
th
ASCS March 2001

E.Apt, R. I.S.Tranggono, Comparative Study of Several Whitening Agents in Cosmetic Products.
5
th
ASCS March 2001

A.Msi, T.Rosemiarti, E.Apt, R.Tranggono, Comparison Study on Single and Multi Alpha Hydroxy
Acids in Decreasing the Number of Melanin. 5
th
ASCS March 2001

F.Di Pierro, G.Guglielmini, A.Cristoni,Cosmetic Evaluation of Cucurbita Pepo and Zanthoxylum
Alatum Supercritical CO
2
Extracts. 5
th
ASCS March 2001

M.Park, S.Ma, J.Kim, H. Hanbul, Study of Preparation of Sodium Chloride-Free w/s Emulsion
Using NFM, Chitin Derivatives and the Other. 5
th
ASCS March 2001

Health Surveillance. HSE (Health & Safety Guidance), March 2001

A.O.Barel, R.Lambrecht, P.Clarys, Mechanical Function of the Skin: State of the Art. Skin
Bioengineering. Vol 26, March 2001
The in vivo mechanical properties of the human skin have been studied extenively. The skin is a
complex five-layered structure organ, which as many other biological materials presents the typical
properties of elastic solids and various liquids in a combined way known as viscoelastic properties.
Typical mechanical properties of viscoelastic material are nonlinear stress-strain properties with
hysteresis (the stress-strain curve obtained during loading will not be superposed by the curve
obtained during unloading).

D.Iliev, U.Hinnen, P.Elsner, Skin Bioengineering Methods in Occupational Dermatology. Skin
Bioengineering Vol. 26, March 2001
Measuring biophysical properties of the skin is not only useful to study cutaneous physiology and
pathology but may also be of value for the prediction of eczema risk, for the detection of subclinical
eczema and for therapy control in occupational dermatology.

M.Rohr, K.Schrader, Climatic Influence on Cosmetic Skin Parameters. Skin Bioengineering Vol.
26, March 2001.
A high degree of standardization is required in order to quantify the effects of cosmetics. As the
following discussion will show, it is not only normal standardization procedures, such as
acclimatization of volunteers in special air-conditioned laboratories, which have to be taken into
consideration when interpreting objective and subjective cosmetic parameters, but also the effect of
the actual climate during the application phase and especially during the days of measurement.

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G.Pellacani, B.Belletti, St.Seidenari, Evaluation of the Short-Term Effects of Skin Care Products:
A Comparison between Capacitance Values and Echographic Parameters of Epidermal
Hydration. Skin Bioengineering, Vol. 26, March 2001.
The hydration kinetics of the epidermis is influenced by various environmental conditions and
controlled by the organism. Since the stratum corneum receives water from within the body and from
the environment. Different techniques have been employed to detect and measure surface changes
after application of skin care products, to define the mechanisms of water binding in the stratum
corneum and to objectively measure the hydration effects of moisturizers.

B.Gabard, P.Treffel, Correlation of in vitro and in vivo Testing. Skin Bioengineering, Vol. 26,
March 2001.
A major problem encountered during the development of topical preparations not designed for
transdermal but for local activity is to ensure sufficient therapeutic activity or, in the case of generic
formulations, bioequivalence with the branded product. There are several possible approaches to
evaluate the penetration of drugs into the skin and to investigte the effect of different vehicles on
topical drug delivery.

R.R. Wickett, Stretching the Skin Surface: Skin Elasticity. C&T, March 2001.
This contribution to the series From Test to Claim deals with the instrumental measurement of skin
elasticity, discussing measuring conditions, relevant parameters to record, data analysis and the type of
conclusions that could be drawn from such measurements. In particular, this paper will review the use
of the Dermal Torque Meter (DTM) and the Cutometer to measure the elasticity of the stratum
corneum.

T. Hermanns-Le, F. Jonlet, A.Scheen, G.E.Pierard, Age- and Body Mass Index-Related Changes in
Cutaneous Shear Wave Velocity. Experimental Gerontology, 36, 363-372, 2001

J.L. Nizet, C. Pierard-Franchimont, G.E.Pierard, Influence of Body Posture and Gravitational
Forces on Shear Wave Propagation in the Skin. Dermatology, 202, 177-180, 2001-05-14

D.Khazaka, News in the Field of Elasticity Measurement. Cosmetic Science Conference 2001

Th.Dietz, Two Novel O/W Emulsifiers with Complementary Properties. Cosmetic Science
Conference 2001.

M.Ghyczy, W.Gehring, V.Vacata, B.Gertchen-Ohligschlger, Normalisation of Skin Humidity in
SLS Pertubed Human Skin In Vivo by Gel State Phosphatidylcholine. Cosmetic Science
Conference 2001

K.Jones, St.Orndorff, Aloesin: A Potent Skin Whitener, Cosmetic Science Conference 2001

T.H.Kim. E.H.Choi, Y.C.Kang, S.H.Lee, S.K.Ahn, The Effects of Topical -Hydroxyacids on the
Normal Skin Barrier of Hairless Mice. British Journal of Dermatology 4011, 2001

K.Y.Roh, D.Kim, S.J.Ha, Y.J.Ro, J.W.Kim,H.J.Lee, Pigmentation in Koreans: Study of the
Differences from Caucasians in Age, Gender and Seasonal Variations. British Journal of
Dermatology 3958, 2001

M. Paye, Y.Cartiaux, V.Goffin, G.E. Pierard, Hand and Forearm Skin: Comparison of their
Respective Responsiveness of Surfactants. Skin Research and Technology, Vol.7, No.2, May 2001

A.O.Barel, R.Lambrecht, P.Clarys, B.M.Morrison, jr., M.Paye, A Comparative Study of the Effects
on the Skin of a Classical Bar Soap and a Syndet Cleansing Bar in Normal Use Conditions and
in the Soap Chamber Test. Skin Research and Technology, Vol.7, No.2, May 2001
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A.E.Sagiv, S.Dikstein, A.Ingber, The Efficiency of Humectants as Skin Moisturizers in the
Presence of Oil. Skin Research and Technology, Vol.7, No.1, February 2001

Y.Yoshizawa, H.Tanojo, S.J. Kim, H.I.Maibach, Sea Water or its Components Alter Experimental
Irritant Dermatitis in Man. Skin Research and Technology, Vol.7, No.1, February 2001

S.J.Bashir, A.Chew, A.Anigbogu, F.Dreher, H.I.Maibach, Physical and Physiological Effects of
Stratum Corneum Tape Stripping. Skin Research and Technology, Vol.7, No.1, February 2001

G.G.Hillebrand, B.Schnell, K.Miyamoto, M.Ichihashi, R.Shinkura, S.Akiba, The Age-Dependent
Changes in Skin Condition in Japanese Females Living in Northern Versus Southern Japan.
IFSCC Magazine, Vol. 4, No. 2, April/June 2001.

Ch.Fox, Literature and Patent Review: Analytical and Test Methodologies 1990-2000, Part I.
C&T, Vol. 116, No. 4, April 2001-05-21

W.Gehring, M.Gloor, Der Effekt von Dexpanthenol bei experimentell geschdigter Haut. (The
effect of dexpanthenole in experimentally damaged skin). H+G, Band 76, April 2001-05-21

J.Lbbe, C.Ruffieux, G.van Melle, D.Perrenoud, Irritatives Potenzial des Hndedesinfektions-
mittels n-propanol auf vorgeschdigter Haut. H+G, Supplement 1/2001

T.Reuther, S.C.Behrens-Williams, M.Kerscher, Untersuchungen zur Wirkung von
Mometasonfuroat-Fettcreme auf die epidermale Barriere. H+G, Supplement 2/2001

J.Djordjevic, G.Vuleta, H.Zhai, H.I.Maibach, J.Milic, Effect of the Oil Phase of O/W Emulsions
with Vitamin E Acetate on Skin Moisutre Content and Skin Barrier Function. 2001 IFSCC
Conference, Stockholm/Sweden, May 7-9, 2001

R.Roguet, C.Faller, F.Dreher, C.Lotte, I.Harris, M.Bracher, D.Pollet, U.Pfannenbecker, N.Dami,
M.Ponec, Evaluation of Reconstructed Human Epidermis Kits for the In Vitro Assessment of
Cosmetic Safety. 2001 IFSCC Conference, Stockholm/Sweden, May 7-9, 2001

W.Wigger-Alberti, A.Krebs, N.Gritz, K.P.Wilhelm, P.Elsner, Concurrent Testing of Cutaneous
Irritants in Vivo. 2001 IFSCC Conference, Stockholm/Sweden, May 7-9, 2001

H.M.Ribeiro, J.Morais, L.Rodrigues, Long-term Influence of Polymers on the Biological
Properties of the In Vivo Normal Human Skin. 2001 IFSCC Conference, Stockholm/Sweden, May
7-9, 2001

N. Widler, A.Sigrist, F.Gafner, Lipid Analysis and Transepidermal Water Loss in Snakes. 2001
IFSCC Conference, Stockholm/Sweden, May 7-9, 2001

P.Contreiras Pinto, L.M. Pereira, R.Minhos, J.Serra, L.Rodrigues, The In Vivo Skin Water Content
Dynamical Analysis Through Compartmental Modeling a Validation Approach. 2001 IFSCC
Conference, Stockholm/Sweden, May 7-9, 2001

B.Deog Park, Y.Kim, M.Jin Lee, J.K. Youm, S.Jeong,E.Ho Choi, S. Hun Lee, Properties of a
Pneudoceramide Multi-Lamellar Emulsion In Vitro and In Vivo. C&T June 2001
Many physiochemical and biological functions of skin-care products in the last decade were generally
concerned with the stratum corneum (SC). The structure of the SC was proposed as a brick & mortar
model by Elias in 1981. Bricks represented the corneocytes and intercellular lipids (composed of
cholesterols, fatty acids and ceramides) formed the mortar.
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M.Gloor, B.Wasik, W.Gehring, Hat ein Hamamelis-Destillat eine entzndungshemmende
Wirkung?. H+G Zeitschrift, Ausgabe 7/8-2001.
Fragestellung: Beeinflut der Wirkstoff Hamamelis die irritative Reaktion der Haut bei
experimentellen Irritationsmodellen? Versuchsanordnung: Bei 15 Versuchspersonen wurde der
Natriumlaurylsure (NLS)-Irritationstest an jeweils 4 Versuchsstellen beider Unterarme volar
durchgefhrt. Es wurde einmal tglich 1% NLS 30 Minuten lang appliziert. Nach Beendigung der
NLS-Einwirkung wurden die Prfprperationen aufgetragen. An den jeweils 4 symmetrischen
Versuchsstellen wurden geprft.

R.Estanislao, M.Suero, C.Galzote, Z.Rivera, A.Khaiat, In-Vivo Evaluation of Skin Viscoelasticity
and Anisotropy Using Reviscometer RVM 600. Skin Research Technology 2001
A prototype of a new instrument, Reviscometer RVM 600 from COURAGE+KHAZAKA electronic
GmbH was proven to measure in-vivo skin viscoelasticity and anisotropy. The measurement of the
instrument based on the speed of acoustical shock wave propagation in the skin done in different
directions allowed evaluation of skin firmness and directional variations in viscoelasticity. In-vivo
measurements of facial, volar and dorsal forearm skin of female subjects in four different age groups
from three different test locations (Manila, Seoul and New Delhi) showed that skin firmness and
anisotropy, as measured by the instrument, are age-dependent.

H.Dobrev, Evaluation of the inhibitory activity of topical indomethacin, betamethasone valerate
and emollients on UVL-induced inflammation of means of non-invasive measurements of the
skin elasticity. Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine, January 2001.
Topical indomethacin has been reported to inhibit ultraviolet light-induced erythema. The objective of
this study was to verify this assertion and to compare indomethacin 10% ointment to betamethasone
valerate 0.1% ointment, water-in-oil emulsion and oil-in-water emulsion by means of non-invasive
skin elasticity measurements.

K.Articus, Validierung und Anwendung eines photometrischen Verfahrens zur
Rauhigkeitsmessung von Hautoberflchen. Doktorarbeit 2000
Die kosmetische Industrie lobt ihre Produkte mit den unterschiedlichsten Behauptungen (Claims)
aus. Einige lassen sich mit wissenschaftlichen Methoden gut nachweisen und quantifizieren
(befeuchtet die Haut, Triebskorn und Gloor, 1993), andere entziehen sich der biometrischen
Erfassung (macht die Haut geschmeidig). Einige Parameter, die sich metechnisch sehr zuverlssig
erfassen lassen, (transepidermaler Wasserverlust) liefern Aussage, die der Verbraucher nicht selber
nachvollziehen kann (strkt die Barrierefunktion der Haut, Frosch et al.,1993).

F.Ourvrard-Baraton, A.Bernois, D.De Queral, B. Le Varlet, C.M.Vincent, B.Nagot, C.Ailaud,
M.Bayer, N.Garcia, C.Miquel, N.Perichou, P.courtellemont, O.Doucet, A.Mavon,C.Mikler,
J.P.Marty, Validation inter-laboratoire dun modle dabsorption percutane in vitro: pouvoir
discriminant de la peau doreille de porc. Infuence de la perte insensible en eau (P.I.E.) et de la
pilosit. Poster for SFIC,Lausanne/CH, Juli 2001

I.Castiel-Higounenc, R.Jourdain, C.Queille-Roussel, C.Ferraris, P.Bastien, R.Schmidt, O.de
Lacharrire, IS barrier function disrupted in atopic xeroxis. Poster for SFIC,Lausanne/CH, Juli
2001

K.Tsukahara, Y.Takema, S.Moriwaki, T.Fujimura, S.Mayama, G.Imokawa, Carbon dioxide laser
treatment promotes repair of the three-dimensional network of elastic fibres in rat skin, British
Journal of Dermatology, Vo143, 2001.
We have previously reported that ultraviolet (UV) B irradiation induces a loss of linearity in the three-
dimensional structure of dermal elastic fibres, which results in the reduction of elastic properties of the
skin and leads to wrinkle formation. We further reported that repair of wrinkles by all-trans retinoic
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acid is accompanied by recovery of the linearity of elastic fibres. Carbon dixide lasers are widely used
for treating wrinkles in cosmetic surgery.

C.Fuchs, C.Heinemann, S.Schliemann-Willers, P.Elsner, Wirksamkeitsnachweis eines
Pflegeproduktes. Kosmetische Medizin 4/2001.
Berichtet wird ber eine dreiwchige Anwendungsbeobachtung eines Pflegeproduktes, in welcher der
Einfluss des Produktes auf die Hornschichtfeuchtigkeit an 20 Probanden mit atopischer
Hautdisposition und trockener, irritierbarer Haut in Form einer Kurz- und Langzeitstudie getestet
wurde.

D.Perrenoud, D.Gallezot, G.Van Melle, The efficacy of a protective cream in a real-world
apprentice hairdresser environment. Contact Dermatitis Vol.45 No.3, September 2001.
The object of this study was to compare the protective action of a new barrier cream to its vehicle in
the context of hand irritation of apprentice hairdressers caused by repeated shampooing and exposure
to hair-care products.

Ch.Y.Levin, H.I. Maibach, Do cool water or physiologic saline compresses enhance resolution of
experimentally-induced irritant contact dermatitis? Contact Dermatitis Vol.45 No.3, September
2001
Acute irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is frequently treated with cool water or saline compresses.
While presumed effective, little quantitative evaluation documents the treatments benefit. This study
sought to determine the efficacy of both distilled water and physiologic saline compresses on
experimentally-induced ICD.

P. Clarys, L.Lambrechts, K.Alewaeters, A.O.Barel, Influence of in vivo iontophoresis on the skin
barrier and percutaneous penetration. Congress Stratum Corneum III, Basel, September 2001.

M.Rohr, A.Schrader, FOITS Corneometry influenced by experimental side conditions. Congress
Stratum Corneum III, Basel, September 2001.

I.Le Fur, F.Morizot, S.Lpez, C.Guinot, J.Latreille, E.Tschachler, Seasonal changes in skin
biophysical properties in healthy Caucasian women. Congress Stratum Corneum III, Basel,
September 2001.

M. Egawa, T.Hirao, M.Takahashi, The measurement of skin friction using a frictional feel
analyzer. Congress Stratum Corneum III, Basel, September 2001.

K.Articus, Ch.A.Brown, K.P.Wilhelm, Scale-sensitive fractal analysis using the patchwork method
for the assessment of skin roughness. Skin Research and Technology, Vol.7, No. 2, August 2001.
As skin roughness and wrinkles are easily perceived by the consumer, quantifying skin surface
structures is a vital parameter for cosmetic product development. As more tools are available for
measuring three-dimensional (3-D) surface data, instead of tow-dimensional (2-D) profile lines, new
algorithms are desirable, to take advantage of the information gathered.

J.F.Hermanns, L.Petit, T.Hermanns-Le, G.Pierard, Analytic quantification of phototype-related
regional skin complexion. Skin Research and Technology, Vol.7, No. 2, August 2001.
Narrow-band spectrophotometry that yields melanin (M) and erythema (E) indexes is a convenient
method for assessing skin colour. The objective of the study was to assess the phenotype-associated
body site differences in skin complexion.

K.De Paepe, K.Janssens, JP Hachem, D.Roseeuw, V.Rogiers, Squamometry as a screening method
for the evaluation of hydrating products. Skin Research and Technology, Vol.7, No. 2, August
2001.
Squamometry is a combination of sampling corneocytes by adhesive coated discs following by colour
measurements after staining the cells. In this study, the correlation between stratum corneum (SC)
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hydration and scaling was investigated using capacitance measurements and squamometry,
respecitively.

H.Blitz, HP Nissen, S.Sustmann, Body care for sensitive and especially dry skin. Scientific Study
Eubos Med 2001
The test product EUBOS sensitive shower oil F exhibits very gooed skin compatibility with dry and
very dry skin and is also suitable for cleansing eczematous skin.

S.Sustmann, Body care for dry skin. Scientific Study Eubos Med 2001
The test product EUBOS DERMAL BALSAM is very well-tolerated by the skin. Evidence of the
suitability of the product for dry skin conditions with an impaired barrier function was provided by
studies on the regeneration of damaged skin as well as the positive effect on skin moisture, tautness,
and roughness.

S.Sustmann, Face care for sensitive and particularly dry skin. Scientific Study Eubos Med 2001
The test products EUBOS sensitive moisturing cream and EUBOS sensitive regenerating cream are
characterized by excellent skin compatibility particularly with sensitive and dry skin. The very good
skin compatibility is confirmed by both the subjective assessment of the subjects and the objective
assessments made in a controlled test program.

HP Nissen, S.Sustmann, Body care for normal to oily and sensitive skins. Scientific Study Eubos
Med 2001
The test product EUBOS liquid is characterized by the following properties on dermatological and
physiological skin testing:
- Excellent skin compatibility
- Intensive cleansing/defatting effect on the skin surface
- No drying-out of the skin
- No refatting properties

P.M. Van Zuijlen, Perspectives On Burn Scar Evaluation and Artificial Skin. Dissertation 2002

C.Pirard-Franchimont, G.E.Pirard, Postmenopausal Aging of the Sebaceous Follicle: A
Comparison between Women Receiving Hormone Replacement Therapy or Not. Dermatology
07/2002
The endocrine control of sebaceous follicles is complex in women. During aging, a decline in sebum
output is often experienced. However, some women report increased seborrhea after the menopause.

C.Pirard-Franchimont, G.E. Pirard, Beyond a Glimpse at Seasonal Dry Skin: A Review.
Exogenous Dermatology 2002
On clinical ground, the so-called dry skin corresponds in reality to a rough, sometimes flaky and scaly
stratum corneum The spectrum of xerotic disorders is quite large encompassing diverse aetiologies and
physiopathological pathways.

J. Djordjevic, g. Vuleta, J. Milic, H. Zhai, H. Maibach, O/W Emulsions Enriched with Vitamin E.
Cosmetics & Toiletries 2002 April, Vol. 117, Nr. 4
Vitamin E has an important protective function for the entire organism. It is believed that the broad
biological activities of vitamin E are due to its ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation and stabilize
biological membranes.

Charles Fox, Antimicrobials, Cosmetics & Toiletries 2002 April, Vol. 117, Nr. 4
This article reviews antimicrobial agents and their use in personal care products as reported in more
than 50 patents and journal articles published between 1996 and 2001

J. W. Wiechers, C. Verboom, V. A. L. Wortel, W. A. Starmans, Multifunctionality: From One in
More to More in One,Cosmetics & Toiletries 2002 April, Vol. 117, Nr. 4
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The authors explain the requirements for interactions of single components in mixtures in order to
obtain multifunctional mixtures. These requirements include synergy and the need to excel in a single
specific performance.

John Woodruff, Body of evidence, Test, Soap, Perfumery & Cosmetics 2002 April
Proving effect may not be new but it is of course an absolute requirement these days. And there are
many different ways of going about it, explains John Woodruff

A. Pagnoni, Photoaging and Photodocumentation, Cosmetics & Toiletries, January 2002, Vol. 117,
Nr. 1
Techniques to photograph or image skin photodamage have reached new levels of sophistication. This
survey discusses clinical grading, light imaging techniques, videomicroscopy and threedimensional in
vivo measuring systems.

S. Richert, A. Schrader, K. Schrader, Comparing Methods to Measure Porcine Skin Integrity In
Vitro, Cosmetics & Toiletries, January 2002, Vol. 117, Nr. 1
To confirm the integrity of porcine skin prior to penetration tests, published studies show that
measuring transepidermal water loss, transdermal electrical resistance or caffeine penetration levels
are often chosen techniques. New results demonstrate that TEWL is the superior method.

B. Gabard, S. Schliemann-Willers, Better Skin Protection with New Barrier Creams, SFW
Journal, 128. Jahrgang 4-2002
Skin protection creams are considered judicially as cosmetics. Besides a good efficacy, a main
requirement to be fulfilled by these preparations is maximal safety as they are often applied on
lesioned skin.

H. Tronnier,Effects of Textiles on Human Skin, SFW Journal, 128. Jahrgang 4-2002
Very often, the people concerned as their employers make detergent residues in clothes responsible for
skin reaction to textiles. Sometimes allergies are suspected.

G. Maramldi, M. A. Esposito, Potassium Azeloyl Diglycinate: A Multifunctional Skin Lightener,
Cosmetics & Toiletries, March 2002, Vol. 117, Nr. 3
Skin lightening and sebum normalization are among the useful cosmetic functions of potassium
azeloyl diglycinate, a soluble derivative of azelaic acid.

N. Widler, A. Sigrist, F. M. Gafner, Lipid Analysis and Transepidermal Water Loss in Snakes,
IFSCC Magazine January/March 2002, Vol. 5, Nr. 1
The lipids of 101 snake sheddings from 32 different species kept at Pentapharms serpentarium were
extracted and analysed by HPLC/LSD (light scattering detection) and TLC. The snake shedding
extracts were compared with those of human stratum corneum.

E. Camel, L. Arnaud-Boissel, S. Schnebert, M. Neveu, S.K. Tan, J-P. Guillot, Does Asian Skin Induce
Significant Changes in Sun Protection Factor (SPF) Determination Compared to Caucasian
Skin: One of the First In-Vivo Correlations, IFSCC Magazine January/March 2002, Vol. 5, Nr. 1
The aim if this study was to compare the SPF of three sunscreens (SPF 6/8 15/20 25/30)and 2
standards (FDA, COLIPA fla P2), according to COLIPA recommendations, in panels of Asian
(Singapore) and Caucasian (France) volunteers.

G. G. Hillebrand, M. J. Levine, K. Miyamoto, The Age-Dependent Changes in Skin Condition in
African Americans, Asian Indians, Caucasians, East Asians, and Latinos, IFSCC Magazine,
October/December 2001, Vol. 4, Nr. 4
Understanding the similarities and differences in skin characteristics as a function of age, race and
geography should aid in the development of skin care products that better meet consumers skin care
needs around the world.

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P. Contreiras Pinto, L. M. Pereira, R. Minhs, L M. Rodrigues, Testing the Discriminative Capacity
of Compartmental Modeling for the Analysis of the IN-VIVO Epidermal Water Content
Changes Following Topical Application under Occlusion, IFSCC Magazine, April/June 2002, Vol.
5 No. 2
Mathematical modelling of cutaneous variables is an attractive strategy to meet the complex nature of
in-vivo skin, especially in the presence of an external stimulus such as a topical product.

S. Schliemann-Willers, Wigger-Alberti, P. Kleesz, R. grieshaber, P. Elsner, Natural vegetable fats in
the prevention of irritant contact dermatitis, Contact Dermatitis, January 2002, Vol. 46 No. 1
Chronic irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is one of the most pressing problems in occupational
medicine and is common in the food processing industry. To date, protective creams that fulfil the
special requirements in the foodstuffs industry have not been available.

C. Hun Huh, K. Il Seo, S. Duck Kim, Ji Han, Hee Chul Eun, Biophysical changes after mechanical
injury of the stratum corneum in normal skin, Contact Dermatitis, January 2002, Vol. 46 No. 1
Scrubbing off the stratum corneum with a rough towel after soaking in warm water is a bathing custom
unique to Korea. However, Korean dermatologists have advised against this practice due to the
potential harm that it may cause, though there is little data to support this advice.

M. Fuchs, S. Schliemann-Willers, C. Heinemann, P. Elsner, Tacrolimus enhances irritation in a 5-
day human irritancy in vivo model, Contact Dermatitis, May 2002, Vol 46 No. 5
Tacrolimus (FK 506) is a macrolide discovered in 1984 as a metabolic product of Streptomyces
tsukabaensis. It has been used successfully in treating atopic dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis,
lichen planus mucosae and pyoderma gangrenosum. In the present study, we evaluated the
antiinflammatory activity of FK506 in 2 human skin inflammation models.

M. Stcker, M. Hoffmann, P. Altmeyer, Instrumental evaluation of retinoid-induced skin irritation,
Skin Research and Technology 2002, No. 8
Adapting retinoid therapy to the patients skin type can reduce the initial irritative side-effects. During
the first days, patients with skin type 1 or 2 should add a medium potency corticosteroid. Stronger skin
irritation caused by tazarotene therapy increases therapy effects.

K.-P. Wilhelm, K. Kaspar, F. Schumann, K. Articus, Development and validation of a
semiautomatic image analysis system for measuring skin desquamation with D-Squames, Skin
Research and Technology 2002, No. 8
Analysing D-Squames with the image analysis system proved to be reproducible, independent of the
shape of ROI, cost effective and fast and easy to operate. It has shown to be a suitable and reliable
method for the objective determination of desquamation levels.

Urquhart C., Rayner C., Mavena

Mg
46
Dead Sea Salt Balneotherapy Accelerates Restoration of
Barrier Function in Japanese Skin, 20
th
World Congress of Dermatology, Paris
Therapeutic bathing in Dead Sea salt solution in the ambulatory setting is commonly referred to as
Balneotherapy. Chronic skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis are often associated
with a poor hydration status and a compromised barrier function of the skin. Dead Sea salts have a
different mineral composition to salts arising from other sources.

Seidenari S., University of Modena, Italy, Non-Invasive Techniques for Diagnosis and Monitoring
of Skin Diseases: an Updating of Recent Techniques useful in Dermatology, 20
th
World Congress
of Dermatology, Paris
Besides the necessity of a realistic assessment of spontaneous course of diseases, the evaluation of the
cost/benefit ratio of potentially new treatments is increasingly required. Objective documentation of
dermatological disorders can be achieved by means of bioengineering techniques, which provide
numerical values as a basis for statistical analysis and enable instant in vivo information in the absence
of interferences with the spontaneous course of the disease.

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Le Fur I., Lopez S., Morizot F., Latreille J., Guinot C., Tschachler E., Age-Related Reference
Ranges for Skin Biophysical Parameters in Healthy Women, 20
th
World Congress of Dermatology,
Paris
Purpose: The aim of this study was to establish age-related reference ranges in healthy Caucasian
women for some widely used skin biophysical parameters.

Le Fur I., Reinberg A., Lopez S., Morizot F., Tschachler E., Facial Skin Circadian Rhythms of
Healthy Women Investigated Using Non-Invasive Methods, 20
th
World Congress of Dermatology,
Paris
Purpose: The aim of this study was to document around the clock changes in a set of skin biophysical
parameters.

Holm E.A., Jemec G.B.E., Objective Measurement of Atopic Dermatitis with Non-Invasive
Techniques, 20
th
World Congress of Dermatology, Paris
Quantification of desease severity is a prerequisite for the development of evidence based therapy.
Today, patient history and clinical scoring are the main tools for dermatologists when attempting to
assess the morbidity of patients with atopic dermatitis AD. These methods however have their
limitations, as they all are operator dependant and frequently show poor inter- and intra-observer
reproducibility.

F. Distante, L. Rigano, R. DAgostino, A. Bonfigli, E. Berardesca, Intra- and Inter-Individual
Differences in Sensitive Skin, Cosmetics &Toiletries July 2002, Vol. 117, No. 7,
The authors investigated the intra-individual and the inter-individual variations of transepidermal
water loss, capacitance and microcirculation in 10 different facial areas in subjects with sensitive
skin and in subjects with non-sensitive skin.

Johann W. Wiechers, Frans J. Groenhof, Vincent A. L. Wortel, Richard M. Miller, Neil A. Hindle,
Anthony Drewitt-Barlow, Octadecenedioic Acid for a More Even Skin Tone, Cosmetics &Toiletries
July 2002, Vol. 117, No. 7,
Octadecenedioic acid, a new nature-derived ingredient made via biofermentation from oleic acid, bas
demonstrated efficacy in a variety of applications, including skin toning, dandruff reduction and
deodorancy.

Rodolphe Korichi (LVMH Lab R&D),Video Imaging in the Measurement of Makeup Efficacy and
Performance, Cosmetics & Toiletries October 2002, Vol. 117 No. 10
Video imaging techniques add quantitative data about the visual effects of makeup when evaluating
efficacy and performance of products such as mascaras, lip colorants, facial foundations and nail
enamels.

Liye Maeyama (Cognis Japan), Whitening Complex with Waltheria indica Extract and Ferulic
Acid, Cosmetics & Toiletries October 2002, Vol. 117 No. 10
Waltheria indica extract, ferulic acid and certain other ingredients act synergistically in a whitening
complex that inhibits tyrosinase and provides mild exfoliation.

EH Choi, W-S Park, E-D Son, SM Hwang, MJ Kim, SK Ahn, SH Lee, The effect of change in
epidermal calcium gradient on stratum corneum lipid and epidermal differentation, The
Essential Stratum Corneum, 2002 Martin Dunitz Ltd.
Lamellar bodies (LBs) are the source of lipid composition of the stratum corneum (SC). SC
intercellular lipid bilayers formed from secreted LBs are the most important structure of the
permeability barrier. The cornified cell envelope (CE), formed during the terminal differentiation of
keratinocytes, is a specialized structure covalently bound with SC intercellular lipids. This forms a
structurally and functionally complete permeability barrier. Also, during epidermal differentiation,
specific keratins are synthesized.

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90
R. Lambrecht, P. Clarys, K. Alewaeters, A.O. Barel, Influence of in vivo iontophoresis on the skin
barrier and percutaneous penetration, The Essential Stratum Corneum, 2002 Martin Dunitz Ltd.
Iontophoresis is a technique used to enhance the transdermal delivery of a drug by means of an electric
current. The iontophoretic transport is influenced by several factors, such as concentration, size, ionic
strength and the lp of the drug and pH of the solvent, and also by the applied intensity and shape of the
current and the application time.

T. Schmidt, N. Widler, F. Gafner, G. Imanidis, Stratum Corneum lipid composition as a predective
tool for permeability?, The Essential Stratum Corneum, 2002 Martin Dunitz Ltd.
This theory envisages a linear correlation between the logarithm of the steady-state flux and the
exchange cohesive energy between the permeating molecule and the lipid compounds of the stratum
corneum (SC). The latter cohesive parameter is obtained from solubility parameter calculations and an
attempt is made to verify the theoretical approach with experimental permeability data.

M. Rohr, A. Schrader, FOITS corneometry influenced by peripheral expperimental conditions,
The Essential Stratum Corneum, 2002 Martin Dunitz Ltd.
Besides a good compatibility, which should be a matter of course for cosmetic products, the skins
physiological effectiveness, in particular moisture and skin-smoothing effects, are of main interest for
this kind of product. Techniques such as FOITS (Fast Optical In vivo Topometry of human Skin), and
corneometry are used to investigate their effectiveness. In order to succeed in reproducible and
statistically significant results, experimental side conditions, such as a defined panel, controlled
climatic conditions or a test design that includes a positive and a negative standard, are the basic
starting tools.

D. Black, A. Del Pozo, Y. Gall, Evaluation of surfactant effects on stratum corneum using
squamometry, transepidermal water loss measurements and the sorption-desorption test, The
Essential Stratum Corneum, 2002 Martin Dunitz Ltd.
Overexposure to certain cleansers will result in skin damage, manifested by impaired barrier function,
leading to irritant reactions with prolonged use. Evaluation of barrier function deterioration is thus a
useful indicator of early stratum corneum (SC) damage, and may help to predict potential skin
irritancy for these products. The squamometry technique has been used for assessing cleansers in
terms of their degree of mildness, and appears useful as a complementary method for screening their
irritant potential.

J. Gareiss, M. Ghyczy, Normalization of inflammation and humidity in sodium lauryl sulfate
(SLS) perturbed skin in vivo by gel state phosphatidylcholine, The Essential Stratum Corneum,
2002 Martin Dunitz Ltd.
Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the most abundant component of biological membranes. It possesses an
intrinsic hydration force, and its metabolites are essential osmoprotectants. PC that is composed of
saturated fatty acids (hydrogenated PC), also named gel-state PC or HPC, possesses physical
properties that are comparable with those of the components of the skin permeability barrier.

K. De Paepe, J.-P. Hachem, E. Vanpee, D. Roseeuw, V. Rogiers, Beneficial corneotherapeutic
effects of skin-tolerance-tested moisturizing creams, The Essential Stratum Corneum, 2002 Martin
Dunitz Ltd.
In the present work, an oil-in-water (o/w) moisturizing cream was applied to experimentally elicited,
scaly skin in order to investigate whether the product could promote a more rapid recovery of the
disturbed barrier function (as measured by transepidermal water loss (TEWL measurements) than
physiological barrier repair. Experimental models of both irritant (ICD) and allergic (ACD) contact
dermatitits were applied. ICD was provoked by sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), well known for its
damaging action on the skin barrier function. The ACD study concerned a nickelmediated contact
allergy patch (CAP) test, carried out in nickel-sensitized volunteers.

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91
I Le Fur, F. Morizot, S. Lopez, C. Guinot, J. Latreille, E. Tschachler, Seasonal changes in skin
biophysical properties in healthy Caucasian women, The Essential Stratum Corneum, 2002 Martin
Dunitz Ltd.
The human skin surface has to adapt constantly to changing environmental conditions, such as
temperature and relative humidity. Several studies have demonstrated the detrimental effects of winter
weather in our countries on the skin and seasonal changes in certain biophysical parameters. The work
presented here examines seasonal variations of biophysical parameters on facial skin in Caucasian
women in France.

E. Proksch, H.P. Nissen, M.F. Bremgartner, C.J. Urquhart, Erhhung der Hautfeuchtigkeit durch
Mg-reiches Duschgel, Kosmetische Medizin, 4/2002, 23. Jahrgang
Baden oder Duschen mit gewhnlichen Detergenzformulierungen kann zu Problemen bei Patienten
mit Psoriasis, Ekzemen und bei trockener Haut fhren. Detergenzien knnen eine Irritation
verursachen und die Trockenheit der Haut verschlimmern. Die therapeutische Wirkung des Totes
Meer Salzes bei Hauterkrankungen ist seit der Antike bekannt; Magnesiumsalze sind der
berwiegende Bestandteil des Salzes aus dem Toten Meer. In der vorliegenden Untersuchung wurde
die Wirkung eines Duschgels, welches ein besonders magnesiumchlorid-reiches Salz aus der Tiefe des
Toten Meeresenthlt (Mavena Derma Line Mg46 Duschgel), zur Reinigung bei Psoriatikern
eingesetzt.

T. Gambichler, P. Altmeyer, S. Rotterdam, M. Herde, M. Stcker, K. Hoffmann, Bioengineering der
Haut, Kosmetische Medizin, 4/2002, 23. Jahrgang
Nicht-invasive Untersuchungstechniken (Bioengineering) am Hautorgan werden in der Dermatologie
und Kosmetologie zunehmend eingesetzt. Gegenber der bloen klinischen Untersuchung bietet der
Einsatz von Bioengineering-Methoden viele Vorteile. Es lassen sich morphologische und funktionelle
Parameter der Haut objektiv darstellen und standardisiert messen, die der bloen klinischen
Untersuchung bzw. sensorischen Wahrnehmung oft unzugnglich sind.

MegaSun beauty & care, Sonnen ohne Risiko, Kosmetische Medizin, 4/2002, 23. Jahrgang
Sonne gilt fr groe Bevlkerungsteile als die Universal-Arznei aus der Himmelsapotheke. Doch
der Dermatologe rt: Was fr die Risiken und Wirkungen von Arzneimitteln gilt, gilt auch fr die
Solarien-Besonnung: Die Dosis ist entscheidend. Auf der Pressekonferenz am 16.10.2002 in Hamburg
prsentierte die KBL-Solarien AG den Medien sowie dem Fachhandel ein auf streng
wissenschaftlicher Basis entwickeltes Gert zur individuellen Hauttypbestimmung, um Solarstrahlen
fr gesunde und natrliche Brune optimal zu dosieren das megaSun care Terminal.

P. Humbert, P. Creidi, B. Chadoutaud, J.C. Choulot, P. Msika, Photoageing: clinical and
biometrological results of a double-blind randomized trial evaluating a new cosmetic product
containing avocadofurane plus pentapeptides and retinol (abstract), 11
th
Congress of the
European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, Prag 2002.
The role of metallo matricial proteinases (MMPs) in cutaneous ageing is now well established.
Moreover the decrease of TGF-beta has been more recently discovered. Two new molecules have been
developed in this field: pentapeptides which inhibit the production of MMP1, -3, -9 by UV exposure
on fibroblast cultures and pure heptadecadienylfurane (Avocadofuranea) which increases the collagen
synthesis via a specific stimulation of TGF beta.

U. Uksal, C. Atasavun, B. zcelik, S. Utas, A. Ferahbas, The effects of hormone replacement
therapy on the skin of postmenopausal women (abstract), 11
th
Congress of the European Academy
of Dermatology and Venereology, Prag 2002.
The study was performed to compare skin pH, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin surface lipids
and hydration in postmenopausal women receiving hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and those
who not. Two parallel age-matched groups (each 24) of 48 postmenopausal women evaluated by
tewameter, sebumeter, pHmeter and corneometer.

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Mariko Egawa, Motoki Oguri, Tomohiro Kuwahara, Motoji Takahashi, Effect of exposure of human
skin to a dry environment, Skin research and Technology, Vol. 8,No. 4, Nov. 2002
There was a significant decrease of water content of stratum corneum at both test sites from the time
points 0 h to 3 h and 6 h (P<0.01) and transepidermal water loss from the time point 0 h to 6 h
(P<0.05). Regarding the roughness parameters, a significant increase of Rz in the directions of
45/225 and 90/270 to the body axis and Sm in the directions of 0/180 (P<0.05) on the forearm
and VC1 (P<0.05) on the cheek.

H.S. Yoon, S.H. Baik, C.H. Oh, Quantitative measurement of desquamation and skin elasticity in
diabetic patients, Skin research and Technology, Vol. 8,No. 4, Nov. 2002
Diabetes mellitus is responsible for many cutaneous alterations. Xerosis and sclerotic change of the
skin are the most common findings. Recently non-invasive computerized devices have been developed
and used for determining the desquamation rate and measuring the mechanical properties of the skin.
Using these devices, the necessity to characterize the conditions of the skin in the healthy as well as
the diseased state is increasing.

Nirmal Koshti, Shubhangi Naik, An absorbing matter, SPC Asia, November 2002
The harmful effects of solar UV radiation on skin and hair are well documented. The damage to white
skin can be extremely severe. It starts with erythema, goes on to sunburn and can ultimately end in
skin cancer. The damage to hair, particularly blonde, is significant , too. Solar UV radiation makes
hair brittle, rough and difficult to comb. Human hair has been shown to lose tensile strength as a result
of cleavage of the disulphide bond of hair keratin upon exposure to UV radiation.

G.R. Leonardi, L. R. Gaspar, P.M. Campos, Application of a non-invasive method to study the
moisturizing effect of formulation containing vitamins A or E or ceramide on human skin,
Journal of Cosmetic Science, Vol. 53, No. 5, September/October 2002
Moisturizers containing vitamins A and E as well as ceramides are believed to improve the skin
condition by increasing the water content of the stratum corneum. The aim of this research was to
evaluate, through the capacitance method (a non-invasive method), the moisturizing effect of an O/W
emulsion (non-ionic self-emulsifying base) containing vitamin A palmitate, vitamin E acetate, and
ceramide III on human skin. The studies were carried out on a group of 40 healthy Caucasian female
test subjects between 30 and 45 years of age, using the Corneometer CM 825 PC.

G. Yener, T. Incegl, Importance of protection from harmful effects of solar radiation by using
solid lipid micropheres of UV filters, Journal of Cosmetic Science, Vol. 53, No. 5,
September/October 2002
Sun protecting substances are capable of protecting humans from harmful effects of solar radiation
such as aging and skin cancers. Due to the depletion in ozone layer, research regarding to sun
protection has become a major concern. Since these preparations are often applied an large skin areas
even low penetration rates can cause significant amount of chemical UV absorber to enter the body.
Sun protecting preparations need to achieve a controlled release.

Liye Maeyama Cognis Japan, Synergistic whitening complex with Waltheria indica extract and
ferulic acid, Personal Care, November 2002
Melanins are black polymeric pigments that determine skin and hair color. An abnormal increase in
the amount of melanin in the epidermis is the reason for hyperpigmentation such as cloasma, freckles,
etc. melanin is synthesized by specialized cells, the melanocytes, which are located in the basal layer
of the epidermis. Stored in melanosomes (granules in the melanocytes), the melanins are distributed to
keratinocytes surrounding the melanocytes.

Ken-ichiro Ogoshi, Makiko Iguchi, Hachiro Tagami, Functional analysis of the stratum corneum
of scalp skin:studies in patients with alopecia areata and androgenetic alopecia, Arch. Dermatol.
Res. (2000) , Springer-Verlag
Because of the presence of thick long hairs on the scalp, little information is available concerning the
functional characteristics of the stratum corneum (SC) of scalp skin. We therefore conducted a
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93
functional study of the SC of lesional scalp skin of patients with alopecia areata and of patients with
androgenetic alopecia.We compared the scalp with the cheek and the flexor surface of the forearm
(volar forearm). The water barrier function of the scalp SC of both patient groups, in terms of
transepidermal water loss (TEWL), was almost comparable to that of the volar forearm, and was far
better than that of facial skin.

P.G. Sator, J.B. Schmidt, M.O. Sator, J.C. huber, H. Hnigsmann, Parameters of skin aging during
hormone replacement therapy, EADV /th Congress, Abstract Submission Form
All patients with HRT showed an increase in skin hydration, elasticity and thickness, as well as
subjective and clinical improvement.

J.W. Fluhr, A.J. Fowler, J.-P. Hachem, D. Crumrine, P.M. Elias, K.R. Feingold, Stratum corneum
acidification in neonates: impact on permeability barrier homeostasis and integrity/cohesion,
2002 U.S. Symposium of the International Society for Bioengineering and the Skin, Baltimore Oct.
24-26, 2002
Mammalian newborn stratum corneum (SC) displays a near-neutral surface pH, whichdeclines during
the early post-natal period to adult levels. We developed a model to study the mechanisms and
consequences of SC acidification in the neonatal period. In newborn rats the surface pH, measured
with a flat glass electrode (pH-Meter, Courage+Khazaka)declined from an almost neutral pH (6.8)
after birth to physiologic levels (5.6) over 5 days.

J.W. Fluhr, J.L. Sugarman, T.L. Diepgen, M.L. Williams, The objective severity assessment of
atopic dermatitis (OSAAD), 2002 U.S. Symposium of the International Society for Bioengineering
and the Skin, Baltimore Oct. 24-26, 2002
An objective measure utilizing permeability barrier function and stratum corneum hydration, with
computer-assisted estimates for extent of disease. *

J-H. Park, S-W. Son, Y-M. Yoon, M-H. Lee, Y-S. Lee, H-C. Kim, H-S. Oh, C-H. Oh, Objective
evaluation for xerosis by morphological study in atopic dermatitis, 2002 U.S. Symposium of the
International Society for Bioengineering and the Skin, Baltimore Oct. 24-26, 2002
It is essential to be able to measure and record the severity of atopic dermatitis for routine clinical
practice and research. Many clinical severity scales have been proposed, but not yet objective. Of
severity scoring systems currently available for atopic dermatitis, the SCORAD index has been the
most extensively tested.

M-H. Lee, S-J. Hong, J-H. Park, H-C. Kim, H-S. Oh, C-H. Oh, Quantitative evaluation of patch test
results comparing the studies between new skin color analysis technique and other
bioengineerin tools, 2002 U.S. Symposium of the International Society for Bioengineering and the
Skin, Baltimore Oct. 24-26, 2002
Contact dermatitis is a common problem occurring in the field of dermatology and patch test is the
only reliable procedure for the detection of the causative agent. In evaluation of patch test result,
visual scoring system is wide being used as a objective method. However, it is well known that
variations exist even in the interpretations by experienced dermatologist.

Chris a. Helen Packham, Health and Safety at work: special report, Occupational Skin
Management Update, Croner, Issue 60, August 2002.

I. Uhoda, N. Faska, C. Robert, G. Cauwenbergh, G.E. Pierard, Split face study on the cutaneous
tensile effect of 2-dimethylaminoethanol (deanol) gel, Skin Research and Technology, Vol. 8, No.
3, August 2002
Large interindividual variations precluded any significant finding in the first study. The DMAE
formulation showed, however, a significant effect characterized by increased shear wave velocity in
the direction where the mechanical anisotropy of skin showed looseness. The DMAE formulation
under investigation increased skin firmness.

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94
S.W. Youn, S.J. Kim, In A Hwang, K.C. Park, Evaluation of facial skin type by sebum secretion:
Discrepancies between subjective description and sebum secretion, Skin Research and
Technology, Vol. 8, No. 3, August 2002
People secrete varying amounts of sebum at different skin sites. Reclassification of skin type based on
sebum secretion revealed that most participants underestimated the amount of facial sebum excretion.
When sebum secretion amounts were compared, a statistically significant difference was apparent
between the oily and dry skin types. However, there were no statistical differences between oily and
normal, and normal and dry skin.

Oba A., Gomi T., Nishimori Y., Graves C., Pearse A., Edwards C., A Non-invasive Method for
Measuring Invisible Subcutaneous UV Damage, 22
nd
IFSCC Congress, Edinburgh, 25.09.2002
Repeated exposure to UV radiation can induce subcutaneous damage leading to permanent structural
degradation and formation of visible wrinkles. In the early stages when damage is slight, the body is
capable of repairing itself , and intervention with certain drugs or treatment products may slow or even
reverse the process of photoaging. This is not possible, however, when damage is severe and
extensive.

K. Sugata, T. Nishijima, T. Kitahara, Y. Takema, Etiology of the intrinsic and natural texture of
human skin, 22
nd
IFSCC Congress, Edinburgh, 25.09.2002
Skin texture, i.e. the surface of the skin consisting of furrows and ridges, is very tangible and
important factor in the cosmetic field which makes skin beautiful. Although moisture and aging
modify the texture, the mechanism(s) underlying the formation of intrinsic and natural skin texture
remain obscure. In this study, to elucidate the etiology governing skin texture formation in vivo, we
removed a portion of the epidermis by the suction blister method and investigated the recovery of the
epidermal architecture of dermoepidermal junctions and viscoelasticity during the regeneration of the
skin.

H. Zahouani, C. Pailler-Mattei, R. Vargiolu, M.A. Abellan, Assessment of the elasticity and tactile
properties of the human skin surface by tribological tests, 22
nd
IFSCC Congress, Edinburgh,
25.09.2002
The current paper describes the assessment of the visco-elasticity and tactile properties during a static
and frictional contact of a spherical indentor on an inner human forearm. The current techniques that
simultaneously measure the normal load F
z
between the contacting surfaces and the friction force F
x
,
can be used to determine the normal and lateral stiffness, the Young modulus, static and dynamic
friction forces F
z
, F
d
and respective friction coefficients:
s
,
d
.

B. Roy, Duoskin: significant hydratisierende Wirkung, Kosmetische Medizin, Ausgabe 5/2002, 23.
Jahrgang
Die hydratisierende Wirkung der beiden Prparate Duoskin Gesicht und Duoskin Krper wurde
bewertet und mit der von zwei hydratisierenden Referenzprodukten verglichen. Es handelt sich um
eine monozentrische, vergleichende, randomisierte Studie. Die Ergebnisse beziehen sich auf 12 Frauen
mit sehr trockener Haut. Jede Probandin war gleichzeitig ihre eigene Kontrolle, da ein Areal
unbehandelt blieb.

E. Kawai, Y. Kohno, K. Ogawa, K. Sakuma, N. Yoshikawa, D. Aso, Can inorganic powders provide
any biological benefit in stratum corneum, while residing on skin surface?, IFSCC magazine, Vol.
5, No. 4, oct./dec. 2002
The plasminogen (Plg) activation system plays a role in the process leading to dry skin with impaired
barrier function, and serine protease inhibitors are known to improve dry skin. In this study. We have
discovered that a urokinase-type Plg activator (UK), a trigger of the Plg activation system, which was
previously believed to work within the epidermis, also exists in stratum corneum (SC). Focusing on
the UK reaction in SC, we sought to develop a method of dry skin prevention.

Rodolphe Korichi, Video imaging in the measurement of makeup efficacy and performance,
Cosmetics & Toiletries, Vol. 117, No. 10, October 2002
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95
Video imaging techniques add quantitative data about the visual effects of makeup when evaluating
efficacy and performance of products such as mascaras, lip colorants, facial foundations and nail
enamels.

Liye Maeyama, Whitening complex with waltheria indica extract and ferulic acid, Cosmetics &
Toiletries, Vol. 117, No. 10, October 2002
Waltheria indica extract, ferulic acid and certain other ingredients act synergistically in a whitening
complex that inhibits tyrosinase and provides mild exfoliation.

I. Le Fur, F. Morizot, S. Lopez Seasonal changes in skin biophysical properties in healthy
Caucasian women, The Essential Stratum Corneum, chapter 60, ed. by R. Marks, J.-L. Lvque, R.
Voegeli, Martin Danitz Ltd., London, 2002.
The human skin surface has to adapt constantly to changing environmental conditions, such as
temperature and relative humidity. Several studies have demonstrated the detrimental effects of winter
weather in our countries on the skin and seasonal changes in certain biophysical parameters. The work
presented here examines seasonal variations of biophysical parameters on facial skin in Caucasian
women in France.

J. Gareiss, M. Ghyczy Normalization of inflammation and humidity in sodium lauryl sulfate
(SLS)-perturbed skin in vivo by gel state phosphatidylcholine, The Essential Stratum Corneum,
chapter 55, ed. by R. Marks, J.-L. Lvque, R. Voegeli, Martin Danitz Ltd., London, 2002.
Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the most abundant component of biological membranes. It possesses an
intrinsic hydration force, and its metabolites are essential osmoprotectants. PC that is composed of
saturated fatty acids (hydrogenated PC), also named gel-state PC or HPC, possesses physical
properties that are comparable with those of the components of the skin permeability barrier.

D. Black, A. del Pozo, Y. Gall Evaluation of surfactant effects on stratum corneum using
squamometry, transepidermal water loss measurements and the sorption-desorption test, The
Essential Stratum Corneum, chapter 41, ed. by R. Marks, J.-L. Lvque, R. Voegeli, Martin Danitz
Ltd., London, 2002.
Overexposure to certain cleansers will result in skin damage, manifested by impaired barrier function,
leading to irritant reactions with prolonged use. Evaluation of barrier function deterioration is thus a
useful indicator of early stratum corneum (SC) damage, and may help to predict potential skin
irritancy for these products.

R. Lambrecht, P. Clarys, K. Alewaeters, A. O. Barel Influence of in vivo iontophoresis on the skin
barrier and percutaneous penetration, The Essential Stratum Corneum, chapter 21, ed. by R.
Marks, J.-L. Lvque, R. Voegeli, Martin Danitz Ltd., London, 2002.
Iontophoresis is a technique used to enhance the transdermal delivery of a drug by means of an electric
current. The iontophoretic transport is influenced by several factors, such as concentration, size, ionic
strength and the Ip of the drug and pH of the solvent, and also by the applied intensity and shape of the
current and the application time.

E. H. Choi, W.-S. Park, E.-D. Son The effect of change in epidermal calcium gradient on stratum
corneum lipid and epidermal differentiation, The Essential Stratum Corneum, chapter 10, ed. by R.
Marks, J.-L. Lvque, R. Voegeli, Martin Danitz Ltd., London, 2002.
Lamellar bodies (LBs) are the source of lipid composition of the stratum corneum (SC). SC
intercellular lipid bilayers formed from secreted LBs are the most important structure of the
permeability barrier. The cornified cell envelope (CE), formed during the terminal differentiation of
keratinocytes, is a specialized structure covalently bound with SC intercellular lipids.

L.M. Rodrigues, P.C. Pinto, P. Lamarao, After-sun claims substantiation: experimental criteria to
assess the in vivo effects of sun care products under controlled-using conditions, Cosmetics &
Toiletries, Vol. 117, No. 10, October 2002
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96
The authors describe a practical method of substantiating claims of after-sun products. Ten healthy
women 35-65 years old were irradiated on both legs (antero-lateral) in a laboratory for six sequential
days using an indoor solarium-type UV source. Efficacy assessment endpoints were defined from the
products typical claims.

Pieter Vermaas, Schietsimulatie zonder docent, apb Algemeen Politieblad, Nr. 19, 5. Oktober 2002
Zonder aanwezigheid van een docent je schietvaardigheid oefenen op het bureau. Het kann in nog
geen enkele Europese politieorganisatie, maar wel in regio Brabant-Noord. Voor zover wij weten
werkt nog niemand anders met zon docentonafhankelijke schietsimulatie, denken Brabantse
docenten.

H. Zahouani , J. Asserin, Ph. Humbert, Mechanical Properties of the Skin During Friction
Assessment, CRC Press 2002, pp. 49-58.
Previous studies on the tribology of human skin have attempted to demonstrate a correlation between
certain certain tactile sensations and the friction between the skin surface and variety of probes. In
addition, friction measurements have been used to provide in vivo information about the effects of
age, hydration, dermatitis, and cosmetic products on both the interfacial and bulk properties of skin.

C.K.S. Chew, P.G. Hykin, C. Jansweijer, S. Dikstein, J.M. Tiffany, A.J. Bron, The casual level of
meibomian lipids in humans, Current Eye Research, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1993
Using a modified skin surface lipid measuring instrument, the Meibometer, the amounts of meibomian
lipid on the lid margins (the casual levels) of 421 subjects aged 1 to 94 years were measured. The
lowest levels were found in children younger then 14 years (means S.E.: males = 1.48 0.17,
females 1.53 0.17 g lipid/mm
2
lid margin surface) and rose with age, the highest levels being found
in males aged 60-69 years (means S.E.= 3.26 0.18 g lipid/mm
2
lid margin surface).

J.M. Tiffany, A,J. Bron, F. Mossa, S. Dikstein, delivery of meibomian oil using the clinical
Meibometer, Lacrimal Gland, Tear Film, and Dry Eye Syndromes 2, Plenum Press, New York, 1998
Tear film studies in recent years have emphasized the importance of the oily secretion of the
meibomian glands in reducing evaporation from the open eye and in promoting stability of the
precorneal film. The thickness of the spread oil film is readily measured, but little information exists
on the amount of oil available for the film, or on its quantity or manner of delivery from the glands.

Astrid de Castro, Efectividad de cremas antienvejecimiento con activos naturales, GCI
Latinoamerica, Vol. 1, No. 2, Mai-August 2002,
La autora describe un estudio con el uso de una crema que contiene una mezcla de filtros solares
fisicos, extractos vegetales, hidratantes, antirradicales libres, sustancias antiinflamatorias con el
objetivo de comprobar la eficacia de materias primas de origen vegetal en el tratamiento y prevencion
del fotoenvejecimiento.

J. Sook Koh, H. Kang, S.W. Choi, H.O. Kim, Cigarette smoking associated with premature facial
wrinkling: image analysis of facial skin replicas, International Journal of Dermatology 2002
Current smokers have a higher degree of facial wrinkling than nonsmokers and past smokers. Past
Smokrs who smoked heavily at a younger age show less facial wrinkling than current smokers. In the
analysis, which was adjusted for age group, the relative risk of moderate to severe wrinkling for
current smokers compared with nonsmokers was 2.72 (confidence interval, Cl: 1.32-3.21, P < 0.05).

Prof. K.-D. Neander, Dr. F. Hesse, The role of cream mousses in the treatment of dry skin in
patients with diabetes mellitus, LII, Issue 10/2001, Pages 19,20,21
Diabetics are well known for their frequent struggles with the problem of dry skin. The diverse and
unpleasant effects to which these patients are exposed range from pruritus to skin inflammations,
particularly in the interdigital spaces of the feet. As has been demonstrated in a variety of studies, lack
of moisture is at the heart of this problem.

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K. Yoshimura, K. Harii, T. Aoyama, T. Iga, Experience of a strong bleaching treatment for skin
hyperpigmentation in orientals, www.st.rim.or.jp/~ktyoshi/list/ra-prs.html
The protocol was composed of two steps: a bleaching step (2-6 weeks) and a healing step (2-6 weeks).
0.1-0.4% all-trans retinoic acid aqueous gel was originally prepared and applied concomitantly with
hydroquinone, lactic acid ointment for bleaching. After obtaining sufficient improvement of the
hyperpigmentation, corticosteroid was topically applied with hydroquinone and ascorbic acid in the
healing step. Improvement was evaluated with a narrow-band reflectance spectrophotometer.

Astron Clinica, Validation experiments, www.fellows.rcsed.ac.uk/personal/marcmoncrieff/ch4.pdf,
This study represents the first clinical trial with the SIAscope, a system that produces information
about the haemoglobin, total melanin, dermal melanin and collagen content of the epidermis and
papillary dermis within the region of interest scanned. Studies have been performed that measured the
theoretical accuracy of the system in determining these parameters (Cotton, 1998; Hojjatoleslami et
al., 2000). It was decided that experiments should be undertaken that could determine whether the
SIAscope was indeed measuring these parameters. The four sets of experiments determining each of
the SIAscope parameters are described below in the style of a short paper.

Pierre Agache, H. I. Maibach, Physiologie De La Peau Et Explorations Fonctionelles Cutanes,
Editions Mdicales Internationales, Cachan cedex, August 2002.
La biopsie de surface a vu le jour lorsque des colles au cyanoacrylate sont devenues disponsibles [1,
2]. Lutilisation dune lamelle en polythylne comme support du prlvement fut une nouvelle tape
dcisive au dveloppement de cette technique [3].
Miklos Ghyczy, VladimirVacata, Phosphatidylcholine and Skin Hydration, Skin Moistarization,
Cosmetic Science and Technical Series Vol. 25, ed. by J. Leyden, Marcel Dekker Inc., New York,
2002.
Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the most abundant phospholipid in animal cells. It possesses an intrinsic
hydration force, and its metabolites are essential osmoprotectants. Phosphatidylcholine composed of
saturated fatty acids (hydrogenated PC; HPC) possesses physical properties which are comparable
with those of the components of the skin permeability barrier.

Hristo Dobrev, In vivo study of skin mechanical properties in Raynauds phenomenon, 14
th

International Congress for Bioengineering and the skin, May 21-24, 2003
Mechanical properties of the skin in patients with suspected secondary Raynauds phenomenon
significantly differ from these in patients with primary Raynauds phenomenon and resemble those in
patients with edematous phase of scleroderma. Our findings suggest that the non-invasive
measurements of skin elasticity could be helpful in identifying patients with Raynauds phenomenon
at risk of developing systemic sclerosis. *

J. Fluhr, Jeffrey L. Sugarman, Thomas L. Diepgen, M. L. Williams, The Objective Severity
Assessment of Atopic Dermatitis (OSAAD) Score, 61
st
Meeting of the American Academy of
Dermatology, March 21-26, 2003
Measurements of epidermal permeability barrier function and SC hydration correlated closely with
clinical estimates of disease severity. PH was found not to be a sensitive measure of AD severity. The
OSAAD score correlated well with current gold standard of AD severity, the SCORAD (p<0,001;
Spearman correlation coefficient of r=0,63439)

Nils Krger, Lucy Fiegert, Dagmar Becker, Tilman Reuther, Martina Kerscher, Spurenelemente in
Form eines Kupfertripeptidkomplexes, Kosmetische Medizin, 1/2003, 24. Jahrgang
In den letzten Jahren wurde eine Reihe von neuen dermatokosmetischen Wirkstoffen entwickelt, um
Hautalterungssymptome zu bessern. Neben konsequentem Lichtschutz, Retinol und Antioxidantien
werden jetzt auch in deuschland Spurenelemente bei Hautalterung eingesetzt. In der hier vorgestellten
offenen, kontrollierten Untersuchung an 40 Probanden zeigte sich bei topischer Applikation von
Kupfertripeptid eine Zunahme der Hautdichte in der 20MHz-Sonographie, eine verbesserte
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Hydratation der obersten Hautschichten gemessen mittels Corneometrie sowie eine im vergleich zu
retinol und Placebo signifikant strkere Glttung der Haut, erfasst mit dem Visio-Scan.

Astrid Castro, Quantitative measurement of skin color changes with visual assessment
correlation,
The findings confirmed the suitability of developed clinical trial protocol for skin whitening efficacy
evaluation using the Mexameter MX 16 as a tool for the quantitative measurement of skin color
changes. The procedure of standardization used in the study is simple and workable in a clinical
setting. Factors of importance include the control of test site as well as environmental controls.

Astrid Castro de Castro, Evaluacion in vivo de despigmentantes de origen natural y/o
biotecnologicos
Teniendo presente la alta incidencia de hiperpigmentaciones, y la necesidad de obtener un producto
seguro, efectivo y sin reacciones adversas, nos propusimos evaluar in vivo la accion despigmentante
de una sustancia obtenia por Biotecnologia mezclada con extractos naturales, que denominamos N-
M contra otras ya conocidas de origen quimico y vegetal, que correspondian al Extracto de
Glycirrhiza Glabra, Acido Kojico, Hidroquinona y Extracto de Fagus Sylvatica.

A.. Vargas , A. Castro, Formulacion de jabon liquido con productos naturals:medida de su
efectividad
Los habones estan formados por la saponificacion de acidos grasos de alto peso molecular, con alkalis.
Teniendo presente la incidencia de dermatitis de contacto por Jabones y la solicitud del consumidor y
especialista tratante, de un producto seguro, no irritante, y que no remueva la capa lipidica, se formulo
un Jabon con productos naturales que aporta el efecto buscado. Siguiendo los principos de
formulacion se utilizaron mezclas de detergents anionicos y anfotericos con una sustancia viscosante.

Astrid Castro de Castro, Sericina en preparaciones capilares para cabellos danados: medida de su
efectividad
El cabello humano esta sometido a una agresion ambiental que contribuye a causar degradaciones
quimicas y estructurales. Se disenaron dos preparaciones con Hidrolizado de Sericina: champu
acondicionador y ampolla revitalizante. Se estudiaron 20 pacientes con cabellos danados,
observandose el dano mediante un Visiscan VC 98. cada paciente uso: champu y ampolla 3
veces/semana/30 dias.

M. Kucharekova, M. Hornix, T. Ashigaka, S. Tkint, G.J. de Jongh, J. Schalkwijk, P.C.M. van de
Kerkhof, P.G.M. van der Valk, The effect of the PDE-4 inhibitor (cipamfylline) in two human
models of irritant contact dermatitis, Archives of Dermatological research, Vol. 295, April 2003
Repeated application revealed that betamethasone-17-valerate caused a statistically significant
reduction in erythema and TEWL compared to cipamfylline and placebo. We also observed a
significant suppression of proliferating cells and cytokeratin 16 expression at sites treated with
betamethanose compared to the other sites.

Thomas Frster , Henkel KgaA, Cosmetic Lipids and the Skin Barrier, 2001 by Marcel Dekker
There is no doubt that the application os cosmetic lipids has many positive effects on the structure and
function of the skin. These effects are pleiotropic, caused either by direct interaction with the
epidermis, particularly the stratum corneum, or indirectly, by influencing the physiologic, homeostatic
condition of the skin.

K. De Paepe, J-P Hachem, J-M Lagarde, E. Houben, Y. Galle, D. Roseeuw, V. Rogiers, Skin
microrelief topography measuerements of ageing skin using a light transmission method, Skin
Research and Technology, Vol. 9, No. 2, May 2003
Anti-wrinkle creams, anti-ageing products and all kinds of skin care products, developed to affect skin
relief and reduce lines and wrinkles, are very popular and good sellers. Also for these products, it is
necessary to comply with the actual cosmetic EU legislation and to substantiate the claims made.

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D. Brokken, L.J.M. Schlangen, P.M. van Kemenade , A mechanical model for the skin suction
experiment, Skin Research and Technology, Vol. 9, No. 2, May 2003
The skin suction experiment is one of the most widely used methods in dermatology and cosmetology
to evaluate the mechanical properties of the skin. Usually, the skin is sucked into an aperture
repeatedly by applying an intermittent partial vacuum (P). Simultaneously, the elevation of the skin
into the aperture (U) is measured.

I. Sadiq, T. Stoudemayer, A. Kligman, Blue light visualizes the degree of solar elastosis in
photodamaged human facial skin, Skin Research and Technology, Vol. 9, No. 2, May 2003
We have utilized the short wavelength visible light (blue light) to visualize the fluorophores and
chromophores of photo-aged facial skin. Topographic details of the surface can also be seen with great
clarity. Two band-pass interference filters with a central wavelength of 417 nm, were placed in front
of two 400 watt xenon flash lamps.

H. Dobrev, In vivo studyof skin mechanical properties in Raynauds phenomenon, Skin Research
and Technology, Vol. 9, No. 2, May 2003
Raynauds phenomenon is usually the first symptom in patients with systemic sclerosis and may
precede skin changes by several months or years. Non-invasive measurements of skin elasticity are
very sensitive and appropriate for objective and quantitative evaluation of sclerodermatous skin. The
aim of this study was to investigate and compare the mechanical properties of the skin in patients with
primary, secondary and suspected secondary Raynauds phenomenon.

H-C Kim, S-J Hong, M-H Lee, J.S. Moon, H.S. Oh, M-G. Kim, C.H. Oh, S.J. Park, Objective
evaluation of severity in SLS-induced irritant dermatitis: comparing the studies between new
skin color analysis technique and other bioengineering tools, Skin Research and Technology, Vol.
9, No. 2, May 2003
In evaluation for severity of SLS-induced irritant dermatitis, visual scoring system is wide being used
as a subjective method. However, it is well known that variations exist even in the interpretations by
experienced dermatologist. So it is required to develop the new objective and quantitative method for
the assessment for severity of SLS induced irritant dermatitis.

S. Savic, N. Cekic, S. Tamburic, J. Milic, G. Vuleta, The effect of urea from dermo-cosmetic
emulsions on skin hydration and its barrier function: a vehicle-controlled study, Skin Research
and Technology, Vol. 9, No. 2, May 2003
A number of studies have shown that, depending on the concentration, treatment with urea could
improve skin barrier function, despite of its penetration enhancing properties. This controversial skin
effect has not been explored systematically in terms of the effectof vehicle on the performance of urea.

H.K. Lee, S.Y. Bae, S.J. Moon, I.S. Chang, Comparisons of skin characteristics between men and
women using non-invasive methods in young healthy Asians, Skin Research and Technology, Vol.
9, No. 2, May 2003
Skin has different properties depending on intrinsic effects such as inherent factors, race, gender and
so on. Besides, it has been known that skin may change because of the environmental stress such as
UV, climate and life style. We would like to know the differences of skin characteristics between male
and female. The results of this study might be applicate the depart of dermatology and cosmetology.

L. Monteiro Rodriguez, J. Martins Magro, Bioengineered characterisation of the thermal burn
injury healing process, Skin Research and Technology, Vol. 9, No. 2, May 2003
Full thickness burn injuries may be followed-up through non-invasive bioengineered methodologies.
This elegant approach to this complex multifactorial process allows us to obtain quantitative data
involving several variables representing structure and function, providing more objective support to
practical management and therapeutical intervention.

I.F. Almeida, D. Endo, M.F. Bahia, Moisturizing properties of two oleogels following single
application, Skin Research and Technology, Vol. 9, No. 2, May 2003
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Oleogels are interesting new systems obtained with a hydrophobic liquid. On the last years there were
discovered and developed many organogelators that in same cases were able to gelify biocompatible
liquids. Their applications were investigated in several areas such as organic chemistry, environmental
chemistry and also in pharmaceutical and cosmetics fields.

R. Pena Ferreira, P. Costa, F. Bahia, Visioscan VC 98 application: a comparison study between
coarse and smooth skin surface, Skin Research and Technology, Vol. 9, No. 2, May 2003
The skin is a result of many biochemical and physical factors and these are subject to changes both
internally and externally. What is aging? Must of us define aging in terms of the appearance of people
in our life experience. Others studying aging mechanisms define aging as a decrease in functional
capacity. In the last few years, a great deal of data has been generated on aging mechanisms trying to
determine if the aging process is a single event, a one-gene process, or a multifaceted process
produced by many events and perhaps many genes.

J. Fluhr, J.S. kao, P.M. Elias, K.R. Feingold, Short-term glucocorticoid treatment compromises
both permeability barrier homeostasis and stratum corneum integrity: inhibition of epidermal
lipid synthesis accounts for functional abnormalities, Skin Research and Technology, Vol. 9, No. 2,
May 2003
Prolonged exposure of human stratum corneum to excess endogenous or exogenous glucocorticoids
(GC) can result in well-recognized cutaneous abnormalities. Here, we determined wheter short-term
GC treatment would alter two key functions of the skin, permeability barrier homeostasis and stratum
corneum (SC) integrity and cohesion, and the basis for these changes.

S. Bielfeld, M. Brandt, A. Gerstenkorn, K. Wilhelm, Capacitance measurement of skin moisture:
sophisticated calibration of instruments, Skin Research and Technology, Vol. 9, No. 2, May 2003
Absolute valuesof different instruments designed to measure the skin capacitance are not comparable,
even though they all work with the same measurement principle. Even in the same instrument type
differences in measurement results are common. For this reason, studies are generally performed with
only one instrument and a comparison of data obtained in different studies with different instruments
is not regarded as valid.

P.C. Pinto, R. Minhos, L.M. Pereira, L. Monteiro, Validation of a compartmental model to
quantitatively describe transepidermal water loss, Skin Research and Technology, Vol. 9, No. 2,
May 2003
New computational methods are being applied to analyze data from TEWL experiments mostly using
non-linear algorithms. A new strategy involving the application of a compartmental model to TEWL
data obtained from a Plastic Occlusion Stress Test (POST) has been used with encouraging results.
This strategy is now being validated in order to establish its major determinants affecting the model`s
parameters.

P.C. Pinto, L.M. Pereira, L. MonteiroRodriguez, Skin water dynamics: disposition-decomposition
analysis (DDA) od transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and epidermal capacitance, Skin Research
and Technology, Vol. 9, No. 2, May 2003
Knowledge about human skin water dynamics seems to represent a growing importance to understand
the organs normal physiology. Mathematical modelling of (cutaneous water) related variables
obtained through skin bioengineering, provided new perspectives to approach this problem.

M. Bock, H.J. Schwanitz, Site variations in susceptibility to SLS at the volar forearm evaluated by
TEWL measurement, Skin Research and Technology, Vol. 9, No. 2, May 2003
According to the guidelines on sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) exposure test of the ESCD
standardisation group the flexor side of forearm skin with cubital fossa and wrist excluded is the
preferred study site. This study analyses the exact anatomic region within the suggested test area in
respect to the outcome of SLS exposure test.

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M. Setaro, A. Sparavigna, It is possible to define a biological ageof the skin?, Skin Research and
Technology, Vol. 9, No. 2, May 2003
The evaluation of global skin performance as compared to anagraphical age of the subject is until
today dependent on clinical evaluation. By doing so, pre-clinic alterations of skin aging, are often
missed, loosing the possibility to set up adequate strategies of prevention and treatment. Non-invasiev
evaluations based on the measurements of skin parameters allow to monitor functional alterations of
the skin with age in objective, sensitive specific and reproducible way.

H.S. Oh, M.H. Lee, S.Y. Park, H-C Kim, J-S Moon, M-G Kim, C-H Oh, New skin colour analysis
technique, Skin Research and Technology, Vol. 9, No. 2, May 2003
It is very important aspect in skin color analysis that the objective evaluation for color distribution in
same image. But conventional spectrophotometer are able to analysis as average value of rgion of
interest (ROI) not to color distribution analysis. We tried to develop the new skin color analysis
technique so as to objective measured skin color distribution as a pixel or ROI using liquid crystal
tunable filter (LCTF) and CCD camera.

H. Tronnier, M. Wiebusch, U. Heinrich, Frictiometry on human skin, Skin Research and
Technology, Vol. 9, No. 2, May 2003
The state and function of human skin can be quantified by numerous non-invasive test methods.
There are, however, still no valid methods to measure the tactile properties of the skin surface and thus
to quantify the state of the skin on the one hand, and to determine the negative and positive effects of
tactile influences on the other hand. The measuring device (Frictiometer) consists of a sensor, a
steering unit and a monitor. The torque, the circular friction on the skin surface, is measured via the
motor load current and is shown as a voltage drop.

A. Castro, Evaluation of the moisturizing effectivity of different materials (ES), Colamiq Congress
in Cartagena, 2003
La resequedad de la piel tiene diversos origenes: disminucion de lipidos, perdida de agua
transepidermal, factores hormonales, geneticos, medicamentosos, ambientales. Durante muchos anos
se han buscado medicamento o procedimientos que puedan revertir o detener los danos de la piel que
se presntan a traves del curso de la vida, inducidos por factores externos o internos. La condicion de
piel seca que afecta a un amplio universo de la poblacion, viendose mas marcada en la poblacion
adulta, aunque tambien se presenta en la poblacion joven, juega un papel determinante en el proceso
de envejecimiento de la piel.

A. Castro de Catsro, S.H. T. Casares, Luis Augusto Castro Sader, Efectividad de activos naturales
para evitar la formacion de la piel de naranja, Colamiq Congress in Cartagena, 2003
La aparacion de la aestetica piel de naranja conjuntamente con la disminucion de la forma, sedosidad,
y brillo de la piel de un cuerpo joven, afecta la imagen femenina de tal forma que hoy en dia, se ha
transformado en un verdadero problema social y psicologico, padecerla es peor que tener algun mal
que genere dolor.

L. Orejarena, A. Castro, Evaluacion de la efectividad hidratante de diferentes sustancias y su
estabilidad fisica, Actualizaciones Terapeuticas, dermatologicas y Esteticas, Nov.-Dec. 2002, Vol. 25
La resequedad de la piel tiene diversos origenes: disminucion de lipidos, perdida de agua
transepidermal, factores hormonales, geneticos, medicamentosos, ambientales. Conociendo que esta
condicion es una de las mas tratadas por especialistas, y que infinidad de productos dermocosmeticos
especifican ser hidratantes, sin evaluacion de efectividad ni estabilidad, nos propusimos evaluar la
actividad de diferentes hidratantes, en varias bases.

L.C. de Ramayo, A. Castro, Luis Augusto Castro Sader, Medida de la efectividad de reguladores de
grasa de origen natural, Colamiq Congress in Cartagena, 2003
En la actualidad existe un numero considerable de consumidores que presentan una piel con una
apariencia aceitosa, grasosa, brillante, untuosa al tacto que desde todo punto de vista resulta
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desagradable. Hoy en dia, se habla mas de un problema de calidad de sebo en la superficie de la piel
que de aumento de la oleosidad y la piel grasosa se ha convertido en un problema serio de la piel.

U. Heinrich, U. Koop, K. Osterrieder, S. Bielfeld, C. Chkarnat, J. Degwert, D. Hntschel, S. Jaspers,
H-P. Nissen, M. Rohr, G. Schneider, H. Tronnier, Multicentre comparison of skin hydration in
terms of physical-, physiological- and product-dependent parameters by the capacitive method,
International Journal of Cosmetics Science, 2003, 25, 45-53 *
A multicentre study for measuring skin hydration with 349 volunteers was carried out in six different
laboratories. The purpose of the study was to investigate physical-, physiological- and product-
dependent parameters of three test emulsions (base, base+moisturizer and base+moisturizer+lipids) in
a double-blind study. A comparison between analogous and digital sensor technology of the
Corneometer CM 825 was examined.

M. Jouandeaud, M. Dana, B. Closs, A new generation of tensor actives, Household and Personal
Products Industry, June 2003
After age 50, or thereabouts, women experience a slackening of the skin and a loss of elasticity and
tone. Cutaneous aging results primarily in the appearance of more or less marked wrinkles, which are
accentuated on the photo-exposed body areas such as the face, the neck or hands. In order to
erasethe effects of age, consumers are eager to test an entire range of anti-wrinkle substances, or
take more drastic measures such as undergoing plastic surgery.

L.P.L. van de Vijver, E. Boelsma, R.A. Bausch-Goldbohm, L. Roza, Subjective skin condition and its
association with objective skin measurements, Cosmetics & Toiletries, Vol. 118, No. 7, July 2003
From a group of 302 volunteers, the authors obtained both selfreported subjective evaluations of skin
condition and objective measurements of skin conditions, and then looked for correlations between the
subjective and objective kin measures.

L.M. Rodrigues, P. C. Pinto,L.M. Pereira, Quantitative description of human skin water dynamics
by a disposition-decomposition analysis (DDA) of trans-epidermal water loss and epidermal
capacitance, Skin Research and Technology, Vol.9, No. 1, Feb. 2003
In vivo water assessment would greatly benefit from a dynamical approach since the evaluation of
common related variables such as trans-epidermal water loss or capacitance measurements is always
limited to instantaneous data. Mathematical modelling is still an attractive alternative already
attempted with bi-exponential empirical models.

Y. Yoshizawa, K. Kitamura, S. Kawana, H. Maibach, Water, salts and skin barrier of normal skin,
Skin Research and Technology, Vol.9, No. 1, Feb. 2003
We recently reported that open application of seawater for 20 min ameliorated experimental irritant
contact dermatitis induced by sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) cumulative irritation. The efficacy was
overall contributed by 500 mM of sodium chloride (NaCl) and 10mM of potassium chloride (KCl),
which are consistent with the each concentration in seawater.

L.J.M. Schlangen, D. Brokken, P.M. van Kemenade, Correlation between small aperture skin
suction parameters: statistical analysis and mechanical model, Skin Research and Technology,
Vol.9, No. 2, May. 2003
Skin suction experiments are widely used in order to evaluate the effects of skin treatments, both for
cosmetic and for dermatological purposes. Classically, the elevation of the skin is measured at
different discrete time instances after the pressure has been changed. Relations between the classical
parameters-Uv, Ur, Ue and Uf-have been investigated and used in order to develop a new model for
interpreting the mechanical properties of the skin.

S. Amari, A. Amari, C. Schubert, Focus on the hydrating profile of two naturally derived
emulsifiers, Personal Care , July 2003,
Olive oil is the one of the lipids showing the highest compatibility with our skin. The sebum secreted
by the sebaceous glands is produced for an important reason: to protect the skin against the
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environment and to reduce the Trans-Epidermal-Water Loss (TEWL). When one examines and
compares the percentage ranges of fatty acids, oleic acid, polyunsaturated fatty acid, waxy esters and
squalene contained both in the skin and in wirgin olive oil, it is quickly evident that there is a
remarkable similarity.

L.R. Gaspar, P.M.B.G.Maia Campos, Evaluation of the protective effect of alpha-tocopheryl
acetate in a sunscreen, preventing erythema formation, transepidermal water loss and sunburn
cell formation, IFSCC , Vol. 6, No. 3/2003
Nowadays, vitamin E acetate is used as an antioxidant and moisturizer in sunscreens. Although free
vitamin E presents UV protection effects, little data has been forthcoming documenting the beneficial
effects of vitamin E acetate on cutabeous photodamage, when combined with sunscreens. The aim of
this study was to evaluate the protective effect of a sunscreen formulation with or without vitamin E
acetate on erythema in hairless mice, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and sunburn cell formation.

Stoffe aus dem Prfstand, Spiegel 37/2003
Wer den ganzen Tag in strapazierfhiger Berufskleidung steckt, hat darunter oft wunde Stellen:
Straenarbeiter, Feuerwehrleute, Grokchenkche. Durch die stndige Bewegung bei der Arbeit
entzndet sich empfindliche Haut besonders dort, wo sie sich an Nahtstellen oder rauem Gewebe
reibt., sagt Hagen Tronnier, dermatologe an der Universitt Witten/Herdecke.

Besty, Hughes-Formella, Teststrategien fr Mittel gegen trockene Haut, Skin Care Forum, Ausgabe
24, Sep. 2003
Trockene Haut stellt ein hufiges Problem in der Dermatologie dar und reprsentiert eine Dysfunktion
der Epidermis, insbesondere des Stratum Corneum als morphologischem quivalent der Hautbarriere.
Verschiedene Hauterkrankungen wie z.B. Atopische Dermatitis oder Ichthyose basieren auf einer
genetischen Disposition fr trockene Haut.

H. Lambers, H. Pronk, S. Piessens and E. Voss, Natural human skin surface pH is on average
below 5, Gordon Conference, Aug. 2003
The acidic surface pH and the pH gradient over the stratum corneum (SC) are important for optimal
condition of the skin, supporting the following functions: regulation of skin microflora, thereby
preventing pathogenesis, optimal structure and function of the lipid barrier, optimal stratum corneum
homeostasis.

Sophia Antipolis,Ederline, an anti aging active ingredient In vivo studies on wrinkles, Society of
Cosmetic Chemists, Dec. 2000
Skin aspect and texture is largely influenced by steroid hormones which are stored in the subcutaneous
tissue and act on skin cells as they stimulate the regeneration of the extra cellular matrix. Studies have
shown that the decrease of these hormones plays an important role in skin endogenous aging.

S. Antipolis, Date Palm Kernel extract exhibits anti-aging properties and significantly improves
skin wrinkles, 20
th
World Congress of Dermatology, Paris, July 2002
It is well established that body hormones play a central role in skin appearance and are implicated in
skin aging. Studies have shown that the decrease of these hormones plays an important role in skin
endogenous aging, the decrease of skin thickness, and the disturbance of normal collagen turnover
which, in turn, results in a decrease in collagen I and III synthesis.

Sophia Antipolis, In vivo Studies of Phytosterol Sulfate Effect on human skin hydration and
barrier function, Society for Investigative dermatology, May 2001
Phytosterol Sulfate (PS) is a new sterol and homologue to cholesterol sulfate an essential component
in the human epidermis. Sterols are critical for epidermal barrier function; they mediate lipid synthesis
and stratum corneum formation, desquamation, and membrane hydration. They also serve as an
important precursor for Vitamin D.

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G. Pierard, La biopsie de urface en dermatology clinique et exprimentale, Rev. Eur. Dermatol.
MST 1992 4 455
La biopsie de surface consiste prelever la partie superficielle de la couche corne. Il en existe deux
variantes. Lune est realisee avec laide dune colle de type cyanoacrylate et une lamelle de plastique
transparent. Lautre repose sur lutilisation de petits disques prencolls disponibles commercialement.

C. Pierard, G. Pierard, Cyanoacrylate Skin Surface Stripping for Vizualizing Stratum Corneum
Structures and Dynamics,
Cyanoacrylate skin stripping (CSSS) came into existence when High-bond glues became available.
The introduction of the polyethylene slide used to take the sample was a decisive new stage in the
development of this technique. The necessary materials are presented in Table7.1.

G. Pierard, EEMCO guidance for the assessment of dry skin(xerosis) and ichthyosis: evaluation
by stratum corneum strippings, Skin Research and Technology 1996; 2; 3-11
Evaluation of scaliness in xerotic and ichthyotic conditions is conveniently addressed by stratum
corneum strippings.
The assessment of scaling conditions by stratum corneum stripping methods may be validly used in
the laboratory. Interpretations, however, must be cautious. Direct extrapolations with respect to the
water content in the stratum corneum should be avoided.

C. Pierard, G. Pierard, Skin surface stripping in diagnosing and monitoring inflammatory
Xerotic, and Neoplastic Diseases, Pediatric Dermatology Vol. 2 No. 3 180-184
Skin surface stripping is a useful and simple diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of a number of diseases
that affect the skin during childhood and adolescence. The procedure has proved to be especially
valuable in inflammatory, xerotic, and neoplastic conditions as it provides information regarding
pathologic changes as well as diagnosis.

W. Gehring, R. Bopp, F. Rippke, M. Gloor, Effect of topically applied evening primrose oil on
epidermal barrier function in atopic dermatitis as a function of vehicle, Arzneimittel-
Forschung/Drug Research 49(II), 7, 635-642 (1999)
The aim of this study was to establish the effect on barrier function in atopic dermatitis of topical
evening primrose oil in an amphiphilic and a stable water-in-oil emulsion. The studies were vehicle-
controlled in two populations of 20 atopic subjects. Barrier function was assessed in terms of
transepidermal water loss and stratum corneum hydration after a 4-week treatment period and a 1-
week treatment-free period.

B.A. Green, B.L. Edison, R. Hwu, R.H. Wildnauer, Cosmetic uses of benzilic acid a lipophilic
Alpha-Hydroxyacid (AHA), 12
th
European Academy of dermatology and Venereology, Barcelona
2003 October 15.-18.
The alpha-hydroxyacids (AHAs) are used extensively to enhance skin smoothness and clarity, while
promoting overall skin health and normalcy. They are also used adjunctively with topical medications
for the treatment of skin conditions including acne and hyperpigmentation. Commonly used AHAs,
including glycolic acid and lactic acid , are highly hydrophilic and less lipophilic.

F. Rippke, V. Schreiner, H-J. Schwanitz, The acidic milieu of the horny layer, Am J Clin Dermatol
2002; 3 (4): 261-272
The acidic pH of the horny layer, measurable on the skin surface, has long been regarded as a result of
exocrine secretion of the skin glands. The acid mantle was thought to regulate the bacterial skin flora
and to be sensitive primarily to skin cleansing procedures. In recent years, an increasing number of
investigations have been published on the changes in, and constituents and functions of, the pH of the
deeper layers of the stratum corneum, as well as on the influence of physiological and pathological
factors.

S. Stenzaly-Achtert, A. Schlermann, J. Schreiber, K.H. Diec, F. Rippke, S. Bielfeld, Axillary pH and
influence of deodorants, Skin research and Technology 2000;6:87-91
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A significan pH reduction was shown during the treatment period when compared to the run-in phase.
The Deodorant Roll-on induced a reduction of the mean pH values from 6.1 to 5.3, the Deodorant
Balsam Spray from 6.5 to 5.7 and the Deodorant Cream from 6.2 to 5.3. During the wash-out period
all pH values returned to baseline.

A.G. Shepky, A. Brger, G. Rudolph, M. Max, U. koop, J. Ennen, M. Kuhn, A. Schlermann, F.
Rippke, Mild keratolysis by topical application of proteolytic enzyme subtilisin,
The proteolytic enzyme subtilisin offers a novel, especially mild way of keratolysis, obtained already
in low concentrations and within the normal pH-range of the skin. The highly purified protease
subtilisin from Bacillus subtilis degrades the bonds between the corneocytes and promotes the release
of peptides and amino acids as natural moisturizing factors.

JW Fluhr, L. Bankova, PM Elias, KR Feingold, Assessment of permeability barrier function
measuring transepidermal water loss: comparing 3 closed-loop systems and 4 open-loop systems
in vivo and in vitro, Skin Research and Technology, Vol. 9, Nr. 2, May 2003, Abstract Nr. 10.
The permeability barrier function is traditionally measured with instruments assessing the
transepidermal water loss (TEWL) relaying on (i) closed loop systems (ii) open loop systems. In the
present study three closed loop system-based instruments were compared under different experimental
in vivo conditions with 4 open-loop based instruments: MEECO, H4300, VapoMeter, TM 210, TM
300, DermaLab and EP 1.

M. Takahashi, M. Egawa, T. Hirao, The frictional feel analyzer, Skin Research and Technology,
Vol. 9, Nr. 2, May 2003, Abstract Nr. 18.
Sensory evaluation is important in the testing of cosmetic products. Several devices for the
measurement of sensory properties have been developed in recent years. The objective here is to
measure skin surface friction using these devices and to examine the correlation with other
physiological parameters in order to evaluate the feasibility of using physical measurement to predict
tactile sensation.

A. Barel, R. Lambrecht, P. Clarys, Study of the mechanical properties of human skin using the
shear wave propagation method, Skin Research and Technology, Vol. 9, Nr. 2, May 2003, Abstract
Nr. 21.
In vivo determination of the elastic properties and anisotropy of human skin can be determined using
the shear wave propagation method. The Reviscometer RVM-600 R (Courage-Khazaka, Cologne,
Germany) measures the resonance running time (RRT) between two sensors which are placed on the
skin surface.

S.M. Fuchs, C. Heinemann, J. W. Fluhr, S. Schliemann-Willers, U. Grfe, P. Elsner, Anti-
inflammatory efficacy of Poria cocos in SLS induced irritant contact dermatitis and UVB-
induced erythema, Skin Research and Technology, Vol. 9, Nr. 2, May 2003, Abstract Nr. 39.
A great number of compounds is available for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases, the most
effective external anti-inflammatory compounds being glucocorticoids. Their side effects have
motivated a continuing search for other therapeutical compounds, and fungal metabolites like Poria
cocos have figured in the literature.

D. Haentschel, M. Gorath, J. Degwert, Non- and semi-invasive quantitative and qualitative
assessment of epidermal regeneration by the use of an in vivo wound healing model, Skin
Research and Technology, Vol. 9, Nr. 2, May 2003, Abstract Nr. P66.
Normal wound healing is a carefully controlled balance between new tissue formation and destruction
processes necessary to remove damaged tissue. The non-invasive measurement of transepidermal
water loss (TEWL; TEWL probe for the DermaLab Cortex Technologies, Hadsund, Denmark) and
skin roughness by the use of the PRIMOS (Phaseshift Rapid in vivo Measurement of Skin) system
(GF Messtechnik, Teltow, Germany) allows a continuous follow-up of cutaneous processes
accompanied with changeable conditions of the impairment of the epidermal barrier function or the
skin topographym, respectively.
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K. De Paepe, J-P Hachem, E. Houben, J-M Lagarde, Y. Galle, D. Roseeuw, V. Rogiers, Skin
microrelief topography measurements of ageing skin using a light transmission method, Skin
Research and Technology, Vol. 9, Nr. 2, May 2003, Abstract Nr. P69.
Anti-wrinkle creams, anti-ageing products and all kinds of skin care products, developed to affect skin
relief and reduce lines and wrinkles, are very popular and good sellers. Also for these products, it is
necessary to comply with the actual cosmetic EU legislation and to substantiate the claims made.

D. Brokken, LJM Schlangen, PM van Kemenade, A mechanical model for the skin suction
experiment, Skin Research and Technology, Vol. 9, Nr. 2, May 2003, Abstract Nr. P72.
The skin suction experiment is one of the most widely used methods in dermatology and cosmetology
to evaluate the mechanical properties of the skin. Usually, the skin is sucked into an aperture
repeatedly by applying an intermittent partial vacuum (P).

I. Sadiq, T. Stoudemayer, A. Kligman, Blue light visualizes the degree of solar elastosis in
photodamaged human facial skin, Skin Research and Technology, Vol. 9, Nr. 2, May 2003,
Abstract Nr. P74.
We have utilized the short wavelength visible light (blue light) to visualize the fluorophores and
chromophores of photo-aged facial skin. Topographic details of the surface can also be seen with great
clarity.

H. Dobrev, In vivo study of skin mechanical properties in Raynauds phenomenon, Skin Research
and Technology, Vol. 9, Nr. 2, May 2003, Abstract Nr. P76.
Raynauds phenomenon is usually the first symptom on patients with systemic sclerosis and may
precede skin changes by several months or years. Non-invasive measurements of skin elasticity are
very sensitive and appropriate for objective and quantitative evaluation of sclerodermatous skin.

H-C Kim, S-J Hong, M-H Lee, J-S Moon, Objective evaluation of severity in SLS-induced irritant
dermatitis: comparing the studies between new skin color analysis technique and other
bioengineering tools, Skin Research and Technology, Vol. 9, Nr. 2, May 2003, Abstract Nr. P77.
Objective: In evaluation for severity of SLS-induced irritant dermatitis, visual scoring system is wide
being used as a subjective method. However, it is well known that variations exist even in the
interpretations by experienced dermatologists.

S. Savic, N. Cekic, S. Tamburic, J. Milic, G. Vuleta, The effect of urea from dermo-cosmetic
emulsions on skin hydration and its barrier function: a vehicle-controlled study, Skin Research
and Technology, Vol. 9, Nr. 2, May 2003, Abstract Nr. P81.
A number of studies have shown that, depending on the concentration, treatment with urea could
improve skin barrier function, despite of its penetration enhancing properties. This controversial skin
effect has not been explored systematically in terms of the effect of vehicle on the performance of
urea.

HK Lee, SY Ahn, JH Bae, SJ Moon, IS Chang, Comparisons of skin characteristics between men
and women using non-invasive methods in young healthy Asians, Skin Research and Technology,
Vol. 9, Nr. 2, May 2003, Abstract Nr. P84.
Objective: Skin has different properties depending on intrinsic effects such as inherent factors, race,
gender, and so on. Besides, it has been known that skin may change because of the environmental
stress such as UV, climate and life style.

R. Pena Ferreira, P. Costa, F. Bahia, Visioscan VC 98 application: a comparison study between
coarse and smooth skin surface, Skin Research and Technology, Vol. 9, Nr. 2, May 2003, Abstract
Nr. P91.
The skin is a result of many biochemical and physical factors and these are subject to changes both
internally and externally. What is aging? Most of us define aging in terms of the appearance of people
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in our life experience. Others studying aging mechanisms define aging as a decrease in functional
capacity.

L. M. Rodrigues, J. Martinsmagro, M. Mouzinho, P. Pinto, M. Almeida, Bioengineered
characterisation of the thermal burn injury healing process, Skin Research and Technology, Vol.
9, Nr. 2, May 2003, Abstract Nr. P86.
Full thickness burn injuries may be followed-up through non-invasive bioengineered methodologies.
This elegant approach to this complex multi-factorial process allows us to obtain quantitative data
involving several variables representing structure and function, providing more objective support to
practical management and therapeutical intervention.

I. F. Almeida, D. Endo, M. F. Bahia, Moisturizing properties of two oleogels following single
application, Skin Research and Technology, Vol. 9, Nr. 2, May 2003, Abstract Nr. P92.
Oleogels are interesting new systems obtained with a hydrophobic liquid. On the last years there were
discovered and developed many organogelators that in same cases were able to gelify biocompatible
liquids. Their applications were investigated in several areas such as organic chemistry, environmental
chemistry and also in pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields.

J. W. Fluhr, J. S. Kao, P. M. Elias, K. R. Feingold, Short-term glucocorticoid treatment
compromises both permeability barrier homeostasis and stratum corneum integrity: inhibition
of epidermal lipid synthesis accounts for functional abnormalities, Skin Research and Technology,
Vol. 9, Nr. 2, May 2003, Abstract Nr. P95.
Prolonged exposure of human stratum corneum to excess endogenous or exogenous glucocorticoids
(GC) can result in well-recognized cutaneous abnormalities. Here, we determined whether short-term
GC treatment would alter two key functions of the skin, permeability barrier homeostasis and stratum
corneum (SC) integrity and cohesion, and the basis for these changes.

S. Bielefeldt, M. Brandt, A. Gerstenkorn, K. Wilhelm, Capacitance measurement of skin moisture:
sophisticated calibration of instruments, Skin Research and Technology, Vol. 9, Nr. 2, May 2003,
Abstract Nr. P97.
Absolute values of different instruments designed to measure the skin capacitance are not comparable,
even though they all work with the same measurement principle. Even in the same instrument type
differences in measurement results are common.

P. C. Pinto, R. Minhs, L. M. Pereira, L. Monteiro Rodrigues, Validation of a compartmental model
to quantitatively describe transepidermal water loss, Skin Research and Technology, Vol. 9, Nr. 2,
May 2003, Abstract Nr. P105.
New computational methods are being applied to analyze data from TEWL experiments mostly using
non-linear algorithms. A new strategy involving the application of a compartmental model to TEWL
data obtained from a Plastic Occlusion Stress Test (POST) has been used with encouraging results.

P. C. Pinto, L. M. Pereira, L. Monteiro Rodrigues, Skin water dynamics: disposition-decomposition
analysis (DDA) of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and epidermal capacitance, Skin Research
and Technology, Vol. 9, Nr. 2, May 2003, Abstract Nr. P106.
Knowledge about human skin water dynamics seems to represent a growing importance to understand
the organs normal physiology. Mathematical modelling of (cutaneous water) related variables
obtained through skin bioengineering, provided new perspectives to approach this problem.

H. S. Oh, M. H. Lee, S. Y. Park, H. C. Kim, New Skin colour analysis technique, Skin Research and
Technology, Vol. 9, Nr. 2, May 2003, Abstract Nr. P114.
It is very important aspect in skin color analysis that the objective evaluation of color distribution in
same image. But conventional spectrophotometer are able to analysis as average value of region of
interest (ROI) not to color distribution analysis. We tried to develop the new skin color analysis
technique so as to objective measured skin color distribution as a pixel or ROI using liquid crystal
tunable filter (LCTF) and CCD camera (so called Skin Color Distribution Analyser: SCDA).
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H. Tronnier, M. Wiebusch, U. Heinrich, Frictiometry on human skin, Skin Research and
Technology, Vol. 9, Nr. 2, May 2003, Abstract Nr. P116.
The state and function of human skin can be quantified by numerous non-invasive test methods. There
are, however, still no valid methods to measure the tactile properties of the skin surface as thus to
quantify the state of the skin on the one hand, and to determine the negative and positive effects of
tactile influences on the other hand.

S.T. Casares, A. Castro de Castro, L.A. Castro Sader, Efectividad de activos naturales para evitar
la formacion de la piel de naranja, XVI Congreso latinoamericano e iberico Quimicos Cosmeticos,
15-18. Sept. 2003
La aparicion de la aestetica piel de naranja conjuntamente con la disminucion de la forma, sedosidad,
y brillo de la piel de un cuerpo joven, afecta la imagen femenina de tal forma que hoy en dia, se ha
transformado en un verdadero problema social y psicologico, padecerla es peor que tener algun mal
que genere dolor.

A. del Pozo, In vivo screening of surfactant effects on stratum corneum, Association de
Pharmacie Galenique Industrielle, Paris 22-23 Oct. 2003
Prolonged or repeated exposure of skin to surfactants used in personal care products or cleaners often
results in damage to the stratum corneum (SC) barrier function. Prevention of stratum corneum
damage requires careful formulation of such products and suitable screening methods to detect
changes in stratum corneum function.

Suk-Jin Choi, Min-Gyu Song, Whan-Tae Sung, Dong-Youn Lee, Comparison of TEWL,
Capacitance, and pH Values in the Skin between intrinsic and extrinsic atopic dermatitis
patients, J Korean Med Sci 2003, 18, 93-6, pp. 93-96.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by an intensely pruritic skin disease with typical distribution
and morphology. The age of onset is nearly always within the first 5 yr of life, and lifetime prevalence
in children is roughly 10 to 15% in industrialized countries.

A. del Pozo, Restitution of cutaneous barrier from o/w bigels emulsifier-free, Association de
Pharmacie Galenique Industrielle, Paris 22-23 Oct. 2003
To evaluate the capacity of modifying water retention at cutaneous level (WHC:water holding
capacity) of formulation elaborated with Emulfree CBG (INCI: Isostearyl Alcohol and Butylene
Glycol Cocoate and Ethylcellulose), a new stabilizer system o/w bigel type emulsifier-free
preparations.

S. Guehenneux, I. Le Fur, E. Tschachler, Influence of aircraft cabin environment on skin
hydration in healthy women, 12
th
EADV, 15-18. Oct. 2003, Barcelona
Airline passengers often complain about sensations of skin and mucous membrane dryness and
discomfort due to the dry atmosphere in aircraft cabins. Moreover, low relative humidity in the aircraft
cabin is an unavoidable consequence of pressurization at high altitudes. Despite the fact that very low
humidity is routinely encountered, no study of its effects on the skin has been reported in the cabin
environment. The aim of our study was to study the changes in skin hydration in healthy women
during long distance flights.

A.E. Sagiv, Y. Marcus, The connection between in vitro water uptake and in vivo skin
moisturization, Skin Research and Technology 2003, 9, 306-311
Adding hydroxyl groups to a consecutive set of polyhydroxyalkanes increases the humectancy of the
polyols in vitro. This elevation was found to be linear at low relative humidities (Relative humidity =
31,9% and 37C). In vivo, moisture was returned to normal within a week in all three groups.
However, only glycerol managed to abolish the erythema within 7 days.

P-A. Wendling, G. Dellacqua, Skin biophysical properties of a population living in Valais,
Switzerland, Skin Research and Technology 2003, 9, 306-311
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On average we observed low values of skin capacitance that identify subjects with dry skin. Measures
of skin visco-elasticity ratios were also particulary low, while skin pH and sebum content were in the
normal range. Age was correlated with a decrease of skin elasticity and sebum content, but there was
no correlation with hydration or pH.

T. Yokota, M. Matsumoto, T. Sakamaki, R. Hikima, S. Hayashi, M. Yanagisawa, H. Kuwahara, S.
Yamazaki, T. Ogawa, M. Hayase, Classification of sensitive skin and development of a treatment
system appropriate for each group, IFSCC Magazine, Oct./Dec. 2003, Vol. 6, No. 4
In order to find an effective approach to improve sensitive skin, it is important to know the detailed
mechanism of sensitive skin. In this study, detailed characteristics of sensitive skin were investigated
using non-invasive methods. Sensitive skin was classified into three different types based on their
particular characteristics.

J. Wiechers, S. Swaminathan, The equaliser, SPC Asia, Nov. 2003
In the quest to find the fountain of youth for skin, formulators of personal care products search for
ingredients with the potential to change skin back to the way it was when we were young adults.
Formulators have yet to find these magic ingredients but in their search they have devised skin-toning
materials that go a long way towards biologically changing the skin.

E. Kawai, Y. Kohno, K. Ogawa, K. Sakuma, N. Yoshikawa, D. Aso, Can inorganic powders provide
any biological benefit in stratum corneum, while residing on skin surface? , Revista SRCC, Vol.
3, Nr. 3/2003
The plasminogen (Plg) activation system plays a role in the process leading to dry skin In this study,
we have discovered that a urokinasetype Plg activator (UK), a trigger of thePlg activation system,
which was previously believed to work within the epidermis, also exists in stratum corneum (SC).

U. Heinrich, H. Tronnier, Johanniskraut-Extrakt zur Pflege der atopischen Haut, Kosmetische
Medizin, Ausgabe 3-4/2003, 24. Jahrgang
Die Bedeutung einer wirkungsvollen Hautpflege mit subakuter atopischer dermatitis sowie auch
Personen mit trockener empfindlicher Haut konnte in Zahlreichen Untersuchungen nachgewiesen
werden. Neben einem besseren Hautgefhl knnen Juckreiz, Rauhigkeit, Rtung und Trockenheit
deutlich vermindert werden. Gleichzeitig werden heute die angenehmen galenischen Eigenschaften
einer kosmetischen Hautpflege verlangt.

I. Le Fur, A. Reinberg, S. Lopez, F. Morizot, M. Mechkouri, E. Tschachler, Facial Skin circadian
rhythms of healthy women investigated using non-invasive methods, 22th IFSCC Congress,
Edinburgh, 23-26 September 2002
The investigation was performed during a weekend, subjects were sampled every 4 hours during a
48h-span making a total of 12 time point measurements.

H. Dobrev, L. Zissova, R. Iankova, Study of therapeutic effectiveness of four antidandruff
shampoos, 12
th
Congress of the European Academy of Dermatology & Venereology, Oct. 15-18 ,
2003, Barcelona, Spain. *
Dandruff and scalp seborrhoeic can be successfully treated with shampoos containing different active
substances. In patients with dry seborrhoea an increase in scalp lipid level occurs due to the
elimination of follicular occlusion and omprovement of sebum delivery.

H. Dobrev, Application of Cutometer Area Parameters for Study Human Skin Fatigue,
Department of Dermatology and Venereology; Medical University, Plovdiv, Bulgarien.
The hallmark of age-related changes of skin mechanical properties is the decrease in its elastic
properties (1-2). This results in bigger fatigue of adult skin than young skin after applying multiple
stress at one and the same anatmoic region. *

M. I. Nogueira de Camargo Harris Propriedades biomecnicas da pele, Pele : estrutura,
propriedades e envelhecimento, Editora Senac, Sao Paulo, 2003.
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A biometrologia cutnea, ramo da cincia que avalia quantitativamente as propriedades biomecnicas
da pele, tem encontrado na cosmetologia um importante aliado, pois o apelo mercadologico dos
produtos destinados aos cuidados com a pele e com os cabelos tem-se baseado cada vez mais em
evidncias cientificas e tecnicas sensiveis, precisas e validadas, ao inves de serem fundamentadas em
especulacoes.

T. Yokota, M. Matsumoto, T. Sakamaki, Classification of Sensitive Skin and Development of a
Treatment System Appropriate for Each Group, IFSCC magazine, Vol. 6, Nr. 4, Oct./Dec. 2003.
In order to find an effective approach to improve sensitive skin, it is important to know the detailed
mechanism of sensitive skin. In this study, detailed characteristics of sensitive skin were investigated
using non-invasive methods. Sensitive skin was classified into three different types based on their
particular characteristics.

Cr. Rodrigues da Silva, A Rain Forest Botanical improves bar soap properties, Happi, Nov. 2003.
The Amazon Rain Forest presents incomparable biodiversity, representing approximately 25% of all
the plants on earth. Its inhabitants, Indians or natives of the region often referred to as caboclos,
utilize this diversity to improve their health and beauty. The traditional use of these plants is often
referenced in the product stories told by cosmetic companies.

E. Hernandez Bioengineering in Dermatology and Cosmetology: Methods, Studies and
Prospects, SFW-Journal, 129. Jahrgang 11-2003.
One of the trends in modern dermatology and its perspectives for the near future are skin
bioengineering and imaging. The 1
st
joint meeting of two scientific societies focusing on
measurements and visualisation of skin function, structure and physiology the International Society
for Skin Imaging (ISSI) took place in Hamburg, May 21-24, 2003. Before that, the meetings and
conferences organised by these societies had been held separately.

R. Estanislao, M. Suero, C. Galzote, Dr. A. Khaiat In-vivo Evaluation of Skin Viscoelasticity and
Anisotropy Using Reviscometer RVM 600, Johnson & Johnson (Philippines) Inc.
A prototype of a new instrument, Reviscometer RVM 600 from Courage + Khazaka (Cologne,
Germany) was proven to measure in-vivo skin viscoelasticity and anisotropy. The measurement of the
instrument based on the speed of acoustical shock wave propagation in the skin done in different
directions allowed evaluation of skin firmness and directional variations in viscoelasticity.

H. P. Dobrev Mechanical Properties in Other Dermatological Diseases, Bioengineering of the
Skin: Skin Biomechanics, chapter 19, ed. by P. Elsner, E. Berardesca, K.-P. Wilhelm u. H. I. Maibach,
Dermatology: Clinical & Basic Science Series, CRC Press LLC, Florida/ USA.
Human Skin, as a complex multi-layered organ, has three major mechanical properties: Stiffness, i.e.,
resistance to change of shape; elasticity, i.e., ability to recover the initial shape after deformation;
Viscoelasticity, i.e., time-dependent deformation with a creep phenomenon and nonlinear stress-
strain properties with hysteresis.
These properties are altered in dermatological diseases, which are accompanied with pathological
induration or softening of the skin. Noninvasive bioengineering measurements allow quantifying the
alterations of skin mechanics in vivo.

R. Randall Wickett Standardization of Skin Biomechanical Measurements, Bioengineering of the
Skin: Skin Biomechanics, chapter 15, ed. by P. Elsner, E. Berardesca, K.-P. Wilhelm u. H. I. Maibach,
Dermatology: Clinical & Basic Science Series, CRC Press LLC, Florida/ USA.
Standardization of measurement methods has been a goal of many researchers working on noninvasive
measurement of skin function. For example, Pierard stated, optimization of noninvasive biophysical
measurements should benefit from strict standardization of measurements and frequent calibration of
devices. While no absolute standards for skin measurements have been published, helpful guidelines
have been published for measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and the electrical
properties of skin for assessment of skin hydration.

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U. Berndt, P. Elsner Hardware and Measuring Principle: The Cutometer, Bioengineering of the
Skin: Skin Biomechanics, chapter 07, ed. by P. Elsner, E. Berardesca, K.-P. Wilhelm u. H. I. Maibach,
Dermatology: Clinical & Basic Science Series, CRC Press LLC, Florida/ USA.
The biomechanical properties of human skin are a complex combination of elastic and viscous
components. Elasticity correlates with the function of elastin fibers; viscosity is controlled by the
collagen fibers and the surrounding intercellular ground substance, which consists primarily of water
and proteoglycans. The cutometer allows the measurement of the viscoelastic properties of the skin in
vivo, which provides valuable information on physiological and pathological changes of human
dermis as well as on the efficacy of topical treatments. It is recognized as a standard tool in
dermatological and cosmetic research.

A. O. Barel Product Testing: Moisturizers, Bioengineering of the Skin: Skin Biomechanics, chapter
21, ed. by P. Elsner, E. Berardesca, K.-P. Wilhelm u. H. I. Maibach, Dermatology: Clinical & Basic
Science Series, CRC Press LLC, Florida/ USA.
The presence of an adequate amount of water in the stratum corneum is important for maintaining the
following properties of the skin: general appearance of a soft, smooth, flexible, and healthy-looking
skin; and an intact barrier function allowing a slow rate of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) under
dry external conditions, which are frequently encountered.

M. Gloor, B. Wasik, J.W. Fluhr, Cleansing, dehydrating, barrier-damaging and irritating
hyperaemising effect of four detergent brands: comparative studies using standardised washing
models, Skin Research and Technology 2004; 10: 1-9.
Background and problem: It is well known that the damaging effect of surfactants on the stratum
corneum varies according to the surfactant used. The present investigations aim to compare four
standard commercial cleansing solutions (Esemptan Cleansing Lotion, Stephalen Shower Gel,
Manipur Antimicrobial Cleansing Solution and Tork Mevon55 Liquid Soap) with respect to
their cleansing and skin barrier-damaging effects.

A.W. Johnson Scientific Posters pres. by Unilever Research & Development, Unilever Home &
Personal Care, American Academy of Dermatology, Washington D.C., Feb. 6-11, 2004.
Dear AAD Participant, Unilever Research & Development is pleased to provide you with the enclosed
reprints of posters presented at this 62
nd
Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Dermatology.
The posters reflect the accomplishments of our many specialist scientists including biochemists,
spectroscopists, chemists, computational and structural biologists, and clinical investigators each
committed to extending the excellence in skin care research that Unilever has pursued for many
decades.

I. Arsic, S. Tamburic, S. Savic The Effect of Chamomile Extract on Skin Hydration and Tewl: Is it
more effective when encapsulated in Liposomes?, Euro Cosmetics, Ausgabe 2-2004, S.12-17.
The aim of this study was to investigate whether the extract of chamomile (Chamomilla recutita, (L)
Rausch, Asteraceae) increases skin hydration level and its barrier properties when used in an O/W
cream. In addition, it was of interest to find out whether the encapsulation of chamomile extract in
liposomes affects its skin functionality.

S. Amari, Cr. Schubert From Olive Oil an Innovative O/W Peg-free emulsifier: OLIVEM 1000,
Euro Cosmetics, Ausgabe 2-2004, S. 18-22.
Olive Oil is the one of the lipids showing the highest compatibility with our skin. Olive Oil in fact is a
precious vegetable oil as it has got a high similarity to human skin lipids. The sebum secreted by the
sebaceous glands works through an important activity: to protect the skin against the environment and
to reduce the Trans-Epidermal-Water Loss.


PCIA, Guangzhou/ China: Conference Proceedings, Step Exhibition Ltd., Kent, UK.
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This CD-Rom contains a number of interesting articles about the usage of different, cosmetological
applicants (like applying special, new designed facial colour products, special natural products etc.).
The effect on skin is investigated, such as sebum or melanin.

Prof. Dr. med. H. Tronnier, PD Dr. Ulrike Heinrich, Beautytek-Studie: Gutachten ber einen
Wirksamkeitsnachweis einer kosmetischen Behandlung, Dermatronnier, Institut fr experimentelle
Dermatologie i. A. fr medilab GmbH & Co., Wrzburg, Mai 2004.
Unter Bezugnahme auf unseren Forschungsauftrag 19/2/04 vom 20.02.2004 sowie unter Bezugnahme
auf Ihr Schreiben vom 29.09.2003 erstatten wir Ihnen nachfolgend ein Gutachten ber einen
Wirksamkeitsnachweis einer kosmetischen Behandlung. *

Institut u. Poliklinik fr Arbeits-, -Sozial- und Umweltmedizin der Univers. Erlangen-Nrnberg,
Hautbelastung, Hautbeanspruchung und Hautschutzverhalten bei Krankenpfelgeschler(inne)n,
Prof. Dr. med. H. Drexler.
Fragestellung: Wie hoch ist die Inzidenz beruflich verursachter Dermatosen unter Bercksichtigung
von Risikofaktoren, Exposition und Hautschutzverhalten bei Berufsanfngern in der Krankenpflege?
Welche Parameter sind geeignet, die berufliche Belastung zu objektivieren?

J. W. Arbogast, E. J. Fendler, B. S. Hammond, Effectiveness of a Hand Care Regimen with
Moisturizer in Manufacturing Facilities Where Workers Are Prone to Occupational Irritant
Dermatitis, Dermatitis, Vol. 15, No 1 (March), 2004: pp 10-17.
Background: Limited information documents the prevention and treatment benefits of a hand care
regimen using moisturizer in a controlled manner for employees in typical manufacturing situations.
Objective: The objective was to assess the effectiveness of a comprehensive skin care program
including skin conditioning lotion in multiple manufacturing environments where employees are at
high risk for skin disease.

R. von Pelchrzim, St. Soost, M. Worm, Klinischer Hautzustand bei Beschftigten im
Gesundheitswesen und der Einflu von Prventionsmanahmen, Dermatologie in Beruf und
Umwelt, Jahrgang 52, Nr. 1/2004, S. 26-32.
Mitarbeiter des Gesundheitswesens sind aufgrund der hufig durchzufhrenden Feucht- und
Naarbeiten besonders gefhrdet, toxisch-irritative Handekzeme zu entwickeln. Durch geeignete
Hautschutz- und pflegeprparate knnen die krpereigenen Reparaturmechanismen untersttzt
werden. In einer prospektiven Untersuchung wurden der klinische Hautzustand und die
hautphysiologischen Parameter bei Mitarbeitern des Pflegepersonals von Intensivstationen (IS) und
Normalstationen (NS) berprft.

J.E. Arrese, P. Quatresooz, P. Pierard- Franchisment, et. al., Indications diagnostiques de la biopsie
de surface au cyanoacrylate, Dermatologie Aktualit, No. 83, June-July 2004
La biopsie de surface au cyanoacrylate consiste prlever la partie superficielle de la couche corne.
La mthode est non invasive et habituellement indolore. Elle peut tre rpetitive au mme site. Dans le
domaine de la dermatologie clinique, les indications de ce type de prlvement sont multiples. Elles
concernent principalement le diagnostic des dermatites inflammatoires sqameuses, des infections et
parasitoses superficielles, ainsi que des tumeurs pigmentaires.

P. M. van Kemenade, M. M. J. Houben, J. M. Huyghe, Do osmotic forces play a role in the uptake
of water by human skin?, Skin Research and Technology 2004 10, 109-112.
Background/Purpose: To describe the water and ion transport through the skin under different
conditions, we developed a three-component mixture model. This model has proven to describe the
transient change in transepidermal water loss (TEWL) after a change in relative humidity and the
result of damage to the skin.

K. Matsumoto, K. Mizukoshi, M. Oyobikawa, Establishment of an atopic dermatitis-like skin model
in a hairless mouse by repeated elicitation of contact hypersensitivity that enables to conduct
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functional analyses of the stratum corneum with various non-invasive biophysical instruments,
Skin Research and Technology 2004, 10, 122-129.
Pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD) has been studied in animal models such as the NC/Nga mouse
strain or Balb/C mice that are repeatedly treated with 2,4,6-trinitro-1-chrolobenzene (TNCB). These
mice exhibit features of chronic contact dermatitis, including an intensified early type skin reaction,
increased number of mast cells and elevated serum IgE levels with a shift of cutaneous cytokine
expression from a type 1 to type 2 profile.

H. Dobrev (Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Med. Uni. Plovdiv, Bulgaria), Impact Of
Three Different Emulsions On Skin Hydration And Elasticity.
The well-hydrated skin is smooth, soft and elastic. Therefore, the restoration and maintenance of skin
water content is the main goal of skin care products. Currently, two kind of moisturizers are used [1,
2]:
Emollients (lipids), which reduce the loss of water from the skin by simple occlusion of its surface and
by improvement of water-holding capacity of stratum corneum in result of restoration of the lipid
layers around the corneocytes.
Humectants (urea, glycerin, lactic acid, pyrrolidone carboxylic acid, hyaluronic acid), which bind or
attract water in or to the corneal layer.

H. Tronnier, B. Garbe, M. Herling, M. Wiebusch, U. Heinrich, Nicht-invasive Testverfahren an der
Kopfhaut, sthetische Dermatologie, 2 2004, S. 30-37.
Zum Nachweis vorliegender Hautzustnde oder Funktionen sowie ihrer nderungen unter dem
Einfluss interner Faktoren oder externer Manahmen im positiven (zum Beispiel Wirksamkeit) oder
negativen Sinn (zum Beispiel Vertrglichkeit) gibt es zahlreiche nicht-invasive Testmethoden. Sie
knnen zum groen Teil modifiziert oder mit Vorbehandlung (zum Beispiel Rasur) auch an der
behaarten Kopfhaut eingesetzt werden.

M. Frschle, R. Plss, K. Bojarski, A. Peter, Antiaging Effect with Cosmotropic Substances,
SFW-Journal, 130, 4 2004, S. 36-43.
Water is one of the most important and limiting factors for plants, animals and humans. The human
being consists of 60-65% water and loses daily up to several liters through the skin. The regulation of
water content is therefore very significant. Plants especially have developed fascinating physiological
and structural strategies to minimize water loss and survive periods of dryness.

Hristo Dobrev, Comparative Study Of The Mechanical Properties In Erysipelas Of The Lower
Legs Using Suction Method And Share Wave Propagation Method, EADV Plovdiv Bulgaria, 13
th

Congress The Renaissance Of Dermatology, Florence 2004.
Inflammatory dermal edema in erysipelas alters skin mechanics. The aim of this study was to compare
the informativeness of two different methods for evaluation of skin mechanical properties.

Hristo Dobrev, Application Of Cutometer Area Parameters For Study Human Skin Fatigue,
Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Med. Uni. Plovdiv, Bulgaria.
The hallmark of age-related changes of skin mechanical properties is the decrease in its elastic
properties [1-2]. This results in bigger fatigue of adult skin than young skin after applying multiple
stress at one and the same anatomic region. Skin fatigue can successfully be evaluated with a suction
skin elasticity meter (Cutometer) using measurements with several repetitions of the measuring cycle
[3].

Pirard-Franchimont, O. Martalo, A. Richard, A. Rougier, Sebum rheology evaluated by two
methods in vivo. Split-face study of the effect of a cosmetic formulation, European Journal of
Dermatology, Volume 9, Number 6, 455-457, 1999, Revues.
Modulation of the rheological characteristics of sebum at the surface of the skin might represent a
valuable strategy for the treatment of seborrhea. In this field, only a small number of studies have
addressed sebum diffusion within the stratum corneum.

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Chris Packham (EnviroDerm Services), Damage to health from dermal exposure, Facilities
Manager 2004 (Health and Safety), pages 1-2.
Although there are no reliable statistics about the extent of damage to health from workplace dermal
exposure, there is no doubt that such exposure is a major contributor to the high level of occupational
ill health that still occurs in most industrial countries.

R. Marks, Seeing Through the Stratum Corneum, study on the new Biopsie method Biokit,
Courage+Khazaka electronic GmbH, Cologne, Germany.
The stratum corneum (SC) provides a vital barrier membrane dividing the potentially injurious
external environment from the vulnerable and metabolically constant internal tissues of the skin. It
impedes the flow of water across the skin restricting the normal loss of water to 0.5l/day the so
called normal transepidermal water loss (TEWL).

M. Gloor, B. Senger, M. Langenauer, J. W. Fluhr, On the course of the irritant reaction after
irritation with sodium lauryl sulphate, Skin Reserach and Technology 2004, 10, 144-148.
The sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) irritation test is a well-established model for irritant contact
dermatitis after the effects of surfactants. The course of changes in corneometric measurements
(stratum corneum hydration), in transepidermal water loss (TEWL), in laser Doppler measurements
(epidermal perfusion) and in colorimetric measurements (skin redness), after a single SLS irritation,
should be studied over time.

Symposium Medical Fr sie referiert, Hautzustandsmessung als Prventionshilfe am
Arbeitsplatz, Symposium Medical 2004, S. 22.
Whrend Augen, Ohren, Lunge und andere Organe, die am Arbeitsplatz Schadstoffen oder
Belastungen ausgesetzt werden, in der Arbeitsmedizin schon seit vielen Jahren berwacht und
gemessen werden, wird die Haut, die mit ca. 1,8 m das grte menschliche Organ darstellt, vielfach
auer Acht gelassen oder maximal visuell berprft.

P. Gasser, L. Peno-Mazzarino, E. Lati, B. Djian, Original semiologic standardized evaluation of
stratum corneum hydration by Diagnoskin stripping sample, International Journal of Cosmetic
Science, 2004, 26, 117-127.
Synopsis: In a normal and healthy skin, the regular elimination of the superficial corneocytes, called
desquamation, is a fundamental physiologic process intended to protect the barrier function of the
skin. This invisible loss of corneocytes, individually or in small groups, is incessantly compensated by
the divisions of the proliferative layer and the upward cellular maturation in order to maintain the
harmonious renewal of the epidermis and the integrity of the stratum corneum.

J. W. Fluhr, J. Ennen, Standardized washing models: facts and requirements, Skin Research and
Technology, 2004, 10, 141-143.
Regular skin cleansing with washing substances has medical, cosmetic, hygienic and socio-cultural
functions. In western cultures, the hygienic and cosmetic aspects prevail. The aim of a washing
process is to remove or reduce dust particles, microorganisms and odorous substances. The resident
skin flora in a washing process can be reduced significantly. The antiseptic effect of washing is gained
independently from the function of tensides, through the removal of dust and dandruff material from
the skin and hence through a reduction of growth medium for bacteria.

Ingrid Nicander, Stig Ollmar, Clinically normal atopic skin vs. non-atopic skin as seen through
electrical impedance, , Skin Reserach and Technology 2004, 10, 178-183.
In an earlier study, we have shown that the electrical impedance (IMP) is dependent on the lipid
content of the stratum corneum as studied by lipid extraction. Therefore, we now employ the IMP
technique to compare the properties of clinically normal atopic skin with that of non-atopic skin.

J.-L. Lvque, E. Goubanova, Influence of Age on the Lips and Perioral Skin, Dermatology, 2004,
208, pp 307-313.
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There are few objective descriptions of the age-related changes taking place on the lips and perioral
skin. This zone, however, has great importance in relational functions. Objectives: To describe
quantitatively the age-related changes in dimensions of the lips and the appearance of the perioral
wrinkles, to revisit, thanks to a new method, the pattern of the lip furrows, to compare the hydration
states of the upper and lower lips. *

P. J. Dykes, R. Marks, Unfolding or True Extension? The Mechanism and Importance of Stratum
Corneum Compliance, Stratum Corneum IV, Paris, 17.-19. Juni 2004.
-1y, 2y and 3y skin surface lines
-Role in stratum corneum compliance
- What happens to these lines on deformation (see pictures included)
- Stretched stratum corneum (see picture) etc.

H. Ranc, A. Elkhyat, C. Servais, B. Launay, Ph. Humbert, Coefficient de friction et mouillabilit de
la muqueuse linguale : influence dune couche de mucus salivaire, Nestl Research Center, Nestec
Ltd. P.O. Box 44, 1026 Lausanne, Suisse.
Les aliments, une fois en bouche, sont cisaills et comprims entre la langue et des surfaces telles que
les dents et le palais. La tribologie applique aux surfaces interagissant en bouche devrait permettre
d`expliquer certains phnomnes physio-chimique qui rgissent la perception orale de la structure des
aliments.

I. Van Reeth, M. Mor, R. Hickerson, New Formulating Options with Silicone Emulsifiers, Euro
Cosmetics 6, Juni 2004, 12. Jahrgang, Vol. Nr. 12.
In todays highly competitive skin care and underarm markets, multifunctional, high performance
products have the best chance of success. Consumers expect convenience and superior aesthetics.
They want long-lasting, highly efficient moisturizers; effective antiaging and anti-wrinkle creams;
durable, wash-off resistant, protective color cosmetics; and underarm products that go on smoothly,
without tackiness or residue.

Dr. Hans Lautenschlger, Individuell den Sonnenschutz messen, Kosmetik International, Vol. 8,
2004.
Die Sonne aktiviert unseren Stoffwechsel und frdert unser Wohlbefinden (siehe Ki 7/04, S. 77).
Allein die richtige Dosis entscheidet ber die heilende oder schdigende Wirkung. Ein berma an
Sonnenlicht fhrt zu Sonnenbrand und kann bei langfristiger Lichtschdigung das Risiko fr
Hautkrebs erhhen. Die Abnahme der Ozonschicht wird fr den deutlichen Anstieg von
Hautkrankheiten, Hautkrebs und Allergien der Atemwege verantwortlich gemacht.

Dr. M. Frschle, Dr. R. Plss, A. Peter, F. Etzweiler, Phytosteroids for skin care, Personal Care,
Vol. Sept. 2004.
Healthy skin is a largely self-regulating system. In order to keep metabolic processes functioning
efficiently, the relevant biological precursors and activators must be available to the skin cells for
metabolism. If, due to age-related changes, the body no longer provides a sufficient amount of certain
substances, an additional external supplement can proactively support the biological processes and
thus counteract the advance of the ageing process.

Sujong Kim, Byung Young Kang, Si Yong Cho, Dae Suk Sung, 20-O--D-Glucopyranosyl-20 (S)-
Protopanaxadiol (Compound K) induces expression of Hyaluronan Synthase 2 Gene in
transformed human Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts and increases Hyaluronan in Hairless mouse
skin, IFSCC Magazine, vol. 7, No. 3, 2004.
Ginsenosides, the major active ingredients of ginseng, show a variety of biomedical efficacies such as
anti-aging, anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory activities. To understand the effects of 20-O--D-
glucopyranosyl-20 (S)-protopanaxadiol (compound K) one of the major metabolites of ginsenosides
on the skin, we assessed the expression level of approximately 100 transcripts in compound K-
treated HaCaT cells using cDNA microarray analysis.

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Chris Packham, You need hands: protecting your hands from the working environment. Health &
Safety International, October 2004.
In our daily life our hands will be exposed to many different hazards. Some of these will occur, or
mainly, at work, some in the home or in our hobbies or free time activities. In principle we can divide
these hazards into two main groups: physical and chemical.

P. Landa, F. Lam, I. Morosov, R. Rothman, D. Howard, A. Gestmann, Glycerin and Hydroxyethyl
Urea: Comparing Two Skin Moisturizers, Cosmetic & Toiletries, Vol. 119, No. 10, Oct. 2004.
Glycerin is widely considered to be the industry bench mark for skin moisturization. It has been
demonstrated by numerous methods to be an effective moisturizer when used at levels above 3%,
although the choice of vehicle can influence performance.

F.H.W. Jungbauer, J. J. van der Harst, J. W. Groothoff, P. J. Coenraads, Skin protection in nursing
work: promoting the use of gloves and hand alcohol, Contact Dermatitis 51, pp. 153-140, 2004.
Nursing has been indentified as a wet-work occupation, with a high prevalence of occupational irritant
contact dermatitis. Reduction of exposure to skin irritants contributes to the prevention of occupational
skin disease in nurses. The role of the use of soap and water, hand alcohol and gloves in prevention
programmes is discussed.

L. M. Rodrigues, P. C. Pinto, J. M. Magro, M. Fernandes, J. Alves, Exploring the influence of skin
perfusion on transepidermal water loss, Skin Research and Technology 10, pp. 257-262, 2004.
Eventual relationships between the vascular function and transepidermal water loss (TEWL), in vivo,
have not been entirely explored. By promoting local perfusion alterations through a well-known
challenge test, the tourniquet-cuff occlusion manoeuvre, the present study searches for other
dynamical factors influencing the cutaneous barrier, further exploring the applicability of these flow-
related variables in dermatological research.

A. Elkhyat, C. Courderot-Masuyer, S. Mac-Mary, S. Courau, T. Gharbi, Ph. Humbert, Assessment of
spray application of Saint GERVAIS water effects on skin wettability by contact angle
measurement comparison with bidistilled water, Skin Research and Technology 10, pp. 283-286,
2004.
The skin is responsible for protecting the body from physical, chemical and microbial injuries. The
stratum corneum is the top layer of the epidermis and it plays a key role in helping to contain moisture.
When the skin becomes damaged, its ability to perform these functions is compromised. Dry skin is a
common form of skin damage. Contact angle 0 between a surface and water is a good indicator of
hydrophobic or hydrophilic tendency of surfaces.

I. Angelova-Fischer, I. Petrov, P. Elsner, J.W. Fluhr, T. L. Diepgen, The objective severity
assessment of atopic dermatitis (OSAAD) score: interobserver variability with reference to the
SCORAD score (abstract), Skin Research and Technology 10, Abstracts, 2004.
The need for reliable and reproducible measures for assessment of atopic dermatitis severity has
resulted in the development of numerous scores most of which have not been adequately tested in
terms of validity, reliability, responsiveness to change and acceptability. The SCORAD index of the
European Task Force on Atopic Dermatitis has been considered the standard outcome measure in
clinical trials in the last decade.

H. Lambers, S. Piessens, A. Bloem, H. Pronk, P. Finkel, E. Voss, Natural skin surface pH is on
average below 5, which is beneficial for its resident flora (abstract), Skin Research and
Technology 10, Abstracts, 2004.
The acidic surface pH as well as the pH gradient over the gradient over the stratum corneum (SC) are
important for a good skin condition, supporting optimal structure and function of the lipid barrier and
SC homeostasis.

M. Visscher, J. Smith, R. Wickett, S. Hoath, Effect of hand hygiene regimens on stratum corneum
integrity and function (abstract), Skin Research and Technology 10, Abstracts, 2004.
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A national patient safety goal for 2004 is to reduce the risk of healthcare-acquired infections. To
achieve this goal, the organizations have been directed to comply with the hand hygiene guideline
issued in 2002 by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). It developed to reduce the transmission of
microorganisms to patients and health care workers (HCW).

F. M. Hendriks, D. Brokken, C.W. J. Oomens, F. P. T. Baaijens, Influence of hydration and
experimental length scale on the mechanical response of human skin in vivo, using optical
coherence tomography, Skin Research and Technology 10, pp. 231-241, 2004.
Human skin is a complex tissue consisting of different layers. To gain better insight into the
mechanical response was studied with experiments of various length scales. Also, the influence of
(superficial) hydration on the mechanical response is studied.

V. Nikolai, K. Quecke, Beobachtungen zur Feuchtigkeitsregulation am Pferdehuf mittels TEWL-
Messung, Der praktische Tierarzt 85, Heft 11, S. 816-819, 2004.
Die Hornqualitt des Pferdehufes wird sowohl in Fachkreisen als auch von Laien oftmals anhand des
Feuchtigkeitsgehaltes des Hornes beurteilt. Aussagekrftige Messungen des tatschlichen
Feuchtigkeitsgehaltes liegen jedoch noch nicht vor. Vielmehr wird lediglich eine grobsinnliche
Beurteilung des Hufhornes durchgefhrt. Unter Einsatz eines aus der Humandermatologie
stammenden Gertes zur Bestimmung des transepidermalen Wasserverlustes wurde eine praktikable
Methode zur indirekten Erfassung des Feuchtigkeitsgehaltes von Hufhorn erprobt.

John J. Wille, Corneotherapy: skin hydration and occlusivity of some commercial skin
moisturizers and skin protectants, Skin Research and Technology 10, Abstracts, 2004.
Corneotherapy is defined here as a topical treatment that improves the condition of the stratum
corneum. In this respect, cosmetic and dermatological vehicles play an important role independent of
their capacity to deliver drugs or cosmetic actives, in formulating an optimal topical treatment for skin
diseases such as atopic dermatitis.

N. Barai, M. Visscher, A. LaRuffa, V. Narendan, St. Hoath, Vernix caseosa treatment for epidermal
barrier repair, Skin Research and Technology 10, Abstracts, 2004.
The very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infant lacks vernix caseosa (VC), has an incompetent
stratum corneum (SC) barrier, and is predisposed to high water loss. Treatment with non-physiologic
creams (e.g., petrolatum, oils) have been associated with increased nosocomial infection and delayed
barrier repair.

S. Savic, S. Tamburic, M. Savic, N. Cekic, J. Milic, G. Valuta, Vehicle-controlled effect of urea on
normal and SLS-irritated skin, International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Okt. 2004.
It is known that, depending on the concentration, treatment with urea could improve skin barrier
function, despite its penetration-enhancing properties. This controversial skin effect of urea has been
explored systematically in this study in terms of the effect of vehicle on the performance of urea. In
the first part, a series of four semi-solid emulsions with 5% (w/w) urea, varying in the type of
emulsion, nature of emulsifier and polarity of oil ingredients, have been evaluated with regard to their
skin hydrating and transepidermal water loss (TEWL)-modifying properties.

N. Piccardi, Jean-Chr. Choulot, M. Philippe, Butyl avocadate : Managing Hyper-Seborrhoea,
Personal Care, November 2004.
Hyper-seborrhoea, acne and alopecia are among the most common diseases encountered by
dermatologists in daily practice. These pathologies are in part related to the hyper-activity of the 5-
alpha reductase (5-R), the enzyme that metabolises (Fig. 1) testosterone into 5-dihydrotestosterone
(5-DHT), a major potent androgen in human skin.

P. Quatresooz, L. Petit, I. Uhoda, C. Pierard-Franchimont, G. E. Pierard, Mosaic subclinical
melanoderma : An Achilles heel for UV-related epidermal carcinogenesis. International Journal of
Oncology 25: 1763-1767, 2004.
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Cutaneous cancers are not uncommon on the face of elderly patients. Melanin should protect, at least
in part, against the ultraviolet (UV)-induced neoplastic damage. However, the density in melanin
chromatophores is heterogenous in the epidermis of Caucasian adults. The computerized UV light-
enhanced visualization (ULEV) method is a sensitive tool to assess non-invasively this mosaic pattern
of intra-epidermal melanin load.

K. Wanatabe, M. Masuda, K. Nakamura, T. Inaba, T. Yanagida, T. Yanaki, A. Noda, A new makeup
remover prepared with a system comprising dual continuous channels (bicontinuous phase) of
silicone oil and water, IFSCC Magazine, vol. 7, No. 4, Oct.-Dec. 2004.
Removing makeup is considered to be the first step in the skincare process. Makeup that has served its
purpose is a kind of impurity that should ideally be removed completely to maximize the effects of
skincare products applied afterwards. However, the use of silicone resins has significantly improved
the long-lasting property of makeup with the result that makeup can hardly be removed efficiently
either with surfactant-type cleansers like soaps or with oil-based cleansers like liquid crystalline
cleansers.

G. Guglielmini, M. Cucchiara, Cosmetic treatment for heavy legs, Research and development
Laboratories, Pero, Italien, poster presentation, IFSCC Orlando USA, 2004.
Heavy legs is a really widespread problem. It hits the 50% of the adults of more than 50 years old,
with a with a prevalence for female sex, interested 4 times more than the male one. Subjects perceive
some symptoms associated to a sense of tiredness and to a sensation of pain for lower limbs

S. L. Zhang, C. L. Meyers, K. Subramanyan, Near-infrared imaging: a better approach to measure
and visualize skin hydration and to assess the mildness of skin cleansers, Unilever Research and
Development, poster presentation, IFSCC Orlando USA, 2004.
Optimal hydration is one of the key factors for effective functioning of the stratum corneum. The state
of skin hydration has been typically assessed through instrumental methods that depend on the
correlation of skin hydration with the electrical conductance and capacitance responses of the skin.

H. Shibayama, H. Indo, K. Ueda, K. Yoshio, Y. Kook Choi, Y. Ishigami, New Derivertives of
Supiculisporic acid as biosurfactants and application for cosmetics, Central Research Center,
Tokyo Beauty, poster presentation, IFSCC Orlando USA, 2004.
It is well known that some microorganisms produce surface-active substances on cultural conditions.
Recently, people in bio-industry pay attention is to the production of surfactants from saccharides or
hydrocarbons using microorganisms in large quantity and at reasonable prices.

F. Prin, D. de Qural, G. Georgesco, Age-related biomechanical properties of the normal human
skin: comparison of clinical and instrumental evaluations, Spincontrol Asia, Thailand, Laboratoire
R&D LVMH , Frankreich, poster presentation, IFSCC Orlando USA, 2004.
Ageing and photoageing induce a degradation of the biomechanical properties of the skin. These
biomechanical properties can be expressed in term in elasticity, tonicity, firmness, suppleness,
stiffness and laxity through clinical evaluation. We conducted a study in order to identify correlations
between these clinical terms and the parameters given by commercial devices dedicated to skin
biomechanical measurements.

Bertin, T. Oddos, A. Robert, H. Zunino, Anti-aging efficacy of the combination of
dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) and mineral salts, Johnson and Johnson Consumer Europe, poster
presentation, IFSCC Orlando USA, 2004.
DMAE is currently used in cosmetic products to obtain lifting and firming effects. In in vitro studies,
DMAE was shown to enhance fibroblast proliferation. The objective of the in vitro studies performed
was to demonstrate an increase of the efficacy of the product when DMAE was associated to mineral
salts (mixture containing 5% of magnesium aspartate, 5% of zinc gluconate and 0,5% of copper
acetate). A clinical study was then performed to assess the efficacy of the complete product (DMAE +
mineral salts) in comparison with a placebo.

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Manoj Kumar, Biotechnology for Personal Care: A Case Study of Silk-Elastin Protein Polymer,
Biochemistry Department, USA, poster presentation, IFSCC Orlando USA, 2004.
Designer Proteins are in need as active ingredients to perform a variety of functions and to impart
desired characteristics to personal care product formulations. Advances in genetic engineering offer a
unique opportunity to design specific, targeted properties, and production of consistent fermentation
based protein polymers with desired properties that are important to provide specific benefits.

J. C. Leverett, J. Gour, J. Mayne, Immunofluorescent Imaging Of Dermal Proteins Using Laser
Scanning Confocal Microscopy, IFSCC Orlando 2004, Podium Proceedings.
More powerful tools are needed in order to develop the next generation of functional cosmetics.
Todays highly evolving field demands a greater understanding of the root causes of actinic and age
related damage that until recently were seen as merely surface phenomenon. By understanding these
causes, better solutions can be discovered which will produce a more profound effect for the
consumer.

G. Vielhaber, J. Ley, O. Koch, N-Palmityl-4-Hydroxy-L-Proline Palmityl Ester: A Ceramide
Analogue that provides efficient skin barrier repair, IFSCC Orlando 2004, Podium Proceedings.
The epidermal permeability barrier protects the skin against uncontrolled water loss and environmental
damage. It is located in the horny layer and consists of a compact lipid matrix of ceramides, fatty acids
and cholesterol embedded between the corneocytes.

H. Nishimura, Y. Takasuka, M. Yamamoto, Optical Properties of Skin Gloss and Development of
Mizumizushii Looking Makeup Foundation, IFSCC Orlando 2004, Podium Proceedings.
Modern makeup formulations are becoming ever more complex and diversified. Although sunscreens
and moisturizers are often added for better skin protection, the primary function for foundation
makeup remains making the skin appear beautiful.

Boyce M. Morrison, M. Paye, V. Charbonnier, H. I. Maibach, The Effect Of Surfactants On Skin As
Measured By Squamometry : A Sensitive Way To Observe Sub-Clinical Irritant Dermatitis,
IFSCC Orlando 2004, Podium Proceedings.
In order to define the early parameters of surfactant induced skin dryness, an exaggerated hand
washing model has been chosen to assess the effects of three surfactants, SLS, SLES, and AOS on
stratum corneum function as measured visually, instrumentally, and through Squamometry. These
three surfactant solutions were compared to their water controls.

R. Marks, G. Khazaka, Diagnostik an der Grenzflche: Hinweise zur Hautoberflchenbiopsie, 16.
DGK-Symposium 2004, Kln, Posterpresentation.
Das Stratum Corneum (SC) blieb bis heute von den Dermatologen und Hautbiologen nahezu
unbeachtet. Diese mangelnde Aufmerksamkeit besteht weiter, obwohl mittlerweile erkannt wurde,
dass die Struktur eine lebenswichtige Rolle in der Aufrechterhaltung einer konstanten, inneren
physiologischen Umgebung spielt.

S. L. Hester, Chr. A. Rees, R. A. Kennis, D. L. Zoran, Evaluation of Corneometry (Skin Hydration)
and Transepidermal Water-Loss Measurements in two canine breeds, 2004 , The American
Society for Nutritional Sciences J. Nutr. 134:2110S, August 2004.
Mammalian skin is a highly dynamic organ that is constantly adapting to changes in its environment.
It provides structural, sensory, immunologic, and physiologic functions and contributes an essential
barrier function against potential environmental insults.

Product of the month, Frictiometer FR 770, SFW Journal April 2005.
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The Frictiometer FR 770 is integrated into the CK Multiprobe Adapter System MPA and supplies
another non-invasive test method for the human skin. Measurement of the smoothness condition of the
skin.

A. Bornkessel, M. Flach, M. Arens-Corell, P. Elsner, J. W. Fluhr, Functional assessment of a
washing emulsion for sensitive skin: mild impairment of stratum corneum hydration..., Skin
Research and Technology, 2005-11, May, pp. 53-60.
Sensitive skin has been described as a skin type with higher reactivity than normal skin and exaggerated
reactions to external irritants. Washing with soaps is harmful for barrier-related parameters.
H. Arimoto, M. Egawa, Y. Yamada, Depth profile of diffuse reflectance near-infrared spectroscopy
for measurement of water content in skin, Skin Research and Technology, 2005-11, May, pp.27-35.
The penetration depth of light in diffuse reflectance near-infrared spectroscopy for measuring water
content in skin is assessed both from theoretical and experimental points of view.
Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy provides information on such aspects as constituents concentration.

K. Ogoshi, J. Serup, Inter-instrumental variation of skin capacitance measured with the
Corneometer, Skin Research and Technology 2005-11, May, pp. 107-109. *
Commercially available measuring devices that allow for the quantitative evaluation of the stratum
corneum (SC) function and provide continuous data are an important advance in experimental
dermatology. The measurement of skin surface hydration state has gained considerable interest in
recent years because the water content of the SC influences various physical characteristics of the skin
such as barrier function, drug penetration, and mechanical properties.
G. Korinth, Th. Gen, H. M. Koch, Th. Merz, W. Uter, Visible and subclinical skin changes in male
and female dispatch department workers of newspaper printing plants, Skin Research and
Technology 2005-11, May, pp. 132-139. *
Irritant hand dermatitis is one of the major occupational diseases. Approximately 90% of all cases of
hand eczema are caused by occupational exposure. It is a well-established fact that wet work and skin
exposure to detergents or solvents often trigger irritant contact dermatitis. Even water can be a skin
irritant itself.
H. Dobrev, Application of Cutometer area parameters for the study of human skin fatigue, Skin
Research and Technology 2005-11, May, pp. 120-122.
The hallmark of age-related changes of skin mechanical properties is the decrease in its elastic
properties. This results in larger fatigue of adult skin than young skin after applying multiple stress at
one and the same anatomic region.

I. Arsic, S. Tamburic, S. Bulatovic, I. Homsek, G. Vuleta, Exploring moisturising potential of
naturals: The cases of St. Johns wort, chamomile and blackthorn, Euro Cosmetics 3-2005, pp.
14-21.
The application of plant extracts in cosmetics and toiletries has been a distinct trend over the last
decade and, given consumers interests in naturals, will probably continue. Both cosmetic and
dermatological practices have benefited from the use of new and re-discovered plants, as well as plant
biotechnology extracts.

K. De Paepe, E. Houben, R. Adam, F. Wiesemann, V. Rogiers, Validation of the VapoMeter, a
closed unventilated chamber system to assess transepidermal water loss vs. the open chamber
Tewameter, Skin Research and Technology 2005-11, May, pp. 61-69.
The Stratum Corneum (SC) the uppermost layer of the epidermis contains the barrier function of
the skin. Besides the proteinaceous hydrophilic corneocytes, this barrier consists of lipid-rich
hydrophobic intercellular bilayers.



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F. Tokumura, K. Umekaga, M. Sado, S. Otsuka, S. Suda, M. Taniguchi, Skin irritation due to
repetitive application of adesive tape: the influence of adhesive strength and seasonal variability,
Skin Research and Technology 2005-11, May, pp. 102-106. *
Medical pressure-sensitive adhesive tapes are applied to human skin in one of two ways, depending on
their indication for use. Either they are replaced and applied on the same site every day, as is the case
with traditional sticking plasters and surgical tapes, or they are pressed on to and remain on the skin
for a few days when used at the site of the transdermal delivery of drugs.

R. Marks, Diagnostic Clues At The Interface, Poster presentation, DGK Symposium Leipzig, 02.-
04.03.2005.
The stratum corneum (SC) has been comparatively ignored by dermatologists and skin biologists. This
lack of attention still persists despite the recognition that the structure plays a vital role in maintaining
the constancy of the internal physiological environment. It is the barrier properties that give the SC its
central role in skin physiology.

C. Pirard-Franchimont, V. Goffin, G. E. Pirard, Indaguer la couche corne. Biomtrologie par la
biopsie de surface au cyanoacrylate, Dermatologie Actualit, 87, pp. 23-26, 2005.
La biopsie de surface au cyanoacrylate est un outil diagnostique prcieux (1-3). Elle trouve aussi son
utilit en dermatologie exprimentale, lorsque la couche corne exprime certaines proprits
quantifiables (4). Nous rapportons ici un bref synopsis des mthodes qui ont vu le jour ces 20
dernires annes.

G. E. Pirard, Cyanoacrylate biopsy for cytologic evaluation of the epidermis, Department of
Dermatopathology, University Hospital Sart Tilman, Lige, Belgien.
Cyanoacrylate skin surface stripping (CSSS) is a time-honoured method. After its clever discovery, it
was soon applied for diagnostic purposes. Sampling on polyethylene slide was a decisive improvement
in the development of this method.

R. Debowska, K. Rogiewicz, T. Iwanenko, I. Eris, Folic Acid (Folacin) New Application of a
Cosmetic Ingredient, Kosmetische Medizin 3/2005, pp. 16-22. *
Many years of trials and research tests proved that a lot of well-known vitamins could be successfully
used in cosmetology. The available data indicate that one of them folic acid plays an important role
in life process of mitotically active tissues and its deficiency increases background level of DNA
damage.

G. Bhm, J. Nutzmann, M. Jansen, Neue Hautemulsionen zur Behandlung der postoperativen
Hautquellung der Chirurgenhand eine klinisch prospektive Studie, Kosmetische Medizin 07/05.
Chirurgen und OP-Personal erfahren durch das Tragen protektiver Handschuhe eine Erhhung der
natrlichen Respiration der Haut mit Bildung einer feuchten Kammer. Daraus resultiert ein stark
hydratisiertes, gequollenes und mazeriertes Stratum corneum mit Erniedrigung der normalen
Barrierefunktion.

H. Dickel, Th. M. Bruckner, St. M. Erdmann, J. W. Fluhr, The strip patch test: results of a
multicentre study towards a standardization. Arch Dermatol Res (2004) 296: 212-219, Springer
Verlag.
The strip patch test (SPT) is a variant of patch testing which is used for substances with a poor
percutaneous penetration. Penetration of the substance is enhanced by repeated applications of
adhesive tape prior to their application to the skin. However, no guidelines exist for standardized
performance of the SPT.
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V. Rogiers, E. Houben, K. De Paepe, Transepidermal Water Loss Measurements in Dermato-
Cosmetic Sciences, Bioengineering of the skin: water and the stratum corneum, sec. Edition, CRC
Press 2002, pp. 63-76.
The stratum corneum (SC) plays an important role in the clinical appearance of the skin as a result of
its water-holding capacity and lipidic content. In addition, it acts as a barrier to protect the body from
percutaneous absorption of a wide variety of xenobiotics, from desiccation, and from insults by a
number of environmental conditions.

C. Rosado, P. Pinto, L.M. Rodrigues, Comparative assessment of the performance of two
generations of Tewameter: TM210, TM300, International Journal of Cosmetic Science. 2005. 27.
pp. 237-241.
The measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) has been established as one of the main
parameters in the assessment of skin barrier function. One of the most widely employed devices to
measure TEWL is the Tewameter. Courage and Khazaka launched the TM300 in 2003 and
successfully eliminated some of the limitations of the previous model.

Chris L. Packham, Helen E. Packham, Hilary M. Packham, A. Cherrington, Investigations into
different skin conditions in certain occupations, The Journal of The Royal Society for the
Promotion of Health, July 2005, Vol. 125, No. 4.
The aim of this study was to establish whether those working in certain occupations had skin with a
lower moisture content than would be considered normal. Skin moisture levels were measured as well
as visual assessment. Results indicated that all occupational groups studied had skin that was less well
hydrated than would be considered normal, although there were significant inter-individual variations
within any one group.

C. Vincent, M. Szubert, I. Eris, The assessment of efficacy, tolerability and cosmetic features of
Diosperin K 1% PROLONGATUM cream containing complex of diosmine, hesperidine and
vitamin K, Poster Presentation Centre for Science and Research Dr. Irena Eris, 2005.
Face redness and couperoses can cause very negative visual effect and influent on patientsquality of
life. Such type of skin requires special regime. Application of very gentle cleaners, sun protective
products and appropriate cosmetic creams can improve the skin condition and minimize the red face
effect.

C. Vincent, M. Szubert, I. Eris, K. Rogiewicz, Comparison of microtopography and profilometry-
two methods of skin surface analysis, Poster presentation Centre For Science And Research Dr.
Irena Eris, 2005.
The process of skin aging is connected with progressive changes in skin structure. The most
spectacular effect of skin aging are wrinkles and progressive unevenness of skin surface. Skin of
elderly people is thin and fragile due to complex changes very often summarized to reduced dermal
collagen and decreased cell proliferation.

C. Vincent, M. Szubert, I. Eris, K. Rogiewicz, Efficacy of Dr. Irena Eris Anti-Cellulite Body Cream,
Poster presentation Centre For Science And Research Dr. Irena Eris, 2005.
Cellulite is a skin problem which characterizes non-inflammatory lesions of subcutaneous tissue
(lipodystrophy), leading to changes in smoothness of skin surface. Epidemiological data indicates that
cellulite is problem for 80-95% of women population. The pathogenesis of cellulite covers complex of
different factors: genetics, hormonal and life style.






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Karl Lintner, Claire Mas Chamberlin, Philippe Mondon, Olivier Peschard, IgG fragments regulate
IL6 production in keratinocytes: potential use in anti-age treatments, Sederma S.A.S., Le Perray,
78612 France, Presentation at the ISCC in Florence 2005. *
Cytokines play a fundamental role in inter-cellular communication. Their secretion rate and cellular
concentrations are well regulated and in an equilibrium state (homeostasis) in healthy, young skin.
Ageing leads to changes in these equilibriums. DHEA clearly controls IL6: the age-related decrease in
DHEA (by a factor of >2 after age 50) is accompanied by increased IL6 levels. Cytokine IL6 is also
known to be strongly induced in skin by UV rays.

Johann W. Wiechers, Caroline Kelly, Trevor G. Bleaseand, J. Chris Dederen, FORMULATING
FOR FAST EFFICACY: INFLUENCE OF LIQUID CRYSTALLINE EMULSION
STRUCTURE ON THE SKIN DELIVERY OF ACTIVE INGREDIENTS, Uniqema Applied
Research, Skin R&D, P.O. Box 2, 2800 AA Gouda, The Netherlands, Wilton Centre, Redcar, UK,
Meerbeek, Belgium. Presentation at the ISCC in Florence 2005. *
In a previous publication, we described how the thermodynamic activity of an active ingredient could
be optimized in a cosmetic formulation by the choice of a primary and secondary emollient. This paper
describes our initial attempts to explain the influence of the emulsifier system on the dermal delivery
of an active ingredient. The emulsifiers studied in this investigation induced liquid crystal formation in
the formulations and interacted in two different ways.

F. Distante , V. Pagani , B. Green , A. Bonfigli , J. W. Fluhr, OBJECTIVE EVALUATION OF
PLACEBO EFFECT IN COSMETIC TREATMENT, Presentation at the ISCC in Florence 2005.*
Products packaging and efficacy claims may stimulate pleasant emotions during cosmetics use thus
enhancing their perceived benefits. Aim of the study: To objectively evaluate the influence of
packaging and strongly claimed attributes on cosmetic efficacy both by non-invasive bioengineering
techniques and by self-assessment. The selected cosmetic product was a marketed antiaging
gluconolactone-based formulation. The packaging was either a fancy refined jar or an unbranded plain
container.

Maurizio Giuliani, Gianfranco Amicosante, Luisa Di Marzio, Benedetta Cinque, and Maria Grazia
Cifone, Increase of skin-ceramide levels in aged subjects following a short-term topical
application of bacterial sphingomyelinase from Streptococcus thermophilus., Presentation at the
ISCC in Florence 2005. *
Several studies have demonstrated that ceramides play an essential role in both the barrier and water-
holding functions of healthy stratum corneum, suggesting that the dysfunction of the stratum corneum
associated with ageing as well that observed in patients with several skin diseases (i.e. atopic
dermatitis, psoriasis) could result from a ceramide deficiency. In a previous study, our group have
reported a significant increase in skin ceramide levels in healthy subjects, after a treatment in vivo with
a cream containing a preparation of S. salivarum subspeciem thermophilus, a probiotic belonging to
the lactic acid bacterium (LAB) group.

Patrcia M. B. G. Maia Campos, Mirela D. Gianeti, Gisele M. S. Gonalves, Lorena R. Gaspar,
Assessment of in vitro antioxidant and in vivo anti-ageing effects of cosmetic products containing
vitamin C and its derivatives on human skin, Presentation at the ISCC in Florence 2005. *
The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro antioxidant activity of vitamin C (AA) and its
derivatives, magnesium ascorbyl phosphate (MAP), ascorbyl tetra-isopalmitate (ATIP) as well as their
in vivo anti-ageing effects by using Cutaneous Bioengineering Techniques on human skin. The study
of antioxidant activity in vitro was made with an aqueous and a lipid system, the luminol-
chemiluminescence, and malondialdehyde assay, respectively.


Sungyeon Ahn, Jihyun Bae, Seunghun Kim, Haekwang Lee, Seongjoon Moon, Ihseop Chang, Oksub
Lee, CORRELAT ION BETWEEN CUTOMETER AND QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION
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USING MOIRE TOPOGRAPHY IN AGE-RELATED SKIN ELASTICITY, Presentation at the
ISCC in Florence 2005. *
As aging occurs, our skin gets more wrinkles, becomes drier and loses its elasticity. Validating the
evaluation of skin elasticity is especially important, because it is not as visible as other signs of aging
such as wrinkles. Here, we identified the correlation between age and the parameters given by
Cutometer, and we present the parameters of that reflect the decreases in skin elasticity in terms of
ages. (U
r
/U
f
, U
a
/U
f
, U
r
/U
e
, U
a
, r = -0.687~-0.725). Also we developed an evaluation method to
quantify the sensory value of viewing. A five-grade standard of Moire topographic photo scale on face
was prepared using sensory evaluation of 20 to 61 year-old women.
G Oberto, A Berghi, F Portolan, E Bauza, C Dal Farra, and N Domloge,Cotton Honeydew
Oligosaccharides for Hair Care Cosmetics, Presentation at the ISCC in Florence 2005. *
Cotton honeydew extract is a unique composition of oligosaccharides, including fructose, glucose,
inositol, melezitose, saccharose, trehalose, and trehalulose.
The interaction of these oligosaccharides provides a stimulating effect on keratin synthesis, which
allows for protection against nutrient deprivation and osmotic stress. Consequently, we were interested
in studying the effect of these oligosaccharides on human hair, using scanning electron microscopy.

Paola Granata , Roberto Maffei Facino , Adriano Ghirardini , Enzo Berardesca , Grazia Primavera ,
Manuela Carrera,

TYROSYL-HISTIDINE DIPEPTIDE: A NEW APPROACH AGAINST
PREMATURE AGING, Presentation at the ISCC in Florence 2005. *
Oxidative fragmentation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the skin generates cytotoxic aldehydes,
mainly 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (HNE), involved in premature skin aging and photo-aging, due to
the formation of collagen and elastin cross-links, skin enzymes inactivation, accumulation of lipid
peroxidation products. Since histidine-containing dipeptides have been recently shown to possess
carbonyl quenching activity, we developed a series of different dipeptides with the aid of
combinatorial chemistry and each of them was subjected to antioxidant and anti-carbonyl assays, in a
cell-free model using the ORAC assay (Oxygen Reactive Antioxidant Capacity) for anti-
lipoperoxidant activity, HPLC analysis for the evaluation of the HNE quenching ability and LC-
MS/MS for the characterization of the site and of the mechanism of adduction.
Toru Tsuchiya, Shinichiro Haze, Tetsuji Hirao, Junichi Hosoi, Akio Kikuchi, Ken Shoji, Masahiro
Tanida, Takanari Tsuda, ODORANT INHALATION LOWERED STRESS LEVELS
SYSTEMICALLY, SUBSEQUENTLY RESULTING IN THE IMPROVEMENT OF
CUTANEOUS FUNCTIONS:LINKAGE BETWEEN OLFACTORY SENSATION AND SKIN,
Presentation at the ISCC in Florence 2005. *
Our research conducted over several years has demonstrated that odorant inhalation produces an effect
on cutaneous functions by inducing changes in the neuroendocrinological system. For example,
inhalation of the natural sedative component of the rose flower, DMMB (1,3-dimethoxy-5-
methylbenzene), inhibited an increase in plasma cortisol levels and barrier recovery delay or an
increase in forehead sebum, which was induced by stress. These findings were obtained using
authentic experimental patterned stress and short-period odorant inhalation.

Rosnah Ismail, Salmiah Ahmad, SKIN CARE FORMULATION INCORPORATING SODIUM
LACTATES, SODIUM PCA AND LAURYL PCA: COMPARATIVE MOISTURISING
EFFICACY ON ASIAN SKIN , Presentation on the IFSCC in Florence 2005. *
Sodium lactates, sodium PCA and lauryl PCA are known Natural Moisturizing Factor (NMF)
commonly used in skin care formulations. In this paper, moisturizing efficacy of oil-in-water (O/W)
based emulsion containing 3% glycerin use as placebo and with additional NMF @1%, 3% and 5%
active were conducted in-vivo on 36 Asian subjects consisting of a mixture of one Indian, two Chinese
and the rest Malays including 21 females and 15 males, age between 23 to 45 years old (average 32
years).

G.W. Nam1, S.H. Kim, E.J. Kim, J.H. Kim, B.G. Chae, H.K. Lee, S.J. Moon, H.H. Kang, I.S. Chang,
HOW SKIN CARE INGREDIENT CONCENTRATIONS CAN MODULATE THE EFFECT
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OF POLYOLS AND OILS ON SKIN MOISTURIZATION AND SKIN SURFACE
ROUGHNESS, Presentation on the IFSCC in Florence 2005.*
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different skin care ingredient concentrations on
the effect of polyols and oils on the human skin moisturization and skin surface roughness. Polyols
and oils were essential ingredients to make a skin care formulation. But these were still not understood
how much concentrations display on human skin as efficacy and sensory. We studied to examine
various concentrations of ingredient by cosmetic companies using noninvasive methods.
Young Heui Kim, Ph.D., Young-Sil Kim, Jong-Heon Kim, Cosmeceutical Properties of
Polysaccharides from the Root Bark of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica, Presentation on the IFSCC
in Florence 2005. *
In Korea and China, Ulmus davidiana var. japonica has been used as traditional oriental medicine for
the treatment of difficulty in urination, skin inflammation, etc. In order to investigate the potential of a
polysaccharide extract from Ulmus davidiana var. japonica as a cosmetic ingredient, we measured its
moisturizing effect, photo-induced cytotoxicity, and anti-inflammatory effect. After hydrolysis, HPLC
experiments showed that the composition of polysaccharide was mainly rhamnose, galactose, and
glucose.

D. Vanden Berghe1, A. Barel, A. Timchenko, K. De Paepe, N. Demeester, P. Clarys, V. Rogiers, M.
Calomme, EFFECT OF ORAL INTAKE OF CHOLINE-STABILIZED ORTHOSILICIC ACID
ON SKIN, NAILS AND HAIR IN WOMEN WITH PHOTODAMAGED FACIAL SKIN, ,
Presentation on the IFSCC in Florence 2005. *
Choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid (ch-OSA) is a bioavailable form of silicon. The effect of ch-OSA
on skin, nails and hair was investigated in a double blind, placebo-controlled study. Fifty women with
photodamaged facial skin were randomized to receive orally during 20 weeks 10 mg Si/day (ch-OSA
pellets) or a placebo. Non-invasive methods were used to evaluate skin microrelief, hydration and
mechanical anisotropy. Volunteers evaluated on a visual analogue scale (VAS) brittleness of hair and
nails. In the ch-OSA group the serum Si concentration was significantly higher after 20 weeks
compared to the placebo. Skin roughness increased in the placebo group but decreased in the ch-OSA
group. Skin anisotropy increased after 20 weeks in the placebo group but decreased in the ch-OSA
group suggesting improvement of mechanical properties. VAS scores for nail and hair brittleness were
significantly lower after 20 weeks in the ch-OSA group compared to baseline scores.

Katsuhiko Yagi, Katsuki Ogawa, Tetsuya Kanemaru, Kyoko Joichi, Naomi Kunizawa, and Ruriko
Takano, OPTICAL REJUVENATING MAKEUP USING AN INNOVATIVE
SHAPECONTROLLED HYBRID POWDER, Presentation on the IFSCC in Florence 2005. *
For women, the sagging on the face skin that is noticed with aging is one of the important problems
that should be solved. Although conventional cosmetics that can prevent sagging are only skin-care
products, no makeup cosmetics that can correct the appearance of sagging have been developed. The
vital factors of an optical rejuvenating makeup were found to recover the skin tension and to lighten
up the face shadow appeared on the sagging skin. Therefore, the hybrid powder consisting platy
barium sulfate on the surface of titanium dioxide coated mica having red interference light was
developed. The panel test resulted that almost all panels could realize the rejuvenating effect of the
foundation containing the powder. The image analysis showed that the finishing of the foundation was
12-years-younger than no makeup face.

Jin-Hui Kim, Gwan-Sub Sim, Jin-Hwa Kim, Dong-Hwan Lee, Young-Ho Cho, Bum-Chun Lee,
Hyeong-Bae Pyo,Effects of Draconis sanguis on antioxidant and MMP-1 expression in human
dermal fibroblast, Presentation on the IFSCC in Florence 2005. *
UV irradiation stimulates the production of free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and
overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the human skin. These cause various types of
cell damages and destruction of connective proteins such as collagen in the skin. In order to develop
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new anti-photoaging agents, we examined the antioxidant activity and the inhibitory effect of MMP-1
(collagenase) with the extracts of oriental herbs.

M. R. Pena Ferreira, P. Costa, M. F. Bahia Study of Efficacy Comparison of 20 Anti-Oily Hair
Shampoos Using Sebumeter SM 810, Presentation on the IFSCC in Florence 2005. *
There are many different types of shampoos available to the consumer to control greasy hair. In our
study we compare the efficacy of 20 shampoos in the treatment of oiliness using a non-invasive
method (Sebumeter SM 810). A sample of 400 male and female volunteers with greasy hair or
tendency to oily (ages 18 - 65) was tested. All products reduced the sebum excretion rate after the 10
th
application of the tested shampoo. No significant differences were found between the results of the
shampoos.

Philippe Masson, Florence Merot, Marie-Jos AlbinN, Christine Simonet, Simone Flauto, Philippe
Pommez,

PSYCHONEUROIMMUNOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF A COSMETIC PRODUCT:
BENEFITS OF A MULTIFACTORIAL APPROACH, Presentation on the IFSCC in Florence
2005. *
Several publications have reported the existence of a relationship between individual mood and
immunological response, basing the observations on the variation in the salivary IgA and Cortisol
content [1,2]. Then, it seemed relevant to consider if such considerings could apply to demonstrate the
ability of specific cosmetic formulations to influence the users behaviour by providing them pleasure
and well being in addition to the usual cosmetic effects. The first results obtained have demonstrated a
lack of stability of the immunological responses and the obligation to correlate the results with
complementary parameters.

F. Distante , V. Pagani , B. Green , A. Bonfigli , J. W. Fluhr, OBJECTIVE EVALUATION OF
PLACEBO EFFECT IN COSMETIC TREATMENT, Presentation on the IFSCC in Florence 2005.
*
Products packaging and efficacy claims may stimulate pleasant emotions during cosmetics use thus
enhancing their perceived benefits.
Aim of the study: To objectively evaluate the influence of packaging and strongly claimed attributes
on cosmetic efficacy both by non-invasive bioengineering techniques and by self-assessment. The
selected cosmetic product was a marketed antiaging gluconolactone-based formulation. The packaging
was either a fancy refined jar or an unbranded plain container.

John J. Wille, Cutaneous Delivery of Antioxidant Botanicals, Presentation on the IFSCC in
Florence 2005.
A truly effective anti-irritant strategy seeks to modulate checkpoints in the irritant signal cascade.
Earlier, we reviewed our work and the scientific and patent literature on anti-irritants (1-2) for
prevention and treatment of contact irritant due to topical cosmetic, dermatological and transdermal
drugs.

A. Koyanagi, N. Goto, S. Daikai, S. Uchida, N. Hayashi, N. Ikeda, M. Yoshioka, Evaluation of a
multi-functional hybrid polymer based on a novel technology: as emulsifier, lastarizer,
smoother, texture enhancer and moisturizer, Presentation on the IFSCC in Florence 2005.
The copolymer consisted of hydrolysed silk protein and alkylmethylsiloxane was recently developed
by our technology. The copolymer enabled us to make stable Water in Silicone emulsion as well as
Water in Oil emulsion by cold process. It was dispersible in various kinds of oil, in spite of its
insolubility in water or solvents and this proved the important feature of this copolymer.

R. Ismail, S. Ahmad, Sodium lactates in skin lightening formulations: its synergy with other skin
lightening agents, Presentation on the IFSCC in Florence 2005.
In many Western countries, skin lighteners and related products sold in the market are aimed to
prevent and treat melasma, freckles and age spots. However in Asia, skin-lightening products are
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127
primarily used to achieve the beauty ideal of a white and flawless skin, although they also treat
problem areas.

P. Tengamnuay, T. Rojanadilok, Comparative Efficacy Evaluation of Some Commercial Skin
Whitening Lotions, Presentation on the IFSCC in Florence 2005.
To have a white, smooth skin appears to be the most desirable feature among women, especially those
from Asian countries like China, Japan, Korea and Southeast Asia. As a result, a great number of
whitening products is available on the market. The active whitening ingredients in these products
range from conventional UV filters to highly sophisticated combination of various skin-whitening
agents.

Sonnen-Apotheke, Ktzing, Dermokosmetik, Beratung in der Apotheke, PTA Nr. 11, Oktober 2005.
Eine gute Untersttzung bei Promotionaktionen zum Thema Hautpflege sind Hautanalysegerte. Sie
erleichtern den Einstieg in die Beratung, individuell auf den Hauttyp und Hautzustand der Kundin
oder des Kunden abegestimmt.

Dr. Judit Nemes, Dr. Marta Alberth, Reliability and clinical usefulness of sudorometry in
measuring dental fear of children, University of Debrecen, Medical and Health Science Centre,
Hungary, Okt. 2005.
Dental fear is a common health care problem in the child population. To the effective management of
this handicapping trait, it is important to determine the prevalence of the problem in the community so
as to help in the planning of public health service.

K. de Paepe, V. Rogiers, Corneofix F20, a new technology to define skin desquamation,
Presentation on the ISBS Meeting 2005 in Phildelphia, USA, abstract.
The aim of the present study was the evaluation of a newly marketed methodology for the
characterization of the skin desquamation index (DI) being an important parameter for the evaluation
of overall skin condition.

D. Kowatzki, C. Machold, K. Krull, P. Elsner, J.W. Fluhr, Regeneration kinetic of sweating,
Stratum Corneum hydration, Surface pH, Sebum production and mechanical properties is not
altered by regular sauna bathing, Presentation on the ISBS Meeting 2005 in Phildelphia, USA,
abstract.
Wellness and especially sauna bathing are of growing interest in modern health care. The positive
effect of sauna for general health is well documented. However, to our knowledge no controlled
studies have been published on the effect of sauna on skin physiology.

M. Visscher, J. Smith, D. Said, P. Bondurant, R. Wickett, Stratum Corneum integrity and function
in health care workers following hand hygiene procedures, Presentation on the ISBS Meeting 2005
in Phildelphia, USA, abstract.
Compliance with the Centers for Disease Controls hand hygiene guideline is low and health care
workers (HCWs) cite skin irritation as highest reason for failure to comply.

J.W. Fluhr, M. Breternitz, M. Flach, P. Elsner, Acute eperimentally induced barrier disruption by
tape stripping is influenced by pressure, time and anatomical location: Integrity and Cohesion
assessed by sequential tape stripping, Presentation on the ISBS Meeting 2005 in Phildelphia, USA,
abstract.
Tape stripping is a well-known procedure in stratum corneum physiology research. Adhesive films are
pressed to the surface of SC and then removed. The superficial layers of SC adhere on the film and are
accessible for further investigations. Although this method is widely used, only few information about
standardization are known.

L. Bankova, P. Kleesz, R. Grieshaber, P. Elsner, J.W. Fluhr, Irritant potential of food additives: a
bioengineering irritation study, Presentation on the ISBS Meeting 2005 in Phildelphia, USA,
abstract.
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128
Goal of the study: To assess the skin irritant effects of food additives and the potential relevance for
the development of irritant contact dermatitis. Methodoloy: The irritants (ascorbic acid, acetic acid and
sodium hydroxide at different pH values) were applied to the skin of the mid-back of 19 volunteers
twice daily for four days using and occlusive epicutaneous patch test system and in combinations with
sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS).

A. O. Barel, K. Henau, P. Clarys, In vitro calibration and validation of the reviscometer using
silicone polymers as simple skin model systems, Presentation on the ISBS Meeting 2005 in
Phildelphia, USA, abstract.
In vitro determination of the mechanical properties and isotropy of various polymers used as skin
model systems can be determined using the shear wave propagation method. The Reviscometer
(Courage-Khazaka, Cologen, Germany) measures the resonance running time (RTT) between 2
sensors which are placed with constant pressure on the surface of the material. The RTT times are
expressed in arbitrary units related to time.

P. Clarys, K. Henau, A.O. Barel, Investigation of intrinsic and photoaging of human skin using
the reviscometer and the cutometer, Presentation on the ISBS Meeting 2005 in Phildelphia, USA,
abstract.
In vivo and mechanical isotropy/ anisotropy properties of the skin can be determined using the shear
wave propagation method (Reviscometer, Courage-Khazaka). The wave travelling time from
transmitter to receiver (Resonance Running Time, RTT), expressed in arbitrary time units, is inversely
proportional to the stiffness of the skin.

E. Ruvolo, N. Kollias, Aging the elastic parameters of human epidermis: the role of langers line
and skin anisotropy, Presentation on the ISBS Meeting 2005 in Phildelphia, USA, abstract. *
One of the dominant characteristics of aging of the skin is its loss of elasticity, yet measurements of
the mechanical properties of the skin yield relatively small changes in the percent values from youth to
advanced age using suction or torque based instruments.

C. Heinemann, C. Paschold, J.W. Fluhr, W. Wigger-Alberti, S. Schliemann-Willers, P. Elsner,
Induction of a hardening phenomenon by repeated application of SLS and subsequent analysis
of the changes in the lipid composition of the stratum corneum, Presentation on the ISBS Meeting
2005 in Phildelphia, USA, abstract.
The hardening phenomenon results from the adaptation of the skin to repeated influence of exogenous
irritative noxes. This study focuses on the lipid composition on the stratum corneum before and after
induction of a hardening phenomenon.

S. Son, S. Park, S. Ha, G. Park, G. Lee, C. Oh, Analysis of the skin hydration states using high
resolution magnetic resonance microscope, Presentation on the ISBS Meeting 2005 in Phildelphia,
USA, abstract.
Magnetic Resonance (MR) technique have been rapidly developed, and Magnetic Resonance Image
(MRI) is now the most versatile non-invasive diagnostic tool with a much higher resolution than other
imaging modalities such as conventional X-ray, or Computed Tomography (CT).

R. Voegeli, J. Heiland, S. Doppler, T. Schreier, Efficient and Simple Quantification of Stratum
Corneum Proteins on Tape Strippings, Presentation on the ISBS Meeting 2005 in Phildelphia,
USA, abstract.
Tape stripping is established as a common technique in dermatological research and is used in a broad
range of applications. However, a concurrent colorimetrical determination of protein content and
enzyme activity on the same tape is circumstantial.

M. Jouandeaud, C. Lenaers, S. Mazalrey, J. Dorotyn, B. Closs,Synthesis capacities of human
fibroblasts compared to those of fibroblasts from striae, Poster Presentation on the ISBS Meeting
2005 in Phildelphia, USA, abstract.
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The deterioation of the fibril network of the skin is due mainly to aging and other types of
modifications such as hormonal modifications. One of the problems often encountered as a result of a
modification of the skin fibrous network is striation.

Dr. AnsgarBehler, Sybille Cornelsen, Dr. Iris Huetter, A new multifunctional mono alkyl ether
citrate with unique properties, Poster Presentation on the ISBS Meeting 2005 in Phildelphia, USA,
abstract.

J. Molinero, R. Ojeda, J. Coll, A. Mirada, C. Trullas, Clinical and bioengineering evaluation of the
efficacy and safety of 30% urea cream in the treatment of hyperqueratotic skin disorders,
Presentation at the EADV London, Okt. 2005.
Topical products with high concentrations of urea have been recently incorporated to dermatological
vademecum. Urea, an active ingredient with a long history in dermatology has been extensively used
in several skin diseases due to their moisturizing, desquamating, antiproliferative and antipruritic
effect.

S. Savic, S. Tamburic, S. Vesic, G. Vuleta, C. Mller-Goymann, Effect of Vehicle Composition on In
vitro/ in vivo Hydrocortisone Penetration, Presentation at the EADV London, Okt. 2005.
Diffusion/penetration properties of locally applied drugs are affected by both the status of the stratum
corneum (SC) and by the composition and colloidal structure of the vehicle.

Hongbo Zhai, Emi Dika, M. Goldovsky, H. I. Maibach, Tape Stripping Method in Man:
Comparison on Evaporimetric Methods, Presentation at the EADV London, Okt. 2005.
Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) documents integrity of stratum corneum (SC) water barrier
function and is a sensitive indicator of skin water barrier alteration. Adhesive tape stripping is
commonly used for investigating SC physiology, bioavailability and bioequivalence of topical drugs.

H. Tronnier, T. Dirschka, U. Heinrich, Periorale Dermatidis (PD) Eine kosmetisch relevante
Dermatose, Poster Prsentation at the EADV London, Okt. 2005.
Die periorale Dermatitis (PD) als Krankheitsentitt ist 1964 von Mihan und Ayres erstmals in den
USA beschrieben worden. Die erste deutsche Verffentlichung 1969 stammt von Steigleder et al. Die
Erkrankung ist im Gesicht, vorwiegend perioral, aber auch perioculr lokalisiert. Es finden sich
lokalisierte Papeln und Papulovesikel in entzndlich gerteter Haut. Im Rahmen einer Studie wurden
Patienten mit PD und hautgesunde Vergleichspersonen untersucht.

Hristo Dobrev, Clinical and instrumental study of the sebum regulation efficacy of REGU-SEB,
Poster Presentation at the EADV in London, October 2005. *
Excessively oily facial skin is due to overactive sebaceous glands and can occur in both males and
females. The skin is greasy and shiny, with large open pores, feels unpleasant and may be a serious
cosmetic problem. Moreover, this type of skin is sensitive and much more prone to acne and
seborrhoeic dermatitis. That is why the control over the excessive oiliness is very important. *

A. G. Schepky, U. Holtzmann, K. Bohnsack (Beiersdorf AG, Germany), Novel effects of an acidic
humectant combination result in protection and activation of enzyme activity in human skin,
Presentation at the 14
th
EADV Congress, London, Okt. 2005.
Sensitive skin conditions result from an imbalance between endogenous, protective factors and
exogenous, aggressive stimuli like exposure o irritants, e.g. harsh surfactants. This imbalance goes
along with an impairment of skin enzyme activity.

Sang W. Son, Sang Y. Park, Seung H. Ha, Gyu M. Park, Objective evaluation for severity of atopic
dermatitis by morphologic study of skin surface contours, Skin Research and Technology 11/05,
pp. 272-280. *
Wide variation in outcome methodology can make the interpretation of patient outcomes confusing
and the comparison of the results of different studies almost impossible. It is important to objectively
measure and record the severity of atopic dermatitis (AD) for routine clinical practice and research.
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The aim of this study was to evaluate whether morphologic study of skin surface contours might be
helpful to objectively quantify the severity of AD.

M. Fischer, Chr. Donath, J. Radke, W. Ch. Marsch, J. Soukup, Skin function parameters in
intensive-care patients, Skin Research and Technology 11/05, pp. 268-271.
Intensive-care patients are at risk for organic failures. But there are hardly any results known for the
skin barrier function of patients in intensive care. There are only studies of transepidermal water loss
(TEWL) in premature infants (1,2). It was found that premature infants have an insufficient cutaneous
barrier, which can be improved by bland local therapy (2).

D. Schmid, F. Suter, F. Zlli, Soothing Factor from Opuntia Cactus for Sensitive Skin, SFW-
Journal 11-2005, pp. 14-18.
Sensitive skin tends to be more susceptible to some environmental factors. People with sensitive skin
report exaggerated reactions such as redness, itching or rashes when their skin is in contact with
certain cosmetics, plants or fabrics, hot or cold, or insect bites. Normally, people with sensitive skin
show quicker an erythemal reaction against ultraviolet irradiation.

G. Primavera, J. W. Fluhr, E. Berardesca, Standardization of Measurements and Guidelines,
Bioengineering of the Skin: Water and the Stratum Corneum, Second Edition, CRC Press 2005, pp.
83-95.
Measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) is widely used to characterize the water barrier
function of skin (both in physiological and pathological conditions), to perform predictive irritancy
tests, and to evaluate the efficacy of therapeutic treatments on diseased skin. TEWL assessment can be
performed using different techniques [1,2] (closed-chamber method, ventilated-chamber method, and
open-chamber method).

Gabriel Khazaka, Assessment of Stratum Corneum Hydration: Corneometer CM 825,
Bioengineering of the Skin: Water and the Stratum Corneum, Second Edition, CRC Press 2005, pp.
249-261. *
The assessment of skin moisture is one of the first and most important measurements for testing the
efficacy of cosmetic products on the skin surface. The quantity of literature worldwide dealing with
this topic indicates the significance of this measurement. Numerous studies about the advantages,
disadvantages, and comparisons among the different commercially available devices have been
published.

G. Primavera, J. W. Fluhr, E. Berardesca, Electrical Assessment of Skin Hydration:
Standardization of Measurements and Guidelines, Bioengineering of the Skin: Water and the
Stratum Corneum, Second Edition, CRC Press 2005, pp. 287-295.
The importance of water to the proper functioning of the stratum corneum (SC) is well recognized.
The reliable quantification of water in the corneum and its interaction with topically applied products
is, in fact, essential for understanding skin physiology and developing efficient skin care formulation.

Chris Edwards, R. Marks, Hydration and Atopic Dermatitis, Bioengineering of the Skin: Water and
the Stratum Corneum, Second Edition, CRC Press 2005, pp. 323-333.
Frequently, the skin on noneczematous areas of atopic dermatitis (AD) sufferers feels rough and
appears dry. This xerosis is associated with the itch that accompanies the disorder. Reports of the
incidence of xerosis in AD patients vary from 48 to 98 %.

J.W. Fluhr, Chr. Uhl, Hautphysiologische Messungen in der tglichen Praxis: Corneometrie und
Sebumetrie bei physiologischen und krankhaften Hautvernderungen, Diagnostische Verfahren,
Kap. Nr. 37, 2005, pp. 321-345.
Grundlagen der Methoden: Bei der Corneometrie handelt es sich um eine nicht-invasive Messung der
Hautoberflche zur Bestimmung des Feuchtigkeitsgehalts im Stratum corneum. Die Messung erfolgt
auf kapazitivem Weg und beruht auf der Tatsache, dass Wasser eine von anderen Stoffen sehr
unterschiedliche Dielektrizittskonstante besitzt.
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Dr. G. Varju, Dr. G. Garay, Surface Evaluation of Living Skin (SELS) during
Microdermabrasion Treatment Course, Poster Presentation, Dr. Derm Laser Center of
Dermatology, Budapest Hungary, 2005.
Microdermabrasion has become a popular method of skin rejuvenation for treating photodamage, fine
rhytides, age spots, dyschromia, enlarged pores and mild ache. This procedure is one of the newest
skin rejuvenating techniques employed to help improve the texture and appearance of the skin.


H. Dobrev, The Effects of topically applied Matrixyl, natural grape seed and avocado oils on skin
surface, hydration and elasticity, EADV, May 2005, Sofia, Bulgaria (abstract). *
Background: Matrixyl is a lipophilic pentapeptide that stimulates the collagen synthesis by fibroblasts
in the skin. The grape seed extract is rich in flavonoids which are powerful antioxidants. Avocado oil
consists predominantly of unsaturated fatty acid glycerides, vitamins and minerals, and has good
emollient properties.

H. Dobrev, Evaluation of the efficacy of a Rooibos Extract containing anti-wrinkle cream,
EADV, May 2005, Sofia, Bulgaria (abstract). *
Background: Rooibos plant possesses scientifically proven anti-oxidative, anti-allergic, anti-microbial
and anti-inflammatory features. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of a Rooibos extract containing cream
on aged facial skin using in vivo skin bioengineering techniques.

K. Schweikert, V. Kalhfer, B. Gabard, Improving the properties of Hyaluronic acid on dry skin,
Personal Care, Nov. 2005, pp. 35-39.
The effects of two cosmetic actives intended for the treatment of skin dryness (Hyaluronic acid and the
new Tamarindus indica seed extract) were evaluated in five healthy volunteers by objective
measurements after twice daily application on the skin of the volar forearm for two weeks.

Dr. I. Htter, Dr. A. Behler, S. Cornelsen, `Vitamin` of surfactants profiled, Personal Care, Nov.
2005, pp. 45-47.
Natural alpha hydroxy acids (AHA) or so-called fruit acids such as citric, malic or glycolic acid,
have been used for years in personal care applications. They are highly appreciated for their cosmetic
benefits, such as anti-ageing and moisturising.

C. Lenaers, N. Guichard, S. Mazalrey, B. Closs, A biological desquamation strategy for skin
resurfacing, Personal Care Magazine, January 2006, pp. 31-37.
The stacking of corneocytes constitutes the horny layer of the skin, or stratum corneum (SC) and
enables the epidermis to fulfil two of its principal functions. On the one hand, the SC ensures a barrier
and protection function between the organism and its environment by limiting both water losses and
the penetration of exogenous molecules.

L. K. Smalls, R. R. Wickett, M. O. Visscher, Effect of dermal thickness, tissue composition, and
body site on skin biomechanical properties, Skin Research & Technology 2006, 12, pp. 43-49. *
The epidermis, the fibrous collagen and elastin network of the dermis, and the hypodermis give rise to
the biomechanical properties of the skin. Measurements of these properties have been used extensively
to evaluate treatments for the repair of facial actinic damage and the effects of aging and to assess the
effectiveness of facial resurfacing treatments (1-3).

F. Khatyr, C. Imberdis, D. Varchon, J.-M. Lagarde, G. Josse, Measurement of the mechanical
properties of the skin using the suction test, Skin Research & Technology 2006, 12, pp. 24-31. *
The mechanical behaviour of skin in vivo is both viscoelastic (1,2) and anisotropic (3-5). Currently,
the suction test is the only real test that is in use in both research laboratories and dermatology
departments. This is mainly because of the availability on the market of perfectly operational
apparatuses such as the Dermaflex A (Cortex Technology, Hadsund, Denmark) (6) and in particular
the Cutometer SEM575 (Courage Khazaka, Kln, Germany) (7).
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F. Guillaumie, B. M. Malle, K. Schwach-Abdellaoui, T. C. Beck, A New Sodium Hyaluronte for
Skin Moisturization and Antiaging, Cosmetics & Toiletries Vol. 121, No. 4, April 2006, pp. 51-58.
In response to growing concerns about animal-derived sources for hyaluronic acid, some researchers
have turned to biotech methods to produce this skin moisturizing agent.

R. Ismail, S. Ahmad, Skin Care Formulation Incorporating Natural Moisturising Factor and its
Efficacy on Asian Skin, SFW-Journal, International Journal for Applied Science, 4 2006, pp. 2-7.
The skin has the property to retain water in order to maintain its proper barrier function. In situations
of environmental stress, age or intrinsic physiological disturbances, this function is maintained only in
part.

G. W. Nam, S. H. Kim, E. J. Kim, J. H. Kim, B. G. Chae, H. K. Lee, How Skincare Ingredient
Concentrations Can Modulate the Effect of Polyols and Oils on Skin Moisturization and Skin
Surface Roughness, IFSCC Magazine, Vol. 9, No. 1 2006.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different skincare ingredient concentrations on
the effect of polyols and oils on human skin moisturization and skin surface roughness. Polyols and
oils are essential ingredients in a skin care formulation, but it is still not understood how their
concentrations affect their efficacy and sensory properties on human skin.

H. Matsuki, K. Kiyokane, T. Matsuki, S. Sato, G. Imokawa, Recharacterization of the Nonlesional
Dry Skin in Atopic Dermatitis through Disrupted Barrier Function, Exogenous Dermatology,
March 2006.
The etiology of the nonlesional dry and barrier-disrupted skin of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD)
is still unclear. Objective: To determine whether disrupted barrier function in the nonlesional skin is
associated with inflammatory or postinflammatory events, which are relevant to the severity of AD or
local dry skin properties, respectively.

H. Matsuki, K. Kiyokane, T. Matsuki, S. Sato, G. Imokawa, Reevaluation of the Importance of
Barrier Dysfunction in the Nonlesional Dry Skin of Atopic Dermatitis Patients through the Use
of Two Barrier Creams, Exogenous Dermatology, March 2006.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) can be considered a barrier disease in which antigens and irritants that can
easily penetrate clinically normal, nonlesional skin due to its defective barrier function trigger and
worsen the dermatitis.

J. W. Wiechers, C. Kelly, T. G. Blease, J. C. Dederen, Formulating for Fast Efficacy: Influence of
Liquid Crystalline Emulsion Structure on the Skin Delivery of Active Ingredients, IFSCC
Magazine Vol. 9, No. 1 2006.
In a previous publication, we described how the extent of skin delivery of an active ingredient can be
optimised in a cosmetic formulation by the choice of a primary and secondary emollient. This paper
describes our initial attempts to explain the influence of the emulsifier system on the dermal delivery
of an active ingredient.

H. Dobrev, Treatment of Acne with a new topical preparation. A clinical and instrumental study,
EADV, October 2006, Rhodes, Greece (abstract). *
Background: Sepicontrol A5 is a cosmetic active ingredient designated to improve the appearance of
oily, acne prone facial skin. Aim: To evaluate the sebum regulation activity, clinical efficacy and
safety of a 3% and 4% Sepicontrol A5 containing cream and gel in subjects with mild to moderate
acne.

E. Houben, K. De Paepe, V. Rogiers, Skin condition associated with intensive use of alcoholic gels
for hand disinfection : a combination of biophysical and sensorial data, Contact Dermatitis 2006 :
54, pp. 261-267.
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Hand hygiene of healthcare workers (HCWs) is of major concern to avoid nosocomial infections (1-4).
Therefore, hospitalwide infection control programmes prescribe disinfection of the hands after each
patient contact (5, 6).

E. Xhauflaire-Uhoda, G. Loussouarn, Chr. Haubrechts, G. E. Pierad, Skin capacitance imaging and
corneosurfametry. A comparative assessment of the impact of sufactants on stratum corneum,
Contact Dermatitis 2006 : 54, pp. 249-253.
Surfactants present in hygiene and skin care products are in part adsorbed at the skin surface (1), and
they can also permeate the stratum corneum (SC) where they interact with proteins and lipids (2). In
vitro studies have revealed a number of physico-chemical interactions between corneocytes and
surfactants.

Sparavigna, A. Di Pietro, M. Setaro, Sensitive skin: correlation with skin surface microrelief
appearance, Skin Research and Technology 2006: 12, pp. 7-10.
Sensitive skin has been defined as a condition associated with reduced cutaneous tolerance to
environmental factors, such as cold, heat and wind, and/or frequent or prolonged applications of some
topical products, such as cosmetics.

Chr. M. Lee, H. I. Maibach, M.D., Bioengineering Analysis of Water Hydration, Cosmetics &
Toiletries, Vol. 121, No. 3, March 2006, pp. 46-52.
The water content of the stratum corneum (SC) influences almost every biophysical property
measurable at the skin surface. Water hydration can be measured using the plastic occlusion stress test
(POST) or the water sorption-desorption test (WSDT).

G. Kutz, C. Bruns, S. Hennig, M. Enga, Current ingredients in semi-solid formulations and their
effects on skin hydration, transepidermal water loss and water resistance, Life Science
Technologies Pharmaceutical Engineering, Fachhochschule Lippe und Hxter, Germany, 2006,
poster presentation.
A series of factors like excessive treatment with detergents or organic solvents, UV irradiation as well
as low humidity are known to damage skin. Frequent barrier malfunction is due to a reduced amount
of lipids.

Wolfgang Geissel, Gesunde Haut durch gute Beratung, Igel Plus: Juni 2006, pp. 18-19.
Wird ein Mensch in der Sonne berhaupt braun und wenn ja, wie schnell und wie intensiv? Bekommt
er schnell einen Sonnenbrand? Mit einer kurzen Anamnese lsst sich der Hauttyp eines Menschen
grob in die Phototyp-Skala einordnen, sagt PD Joachim Fluhr von der Klinik fr Dermatologie der
Universitt Jena.

Newsletter #1/2006, Raumstation: Fachinformationsdienst zur Nutzung der Internationalen
Raumstation, Experiment SkinCare auf der Raumstation: Hautphysiologische Messungen in
Schwerelosigkeit, April 2006, p. 10.
Im Rahmen der geplanten europischen ISS-Langzeitmission von Juli bis Dezember 2006 sollten
erstmals systematisch physiologische Parameter der menschlichen Haut bei einem lngeren Aufenthalt
in Schwerelosigkeit erfasst werden. Dabei erlaubt der Einsatz moderner nicht-invasiver
Messverfahren, durch die Bestimmung von Parametern wie Feuchtigkeit, Barrierefunktion und
Mikrostruktur, den physiologischen Hautzustand exakt zu charakterisieren.

S. Tamburic, In vivo skin performance of a cationic emulsion base in comparison with an anionic
system, Journal of Applied Cosmetology, vol. 24, number 2, April/June 2006, pp. 63-74.
Cationic emulsifiers are relatively recent addition to the vast range of emulsifiers for personal care
products. There are very few data regarding their in vivo skin performance. This study presents a
comparative assessment of skin hydration potential of two emulsion creams: a cationic emulsion,
based on distearyldimonium chloride, and an anionic emulsion, based on hydrophobically modified
acrylic acid polymer.

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S. Tamburic, Effects of Polymer Entrapment of Prunus Spinosa Fruit extract on its cosmetic
efficacy, Journal of Applied Cosmetology, vol. 24, number 2, April/June 2006, pp. 1-14.
The aim of this paper was to find out whether the entrapment of herbal extract into polymeric
reservoir systems affects its skin efficacy.

C. Mas-Chamberlin, Ph. Mondon, F. Lamy, K. Lintner, Potential preventive performance, Soap,
Perfumery & Cosmetics, June 2006, pp. 38-40.
It is not easy to measure the preventive efficacy of skin care products, but Claire Mas-Chamberlin,
Philippe Mondon, Francois Lamy, Karl Lintner, Claire Jossan and Frederique Girard report on an
accelerated skin ageing-type process used to investigate active efficacy.

F. Tokumura, Y. Yoshihura, T. Homma, H. Nukatsuka, Regional differences in adhesive tape
stripping of human skin, Skin Research and Technology August 2006, 12, pp. 178-182. *
Medical pressure-sensitive adhesive tapes are applied to various regions of the human body for many
purposes. Although some adhesive tapes are designed for a specific purpose and applied to a single
region, such as first-aid bandages for the fingers and a variety of adhesive pads for foot-care, a large
number of adhesive tapes are applied to various regions.

S. Mac-Mary, P. Creidi, D. Marsaut, C. Courderot-Masuyer, V. Cochet, Assessment of effects of an
additional dietary natural mineral water uptake on skin hydration in healthy subjects by
dynamic function measurements and clinic scoring, Skin Research and Technology August 2006,
12, pp. 199-205.*
The skin acts as a barrier to the outside world, protecting the bodys organs and tissues from damage
and physical, chemical and bacteriological injuries. Moreover, it helps to keep the body temperature
under control. It also prevents the transcutaneous loss of water.

C. Lenaers, M. Dana, M. Pinel, B. Closs, Immediate and long-lasting skin tightening, Personal
Care, Sept. 2006, pp. 65-67.
The use of tensor active ingredients in anti-age care products is well-known to provide the users with
immediate and visible effects. Nevertheless, these tensor active ingredients provide only mechanical
effects on the skin surface that are also short-term effects.

D. Khazaka, Objective Measurement at all Stages of the treatment, 5
th
Asia Pacific Conference on
Antiaging Medicine, Bali, September 2006.
The days are over when a dermatologist only looked at the skin to make a diagnosis and to decide
about the following treatments and to recommend skin care products to use. For almost 20 years now
there is scientific equipment available to measure different parameters on the skin, such as hydration
and sebum level, pH, elasticity, pigmentation skin texture and wrinkles and many more.

D. Schmid, C. Schrch, F. Zlli, Mycosporine-like Amino Acids from Red Algae Protect against
Premature Skin-Aging, Euro Cosmetics 9-2006, pp. 18-22.
Normal skin aging is accompanied by slow and continuous structural, functional, and metabolic
changes in the skin. Such changes are greatly accelerated when the skin is exposed to solar UV
radiation. The solar UV spectrum which reaches the earths surface has been divided into UVB (290
320 nm) and UVA (320 400nm).

R. Ismail, S. Ahmad, Skin Care Formulation Incorporating Natural Moisturising Factor and its
Efficacy on Asian Skin, SFW-Journal No. 132, 4-2006, pp. 2-7.
The skin has the property to retain water in order to maintain its proper barrier function. In situations
of environmental stress, age or intrinsic physiological disturbances, this function is maintained only in
part. The water storage capacity of the skin decreases with an increased water loss by evaporation
(transepidermal water loss, TEWL), resulting in a dry, deep-wrinkled or even squamous skin.

Junko Ishikawa,

Hirofumi Narita,

Naoki Kondo,

Yutaka Takagi,

Yoshinori Masukawa,

and Takashi
Kitahara, Regional Analysis of Ceramides within the Human Stratum Corneum by Normal
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Phase Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry, Biological Science
Laboratories, and Analytical Research Center, Kao Corporation, 2606 Akabane, Ichikai-Machi, Haga-
Gun, Tochigi 321-3497, Japan, Oral Presentation on the 24
th
IFSCC Congress, Osaka, Oct. 2006. *
Ceramides (CERs) are the major component of the stratum corneum (SC), accounting for 30-40% of
SC lipids by weight. SC CERs, together with cholesterol and fatty acids, form extracellular lamellae
that are responsible for the epidermal permeability barrier. Previous studies reported decreases of SC
CERs in atopic dermatitis patients, who have low cutaneous barrier function. Such alterations of CER
contents may be responsible for the impaired water-barrier function of the skin in atopic dermatitis.

Rainer Voegeli, Anthony V Rawlings, Stefan Doppler, Thomas Schreier, Profiling of Serine Protease
Activities in Human Stratum Corneum, Oral Presentation on the 24
th
IFSCC Congress, Osaka, Oct.
2006. *
Epidermal serine proteases are involved in numerous physiological and pathological reactions in cells
and tissues such as proliferation, differentiation, lipid barrier homeostasis and tissue remodeling. Most
importantly proteolysis of corneodesmosomes is a crucial event prior to desquamation. Reduced
expression of kallikrein 7 (stratum corneum chymotryptic enzyme or SCCE) and kallikrein 5 (stratum
corneum tryptic enzymes or SCTE) has been observed in the outer layers of the stratum corneum (SC)
in dry skin whereas increased total SC activities are reported following a challenge to the skin with
ultraviolet radiation or surfactants.

Chika Katagiri, Jotaro Nakanishi, and Toshihiko Hibino, Identification of a Regulatory Molecule in
Keratinocyte Denucleation and its Relevance to Barrier Disruption, Oral Presentation on the 24
th

IFSCC Congress, Osaka, Oct. 2006. *
The terminal differentiation of keratinocytes results in the formation of stratum corneum, that serves as
a protective barrier against hazardous environments. During the transition phase from granular to
cornified cells, keratinocytes lose their nuclei to form the cornified layer, a crucial step in completing
differentiation and to invoke subsequent physiological functions. Disordered differentiation frequently
leads to the persistent presence of nuclei in the cornified layers, a condition known as parakeratosis
that seriously disrupts the barrier function of the skin. This study is aimed at elucidating the
mechanisms of keratinocyte denucleation and its disorder, parakeratosis.




C. Lenaers, D. Boudier, Ch. Chauprade, D. Rondeau, B. Closs, Wrinkle Reduction by Stimulation
of the Skins Mechanical Resistance, Cosmetics & Toiletries, Vol. 121, No. 11/Nov. 2006, pp. 47-
56.
Wrinkles are a symptom of structural failure in the dermis. They indicate that the skin is losing its
ability to support its own weight, and that fibroblasts in the dermis are losing their capacity to attach to
collagen fibers and transmit mechanical information.

L. Rigano, C. Andolfatto, Antiaging Effects of a Skin Repair Active Principle, Cosmetics &
Toiletries, Vol. 121, No. 11/Nov. 2006, pp. 57-64.
Sodium DNA is an ingredient with activity at the cellular level. This fact has led to its incorporation in
numerous high-end antiaging skin care products. An explanation of that activity and results of several
tests of one sodium DNA material are presented in this article.

D. Tamarkin, M. Eini, D. Friedman, Foam: The Future of Effective Cosmeceuticals, Cosmetics &
Toiletries, Vol. 121, No. 11/Nov. 2006, pp. 75-84.
The paramount objective of cosmeceutical development is to create effective products based on state-
of-the-art, active ingredients that are conveniently delivered. The vehicle used to deliver topical
ingredients can influence the performance of such ingredients since it can affect the delivery of the
active agent to the target site of action.

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S. M. Fuchs, C. Heinemann, S. Schliemann-Willers, H. Hrtl, J. W. Fluhr, P. Elsner, Assessment of
anti-inflammatory activity of Poria cocos in sodium lauryl sulphate-induced irritant contact
dermatitis, Skin Research and Technology 2006, 12, pp. 223-227. *
A great number of compounds is available for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases like atopic
dermatitis (1), dermatitis solaris or psoriasis (2), the most effective external anti-inflammatory
compounds being glucocorticoids. Their side effects (3) have motivated a continuing search for other
therapeutical compounds, and fungal metabolites like Poria cocos (PoCo) have figured in the
literature. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory efficacy of PoCo extracts
against experimentally induced irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) in a non-invasive human in vivo
model with different parameters.

P. Quatresooz, J. F. Hermanns, Ph. Paquet, G. E. Pierard, Mechanobiology and force transduction
in scars developed in darker skin types, Skin Research and Technology 2006, 12, pp. 279-282. *
Skin of any part of the body is subjected to intrinsic mechanical tensions. These forces are oriented
along specific directions named Langers lines or relaxed skin tension lines according to the body
posture (1, 2). Any scar is under similar physical solicitations, but it is also the site of other forces
generated by the contractile properties of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts (3, 6).

E. Sang Park, J. Im Na, S. Ok Kim, Ch. H. Huh, S. W. Youn, K. Ch. Park, Application of a pigment
measuring device - Mexameter - for the differential diagnosis of vitiligo and nevus
depigmentosus, Skin Research and Technology 2006, 12, pp.298-302.*
Vitiligo, an acquired pigmentation disorder, is characterized by a loss of melanocytes and results in
white skin patches. Nevus depigmentosus (ND) is frequently confused with vitiligo, and is defined as
a congenital non-progressive hypopigmented lesion that is stable in terms of size and distribution
throughout life (1).

Ron Ofri, Keren Orgad, Ph. H. Kass, S. Dikstein, Canine meibometry: Establishing baseline values
for meibomian gland secretions in dogs, The Veterinary Journal (2006),
doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2006.10.008. *
Meibomian lipid secretions are essential in preventing tear evaporation. Disorders of the meibomian
glands may therefore play an important role in the pathogenesis of some forms of keratoconjunctivitis
sicca (KCS). Until now, meibomian lipid secretions have never been quantitatively evaluated in dogs.


Tracy Sherwood, Just Below the Surface, GCImagazine (Dec. 2006), pp. 34-35.
In order to substantiate claims, manufacturers and brands must prove that their products do what they
claim with the safety of the consumer in mind. The Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association
(CTFA) recently introduced its new commitment code for cosmetic companies, promoting industry
self-regulation regarding product safety.

Maria Miteva, Stefan Richter, Peter Elsner, Joachim W. Fluhr; Approches for optimizing the
calibration standard of Tewameter TM 300, Experimental Dermatology 2006, pp 904 912.
Calibration of devices measuring transepidermal water loss (TEWL) is in intensive discussion.
Comparative studies revealed that comparable measuring systems, e.g. open and closed chamber
systems, do not always deliver the same results.

Joachim W. Fluhr, Kenneth R. Feingold, Peter M. Elias, Transepidermal water loss reflects
permeability barrier status: validation in human and rodent in vivo and ex vivo models,
Experimental Dermatology 2006, pp 483 492
Permeability barrier function is measured with instruments that assess transepidermal water loss
(TEWL), either with closed- or open-loop-systems. Yet, the validitiy of TEWL as a measure of barrier
status has been questioned recently.


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Hiroshi Fujita, Tetsuji Hirao, Motoji Takahashi, A Simple and non-invasive visualization for
assessment of carbonylated protein in the stratum corneum, Skin Research and Technology 2007,
pp. 84-90.
Stratum corneum (SC) ist the interface of body and environment and is continuously exposed to
oxidative stress, resulting in oxidative modification of proteins. Consequent carbonylated proteins
(CPs) have so far been labelled with 2,4-dinitrophenyl (DNP) hydrazine and subsequently detected
with anti-DNP antibody.

Hristo Dobrev, In vivo study of skin mechanical properties in Raynauds phenomenon, Skin
research and Technology 2007, pp. 91-94.
Raynauds phenomenon (RP) is usually the first symptom in patients with systemic sclerosis (SS) and
may precede skin changes by several months or years. Non-invasive measurements of skin elasticity
are very sensitive and appropriate for objective and quantitative evaluation of sclerodermatous skin.

Uwe Wollina, Jrn Kubick,i Dexpanthenol supports healing of superficial wounds and injuries,
Kosmetische Medizin 5+6/2006, pp. 240-249.
Oberflchliche Hautverletzungen und Wunden sind hufig. Unter Einsatz eines Spektrums
verschiedener In-vivo-Modelle der epidermalen Barrierestrung und der Wundsetzung untersuchten
wir das Potential der topischen Dexpanthenol-Anwendung in der Frderung der epidermalen
Regeneration und der Wundheilung.

Barbara-Isabell Bettzge-Pfaff, H. Prieur, Nutzen einer adjuvanten Basiscreme bei trockener,
atopischer Haut, Kosmetische Medizin 5+6/2006, pp. 261-263.
Im Rahmen eines dermatologisch kontrollierten Anwendungstests und hautphysiologischer
Messungen an Patienten mit atopischem Ekzem hat sich eine lipidreiche Basiscreme auch bei Kindern
als effektive und gut vertrgliche Formulierung erwiesen. Nach Anwendung der Creme wurde eine
Steigerung der Hautfeuchtigkeit und Hautfettung sowie eine Verbesserung der Hautbarrierefunktionen
erreicht.

Catherine Lenaers, David Brunet, Katia Ladegaillerie, Magalie Pinel, Brigitte Closs, Influencing the
Equilibrium of the Cutaneous Ecosystem to Improve the Properties of Skin Prone to Acne,
IFSCC magazine-vol. 9, no 4/2006, pp. 305-310.
The skin is colonized by a variety of microorganisms such as Propionibacterium acnes,
Staphylococcus epidermidis and Malassezia furfur that are in a stable balance and form the resident
skin flora. The homeostasis of this ecosystem is of fundamental importance since it plays a barrier role
by limiting the invasion and growth of pathogenic bacteria on the skin surface.

Heike Heinrich, Birgit Garbe, Hagen Tronnier, Marie Bjot, Jean Marc Mauretta, Supplementation
with Nutritional Cartilage Extract Positively Influences Skin Hydration, Skin Barrier and Skin
Structure: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study, IFSCC magazine vol. 9, no
4/2006, pp. 319-323.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of polysaccharides from fish cartilage with regard to
their skin aging properties. An application test was carried out during the intake of cartilage tablets as
a nutrinional supplement.





Martina Kerscher, Ulrich Amon, Verhinderung des Feuchtigkeitsverlustes, DERMAforum Nr. 11,
November 2006.
Die neuen Produkte Cetaphil Creme und Cetaphil Lotion sind nach Erkenntnis der vortragenden
Hautexperten besonders fr trockene, empfindliche und geschdigte Haut geeignet. In der von Frau
Prof. Kerscher geleiteten Untersuchung an der Universitt Hamburg wurden die Creme und die Lotion
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in einer 14-ttigen monozentrischen, randomisierten und kontrollierten Studie an 20 Probanden im
Alter von 35 bis 64 Jahren getestet.

Andre Rougier, Sopie Seite, Clinical efficacy of topically applied vitamin C associated with
madecassoside on skin aging, AB28 J AM ACAD DERMATOL
Cutaneous aging is a complex biological process that affects the different compartments of the skin. In
sun-exposed areas, skin aging is caused by two distinct processes: chronological aging and sun-
induced actinic damage, called photoaging. We have previously demonstrated in vivo, the beneficial
effect of topically applied vitamin C in the treatment of skin aging.


Warren Wallo, Christiane Bertin, Thierry Oddos, Florence Costes Clinical improvement in the
appearance of photoaging with a serum containing retinal, AB30 J AM ACAD DERMATOL
Vitamin A has been proven to be an important ingredient for improving the appearance of photoaged
skin. Products containing retinol are available in various forms, such as creams, gels and lotions,
which are applied to the face as part of the daily skin care regimen. Serums represent a new patient
preferred form with better aesthetics an an enhanced delivery profile, capable of providing retinol and
aging benefits.

Nathan Trookman, Ronald Rizer, Rosanne Ford, Ronald Trancik Atopic dermatitis: Advantages of a
novel hydrogel vehicle, AB75 J AM ACAD DERMATOL
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic condition requiring long-term use of medication where patient
compliance is essential to treatment success. The vehicle used can substancially affect the active
agents clinical action, potency and acceptability to the patient. Desonide is a well-known synthetic,
non-fluorinated corticosteroid with anti-inflammatory and anti-pruritic properties, currently available
in only cream, ointment and lotion formulations.

Jonathan Crowther, Paul Matts, Jennifer Jarvis, Quantification of body skin aging requires
measuring multiple parameters, AB29 J AM ACAD DERMATOL
Background: Changes in skin with increasing age result in alteration of its physical and chemical
characteristics. In areas of the body where skin is subjected to mechanical stress from repeated
bending (knees, elbows) or to environmental stressors, such as repeated exposure to UV radiation
(hands, dcolletage), these differences may become more obviously expressed.


Marie-Dominique Thouvenin, Virginie Turlier, Valrie Mengeaud, Pierre Morinet, Assessment of
efficacy, tolerance and cosmetic acceptability of 0,1% delta-tocopheryl glucoside serum on skin
aging, AB84 J AM ACAD DERMATOL
A biometrological, open, monocenter study was conduced to assess efficacy, tolerance and cosmetic
acceptability of 01,%delta-Tocopheryl glucoside serum in the skin aging treatment. Thirty women
between the ages of 35 and 45, with a minimum score of 3 on a 9-point-scale of wrinkles, applied the
product twice a day for 8 weeks on the face an on one forearm. A sunscreen pruduct (SPF 50) was
provided for sun exposure.

Teresa Weber, Alexandra Kowcz, Nathan Trookman, Ronald Rizer Evaluation of a moisturizer
containing sodium acetate and urea to ameliorate senile xerosis, AB33 J AM ACAD DERMATOL
Objective: to asses the ability of a commercially available moisturizing cream to ameliorate the dry
skin condition of subjects 65 to 86 years of age. Methods: in this 7-week, single-blinded, controlled
clinical study, 28 subjects with moderate to severe xerosis were treated twice daily for 6 weeks with a
moisturizing cream containing 10% urea and 5% sodium lactate.

Jean Luc Levy, Lise Agopian, Bernard Chadoutaud, Philippe Msika, Effect of a new cosmetic
formulation on reducing cutaneous pigmentation, AB174 J AM ACAD DERMATOL
Intracellular signal transduction pathways regulating melanogenesis imply PKC, camp through the
activation of PKA and NO. A new whitening formulation that targets these three different pathways,
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has been tested on melasma with image analysis and a particular interest on the quality of life (QoL) of
the volunteers.

Hanh Pham, Pearl Grimes, Aruna Parikh, Brian Jones, Efficacy of a skin lightening regimen to
improve melasma, AB170 J AM ACAD DERMATOL
Melasma is a common disorder of hyper-pigmentation. It is characterized by symmetrical brown-grey
pigmentation affecting the cheeks, forehead, upper lips and chin. It impacts all women, although the
disease is more commonly observed in darker racial ethnic groups. The condition is more common in
areas with intense ultraviolet light exposure.

Ronald Rizer, Nathan Trookman, James Herndon, Thomas Stephens, A 4-week, randomized, double-
blind, parallel group trial evaluating the efficacy and tolerability of sebum control AB14 J AM
ACAD DERMATOL
Excessive production of sebum on acne prone individuals often leaves skin with an undesirable
appearance that emphasizes facial shine, acne lesions, and enlarged pores. The factors that often
contribute to this appearance include family history, hormonal activity changes, stress and the use of
certain types of birth control pills.

Alain Bguin, Comparative in vivo Reviscometer-RRTM and ultrasonography techniques to
assess the anti-ageing efficacy of the Novel MF III of Switzerland Bluecell Extract Serum Gel,
Intercosmetica Neuchtel, Switzerland
The anti-ageing properties of a new facial care treatment, MF III of Switzerland Bluecell Extract
Serum Gel, were investigated using the shear wave propagation method (multi-angle measurements)
and the high-frequency skin ultrasonography, A2-month cosmetic efficacy study was conducted with
29 healthy female volunteers, aged between 30 and 64 (mean 54 years).

Andr Rougier, Gerald Pierard, Nudging acne by topical beta-lipohydroxy acid (LHA), a new
comedolytic agent, AB15 J AM ACAD DERMATOL
Beta-lipohydroxy acid (LHA) is a lipophilic derivative of salicyle acid. It exhibits a potent keratolytic
effect caused by the dissociation of the comedodesmosomes in the outmost layersof the stratum
corneum. In addition, topical applications of a 2% LHA formulation increased the thickness of the
epidermal germinative layers, stratum malpighi, and filaggrin layer.

Stacy Hawkins, Joanne Alicera, Srinivasan Krishnan, Robert Marriott, Clinical improvement to
photoaged skin with conjugated linoleic acid (CIA): A novel cosmetic PPAR lipid for anti-aging
benefits, AB15 J AM ACAD DERMATOL
Photoaged skin is the manifestation of accumulated skin damage from chronic sun exposure,
superimposed upon the chronological aging process. Alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) have been a
mainstay ingredient in anti-aging products for many years. New products are introduced annually
including ingredients such as retinol, retinol derivates, beta hydroxy acids, niacinamide, peptides and
prescription retinoids.






Tilmann Reuther, Ammal Atwan, Martina Kerscher, Evaluation of skin elasticity using an approach
with repeated deformation of the skin, AB15 J AM ACAD DERMATOL
One prominent feature of aged skin is the decreased capability of relaxation in particular after repeated
deformation. Measuring of this phenomenon appears to be an interesting approach for assessing skin
aging. However, comparatively little data dealing with this topic is available. Therefore the aim of the
present study is to evaluate skin elasticity after repeated deformation as a measure of skin aging with
respect to age and skin thickness.

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140
Rungisima Wanitphakdeedecha, Woraphong Manuskiatti, Sasima Eimpunth, Sadwalak Hunnangkul,
The effects of single application of mucopolysaccharide polysulphate (MPS), AB96 J AM ACAD
DERMATOL
To study the efficacy on the skin hydration of mucopolysaccharide polysulphate (MPS) 0,1% after
single application. Twenty female volunteers aged 30 to 45 years with dry skin, defined by the
corneometer, were recruited to the study. All subjects were asked to apply 2 g of MPS cream on a
selected forearm.

Rungisima Wanitphakdeedecha, Woraphong Manuskiatti, Sasima Eimpunth, Sadwalak Hunnangkul,
The effects of mucopolysaccharide polysulphate (MPS) on the hydration and elasticity of human
skin), AB95 J AM ACAD
To study the efficacy of mucopolysaccharide polysulphate (MPS) in hydration and elasticity of human
skin. Methods: Sixty female volunteers aged 30 to 45 years with dry skin, defined by the corneometer,
were recruited to the study. The volunteers were randomly treated with MPS and placebo.

Toni Miller, Sonia Batra, Jose Ramirez, Evaluation of the effect of a Novel Bi-Mineral Complex on
photoexposed periorbital skin, AB32 J AM ACAD
The elasticity of the skin is attributable to elastic fibers that can stretch and then recoil. The elastic
fibers contain elastin a large protein synthesized by dermal fibroblasts that forms spiral filaments
comparable to springs. The spiral filaments are crosslinked together and, when the skin is stretched,
this crosslinking enables the spiral filaments to spring back to their original positions.

Luz Colon, Ronald Rizer, Lori Johnson, Nathan Trookman, Corneometric assessment of skin
hydration following the application of Metronidazole 1% Gel, AB13 J AM ACAD
Rosacea is a skin condition characterized by unsightly redness on the face, sometimes accompanied by
acne-like papules and pustules. Symtom flares are most often triggered by spicy foods, sun exposure
or irritating skin products. Accordingly, the irritation potential of any topical treatment prescribed for
rosacea patients should be considered.

Fernanda Distante, Valerie Pagani, Adriana Bonifigli, Luigi Rigano, Joachim Fluhr, Objective
evaluation of the placebo effect in cosmetic treatments. A randomized controlled study, IFSCC
Magazine vol. 9, no 3/2006
A products packaging and claimed efficacy may stimulate pleasant emotions during the use of
cosmetics, thus enhancing their perceived benefits. The aim of this study was to evaluate if smart
packaging and strongly claimed efficacy attributes can influence the objectively measured efficacy,
allowing a true placebo effect to be associated with a given cosmetic treatment.

Maggie Fox, Its true Stress Makes Teens Break Out, 2007 ABC News Internet Ventures
Teen-Agers who claim that stress makes them break out are telling the truth: The stress of taking an
exam can make pimples worse, researchers reported on Tuesday. And surprisingly, inflammation may
be to blame and not greasy skin, sait Dr. Gil Yosipovitch, a professor of dermatology at Wake Forest
University School of Medicine.

Gil Yosipovitch, Mark Tang, Aerlyn G. Dawn, Mark Chen, Chee Leok Goh, Yiong Huak Chang, Lim
Fong Seng, Study of Psychological Stress, Sebum Production and Acne Vulgaris in Adolescents,
Acta Dermato-Venereologica, Volume 87, Issue 2, March 2007, pp. 135-139
Sebum production is though to play a major role in acne vulgaris in adolescents. Psychological stress
may exacerbate acne; however, it is not known whether the perceived association between stress and
acne exacerbation is due to increased sebum production.

Reto Muggli, Systemic Evening Primrose Oil for Irritated Skin Care, Cosmetics & Toiletries
magazine, Vol. 122, No. 2/February 2007
Dry skin is a common complaint from men and women alike and its incidence and severity increase
with age. This condition is the result of an impaired barrier function, increased transepidermal water
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loss (TEWL) and a significantly lower level of ceramides in the horny layer that causes the skin to lose
an excessive amount of water.

A. Firooz, F. Gorouhi, P. Davari, M. Atarod, S. Hekmat, M. Rashighi-Firoozabadi, A. Solhpour
Comparison of hydration, sebum and pH values in clinically normal skin of patients with atopic
dermatitis and healthy controls, 2007 The Author(s), Journal compilation, Blackwell Publishing
Ltd.
The water content of the stratum corneum and skin surface lipids forms a balance that is important for
the appearance and function of the skin. An impaired balance may lead to the clinical manifestations
known as dry skin, which is particularly seen in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD).

Kazue Tsukahara, Mitsuyuki Hotta, Tsutomu Fujimura, Keiichi Haketa, Takashi Kitahara, Effect of
room humidity on the formation of fine wrinkles in the facial skin of Japanese, Skin Research and
Technology 2007, 13, pp. 184 188
Changes in humidity are commonly known to influence the condition of the skin. Previous studies of
the skin dealt with variations in relative humidity (RH) either through statistical analysis or by
maintaining room humidity at a constant level; however, the range of humidity and the length of
acclimation varied in each study.

Laurence Ambroisine, Khaled Ezzedine, Anissa Elfakir, Sophie Gardinier, Julie Latreille, Emmanuelle
Mauger, Michel Tenenhaus, Christiane Guinot, Relationships between visual and tactile features
and biophysical parameters in human facial skin, Skin Research and Technology 2007; 13: pp. 176
183
Skin properties, such as colour, hydration and texture, can be studied on a qualitative basis by a
clinical assessment or on a quantitative basis using techniques thaqt measure biophysical properties of
the skin. The aim of this study was to explore the links between facial skin features and a range of skin
biophysical parameters using multivariate methods.

Hristo Dobrev, Evaluation of dry Skin: a comparison between visual score, corneometry and
image analysis, Poster presented at the 16
th
Congress of the EADV, 5/2007
The term dry skin describes a skin condition characterized by reduced quantity and/or quality of
moisture and/or lipids. The visible symptoms of dry skin are roughness, scaling and reduced elasticity.
In addition, patiens complain about tightness and itching.

Dr. Horst Frank, Dr. E. Schubert, Dr. H. Konrad, Dr. A. Eggert, Biokybernetik - ein sanfter Weg
zur Gewebestraffung und Krperformung, sthetische Dermatologie 2/2007, pp. 44 47
Dysformien, Alterungsprozesse, Schnheit und ewige Jugend. Die Angst des Menschen vor dem
Altern ist sicherlich der wichtigste Beweggrund, forever young zu sein. Daran hat sich ber die
Jahrhunderte nichts gendert. Das heute vorherrschende gesteigerte Krperbewutsein in Verbindung
mit einer erfreulich gesteigerten Lebenserwartung und einer bis ins hohe Alter erhaltenen krperlichen
und geistigen Fitness lassen diesen Wunsch jedoch immer mchtiger werden.





R. Moyon, K. Golz, L. Zastrow, The Formulation of a Distinctive Skin Care Product, SFW-
Journal / 133 / 4-2007, pp. 2 9
First of all, we drew up the requirements of our new skin care product. Our reasoning was to formulate
a benchmark emulsion with all the properties previously identified. To do this we mainly used raw
materials from silicone chemistry to obtain a stable finished product with the remarkable properties
observed on the market.

Walaiorn Pratchyapruit, Katsuki Kikuchi, Pimonpun Gritiyarangasan, Setsuya Aiba, Hachiro Tagami,
Functional analyses of the eyelid skin constituting the most soft and smooth area on the face:
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contribution of ist remarkably large superficial corneocytes to effective water-holding capacity
of the stratum corneum, Skin Research and Technology 2007, 13, pp. 169 175
The eyelid constitutes a unique area on the face because of its soft, smooth and thin skin distinct from
that of other facial portions. Its softness facilitates their easy compliance to blinking movement, which
is indispensable to protect the wet surface of the eyeball. Moreover, the skin of the eyelid does not
show any prominent follicular orifices of an oily appearance even in adults.

Hongbo Zhai, Emi Dika, Marina Goldovsky, Howard I. Maibach Tape-stripping method on man:
comparison of evaporimetric methods, Skin Research an Technology 2007, pp. 207-210
If the occlusion time of a closed chamber evaporimeter on the skin is too long, saturation might occur.
We previously compared an open chamber and a closed chamber device on healthy volunteers.
Comparable data on stripped skin with higher evaporation rates are not available.

H. Lambers, S. Piessens, A. Bloem, H. Pronk, P. Finkel, Natural skin surface pH is on average
below 5, which is beneficial for its resident flora, IFSCC Magazine-vol. 10, no 1/2007, p. 84
Variable skin pH values are being reported in literature, all in the acidic range but with a broad range
from pH 4,0 to 7,0. In a multic centre study (N=330), we have assessed the skin surface pH of the
volar forearm before and after refraining from showering and cosmetic product application for 24h.

U. Gnu Ll, D. Sensoy, M. ner, G. Yener, T. Altinkurt, Comparing the moisturizing effects of
ascorbic acid and calcium ascorbate against that of tocopherol in emulsions, IFSCC Magazine
vol. 10, no 1/2007, pp. 91-92
Calcium ascorbate (CAAS), which is a hydrophilic and stable derivative of ascorbic acid (vitamin C)
(AA), is commonly used on foods as an antioxidative agent. There are very limited reports on its
dermatological use in the literature. In this paper, it is reported that CAAS could be used in place of
ascorbic acid, which has chemical stability problems in topicals due to degradation by oxidation.

R. Bazin, C. Fanchon, Equivalence of face and volar forearm for the testing of moisturizing and
firming effect of cosmetics in hydration and biomechanical studies, IFSCC Magazine vol. 10, no
1/2007, p. 86
The objective of the study was to compare measurements of skin hydration and of biomechanical
properties perfomed on different zones of face and volar forearm. Thwo short-term (1h) and two long-
term (3 weeks) studies were conducted with a moisturizing and a firming product, respectively, on
groups of female volunteers with dry skin.

Kunio Shimada, Koji Awai, Hirofumi Irie, Ceramide Polymer improves skin texture, Personal Care,
May 2007, pp. 47-50
Anti-ageing cosmetics are increasingly demanded today. Many consumers, especially women, care
about keeping their skin young by controlling wrinkles and freckles and keeping their skin soft, firm,
smooth and beautifully white. Ingredients for controlling the ageing of the skin are demanded and are
actively studied.



Kazue Tsukahara, Mitsuyuki Hotta, Tsutomu Fujimura, Keiichi Haketa, Takashi Kitahara, Effect of
room humidity on the formation of fine wrinkles in the facial skin of Japanese, Skin Research and
Technology 2007; 13; pp. 184-188
Changes in humidity are commonly known to influence the condition of the skin. Previous studies of
the skin dealt with variations in relative humidity (RH) either through statistical analysis or by
maintaining room humidity at a constant level: however, the range of humidity and the length of
acclimation varied in each study.

Isaak Wontroba, Der Einfluss von linear polarisiertem Licht auf Hauttemperatur,
Hautwasserabgabe und sudomotorische Aktivitt, Digitale Dissertation FU Berlin, pp. 1-37
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Zur Untersuchung, welche Auswirkungen inkohrentes polarisiertes Licht (VIP = visible incoherent
polarized light) auf die menschliche Haut zeigt, sind in unterschiedlichen Messreihen an insgesamt 48
Probanden Vernderungen von Evaporation und Temperatur ber der Haut des Unterschenkels in
einem Messzylinder (Tewameter) untersucht worden. Verwendet wurde eine im Rahmen der VIP-
Lichttherapie eingesetzte Lichtquelle der Firma Bioptron.

Lawrence Ambroisine, Khaled Ezzedine, Anissa Elfakir, Sophie Gardinier, Julie Latreille,
Emmanuelle Mauger, Michel Tenenhaus, Christiane Guinot, Relationships between visual and
tactile features and biophysical parameters in human facial skin, Skin Research Technology 2007;
13: pp. 176-183
Skin properties, such as colour, hydration and texture, can be studied on a qualitative basis by a
clinical assessment or on a quantitative basis using techniques that measure biophysical properties of
the skin. The aim of this study was to explore the links between facial skin features and a range of skin
biophysical parameters using multivariate methods.

Walaiorn Pratchyapruit, Katsuko Kikuchi, Pimonpun Gritiyrangasan, Setsuya Aiba, Hachiro Tagami,
Functional analyses of the eyelid skin constituting the most soft and smooth area on the face:
contribution of ist remarkably large superficial corneocytes to effective water-holding capacity
of the stratum corneum, Skin Research and Technology 2007; 13; pp. 169-175
The eyelid constitutes a unique area on the face because of its soft, smooth and thin skin distinct from
that of other facial portions. Its softness facilitates their easy compliance to blinking movement, which
is indispensable to protect the wet surface of the eyeball. Moreover, the skin of the eyelid does not
show any prominent follicular orifices of any oily aapearance even in adults.

Pascale Quatresooz, Emmanuelle Xhauflaire-Uhoda, Claudine Pirard-Franchimont, Grald E.
Pirard, Regional variability in stratum corneum reactivity to antiseptic formulations, Contact
Dermatitis 2007; 56; pp. 271-273
Skin does not react in an identical way to the action of chemicals over all anatomic sites. Accordingly,
distinct regional differences have been described in relation to irritancy. The present study assesses the
regional variations of stratum corneum (SC) reactivity to 3 proprietary antiseptic solutions.

D. Segger, U. Amus, M. Brock, J. Erasmy, P. Finkel, A. Fitzner, H. Heuss, U. Kortemeier, S. Munke,
T. Rheinlnder, H. Schmidt-Lewerkhne, Multicenter Study on Measurement of the Natural pH of
the Skin Surface, IFSCC Magazine vol. 10, no 2/2007, pp. 107-110
Characterization of the skins natural state is very important for understanding skin functions and
describing disturbances of skin function. In the field of cosmetics and dermatologicals the natural pH
of the skin surface plays an important role in the development of products with a skin neutral pH.

Farina Hashmi, James Malone-Lee, Measurement of skin elasticity on the foot, Skin Research and
Technology 2007; 13, pp. 252-258
The Cutometer 580 MPA is a device that is designed to measure the viscoelastic properties of skin in
response to the application of negative pressure. The aim of this study was to test the Cutometer 580
MPA for the repeatable, quantitative measurement of the specific indices of elasticity of pedal skin.


Sungyeon Ahn, Seunghun Kim, Haekwang Lee, Seongjoon Moon, Ihseop Chang, Correlation
between a Cutometer and quantitative evaluation using Moire topography in age-related skin
elasticity, Skin Research and Technology 2007; 13; pp. 280-284
As aging occurs, our skin gets more wrinkles, becomes drier and loses its elasticity. Validating the
evaluation of skin elasticity is especially important, because it is not as visible as other signs of aging
such as wrinkles. So it is needed tha the method for measuring skin elasticity is able to reflect
perception about the change of the skin state.

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R. Voegeli, J. Heiland, S. Doppler, A.V. Rawlings, T. Schreier, Efficient and simple quantification of
stratum corneum proteins on tape strippings by infrared densitometry, Skin Research and
Technology 2007, 13; pp. 242-251
The analysis of stratum (SC) components is a widely accepted method to determine skin health
status or to follow the effects of topical treatments. These analytes are normally corrected to the
amount of SC removed which can be determined gravimetrically or by extraction of SC proteins and
their subsequent analysis.

M. Kerscher, T. Reuther, G. Schramm, Chlormadinonacetat enthaltende Mikropille verbessert
unreine Haut, Frauenarzt 48 (2007), Nr. 4, pp. 373-378
Moderne Mikropillen zeichnen sich besonders durch eine Reihe von Zusatznutzen aus. Den
wichtigsten stellt die Verbesserung des Hautbildes dar. Fr die Chlormadinonacetat-haltige Mikropille
Belara wurde in klinischen, kontrollierten Studien bei leichter bis mittelschwerer Akne die
berlegenheit im Vergleich zu einer Levonorgestrel-haltigen Mikropille und zu Plazebo
nachgewiesen.

Caroline Maria Weimer, Irritation durch Waschen und Desinfizieren, Digitale Bibliothek der
Universitt Marburg, 2006
Ziel dieser Studie war die Irritaion der Haut, hervorgerufen durch alkoholische Desinfektionsmittel
und das Detergens Natriumlaurylsulfat (0,5% NLS) in einem repetitiven Testdesign zu untersuchen.
Mittels nicht invasiver Untersuchungsmethoden quantifizierten wir die irritativen Effekte von
Sterillium, 2-Propanol 45% v/v, 1-Propanol 30% v/v, welches die alkoholische Grundlage von
Sterillium darstellt sowie von Wasser und NLS 0,5%.

E. Esposito, M. Drechsler, P. Mariani, E. Sivieri, R. Bozzini, L. Montesi, E. Menegatti, R. Cortesi
Nanosystems for skin hydration: a comparative study, IFSCC magazine vol. 10, no 2/2007, pp.
173-174
The present investigation describes a comparative study for the design of innovative topical
formulation for skin hydration. In particular, different colloidal forms based on lipidic components
have been produced and characterized. Morphology and dimensional distribution have been
investigated by means of electron microscopy and photon correlation spectroscopy.

C. Rosado, P. Pinto, L.M. Rodrigues, Comparative assessment of the performance of two
generations of Tewameter: TM210 and TM300, Blackwell Synergy, Int J Cosmet Sci, Volume 27,
Issue 4, pp. 237ff.
The mesurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) has been established as one of the main
parameters in the assessment of skin barrier function. One of the most widely employed devices to
measure TEWL is the Tewameter. Courage and Khazaka launched the TM300 in 2003 and
successfully eliminated some of the limitations of the previous model.





J. Fluhr, Whats Wrong with the Barrier, Dermatologie in Beruf und Umwelt, Jahrgang 55, Nr.
2/2007, p. 67
Irritant contact dermatitis is frequently observed not only in occupational dermatology but also in the
context of atopic dermatitis and under house-hold conditions. Functional analysis of epidermal barrier-
related parameters are performed using non-invasive instruments, based on biophysical measurements.

E. Berardesca, Bioengineering as a Tool in Occupational Dermatology, Dermatologie in Beruf und
Umwelt, Jahrgang 55, Nr. 2/2007, p. 67
Bioengineering techniques have been proven to be helpful in monitoring changes in skin physiology
and quantifying skin disease. Detection of subliminal or non visual changes is a challenge in order to
predict potentially pathological conditions such as irritation or pre-clinical dermatitis.
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W. Gehring, New Concept of Skin Protection after Occlusion and Wet Work, Dermatologie in
Beruf und Umwelt, Jahrgang 55, Nr. 2/2007, p. 67
Occlusion and wet work induce barrier damage, increasing the risk for the development of contact
dermatitis. The use of adstringent agents before exposure to the noxious conditions does not always
provide sufficient protection.

Gabriele Betz, University of Basel, Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, Basel Switzerland, In
Vivo Comparison of Various Liposomal Formulations for Cosmetic Application, IcoS, June 2007,
Istanbul Trkiye, pp. 14-16
Liposomal formulations have been used for skin moisturization, due to the occlusive effect of a
phospholipid film deposited on the skin surface. Furthermore, interactions between liposoal lipids and
Stratum corneum lipids may affect positively the structure of the Stratum corneum. Phospholipids
themselves are hygroscopic and bind water.

Slaheddine Marrakchi, Howard I. Maibach, Biophysical parameters of skin: map of human face,
regional, and age-related differences, Contact Dermatitis 2007; 57, pp. 28-34
The face showed anatomical variation on reaction to chemicals, which could be related to differences
in biophysical parameters. 10 young human volunteers (24-34 years) and 10 old volunteers (66-83
years) were studied to prepare a map of the human face based on regional variations and age-related
differences by measuring various biophysical parameters.

M. Paye, S. Mac-Mary, A. Elkhayat, C. Tarrit, P. Mermet, P.H. Humbert, Use of the Reviscometer
for measuring cosmetics-induced skin surface effects; Skin Research and Technology 2007; 13; pp.
343-349
Many different non-invasive instruments are available to evaluate the mechanical properties of the
skin, characterized by different measuring approaches which include tensile, torsional, indentation or
suction skin deformations. An indirect approach consists in studying the propagation mode of a shock
or acoustic shear wave along the skin surface.

E.C. Ruvolo Jr. , G.N. Stamatas, N. Kollias, Skin Viscoelasticity Displays Site- and Age-Dependent
Angular Anisotropy; Skin Pharmacology and Physiology, June 2007-11-13, pp. 1-9
One of the dominant characteristics of skin aging is loss of elasticity. Although the changes in the
mechanical properties of the skin over several decades of life are substantial, objective measurements
have failed to capture their magnitude thus far. Moreover, the mechanical properties of the skin are not
uniform in all directions, and there is a need to understand this angular anisotropy.






Su-Han Kim, Margaret Song, Byung-Soo Kim, Hyun-Chang Ko, Sung-Jun Kim et al., Moisturizing
and anti-pruritic effects of pyroligneous liquid and petrolatum cream in atopic dermatitis, The
Journal of Skin Barrier Research, pp. 42-48
Atojoa cream used in this study contains active ingredients such as pyroligneous liquid and variety of
minerals, in a newly-made emulsified petrolatum base. In general, petrolatum is known as an excellent
moisturizer, but occlusive effect restricts ventilation. To preserve ventilation properties, we emulsified
the petrolatum by an ultrasonic emulsification method without wax nor other oils.

Young Min Park, Change of skin barrier function after cosmetic procedures; microdermabrasion,
chemical peeling and LASER, The Journal of Skin Barrier Research, pp. 32-36
With the recent interest in aesthetics, cosmetic procedures for facial rejuvenation such as
microdermabrasion, superficial chemical peeling, and LASER, are the preferred methods because they
have a low morbidity and prompt recovery. These therapeutic methods offer the benefit of patient
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146
returning to a normal daily life immediately after the procedure, bnut do not have a satisfactory
outcome after a single session, which means that repeated procedures are required at regular interval.

Eunjoo Kim, Gae Won Nam, Seunghun Kim, Haekwang Lee, Seongjoon Moon, Ihseop Chang,
Influence of polyol and oil concentration in cosmetic products on skin moisturization and skin
surface roughness, Skin Research and Technology 2007, 13; pp. 417-424
Cosmetic products are used to improve the skin surface appearance. Especially, moisturizers increase
the hydration of the stratum corneum and improve the physical and chemical properties of the skin
surface, making it moist, smooth and soft. Smoothing of the surface can be observed immediately after
application of a moisturizer as a result of the filling of spaces beween partially desquamated skin
flakes.

University of Basel, Inst. of Pharmaceutical Technology, In Vivo Comparison of Various Liposomal
Formulations for Cosmetic Application, 7
th
Int. Cosmetic Symposium (IcoS), 20-22 June 2007,
Istanbul Trkiye
Liposomal formulations hae been used for skin moisturization, due to the occlusive effect of a
phospholipid film deposited on the skin surface. Furthermore, interactions between liposomal lipids
and Stratum corneum lipids may affect positively the structure of the Stratum corneum. Phospholipids
themselves are hygroscopic and bin water.

Gabriel Khazaka, Useful and practical advice by measuring TEWL and skin moisture with
Corneometer CM 825 and Tewameter TM 300, The Journal of Skin Barrier Research
The Skin bioengineering measurement of skin hydration and transepidermal water loss is a useful tool
to evaluate the physicochemical status of skin. As integrated skin barrier function is also derived from
the interaction between subject and surrounding environment, the bioengineering measurement
technique has been evolved to predict the dynamic aspect of skin biology.

Susun An, Eunyoung Lee, Seunghun Kim et al. Comparison and correlation between stinging
responses to lactic acid and bioengineering parameters, Contact Dermatitis 2007; 57; pp. 158-162
Sensitive skin has been described as a skin type showing higher reactivity than normal skin. By our
consumer surveys, approximately 30% of the subjects believe that they have sensitive skin. However,
consumer-perceived cutaneous reactions are usually scientifically unconfirmed.

Gabriele Feller-Heppt, Christina Wagner, Selma Ugurel, Wirksamkeit und Patientenzufriedenheit
verschiedener Pflegecremes bei Atopikern und Neurodermitispatienten im erscheinungsfreien
Intervall, Kosmetische Medizin 5/2007, pp. 28-34
Bei Neurodermitispatienten stehen vor allem die Symptome trockene Haut und ausgeprgter Juckreiz
im Vordergrund. Hierdurch kommt es zu vermehrtem Kratzen und nachfolgend mglicherweise zum
Eintritt infektiser Erreger bei gestrter Hautbarrierefunktion und gestrter zellulrer Immunitt. Ein
neuer Ekzemschub kann entstehen und den Juckreiz noch verstrken.
ZD Draelos, Wake Forst University School of Medicine, USA The Skin Barrier Function in Rosacea
Patients is Preserved with the Use of a Gentle, Non-alkaline Skin Cleanser, 21st World Congress
of Dermatology, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Rosacea occurs most commonly in women with fair complexions between the age of 25 and 50 years,
although it does occur in other patient populations as well. Rosacea appears as redness similar in
appearance to sunburn and can be accompanied by papules and pustules.

M. Andreas, R. Bilenchi, G. Mariotti, M. Centini, L. Andreassi, C. Anselmi Phytic Acid: a Novel
Topically Active Antioxidant Suitable for Cosmetic Preparations, 21
st
World Congress of
Dermatology, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Many substances with antioxidant activity are present in the human skin, and their concentrations are
generally higher in the epidermis than in the dermis. Under the effect of an oxidative stress, such as
that caused by ultraviolet (UV) rays, these substances are strongly depleted, especially in the external
epidermal layer.

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Bayerl, T. Walker, M. Arens-Corell, Dermatologically controlled in-use test of sebamed soap-free
washing bar in a daily care unit, 21
st
World Congress of Dermatology, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Suitability and tolerability of a soap-free washing bar for cleansing was evaluated in patients with skin
diseases. Recruitment of volunteers included consecutive patiens of an outpatient, daily care unit of a
dermatological hospital.

B. Piot, J. De Rigal, C. Yarhi, D. Compan-Zaouati, M. Lefebvre, The skin sebageous function: in
Asian and Caucasian climate influences, 21
st
World Congress of Dermatology, Buenos Aires,
Argentina
Objective of the study: The first objective was to compare the sebaceous function in Asian and
Caucasians, female, in real life conditions, using both intrumental measurement and visual evalutation
by expert. A second objective was to investigate climate induced changes in the sebaceous function on
a separate group of Japanese women, using the same methodology.

ZD. Draelos, Skin barrier and desquamation in Patiens with mild plaque Psoriasis is improved
with the use of a gentle moisturizing cream, 21
st
World Congress of Dermatology, Buenos Aires,
Argentina
Psoriasis is a disorder characterized by faster than normal skin growth and replacement. The result of
this rapid skin growth and replacement is a build-up of red, thickened areas with a scaly appearance.
The most commonly affected areas are the scalp, elbows, knees and back. These plaques are often dry
and non-pliable areas on the skin that can be a source of pain and/or discomfort to affected individuals.

V. Delvigne, E. Segot, D. Compan-Zaouati,P.Wolkenstein, S. Consoli, C. Rodary et al, Development
and Validation of a Questionnaire to Evaluate How a Cosmetic Product for Oily Skin is Able to
Improve Well Being in Women, 21
st
World Congress of Dermatology, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Purpose of the study: To develop and validate a questionnaire to assess the psychological and
psychosocial effects of oily skin condition in women and the outcome of a targeted cosmetic skin care
treatment. Methods: We developed a concise 18-item questionnaire (OSSIQ), including 2 dimensional
scales (emotional state and social behaviour), to assess the impact on self image and conficence of oily
skin condition.

C. Orlandi, R. Loubies, S. Baeza, C. Reyes, X. Worstman, Clinical Experience of the Treatment
with Pro-Xylane TM, Isobioline TM and Phytocomplex TM on Chilean Women with Hormonal
Aging, 21
st
World Congress of Dermatology, Buenos Aires, Argentina
An open and prospective study was performed in order to evaluate the action of a formulation with
pro-xylane, isobioline and phyto-Complex in 59 patients with hormonal aging during a period of
twelve weeks. An open and prospective study was peformed in 59 patients, between 50 and 65 years
of age (average 55 years old), with hormonal aging in order to evaluate the action of a formulation
with xylane, isobioline and phyto-complex.

P. Msika, S. Bredif, S. Garnier, J. Legrand, Oligosaccharidic and Peptidic Extract from Maca
Root: A new Cell Energizer With Clinical Anti-Aging Properties, 21
st
World Congress of
Dermatology, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Purpose of the study: Maca (Lepidium meyenii) was an integral part of the diet and commerce of
residents of Andes region. The Incas found maca root so potent that they restricted Maca use to their
Royalty. Now days, maca powder is used worldwide as nutraceutical ingredient. We have developed
and patented an oligosaccharidic and peptidic extract obtained by a biotechnological process from
maca flour.

N. Garcia Bartels, A. Mieczko, H. Proquitt, R. Wauer, T. Schink, Ul Blume-Peytavi, Influence of
Bathing in Newborns: A Prospective, Randomized Clinical Study on Skin Barrier During the
First Four Weeks of Life, 21
st
World Congress of Dermatology, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Background: The adapting process of skin barrier to extra-uterine life and the influence of bathing on
term neonatess skin is not completely understood. Thus, we investigated the effect of bathing on skin
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148
barrier during the first four weeks of life. Methods: Monocenter, prospective, randomised study with
57 healthy full-term newborns (32 boys and 25 girls).

JW. Fluhr, M. Miteva, G. Primavera, M. Ziemer, P. Elsner, E. Berardesca, Functional Assessment of
an Acidic Skin Care System in Patients under Chemotherapy, 21
st
World Congress of
Dermatology, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Background: Cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy frequently experience skin problems e.g.
xerosis. The aim of this study was to verify whether a concomitant treatment with an acidic washing
and emollient products (pH 5.5) can significantly improve the quality of the skin in such patients.

C. Oresajo, M. Yatskayer, H. Fares, T. Stephens, I. Hansenne, A Twelve-Week, Clinical Evaluation
of the Skin Firming Benefits of a Topical Product Containing Hyaluronic Acid and Oligo
Peptides on the Face, Neck, Upper Chest and Hands, 21
st
World Congress of Dermatology, Buenos
Aires, Argentina
Purpose of the study: The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of a test product
on subjects with mild to moderate photodamage on the face, neck, upper chest and hands. Methods: 69
female volunteers between the ages 35 to 65 years with mild to moderate photodamage on the face and
hands (scores 3-8 on a 10cm scale) were enrolled in 12-week single-center study.

L. Kapteine, R. Karls, Benefit of Keratolytic and Barrier Repair Emollients in Treating Lamellar
Ichtyosis Patient, 21
st
World Congress of Dermatology, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Background: Lamellar Ichtiyosis (LI) is characterised by generalised scaling, decrease of skin barier
function and resistance to ordinary emollients. Our case report include to assess and compare
keratolytic agents 5%, lactic acid and 20% propylene glycol effect on LI patients skin, to find an
optimal variant of skin care by combining keratolytic and skin restoring means.

P. Manissier, C. Fanchon, N. Piccardi, Combination of Lycopene, Soy Isoflavones & Vitamin C: a
Unique Efficient Oral Supplement to Prevent Skin Ageing, 21
st
World Congress of Dermatology,
Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2007
Aim: The purpose is to present a set of in vitro and in vivo studies showing the potential of the unique
combination of lycopene, soy isoflavones and vitamin C to stimulate cell renewal and prevent skin
ageing. Methods: in vitro studies involved two skin models, i.e. an in vitro reconstructed epidermis
(EPISKIN) and skin explants in culture. Skin explants were obtained from plastic surgery in
menopausal women. Each ingredient of the combination was introduced at plasmatic concentration
level in the culture medium to mimic systemic administration.

C. Montastier, A. Piccirilli, PH. Humbert, B. Dreno, N. Piccaqrdi, P. Manissier, Efficacy of a
Dietary Supplement Against Skin Dryness, 21
st
World Congress of Dermatology, Buenos Aires,
Argentina, 2007
A specific nutritional supplement (NS) containing blackcurrant seed and fish oils, rich in omega-3 and
6 fatty acids, vitamins E and C and lycopene was developed. These nutrients are known for their key
role in the maintenance of skin homeostasis. In particular they have been shown, in vitro, to improve
ceramides in the epidermis and skin barrier function. The purpose of this presentation is to summarize
studies that support the efficacy of this nutritional supplement.

Y. Appa, S. Hornby, G. Grove, C. Zerweck, Glycerin Mitigates Surfactant Induced Barrier
Disruption, 21
st
World Congress of Dermatology, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2007
Background/Objective: The effect of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) on the skin barrier was explored in
an epidermal skin model where skin barrier breaks could be visualized using two photon fluorescence
(TPM) imaging. Other data from that study allowed us to calculate the dimensions of the damage. We
found that glycerin was superior compared to urea and propylene glycol in mitigating the SLS induced
barrier damage as evidenced by the lack of visual barrier breaks.

OL. Jammayrac, B. Boussouira, T. Vuillet, C. Camus et al, Fragile Lips-A Biochemical Insight, , 21
st

World Congress of Dermatology, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2007
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149
Background/Objectives: Fragile lips are characterized by feelings of discomfort, presence of scales,
cracking and bleeding to different extents of severity. The most severe class very fragile lip is
predominantly observed on younger women. In the present study, the young female population was
targeted in order to further investigate the biochemical profile of fragile lips. 67 French women (age:
19-35 yrs) were investigated. A standardized clinical questionnaire targeting the vermilion, with items
on the signs and symptoms, occurrence and conditions linked to these signs and symptoms was
collected from the subjects.

AV. Anstey, A. Carter, K. Wyness, M. Kalavala, C. Edwards, A Study to Assess the Use of TL01
Dose Response Curves to Inform an Incremental Regimen for Narrow Band UVB Phototherapy
in Psoriasis, 21
st
World Congress of Dermatology, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2007
Variation in narrow-band UVB (nbUVB) psoriasis treatment regimens between phototherapy units
affects the starting dose, the dosage increments and the ceiling dose. In the UK it is now standard
practice in most units to determine the minimal erythema dose (MED) on unaffected skin before
phototherapy commences, which informs the starting dose selected for each patient. A dose-response
curve for each patient can easily be constructed from the MED dose series without additional UVB
irradiation.

CG. Sason, VM Verallo-Rowell, The Efficacy and Safety of Illuminants Anti-Perspirant with
Gigawhite Versus Vehicle for Axillary Hyperpigmentation: a Double Blind, Parallel Group,
Randomized Clinical Trial, 21
st
World Congress of Dermatology, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2007
Axillary Hyperpigmentation is a significant cosmetic concern of people with skin of color, most
especially those of women. The objective of this study wa to determine the efficacy and safety of
illuminants Anti-perspirant with Gigawhite in the treatment of axillary hyperpigmentation. This study
utilized a double blind randomised parallel group design.

N. Chua-Vivar, EJ. Masa, E. Handog, MS. Obleplass, A Prospective Randomized, Double-Blind,
Placebo-Controlled Trial on Efficacy of 10% Vitamin C Solution, Applied Using Iointophoresis
Technology, in The Treatment of Melasma in Filipino Women, 21
st
World Congress of
Dermatology, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2007
Background/Objective: Melasma is one of the major cosmetic concerns among Asians and Hispanics.
Among management options, hydroquinone has gained wide application despite the increasing
incidence of adverse effects associated with its use, even in preparations of lower potency.
Iontophoresis, a modality for enhancing drug penetration, is considered safe, effective, non-invasive
and in combination with whitening agents is purported as safer alternatives in treating melasma.

P. Msika, JL. Levy, L. Agopian-Simoneau, B. Chadoutaud, Effect of a New Cosmetic Formulation
on Reducing Cutaneous Pigmentation: A Clinical And Biometrological Approach, 21
st
World
Congress of Dermatology, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2007
Intracellular signal transduction pathways regulating melanogenesis imply PKC, camp through the
activation of PKA and NO. A new whitening formulation, that targets these three different pathways,
have been tested on melasma, with image analysis and a particular interest on the Qualiy of Life (QoL)
of the volunteers. The tested product was a cosmetic cream containing protein kinase C (PKC) and
protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors, vitamins E and C.

C. Grolsman, C. Selem, S. Prez Damonte, N. Delic. P. Lpez, Etidronic Acid a New Concept of
Action for an Actie Ingredient of Conventional Use, 21
st
World Congress of Dermatology, Buenos
Aires, Argentina, 2007
Study Purpose: The aimof this study is the Etidronic Acid use (EA). This active ingredient is a
biphosphonate, the 1-Hidroxyethylidene-1, 1-di-phosphonic Acid. This active ingredient is well
known in the medical field an its application in different treatments. EA ist also listed as an ingredient
of several cosmetic formulations such as soap bars and shampoos.

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S. Cho, DH. Lee, CH Won, S. Lee, MJ Lee, JH Chung, A Rondomized, Double-Blind Clinical Trial
on the Clinical Efficacy of Oral Supplementation with Chlorophyll Extracts on Skin Aging, 21
st

World Congress of Dermatology, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2007
Chlorophyll, a polyene photoreceptor of plants, is known to have anti-inflammatory effects. Though
its beneficial roles on aged skin were reported, there have been few systematic studies. The aim of this
study is to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of dietary chlorophyll extract supplementation on
aging skin. Thirty healthy females (aged more thean 45) were randomised to take low-dose or high-
dose dietary supplementation containing chlorophyll extracts for 12 weeks.

E. Gubanova, L. Caisey, C. Camus, D. Barras, JL. Lvque, Influence of Age on Features and
Functional Properties of Lips, 21
st
World Congress of Dermatology, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2007
There are very few reported works about ageing of lips and the perioral skin. This body area has
however great functional and aesthetic importance. It is also a peculiar transitional tissue area between
skin and mucosa. Purpose of the study: The present study was carried out to objectively describe the
different changes occurring in the functional properties of the vermilion (hydration, trans-epidermal
water loss (TEWL), mechanical properties, colour and tactile sensivity) and to compare these changes
with those occurring in the skin.


R. Yankova Skin Photoirritation and Provoked Pigmentation Rates Related to Topical Anti-Acne
Agents, 21
st
World Congress of Dermatology, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2007
To investigate the skin photoirritation and pigmentation due to anti-acne topical treatments we
enrolled fifty volunteers in a study to evaluate the UV erythema after applying ten anti-acne
formulations. 3%, 5% and 10% benzoyl peroxide gel. 0,01 %, 0.025% and 0.05% tretinoin cream, 3%
tetracycline hydrochloride ointment, 1% clindamycine phosphate lotion, 1,2% zinc acetate dihydrate +
4% erythromycin lotion, and 20% azelaic acid cream.


Yan Cheng, Yi-ynag Dong, Mei-xian Dong, Chao Wang et al; Protection effect of cosmetics on
human skin under simulated rigorous environment, Skin Research and Technology 2008, 14, pp.
45-52
The efficacy of cosmetics on human skin measured under normal mild laboratory environment might
be discounted by exterior environment factors such as wind, UV exposure, etc. Few studies have
focused on the genuine efficacy of cosmetics on human skin during exposure to external rigorous
environment.

H.K. Lee, Y.K. Seo, J.H. Baek, J.S. Koh Comparison between ultrasonography (Dermascan C
version 3) and transparency profilometry (Skin Visiometer SV600), Skin Research and
Technology 2008; 14, pp. 8-12
A recently developed method to estimate skin smoothness is the replica method, which may have the
limitation of the roughness difference of actual skin due to the skin-replicating process. Therefore,
observation of dermal layer change is very important. For this purpose, ultrasonic display equipment is
generally used.

S.H. Lim, S.M. Kim, Y.W. Lee, K.J. Ahn, Y.B. Choe Change of biophysical properties of the skin
caused by ultraviolet radiation-induced photodamage in Koreans, Skin Research and Technology
2008; 14, pp. 93-102
Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation affects the function and complecion of the skin by inducing changes in
physical properties through formation of erythema, proliferation of epithelial cells, DNA damage,
activation or inactivation of various enzymes and proteins, and free radical formation. In this study,
the authors intended to observe the overall course of changes in barrier function and reflectance of the
skin induced by photodamage, and healing reaction in the course of time, and alteration of skin
complexion.

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Naveed Akhtar, Gulfishan Ahmed, Mahmood Ahmed, Nazar Ranjha, Ahmad Mahmood, Grapefruit
Extract Cream: Effects on Melanin and Skin, Cosmetics and Toiletries magazine, Vol. 123, No.
1/January 2008, pp. 55-68
Emulsions are thermodynmically unstable systems defined as microscopic dispersions of liquid
droplets contained within another liquid, with a diameter ranging from 0.5 to 100 um. Emulsions
usually consist of mixtures of an aqueous phase with various oils or waxes.

G. Maa, Anwendungsstudie der sebamed TROCKENE HAUT Produkte bei Kindern mit
atopischem Ekzem, Kosmetische Medizin 6/2007, pp. 288-290
Es erfolgte in einer vierwchigen Anwendungsuntersuchung eine klinische berprfung der sebamed
TROCKENE HAUT Pflegeprodukte Waschlotion, Pflegelotion, Tagescreme und Nachtcreme bei
Kindern mit atopischem Ekzem anhand von quantitativen Megren, von klinischen Befundurteilen
sowie von qualitativen Beurteilungen der Pflegewirkungen.






Arturo Puig, Josw Maria Garca Antn, Montserrat Mangues A new Decorin-like Tetrapeptide for
Optimal Organization of Collagen Fibers, IFSCC Magazine vol. 10, no 4/2007
Decorin interacts with collagen via its protein core and influences collagen fibrillogenesis, thus
regulating excessive bundle-like aggregation of collagen. As skin ages, there is a lack of functional
decorin which results in disrupted collagen fibers and a reduction in the tensile stregth of the skin.
Therefore, a substitute for decorin would make up for the non-functional decorin that is present as we
age.

Hautpflege fr Diabetiker, www.wohlundwehe.de, page 20
Tglich sieben Einstiche in die Hautoberflche fr Blutzuckermessungen und Injektionen sind bei
insulinabhngigen Diabetikern fr eine gute Zuckereinstellung mindestens notwendig. Wie mag die
Haut nach tausenden von Einstichen aussehen? Diese Frage ging der Kosmetikerin Kerstin
Vlkeining, die das Problem aus vielen Jahren Ttigkeit im Gesundheitswesen kannte, jahrelang nicht
aus dem Kopf.

Christian Oresjo, Margarita Yatskayer, Angelike Galdi, Nathan S. Trookman, et al. Multi-Center,
Clinical Evaluation of a Broad Spectrum Sunscreen Moisturizer Containing a new Photostable
UVA/UVB Complex for Treatment of Photodamaged Facial Skin, www.lorealusa.com; Poster
Photoaging is the result of chronic cumulative exposure to UV radiation. UVB radiation changes
throughout the year and according to location, whreas UVA radiation is less variable. UVA rays are
lower in energy than UVB, however they are twenty times more abundant. Efficient and stable broad
spectrum protection is therefore needed year round for adequate protection against photoaging.

Viele Blender Gesichtscremes mit UV-Schutz. Auf den Lichtschutz in Gesichtscremes kann
man sich oft nicht verlassen. Sieben Produkte sind deshalb mangelhaft und nur drei insgesamt
gut. Test 1/2008, pp. 28 - 31
Eine gute Gesichtscreme soll die Haut in erster Linie mit zustzlicher Feuchtigkeit versorgen, damit
sie frisch, glatt und gesund bleibt. Der Trend geht allerdings dahin, diese Cremes mit
Lichtschutzfiltern anzureichern, um die Haut vor vorzeitiger Alterung und Fltchenbildung zu
schtzen. Ein Ansatz, den viele Hautrzte untersttzen.

Increasing Skin Protection By A Combination Of A Disaccharide With A Vegetable Origin
Fraction; Guglielmini Giancarlo; ifssc Barcelona 2008
Applying on the skin a functional substance containing a relevant amount of polysaccharide, vegetable
origin hydrolyzed proteins and amino acids, takes to a better protection and hydration of the skin,
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because it could permit to restore a normal skin hydration, in particular where a physiological lack of
cutaneous factors is present, such as dry, reddened and stressed skin with tendency to aging.
The novel compound is so able to recreate its natural state of hydration of the skin, so to be considered
an innovative moisturizing and lenitive cosmetic ingredient, particularly suitable for delicate skin and
hair.

Use of Cutometer to Asses Skin Water Content, Daniela BL Terci, Douglas Terci, Diogo Terci,
Adriano Pinheiro, ifscc Barcelona 2008
Assessing the skin water content (skin hydration) is one of the first and most important measurements
to test the efficacy of cosmetics on the skin surface. The quantity of literature worldwide dealing with
this subject indicates the significance of this measurement.





Internal Wool Lipids Rich in Ceramides for Skin Care; Raquel Ramrez, Meritxell Mart, Clara
Barba, Sandra Mndez, Jose Luis Parra; Ifscc Barcelona 2008
Wool is a natural fibre that is mainly made up of protein. It contains external lipids (lanolin) and a
small amount of internal lipids (1.5%). Internal wool lipids (IWL) are rich in cholesterol, free fatty
acids, cholesteryl sulphate and ceramides, and resemble those from membranes of other keratinic
tissues such as human hair or stratum corneum from skin. Intercellular lipids of skin stratum corneum,
mainly ceramides, play an important role in the barrier function of the skin by preventing penetration
of external agents and controlling the transepidermal water loss to maintain the physiological skin
water content. Recent studies have shown that formulations containing lipids that resemble the natural
components of the skin, especially ceramide supplementation, can improve disturbed skin conditions.


Daily Use of a Skin Moisturizer Increases Tactile Perception Mediated by A Fibres; Aurelie
Porcheron, Randa Jdid, Olivier Nageotte, Christiane Guinot, Erwin Tschachler, Frederique Morizot;
Ifscc Barcelona 2008
Je sens donc je suis (I feel so I am) [1]. The touch is one of the five senses which we perceive
through our whole body. Tactile sensations are perceived via the skin by tactile receptors and
transmitted via both fast-conducting myelinated A fibres and unmyelinated C fibres to the central
nervous system [2]. In vivo, tactile sensations have been essentially investigated using psychophysical
methods allowing a qualitative evaluation of touch sensitivity


Variability In The Physical Properties Of The Stratum Corneum Influences Of Chronological
Age And Season.
Stewart Long1, Marie Godfrey, Amandine Desnos, Daniel Whitby, Steven Barton

and Vineeta
Agarwal; Ifscc Barcelona 2008
It is well known that the skin exhibits changes with chronological age. Advances in bioengineering
have now allowed us to study these changes objectively and precisely [1]. In addition, the introduction
of reliable, commercially available skin biophysical measurement devices has led to an increase in
studies dedicated to skin ageing, though often with conflicting results [2-9]. Seasonal variation in skin
condition has also been studied [9-11]. Together, changes caused by age and season may well have an
influence on the effect that a product can exert on the skin, but this is, as yet, unclear. The objective of
the current study was to determine the effects of age and season on skin condition and whether these
factors also influence product efficacy. Here we report the results from the first summer/winter cycle
of an ongoing longitudinal study.


Gender Differences In Skin Condition And Response To Product Use; Stewart Long, Marie
Godfrey, Judata Wibawa and Steven Barton; Ifscc Barcelona 2008
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It is well known that the skin exhibits changes with chronological age and with season. Advances in
bioengineering have now allowed us to objectively and precisely study these changes [1]. In addition,
the introduction of reliable, commercially available devices has led to an increase in the number of
studies assessing skin ageing and condition with season [2-11]. However, the data is often reported on
female skin only. Whilst some research has been undertaken to study gender differences in certain skin
biophysical properties [1215], it is often limited to body sites other than the face. Although the
market for mens skincare products is steadily expanding, there appears to be little published literature
about differences between male and female facial skin and its response to product use in particular.
The objective of the current study was to determine the differences in skin condition of male and
female cheek and forehead skin, in terms of skin hydration, surface lipid levels, transepidermal water
loss, skin stiffness and elasticity, and the response to product use, in order to better develop skincare
formulations for the male skin.



Development of Thermotropic Gel Patch Technology improving skin moisture and resilience
physiochemically : An innovative skin shielding and drug-delivering challenger;
Tae Hwa Jeong1, Kwan Young Jeong1, Sang Keun Han1, Seong Jong Lee1, Seh Hoon Kang1 and
Seong Geun Oh; Ifscc Barcelona 2008
Sol-Gel transition has been vigorousely investigated in various chemical synthesis to manufacture
powders, polymers, and encapsulating materials. Starting from pharmaceutical industries, Sol-Gel
transition and its applications have been focused to enhance the time-releasing patterns of drugs such
as insulin and to maintain their effective periods much longer than conventional methods. Therefore,
many researchers in pharmaceutical fields have paid their attention to develop bio-compatible
polymers which show Sol-Gel transitions to be transformed nearby humans body
temperature, as well as bio-degradable ones.


Development of a noble solid lipid emulsion technology using silicone-based waxes and its
cosmetic applications improving instant skin resilience and skin protection. Sang Jun Kim1, Tae
Hwa Jeong1, Eun Ah Ko1, Seh Hoon Kang1, Kwan Young Jeong1, Sang-Keun Han1, Seong Jong
Lee1 and Seong Geun Oh; Ifscc Barcelona 2008
Recently, women make more effort for their beauty. Because the entry of women in public affairs have
been extended. And their appearances can affect to their social images. Moreover, many of skin
problems are caused by the stress of social activities and the environmental problems. Especially, the
problems with skin aging are appeared a lot by the increase in UV exposure. In these situations, many
cosmetics for anti-aging are gaining popularity. The wax formulations of cosmetic are effective on
skin protection and moisturization.


In Vivo Assessment Of Ectoin: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial;
Heinrich U, Garbe B, Tronnier H.; Ifscc Barcelona 2008;
The objective of this study was to determine the anti-aging properties of Ectoin with special regard to
its compatibility and efficacy. For this purpose 104 voluntary female participants were included in a
monocentric, randomized, double-blind application test. Moisturizing properties, skin surface structure
and skin elasticity were tested, comparing Ectoin (2 %: Treatment B) to a reference emulsion
(Treatment A) versus an untreated control. None of all treated participants showed side effects during
the study.The gained results of this study display that the natural cell protection concept of Ectoin is
transferable to skin care


Efficacy evaluation and characterization of chitosan nano emulsions with Spirulina hydro-
glycolic extract; del Pozo A1, Solans M1, Fernandez C1, Dolz M2, Corrias F3, Herrez M3; Ifscc
Barcelone 2008
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Nanoemulsions represent an interesting prospect for use as vehicles in the development of
formulations to deliver active ingredients to the human body. Particularly, nanoemulsion formulations
have been shown to be superior for transdermal and dermal delivery of hydrophilic and lipophlic
compounds, compared to conventional vehicles, such as hydrogels and emulsions. Lecithins
(phosphatidylcholines) have been used in several studies as surfactants for topical nanoemulsion
vehicles. These surfactants are able to form nanoemulsions without cosurfactants. In this context, less
surfactant is associated with lesser irritation






Study of the Inter-Relations between Skin Surface Parameters, Hydration, Sebum and pH
Marta O. Ferreira, M. Helena Amaral, Paulo C. Costa, M. Fernanda Bahia; Ifscc Barcelona 2008
Skin is the bodys largest organ and constitutes a formidable physical barrier that protects us from the
environment [1]. Several biophysical techniques are commonly used to study the skin properties and
to measure the in vivo skin effects of cosmetics, topical medicaments and chemical irritants [2,3]. The
Corneometer (a capacitance method) measures skin hydration, the Sebumeter (a photometric
method) measures the sebum of the skin and the Skin-pHMeter (a potenciometric method) measures
the pH of the skin [4]. The Visioscan VC98 connected to the software SELS (Surface Evaluation of
the Living Skin) can measure several skin surface parameters [5]. This apparatus consists of a special
b/w video sensor chip with very high resolution, an objective and an UVA-light source.


Development of the skin analogue liquid crystal in non-aqueous condition and its cosmetic
application to improving atopic dermatitis : An innovative atopy care; Kwan Young Jeong1, Jung
Hyun Choi1, Yun Ji Lee1, Tae Hwa Jeong1, and Dong Kyu Lee2; Ifscc Barcelona 2008
Atopic dermatitis(AD) has been issued as a serious disease and the prevalence of atopic dermatitis has
been rising progressively in developed countries since the 1940's. However, the reason is not
enough to explain the increasing prevalence of atopic dermatitis, and some researchers suggest that
there must be crucial factors in the expression of the disease like environmentals and allergics.[5]
According to recent studies, the damage of skin barrier has beeen reported as one of the main reasons
which cause atopic dermatitis.


Studies of Ceramide Lotion on M oisture of Skin; Keh-Feng Huang, Edward Tsai, Daniel Chang-
Chin Kwan, Yu-Fang Chen, Kuan-Chin Chen, Ming-Fu Wang, Ifscc Barcelona 2008
Stratum corneum intercellular lipids such as ceramides play an important role in the regulation of skin
water barrier homeostasis and water-holding capacity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate
the potential water retension capacity of an oil-in-water emulsion containing ceramide.


Stability and Clinical Efficacy of Cosmetic Formulations Containing Different Peptides;
Glasiela Lemos Anconi, Patrcia Maria Berardo Gonalves Maia Campos; Ifscc Barcelona 2008
Wrinkles, as a sign of skin aging, have an important social impact, especially because of longer
lifetimes and more frequent social relationships; consequently, they are an important factor
influencing our way of communication. Wrinkles represent the more evident outcome of cutaneous
ageing. Their onset is linked to a variety of events, resulting from both chrono- and photoageing. Both
intrinsic (hormones, racial and genetic factors, oxidative stress, systemic disease) and extrinsic
(temperature, air pollution, smoke, alcohol) factors worsen skin condition. However, wrinkles deriving
from skin texture, or micro-relief, modification afflict women more than all other wrinkles
as signs of ageing in the common mind.


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Biomimetic Liquid Crystals as Skin Barrier Restructuring Agents; Alain Thibodeau; Ifscc
Barcelona 2008;
The main roles of the skin are: protection from UV radiation (melanogenesis), immune defense and a
barrier function preventing the penetration of foreign particles. Perhaps of greater importance, skin is
dynamically involved in the management of internal water levels [1]. As an example of its
interconnection with internal organs, it is interestingly to note that the skin is the site for the
photoproduction of vitamin D that will be distributed through all the body, and also the site of
cutaneous distribution of vitamin E (through sebum secretion) obtained from nutrition. The stratum
corneum (SC), the outermost layer of the epidermis


A new and sensitive method to assess the NMF content of Stratum Corneum in vivo - Evaluation
of a topical moisturizing product; S Sisalli1, N Voisin, F Venturoli, A Adao, S Gardinier, M Isoir, J
Jacqueline-Bessire, D Mougin.; Ifscc Barcelona 2008
As far as the existence of the Natural Moisturizing Factor has been known, the need for in vivo and
non invasive methods to evaluate the NMF content

has been required. The purpose of this paper is to
present a new method for the analysis of some NMF compounds sampled by tape stripping.
This method allows the simultaneous determination of 2-pyrrolidone-5-carboxylique acid (PCA) and
of the 3 main amino acids of the NMF : SERine, GLYcine and ALAnine. It also allows, in the same
time, the determination of glycerol (GOL) content, which was recently underlined as an important
component in the understanding of cutaneous hydration .


Advanced Glycation End Products Crosslinks Breaker: A New Approach for Improvement of
Aged Skin; Akihiro Tada, Akiko Kanamaru, Midori Oyobikawa, Tetsuo Maeda, Hiroshi Oshima;
Ifscc Barcelona 2008
The reaction between proteins and glucose was first reported by Maillard [1], who observed, while
cooking food, glucose and other reducing sugars reacting with protein amino acids to form adducts
that after dehydration and rearrangement became stable brown pigments. This reaction between
reducing sugar and proteins has been named non-enzymatic glycation. These glycation products
undergo further complex reactions to become irreversibly cross-linked, forming a broad range of
heterogeneous fluorescent and yellow-brown products called advanced glycation end products
(AGEs).


Biotechnological Process For The Synthesis Of Omega 9 Compound For Enhancement Of Anti-
elastase Activity With Firmness And Restructuring Efficacy; Lucie Couturier, Florent Yvergnaux ;
Ifscc Barcelona 2008
Inhibition of human neutrophile elastase is an important target due to the enzymes involvement in
tissue destruction of a number of skin disease states [1]. Elastase itself cleaves collagens, as well as
elastin and other proteins with important biological functions. A variety of different types of inhibitors
and inhibitor formulations have been devised for treatment of these targets [2,3]. Oleic acid is a highly
selective non-toxic inhibitor of elastase. To enhance the vectorization of Omega 9 into the skin,
especially in the dermis where elastase acts, Omega 9 type compound has been synthesised through a
biotechnological process, miming a structural lipid analogue of the skin.


New approach to a non-invasive visualization of whitening effects in UV-induced pigmentation
using In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy; GW Nam, EJ Kim, HK Lee, SM AHN, SH Kim, SJ
Moon and IS Chang; Ifscc Barcelona 2008
Hyperpigmentation on face is a highly anxiety-producing symptom, especially for women from the
aspect of beauty. Pigmentation of the skin is related to the amount of melanin that provides protection
against UV radiation. In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy is a non-invasive imaging tool allowing
visualization of the skin without tissue alteration, by placing a microscopy directly on the living skin.

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156

Serine Proteases, Skin Function and Homeostasis; Rainer Voegeli1, Anthony V Rawlings2, Joachim
W Fluhr3, Stephan Doppler1, Thomas Schreier; Ifscc Barcelona 2008
Several proteases were shown to be present in the epidermis and especially in the stratum corneum
(SC). Among these enzymes the serine proteases have a wide spectrum of specificities and functions
and play important roles in numerous physiological and pathological processes [1]. In skin they are
involved in epidermal proliferation, differentiation, lipid barrier homeostasis and tissue remodeling.
Most importantly, kallikreins, together with other enzymes, are involved in the proteolysis of
corneodesmosomal proteins, a crucial event prior to desquamation [2].


The alkaline pH-adapted skin barrier is disrupted severely by SLS-induced irritation; Eunjoo
Kim, Seunghun Kim, Haekwang Lee, Seongjoon Moon, Ihseop Chang; Ifscc Barcelona 2008
Human stratum corneum is a multilayer barrier composed of corneocytes and specialized intercellular
lipids rendering the skin poorly permeable to water and other polar compounds. The horny layer
assists in maintain a constant internal milieu with a pH of 7.4 in viable epidermis that contrasts with
the pH of 4-6 found on most parts of human skin[1].
The acid mantle of the stratum corneum first described by Schade & Marchionini in 1928[2], was
originally thought of as a thin film composed of fatty acids, amino acids, and other organic acids
deposited on the skin surface.



Bi-Functional Study of Ion Calcium in the Skin
Silvia H.Prez Damonte1, Claudia Liliana Selem, Claudia Groisman; Ifscc Barcelona 2008
The Calcium ion has an important function in the skin. Its gradient plays a role in regulating epidermal
growth and differentiation in-vivo. In the intact epidermis, the extra cellular calcium content is low in
both, malpighi and spinosum strata, but increases from the inner to the outer layer of the stratum
granulosum [1]. Also, the calcium ion participates in the formation of the epidermal desmosomes,
fibroblasts and keratinocytes, which provide the integrity and firmness of the skin [2]. All of these
factors are important for the correct function of the epidermal barrier.


Safety Assessment for Nickel in Cosmetics; Silvia H Prez Damonte; Ana Maria Martn; Marta Edit
Daraio ; Ifscc Barcelona 2008
Many environmental chemicals produce contact hypersensitivity or local inflammatory responses in
the skin. Nickel released from metal objects is well known as a sensitizing agent in humans. Since the
initial damage caused by nickel remains to be the leading cause of skin disorders such as allergic
contact dermatitis worldwide, the aim of this study is to investigate if the content of nickel in
cosmetics could produce such reactions.


Clinical efficacy of cosmetic formulations containing Myrtus communis extract; Patricia M. B. G.
Maia Campos; Flavio Bueno de Camargo Junior; Sabrina M. Bertucci; Emeline Esteves de Oliveira;
Glasiela Lemos Anconi; Lorena Rigo Gaspa; Ifscc Barcelona 2008
The Research & Development of cosmetic products that are able to act in skin ageing alterations has
been a challenge in Cosmetic area. This way, a great number of botanical extracts have been proposed
as active ingredients for anti-ageing cosmetic development. Myrtus communis is a plant rich in
polysaccharides, essential oils, flavonoids, among other substances. Some studies showed that its
different hydroalcoholic extracts have a potent antioxidant activity mainly due to the presence of
polyphenols Myrtus communis leaves hydrolyzed extract has been proposed as cosmetic ingredient
with anti-ageing properties because it is rich in galacturonic acid, ramnose, galactose, glucose, xylose
and fructose .


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157
Effect of an acute psychological stress on sebum assessed by SKINSPACE Sorbent Tape method
S Sisalli, N Voisin, A Adao, M Lebel, D Mougin. Parfums et Beaut, Sophia Antipolis ; Ifscc
Barcelona 2008
Responsible for skin shininess and enlarged pores, the excess of sebum could cause inconveniences at
all ages of a woman life. Among other biological and environmental factors, the stress is often
mentionned as a parameter influencing the sebum hyperproduction. As the data available in litterature
are mainly related to young people suffering from acne, the objective of the present study is to
evaluate the impact of an acute psychological stress on sebum secretion of 18 female volunteers, with
healthy and normal skin, from 18 to 65 years old.


Clinical and Instrumental Evaluation of the Facial Photoageing on Indian Women; Catherine
Heusle1, Caroline Derome2, Deepa Kanchankoti3, Rashmikant Mohile3, Armand Bernois1,
Sylvianne Schnebert; Ifscc Barcelona 2008
Daily exposure to the sun leads to skin photodamage. Clinical signs of photoageing due to biological
and structural alteration of the epidermis and dermis will be function of level of UV exposure and
individual protection capacities. The influence of ethnic origin on skin structure and function is more
and more investigated but few instrumental or clinical studies describe the characteristics of healthy
skin and their evolution with age on Indian women living in India [1]. Previous clinical, instrumental
or biological studies were carried on Indian subjects living in South Africa or England.


Anti-acne activity of Thyme oil and its applications for cosmeceutical acne care: An innovative
Anti-acne challenger; Ha Hyun Jo1, Chang Gyu Han1, Kwan Young Jeong1, Jang Su Kim1, Byeong
Jun Park1, Ifscc Barcelona 2008
The skin disease which acne occurs in papule, pustule, cystoma and tuber for teenagers and young
generation. The origin of acne takes part in various factors. The main factors are 1) increased Sebum
2) cornification of sebaceous glands 3) Propionibacterium 4) inflammation.


The Potential Anti-aging Properties of Prunella vulgaris Extract In Vitro and In Vivo; Eun Suk
Hong, Gi Woong Ahn, and Byoung Kee Jo, Ifscc Barcelona 2008
The dried Prunella vulgaris (self-heal) is one of the popular traditional herbal medicines in some Asian
countries, and has been used extensively for the treatment of robustness, hyperpiesis, uteritis, goiter
and so on[1-5]. The aim of this study was to examine various anti-wrinkle activities of Prunella
vulgaris extract such as the activation of collagen synthesis, inhibition of collagenase synthesis,
inhibition of elastase activity and anti-oxidative activities in vitro. And we were also interested in
investigating the effect of this Prunella vulgaris on the skin's surface in a double-blind clinical study.


Assessment of Transepidermal Water Loss (TEWL) and Comparison Between Equipments;
Silva VRL1,2,3, Schulman MA1, Gimenis JM1,2, Baby AR3, Ferelli C1, Taqueda MES3, Velasco
MVR3, Kaneko TM3. 1 ISIC Clinical Research Institute, Brazil; 2 University Anhembi Morumbi,
Brazil; 3 Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of So Paulo
(FCF-USP), Brazil, Ifscc Barcelona 2008
Moisturizers are used on large body surfaces to maintain the smoothness of the skin. It is well known
moisturizers can increase stratum corneum hydration by occlusion of the skin surface or by water-
attracting properties. This study presents a discussion of different equipments, Tewameter,
(Courage&Khazaka) and Vapometer (Delfin) after treatment with different moisture substances to
evaluate the transepidermal water loss.


Relevance of Lipid Self-Assembly in Nanostructures on the Skin Properties; Lucyanna Barbosa-
Barros, Clara Barba, Luisa Coderch, Alfons de la Maza and Olga Lpez. Departament de Tecnologia
de Tensioactius, I.I.Q.A.B.-C.S.I.C. Barcelona, Spain, Ifscc Barcelona 2008
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Phospholipid systems show high morphological diversity as a function of its structure and composition
[1]. This fact plays an important role in the applications of aggregates such as micelles, bicelles and
vesicles, which are extendedly used in skin research [2]. Thus, investigations that help clarifying the
relation of structural parameters with the effect of the phospholipid aggregates in the skin are needed.
Liposomes and micelles have often been used for skin treatment [3-4], although their application is
debated due to some aspects. Liposomes seem to be too large to penetrate into the narrow interlamellar
spaces of stratum corneum (SC) lipids [5]. Concerning to the micelles, the usual presence of surfactant
in their composition supposes a problem due to the well known irritating effect of these solubilising
agents on the skin [6]. In this line, the use of bicelles (discoidal micelles constituted by phospholipids)
for skin treatment may report advantages comparing to the use of liposomes and micelles: the size of
bicelles is small enough for passing through the SC lipid lamellae and their composition consists
exclusively of lipids.


Evaluation of the Safety and Efficacy of Cosmetic Formulations Containing Saccharomyces
cerevisae Extract and Vitamins; Lorena R. Gaspar, Flavio B. de Camargo Jr, Mirela D. Gianeti,
Patrcia M. B. G. Maia Campos *
*Universidade de So Paulo - Faculdade de Cincias Farmacuticas de Ribeiro Preto.
Ifscc Barcelona 2008
There are many substances frequently used in anti-aging products due to their moisturizing, photoprotective and
skin barrier effects and among them we can point out vitamin A, C and E derivatives.
Vitamin A palmitate acts on epithelization and on abnormal keratinization [1]. Vitamin E acetate is a free radical
scavenger and can reduce DNA damage and keratinocytes death (sunburn cell formation) [2,3] and also can
enhance stratum corneum hydration and reduce skin roughness [4]. Tetra-isopalmitoyl ascorbic acid (VC-IP)
releases vitamin C in physiological conditions and enhances cellular tolerance against UVB and reactive oxygen
species as well as reduces the production of interleukin-1a and prostaglandin E2 [5].


Protective Effects Of Turmerones From Curcuma Longa Against UVB-Induced Oxidative Stress
Upregulation Of Cellular Defence Systems; Michael Wegmann1, Peter Lersch1, Hans Henning
Wenk1, Saskia K. Klee1, Ursula Maczkiewitz1 Mike Farwick1. Evonik Goldschmidt GmbH. Essen.
Germany1.
The human epidermis represents the largest interface of the body that is constantly in close contact to
the environment. Therefore, it is especially vulnerable to oxidative stress, which in turn leads to
oxidation of cellular macromolecules such as proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. In order to counteract
these harmful effects and consequently ensure the redox status of the cell, a plethora of defence
mechanisms exists. Fuelled by new research, activities and expression of enzymes of the anti-oxidative
defence line is better understood. Two major players during aging and anti-oxidative stress
mechanisms are the thiol redox systems driven by gluthathione peroxidase (GPX1) and thioredoxin
reductase (TXNRD1) [1]. Both systems require redox equivalent in the form of NADPH to restore
their full anti-oxidative potential [2,3]. This in-turn is generated by another enzyme named NAD(P)H
dehydrogenase (NQO1) that generates NADPH from oxidized NADP+ by consuming ATP [4]. While
the thioredoxin and the glutathione systems neutralize harmful products emerging from the oxidation
and peroxidation of bio-macromolecules the defense of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as
hydrogen peroxide which are responsible for most of the oxidative stress on cells exposed for example
to UV-irradiation depend on the catalase system. This enzyme eliminates hydrogen peroxide by
catalyzing its decomposition to water and oxygene [5].


Harald van der Hoeven, Sabrina John, Petra A. Schmidt; Verbesserung des Hydrationsniveaus der
Haut durch natrlichen Moisturizer; Euro Cosmetics 9-2008, S.16-18
Ein ausreichendes Hydrationsniveau ist unabdingbar fr die Funktionalitt des Stratum Corneum (SC).
Die Natural Moisturizing Factors (NMF) sind fr die Aufrechterhaltung eines entsprechenden
Hydrationsniveaus im SC von grter Wichtigkeit. Die Entwicklung von kosmetischen Wirkstoffen,
die sowohl fr eine ausreichende, als auch lang anhaltende Konzentration von NMF in der Haut
sorgen, stellt heute eine groe Herausforderung dar.
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159
Ein neuentwickelter natrlicher Moisturizer DayMoist CLR erhht aufgrund der enthaltenen
hygroskopischen Molekle, welche den natrlichen Feuchtigkeitsfaktoren der Haut hneln, die
Hydration der Haut; ein Effekt, der sich sowohl durch die Konfokale Raman-Mikrospektroskopie, als
auch durch die konventionelle Methodik der Corneometer-Messung besttigen lsst.


Parastoo Davari, MD, Farzam Gorouhi, MD, Sirous Jafarian, MD, Yahaya Dowlati, MD, PhD, and
Alireza Firooz, MD; A randomized investigator-blind trial of different passes of
microdermabrasion therapy and their effects on skin biophysical characteristics; International
Journal of Dermatology 2008, 47, S. 508-513
Microdermabrasion (MDA) was developed in 1980s, and rapidly became a popular modality in
superficial skin resurfacing. Its safety, simplicity, no need for anesthesia, prompt recovery and modest
equipment costs hold a wide appeal for both physicians and patients. This non-invasive mechanical
technique is used in management of fine rhytides, mottled pigmentation, clogged pores, acne, acne
scars, and stretch marks.




Hagen Tronnier, Mathilde Wiebusch, Ulrike Heinrich; Skin-Physiological Test in Weightlessness in the
ISS Space Station; IFSCC Magazine vol. 11, no 3/2008
A prolonged stay in weightlessness includes several medical alterations of the human body and also
results in impairment of the skin. The stratum corneum, epidermal barrier as welle as other skin
compartments are affected in terms of their susceptibility to dryness, desquamation and pruritus. This
can lead, for example, to wound healing disorders. Skin physiological tests were performed on the skin
of an astronaut during and after the the ASTROLAB-Mission within the Skin Care program initiated
by the ESA.


Judith A Tunggal
1, 6
, Iris Helfrich
1, 6
, Annika Schmitz
1
, Heinz Schwarz
2
, Dorothee Gnzel
3
,
Michael Fromm
3
, Rolf Kemler
4
, Thomas Krieg
1, 5
and Carien M Niessen
1
; E-cadherin is essential for
in vivo epidermal barrier function by regulating tight junctions; The EMBO Journal - Vol. 24, No.
6/2005, S. 1146-1156
Cadherin adhesion molecules are key determinants of morphogenesis and tissue architecture.
Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the morphogenetic contributions of cadherins
remain poorly understood in vivo. Besides supporting cellcell adhesion, cadherins can affect a wide
range of cellular functions that include activation of cell signalling pathways, regulation of the
cytoskeleton and control of cell polarity. To determine the role of E-cadherin in stratified epithelium
of the epidermis, we have conditionally inactivated its gene in mice. Here we show that loss of E-
cadherin in the epidermis in vivo results in perinatal death of mice due to the inability to retain a
functional epidermal water barrier.


Pascale Quatresooz, Jean-Francois Hermanns,Trinh Hermanns-LE, Grald E. Pierard, Jean-Luc
Nizet ; Laddering melanotic pattern of Langer's lines in skin of colour; European journal of
dermatology 2008-Aug; vol 18 (issue 5)
Mechanobiological stimulation of the skin influences the melanocyte activity. The clinical impact on
melanocytes can be perceived by dermoscopy. Our aim was to assess the orientation of Langer's lines
using the combination of ultrasound shear wave propagation and dermoscopy in 70 adults of darker
skin complexion. On the back, 44/70 patients showed a honeycomb melanotic pattern without any
main orientation. By contrast, a streaky parallel pattern of melanotic lines oriented in the direction of
Langer's lines was found in 26/70 patients. Indeed, the maximum speed of ultrasound propagation was
found parallel to the main orientation of the laddering melanotic pattern. The parallel melanotic pattern
probably reflects the main orientation of the epidermal rete ridges aligned in the direction of Langer's
lines. This aspect could be ascribed to the deepening of these structures and/or to mechanobiology
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160
affecting melanocytes. The aspect is reminiscent of that previously described in striae distensae and
atrophic scars.




H. Tronnier, M. Wiebusch, U. Heinrich; Change in Skin Physiological Parameters in Space -
Report on and Results of the First Study on Man; Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2008;21: S.283-292
Astronauts often show skin reactions in space. Systematic tests, e.g. with noninvasive skin
physiological test methods, have not yet been done. In an interdisciplinary cooperation, a test series
with skin physiological measurements was carried out before, during and after a long-term mission in
the International Space Station. The hydration of the stratum corneum (Corneometer), transepidermal
water loss (Tewameter), and the surface structure of the skin (SkinVisiometer) were measured. In
order to record cutaneous states, the suction elasticity was measured (Cutometer), and an ultrasound
measurement with 20 MHz (DermaScan) was also made. In addition, one measuring field of the two
inner forearms was treated with a skin care emulsion. There were indications of a delayed epidermal
proliferation of the cells, which would correspond to the clinical symptoms. Hydration and TEWL
values are improved by respective skin care. On the cutaneous level, the elasticity measurements and
the ultrasound picture showed results which correspond to a significant loss of elasticity of the skin.
Further examinations are necessary to validate these preliminary results.


Elisabetta Esposito, Markus Drechsler, Roberta Bozzini, Leda Montesi, Rita Cortesi;
Topical formulations for skin hydration; Household and Personal Care Today n 2/2008, S.6-10
The design and comparison of innovative topical formulation for skin hydration are here reported.
Different Nanoparticulate systems, namely cubosomes, nanovesicles, solid lipid nanoparticles and
liposomes, have been produced and characterized by morphology and size distribution. Hydration
power has been studied using a corneometer, measuring the skin electrical capacitance before and after
the application of viscosized nanoparticulate systems. It has been demonstrated that nanovesicle gel
displayed a pronounced hydration power with respect to the others nanostructured formulations, its
hydration effecton skin was 3.5 fold higher after 5min from the application and 1.5 fold higher after 2
hours.


Harald van der Hoeven, Sabrina John; Elevating stratum corneums level of hydration with a
natural moisturizer; Household and Personal Care Today n3/2008, S.10-12;
The presence of sufficient amounts of water is crucial for normal functioning of the Stratum Corneum
(SC). The Natural Moisturizing Factors play an enormously important role in maintaining a sufficient
level of hydration in the SC. Keeping a sufficient concentration of NMF by applying cosmetic
formulation onto the skin poses the cosmetic chemist to a great challenge. A new natural moisturizer
containing molecules resembling the NMF wich are naturally present in human skin (BVHC Complex)
has shown to be able to elevate the concentration of the NMF after 24 hours of application
significantly with Confocal Raman Microspectroscopy, which showed interesting correlation with the
results obtained with corneometry.


M. Paye, S. Mac-Mary, A. Elkhyat, C. Tarrit, P. Mermet, P.H. Humbert; Use of the Reviscometer for
measuring cosmetics-induced skin surface effects; Skin Research and Technology 2007; 13; pp.
343-349
The Reviscometer RVM 600 that measures resonance running time (RRT) has been shown to be
inversely related to the skin stiffness. However, very few publications describe the use of this
instrument for testing the effect of cosmetic products. Slight xerotic skin condition was induced by
usind an alkaline soap for 1 week. Skin has then been rehydrated with a lotion or further dehydrated
and dried with sodium lauryl sulfate.

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161





Martha Tilaar, Wong Lip Wih, Anna S. Ranti, S.M. Wasitaatmadja; Punica granatum properties
examined; Personal Care, September 2008, pp. 27 29;
Natural cosmetic ingredients have shown tremendous growth in recent years, and studies have been
conducted on botanical extracts for cosmetic use. Several aspects should be considered when utilising
botanical materials in cosmetics such as the quality of the plant materials, processes, biological
activity and safety. Looked for in a study was a natural ingredient potentially having multifunctional
properties for cosmetic use. Used were Punica granatum L. fruit obtained from a community
plantation on a Javanese island. A taxonomical study was conducted by literature.


Jrgen Lademann, Joachim Fluhr; This Issue at a Glance: Skin Reactions of Astronauts in Space
and Microstructures of Topically Applied Formulations; Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
2008; 21:245;
The analysis and characterization of the properties of human skin under natural conditions and under
topical treatment on Earth is a topic of comprehensive investigation. In the present issue, it is
demonstrated that there is also a skin physiology outside the Earth in the universe. Tronnier et al.
Investigated the changes in skin physiological parameters in space. Astronauts often show skin
reactions. In an interdisciplinary cooperation, a test series with skin physiological measurements was
carried out before, during and after a long-term mission at the International Space station.


David Boudier, Catherine Lenaers, Claire Sabbadini, Delphine Creel, Brigitte Closs-Silab;
Development of certified organic actives; Personal Care, September 2008; pp. 35-37
Nowadays, consumers are more conscious than ever before of what they put on their skin. They
demant authenticity from natural/organic brands, scrutinising product labels and favouring products
that meet certification standards. For over 20 years, independent company Silab has introduced natural
active ingredients to the cosmetic industry. In order to meet market expectations and by applying its
expertise in the natural area, Silab now has launched three certified organic active ingredients
covering the main aspects of anti-ageing products: an immediate tensor, a hydrating ingredient and an
anti-wrinkle active ingredient.


T. Andr, M. De Wan, P. Lefvre, J.-L. Thonnard ; Moisture Evaluator: a direct measure of
fingertip skin hydration during object manipulation; Skin Research and Technology 2008; 14,
S.385-389
The mechanical properties of the fingertip skin are very important when studying dexterous
manipulation. These properties are strongly influenced by the level of skin hydration. Currently, there
is no device capable of measuring skin moisture during object manipulation. Methods: Skin moisture
levels during object manipulation were measured using the Moisture Evaluator, a probe consisting of
gold-covered electrodes connected to a resistor-capacitor circuit. In vivo calibration was performed by
comparison with measurements obtained using a Corneometer

at two normal force levels (0.2 and


2 N). Results: Measurements from the Moisture Evaluator were well correlated with those from the
Corneometer

. Conclusion: A new device for evaluating skin moisture at the fingertip has been
designed and validated.



Kristien De Paepe
1
, Evelien De Rop
1
, Evi Houben
1
, Ralf Adam
2
and Vera Rogiers
1

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162

1
Department of Toxicology, Dermato-Cosmetology and Pharmacognosy, Vrije Universiteit Brussel
(VUB), Brussels, Belgium and
2
Procter & Gamble, Schwalbach am Taunus, Germany
Effects of lotioned disposable handkerchiefs on skin barrier recovery after tape stripping; Skin
Research and Technology 2008 ; 14, S.440-447
Background/purpose: In the present work, it was studied whether repeated use of lotioned disposable
handkerchiefs on tape-stripped forearm skin was able to improve skin barrier recovery.
Methods: Skin assessments included scoring of visual erythema and dryness/scaliness; and measuring
of skin redness (Chromameter

CR300), skin hydration (Corneometer

CM825), and transepidermal


water loss (Tewameter

TM300). Four different lotioned paper handkerchiefs randomly assigned to


one of two subject groups (n=20) were tested vs. the non-lotioned control handkerchief. The results
were also compared with those obtained using a topically applied oil-in-water barrier cream
(Dermalex

).
Results: The three-day lasting protocol revealed that handkerchief wiping itself delayed skin recovery,
but a significantly better performance was seen for the lotioned handkerchiefs containing fatty
alcohols and mineral oils. This shows that the use of lotioned tissues helps to prevent skin damage
inevitably caused by the wiping process.
Conclusion: The controlled pre-damaged forearm method with tape stripping appears to be a suitable
model to study the effects of repetitive wiping on irritated skin with disposable handkerchiefs of
different quality. More specifically, the model seems applicable to mimic the nasolabial skin damage
observed during a common cold associated with frequent use of disposable handkerchiefs.


Frank Gafner, Kuno Schweikert, Giogio DellAcqua; Oat-Based Complex Stimulates Skin Barrier
Protein Synthesis and Reduces Skin Aging; IFSCC Magazine vol. 11, no3/2008
Epidermal differentiation is crucial to guarantee a physiological confication process. The cornified
envelope is the final skin barrier which protects against external aggressions such as UV light and
reduces water loss. Skin aging is associated with decreased functionality of this barrier and reduced
epidermal differentiation. We present a new bioactive complex for the stimulation of protein synthesis
associated with cornified envelope and markers of epidermal differentiation. Composed of a
hydrolysed oat protein extract and particularly rich in glutamine and glutamic acid combined with
ATP and niacinamide, 1% of this complex increases significantly the synthesis of proteins such as
filagrin, late envelope protein and small proline-rich proteins, all markers of epidermal differentiation,
in a reconstituted human skin model as measured by DNA array chip analysis, reverse transcription-
polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry.


Harald van der Hoeven, Sabrina John CLR Chemisches Laboratorium Dr. Kurt Richter GmbH,
Germany; Elevating NMF concentration with a natural moisturiser; Personal Care, Sep. 2008,
S.81-83
For any living organism, presence of water at the sites where it is essential for normal functioning is
crucial for survival. The outer layer of the skin provides a typical example of the human body
preserving water at an essential site (in close proximity to a dry environment). It is therefore
understandable that control of the presence of water is one of the fundamental properties of the skin.
Water in the stratum corneum as related to dry skin: The topmost layer of the skin, the stratum
corneum (SC) consists of cornified cells (corneocytes) embedded in a complex and lamellarly well-
organised mixture of non-polar lipids. Water in the SC is present in the corneocytes and very
minimally in the intercellular regions.


Hagen Tronnier, Mathilde Wiebusch, Ulrike Heinrich; First Skin-Physiological Tests in
Weightlessness in the ISS Space Station; IFSCC Magazin vol. 11, no 3/2008
A prolonged stay in weightlessness induces several medical alterations of the human body and also
results in impairment of the skin. The stratum corneum, epidermal barrier as well as other skin
H\litlist\studies 12/06


163
compartments are affected in terms of their susceptibility to dryness, desquamation and pruritus. This
can lead, for example, to wound healing disorders. Skin physiological tests were performed on the skin
of an astronaut during the ASTROLAB-Mission within the Skin Care program initiated by the ESA.
The skin was analysed before, partly during and after the mission. In addition, the tests were repeated
after one year.


Dr. Karl-Heinz Schrader; Cremes auf dem Prfstand, Beauty Forum 09/2008, S. 100-102
Ob Anti-Aging oder UV-Schutz: Kosmetische Mittel sollten gut vertrglich sein und eine Wikung
haben. Beides sollte am Bestimmungsort der Kosmetika auf Haut, Haaren etc. auch nachweisbar
sein. In modernen Speziallabors wird daher geprft, was Cremes und Co tatschlich leisten.
Die fertigen Produkte werden In-vivo-Tests unterzogen, also am lebendigen Organismus auf ihre
Wirksamkeit geprft. Generell unterscheidet man dabei subjektive und objektive Prfungen. Wird
beispielsweise die Wirkung einer Anti-Aging-Creme untersucht, dienen subjektive Anwendungstests
dazu, die sensorische Beurteilung und die Hautvertrglichkeit zu prfen. Mit objektiven Messungen
werden dagegen z.B. die Wasserretention und das Hautoberflchenprofil bestimmt, der
Sonnenschutzfaktor geprft und das antioxidative Potenzial des Produkts ermittelt.


BASF Beauty Care Solutions; Lyslastine, the face designer; Cosmetics & Toiletries 9/2008, vol.123,
no 9;
Major discoveries about elastin.
Elastin naturally brings to mind the skins youthful appearance and level of elasticity, both of which
are symbolic values that make this molecule a choice ingredient in anti-age strategies.
Nevertheless, the real scientific aspects of elastin are surprisingly not very well known including
information about its structure, its function, and aging process.


Dermatronnier: H. Tronnier, M. Wiebusch, U. Heinrich; Project Skin Care of the European Long-
Term Mission (ASTROLAB) on the ISS; Poster ISS (Posterpreis)
Introduction: Impairments due to circulatory and vestibular disturbances of the equilibrium are the
prevalent medical side effects astronauts suffer from. These are followed by the dermatological
problems. In order to examine these skin problems and find ways to prevent them, skin-physiological
measurements as a project Skin Care were carried out within the framework of the European long-
term mission (ASTROLAB) 2005 2007.


David Boudier, Catherine Lenaers, Claire Sabbadini, Delphine Creel, Brigitte Closs Silab, France;
Development of certified organic actives; Personal Care 9/2005; S.35-38;
Nowadays, consumers are more conscious than ever before of what they put on their skin. They
demand authenticity from natural/organic brands, scrutinising product labels and favouring products
that meet certification standards.1 For over 20 years, independent company Silab has introduced
natural active ingredients to the cosmetics industry. In order to meet market expectations and by
applying its expertise in the natural area, Silab now has launched three certified organic active
ingredients covering the main aspects of anti-ageing products: an immediate tensor, a hydrating
ingredient and an anti-wrinkle active ingredient.



del Pozo A
1
, Solans M
1
, Fernandez C
1
, Dolz M
2
, Corrias F
3
, Herrez M
3
, Diez-Sales O.; Efficacy
evaluation and characterization of chitosan nanoemulsions with Spirulina hydro-glycolic
extract; Ifscc Barcelona 2008 (Poster)
Nanoemulsions represent an interesting prospect for use as vehicles in the development of
formulations to deliver active ingredients to the human body. Particularly, nanoemulsion formulations
have been shown to be superior for transdermal and dermal delivery of hydrophilic and lipophlic
H\litlist\studies 12/06


164
compounds, compared to conventional vehicles, such as hydrogels and emulsions [1]. Lecithins
(phosphatidylcholines) have been used in several studies as surfactants for topical nanoemulsion
vehicles. These surfactants are able to form nanoemulsions without co-surfactants.




T. Andre, M. De Wan, P. Lefvre, J.-L. Thonnard; Moisture Evaluator: a direct measure of
fingertip skin hydration during object; Skin Research & Technology 2008; 14: S. 385-389
Background/purpose: The mechanical properties of the fingertip skin are very important when studying
dexterous manipulation. These properties are strongly influenced by the level of skin hydration.
Currently, there is no device capable of measuring skin moisture during object manipulation.
Methods: Skin moisture levels during object manipulation were measured using the Moisture
Evaluator, a probe consisting of gold-covered electrodes connected to a resistor-capacitor circuit. In
vivo calibration was performed by comparison with measurements obtained using a Corneometer

at
two normal force levels (0.2 and 2 N).
Results: Measurements from the Moisture Evaluator were well correlated with those from the
Corneometer

.
Conclusion: A new device for evaluating skin moisture at the fingertip has been designed and
validated.


De Paepe, Kristien; De Rop, Evelien; Houben, Evi; Adam, Ralf; Rogiers, Vera ; Effects of lotioned
disposable handkerchiefs on skin barrier recovery after tape stripping; Skin Research &
Technology 2008; 14 : S. 440-447
Background/purpose: In the present work, it was studied whether repeated use of lotioned disposable
handkerchiefs on tape-stripped forearm skin was able to improve skin barrier recovery.
Methods: Skin assessments included scoring of visual erythema and dryness/scaliness; and
measuring of skin redness (Chromameter

CR300), skin hydration (Corneometer

CM825), and
transepidermal water loss (Tewameter

TM300). Four different lotioned paper handkerchiefs -


randomly assigned to one of two subject groups (n=20) - were tested vs. the non-lotioned control
handkerchief. The results were also compared with those obtained using a topically applied oil-in-
water barrier cream (Dermalex

). Results: The three-day lasting protocol revealed that handkerchief


wiping itself delayed skin recovery, but a significantly better performance was seen for the lotioned
handkerchiefs containing fatty alcohols and mineral oils. This shows that the use of lotioned tissues
helps to prevent skin damage inevitably caused by the wiping process.
Conclusion: The controlled pre-damaged forearm method with tape stripping appears to be a suitable
model to study the effects of repetitive wiping on irritated skin with disposable handkerchiefs of
different quality. More specifically, the model seems applicable to mimic the nasolabial skin damage
observed during a common cold associated with frequent use of disposable handkerchiefs.


John Staton Dermatest, Australia; Tools for anti-ageing claim support; Personal Care, Nov. 2008;
S.19-22
Anti-ageing covers a substantially broad area of claims associated with both the prevention and the
treatment of chronological and environmental effects on the condition of human skin. A large number
of instrumentally based clinical methods are available for the substantiation of claims related to anti-
ageing. This article describes the most common of these and considers only those which are essentially
non-invasive.


P.-Y. Morvan, R. Valle Codif International, France; New focus on natural moisturisation;
Personal Care, Nov. 2008; S.29-32;
The fundamental role of urea in maintaining the skins moisturisation is well known. Concentrated in
the stratum corneum, where it represents 7% of the natural moisturising factor (or NMF), it is naturally
present in normal skin, but its concentration falls rapidly by 50% in dry skin and 85% in skin suffering
from dermatosis. This drop in urea content is irremediably accompanied by a depletion of NMF and
therefore loss of moisturisation. The skin becomes wrinkled and loses its suppleness and radiance.
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165


Wong Lip Wih, Anna S. Ranti, Suryaningsih, Maily, Indonesian plants yield useful agents; Personal
Care, Nov. 2008; S.25-27;
The demand for naturally-derived active ingredients for cosmetics continues to increase. Our objective
was to look for moisturising and antioxidative agents from Indonesian botanical resources which
contain flavonoid and polyphenol. The article describes natural ingredients extracted with ethanol
from Indonesian plants namly Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume) miq = OE (patent pending) and
Phyllantus niuri L = PE (patent pending). The study was carried out using DPPH scavenging activity
for antioxidant agent in vitro; and Corneometer and Tewameter for moisturising effect.


G. Campos, J. Coll, L. Campderros, M. Recasnes, D. Panyella, J. Ginestar; FP0394 COMPARISON
OF THE ANTI-AGING EFFICACY OF A CREAM VERSUS A CREAM PLUS SERUM
TREATMENT; Abstract; EADV Paris 09/2008;
Objectives: The purpose of this study is to compare, using bioengineering methods, the efficacy of
applying an anti-aging cream alone or in combination with an antiaging serum. The anti-aging
products included in this study contain a peptide similar to procollagen fragment, hyaluronic acid, a
glycosaminoglycans complex and polysaccharides with urea.


T. Reuther, S. Schrder, M. Kersche; FP0363 ANALYSIS OF SITE-DEPENDENT
DIFFERENCES OF TRANSEPIDERMAL WATER LOSS, SKIN CAPACITANCE AND SKIN
SURFACE-PH USING BOTH T-TEST AND CORRELATION ANALYSIS; Abstract; EADV
Paris 09/2008;
Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin capacitance (SC) and skin surface-pH (pH) are today
standard parameters for assessing skin barrier function. While there are many studies analysing the
relationship between absolute values from different sites using t-test investigations providing
information from the analysis of such data using correlation analysis are very rare. Therefore the aim
of the present study was to analyze TEWL, SC and pH of the forearm (FA) and the forehead (FH)
using and comparing t-test and correlation analysis.


Z. D. Draelos, E. Baltas; FP1448: SKIN BARRIER AND DESQUAMATION IN PATIENTS
WITH MILD PLAQUE PSORIASIS IS IMPROVED WITH THE USE OF A GENTLE
MOISTURIZING CREAM; Abstract; EADV Paris 09/2008;
Psoriasis is a disorder characterized by faster than normal skin growth and replacement. The result of
this rapid skin growth and replacement is a build-up of red, thickened areas with a scaly appearance.
The most commonly affected areas are the scalp, elbows, knees and back. These plaques are often dry
and non-pliable areas on the skin that can be a source of pain and/or discomfort to affected individuals.
Moisturization of these areas may provide some relief by increasing hydration.


S. Louth; FP0079 PHYSIOGEL INTENSIVE - A NEW, EFFECTIVE MOISTURISING
AGENT; Abstract; EADV Paris 09/2008;
Background: Studies showing an increase in transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and a decrease in
water-binding properties in atopic dry skin suggest that the skin barrier function is compromised in
patients with atopic dermatitis. These studies also suggest that the judicious use of effective
moisturisers can improve the epidermal barrier function.
Objectives: As part of an assessment program for a new and innovative moisturiser (Physiogel
Intensive), the efficacy of Physiogel Intensive as a skin barrier and moisturizer was evaluated.



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166
S. Davoudi, B. Sadr, A. Firooz, S. Keshavarz, M. Naghizadeh; FP0444 COMPARATIVE STUDY
OF SKIN SEBUM AND ELASTICITY LEVEL IN PATIENTS WITH SULFUR MUSTARD-
INDUCED DERMATITIS AND HEALTHY CONTROLS; Abstract; EADV Paris 09/2008
Background: Sulfur mustard a chemical agent- has numerous proven acute and chronic effects on
skin. Xerosis which might be due to damage of hydrolipidic barrier of skin is the most common
complaint of veterans. Objective: This study was designed to evaluate skin sebum and elasticity in
veterans with a history of sulfur mustard contact.



Firooz, S. Davoudi, B. Sadr, S. Keshavarz, M. Naghizadeh; FP0446 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF
SKIN HYDRATION AND TRANSEPIDERMAL WATER LOSS IN PATIENTS WITH
SULFUR MUSTARD-INDUCED DERMATITIS AND NORMAL CONTROLS; Abstract;
EADV Paris 09/2008;
Background: Skin lesions are among the most common chronic side effects of sulfur mustard
intoxication. Objectives: We conducted this comparative study to evaluate skin hydration and trans-
epidermal water loss (TEWL) in patients with sulfur mustard-induced dermatitis.


B. Sadr, S. Davoudi, A. Firooz, S. Keshavarz, M. Shohrati, M. Naghizadeh; FP0466 COMPARISON
OF ERYTHEMA AND MELANIN LEVEL IN SULFUR MUSTARD INDUCED CHRONIC
SKIN LESION WITH NORMAL SKIN; Abstract; EADV Paris 09/2008;
Background: Sulfur mustard gas is a chemical agent that has been used in many wars, especially in
Iran-Iraq war. This chemical agent affects many organs including lungs, eyes and skin and causes
numerous acute and chronic lesions including erythema and hyperpigmentation, respectively.
Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate erythema and melanin in subjects with a history of
exposure to sulfur mustard.


M. Chang, J. Han, C. Lee, S. Kim; FP0395 THE SURFACE PROFILES OF LIP
CORNEOCYTES ARE DIFFERENT FROM FACE AND ARM SKIN; Abstract; EADV Paris
09/2008;
A novel approach about the surface characteristics of corneocytes has been studied by atomic force
microscope(AFM) nowadays. The physical properties of lip skin is very particular compared to normal
skin, face and arm. But there are little studies about the lip skin. In this study, we have studied the
characteristics of surface profiles of lip skin, and we have compared lip to face and arm skin.



J. Vokurkova, H. Buckova, P. Sin; FP1585 TREATMENT OF GIANT CONGENITAL
MELANOCYTIC NEVI AND CUTOMETRIC MEASUREMENT OF THE SKIN
VISCOELASTICITY AFTER REPEATED EXPANSIONS AND SURGERY; Abstract; EADV
Paris 09/2008
Introduction: All types of surgical procedures _ neonatal dermabrasion, parcial excisions, expansion
and reexpansion of skin flaps etc. are used in children with diagnosis a Giant Congenital Melanocytic
Nevi. Scar maturation after a surgery and especially after a transfer of expanded flap has its biological
rules. However, it differs in individual patients in as much as one year. For objective examination of
scar maturity and evaluation of its elasticity, it is possible to apply measurement with the Cutometer
device. According to the measurement results, an algorithm may be evaluated for individual surgical
procedures and especially for the best timing of re-expansion or if to continue in dermabrasion
method.



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167
J. An, K. Kim, H. Eun; FP0710 THE EFFICACY OF LIPOSOME ENCAPSULATED 0.5% 5-
ALA FOR THE TREATMENT OF ACNE IN ASIAN SKIN; Abstract; EADV Paris 09/2008;
Background and objectives Photodynamic therapy using topical 5 aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) has
been proposed as a treatment option in acne vulgaris, but at least 48-hour sun avoidance after
treatment was strongly recommended due to the risk of post-treatment photosensitivity. Recently,
lower concentration form of 5-ALA was introduced to minimize the risk. The aim of this study was to
evaluate the efficacy and safety of liposome encapsulated 0.5% of 5-ALA (PhotoSpray,DDD,
Denmark) in photodynamic therapy of inflammatory acne and its effects on sebum secretion in Asian
skin




J. Nasarre, G. De la Cruz, M. Len, M. Espadas, C. Trulls; FP0030 EFFECTIVENESS OF A
CLEANSING GEL AND A CREAM GEL CONTAINING ZINCAMIDA AS ADJUVANT
TREATMENT AND AS SINGLE TREATMENT FOR INFLAMMATORY ACNE; Abstract;
EADV Paris 09/2008
BACKGROUND. The appearance of bacterial resistance to antibiotic treatment for acne presents a
serious problem. Using combined therapies, or alternating treatment with other anti-bacterial and anti-
inflammatory products that do not induce bacteria resistance, such as zincamida may offer a
solution.
OBJECTIVES. To assess the effectiveness of a cleansing gel and a gel cream containing zincamida
as adjuvant treatment and as an alternative treatment to antibiotics in the resolution of inflammatory
acne.


C. Huh, M. Choi, S. Lee, S. Kim, Y. Park, B. Kim, H. Park, S. Choi, S. Youn,K. Park; FP0723 Low
dose 1064nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser for the treatment of melasma; Abstract; EADV Paris
09/2008;
Background : Melasma is a common acquired pigmentary disorder that is known for its recalcitrance
to the conventional treatment. Although Q-switched Nd:YAG laser(QSNYL) is widely used for the
treatmemt of melasma, little has been published regarding its effect.
Objectives: In this study, we would like to know the effect of low dose 1064nm QSNYL(MedLite C6,
HOYA Conbio, CA) on the treatment of melasma objectively.




H. Tronnier, M. Wiebusch, U. Heinrich; FP0374 SKIN PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN
SPACE - RESULTS OF THE EUROPEAN LONG-TERM MISSION IN THE ISS
(ASTROLAB); Abstract; EADV Paris 09/2008;
Background: Since in weightlessness many astronauts report skin problems like dryness, itching,
tendency to get injured, impaired wound healing etc., a Skin Care program was initiated for the
ASTROLAB Mission of ESA (European Space Agency). It was carried out by a consortium with
different tasks. Methods: In a non-invasive skin-physiological test program, the following
measurements were recorded:
1. The effect of a skin care treatment and
2. Further effects of weightlessness on the skin.




A.Fourtanier, B. Ladan, C. Camus, N. Dami, V. Delvigne, R. Bazin, M. Hughes, A. Green;
COMPARISON OF FACIAL SKIN PARAMETERS IN CAUCASIAN AUSTRALIAN AND
EUROPEAN WOMEN; Abstract; EADV Paris 09/2008
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168
The aim of this study was to compare two Caucasian female populations aged 40 to 69 years with very
different lifestyles and cosmetic habits: one (n= 67) living in a temperate climate in Europe (Paris 55
N); the other (n= 80), living in subtropical Australia (Nambour, 26 S). Using a patented proprietary
skin evaluation tool (Diagns Expert ) in each location, we compared the skin properties of women
classified into three age groups : 40 to 49, 50 to 59, 60 to 69. This tool combines several techniques
including a capacitance method (Corneometer) for hydration and a suction method (Cutometer)for
assessment of mechanical properties. The greatest wrinkle-depth , the intensity of the darkest
pigmented spot (selected clinically) and sebaceous activity were measured on images acquired by
camera with an adapted magnification (x10 and x60) and analyzed by a specific software.




V. Delvigne, C. Camus, M. Isono, G. Yang, M. Daveno, D. Amar2, B. Lavaud, C. Hoang Van Chu, V.
Delvigne, R. Bazin; FP0207 COMPARISON OF SKIN PROPERTIES IN VARIOUS
POPULATIONS USING A NEW MULTI -CRITERIA MEASURING DEVICE; Abstract;
EADV Paris 09/2008;
Purpose of the study: To assess a new testing battery device for evaluating skin condition in relation to
age and skin ethnicity and skin type.
Methods: Facial skin data have been recorded in female volunteers by the same operator in 5
different countries from December 2003 to April 2004. Study volunteers included various ethnic skin
types i.e. caucasian (Paris, France), hispanic (Mexico city, Mexico), asian (Tokyo, Japan and Hong-
Kong, China) and African American (Chicago, USA). At least one hundred women per city were
involved and split into 4 natures of skin (normal, dry , oily and combined) and 5 age groups (20- 29
years, 30 - 39 years, 40 -49 years, 50 -59 years and over 60 years).


U. Heinrich, B. Garbe, H. Tronnier, W. Stahl, C. Moore, M. J. Arnaud; FP0324
SUPPLEMENTATION WITH GREEN TEA EXTRACT IMPROVES SKIN
PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS; Abstract; EADV Paris 09/2008;
Background: The objective of the study was to determine changes in skin parameters during the intake
of a beverage rich in green tea extract. The detection of hydration properties, transepidermal water loss
(TEWL), changes of skin surface (SELS), skin elasticity, skin thickness and density as well as serum
analyses were determined during the study.
Methods: Hydration measurements were carried out with the Corneometer CM 825 prior to and during
the study. Transepidermal water loss (barrier function of the skin) was measured with the Tewameter,
skin surface (SELS) with the Visioscan and skin elasticity with the Cutometer (Courage & Khazaka
Electronics, Cologne, Germany).


R. M. Debowska, A. Dzwigalowska, M. Szubert, K. Rogiewicz, I. Eris, B. Pander; FP0313
EFFICACY EVALUATION OF RE-MODELLING FACE CARE PRODUCT; Abstract; EADV
Paris 09/2008
Background: Skin ageing is an important and interesting topic of study. It results from the
combination of intrinsic ageing and photoageing, which is due to the environmental influence. The
cosmetic industry creates and develops for the ageing population constantly improving products.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo efficacy and beneficial effects of
application of the re-modelling face cream containing an anti-wrinkle peptide, vitamin E, proteins from
sweet almonds and peach oil.


B. Renault, C. Tricaud, D. Moyal, L. Q. Nguyen, B. Boussouira, M. D. Pham, A. Potter, C. Baltenneck,
A. Minondo; FP0362 EFFECTS OF DAILY UVR ON STRATUM CORNEUM: BIOPHYSICAL
PROPERTIES, MORPHOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL MARKERS; Abstract; EADV Paris
09/2008
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Background: Exposure to UV light induces damages in the skin and accounts for most of
ageassociated changes in appearance. Most of the studies involve the UV SSR (Solar Simulated
Radiation) corresponding to short term Zenithal exposure conditions. But most of the time, the skin is
exposed to UV corresponding to non zenithal conditions.
Objective: To evaluate the damage to the living epidermal layers induced, in a rather short term, by an
exposure regimen mimicking non zenithal daily exposure, by measuring the changes in biophysical
properties, morphological and biochemical markers of the stratum corneum.


A. Reich, J. Kopyra, K. Korfanty, E. Piro, K. Postrzech; FP0302 INFLUENCE OF SOAPS ON
EPIDERMIS BARRIER; Abstract; EADV Paris 09/2008
Background: Washing the body is the human's basic need. However, soaps, one of the most often used
washing products, can damage epidermic barrier and disturb the protective function of the skin.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of three different soaps on
epidermis moisture and transepidermal water loss (TEWL).


L. E. Coln, L. A. Johnson, T. J. Stephens, R. L. Rizer, E. Baltas; FP0379 HYDRATION AND
IRRITATION POTENTIAL OF A NEW MOISTURIZER FOR USE IN PATIENTS WITH
VERY DRY SKIN; Abstract; EADV Paris 09/2008;
Many dermatologists maintain that good skin care is an important part of any treatment regimen and
also important in maintaining good dermatological health. The gentleness of a family of products
(Galderma Laboratories, L.P., Fort Worth, TX) has been a hallmark over several decades and is the
primary reason why many physicians trust these products for their patients with compromised skin.


R. M. Debowska, B. Tyszczuk, J. Zielinska, K. Rogiewicz, I. Eris, B. Pander; FP0312 THE EFFECTS
OF AN ANTI-AGEING BODY CARE PRODUCT, CONTAINING ANTI-WRINKLE
PEPTIDE, REPAIRING ENZYMES AND PLANT WAXES; Abstract; EADV Paris 09/2008;
Background: Aging is an inevitable process which concerns every organ of our body, including the
skin. Every day our skin is exposed to external factors. They influence the skins condition and its
appearance. Many women concern themselves mainly with the skin on the face and neck. However,
they forget about the rest of their body skin, which undergoes aging as well and thus also needs
suitable care.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo efficacy and beneficial effects of
application of the body cream containing an anti-wrinkle peptide, repair enzymes, and olive, bee,
cocoa and mango wax.



F. Rippke, A. Filbry, S. Hiddemann, U. Koop, S. Jaspers, A. Knot2, C., Mummert, U. Scherdin, M.
Moers-Carpi, A. Buerger; FP0316 A MULTI-PRONGED TOPICAL ANTI-AGEING APPROACH
USING PLANT-DERIVED ARCTIIN AND OLIGOPEPTIDES IMPROVES SIGNS OF ADVANCED
SKIN AGEING; Abstract; EADV Paris 09/2008;
Background: Ageing of the skin gives rise to a number of characteristic modifications of its structures
and functions. Namely after menopause, atrophic alterations are accelerating due to marked hormonal
changes, resulting in skin conditions affected by wrinkles, impaired skin regeneration, and loss of
elasticity and density. Only recently, specific extracts from burdock seeds and anise fruits have been
identified as potent active ingredients for topical anti-ageing preparations. In our studies we set out to
investigate the effects of two emulsions containing these actives on parameters of skin aging
employing biophysical in vivo and ex vivo techniques.



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T. Chen, T. J. Stephens, J. H. Herndon, F. Forster, Y. Appa; FP0005 SKIN CLEARING BENEFITS OF
A CLAY-BASED CLEANSER MASK CONTAINING SALICYLIC ACID AND A NOVEL
MICROGEL COMPLEX; Abstract; EADV Paris 09/2008;
The ease and simplicity of being able to use an acne cleanser on a daily basis to treat and control acne
is highly desirable for many acne sufferers. A daily acne cleanser with salicylic acid that can also be
used as a mask further provides the additional benefits of softness, freshness and deep pore cleanliness
that are much sought by people with acne prone skin. This dual purpose cleanser mask is now
upgraded with a novel microgel complex that contains an antimicrobial, sebum dissolvers and skin
conditioning agents.


S. Gardinier, J. Latreille, C. Guinot, E. Tschachler; FP0318 THE SKIN HYDRATION STATE AS
DETERMINED BY A SCORE BASED ON BIOPHYSICAL PARAMETERS AND RAMAN
SPECTROSCOPY DATA; Abstract; EADV Paris 09/2008;
The skin hydration state can be assessed by various instrumental methods, including conventional
measurements, e.g. capacitance, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and more sophisticated methods
like Raman spectroscopy. These techniques are considered complementary, as they investigate
different aspects of skin hydration. The objective of this study was to summarize and quantify in a
synthetic way the skin hydration state by a score based on biophysical parameters, as well as the
content of some skin components assessed by confocal Raman spectroscopy.



G. Lembo, S. Lembo, S. La Bella, V. Lo Conte, D. Martellotta, F. Ayala; FP0881 IN VIVO
EVALUATION METHOD OF BARRIER CREAMS PROTECTIVE EFFECT; Abstract;
EADV Paris 09/2008;
Theoretically, skin barrier creams reduce or even prevent the penetration into the skin by building up a
physical barrier, like a thin film, between the skin and the toxic substance. Practically, controversial
experiences concerning the effectiveness of barrier creams exist.
For this, we propose an in vivo method to evaluate the efficacy of barrier creams trough clinical and
instrumental analysis.



A. M. Matta, L. Lefeuvre, A. Gougerot; FP0344 CLINICAL BENEFIT OF AN ALGAE
POLYURONIDES RICH EMULSION IN THE MANAGEMENT OF DRY TO VERY DRY
SENSITIVE SKIN; Abstract; EADV Paris 09/2008;
Background: Patients with sensitive skin experience a disturbance of the protective skin barrier
function and develop exaggerated reactions than normal skin. The use of specific skincare products
designed to restore skin barrier and to prevent neurogenic inflammation are useful to manage skin
over-reactivity.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy, tolerance and acceptability of a O/W rich
emulsion containing algae polyuronides associated with Uriage thermal water in comparison with a
reference skincare product (O/W rich emulsion with low mineral water content) in subjects with
sensitive skin.



A. Porcheron, R. Jdid, O. Nageotte, C. Guinot, E. Tschachler, F. Morizot; FP0359 DAILY USE OF
A SKIN MOISTURIZER IMPROVES TACTILE SENSATIONS MEDIATED BY ABETA
FIBRES; Abstract; EADV Paris 09/2008;
Introduction: The diminution of skin perception and skin innervation with age has been largely
described. All kind of qualities are concerned: thermal sensations as well as tactile sensations. A
diminution of sensory innervation also occurs with age. Our objective was to investigate whether a
daily topical application of a moisturizer could modulate Abeta,, Adelta and C fibers involved in skin
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sensations. For the present study, we investigated the current perception thresholds (CPT) of the three
types of cutaneous nerve fibers with a method commonly used in the detection of early steps of
neuropathic disorders.






Diana Khazaka; Useful and practical advice for measuring TEWL and skin moisture with
Cornemeter and Tewameter; Vortrag, PPP; CHI 2008, Bitec Bangkok;
The presentation gives an overview about the measurement of the barrier function and hydration of the
skin with worldwide standard devices. The history of those techniques as well as the benefits and
pitfalls are described. Multi centric studies which have been performed in this field to show accuracy
of the instruments and between different instruments and new approaches, as the recent use of this
technology in space or measurements of hydration in different depth of the skin and field devices for
consumer tests for laboratories are presented. New methods to look at porphyrines on the skin surface,
to measure skin color and skin gloss and methods to access the deep lines (e.g. crows feet) with a
camera and oblique light are explained in the session.

Di Qu, Ph. D., Chris J. Masotti, and G. Paul Seehra, Ph. D.; Novel Cutometer Analysis for Evaluation of
Skin Viscoelastic Properties/ Nouveaux Paramtres pour lEvaluation des Proprits
Viscolastiques de la Peau ; SFIC 2008 (Kongress in Monaco) (Poster, engl. + franz.);
Quantitative evaluation of biomechanical properties of human skin in vivo is the subject of continuous
investigation [1,2]. The Cutometer (Courage & Khazaka) has been frequently used to measure the
mechanical properties of skin Conventionally with this instrument, skin viscoelastic properties are
defined by many linear parameters (Uf, Ue, Uv, Ur, and Ua) from a typical mode 1 measurement of
the Cutometer. The ratios of those U values, particularly Ue/Uf (overall elasticity), Ur/Uf (pure
elasticity), and Ur/Ue (elastic-viscous ratio), are frequently reported [3,4,5]. In our extensive studies
using the Cutometer we have noticed significant variability of those U parameters leading to
inconsistent results.


Dorothee Brkle; Die Haut der Astronauten- Erstes kommerzielles ISS-Experiment aus NRW;
http://www.wdr.de/themen/wissen/astronomie/blick_ins_all/raumfahrt/060701.jhtml
Auf der Raumstation ISS, zu der Thomas Reiter am 1. Juli startet, wird er viele Experimente
durchfhren. Mit seiner eigenen Haut wird er fr den ersten Versuch herhalten, den Unternehmen aus
NRW in Auftrag gegeben haben.
Wie viele Falten whrend seines sechs Monate langen Aufenthalts auf der Internationalen Raumstation
ISS dazugekommen sind, wird Thomas Reiter am Ende ganz genau wissen. Alle zwei Wochen holt der
deutsche Astronaut einige Messgerte aus den Regalen der Raumstation, testet damit den
Wasserverlust seiner Haut und kontrolliert, ob neue Fltchen dazugekommen sind.


Firooz A., Gorouhi F., Davari P., Hekmat S., Atarod M., Rashighi Firoozabadi M., Solhpour A.;
Comparison of hydration, sebum and pH values in clinically normal skin of patients with atopic
dermatitis and healthy controls; Clinical and Experimental Dermatology 2007; 32, S.321-322;
The water content of the stratum corneum and skin surface lipids forms a balance that is important for
the appearance and function of the skin. An impaired balance may lead to the clinical manifestations
known as dry skin, which is particularly seen in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD).


Davari, Parastoo; Gorouhi, Farzam; Jafarian, Sirous; Dowlati, Yahya; Firooz, Alireza;
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A randomized investigator-blind trial of different passes of microdermabrasion therapy and
their effects on skin biophysical characteristics; International Journal of Dermatology,Volume
47, Number 5, May 2008 , pp. 508-513(6)
Background: Microdermabrasion (MDA) is a safe, simple, and beneficial technique for superficial skin
resurfacing. Despite its popular usage, few studies have assessed the efficacy of different MDA
protocols applied at the present time.
Objectives: To assess the effects of MDA generally, as well as to compare the effects of two vs. three
passes of MDA in each session for a total number of six therapeutic sessions on skin biophysical
characteristics.

Farsinejad K, Firooz A, Davoudi S, Robati R, Hoseini M, Ehsani A, Sadr B.; Biophysical
characteristics of skin in diabetes: a controlled study; Department of Dermatology, Razi Hospital,
University of Tehran/Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Background: Cutaneous complications are common in diabetes. Previous assays suggest that
hyperglycemia and decreased insulin signal are involved in the impairment of skin function. The aim
of this study was to evaluate the biophysical characteristics of skin in patients with diabetes mellitus
and compares them with healthy non-diabetic controls.
Objective: To measure biophysical characteristic of skin including transepidermal water loss (TEWL),
water content, sebum and skin elasticity in patients with diabetes mellitus and compare them with
healthy non-diabetic controls.


Permamed, Prof. Dr. med. P. Humbert, Besancon 2008; Klinische Anti-Aging-Studie;
In einer monozentrischen klinischen Studie wurde die Anti-Aging-Wirkung von Lubex anti-age ber
drei Monate bei Frauen im Alter zwischen 45 und 60 Jahren mit mittelstark lichtgealterter Haut im
Gesicht und Dcollet geprft und belegt. Als Grundlage wurden hautphysiologische Messungen
durchgefhrt, das Hautbild wurde fotografisch dokumentiert und durch Dermatologen im
Doppelblindverfahren bewertet.


J. Dissemond; pH-Wert und chronische Wunden; derm (14) 2008, S. 486-490
Der pH-Wert beschreibt logarithmisch die reziproke Konzentration von freien Wasserstoffionen und
ist somit ein Ma fr die Strke der sauren bez. basischen Wirkung einer wssrigen Lsung. Der
Begriff pH-Wert leitet sich von den lateinischen Wrtern potentia (Kraft) und hydrogenium
(Wasserstoff) ab.
Die Skala der pH-Werte reicht von 0 bis 14, wobei der Mittelwert von 7 als neutral bezeichnet wird.


Johann W. Wiechers, PhD; Formulating at pH 4-5: How Lower pH Benefits the Skin and
Formulations; Cosmetics and Toiletries magazine; Vol. 123, No. 12/December 2008;
Most skin products are formulated around pH 6 but the latest research in skin biology suggests the
skin is significantly more acidic around 4,7. Here, the author shows how formulating for this natural
pH can enhance the skin penetration of actives, reduce the amount of preservatives required, and
increase chemical stability.


Luigi Rigano, Mauro Pleardo, Elena Pini et al; Novel Retinol-like Actives from Parrot Feathers;
IFSCC magazine vol. 11, no 4 / 2008
Several classes of pigments are responsible for coloration in birds. Melanin pigments most commonly
appear in bird feathers and bare parts. They impart black, brown and chestnut hues. Carotenoids are a
second group of coloring biochemicals in birds. These two types of pigment-based coloration are
found in nearly every order of extant birds. In contrast, parrots harbor bright-colored pigments in their
feathers, which have different structures.


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173
Hristo Dobrev Clinical and instrumental study of the efficacy of a new sebum control cream;
Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, 6; 113-118;
Some botanical compounds are considered useful to reduce sebum production. To evaluate the
efficacy of a sebum control cream containing polyphenol-rich extract from saw palmetto, sesame
seeds, and argan oil in subjects with oily facial skin. The study was carried out during the winter
months (January and February).




Hristo Dobrev Treatment of acne with a new topical product. A clinical and instrumental study.
www.teknoscienze.com; submitted to the Journal Household and Personal Care Today;
We studied the efficacy of a new topical product containing a combination of lipoaminoacid capryloyl
glycine, sarcosinde, and Cinnamon zeylanicum bark extract in 19 subjects with mild to moderate acne
after twice daily application for a 7-week treatment period. Determination of efficacy included clinical
assessment using acne lesion counting and desease severity scoring, bioengineering measurements of
sebum on the facial skin using a photometric device and sebum collector foils.


Catarina Rosado, Pedro Pinto, Luis Monteiro Rodrigues; Assessment of moisturizers and barrier
function restoration using dynamic methods, Skin Research and Technology 2009; 15: pp. 77-83;
Dynamic methods, such as the mathematical modelling of the transepidermal water loss curves that
result from a a plastic occlusion stress test (POST), enable the complete characterization of the
dynamic water balance established between the deep and the superficial skin structures.


G. Boyer, L. Laquize, A. Le Bot, S. Laquize, H. Zahouani ; Dynamic indentation on human skin in
vivo : ageing effects; Skin Research and Technology 2009; 15, pp. 55-67
Knowledge of the mechanical properties of the human skin is very important for cosmetic and clinical
research. Objective and quantitative measurements are essential to compare studies performed by
different experimenters in different centres. The aim of this paper is to present a method to measure
the viscoelastic properties of human skin in vivo dynamic indentation. A complete device to assess the
stiffness and damping of skin has been developed.


Gianetti, A.; The european aesthetic guide, Autumn 2008, S. 43-50
As in previous years, the congress will be accompanied by a highly impressive industrial exhibition
featuring app. 300companies and a large poster display. Global laser and light technology
manufacturers, as well as companies from diagnostic, dermal filler, implant, pharmaceutical and
neutraceutical industries will use this opportunity to display product innovations and introduce new
clinical results.







H. Tronnier, M. Wiebusch, U. Heinrich; Project Skin Care of the European Long-Term Mission
(Astrolab) on the ISS; DermaTronnier, Research
Impairments due to circulatory and vestibular disturbances of the equilibrium are the prevalent medical
side effects astronauts suffer from. These are followed by the dermatological problems. In order to
examine these skin problems and find ways to prevent them, skin-physiological measurements as a
project Skin Care were carried out within the framework of the European long-term mission
(ASTROLAB) 2005-2007.


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174
C. Oresajo, M. Yatskayer, R. Rizer, S. Raab, Z. Draelos; A multicenter, controlled clinical study to
evaluate the efficacy and tolerance of an antioxidant composition containing vitamin C, ferulic
acid, and phloretin on photodamaged skin; JAAD, March 2009, San Francisco
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an antioxidant composition containing
vitamin C, ferulic acid, and phloretin in improving the visible signs of photodamaged skin. A 24-
week, multicenter, clinical study of 55 females 35 to 65 years of age with self-perceived sensitive skin,
mild to moderate periocular fine and coarse wrinkles, and mild to moderate hyperpigmentation on the
face and back of the hands were enrolled.


M. Lanctin, C. Bertin, F. Le Goff, P. Emilie, R. Roure ; A double-blind, placebo-controlled study to
assess the efficacy of a body cream containing a combination of tetrahydroxypropyl
ehtylenediamine, caffeine, carnitine and retinal; JAAD, March 2009, San Francisco
With aging, several changes occur in the skin. Skin firmness, hydration and uniformity are some of the
parameters that are modified. Moreover, cellulite is a common condition of womenss skin. Therefore,
it is useful to design a formulation which can moisturize the skin and increase its firmness while
reducing the brown spots and cellulite aspect.


J. Theunis, A.M. Schmitt, C. Beylot, M. Baspeyras, W. Zacaria; Comparative evaluation of the
efficacy of two treatment schedules of glycolic acid peels in facial photoaging; JAAD, March
2009, San Francisco
Alpha-hydroxy carboxylic acids (AHAs) are widely used in cosmetics industry. At high
concentrations, they reduce intercorneocyte cohesion, exfoliate the superficial layers of epidermis, and
are though to exert indirect action on dermis.They are proposed for the treatment of skin aging. The
aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of two schedules of glycolic acid peels on photoaging.


M. Ionescu, A. Gougerot, A.M. Matta, L. Lefeuvre, M. Bohbot; Melanocytes dendricity down-
regulated by the association niacinamide-ascorbic acid; JAAD, March 2009, San Francisco
To assess the effects of the association niacinamide-ascorbic acid on melanogenesis process in human
skin explants exposed to solar simulated radiation (SSR). Normal human skin explants were treated
(untreated control) by an O/W emulsion based on the assiciation niacinamide-ascorbic acis
(2mg/explant, 1 time per day from baseline to day 9, 30 min before SSR irradiation).


R. Wanitphakdeedecha, S. Eimpunth, W. Manuskiatti; The effects of tetrahydrocurcumin in curmin
cream on the hydration, elasticity, and color of human skin; JAAD, March 2009, San Francisco
An antioxidant used in cosmetic applications should have the capability to efficiently quench free
radicals on the surfact of the skin. Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) plays an important role in the
antioxidant mechanism resulting in the significant neutralization of free radicals in a dose-dependent
manner. Recent studies revealed the superior free radical scavenging ability of THC.



N. Trookman, E. ho, R. Ford, V. Gotz; Clinical efficacy and tolerance of a novel treatment serum
for photodamaged facial skin; JAAD, March 2009, San Francisco
Oxidative damage induced by environmental factors, such as chronic ultraviolet exposure, cotributes
to the process of photoaging and results in the formation of biochemical events which leads to
increased collagen degradation and the suppression of collagen synthesis. Clinical manifestations of
photodamage include a loss of skin elasticity and firmness, fine lines and wrinkles, and uneven skin
tone.


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175
M. Suero, D. Miller, M. Azriel, W. Wallo; Evaluating the effects of a body moisturizer with glycolic
acid on epidermal proliferation via flourescence excitation spectroscopy; JAAD, March 2009
In a clinical setting, patients with dry skin often present with flakiness as a result of a disrupted
desquamation process. The application of an exfoliating agent such as alfa-hydroxy acid (AHA) helps
promote desquamation by breaking the bonds between dead skin cells, thereby facilitating the removal
of flakes and allowing newer cells to emerge. Flourescence excitation spectroscopy allows for a
noninvasive means of determining the increase in the rate of cellular turnover via monitoring the
excitation band assigned to tryptophan, an established marker of epidermal proliferation.


G. Boyer, L. Laquize, A. Le Bot, S. Laquize, H. Zahouani ; Dynamic indentation on human skin in
vivo : ageing effects ; Skin Research and Technology 2009, 15; pp. 55-67
Knowledge of the mechanical properties of the human skin is very important for cosmetic and clinical
research. Objective and quantitative measurements are essential to compare studies performed by
different experimenters in different centres. The aim of this paper is to present a method to measure
the visco-elastic properties of human skin in vivo using dynamic indentation. A complete device to
assess the stiffness and damping of skin has been developed.


Catarina Rosado, Pedro Pinto, Luis Monteiro Rodrigues; Assessment of moisturizers and barrier
function restoration using dynamic methods; Skin Research and Technology 2009; 15; 77-83
Dynamic methods, such as the mathematical modelling of the transepidermal water loss curves that
result from a plastic occlusion stress test (POST), enable the complete characterization of the dynamic
water balance established between the deep and the superficial skin structures. Previous studies have
indicated that this methodology was able to detect impaired barrier function and differentiate normal
and dry skin. The objective of the present study is to apply the discriminative capacity of the model to
the efficacy testing of moisturizing products.


Motoko Murakami, Osamu Tanno, Hiroyuki Kurokawa; Evaluation of skin mechanical properties
by determining of resonant frequency and loss resistance with tactile sensor; Skin Research and
Technology No 1, Feb. 2009, pp. 125+126
To clarify the characteristics of resonance frequency change and loss resistance by determining the
mechanical properties of skin with a tactile sensor (Venustron Axiom Incl, Japan), which is a device
used to elucidate the mechanical characteristics of skin based on implementation of a resonance circuit
and piezoelectric oscillator. Thwo different experiments were performed with 30 healthy Japanese
males as subjects.







H. Maibach, Hongbo Zhai; Tape Stripping Method in Humans: Comparison of Evaporimetric
Methods; Cosmetics & Toiletries magaine, Vol. 124, No. 2, February 2009, pp. 26-30
The stratum corneum (SC) has been well recognized as a principal water barrier of the skin. It is a
cellular tissue, a fabric of cornified cells creating a tough, flexible, coherent membrane, acting as a
two-way barrier, minimizing water loss, electrolytes and other body constituents, and decreasing the
entry of noxious substances from the external environment. Maintenance of the SC structural integrity
is critical to barrier function. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) documents the integrity of SC water
barrier function, and is a sensitive indicator of skin water barrier alternation.


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176
Giancarlo Guglielmini; Disaccharide plus vegetable origin fraction boosts skin; Personal Care,
March 2009, pp. 79-80
Applying on the skin a functional substance containing a relevant amount of polysaccharide, vegetable
origin hydrolysed proteins and amino acids, creates better protection and hydration of the skin. This is
because it can allow the restoration of normal skin hydration, particularly where a physiological lack
of cutaneous factors is present in, for example, dry reddened and stressed skin with a tendency to
ageing. The novel compounds capability to recreate a natural state of hydration of the skin means it
can be considered as an innovative moisturising and lenitive cosmetic ingredient, particularly suitable
for delicate skin and hair.


Michle Wilker; Natural active ingredients from GfN & Selco; Euro Cosmetics 11/12-2008, pp. 23-
28
Today active ingredients for cosmetic formulations have very specific properties. At the same time we
recogniz a strongly increasing demand for natural ingredients in cosmetics which is prevailing during
the last years. You may find millions of active ingredients in nature. Time is over, when hydro
propylene glycolic extracts have been very commonly used in cosmetic formulations, being more a
marketing claim then a real efficacy.


J. Ivosevic-Zaper; KiOsmetine-CG 125 natrliche Biopolymere zur Pflege der anspruchsvollen
Haut; Euro Cosmetics 11/12-2008
Die belgische Firma Kitozyme, ein Spin-off der Universitt Lige, stellt nach 8-jhriger
Entwicklungszeit ein Biopolymer mit auergewhnlichen kosmetischen Eigenschaften der
Kosmetikindustrie zur Verfgung. Das Verfahren zur Produktion dieses Polymers nicht tierischen
Ursprungs wurde mit dem wallonischen Innovationspreis ausgezeichnet. Der Wirkstof KiOsmetine-
CG 125 ist ein natrliches Biopolymer, zusammengesetzt aus zwei kovalent gebundenen
Polysaccharidketten, dem Chitin und dem Beta-Glucan.


Shunpeng Song, Peter M. elias, Qinian Hou, Chengzhi Lv, Yuejun Shi, Kenneth R. Feingol, Mao-
Qiang Man, Decreased Cutaneous Resonance running time in Cured Leprosy Subjects; Dalian
Skin Disease hospital, Liaoning, China
Leprosy involves both the skin and peripheral neural tissue. In addition to neuropathy, cutaneous
abnormalities, such as decreased stratum corneum (SC) hydration, elevated skin surface pH,
hyperpigmentation and ulcerations, remain significant problems in cured leprosy. Moreover,
alternations in dermis have been reported in leprosy. Cutaneous Resonance running time (CRRT) is a
non-invasive apporoach to measure CRRT property, which is mainly influenced by collagen fibers in
dermis.

Stephen Bielfeldt, Volker Schoder, Ulrike Ely, Andr van der Pol, Johanna de Sterk, Klaus-Peter
Wilhelm; Assessment of Human Stratum Corneum Thickness and ist Barrier Properties by In
Vivo Confocal Raman Spectroscopy; IFSCC Magazine vol. 12, no 1 / 2009-05-15
Measurement of water concentration profiles across living human skin by confocal Raman
spectroscopy has developed into a powerful tool for a better understanding of distribution and function
of water in the epidermis. From the water profile across the epidermins the border between stratum
corneum and stratum granulosum can be estimated. This is due to the steep drop in water
concentration from the inner to the outer side of the stratum corneum.

S. Gong, C. Lv.. KR Feingold, X. Zhang, S. Xin, C. Tu, L. Dui, PM Elias, M. Man; Variation of skin
surface pH, sebum content and stratum corneum hydration with age and gender in Chinese
population; Journal of Investigative Dermatology (2009), Volume 129
Evidence suggests the importance of skin biophysical properties in predicting diseases and in
developing appropriate skin care. The results to date of studies on skin surface pH, stratum corneum
(SC) hydration, and sebum content in various gender and ages have been inconclusive in part due to
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small sample size. Additionally, little is known about skin physical properties of Asian, especially
Chinese, subjects.


K. Miyamoto, O. Kuwanzuru, N.Yoshikawa; Sudden skin appearance change in skin aging, skin
elasticity tipping model as a key indicator of the skin aging progression; Journal of investigative
Dermatology (2009), Volume 129
Understanding bio-elasticity of human tissues is important to maintain human health and wellness
including skin substrates against aging. It has been considered signs of skin aging are appeared
gradually, while we discovered sudden skin condition change occurred in the aging process. A new
skin elastic model was proposed as a new skin aging progression, by characterizing multilayered skin
physical properties.


S. Song, PM Elias, Q Hou, C Lv, Y Shi, KR Feingolg, M. Man; Decreased cutaneous resonance
running time in cured leprosy subjects; Journal of investigative Dermatology (2009), Volume 129
Leprosy involves both the skin and peripheral neural tissue. In addition to neuropathy, cutaneous
abnormalities, such as decreased stratum corneum (SC) Hydration, elevated skin surface pH,
hyperpigmentation, and ulcerations, remain significant problems in cured leprosy. Moreover,
alternations in dermis have been reported in leprosy.


Hristo Dobrev; Clinical and instrumental study of the efficacy of a new multi-action topical
product in acneic skin; Household and Personal Care TODAY, n1/2009
Many people suffer from oily, acne prone skin. This type of skin is characterized by increased oily
sevretion, greasy looking rough skin surface with dilated pores, comedones and tendency to
inflammation manifested by erythema, papules and pustules. It can be observed in both men and
women and often is a serious cosmetic problem. Oily skin and acne formation are related to the
overproduction of sebum and abnormal keratinisation of the sebaceous follicle epithelium stimulated
by male sex hormones (androgens)


Diana Khazaka, Christiane Uhl; More than 2 decades of bioengineering for efficacy testing and
product recommendation; Household and Personal Care TODAY, n1/2009,
Due to high competition in the cosmetic and growing customer expectations, in the past two decades
there has been a continuousdevelopment of new cosmetic products with more efficient ingredients
covering new effects on the skin. Simultaneously to this, there was an increasing demand for new
measuring techniques to substantiate the new product claims. The field of skin bioengineering has
consequently been immensely enriched in the last years by inventing new physical and optical
measurement methods for all kind of skin parameters.


Paul-Gunther Sator, JolantaB. Schmidt, Herbert Hnigsmann; Comparison of epidermal hydration
and skin surface lipids in healthy individuals and in patients with atopic dermatitis; J Am Acad
Dermatol, March 2003
The water content of the stratum corneum and the skin surface lipids form a balance that is important
for the appearance and function of the skin. Nevertheless, the water content of the stratum corneum
and the skin lipids, the water-binding substances from the hydro-lipid film of the skin, act together as a
barrier to the environment.


P.-G. Sator, J.B. Schmidt, M.O. Sator, J.C. Huber, H. Hnigsmann; The influence of hormone
replacement therapy on skin ageing. A pilot study; Maturitas 39 (2001) 43-55;
We studied the effect of hormonal treatment on skin ageing in menopausal women. Twenty-four
patients without hormone treatment for at least 6 months were included. Patients were assigned to
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three therapy groups: 1, oestrogen only 2. transdermal oestrogen and progesterone.One group without
therapy was included as a control group. Treatment was continued for 6 months. Three patients, one
from group 2 and two from group 3, discontinued therapy before the study endpoint. The following
skin parameters were measured at monthly intervals during treatment.


P.-G. Sator, J.B. Schmidt, H. Hnigsmann; Clinical Evidence of the Endocrinological Influence of
a Triphasic Oral Contraceptive Containing norgestimate and Ethinyl Estradiol in Treating
Women with Acne vulgaris; Dermatology 2003;206: 241-248
Acne vulgaris is a multifactorial inflammatory follicular skin disorder occuring in pilosebaceus units,
espacially on the face and the trunk. The major etiological factors are increased sebum production,
hypercornification of the pilosebaaceous duct, abnormal microbial flora and inflammation. There are
many different faces of acne. Acne and acneiform eruptions affect persons of all ages, beginning with
neonatal acne and progressing to include rosacea in older persons. Acne vulgaris is the most common
skin disorder, affecting close to 80% of people at least once between 11 and 30 years of age.


Bernadette nedelee, Jose A. Correa, Grazyna Rachelska, Alecis Armour, Leo LaSalle; Quantitative
Measurement of Hypertrophic Scar: Intrarater Reliability, Sensitivity, and Specificity; Journal
of Burn Care & Research May/June 2008
The comparison of scar evaluation over time requires measurement tools with acceptable intrarater
reliability and the ability to discriminate skin characteristics of interest. The objective of this study was
to evaluate the intrarater reliability and sensitivity and specificity of the Cutometer, the Mexameter
and the DermaScan C relative to the modified Vancouver Scar Scale (mVSS) in patient-matched
normal skin, normal scar (donor sites), and hypertrophic scar.


Bernadette nedelee, Jose A. Correa, Grazyna Rachelska, Alecis Armour, Leo LaSalle; Quantitative
Measurement of Hypertrophic Scar: Intrarater Reliability and Concurrent Validity; Journal of
Burn Care & Research May/June 2008
Research into the pathophysiology and treatment of hypertrophic scar (HSc) remains limited by the
heterogeneity of scar and the imprecision with which its severity is measured. The objective of this
study was to test the interrater reliability and concurrent validity of the Cutometer measurement of
elasticity, the Mexameter measurement of erythema and pigmentation, and total thickness measure of
the DermaScan C relative to the modified Vancouver Scar Scale (mVSS) in patient-matched normal
skin, normal scar, and HSc.

Masaki Yamaguchi, Yusuke Tahare, Teruhiko Makino, Tadamichi Shimizu, Akira Date; Comparison
of Cathepsin L activity in cheek and forearm stratum corneum in young female adults; Skin
Research and Technology 2009K; 15; 370-375
Noninvasive determination of skin surface proteolytic anctivity may be useful for the diagnosis of
human disease and the potential of skin. The cathepsin family is one of the metabolizing enzymes of
the skin cell and it includes aspartic protease cathepsin D and cysteine proteases cathepsin B, H, and
L. Cathepsin L is a lysosomal cysteine protease with a major role in intercellular protein catabolism.


Erhardt Proksch; Despanthenol-haltige Externa zur Pflege trockener Haut bei Diabetikern;
Kosmetische Medizin 6/2008
Die meisten Diabetiker leiden unter einer trockenen Haut und haben daher ein erhtes Risiko fr
Hautinfektionen. ber Rhagaden und andere Miktrotraumen knnen besonders an den Fssen
Bakterien in die Haut eindringen und zu einer tiefen Pyodermie und Ulzerationen fhren. Eine
konsequente Hautpflege hat nicht nur pflegenden Wert, sondern beugt auch ernst zu nehmenden
Hautschdigungen vor.


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Yuan-Hong Li, Yan Wu, Hua-chen Wie, Yuan-Yuan Xu, Li-Li Jia, Jing Chen, Xue-Song Yang, Guang-
Hui Dong, Xing-Hua Gao, Hong-Duo Chen; Protective effects of green tea extracts on photoaging
and photommunosuppression; Skin Research and Technology 2009; 15; 338-345
Itg is well known that solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) causes many detrimental events, e.g. sunburn,
immunosuppression, skin carcinogenesis as well as photoaging. Acute UVR results in epidermal
thickening and expression of proliferation and differentiation markers, such as Ki-67 and cytokeratins
(CK)-1, 6 (3, 4).


Martin Johannes Koehler, Anja Preller, Nadja Kindler, Peter Elsner, Karsten Knig, Rainer Bckle,
Martin Kaatz; Intrinsic, solar and sunbed-induced skin aging measured in vivo by multiphoton
laser tomography and biophysical methods; Skin Research and Technology 2009; 15; 357-363;
In aging skin, the decreasing dermal collagen content due to diminished collagen synthesis is
responsible for some of the clinically most evident signs of intrinsic aging skin such as thinning, loss
of elasticity and fine wrinkling. Extrinsic skin aging is mainly a consequence of cumulative ultraviolet
(UV) exposure of the skin, but can be accelerated my nicotine abuse and environmental hazardous
compounds.


D. De Paepe, E. Houben, R. Adam, J.-P. Hachem, D. Roseeuw, V. Rogiers ; Seasonal Effects on the
Nasolabial Skin Condition ; Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2009; 22: 8-14
In the present work, nasolabial skin condition and the influence of seasonal changes during autumn
and winter were studied in 16 healthy female volunteers. Apart from visual scoring of erythema and
skin scaliness, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin hydration, apparent skin pH, skin colour and
skin desquamation were biophysically measured. The study results showed that nasolabial TEWL was
significantly higher during wintertime than in autumn.


Daniel Schmid, Esther Belser, Fred Zlli; An Herbal Blend for Antiaging Effects: TCM in
Personal Care; Cosmetics and Toiletries; Vol. 124, No. 1/January 2009;
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a holistic approach to healing that developed in China about
3,000 years ago and that typically includes therapies such as acupuncture, qigong exercises and herbal
medicine. It is highly respected as a means to treat skin disorders and is especially well perceived by
European and Eastern cultures. Believing in the efficacy of TCM, the authors collaborated with expert
Severin Bhlmann, PhD, to incorporate this approach into an herbal blend to treat dry, sensitive skin
that is prone to psoriasis.


David Boudier, Nathalie Guichard, Josselin Breugnot, Maud Le Guillou, Brigitte Closs; In vivo
Quantification of Corneocyte Lipids by Image Analysis; Cosmetics & Toiletries; Vol. 124,
No. 5/May 2009, pp. 84-92
The lipids of the stratum corneum (SC) are composed mainly of cholesterol, free fatty acids and
ceramides that are derived from the secretion of lamellar body (LB) contents at the stratum
granulosum/SC interface. This secretion process occurs immediately prior to loricrin cross-linking into
the cornified envelope (CE). One of the most important events in the homeostasis of the epidermis is
the acquisition of hydrophobicity by covalent attachment of these lipids ot the extracellular surface of
CE components.


David Boudier, Catherine Lenaers, Claire Sabbadini, Delphine Creel, Brigitte Closs; Certified
Organic Actives For Cosmetic Formulations; HAPPI, May 2009, pp. 70-77;
With more consumers interested in following a healthy and eco-conscous lifestyle, demand for natural
and organic beauty care products has grown tremendously in the past couple of years. Indeed, it is
more than a trend, consumers today expect their cosmetics to be natural. Silab has more than 20 years
of experience in the field of natural active ingredients. Most recently, we have developed a range of
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certified organic active ingredients that respond to the main cosmetic claims: anti-aging, anti-free
radicals, moisturizing and soothing.


Mike Farwick, Ursula Maczkiewitz, Peter Lersch, Tim Falla, Susanne Grether-Beck, Jean Krutmann;
An ECM-derived Tetrapeptide to Counterbalance ECM Degeneration; Cosmetics & Toiletries;
Vol. 124, No. 6/June 2009
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is the structural backbone of many tissues, especially the skin, and
represents a main target for cosmetic applications. ECM proteins are believed to play a pivotal role in
cellular migration, proliferation and gene regulation during wound healing. Fragments from ECM
constituents have been found capable of stimulating ECM biosynthesis to compensate for tissue
destruction. Their mechanisms have been implicated in wound healing, skin aging and skins response
to UV irradiation.


Johann W. Wiechers; Orthorhombic Phase Stabilization for Internal Occlusion: a New
Mechanism for Skin Moisturization; Cosmetics & Toiletries, Vol. 124, No. 6/June 2009, pp. 45
50;
In 1997, Wiechers introduced the concept of relative performance measurement to compare the
moisturization of several neat emollients. The capacitance of skin treated with test products was
measured by a corneometer and compared with glycerine-treated skin (defined as 100%) and untreated
skin (defined as 0%) at given intervals, normally 6 hr after application. As one might expect, this test
showed that all emollients were not the same in their capacity to moisturize skin.


Kristien De Paepe, Evelien De Rop, Evi Houben, Ralf Adam, Vera Rogiers; Effects of lotioned
disposable handkerchiefs on skin barrier recovery after tape stripping ; Skin Research and
Technology 2008; 14; 440-447
During an acute viral cold the skin of the nostrils and nasolabial area often becomes red and irritated.
Owing to a runny nose and frequent use of disposable handkerchiefs, the nasolabial skin area may
become quite painful. In order to find out whether the use of lotioned handkerchiefs could bring some
relive and might increase the personal comfort of the cold patient, a controlled forearm skin model was
designed to mimic the in use situation during a common cold.


Evi Houben, Ralf Adam, Jean-Pierre Hachem, Diane Roseeuw, Vera Rogiers, Kristien De Paepe;
Clinical scoring and biophysical evaluation of nasolabial skin barrier damage caused by
rhinorrhea; Contact Dermatitis 2008, 59; 296-300
Suffering from an acute viral cold caused by rhinoviruses or coronaviruses probably is the most
common illness known. A common cold usually is mild and self-limiting. Apart from an overall
discomfort, cold symptoms are sneezing, serous nasal secretion, and obstruction of nasal breathing
caused by the swelling and inflammation of the sinus membranes. These symptoms occur 2-3 days
after the infection and usually last for 7-10 days. In acute viral rhinitis, only the symptoms can be
treated and common over-the-counter medication for a cold may already be effective.


Ralf Adam, Baerbel Schnetz, Petra Mathey, Marc Pericoi, Y. de Prost; Clinical Demonstration of
Skin Mildness and Suitability for Sensitive Infant Skin of a New Baby Wipe; Pediatric
Dermatology 1-8; 2009;
Over the past decade, baby wipes have become established as leading cleansing devices for the diaper
area. Despite this fact, few publications have reported clinical data on the dermatologic effects of baby
wipes. Although basic performance requirements of a moist tissue, such as cleaning and removal of
fecal matter from the skin, are largely met by current products, modern baby wipes can address further
aspects of skin care in the diaper area via usage of effective cosmetic product application.

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D. Schmid, F. Suter, F. Zlli; Soothing Factor from Opuntia Cactus for Sensitive Skin; SFW-
Journal 131/11-2005, pp. 2-5;
Sensitive skin tends to be more susceptible to some environmental factors. People with sensitive skin
report exaggerated reactions such as redness, itching or rashes when their skin is in contact with
certain cosmetics, plants or fabrics, hot or cold, or insect bites. Normally, people with sensitive skin
show quicker an erythemal reaction against ultraviolet irradiation. Skin that is sensitive to sun,
typically shows allergic reactions, induced by ultraviolet radiation alone or in combination with
chemical ingredients in skin care products.


H. Seirafi, K. Farsinejad, A. Firooz, SM Davoudi, RM Robati, MS Hoseini, AH Ehsani, B Sadr;
Biophysical characteristics of skin in diabetes: a controlled study; JEADV 2009, 23, 146-149;
Cutaneous complications are common in diabetes, with approcimately 30% of patients experiencing
some skin involvement during the course of their illness; these may also be the first presenting sign of
diabetes or even herald the diagnosis by many years. The skin involvement in diabetes encompasses
various clinical entities such as acanthosis nigricans, necrobiosis lipoidica, diabetic dermopathy and
neuropathy, sclerodema and granuloma annulare.


Seyyed Masoud Davoudi, Saeed Keshavarz, Bardia Sadr, Majid Shohrati, Mohammad Mehdi
Naghizadeh, Khalil Farsinejad, Mehdi Rashighi-Firouzabadi, Hamed Zartab, Alireza Firooz; Skin
hydration and transepidermal water loss in patients with a history of sulphur mustard contact: a
case-control study, JEADV 2009, 23, 940-944
Sulfur mustard is a powerful vesicant (blistering agent) and a member of the heterogeneous group of
chemicals that are referred to as chemical warfare agents. This agent reacts with skin proteins,
degrading structure of both cells and underlying extracellular matrix. Sulfur mustard DNA adducts are
believedto be the most critical lesions.



D. Boudier, S. Mazalrey, S. Goffflo, E. Vignau, B. Closs; Double approach to improve epidermal
barrier function; Personal Care, September 2009
The primary function of the skin is to act as a barrier against unwanted influences from the
environment and to protect the body from waterloss. This barrier function is ensured mainly by the
stratum corneum, the upper layer of the epidermis. The stratum corneum comprises corneocytes,
which are keratinised keratinocytes, surrounded by lamellar lipid membranes. Thse lamellar lipids
play a fundamental role in the structure and functions of the epidermis. They cement the corneocytes
and with them form the permeabl barrier of the epidermis.


Alain Khaiat, Paula Belinski, Haim Lasser, Yoram Kamron, Unique technology for safe and
effective skin whitening; Personal Care, September 2009
Melanin, the dark pigment in the skin, is produced in the basal layer of the epidermis by specialized
cells, the melanicytes, and transported, following its complete formation, to the upper layers of the
epidermis where it enters into skin cells (keratinocytes) to give them their typical colour. Ageing-
associated accumulation of melanin in the upper layer of the skin is the main cause for pigmentation
disorders, which is observed in Asian skin as uneven hyperpigmentation at younger ages.


Nannay Schrer, Meike Bock; Lowering lesional surface pH in acne: A new treatment modality
for Herpifix; University of Osnabrck, Deparment of Dermatology;
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The acid skin surface pH has antimicrobial activities. Increased growth of Propionibacterium acnes
contributes to the pathogenesis of acne. Therefore, the pH of inflammatory acne lesions was
determined prior to and after lesional acidification employing Herpifix, a microphoretic system. The
pH was correlated with the number of acne lesions. A total of 30 volunteers with acne vulgaris
participated in this crossover study applying either Herpifix or a dummy to inflammatory lesions.


Sainhillier JM, Mac S, Tarrit C, Mermet P, Mougin D, Assessment of the Nourishing Effect of a Lip
Balm. Exploratory Study; Socit Skinexigence SAS CHU Saint Jacques, Besancon, France;
The main characteristics of the lips are their fragility and sensitivity to dryness and exposure to UV.
This phenomenon is an issue for many people, more specifically with the presence of chapped lips in
winter. The aim of this study was to objectivate and illustrate the nourishing effect off a lip balm in the
winter season (November to December 2008) after repeated applications during 28 days.


G. Sliwinski, A. Schneider, M. Schulz, M. Wolf, A. Fiolka, M. Meyer, H. Feussner, Z. Sliwinski, R.
Poll, c. Thiele; Physical Organ Phantoms for Training in Minimal Invasive Surgery (MIS); O.
Dssel and W.C. Schlegel, WC 2009, IFMBE Proceedings 25/VI, pp. 120-123, 2009;
In surgical training realistic phantoms of organs are necessary. Todays system only meet the
requirements of a simulation of a medical intervention very limited. As of now it is only possible to
learn the basis skills on such systems. Complicated and complex procedures have to be practised in
experiments on animls or under supervision on the patient. As of now the physical organ phantoms do
not display the requested features.


Krueger N., Luebberding S., Oltmer M, Streker M, Kerscher M.; Age Realted Changes in Skin
Mechanical Properties Quantitative Evaluation Of 120 Female Sugjects In A Trial With A
Strict Design; University of Hamburg, Department of Chemistry, Devision of Cosmetic Science
One of the most important functions of the skin is the protection against mechanical exposure. The
mechanical properties of the skin depend on the thickness and qualitative characteristics of the
epidermis, dermis and subcutis. During the aging process the tree layered skin system changes
strongly accompanied by changes in its mechanical properties, resulting in higher vulnerability and
other skin diseases.
Pauline D.H.M. Verhaegen, Evelien M. Res, Arna van Engelen, Esther Middelkoop, Pau van Zuijlen;
The Reviscometer: a reliable, non-invasive measurement tool for anisotropy in normal skin and
scar tissue; VU Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
There is an increasing need to perform non-invasive objective measurements of tissue anisotropy
(directional variations in viscoelasticity). Currently, no reliable measurement tool is available for
measurements of the anisotropy of the skin. A new measurement tool that may provide objective data
on tissue anisotropy is the Reviscometer, which measures the Resonance Runningg Time (RRT) by
transmitting an acoustic shock wave.


Dr. Laurent Sousselier, Caroline Camuzat; White biotechnology new source of ingredients;
Personal Care, September 2009, pp. 49-51
White biotechnology has been used for millennia for the preparation of bread and alcoholic drinks.
Sumerians had mastered alcoholic fermentation, for the manufacture of beer, 4,000 years AD.
Nowadays, white biotechnology is used for several applications. In the pharmaceutical sector it is used
for the production of antibiotics such as famous Penicillin, and it is used for for energy in bioethanol
production.





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J.F. Hermanns, L. Petit,O. Martalo C. Pirard-Franchimont, G. Cauwenbergh, G.E. Pirard;
Unraveling the Patterns of Subclinical Pheomelanin-Enriched Facial Hyperpigmentation: Effect
of Depigment