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Discussion:

1. What do you say if teachers ask you to gather and memorize information

from the Internet?

It would be hard for me because memorizing information from the internet

is quite difficult especially if it was never been discussed.

2. What do you say if the teacher himself/herself shows students that he/she

can most creatively construct multimedia learning packages, and students

just listen to his presentations?

It would be boring because it is teacher-centered. The learners are the

most important so they should also talk and appreciate the presentation.

3. Teachers are told not to use the computer as a Situating Tool if a pre-

school child, for example, can actually play-and build using actual Logo

blocks.

I do agree because a pre-school child will never understand the lesson for

it is hard for them to comprehend their learning so they should focus on

something physical and activities.

4. Situating tools can put users in Africa, the North Pole or the solar system.

How can interactive Situating Tool computer activity be fun and exciting

in these cases?
Seeing the solar system or the galaxy for them to see what is in there and

for them to explore what is beyond their imagination.


Discussion:

1. What can you say to the objection that an SCL environment can be noisy

and unwieldy?

I think it is more fun and memorable because letting the teacher talk for

the whole time is a bit ineffective and boring.

2. How can SCL be fun, memorable and healthy?

It lets a student express his/her opinion and let them enjoy learning

without feeling scared of the teacher.

3. Share discuss experiences on your e-mail activities.

4. Share/discuss experiences on Internet surfing.


Discussion:

1. Discuss the difference between peer competition and positive

interdependence in a group. Simply said, aren’t there debates in group

work?

The difference between peer competition and positive interdependence is

that the peer competition tends to have misunderstanding because they

would compete with each other’s idea and positive interdependence is

understanding each other’s point of view so it has a light atmosphere and

I prefer it than the peer competition.

2. What can be done in case some members of a group do not show positive

interpersonal and communication skills? Can the teacher help in this

situation?

They would fight for sure, and yes the teacher can help by explaining to

them that each other’s opinion is important and that they should respect

it.

3. Are skills in listening, negotiating, compromising, punctuality, tolerance

(giving others a chance to speak) part of the social skills needed in group

work?

Yes, for them to understand and communicate well with each other.
4. How can group members ensure that each member of the group is also

accountable for the group work, and not totally dependent on others? In

practical terms, how can the teacher grade individual students fairly in a

group activity for one single output?

Each student should have an assign task for the whole output. The tasks

should be divided fairly.

5. While cooperative learning is a very good avenue for teachers to help

students learn affectively, why is it not to be adopted in all classroom

learning situation?

The students may tend to be dependent to each other and it might cause

fight and misunderstanding.


Lesson 11: The Computer as the Teacher’s Tool

In the previous lesson, we saw how the computer can act as a tutor,

particularly along a behaviorist and cognitive approach to learning. But we also

saw how certain computer software programs have been developed to foster

higher thinking skills and creativity.

Introduction

In this lesson, we shall again look at the computer, but this time from

another perspective, the computer as the teacher’s handy-tool. It can in fact

support the constructivist and social constructivist paradigms of constructivist

learning.

Constructivist was introduced by Piaget (1981) and Bruner (1990). They

gave stress to knowledge discovery of new meaning/concepts/principles in the

learning process. Various strategies have been suggested to foster knowledge

discovery, among these, is making students engaged in gathering unorganized

information from which they can induce ideas and principles. Students are also

asked to apply discovered knowledge to new situations, a process for making

their knowledge applicable to real life situations.


While knowledge is constructed by the individual learner in

constructivism, knowledge can also be socially constructed. Social

constructivism. This is an effort to show that the construction of knowledge is

governed by social, historical and cultural contexts. In effect, this is to ay that

the learner who interprets knowledge has a predetermined point of view

according to the social perspectives of the community or society he lives in.

The psychologist Vygotsky stressed that learning is affected by social

influences. He therefore suggested the interactive process in learning. The more

capable adult (teacher or parent) or classmate can aid or complement what the

learner sees in a given class project. In addition, Dewey sees language as a

medium for social coordination and adaptation. For Dewey human learning is

really human languaging that occurs when students socially share, build and

agree upon meanings and knowledge.

Learning Framework Constructivism Social Constructivism

Assumption Knowledge is Knowledge is

constructed by the constructed within a

individual social context.

Definition of Learning Students build their own Students build

learning. knowledge influenced by

the social context.


Learning Strategies Gather unorganized Exchange and share

information to create form ideas, stimulates

new concept/principle thinking

General Orientation Personal discovery of Students discuss and

knowledge discover meanings

Example 8*5 – 8+8+8+8+8 Two alternative job offers

Option 1 – 8 hrs/day for

6 days/week

Option 2 – 9 hrs/day for

5 days/week

FIGURE 7 SUMMARY OF THE TWO LEARNING PERSPECTIVE

The Computer’s Capabilities

Given its present-day speed, flexibility and sophistication, the computer

can provide access to information, foster creative social knowledge building, and

enhance the communication of the achieved project package. Without the

computer, today’s learners may still be assuming the tedious task of low-level

information gathering, building and new knew knowledge packaging. But this is

not so, since the modern computer can help teacher-and-students to focus on

more high level cognitive tasks.

Based on the two learning theories, the teacher can employ the computer

as a/an:
· As an information tool

· A communication tool

· A constructive tool

· As co-constructive tool

· A situating tool

Informative tool

The computer can provide vast amounts of information in various forms,

such as text, graphics, sound and video. Even multimedia encyclopedias are

today available on the internet.

The internet itself provides and enormous database from which user can

access global information resources that includes the latest news, weather

forecasts, airline schedule, sports development, entertainment news and

features, as well as educational information directly useful to learners. The

internet on education can be sourced for kinds of educational resources on the

internet.

Along the constructivist point of view, it is not enough for learners to

download relevant information using the computer as an information tool.

Students can use gathered information for composition or presentation projects

as may be assigned by the teacher. Given the fact that the internet can serve as
a channel for global communication, the computer can very well be the key tool

for video teleconferencing sessions.

Constructive Tool

The computer itself can be used for manipulating information, visualizing

one’s understanding and building new knowledge. The Microsoft Word computer

program itself is a desktop publishing software that allows uses to organize and

present their ideas in attractive formats.

Co-constructive Tools

Students can use constructive tools to work cooperatively and construct

a shared understanding of new knowledge. On ways of co-constructive is the use

of the electronic whiteboard where students may post notices to a shared

document/whiteboard. Students may also co-edit the same document from their

homes.

The Computer-Supported International Learning Environments (CSILE)

is an example of an integrated environment developed by the Ontario Institute

for studied in Education. Within CSILE, students can enter their ideas in notes

and respond to each other’s ideas. Manifest in the student-generated database

are higher level thinking processes-explaining, problem solving/finding,

expertise and development, literacy improvement.


Situating Tool

By means of virtual reality (RS) extension systems, the computer can

create 3-D images on display to give the user the feeling that are situated in a

virtual environment. A flight simulation program is an example of situating tool

which places the user in a simulated flying environment.

Multi-User domains or Dungeons (MUDs) MUD Object Oriented (MOOs),

and Multi-User Shared hallucination (MUSHs) are example of situating systems

MUDs and MOOs are text-based virtual reality environments on the Internet.

When users log on to a MOO environment, they may interact with the virtual

reality (such as by writing on a notice board) through simple text based

commands. A school-to-school or classroom-to-classroom environment is

possible whereby the user can choose to talk around the campus, talk with other

users who are logged to the same site.

To caution users, the computer as a situating tool is news and still

undergoing further research and development.


Lesson 12: Information Technology in Support of Student-Centered

Learning Classroom

The Traditional Classroom

It may be observed that classroom are usually arranged with neat

columns and rows of student chairs, while the teacher stands in front of the

classroom or sits behind his desks. This situations is necessitated by the need

to maintain classroom discipline, also they allow the teachers to control

classroom activities through lecture presentation and teacher-led discussion.

Noticeably, however, after spending so many minutes in lesson

presentation and class management, students can get restless and fidgety. Often

enough, the teacher has to also mange misbehavior in class as students start to

talk among themselves or simply stare away in lack attention. To prevent this

situation, teachers often make students take time to work individually on

worksheets can help the situation.

Another option is now presented and this is adopting the idea of developing

students to be independent learners with the end of making them critical and

creative thinkers.

The SCL classroom


John Dewey described the traditional learning process in which the

teacher pours information to students learners, much like pouring water from a

jug into cups. This is based on the long accepted belief that the teacher must

perform his role of teaching so that learning can occur. This learning approach

is generally known as direct instruction, and it has worked well for obtaining

many kind of learning outcomes.

The problem with the direct instruction approach to learning, however,

is the fact that the world’s societies have began to change. Of course, this change

may not be strongly felt in many countries in which the economy longer depends

primarily on factory workers who do repetitive work without thinking on the job.

The traditional classroom and direct instruction approach to learning conform

to this kind of economies.

In contrast, industrialized societies we find knowledge based economies

in which workers depends on information that can be accessed through

information and communication technologies (ICTs). Desiring to gain

effectiveness, efficiency and economy in administration and instructions, schools

in these developed economies have also adopted the support of ICTs. Their

students have now become active not passive learners, who can interact with

other learners, demonstrating independence and self-awareness in the learning

process.

Generally the new school classroom environment is characterized by student

individually or in group:
· Performing computer word processing for text or graph presentation

· Preparing power-point presentation

· Searching for information on the internet

· Brainstorming on ideas, problems and project plans

· As needed, the teacher facilitating instruction, also giving individual

instruction to serve individual needs.

Observably, there is departure from traditional worksheet, read-and-

answer, and drill-and-practice activities. Students also no longer need to mark

the test of peers since the computer has programs for test evaluation and

computerized scoring of results.

Given this trend in teaching-and-learning, it must be pointed out, however, that

traditional classroom activities-especially in less developed countries-will

continue to have a strong place in the classroom. In spite of this setback

experienced in some countries, the option has now been opened for the modern

teacher to shift gears to students centered learning.


Lesson 13: Cooperative Learning with the Computer

Singapore has set the global pace for student-centered learning with a 2:1

(2 pupils with one computer) ratio in its masterplan for IT in Education. This

shows that even in other progressive countries, the 1:1 :pupil-computer ratio is

still an ideal to be achieved. Reality therefore dictates that schools face the fact

that each classroom, especially in public or government schools, may not be

equipped with the appropriate number of computers.

The creativity of the teacher will have to respond to the situation, and so

cooperative learning will likely be the answer to the implementation of IT

supported learning in our schools. But the situation may not be that bad since

there are motivational and social benefits to cooperative learning and these can

compensate for lack of hardware that educators face.

Defining cooperative learning

Cooperative or collaborative learning is learning by small groups of

students who work together in a common learning task. It is often also called

group learning but to be truly cooperative learning, 5 elements are needed:

1. A common goal

2. Interdependence
3. Interaction

4. Individual accountability

5. Social skills

Therefore not every group work is cooperative learning since students

working on their work sheets physically sat around a table may be working

together without these features of cooperative learning.

From several studies made on cooperative learning, it is manifested that

cooperative learning in its true sense is advantageous since it:

(a) Encourage active learning, while motivating students

(b) Increases academic performance

(c) Promotes literacy and language skills

(d) Improves teacher effectiveness

In addition, there are studies show that cooperative learning enhances

personal and social development among students of all ages, while enhancing

self-esteem and improving social relations between racially and culturally

different students.
Cooperative learning and the computer

Researchers have made studies on the learning interaction between the

student and the computer. The studies have great value since it has been a long

standing fear that the computer may foster student learning in isolation that

hinders the development of the student’s social skills.

Now this mythical fear has been contradicted by the studies which show

that when students work with computers in groups, they cluster and interact

with each other for advice and mutual help. And given the option to work

individually or in a group, the students generally wish to work together in

computer-based and non-computer-based activities. Reflecting on this

phenomenon, psychologists think the computer fosters this positive social

behavior due to the fact that it has a display monitor – just like a television set

– that is looked upon as something communal.

Therefore researchers agree that the computer is a fairly natural learning

vehicle for cooperative (at times called promotive) learning.

Components of cooperative learning


Educators are still wary about the computer’s role in cooperative

learning. Thus they pose the position that the use of computers do not

automatically result in cooperative learning. There therefore assign the teacher

several tasks in order to ensure collaborative learning. These are:

· Assigning students to mixed-ability teams

· Establishing positive interdependence

· Teaching cooperative social skills

· Insuring individual accountability, and

· Helping groups process information

These are in addition to assigning a common work goal in which each

member of the group will realize that their group will not succeed unless everyone

contributes to the groups’ success. It is also important for the teacher limits

learning group clusters (six is the ideal number in a group) so there can be closer

involvement in thinking and learning.