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ANNE MACDONALD

IN CLEAR WORDS
THE 35$6$11$3$', CHAPTER ONE

STERREICHISCHE AKADEMIE DER WISSENSCHAFTEN


PHILOSOPHISCH-HISTORISCHE KLASSE
SITZUNGSBERICHTE, 863. BAND

BEITRGE ZUR KULTUR- UND GEISTESGESCHICHTE ASIENS


NR. 86

STERREICHISCHE AKADEMIE DER WISSENSCHAFTEN


PHILOSOPHISCH-HISTORISCHE KLASSE
SITZUNGSBERICHTE, 863. BAND

In Clear Words
The3UDVDQQDSDG, Chapter One
Vol. II

Annotated Translation, Tibetan Text

Anne MacDonald

Vorgelegt von w. M. ERNST STEINKELLNER


in der Sitzung vom 24. Oktober 2014

Diese Publikation wurde einem anonymen, internationalen


Peer-Review-Verfahren unterzogen.
This publication has undergone the process of anonymous, international peer review.

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ISBN 978-3-7001-7673-2
Copyright 2015 by
sterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien
Druck und Bindung: Ferdinand Berger & Shne Ges.m.b.H., 3580 Horn
Printed and bound in the EU
http://hw.oeaw.ac.at/7673-2
http://verlag.oeaw.ac.at






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/-).'/$*)

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+-.))+#+/

-*)

 

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/-).'/$*)

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=T+N+/D=NHE>P@EBPM>FOGBPPR?O>KDPM>@H@I?NOJMO>QFGKRPO>Q>V>FS> (N
+<I?<GGJAOC@K<K@MH<IPN>MDKON<OO@NOPS>MO>QFGJQO>PO>Q>V>FS>HBS>I>J(N,
C<N=@@I>JMMPKO@?OJPS>MO>QFGK>D>VBMOMQ>V>FS> MO>QFGKRPO>Q>V>FS>DA
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@T@NFDKAMJH GNNOMJF@OJOC@NOMJF@>JI>GP?DIBJRCD>CR<NAJGGJR@?
=T<HDNM@<?DIBJAOC@>H>O>QO><NOC@>H>O>KR 


#JKFDIN  C<N>JMM@>OGTDIO@MKM@O@?+N+/D=N?A>DKVFAHELK>I>PIR
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JA ?@>@KODJI OJ =@ OC@ <MBPH@IO DON@GA RCD>C JA >JPMN@ OC@ H<N>PGDI@ >V>J <N +N+
.FON <B@IO JA OC@ <>ODJI KMJCD=DON FA>J RJPG? =@ M@LPDM@? AJM < M@A@M@I>@ OJ
PAE>K>J .@TAJMO-P@BB  ?J@NIJO@SKG<DIRCTC@DIO@MKM@ONPSQJK>J
BSV>HBS>I>SFP>SA>V>KOJH@<I<I?=@DIBDI>JIAGD>ODIM@NK@>OOJ6OC@O@MH8
PSQJ>K6AMJH8DON@GA 


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P??C<KGDO<N DIO@IODJI #DN NO<O@H@IO JA PIR<IO@? >JIN@LP@I>@ R<N H@M@GT
DIO@I?@? OJ NCJR JM <O G@<NO <GGP?@ OJ OC@ DI<=DGDOT JA OC@ .FCT<N <MBPH@IO OJ
KMJQ@PAE>KP>J>OQEV>CDNJRIOC@NDN 

+-.))+#+/

-*)



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OC<IFNOJ&@QDI1JN@AJM=MDIBDIBOC@>JHH@IOOJHT<OO@IODJI<I?AJMKMJQD?DIBH@
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G@NN K@MODI@IO /C@ >JIOM<?D>ODJI OJ =@ =MJPBCO JPO DN JA >JPMN@ IJO RDOCDI OC@
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CJG?ND @ OC@OC@NDNJA<MDNDIBAMJHN@GA 



/-).'/$*)

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NJH@OCDIB6<GM@<?T8@SDNODIB=T6DON8JRII<OPM@ /J@SKG<DI OCDNDN




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M@AM<DI@? AMJH M@>JINOMP>ODIB <I @LPDQ<G@IO AJM V>PJA BS> QBKLHQ>J  $O DN HJM@
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=JOCJAH<IPN>MDKONPN@?AJMOC@/D=@O<IOM<ING<ODJI $I=@DIB<KKMJKMD<O@?AMJHOC@
O@SO JA HN  AJM DIN@MODJI DIOJ , OC@ LP@NODJI <I? <INR@M JI>@ <B<DI <KK@<M <N
H<MBDI<G @I>GJN@? =@OR@@I SN <I? AJGGJR@? =T OC@ GDI@ IPH=@M OJ RCD>C OC@T
=@GJIB OC@T BDQ@ OC@ HDNG@<?DIB DHKM@NNDJI OC<O OC@T <M@ H@M@GT RJM?N OC<O R@M@
?MJKK@?=T,NN>MD=@=POG<O@M><PBCO=TCDHJMCDNKMJJAM@<?@M 


+N+/D=<??N<KM@>@?DIB@FFMEVFOWEBK><I@LPDQ<G@IOJARCD>CDNIJO<OO@NO@?
DI HN + JM DI OC@ K<K@M H<IPN>MDKON ?@ '< 1<GG@ +JPNNDI +N+'  <??N OJ CDN
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HN,I<H@GTHFHO>>J #JR@Q@M<NDIOC@><N@?@N>MD=@?DIOC@KM@>@?DIBIJO@
OC@ RJM?N HF HO>> AJGGJR@? =T OC@ >H>O> Q> C<Q@ =@@I RMDOO@I DI OC@ GJR@M
H<MBDI<I?<M@H<MF@?AJMDIN@MODJIOC@S<AO@MM>OJ>O>H<MFDIBOC@KJDIOJA

+-.))+#+/

-*)



OC@ @SKG<I<OJMT NO<O@H@IO SFS>O>>SHV> 6NP=N@LP@IOGT BDQ@I =T


P??C<KGDO<8 AJM OC<O >JI>DN@ NO<O@H@IO DO>E>>H>SHV> !JM
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DONH@<IDIB>G<MDAD@?RDOCMRK>O<I?Q>QDN@SKG<DI@?RDOCPSQJ>KSFAV>JKKJ 



/-).'/$*)

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RM>K>V> 



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+-.))+#+/

-*)



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 AA  !M<PR<GGI@M   '<MNJI <I? C<OO<>C<MT<    +PM@
>JIN>DJPNI@NN M@KM@N@IO<ODQ@ JA MROR> DN GDF@ MO>HQFIJO <I@QJGPO@ JA NJH@OCDIB
@GN@ >A  4    FE@BQ>K DR FQV BQ>Q MO>QFMA>VFVJ> Y V>@ @>
VBKO>?EV>QB Q>KJ>V> Q>A ?E>S>QF Y V>AF DR>F MRORJ O>J?E> PVQ QBJ
>MV>@BQ>K>QS>PVQY@BQ>KPQRQBYQ>PJKK>DR>FOO>?EV>KQ>FQFPFAAE>JBQ>Q 
JIN>DJPNI@NN C<N =@@I <??P>@? <N OC@ @S<HKG@ AJM CQDQ@F<N DI?@K@I?@IO
DIA@M@I>@ =@><PN@ BDQ@I OC<O OC@ (?CT<HDF<N <>>@KO >JIN>DJPNI@NN QDU SFGK>
JIOC@NPMA<>@G@Q@GJAM@<GDOTOCDN@S<HKG@RCD>CDN<>>@KO@?=TOC@.FCT<<I?
OC@(?CT<HDF<DI<B@I@M<GR<TD @ DMM@NK@>ODQ@JAOC@R<TDIRCD>COC@N>CJJGJA
@<>C ?@=<O@M NK@>DAD><GGT DIO@MKM@ON >JIN>DJPNI@NN APGADGGN OC@ M@LPDM@H@IO JA =@DIB
<>FIJRG@?B@?=T=JOCK<MOD@NN@@Q<GJFDO<QM<O<N>JHH@IONJIOCDN@S<HKG@<OI 
 

+-.))+#+/

-*)



AJM RC<O KPMKJN@ DN OC@ LP<GDAD><ODJI SFB>> PGODH<O@GT


M>O>JOQE>Q>@HKGJT@? 
b  $A 6CQDQ@F< N<TN DO DN @HKGJT@?8 =@><PN@ OC@ <MDNDIB
<>>@KO@? AMJHOC@KJDIOJAQD@RJAOC@RJMG?GTNPMA<>@6G@Q@G8DNIJO
=@DIBI@B<O@?<I?=@><PN@DA6OCDN<MDNDIBOCPN<>>@KO@?8R@M@?@ID@?
OC@M@ RJPG? M@NPGO 6OC@ GJBD><G A<PGO JA8 NP=G<ODJI 6JA OC@ OC@NDN8 =T


 !MJH OCDN KJDIO JI PK OJ +N+( a 6 +N+'  8 <I?M<FMOD >JIND?@MN <I?
M@E@>ONKJNND=G@M@NKJIN@NOJOC@LP@NODJIJAOC@KPMKJN@JAOC@LP<GDAD><ODJIM@G<ODQ@
OJDON?JH<DIJA<KKGD><ODJI 4JONPT<N  @GP>D?<ODJIJAOC@NOMP>OPM@JAOC@
O@SO DN RJMOCT JA M@DO@M<ODJI C@ KM@N@ION OC@ OCM@@ CTKJOC@OD><G <KKGD><ODJIN JA OC@
LP<GDAD><ODJI OCPN *I OCDN KJDIO OC@M@ <M@ OCM@@ @LK@BFS>?IB <GO@MI<ODQ@N  /C@
LP<GDAD><ODJI PGODH<O@GT DN <OO<>C@? OJ OC@ RCJG@ JA OC@ KMJKJNDODJI DHKGTDIB OC<O
@IODOD@NNP>C<NOC@DII@MN@IN@AD@G?N?JIJOJMDBDI<O@AMJHN@GA  /C@LP<GDAD><ODJI
PGODH<O@GT DN <OO<>C@? OJ OC@ RCJG@ JA OC@ KMJKJNDODJI @S>@KO OC@ RJM? PS>Q>
DHKGTDIB OC<O @IODOD@N NP>C <N OC@ DII@M N@IN@AD@G?N ?J IJO JMDBDI<O@    /C@
LP<GDAD><ODJIPGODH<O@GTDN<OO<>C@?JIGTOJOC@KMJ=<I?PHD @ IJIJMDBDI<ODJI$
JHDO 4JONPT<N N@>ODJI <I? NP=N@>ODJI IPH@M<GN  <I?M<FMOD >JIND?@MN OC@ ADMNO
<GO@MI<ODQ@ AJM OC@ LP<GDAD><ODJI OC<O DN M>O>JOQE>Q> <KKGD@? OJ OC@ @IODM@
KMJKJNDODJI RCD>C >JQ@MN OC@ N@>ODJI +N+( a @I? JA a +N+'     AMJH
=JOCOC@KJDIOJAQD@RJAKCDGJNJKC@MN+N+(a @I?JAa 6+N+'    8<I?
OC@ KJDIO JA QD@R JA JM?DI<MT K@MNJIN +N+( a @I? JA a 6+N+'  8 OC@
KCDGJNJKC@MN <??M@NN@? <M@ P??CDNON +N+( a @I? JA a   6+N+'   8 <I?
.FCT<N +N+( a @I? JA a  6+N+'    8  4JONPT< D=D?    NO<O@N <
CQ<QDQ@F< ><IIJO >JIQ@IODJI<GGT OJG@M<O@ <I JMDBDI<ODJI AMJH N@GA <N H<DIO<DI@?
=TKCDGJNJKCD><GGTHDI?@?K@JKG@ =CQ<QDQ@F<><IIJO>JIQ@IODJI<GGTOJG@M<O@<I
JMDBDI<ODJI AMJH N@GA <N H<DIO<DI@? >JIQ@IODJI<GGT =T IJIKCDGJNJKCD><GGT HDI?@?
K@JKG@  <D CQ<QDQ@F< CDHN@GA <N < P??CDNO @NK@>D<GGT <N < AJGGJR@M JA
)BMEPI<RDGGIJO=@<=G@>JIQ@IODJI<GGTOJH<DIO<DI<IJMDBDI<ODJIAMJHN@GA <DD
CQ<QDQ@F< ><IIJO >JIQ@IODJI<GGT OJG@M<O@ JMDBDI<ODJI AMJH N@GA <N H<DIO<DI@? =T
CDN.FCT<JKKJI@IO /C@N@>JI?<GO@MI<ODQ@AJMOC@?JH<DIJAOC@LP<GDAD><ODJI
DI?@@?OC@<GO@MI<ODQ@<>OP<GGTDIO@I?@?=TCQDQ@F<RCD>CDHKGD@NOC<OPGODH<O@GT
<MDNDIB DINO@<? JA <MDNDIB AMJH N@GA DN I@B<O@? DN ?DN>PNN@? <I? M@E@>O@? JI OC@
BMJPI?N JA NP=E@>O A<DGPM@ DI OC@ N@>ODJI +N+( a@I? JA a +N+'    OC@
OCDM? <GO@MI<ODQ@ RCD>C <>>JM?DIB OJ <I?M<FMOD RJPG? C<Q@ OJ =@ M@AJMHPG<O@? <N
PSQK@>HROAKM>O>JOQE>QLKPQVRQM>QQF=PORJPG?@Q@IDIOCDNAJMH
IJO@N><K@OC@A<PGOJANP=E@>OA<DGPM@DN?DN>PNN@?DI+N+(a+N+'     


4JONPT<  M@O<DIN<B<DINO?@%JIBNHN-<I?CDNHN/ HNN<I?%
<I? JI OC@ =<NDN JA CDN HNN /  <I? /  HNN # <I? $ ?@ '< 1<GG@ +JPNNDIN
@H@I?<ODJI ILH>P>SQV?EVRM>D>Q>PVLQMA>PV HNN + <I?  , C<N < G<>PI< <O
OCDN KJDIO IJR >JIADMH ?@ %JIBN @H@I?<ODJI ILH>P>SQV?EVRMBQ>PVLQMA>PV 
.@@+N+(a 



/-).'/$*)

RC<O DN <>>@KO@? 6=T OC@ (?CT<HDF<8 >?EVRMBQ>?AE  6R@


M@KGTOC<O8OCDNDNIJO>JMM@>O=@><PN@6<(?CT<HDF<8?J@NIJO@Q@I
AMJHOC@6KJDIOJAQD@R8JAOC@NPMA<>@6G@Q@GJAM@<GDOT8<>>@KO<MDNDIB
AMJHN@GA 


.O>C@M=<ONFT   I  PI?@MNO<I?N>?EVRMBQ> DI?@'<1<GG@+JPNNDIN
@?EVRMBQ>?AEMO>P>DQ<N<I<?E@>ODQ@OJ?AE<I?HPNONPKKGTDI=M<>F@ONOC@
J=E@>OC@EP?B@NM@KP?D<O@?I?DA?@ID@?OC@<?HDOO@?M@KP?D<ODJI?AE>JAOC@
KC@IJH@I<G=TOC@<=NJGPO@RJPG?IJO=@@IO<DG@?M@<?MO>P>KDQ.O>C@M=<ONFTN
O@SOP<G @H@I?<ODJI <KK@<MN OJ =@ =<N@? JI <I @MMJI@JPN DIO@MKM@O<ODJI JA  JA
?AEMO>P>DQ<NDHKGTDIB<I<GKC<KMDQ<ODQ@ 4JONPT<  DIO@MKM@ONOC@
>JHKJPI? OJ H@<I DO RJPG? AJGGJR OC<O RC<O DN 6B@I@M<GGT8 <>>@KO@? >?EVRMBQ>
6=TOC@(?CT<HDF<N8RJPG?=@?@ID@? #JKFDIN  <OO@HKONOJO<F@OC@
DINOMPH@IO<G DI +N+ /D=N HE>P ?I>KDP M>P DKLA M>O QE>I ?>O DVRO ?>F MEVFO DIOJ
>JIND?@M<ODJI DI CDN OM<ING<ODJI DO RJPG? AJGGJR OC<O JI@ RJPG? =@ ?<H<B@? =T
6JI@N JRI8 <NN@MODJI 6JA >JIQ@IODJI<GGT @SDNO@IO KMJ?P>ODJI8= PO <I?M<FMOD
DIO@I?NOC@O@>CID><GH@<IDIBJA>?EVRMBQ>?AENK@>DAD><GGTOC<OOC@OC@NDNJAOC@
DIA@M@I>@ RJPG? =@ NP=G<O@? =T RC<O OC@ (?CT<HDF<N JRI NTNO@H <>>@KON OC@
PILP<GDAD@?KMJKJNDODJIOC<OOC@DII@M=<N@NC<Q@IJO<MDN@IAMJHN@GADN>JIOM<?D>O@?
DNNP=G<O@?C<NNJOJNK@<FOC@MPBKPGG@?JPOAMJHPI?@MDO=TOC@A<>OOC<OOC@
(?CT<HDF< ?J@N <>>@KO OC@ <MDNDIB JA OCDIBN JI OC@ NPMA<>@ G@Q@G RDOCJPO OC@
LP<GDAD><ODJI CTKJOC@OD><G CQDQ@F< <MBP@N OC@ JKKJI@IO RJPG? <OO<>F OC@
KMJKJNDODJI<N=@DIBNKPMDJPNM>H?EP> 'DI?OI@M  I  KJDIONJPOOC<O
CQDQ@F<M@>JBIDU@NGDF@DBIB<DI)(<I?+.ADQ@OTK@NJANP=G<ODJI?AE
RDOC M@B<M? OJ OC@ NP=E@>O M>H> OC@ M>H> DN GD<=G@ OJ >JIOM<?D>ODJI
NP=G<ODJI
SFOLAE> ?AE RDOC
=T JI@N JRI NO<O@H@IO PS>S>@>K> <POCJMDO<ODQ@ O@NODHJIT
D>J>RC<ODNB@I@M<GGT<>FIJRG@?B@?MO>PFAAE>?DM@>OK@M>@KODJIMO>QV>H>
<I? DIA@M@I>@ >KRJK> >A  /P>>D    &<ONPM<    'DI?OI@M APMOC@M
IJO@N OC<O CQDQ@F< ?DNODIBPDNC@N =@OR@@I RC<O DN B@I@M<GGT <>FIJRG@?B@? DI OC@
RJMG? <I? RC<O DN B@I@M<GGT <>FIJRG@?B@? DI JI@N JRI PQO>N N@@ ++ OJ ((&
$$ >? RC@M@ CQDQ@F< M@NKJI?N OJ OC@ JKKJI@IO RCJ <MBP@N OC<O CQDQ@F<N
KJNDODJIM@B<M?DIBOC@IJI@SDNO@I>@JA<BJ@MJMJABJDIBDNPI<>>@KO<=G@=@><PN@DO
DN>JIOM<?D>O@?=TRC<ODN<>FIJRG@?B@?AFODQ>KQPEFDDVFALKD>KDVFKY@FGFDOQBK
I>DO>DPM>PBI?>O?VBAM>FMEVFOO>JYLKQB?PQ>K?@LPI>DO>DPM>PBI?>O?VBA
M>F MEVFO  D>I QB O>KD DF ?PQ>K ?@LP I> DO>DP M> ?> PBI ?>O ?VBA M>F MEVFO AB
DO>DPM>FDKLAM>ODVROOL+YYWEBK>KFY+RDOCJPOWHE>P?I>KDPM>I>DKLA
M>ODVROOL +YYWEBP?OGLAM>O?V>?>FOFDP <  + =OM<ING<O@?DI
H@N  A $ORJPG?<KK@<MOC<O<I?M<FMODC@M@DIOC@+N+DIO@I?NNP=G<ODJI
=TRC<ODNB@I@M<GGT<>>@KO@?DIJI@NJRIPQO>N *IOC@CDNOJMD><G?@Q@GJKH@IOJA
M>H?EP>N@@+M@DN@I?<IU  I @NK@>D<GGT   


 N NP>>DI>OGT @SKG<DI@? =T 4JONPT<   <I?M<FMOD M@E@>ON CQDQ@F<N
LP<GDAD><ODJI PGODH<O@GT< N NPK@MAGPJPN =@><PN@ OC@ (?CT<HDF< ?J@N IJO <>>@KO
<MDNDIB AMJH N@GA @Q@I JI OC@ NPMA<>@ G@Q@G NP>C < ?DNODIBPDNCDIB JA JI@ G@Q@G JA
M@<GDOTAMJHOC@JOC@MQD<OC@LP<GDAD><ODJIRJPG?=@I@>@NN<MTJIGTDAIJIPGODH<O@

+-.))+#+/

-*)



b NC<N=@@INO<O@?DIOC@6GDNO<H=<8NOM<
I? OCDN Q@MT NKMJPO OC<O DN <MDNDIB RCD>C C<N < N@@? AJM 6DON8
><PN@ DN IJO KMJ?P>@? AMJH DON@GA IJO KMJ?P>@? AMJH <IJOC@M
IJO KMJ?P>@? AMJH =JOC 6DON@GA <I? <IJOC@M8 IJM C<N DO <MDN@I
RDOCJPO < ><PN@ DO C<N IJO =@@I =MJPBCO <=JPO =T OC@ 'JM?
S>O>ODH@HI><OJHN>RKMDHJM?D<GH<OO@MMO>HQFJM
OC@I<OPM@6JAOCDIBN8PS>?ES> 

<MDNDIBAMJHN@GAR<NDI?@@?<>>@KO@?=TOC@(?CT<HDF< /CPNDON@HKGJTH@IO=T
CQDQ@F<DADIO@I?@?<N<KKGTDIBOJOC@RCJG@JAOC@KMJKJNDODJI><MMD@NRDOCDOOC@
DHKGD><ODJIOC<OC@?J@N<>>@KO<MDNDIBAMJHN@GAJIOC@NPMA<>@G@Q@G /C@NP=N@LP@IO
PQO> <I? PQO> LPJO<ODJIN <M@ =MJPBCO AJMR<M? OJ ?@HJINOM<O@ OC@ B@I@M<G IJI
LP<GDAD@?M@E@>ODJIJA<MDNDIBAMJHN@GAAJM<MDNDIBDI?@K@I?@I>@>A #JKFDIN 
  ?@GG< .<IODI<  A   <I?M<FMOD?J@N IJO T@ONK@<F OJ OC@ A<>O OC<O
CQDQ@F<<>OP<GGT@HKGJTNOC@LP<GDAD><ODJIOJ<QJD?I@B<ODIBOC@?@K@I?@IO<MDNDIB
JANPMA<>@G@Q@GOCDIBNOC<ODN<>>@KO@?=T(?CT<HDF<N>A aa 


<I?M<FMODNGDNO<H=<NOM<>DO<ODJI?DAA@MNAMJHOC@.FOAJMOC@GDNO<H=<NOM<
K<NN<B@ AJPI? DI OC@ + <I? OC@ (<?CT<H<F<GDNO<H=< P> @V>J >HROL K>
PS>V>HQL K> M>O>HQL KL?E>V>HQL KBS>O>KFOJFQL K> HI>M>OFJFQL K> MO>HQF

P>?EQL K> @>FH>HO>AEKL KMV >EBQRP>JRQM>KK> M@A@M@I>@N <I? Q<MD<ION DI


.>CJ@IDIB   /C@PICP<IBH<IPN>MDKOM@<?DIB<NR@GG<NOC@M@<?DIBNDI
JOC@M/D=@O<I@?DODJINDN>GJN@OJOC@.FO<OO@NO@?DIOC@+<I?OC@(<?CT<H<F<
GDNO<H=< JVR DR AB V>KD ?A>D DFP J> ?V>P Y DWE>K DVFP J> ?V>P Y DKVFP H>P J>
?V>PYA?>KDMEVRDDFPJ>?V>PYARPDVFPJ>?PDVROYO>KD?WEFKI>PJ>?VRKDYODVR
JVBAM>I>PHV>KDJ>PHVBPQB O@SO<I?Q<MD<IONDI.>CJ@IDIB  A +N+/D=
?DAA@MN DI < IPH=@M JA M@NK@>ON AMJH <I?M<FMODN >DO<ODJI <I? NCJRN NDHDG<MDOD@N
RDOC OC@ O@SO <N AJPI? DI OC@ PICP<IB H<IPN>MDKO @O>  /C@ >DO<ODJI JA < K<M<GG@G
K<NN<B@ AMJH OC@ GDNO<H=<NOM< <O +N+'   B@I@M<GGT AJM Q<MD<ION N@@
.>CJ@IDIB  A  N@@ <GNJ '< 1<GG@ +JPNNDI  <  >JMM@NKJI?N RDOC JOC@M
.<INFMDOAM<BH@IONAJMOC@K<NN<B@<I?RDOCOC@IJI+N+GDNO<H=<NOM<.FOAJMOC@
@<MGD@M>DO<ODJIP>@>KJ>OMHROLK>PS>V>HQLK>M>O>HQLKL?E>V>HQLKBS>

O>HQL K> HI>M>OFJFQL K> MO>HQFP>?EQL K> @>FH>HO>AEFKL KMV >EBQR

P>JRQM>KK> 
CQDQ@F< DI CDN ?DN>PNNDJI M@B<M?DIB OC@ IJI<MDNDIB JA OCDIBN RDOCJPO < ><PN@
JAA@MNOC@<GO@MI<ODQ@H@<IDIBJA<>?<=PN@ODVRKD>KM>AJM>EBQRJA((&$ N
>EBQRQ> <I? GDNON <N @S<HKG@N JA =<? ><PN@N OC@ I<OPM@ JA OCDIBN PS>?ES> OC@
'JM? S>O> NKDMDO JM JNHD> (<I MROR> KMDHJM?D<G H<OO@M MO>HQF ODH@
HI>OC@BJ?)MT<<@O> ODVRKD>KM>D>KDWEBK>YKDL?>KVFAA>KDYA?>KD
MEVRDA>KDYPHVBP?RA>KDYDQPL?LA>KDYARPA>KDYPOBAJBAHVF?RI>PLDPM>6
 = <  +  <8 OC@ =<? ><PN@N <GGP?@? OJ =T I> PLDP M> <M@ GDNO@? <O ++ 
< +  < N@@ H@N   I    CQDQ@F< @SKGD>DOGT <??M@NN@N <I?
M@APO@NPS>?ES>S>O><I?MROR><N><PN@NAJMOC@<MDNDIBJAOCDIBN<I?MO>HQF<N
OC@ ><PN@ JA OC@ KMDI>DKG@N Q>QQS> <I? NO<O@N OC<O OC@ B@I@M<GM@APO<ODJI JA MO>HQF



/-).'/$*)

$IOC@N<H@H<II@M6DIOC@'<GDO<QDNO<M<8
$I OC@ R<T OC<O OC@M@ DN < NKMJPO RC@I < N@@? @SDNON =PO OC@
NKMJPODNIJOOC@N@@?DODNI@DOC@MJOC@MOC<IOC<O6N@@?8IJMDNDO
EPNO OC<O 6N@@?8NJ DN OC@ <>OP<G I<OPM@ AE>OJ>Q 6JA <GG
@G@H@ION JA @SDNO@I>@8 6OC@M@ DN8 I@DOC@M <IIDCDG<ODJI >KR@

@EBA>IJMK@MH<I@I>@>S>Q> 


HI><I?)MT<<<N><PN@NNCJPG?=@>JIND?@M@?<NGDF@OC<OJAS>O>>A  =


+= /C@1<D@DF<?J>OMDI@JAOC@<MDNDIBJAOCDIBNAMJH<OJHN>RDNM@APO@?
RC@I CQDQ@F< <MBP@N AJM IJI<MDNDIB AMJH < ><PN@ OC<O DN JOC@M  /C@ BMJPK PS>

?ES> S>O> MO>HQF MROR> HI> <I? )MT<< <KK@<MN DI <I?M<FMODN
>JHH@IO<MTJIOC@4Q@MN@JACJH<B@RC@M@C@NO<O@NOC<OOC@M@DNIJ>C<I>@<O<GG
AJM OC@ KMJKJI@ION JA OC@N@ <N ><PN@N OJ KMJ>@@? OJ OC@ >DOT JA KFOS> >A  41@?
  41OM  <I? I   AJM M@A@M@I>@N  K  OC@ BMJPKDIB AJPI? <O +N+'
  FE> ?E>D>S>Q Q>QED>QBK> MO>HQS>O>PS>?ES>HIRKOV>>G>FJFKF

H>A>H>MFIAFQOQE>H>O>H>OQSA>KFOPBK> P>OS>?ESK Q>QQS>J A>OFQ>J  -@A


@M@I>@N AJM OC@N@ ><PN@N DI (<T   I    JI PS>?ES> >A  <GNJ .DG=PMI
  AA <I?C<OO<>C<MT< JIODH@.DG=PMI  AA .@@<??DODJI<GGT
OC@?@N>MDKODJIJAOC@PS>?ES>?J>OMDI@<OP??C<><MDO<  


 '<GDO<QDNO<M<    @?  '@AH<II  '@AH<IIN Q@MNDJI JA OC@ Q@MN@ MPIN


?G>PV>P>QLV>QEHROLK>@>VL?G>P>@>FS>>HROLYK>@>Q>QLK>@>FS>Q>QQ>Q
RDOCSFOJ>BS>J>KR@@EBA>>S>Q>AE>OJ>QWW /C@>DO<ODJINJAOC@Q@MN@DIOC@
+N++N+'       N@@(<T <I?IJO@ >DO@?
<GNJ<O(C@?   <OO@NOOC@RJM?>KVR(CDWE>KDIOC@OCDM?LP<MO@M 
/C@/D=@O<IOM<ING<ODJIJAOC@'<GDO<QDNO<M<DI=JOC<I?+<OO@NONOC@Q@MN@C<GA<N
DODN<OO@NO@?DI+N+/D=D @ RDOC<I@LPDQ<G@IOAJM>KVR *I@C<NOJ<?HDOOC<OQ>Q>
RDOCJPO >KVR DN DA IJO HDNG@<?DIB <O G@<NO G<>JID>  *I@ <GNJ @SK@>ON OC@ AJPMOC
LP<MO@MOJ>JHH@I>@RDOCBS>JD @ AJMOC@@>BPRO>OJJ>>PM<AO@MOC@OCDM?LP<MO@M
<I?IJO<N'@AH<IINM@<?DIBRJPG?C<Q@DORDOCDIOC@OCDM?LP<MO@M /C@@QD?@I>@
OCPNRJPG?DI?D><O@OC<O'@AH<IINOCDM?LP<MO@MDNA<PGOT<I?OC<O<I?M<FMODN>KVR
I@@?N OJ =@ DI>JMKJM<O@? DIOJ DO  /C@ LP<MO@M M@<? <N K> @> >KVR Q>QL K> @>FS> Q>Q
>JIAJMHN OJ OC@ M@LPDM@H@ION JA OC@ Q@MN@N 1<DOGT< H@OM@ RDOC >KVR DI OCDN
KJNDODJIOC@AJPMOCNTGG<=D>DINO<IODN<GNJ>JMM@>O'@AH<IINK>@>Q>QL=M@<FNOC@
1<DOGT< MPG@ OC<O OC@ AJPMOC NTGG<=D> DINO<IO IJO =@ >JIEJDI@? RDOC OC@ ADAOC  /CDN
G@<Q@NOC@AJPMOCLP<MO@MCJR@Q@MRDOC@SOM<<I??DNOPM=DIBNTGG<=D>DINO<ION @'<
1<GG@+JPNNDI>A +N+' I N@@FNOJK<MOD<GGTNJGQ@OC@H@OMD><GKMJ=G@HJAOC@
AJPMOC LP<MO@M JA <I?M<FMODN Q@MNDJI JA OC@ Q@MN@ =T NPBB@NODIB OC@ M@<?DIB
>S>AE>OJ>Q<GOCJPBCC@<?HDONOC<OOCDNNJGPODJII@Q<K<NN<IN?DAAD>PGO #@
APMOC@M@H@I?N>KR@@EBA>OJ>KR@EBA>=PO@Q@IRDOCOCDN<??DODJI<G>C<IB@H@OMD><G
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/-).'/$*)

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+-.))+#+/

-*)



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PS>Q> IJR <MBP@N OC<O OC@ LP<GDAD><ODJI <GNJ ?J@N IJO <KKGT OJ OC@ NP=E@>O
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<>>@KO OC@ NP=E@>O >JIQ@IODJI<GGT JI OC@ JI@ C<I? <I? OJ I@B<O@ DON JMDBDI<ODJI
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PI@NO<=GDNC@? AMJH OC@ .FCT< ND?@ RJPG? APMOC@M DHKGT OC@ A<PGO JA OC@ M@<NJI
O>VPFAAE> .@@<GNJ4JONPT<  



/-).'/$*)

b  6CQDQ@F<8 HDBCO 6<MBP@8 6$O DN8 EPNO <N 6RDOC OC@ KMJKJNDODJI8
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OC@ >C<MB@N JA >PFAAEAEO> JM O>VPFAAE>  /C@ NP=E@>O AMJH CQDQ@F<N ND?@
RJPG? NODGG =@ OC@ NPMA<>@G@Q@G DIO@MI<G =<N@N <I? AJM OC@ .FCT< OC@ PGODH<O@GT
@SDNODIB DIO@MI<G =<N@N =PO AJM OC@ KPMKJN@ JA ?@=<O@ DO RJPG? IJO =@ NK@>DAD@? DI
@DOC@MR<T 
CQDQ@F<M@A@MNOJB@I@M<GNP=E@>ONM@<NJIN<I?@S<HKG@NDIJOC@M>JIO@SONDIOC@
++ #@@SKGD>DOGT?@A@I?NOC@M@<NJIDINJH@JACDNDIA@M@I>@NDIOC@ADMNO>C<KO@MJA
++ <N =@DIB < B@I@M<G JI@ N@@ @ B  OC@ ?DN>PNNDJI <O ++  = <  + = 
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Q<GJFDO<QM<O<<N)<DTTDF<NRCJ<>>PN@CDNDIA@M@I>@KMJQDIBOC<OOC@DII@M=<N@N
?J IJO <MDN@ AMJH JOC@M ALK A>J M>O K>KD DF PHVB J@EBA OK>JP AB A>D DF OHVBK
DWE>KA>DI>PPHVB?>JBAABYDWE>KVFKM>FMEVFOYAMBOK>?RJM>?WEFK6=
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M@B<M?NDON=<NDNDWE>KA>DK>OBYALKA>JM>OMEVFA>KDK>KDDFPHVBJ@EBAOK>JP
HE>PJ>?I>KDPM>FMEVFO@ELP@>KJ>DOR?M>PDWEFJ>DOR?M>FMEVFOHEVLAHVF
ALK J> DOR? M> KVFA HVF PHVLK AR DVRO OL WEBP WBO ++   < +  <  #@
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R@GG<NOC@M@<NJID @ =@DIB?DAA@M@IO6AMJHOC@><PN<G>JI?DODJIN8<I?OC@M@AJM@OC@
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M> PHVB J@EBA OK>JP A>KD Y DWE>K KVFA HE>P ?I>KDP M>F MEVFO GF PH>A PJO>P M>F
PHVLK JF QE>A M>P AB KF OFDP M> J> VFK KL YY ++   < +  < OM<ING<O@? DI
&<EDT<H< H@N   

+-.))+#+/

-*)





4JONPT<  I    IJO@N OC<O EDH< KJDION OJ < K<NN<B@ DI OC@ ++ JI ((&
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