Sie sind auf Seite 1von 206

III.

BAND

1. HEFT

A.

M. 8.20. Subskriptionspreis

Einzelpreis

"

9.70.

GRUNDRISS
DER

INDO-ARISCHEN PHILOLOGIE
UND

ALTERTUMSKUNDE
UNTER MITWIRKUNG VON

A. BAINES-LONDON,

R. G.

BHANDARKAR-PUNA,
R.

M.

BLOOMFIELD-BALTIMORE, J.BURGESS-EDINBURGH,
\V. GEIGER H.
-

O. FRANKE-KONIGSBERG, G. A. GRIERSONH.

GARBEA.

TUBINGEN,

ERLANGEN,

K.

GELDNER-

BERLIN,

CALCUTTA,
E.

HILLEBRANDT-BRESLAU,
C.R. LANMAN-

JACOBI-BONN, J. JOLLY-WURZBURG,
E. LEUMANN-STRASSBURG, (MASS.), R. PISCHEL-HALLE,

KERN-LEIDEN,
B.

KUHN-MUNCHEN,

CAMBRIDGE
R.

LIEBICH-BRESLAU,
E.

A. MACDONELL-

OXFORD,

MERINGER-WIEN,
M. A.

J.RAPSON-LONDON, ALLAHABAD,

J.S. SPEYER-GRONINGEN,
SIR R.

STEIN-LAHORE, G.THIBAUTM. WINTERNITZ-

A. VENIS-BENARES,

WEST-LONDON,

OXFORD, TH.

ZACHARIAE-HALLE

HERAUSGEGEBEN

GEORG

BttHLER.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY
BY

A.

A.

MACDONELL.

STRASSBURG VERLAG
VON KARL

J. TRUBNER

1897.

Rechte, besonders \_Alle

das

der

vorbehalten.~\ Uebersetzung,

In Versuch blick arischen

diesem

Werk

soil

zum

ersten

Mai der

der

The contains matic Indian and

Encyclopediaof Indo-AryanResearch
the first attempt concise survey
at
a

gemacht

werden,

einen Gebiete

Gesamtiiber-

complete,syste
vast

iiber die

einzelnen

indpin
zu

Philologieund
Die

Altertumskunde

and

of the

field of

knapper und

Darstellung systematischer
Mehrzdil
der ersten

antiquities, languages,religion, history,


most

geben.
damit

Gegenstande wird
Mai eine
zusammen-

art,

of which
a

have subjects form.

never

zum iiberhaupt

hangende abgerundeteBehandlung
deshalb fur die trotzdem darf
von

erfahren;
Gewinn

before been the book

treated in

connected

Though
as never a

dem
erster

Werk selbst Linie

reicher

Encyclopedia is primarilyintended
of reference be useful for
to

Wissenschaft
es

in

erhofft werden, befur Lernende

students,it will
with the much

ist. stimmt Etwa dreissigGelehrte

theless
aus

all connected

India;
results that is

Deutschland,
Indian und diese Auf-

and

summarises though it chiefly it will leads up also


to

Osterreich,
Amerika

England, Holland,
sich
urn vereinigt,

haben

achieved,
new

contain

ein Teil der Mitarbeiter losen, wobei ihre Beitrage deutsch, die ubrigen sie englisch

gabe

zu

and About

further

research. of various
na

abfassen

werden. raumlichen eine Ent"

thirty scholars

sclion in der Besteht Mitarbeiter vieler fernung als Schwierigkeit bei anderen schien den
es

tionalities, from Austria,England,Germany, India,the Netherlands and the United


have States
"

grossere ahnlichen Unterauch

nehmungen,
welche

so

geboten,die
Sammelwerke,
Abent-

promised
The in

to unite in order to

accomplish
written

der Unzutraglichkeit durch der lieferungstermin

meisten einzelnen nach

this task. either

contributions
or

will be

unbereclienbaren

English

in German.

Beitrage

steht,dadurch
Abschnitte einzeln Der

zu

vermeiden, dass die einzelnen


ihrer and

Each with The will the be


a

part will be separate

published separately
work

Ablieferung gleich ausgegeben werden. gedruckt und des ganzen Werkes Subskriptionspreis

pagination.
the

for subscription
at the
a

complete
the
1

65 Pf. pro Druckbetragt durchschnittlich 16 Seiten, der Preis der einzelnen bogen von
Hefte durchschnittlich 80 Pf.

rate

of about
at

65 Pfennig (8d),
rate

price of
will for the

singlepart
sheet also

of

80

bogen.
wird
20

die Seite

Karten fur die Tafeln Auch eine Ermassigung von den Subskribenten auf den Einzelpreis zugesichert.Uber giebt der auf Einteilung des Werkes dieses

pro und

Druck-

Pfennig (10 d), per


scribers

of
a

6 pages.

Sub of
20

enjoy
of the

reduction

percent
For this

platesand plan

maps. work
see

3 Auskunft.

Umschlags

befindliche

Plan

page

3 of

cover.

STRASSBURG, im

Oktober

1901.

Die

Verlagshandlung.

The

Publisher.

Bei
Hefte

Begrundung des

Grundrisses

war

spater

in drei Bande

zusammenzufassen Hefte

in Aussicht genommen, die einzelnen und Bande dieser ein Gejedem

fur samtregister

die darin enthaltenen einen


und

erschienenen
dafiir als

Hefte
war

weit

grosseren

angesetzt

das Bedlirfnis fur

besondere

dringendherausgestellt hat, haben sich fur jedes Heft herzustellen. Register Dem hier vorliegendenHeft sind Indices schienenen Hefte die Indices zu: vor liegenfertig
I. I. 6
:

beizugeben. Da aber die bis jetzt als ursprioglich Umfang einnehmen Registerzu den einzelnen Heften sich Herausgeber und Verlegerentschlossen,
fur beigefligt;

die

berets

er

3b: Zachariae,Die indischen Worterbiicher.

Speyer,Vedische
Bloomfield,The

und

Sanskrit

Syntax.

II. ib: II.

Atharvaveda.

3b: Rapson, Indian coins. II. 8: Jolly, Recht und Sitte. III. i a: Macdonell, Vedic Mythology. IIL 4: Garbe, Samkhya und Yoga. Til. 8: Kern, Manual of Indian Buddhism. Die

Verlagshandlung.

UNO ALTERTUMSKUNDE GRUNDRISS DER INDO-ARISCHENPHILOLOGIE


(ENCYCLOPEDIA OF INDO -ARYAN HERAUSGEGEBEN
III.

RESEARCH)

VON

G.
A.

BUHLER.

BAND,

1. HEFT

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY

BY

A. A. MACDONELL.

STRASSBURG
VERLAG
VON KARL

J. TRUBNER

1897.

15"

GRUNDRISS

DER

INDO-ARISCHEN PHILOLOGIE UNO


(ENCYCLOPEDIA HERAUSGEGEBEN
III.

ALTERTUMSKUNDE

OF

INDO-ARYAN

RESEARCH)

VON

G.
A.

BUHLER.

BAND,

I.

HEFT

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY
BY

A.

A.

MACDONELL.

I. INTRODUCTION.

"
the

i.

Religion
one

and the

mythology.

"

in Religion

its widest

sense

includes

divine entertain of the men or conception which on the that of the human of sense other, and, on dependence supernaturalpowers which finds its expression in various forms of wor those welfare on powers with the former side of religion as furnishing ship. Mythology is connected told about gods and heroes and the whole are body of myths or stories which hand which Such describe

their

character
source

and in

origin,their
the

actions the

and

surroundings.
mind, in a phenomena of the conjectural
to

myths
with of
a

have

their

attempt

of

human

and primitive
nature

unscientific which
man

forces and age, to explainthe various is confronted. They represent in fact condition. For
statements amount

science

mental primitive would be

which in that

the

highly

merely metaphorical, early stage to The intellectual difficultiesraised explanationsof the phenomena observed. of the thunderstorm, of the heavenly bodies, by the incidents by the course by reflexions on the originand constitution of the outer world, here receive basis of these myths is the primitive their answers in the form of stories. The which all entities. attitude of mind nature as an regards aggregate of animated arises when the imagination interprets natural A myth actually a event as the the action of a personified being resembling the human agent. Thus without observation that the moon follows the sun overtakingit,would have into a myth by describing the former maiden been transformed a as following is she Such whom a man an myth enters on the further rejected. by original it becomes the property of people as stage of poetical embellishment, as soon endowed added traits are with creative imagination. Various now according individual the the from mouth of the to to as fancy narrator, story passes mouth. fade The of its natural the out phenomenon begins to pictureas the natural of human passions.When place is taken by a detailed representation with its original unconnected basis of the tale is forgotten,new touches totally from added other When be transferred met even or significance myths. may with at a late stage of its development, a myth may be far overgrown so with secondary accretions unconnected with its original form, that its analysis it be would Thus be hard indeed extremely difficult or even impossible. may
civilised mind
to

discover
of

the

the Hellenic

primary naturalistic only gods, if we knew


ZVP.

elements the

in the

characters

or

actions

of

highly anthropomorphic

deities in the

plays

Euripides.
B.

DELBRUCK,

1865,
Ak. der

pp.

Mythenbildung, Berliner
Comparative
Indo-arische

266 Uber KUHN, 99; Wissenschaften 1873, pp.


"

Entwicklungsstufender
51; MAX 123 of Mythology.
"

MULLER,
Selected

Mythology.
1 A.

Oxford

Essays. II; Philosophy

Philolo^ie. III.

III. RELIGION;

WELTL.

WlSSENSCH.

U.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

Workship, IV2, 155" 201; PhysicalReligion276-8 ; Antike Waldund Feldkulte, Mythologie; MANNHARDT, in preface to MANNHARDT'S Mythologische ForBerlin 1871, Preface; MULLENHOFF schungen, Strassburg 1884; LANG, Mythology. Encyclopaedia Britannica; GRUPPE, Die Culte und Mythen. Introduction; BLOOMFIELD, JAOS. XV, 135"6; F. B. griechischen IEVONS, Encyclopaedia; Introduction to the History of Religion, Mythology. CHAMBERS' Essays. I; Chips from
SCHWARTZ,
Der
a

German
der

Urspfung

London

1896, pp. 23. 32. 249-69.


of Vedic the

"
a

2.

Characteristics
to

very

important positionin
presents
of
us an

Vedic mythology occupies mythology. Its oldest study of the historyof religions.
"

source

earlier stage in the


of natural To of

evolution

of beliefs based than any other

on

the

and personification
monument

worship
world. germs the

phenomena,
be

the

this oldest
the

modern

development the Indians,

phase can beliefs of religious


of

traced

the

literary by uninterrupted great majority of the


race

only branch
has
not

the

Indo-European
of

in which

its
ago

nature worship original a foreign monotheistic at was as not so primitive

been The

entirely supplanted many


earliest stage Vedic

centuries

by

faith.
one

time

supposed1,
the process
a

but of

to

enable

us

to

see

not gods, apparent in other phenomena process less than the is The stilltransparent literatures. language, mythology, no the connexion both of the god and his name to show cases enough in many with a physicalbasis; nay, in several instances the anthropomorphism is only the dawn, is also a goddess wearing but thin veil of Thus a incipient. usas, the the and when of agni, fire, designates god, personality personification; the element. the deity is thoroughly interpenetrated physical by which Vedic foundation The on mythology rests, is still the belief, that all the objects and remote a antiquity, survivingfrom phenomena of is and with animate divine. which are man nature surrounded, Everything that impressed the soul with awe or was a regarded as capable of exercising a direct might in the Vedic age stillbecome good or evil influence on man, object not only of adoration but of prayer. Heaven, earth, mountains, rivers, divine powers; the horse,the cow, the bird of omen, as plantsmight be supplicated and other animals be invoked; even objects fashioned by the hand might of man, the war-car, the drum, the plough, as well as ritual im weapons, and the sacrificialpost, might be adored. plements, such as the pressing-stones This lower form of worship, however, occupies but a small space in Vedic of the human Veda are religion. glorified beings, in QThe true gods and born but immortal. motives like men, They spiredwith human passions, almost without exception the deified representatives of the phenomena are or The have of which to agencies of nature 2.] they degree anthropomorphism of the god is the the name attained, however, varies considerably. When that of his natural basis,the personification has not advanced same as beyond the rudimentary stage. Such is the case with Dyaus, Heaven, Prthivi, Earth, whose character of double the Surya, Sun, Usas, Dawn, names represent natural and of them. the phenomena "~ presiding over Similarly persons in the case of the two great ritual deities,Agni and Soma, the personifying of the imagination is held in check by the visible and tangiblecharacter of fire and element the sacrificial draught, called by the same of names, which the divine of the they are the name deity is embodiments.JWhen different from that of the physicalsubstrate,he tends to become dissociated from the latter, the anthropomorphism being then more developed. Thus the Maruts or from than Vayu, Wind, their origin Storm-gods are farther removed

natural

clearly enough developed into

mythology is it is sufficiently primitive by which personification

though the Vedic


in

poets

are

still conscious in name,

of the

connexion.
of
a

Finally,

when
a

addition

to

the

difference

the

conception

god

dates

from

2.

CHARACTERISTICS

OF

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

3.

SOURCES

OF

V. M.

pre-Vedic period,
case

the

severance

with

Varuna,
so

in whom

the
an

have become complete. Such may connexion can only be inferred from earlier
s

is the

mytho
has

logical traits surviving from


here ruler
ever,

proceeded
in
a

far, that Varuna'


belief of
an

The age. process character resembles

of

abstraction of the

that

divine

monotheistic
in Vedic characteristic

exalted attained

type.
to

Personification

nowhere

mythology
of the

the The

has, how individualized anthropo


Vedic deities have but

morphism
few

Hellenic

gods.

attributes and shared features, while many distinguishing are powers very alike. This is due that all the fact the to of nature partly departments by have in much which often their while they represent common, anthropomor the activity of a thunder-god, of phism is comparatively undeveloped. Thus the fire-godin his lightning be de form, and of the storm-gods might easily function in the eyes of the Vedic scribed in similar language, their main poets be doubted that various Vedic being the discharge of rain. Again, it cannot

deities have

started

from

the
a

same

source3,, but
with the

have

become

differentiated
an

by an appellativedenoting Such independent character.


over,

particularattribute
is the
case

having gradually assumed


solar of of

gods.
the the

There

is,more
about

often deeds
not

want

of

clearness

in the

statements

Vedic

poets

the
are

of the related

pected

in

such

gods; for owing to but only alluded to. allusions mythological


different

the Nor when

character
can

made of by a number period. longed literary


i

poets, whose

literature,myths thorough consistencybe ex it is remembered that they are a productions extend over pro

BRI.
2
--

XIII

ff.; P.

v.
"

BRADKE,
v.

Dyaus
in

Asura,
R.

Halle

670.

ORV.
on

Works arischen

3 L. 591"4Vedic Mythology

S'CHROEDER, WZKM.
general:
ROTH,

1885, 2"11; 9, 125"6;


Die hdchsten

ZDMG. cp. BRI.

40,

25.
der

Gotter

and Sanskritworter6, 67 ROTH, 77; 7, 607; BOHTLINGK j.MUIR, Original Sanskrit Texts on the Petersburg 1852"75; Origin and History of the People of India, their Religion and Institutions, 5 vols., vols. 42 revised Worterbuch zum especially (1873) and 53 (1884);GRASSMANN, Rigund erlauternden Veda, AnLeipzig 1873; Rig-Veda iibersetzt und mit kritischen W. D. and versehen, 2 vols., Leipzig 1876"7; Oriental merkungen WHITNEY, der Geschichte Linguistic Studies, 2, 149 ff.; JAOS. 3, 291 ff. 33 iff.; P. WURM, indischen A. BERGAIGNE, La Religion, Basel 1874, pp. 21"54; Religion Vedique du A. Der d'apres les Hymnes LUDWIG, Rigveda, 3 vols., Paris 1878"83; die der Zum Brahmana. Male ersten Rigveda oder heiligen Hymnen vollstandig ins Deutsche iibersetzt. Mit Commentar und Einleitung. Prag, Wien, Leipzig F. MAX Lectures the of Religion, MULLER, 1876"88; on Origin and Growth London 1878; A. KAEGI, Der Rigveda, 2nd ed., Leipzig 1881 ; English Translation Boston The 1886; A. BARTH, by R. ARROWSMITH, Religions of India, London Is : Die des Herabkunft Feuers 1882; A. KUHN, und Mythologische Studien. des Gutersloh Indiens Gdttertranks, Litteratur und Kultur, 1886; L. v. SCHRODER, P. D. CHANTEPIE der ReLehrbuch DE LA Leipzig 1887, pp. 45 SAUSSAYE, 145; Vedische ligionsgeschichte, Freiburg i. B., 1887, I, pp. 346 69; PISCHEL and GELDNER, Studien. vol. I, Stuttgart 1889, vol. II, part I 1892; A. HILLEBRANDT, Vedische und verwandte Le Gotter, Breslau Mythologie, vol. I, Soma 1891; P. REGNAUD, Rig-Veda et les Origines de la Mythologie indo-europeenne, Paris 1892 (theauthor follows principles of interpretationaltogether opposed to those generally accepted). E. HARDY, Die Vedisch-brahmanische Periode der alten Indiens, Religion des i. W. Miinster Die Berlin OLDENBERG, 1893; H. Veda, Religion des 1894; P. DEUSSEN, der besonderer BeriickAllgemeine Geschichte Philosophic mit Veda auf bis die sichtigung der Religionen, vol. I, part I, Philosophie des The and Upanishad's Leipzig 1894; E. W. HOPKINS, Religions of India, Boston London 1895.
"

Volker,
,

ZDMG.

buch,

7 vols.

St.

"

"

of Vedic Mythology. By far the most important of India, the Mythology is the oldest literarymonument of coordinate Rigveda. Its mythology deals with a number nature gods of the influence of an varying importance. This polytheism under increasing

" 3.

Sources

"

source

of

Vedic

i*

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

i A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

Rigvedic period,exhibits in its latest and even of monotheism signs of pantheism. the beginningsof a kind book with view to the sa been collection a of this composed having The hymns furnish Soma the of t hat a offering, disproportionate crificial ritual, especially The great gods who presentment of the mythological material of the age. in the worship of sacrifice and the Soma at an important position occupy with spirits, forth prominently;but the mythology connected the wealthy, stand
tendency
to

abstraction

at

the

end

of the

with

with witchcraft,

life after with

death,
the

is almost of

blank,
Soma

for

these

spheres

of

belief have
the character

completely illustrated in these hymns, which their them addressed to attributes,their deeds, with the ex are far less definitely described. It is only of their a re leading exploits, ception
is very extol and natural that
a

nothing to do of the gods

poetry

the

rite. Moreover,

while

collection

of
a

matter,
of

should

supply
The

but

sacrificial poetry containingvery little narrative of this side scattered and fragmentary account information
and the

mythology.

defective

given by
reference

the

rest

of

the

RV.

re

garding plied by
fate of the the

lesser spirits,

demons,
Thus

future

is life,

only

very
even

partially sup
here the
to
some

its latest book.


after

hardly
of dead

any

is made

to

the

of the wicked

death.

Beside

and

from distinguished
as

adoration
extent

gods,

the of

worship
inanimate

ancestors,
finds
a

well

as

deification

objects,

place in

the

of religion

the

Rigveda.
the which in do not occur containingbut seventy-fiveverses in the of Vedic importance study mythology. deals mainly with The dom more popular material of the Atharvaveda estic and magical rites. In the latter portion it is, along with the ritual text of the Kausika and demon sutra, a mine of information in regard to the spirit On world. the Atharvaveda deals with notions of this lower side of religion the of the Rigveda. But those on higher side of greater antiquitythan advanced it represents a more religion stage. Individual gods exhibit a later abstractions are deified, while the general new phase of development and some character of the religion is pantheistic1. of in individual gods Hymns praise the of a number invocation of simultaneous are comparativelyrare, while in which is characteristic. their essential nature is hardly touched upon, deities, The deeds of the gods are in the same extolled in the manner as stereotyped and AV. the be said to supply any RV.; can hardly important mythological

The

Samaveda,
no

RV., is of

trait which The

is not

to

be

found

in

the

older

collection.

Yajurveda represents a still later stage. Its formulas being made for the ritual, but addressed who not the are to are directly gods, shadowy beings having only a very loose connexion with the sacrifice. The most salient features of the chief mythology of the Yajurveda are the existence of one of an god, Prajapati,the greater importance ofVisnu, and, the first appearance old god of the Rigveda under the new of Siva. name Owing, however, to the subordinate here in position comparison with the occupied by the gods this Veda ritual, yieldsbut little mythologicalmaterial.
Between it

Aitareya being the


the of others

and

the

and, the Brahmanas, Satapatha, there


of of

the

most

important

of

which
The

are

the

is

no

essential difference.

sacrifice

main

object
or as

general character
increased
the
same

the individual traits of the gods have faded, interest, certain deities has been modified, and the importance Otherwise
the RV. and the

reduced.
that of

pantheon

of

the

Brahmanas

is much

animate

objects is
RV.

still

recognized. The
Brahmanas chief
the

the worship of in the AV., and main the mytho difference between

logy
or

of the

and
as

the

is the

the

Father-god

deity in

the

recognized positionof Prajapati latter. The pantheism of the

4.

METHOD

TO

BE

PURSUED.

Brahmanas
i,

is, moreover, A11 the or 5'") 3i The gods having


to

is said to be the All explicit. Thus ^Prajapati everything (SB. i, 6, 42; 4, 5i 72)lost their distinctive features,there is apparent a and into groups. form the Asuras classes Thus
two
or

(SB.
tend

ency the
on

divide

them

it is characteristic hostile demons camps the of

of the

the

period that
or

supernatural
the
one

hand

powers and

Devas The

gods
are

the three

on

other.

gods

further and the

divided

into the

of the terrestrial
most

Vasus, the aerial Rudras,


is the works of these repre further

celestial of

sentative triad
shows their lord itself in various of The

Adityas (" 45). The Fire, Wind, and Sun.


subdivision Thus forth2. relate
numerous

significant group
formalism deities

The

the

of

individual of

attributes. and
so

they speak

an

of by the personification lord of 'Agni, food', 'Agni,

prayer'

Brahmanas

myths

in

illustration of

their

main

referred of these But where not to in the Samhitas. are subject-matter.Some in in the earlier do the Brahmanas literature, occur only as t hey they appear their said older and shed of be to cannot forms, lighton their developments link between the mythologicalcreations as a original forms, but only serve and of the post-Vedic periods, of the oldest Vedic
i

HRT.

153.

"

BRI.

42;

HRI.

182.

"4.
an

Method and
a

to

be

pursued.
of social We with
own.

Vedic climatic

mythology
conditions
here

is the

product
not

of

age

country,
our

and

far removed
to

and with

widely
direct

from differing
statements

have,
the

moreover,

deal

of poets whose imaginative creations of different attitude towards that of the men mental from nature was vastly involved in dealing with material so difficulty complex and re to-day. The is further increased of so a early thought, by the character presenting stage is thus perhaps no this thought is imbedded. There of the poetry in which subject capable of scientific treatment, which, in addition to requiringa certain caution demands and share of poetical insight, sobriety of judgment more has method which Yet the is of stringency urgently. clearly so necessary, this in Vedic the been of To defect, mythology. largely lacking investigation in con less than to the inherent obscurity of the material, are doubtless no due siderable the many and measure great divergences of opinion prevailing Vedic scholars of important mythologicalquestions. number a on large among earlier Vedic there the of studies In a was tendency to begin period end. The research the at etymological equations of comparative wrong then made the startingpoint. These identifications, though mythology were inter continued the have influence to now unduly mostly rejected, the creations the Veda. of of But even pretation mythological apart from theories based have on general etymological considerations, frequently been of evidence, isolated and second impressions rather than on the careful sifting traits thus sometimes receivingcoordinate weight with what is primary. ary of

fact,but

An
one

unmistakable

bias

has

at

the

same

time

shown
an

itself in favour

of

some

particularprinciple of interpretation1. Thus been mythological figures have explained as An or moon a priori bias respectively. sun, partialutilization of the evidence. consciously Such useful being the case, it may poye
view
to

of unduly large number derived from dawn, lightning, of this kind leads
to
an

un

to

suggest
cautious

some

hints

with
On

principlethat
to

encourage scientific

the

student

in

more following

methods.

the

investigationsshould
which Vedic the

the

less

known,

researches of

character

and

actions

proceed from the better known aim at presenting a true picture of the gods, ought to begin not with the meagre

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

i A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

comparativemythology, but with the information continuous record which contains a practically supplied by Indian literature, in the RV. down its most ancient source to modern of Indian mythology from times 2. All the material bearing on deity or myth ought to be collected, any before of the and sifted con parallelpassages, by comparison any grouped, form the primary features which the basis In this process clusion is drawn3. later accretions. should be separated from of the personification
and

uncertain

conclusions

of

As

soon

as

person

has

taken

the
to

place
weave a

of

natural of

force

in

the

the imagination,

poeticalfancy begins
be

web

secondary myth,
that has from

into

which
to

the material is not essential features,when too limited, betray his in Indra the Thus iteration. themselves myth fightwith Vrtra, by constant that is perpetuallyinsisted on, while the isolated statement is essential, which

nothing Primary

may do

introduced
the

in

the

course

of

time

material

with

creation, but original

is borrowed

elsewhere.

and

he

strikes Vrtra's
an

mother

with
for

his

bolt

(i, 329)
Indra But

is

clearlya
the

later

touch,
RV.

added

by

individual
doubt

poet
the

dramatic

effect.

Again,
that

epithet'Vrtra-slaying',
in the several

without times former is 'the

originally appropriate to
to

alone; is
the the of fond

applied
to

god

Soma

also.

it is transferred
statement

from
that

the

is sufficiently deity, plain from Vrtra-slaying intoxicating plant' (6, I711),


the latter

Soma Indra

juice
such of

of

which

regularly drinks

before
the RV.

the

fray.

The the

transference

cularly easy couples,when


(cp. " 44).

in

because

poets

are

both

share

the characteristic

and exploits

parti celebrating gods in of each other qualities

attributes is

be eliminated from the of course acquired must similar remark A essential features. appliesto attributes and cosmic powers in about have which are equal degree, of many predicated, gods. They can in when evidence It is to as no a particular deity4. regard only cogency attributes and in such to an are applied in a predominant manner powers in such dividual god, that they can with any force. it be adduced For case is possible they might have the started from god in question and gradu thus in this in mind The fact must, however, be borne to others. ally extended that some connexion, more gods are celebrated in very many hymns than others. The there frequency of an attribute applied to different deities must fore
as

Attributes

be

estimated

with

would Indra,, than


as

Thus often as an relatively. epithetconnected in all probability be more essential to the the latter. For value Indra of is invoked in about

with Varuna
character
ten

of
as

the many

former

of

times

any be affected by the relative antiquityof may A statement occurring for the first time in a late

hymns

Varuna.

The

as particular passage the hymn in which

evidence
it
occurs. re same

present

an

old

notion;

but

if it differs from

what

may passage said has been

of
on

course

the

it most earlier hymn, point in a chronologically probably furnishes a later The of the RV.s and tenth the first book the of development. greater part therefore are more likelyto contain later conceptions than the other books.

Moreover,
may book. Soma

the
a

exclusive Vivasvat

connexion
to

of

the

ninth

book

with

Soma

Pavamana

give

different

complexion
and

mythological matter
here with

contained

in another

Trita are the preparationof connected in quite a specialmanner (cp."" 18, 23). As regards the Brahmanas, notions great caution should be exercised in discoveringhistorically primitive in them; for they teem with far-fetched fancies, speculations, and identi
In
to

Thus

fications6.

adducing parallel passages


context.

as can

evidence, due
often

regard
the

should

be
a

paid

the

Their

real

value

only

be

ascertained

by

minute
of ideas

and

complex

consideration

of their

surroundingsand

association

5. THE them with

AVESTA

AND

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

7 After careful

which ation
as

connects

what

precedes
of the

and

follows. aided

estim

of

the later

internal

evidence

Veda,

by

such

corroboration

the

sought
it may Indian
new or

from

literature phases of Indian the closely allied mythology the results derived from enable

afford,further may of the Iranians.


the
us

lightshould

be with the and

confirm evidence
to

Indian
to

Comparison material, or when


what is old

is inconclusive,may

either

decide

attain aid

without like

the

in greater defmiteness of the Avesta, it would about the


now

certain The

conclusions further

conceptions. Thus regard to Vedic be impossible to arrive at anything of the god Mitra. originalnature
taken of

step

parativemythology,
heritage from
of that it becomes the

may in order

be

examining

the

results

of

com

to

wherein ascertain if possible,

consists the Vedic

Indo-European period and what is the the teachings of ethnology cannot heritage.Finally,

originalsignificance be neglected,when

what elements survive still remoter from to ascertain a necessary evidence to all such development. Recourse beyond the range of stage of human the Veda itself must a safeguard against on the one hand assuming that prove

various mythological elements


the Indo-European treating notions. the The latter view would

are

of
as as

purely Indian
the very far from

period
be

on or origin, point of starting

the all

other

hand

mythological

the truth

as

the

Indo-European
i

language represents
ZDMG.
"

the very
-

beginnings of
XXVI"
Die VIII.
-

assumption that Aryan speech7,


-

OLDENBERG,
48, 542.

49, 51.

173.
"

pvs.

BLOOMFIELD,

des Rigveda I, Hymnen Berlin KZ. 1888; E. V. ARNOLD, HOPKINS, JAOS. 17, 23 34, 297. 344; 92. 6 HRI. WZKM. 183. 194; v. SCHR6DER, 7 ORV. 26"33. 9, 120. liber Methode bei Cp. also LUDWIG, Interpretation des Rgveda, Prag 1890; HILLEBRANDT, Vedamterpretation,Breslau 1895.
4

ZDMG.

HRI.

Cp. OLDENBERG,
"

"

" 5. The evidence


of

Avesta the Avesta

and

Vedic be

mytho language with the dialect is so of the Vedas great in syntax, vocabulary, diction, metre, and general of phonetic laws, whole Avestan poetic style, that by the mere application be word into translated word for stanzas Vedic, so as to produce verses may in the domain The correct not of only in form but in poetic spirit1. affinity reform of Zarathustra so mythology is by no means great. For the religious of mytho brought about a very considerable displacement and transformation If therefore literature old as we logical conceptions. possessed Avestan as that of the RV., the have been much approximation would greater in this in detail,in mythology no less than in cult, respect. Still,the agreements
cannot

Mythology. ignored by
of

--

We student

have of

seen

that

the

the

Vedic

logy.

The

of affinity

the

oldest

form

the Avestan

are

numerous. surprisingly

Of necessary

the

ritual it

Avestan yajna yasna, rta dthravan,fire-priest, asa order, all soma of the Soma haoma, the intoxicating juice plant, in both cults offered main the as libation,pressed, purified by a sieve, mixed with milk, and described the lord of plants, as growing on the mountains, as and as brought down by an eagle or eagles (cp. " 37). It is rather with the concerned. In both striking correspondences in mythology that we are is the term ahura the religions asura applied to highestgods, who in both conceived are as mighty kings, drawn through the air in their war chariots in character by swift steeds, and benevolent, almost entirely free from traits. Both the Iranians and the Indians guile and immoral ob served the cult of fire, though under the different names of Agni and Atar. The invoked Waters, dpah by both, though not frequently2. dpo, were The Vedic Mitra is the Avestan Mithra, the sun god. The Aditya Bhaga is vayu, corresponds to bagha^ a god in general; Vayu, Wind a genius of
=

is

here
=

only

identical many mention Vedic to


=

terms

connected

with

the

hotr sacrifice, and above rite,

atharvan zaotar, priest,


=

III.

RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

air;Apam
and
To and Krsanu

napat, the Son


=

of Waters
are

Apam

napat; Gandharva

Gandarewa
=

Keresani

divine

Trita Aptya
to

correspond
the

two

Indra

Vrtrahan

demon

with soma haoma. beings connected named and Thrita Athwya, mythicalpersonages and Indra the genius of victory Verethragna.

of of Vivasvat, ruler of the dead, is identical with Yima, son son Yama, in in The of not ruler character, parallel though paradise. name, Vivanhvant, of in the

god
i

Varuna
as

is Ahura

Mazda,
GEIGER

the wise

The spirit.
terms Grundriss

two

also religions
=

have

common

designationsof
in
2

the evil spirits


and Arische KUHN'S

druh
der

druj
"

and

ydtu\
SPIEGEL,
ORV.
26

BARTIIOLOMAE
i.
"
"

iranischen

Philologie,
3

vol.
op.

i, p.

cit. 225

33;

SPIEGEL, Die Die GRUPPE,

griechischen Culte

Periode, Leipzig 1887, p. 155. und Mythen, I, 86"97;

"33;

HRI,

167"8.
In regard to the Indo-European Mythology. certain ground. Many equationsof name once of discovery and generally accepted, have since enthusiasm
" "

" 6.

Comparative
are on

period
made been

we

far

less

in

the

first

rejectedand
=

Dyaus
of

Ze6;
Varuna

very is the
=

few

of
one

those which

that
can

remain
be

rest

on

firm

foundation.
the range

only

said to

be

beyond

doubt.

seems Oupavo?though presentingphonetic difficulties,

possible. The rain-god Parjanya agrees well in meaning with the Lithuanian here still greater. The are thunder-godPerkunas, but the phonetic objections of Bhaga is identical with the Slavonic bogu as well as the Persian bagha, name the Indo-European word but as the latter two words cannot mean only 'god', the of Usas is individual have name radically deity.Though designated any and as Hu"c, the cult of Dawn a goddess is a specially cognate to Aurora of mythological Indian development. It has been inferred from the identity of traits in the the Indo-European thunder-gods of the various branches family, that a thunder-god existed in the Indo-European period in spiteof
the absence of
a common name.

There

are

also

one

or

two

other

not

im

of character probable equationsbased on identity only. That the conception of higher gods, whose connected with light(]A//V, to shine) and nature was heaven arrived at in the Indo-European period,is (div) had already been shown the deivos (Skt.deva-s, Lith. deva-s} Lat. deu-s)}god. common name by The and Greek to Vedic (common conception of Earth as a mother mytho Zsu father (Skt. Dyaus Gk. as a logy) and of Heaven pitar, iraiep, Lat. from For still date idea of the to remoter a Jupiter) appears antiquity. Heaven and Earth being universal parents is familiar to the mythology of and New China Zealand and may be traced in that of Egypt *. The practice of magical rites and the of inanimate in the still objects surviving worship

Veda,

doubtless

came

down

from

an

equally

remote

stage in the

mental

development
cised by the
be

of mankind, of a certain influence exer though the possibility cannot primitive aboriginesof India on their Aryan conquerors

altogether excluded.
1

GRUPPE

op.

cit. I, 97"

121;

ORV.

33"

8; HRI.

168"

9.

2
"

TYLOR,
"

Primitive

Culture

I, 326; LANG,

Mythology. Encyclopaedia Britannica,

p.

150

I.

II:

VEDIC

CONCEPTIONS
-

OF

THE

WORLD

AND

ITS

ORIGIN.

the

The Universe, the stage on which the actions of enacted, is___regarded by the Vedic poets as divided into the three domains1 of earth, air or The sky when atmosphere, and heaven2. the above whole forms latter the entire as the the earth, with regarded space universe consisting of the upper and the nether vault (ndkd) of world. The the sky is regarded as the limit dividingthe visible upper the world from

" 7. Cosmology.
are

gods

".

COMPARATIVE

MYTHOLOGY.

7. COSMOLOGY.

is the abode of heaven, which of lightand the dwelling favourite triad of the earth the form gods. Heaven, air, and s"ter S^ or implicitly (8, io6. go6 "c.). The RV., constantlyspoken of explicitly phenomena which appear, to take place on the vault of the sky, are referred while those of lightning, to heaven, rain, and wind belong to the atmosphere.

third

or

invisible world the

place

of

But of

when

heaven
are

designatesthe
spoken
of
as

whole

space

above

the In
a

earth

both

classes

phenomena
=

VS. (4, i43 17, 67) the and heaven the world earth, air, Each of the three worlds
are

taking place there. 'vault of the sky' comes


of which light, thus Thus subdivided.

of the AV. passage triad of between the


a

forms three

fourth

division 3.
atmo

is also

earths, three

is the universe mentioned; or when six hear of worlds looked of two as or consisting halves, we upon spaces from the loose of the word use (rajdmsi). This subdivision probably arose prthivl 'earth' (i, io89" I0; 7, I0411)4 in the pluralto denote the three worlds (justas the dual pitarau, 'two fathers' regularlydenotes 'father and mother'). earth is variously called the great (ma/iT), The bhumi, ksam, ksd, gmd, the boundless the broad (prthivl or urvi), the extended (apdra), or (uttdna), with the upper the place here (idam} as contrasted sphere (i, 221?. i54T"3). The does conception of the__e_arth being a disc surrounded by an ocean in it the But Samhitas. not was as circular, naturallyregarded being appear (io, 894) and expressly called circular (parimandald) compared with a wheel

spheres,

three

heavens

sometimes

in

the

SB.6
four

The
an

in the substantives AV. as 42") and 'four quarters? (AV. 15, 2 ff.). Hence ^(pradisali)are spoken of (io, i98), with the whole earth also used term a as (i, i64*2), and the synonymous earth is described as 'four-pointed' (io, 58 3). Five points are occasionally mentioned in the middle that (9, 8629; AV. 3, 24^ "c.), when (10,42",), where the speaker stands, denotes the fifth. The AV. also refers to six (the zenith be same even seven being added) and points5. The points may meant by the seven regions (disaJi)and the seven places (dhdmd) of the earth spoken of in the RV. (9, ii43; i, 22l6). Heaven div is also commonly termed or sky, or as pervaded vyoman, with light, the 'luminous (with or without div ah}. Designations space', rocana of the dividing the 'summit' firmament besides the 'vault' are (sdnu], 'surface' (vis expressions 'ridge of the tap},'ridge' (prstha), as well as the compound vault' (i, i255cp. 3, 212) and 'summit Even of the vault' (8, 922)3. a "third three is mentioned of heaven' ridge in the luminous (9, 86 27). When space heavens are they are very often called the three luminous distinguished spaces (frTrocana}) a highest (uttama), a middle, and a lowest being specified(5,6o6). The and pdrya uttara highestis also termed (4, 266; 6, 40 5). In this third heaven or highest or vyomari) the gods, the fathers^ (very often parame rocane and Soma conceived are as abiding. Heaven and earth are coupled as a dual conception called by the terms others (" 44), and rodasi] ksom, dvydvaprthivi and spoken of as the two halves 'with the The the combination (2, 27^). semi-spherical sky causes -R^ notion 'the called of the earth's shape to be modified, when the two two are other' each towards they are (3, 5520). Once (camva) turned great bowls the axle wheels ends of the to two at an (io, 894). compared heaven The between RV. makes the supposed distance reference to no and birds in the such that not soar can even earth, except phrases as vague to the abode 'the that of Visnu But the AV. two 8l8) (io, (i, 1555). says wings of the yellow bird (the sun) flyingto heaven are 1000 days' journey adverbial
io,

points of the form (7, 72s;

compass

are

already

mentioned

in

the

RV.

in

36

14.

io

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

apart'. A
that '1000

similar notion

is found for
a

in the

AB.,

where

it is remarked

(2, iy8)
here'.

days' journey
states
cows

horse the

Another
as 1000

Brahmana

that each

heavenly heavenly world

the

world is
21,
as i

is distant from far from

this world

standing on
or

other

(PB. 16, 86;

(antariksd) is and cloud, it sonification. As region is sometimes is described as thought of watery (i, i245 cp. 5, 85 2j and 'black' it is spoken of as (i, 35 2"4'9; 8, 436). The triple dark, when as the three is referred to as subdivision rajdmsi (4, ^or 5; 53 5, 69 x). spaces of then uttama is (3, as or The (9, 225j, parama spoken trtlya, 30 2), highest and Soma the and the waters are the third (9, 746; io, 45 3. I238;, where _"
The air

intermediate
the

space of mists

9). hardly susceptible of per is also called rajas which

Agni is produced. The two lower perception,but the third belongs to once to be the 'mysterious' latter seems space
celestial
our

spaces Visnu

are

within
r

the

range

of The

(7, 99
to

referred

cp. i, elsewhere Then

i555).
the

(io, io57).
lower

The

twofold

subdivision

of

the

atmosphere

is

commoner.

(upard) or divah) space

with heavenly (divyam or (i, 62s; 4, 533). The uppermost stratum, as being contiguous often with heaven (div) in the twofold as well as the tripledivision,seems heaven in the with strict be sense. to loosely employed as synonymous terrestrial (parthiva) is contrasted
the

Absolute
even

definiteness
the
same

or

consistency in
could
not

the

statements

of

different poets
in

or

of

poet
above

reasonably
in the

be

expected

regard

to

such

matters.

The

air

being

the
two

earth
or

threefold

division of the

universe,

whether its subdivisions,


as

above

it also; and
7, So1; lower of

one

the RV.

'terrestrial space' is in

naturally have been three, would regarded that at least (i, 8i5cp. 90 7) clearlyshows verse of this position. Three the however, passages,
been
was

(6, 91;
that

5,

view7
for

the

8i4) have atmosphere


sun

thought
as

to

lend

themselves the

to
account

the

conceived

under least

earth,to
goes

the

course

the

during the night.


the effect may, that

The

indefinite

of

'fhese

three
on

passages both sides

(5,8i4)

is to

(ubhayatah).
between

This the

Savitr,the however, mean


and

sun,

round
more

night
than

nothing
sunrise.

that the

night
view
the

is enclosed

limits of sunset

At

any

rate,

advanced

is,that
shine
statement

(3, 44 *) as to the sun's course luminary shines upwards at night, while it turns
in RV. the that the

in the AB.

during the night


round
account
so as

to

downwards of

daytime. the lightwhich


A

similar
the that

notion
sun's the

may steeds

for

the

draw

is sometimes

bright and
the
sun

sometimes
the
east
no

dark

(i, H55),
to

or

rajas which

to

is different from direct reference


to

the

There

being
of
to

lightwith which he the sun passingbelow


the way what but

rises (io,
the

accompanies 373).
earth, the

balance

seems probabilities

favour
east

view
he

that

supposed
darkened
the

return

towards

the

the

during the return journey. As to daytime, a doubt is expressed (i, 24"),


The

came, becomes
no

luminary was becoming entirely of the stars during


the made.

conjecture is

of the (samudra) as the abode It is also assimilated the waters. it has to as earth, inasmuch mountains and flow there which streams (i, 322"c.) seven (i, 3212"c.), when the conflict with the of drought takes place. Owing the demon to
a sea

atmosphere

is often

called

celestial

(parvata) thus very often in the to clear enough. The sense figurative being generally word 'rock' (adri) is further regularly in a mythological used for 'cloud' sense as released enclosingthe cows by Indra and other gods9. The rainclouds as containing the waters, as dripping,moving and roaring, are liable to theriomorphism as milk is rain. peculiarly cows10, whose
term

obvious RV.

resemblance

the

'mountain'

refers

the clouds8,

1 2

III.

RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

in the RV. The first is tem drought,has three principleapplications of One idea the phenomenon precedinganother priority. poral, as involving and the dawns the Thus its is spoken of as generate (Jan) the sun parent. is born herself of Night (i, 1239). morning sacrifice (7, 78 3), while Dawn with is changed, contradictions regard to such relation the point of view As is ascribed the risingof the dawn ships naturally arise (cp. p. 48). When in is be found this notion the of sacrifice the to the Fathers, explanation to in The local of priority.Secondly, a frequently occurs. application space Illustrations which a thing is contained or produced is its father or mother. Thus the quiver is furnished statements. of this are by purely figurative are called the father of the arrows (6, 755) or the bright steeds of the sun after

termed

the

daughters

of

his

car

(i, so9).

This

idea

of

local the

parentage

is

feature called

with and connected heaven especially in the of Dyaus personification

earth.

Paternityis
and

characteristic is constantly

(see " n),

Dawn

Similarlythe Earth, who produces vegetation earth mother and her a (i, 89 4 "c.). Heaven on (5,84 often found coupled as universal parents, a conception however, more are, fertilizes the earth by the- descent obvious enough from the fact that heaven and and further that both of moisture developed by the observation light, in the form of the nourishment to livingbeings, one rain, the other supply in that of herbage. They are the parents of the gods (" 44). characteristically and often said to have created the latter are heaven As earth, we thus arrive of the Vedic that the children at the paradox produced their own poets for described as instance, being having begotten his father parents; Indra, and mother his own from body (i, i592; 10, 54 3). Again, the raincloud is the mother of the lightning cow calf, or the heavenly waters, as carrying the embryo of the aerial fire,are of the forms of the its mothers, for one is 'Son also 'the of of the steep' waters' (" 24). son to fire-god appears be of lightning in the AV. a name (i, i32'3; cp. 263 and RV. i422). 10,
the 'daughter of Heaven'.
broad bosom

3), is

Thirdly, the
who

notion

of

parentage
most

arises

from

generic point
of
a

of

view:

he

is the
Thus of of the

chief, the Vayu,


Maruts

prominent

member

group,

becomes

their

parent.
father mother

Wind, is father of the Storm-gods (i, I344), Rudra, is or Rudras, Soma, father of plants, while SarasvatI
two

rivers.
are

of the idea of paternity in the applications is languages,an abstract quality quite frequently em ployed in a figurative sense (which is sometimes developed) mythologically the of that to who bestow sons or represent qualityin parent possess eminent Thus in an the (sunavah or degree. general are sons pitrdJi) gods of immortality1 well of skill, daksa as as sons (8, 255; cp. " 19). Agni is the 'son of strength' or of 'force' (" 35). Pusan is the 'child of setting free'2. Indra is the 'son of truth' (8, 58 4), the 'child of cow-getting' (4,32 22), and the 'son of might' (savasah, twice mother his Si '*, being called 4, 24 x; 8, 5. 66 2). Mitra-Varuna the 'children of great might'. Another s'avas'i, 8, 45 are is much less common. father As transmits his qualities application to his a is also occasionally son, his name sur transferred,something like a modern RV. As in the

There

also

minor

Semitic

name.

Thus
son. sense

visvarupa,
the

an

epithet of Tvastr,
name

becomes

the

proper

name

of in

his the

Analogously
of the

of

Vivasvat

is

applied to

his

son

Manu

patronymic

Vatiasvata of

(Val. 41).

originof the universe, involvingneither of the RV., of the latest hymns given in one the well-known details in this myth purusa-sukta (10, 90). Though several point to the most recent period of the RV., the main idea is very primitive,
the manufacture
nor

mythological account

generation, is

8.

COSMOGONY.

as

it

accounts

for

the

formation
a

of

the

world

from his his

the head mind

body
became

of

With

him
his four

the the eye the

his navel from The his

gods performed air,and his feet


the
sun,

when sacrifice, earth. Indra His From and

the

giant. sky,

the

from
arose

his

mouth him.

Agni,

the moon, sprang his breath, wind. from

became the brahmana, his feet the rdjanya or warrior, his thighs the vaisya, and itself is pantheistic,for it is The sudra. given in the hymn interpretation is said 'all both that what has become Purusa and what this, there (v. 2) and the the AV. In shall be'. Upanisads (Mund. Up. 2, i10) (10, 17) is also pantheistically He Purusa interpreted as identical with the universe. is also identified with Brahma (Chand. Up. i, 7 5). In the SB. (n, i, 6 x) he
castes
arms

also

from

mouth

is the

same

as are

the Prajapati, in the

creator.

There

last book

of

the

RV. than of

some

hymns
RV. the

which

treat

the

of the world origin show


as an

rather philosophically

Various mythologically. the he


sun was

passages

that

in the

cosmological speculation
of

important agent
moves

generation.
(i, 115*).

Thus

is called such
as

the

soul he

regarded (dtmd) of
is called

all that

and

stands

Statements

that

that his names though one by many 10, ii45 cp. Vol. io2) indicate abstracted that of to a nature was being tentatively god, nearly supreme In this sense the approaching that of the later conception of Brahma. sun

(i, 164^;

glorifiedas a great power 'golden embryo', hiranya-garbha,


is
once

of in

the

universe
io,
121. sun -3

under It is

the he

name

of
measures

the

RV.

who In

out
verse

in the space of this hymn, became that older the

air he of

and

shines

where

the

rises

(vv. 5" 6).


It is

the

last

is called the chief

Prajapati4,'lord of created

which in
an

god^ of

the

Brahmanas.
occurs same

the name beings', that significant is


to

the

only

epithet of
over

it of the RV. in which passage in the solar deity Savitr,who and other
a 6

(4, 532),prajdpati hymn (v.6) is said


both

rule

what
are

moves

stands5.

There of the

two
as

cosmogonic hymns
of evolution that of the

which

explain

the

origin

universe In
io,

kind

existent (sat)from

the non-existent

(asat).
like
a

72

it is said the

Brahmanaspati
the

smith.
arose

From the

non-existent

existent

was

earth, the spaces, Aditi with born. The There gods then brought forward the sun. were gods were eight she brought him of Aditi, but the eighth, sons to Martanda, she cast away; die (i. be born and rise and be to to e. set). Three can distinguished stages is produced, then in this hymn: first the world the gods, and lastlythe sun. and sublime In RV. abstract a a very more hymn, it is affirmed io; 129, that nothing existed in the beginning, all being void. Darkness and space waters enveloped the undifferentiated (cp. io, 82 6. i2i7, AV. 2, 8). The desire (kama), Then one primordial substance (ekam) was produced by heat. the This is first seed the the bond between of mind (inanas) arose. non existent this emanation into and the existent. the gods came By being. But here the poet, overcome by his doubts, gives up the riddle of creation as unsolvable. short hymn A of three stanzas (io, 190) forms a sequel to the it is stated that from Here more general evolution of that just described. heat then the the the order (tapas) was (rta)-, night, produced ocean, year; in and and heaven creator succession sun (dhdta) produced earth, moon,
succession
air and In ether.
a

forged together this world in Thence produced. Aditi and after the Daksa;

similar

strain to

RV.

io,

'formerlynothing existed, neither being non-existent resolved to come


cosmogonic
view of the Brahmanas

129 heaven into

Brahmana
nor

passage
nor

declares

that

earth

being' (TB. 2, requiresthe agency

2,

atmosphere, which regular 9 ff.). The


x

of

creator, who

is

14

HI.

RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

not, however,
the is the All. which

always

the who

starting point.
is not

Brahma, personal.
is the

is Prajapati
first seed

here

an

here is Prajapati or gods, men, and demons, but of the desire anthropomorphic representation
creator

The

only

father

of

spoken

of in RV.

10,

129.

In

all these

accounts

the

and creating,or else the point is either Prajapatidesiringoffspring starting floated the cosmic which on Hiianyagarbha golden egg, waters, primeval that desires and the Universe. This is produced the spirit creates whence the of of the contradiction to waters as fundamental priority Prajapatior the theory of evolution the that of result of with be to combining appears

creation.

Besides

this

there
create

are

many

minor

conflicts

of

statement,
the

as,

for

gods account The given in the Chandogya became being; the latter changed into
in two
is

instance, that the

and Prajapati

that

Prajapaticreates
(5, 19)
is that
a

Brahmana
an

egg,

which

after

year

gods 7. not-being by splitting

became

heaven

and

Brahma8
the

(cp. Ch.
order of

Up.

3,

was earth; whatever produced is the sun, which in the I91"4). Again, Brhadaranyaka Upanisad

(5,61),
Brahma,
The

evolution

this (universe); they


from Brahma

were beginning waters from this was produced the real (satyam)-, produced from the gods. Prajapati, Prajapati as a

is thus

stated:

In

the

All-god appears

creator

in the

AV.

under of

the

new

names

of

life (AV. n, 4), Rohita, Support, Pranaq, and various others I0. The notable of the sun, Kama, Desire, most describes the raising of the submerged cosmogonic myth of the Brahmanas in post-Vedic mythology developed into an Avatar earth by a boar, which

Skambha,
a name

the

breath personified

as

of Visnu.11.
i

OST.
et

vatat

5, 52. Ameretat,
OGR.

"

OST.

5, 175,

note note
6

271;
2.
"

BRV.
3

2, 422

ff.; DARMESTETER,
HRI.
4,
20
"

Haur4

83; ORV". 232,


" "

SPH.
"

27"8;
7

208.

"

SPH.

29.
-

"

WEBER,

295; \VC. 50"1. IS. i, 261. 9

OST.

5,

48.
"

OST.

ff.;HRI.
"

208-9.

SPH.

69"72.

10

HRI.

209.

MACDONELL,
IS. AIL.

JRAS. 1895, PP9, 74;

178-89.

HAUG, Die LUDWIG,


BRI.

WEBER, Kosmogonie der Inder, Allgemeine Zeitung,1873, P- 2373 ff-; Die des Veda; Anschauungen philosophischen und religiosen
"

217; veda

30

Samhita, alten Volker,

der aus Philosophische Hymnen Rig- und Atharvader Die 1887; LUKAS, Grundbegriffe in den Kosmogonien Leipzig 1893, pp. 65"99. I;

SCHERMAN,

Miinchen

" 9.
tained
in

Origin
the Vedas

of

gods
about

and

men.

"

As

most

of

the

statements

con

gods need here be added. In only a brief summary with the originof the gods is mostly connected said to have AV. arisen from (10, 7 25) they are to one cosmogonic hymn (10, 129") they were
the

the

of the origin

have the

mentioned, philosophical hymns the alreadybeen


of water1. In the

element

the non-existent. born after

According
creation
of

the

Heaven

of the children as general described a 2) tripleorigin,apparently (10, 63 passage division of the universe, is ascribed to the gods, correspondingto the triple when been said to have 'born from Aditi, from the waters, from they are the earth' (cp. i, 139"). According no doubt to a secondary conception, Thus the certain individual gods are spoken of as having begotten others. is called Dawn the mother of the gods (i,ii319) and Brahmanaspati (2, 26 3), of seven well as Soma_-(9, as or 872), is said to be their father. A group eight gods, the Adityas, are regarded as the sons of Aditi. In the AV. some gods are spoken of as fathers,others as sons2 (AV. i, 3o2). The rather Vedic are conceptions on the subject of the origin of man but the human fluctuating, race regarded as generally to have been appear from descended first man. The latter is called either Vivasvat's son a Manu, who the first sacrificer (10, 637) and father who is also spoken of as was

Universe.
and

Otherwise

they
one

are

in

Earth.

In

9. ORIGIN

OF

GODS

AND

MEN.

10.

GENERAL

CHARACTER

AND

CLASSIFICATION.

15

is Yama with his he who Vaivasvata, Vivasvat's son, The of when race. produced the human thought origin men, conceived have been to of as going back beyond this first ancestor, seems is of Vivasvat the father the while celestial. once (" 18) primeval twins, as and the water the celestial Gandharva are designated as their highest nymph Men's also alluded to 3; kin (10, io*). relationshipto the gods is sometimes have been the of and must thought of as included offspring men among of all that is said and the exists. Heaven Again, Agni Earth, great parents the have (i, 962-4), and to Angirases, the begotten the offspring of men described his sons. of later priestly families, are semi-divine ancestors as families other Various human are independently descended spoken of as others the from Atri, Kanva, and (i, i399). gods through their founders Mitra divine and the Vasistha (7, 33 JI) was Varuna, miraculously begotten by his mother. different order To of ideas quite a nymph Urvasi having been from belongs the conception of the origin of various classes of men parts of the world (" 8, p. 13). giant Purusa4 Manus

(i,

80

l6); or

twin sister Yam!

SPH.

32.

"

OST.

5, 13 f., 23 f., 38 f.

"

BRV.

i,

36.

"

ORV.

275

"

7.

125-8.

III. THE

VEDIC

GODS.

"
line This is

10.

General lack of

character

and

classification.
the Vedic

"

Indefiniteness
of the

of out

conception gods. the to mainly due to the fact that they are nearer physical pheno which mena they represent, than the gods of any other Indo-European people. Thus the ancient Vedic (Nir. 7, 4) speaking of the nature interpreterYaska1 is not is seen of them that what of the gods, remarks anthropomorphic at the and The natural bases of in of others. the the case Earth, Sun, all,as while the Vedic characteristics, they gods have, to begin with, but few specific share of the attributes of other some belonging to the same phenomena domain. features of being luminous, Thus Dawn, Sun, Fire have the common in The absence of distinctiveness the darkness, appearing morning. dispelling
and
must

characterize individuality

be
one

still and up
common

greater when
same

several

deities have
Hence traits
as

of

the of

phenomenon.
a

different aspects from sprung of each Vedic the character god with
a

is made features wisdom.

only
to

few

essential

combined

number

of

other

all the

gods,

such

Certain

great

cosmical

functions action
to

beneficence, and brilliance, power, are predicated of nearly every

leading deity individually. The


and
even are

of

supporting or
that in the

heaven establishing AV.


a

earth

is

so

ascribed described
as

to

generally attributed magical bunch a

them,
darbha

(19, 32)
dozen
are

it is

of
two

having
the

created
to

the

worlds,

grass. and rather

Nearly
more

gods
said
to

have
a

produced sky, or to prepared sun, the path for it. Four or five are also spoken of as having spread out worlds. Several earth, the sky, or the two (Surya, Savitr,Pusan, Indra, Prais stationary. and janva, and the Adityas) are lords of all that moves in is because features tend what obscure to common essential, LJSuch of and hymns praisethey naturallyassume specialprominence. Againr prayer in gods belonging to different departments, but having prominent functions are god of common, apt to be approximated. [JThus Agni, primarily the terrestrial fire,dispels the demons with his lightwhile Indra, the of darkness aerial god of the thunderstorm, slays them with his lightning] Into the con the further of his the ception enters fire-god atmosphere. aspect as lightningin The in pairs. assimilation is increased by such gods often being invoked
have have

placed it in the

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

These selves
to

combinations

result in

attributes
the

to peculiar

the

one

them god attaching


Thus and

be

latter appears to the other, even winner of called Soma- drinker,Vrtra-slayer, when

alone.
cows

Agni
sun

comes

waters,

and

dawns,
The
mon

attributes all

primarily belonging to
of

Indra.
so

indefiniteness

outline
the

distinctive attributes, coupled with to every nearly every power god, renders identification of ones by assigning identifications are Such of fact as a matter one god with another easy. the in Thus exclaims: 'Thou the RV.1 a fire-god poet addressing frequent kindled thou becomest Mitra, in thee, at thy birth,O Agni, art Varuna; when all gods are of strength, O son centred; thou art Indra to the worshipper'
few

by the possessionof tendency to wipe out the


caused

many

com

(5, 3 x).
in the

Reflexions of
a

eyes

the on particular devoted priesthood

in

nature to
a

of fire

Agni,
cult,

so on

important a god
his many mani

individual fires on as earth, and on aspects as atmospheric lightningand as celestial fire in the sun, aspects which the Vedic would fond of alluding to in riddles, suggest the idea that various poets are of divine but forms deities are different a single being. This idea is found of the RV. 'The in more than one one being priestsspeak of in passage call it Matarisvan' (i, Yama, they Agni, i644"; cp. AV. many ways; 10, 828. festations
fire in 13, that

his other

4I5J. 'Priests and poets with is but one' (10, ii45). Thus
a

words

make

it appears

the bird (= into many that by the end of the

the

sun)

Rigvedic

monotheism find there We had been arrived at. polytheistic of not a incipient pantheistic conception deityrepresenting only all the gods but nature well. For the Aditi is identified not as goddess only with all the gods, but with men, all that has been and shall be born, air, is not and heaven all gods, (i, 89 10);and Prajapati god above only the one but embraces all things(10, i2i8-10). This pantheistic view becomes deve fully in and the AV. is explicitly (10, 7*4. *5j loped accepted in the later Vedic

period
even

kind

of

the

literature 2.

gods are often invoked as the The fact conclusion. out to logical that the Vedic be to engrossed in the praise of the poets frequentlyseem particular deity they happen to be invoking,that they exaggerate his attributes the point of inconsistency, has to discussed theory given rise to the much which MAX MULLER and which he has the of Henoto name originated given theism or Kathenotheism 3. According to thistheory, 'the belief in individual gods alternately regarded as the highest', [theVedic poets attribute to the be all the to god they happen addressing treating nighest traits of divinity, him for the moment if he were" as an absolutelyindependent and supreme deity, alone present to the mindj Against this theory it has been urged 4 that Vedic deities are not represented 'as independent of all the rest',since no its and com into religion more brings frequent and varied juxtaposition gods and that even the mightiest made bination, are dependent gods of the Veda others. Varuna Thus and Va on subordinate Indra are to (i,ioi3), Surya and the Asvins runa the Visnu submit of and to Indra, (i, I564), power
but highest, this notion

In

the

older

parts of the RV.


is not

individual

carried

its

Mitra- Varuna,
It has been

Aryaman,

Rudra

cannot

resist the ordinances

ofSavitr

(2, 389).
to

further

pointed out
all the the

that in the

frequent hymns addressed


the the lesser ones,
are

the

or viivedevahi All-gods, and that as succession,

deities,even
mass

great

of

Vedic

for

the

ritual of

the

Soma

which offering, technical in that ritual.

included
not

the but
a

hymns was worship


know the

praised in composed
of
exact

almost rela

the

entire pantheon, the

priest could
Even in

tive position of each

god
as

when

god

is spoken

of

as

unique

or

chief (eka),

is natural

enough

laudations, such

statements

THE

VEDIC

GODS,

i o.

GENERAL

CHARACTER

AND

CLASSIFICATION.

rose

force temporarily monotheistic through the modifications or corThus the a context verse. or even lections supplied by by the same poet should is lord also be like Varuna, of wealth'. It that alone, 'Agni says in pairs, and largergroups, that gods are remembered triads, constantlyinvoked in conjunction with the exalted Varuna one being mostly addressed even in with other in Henoseveral other 6, 67) or gods (as god (as 2, 28). rather than theism is therefore a an an reality, appearance pro appearance due to duced undeveloped anthropomorphism, by the by the indefiniteness Vedic the constant lack of any as god occupying the position of a Zeus of the the natural of the head or priest tendency singerin pantheon, by his and to a god to exaggerate ignore other particular extolling greatness in the unity of the gods (cf.the refrain of gods, and by the growing belief of whom might be regarded as a type of the divine. Heno3? 55)" each the tendency of the term theism might, however, be justified to express as a their RV. towards ^The the earth Vedic
or

kind

of monotheism.
as

Vedic

gods,

has

been
are "Ac

shown,
described This
are

had

poets, since some|jrnAC ^f


7

they
^th^r

in

beginning in the view of and the offspring of heaven as different generations itself implies
a

earlier (purve) gods of"~golls7but


An

in several to expressly referred is also of the first age or spoken of(7, 21 gods "c.). passages (io; 722-3). The AV. (n, 810) speaks of ten gods as having existed before This is expressly stated The mortal 5. the rest. gods, too,, were originally in the AV. of all the gods state this both (n, 5^; 4, n6). The Brahmanas Indra and of the individual (AB. 8, i44), Agni (AB. 3, 4), gods (SB. 10, 4, 3 3) immortal is and not Prajapati (SB. 10, i, 31)6. That they were originally For jmmortality was bestowed them on by Savitr (4, 54 implied in the RV. VS. 33, 54) or by AgnT (6, 74; AV. 4, 23"). They are also said to have it by drinking Soma. is called the prin (Q, io68 cp. io92-3), which obtained of another the of RV. immortality (10, 53'"), (SB. 9, 5^i 8). In ciple passage is not clear. but by what means they are said to have acquired immortality, According to a later conception Indra is stated to have conquered heaven by tapas or austerity(10, I671). The gods are said to have attained divine rank death by con means (TB. 3, 12, 3*), or to have overcome by the same I9 tinence and to have ) and austerity (AV. 11,5 acquired immortalitythrough Rohita the gods are death stated to have overcome (AV. 13, 1 7). Elsewhere (TS. 7, 4, 2 J). Indra and several by the performance of a certain ceremony other gods are said to be unaging (3, 46 "c.), but whether the immortality of the gods was regarded by the Vedic poets as absolute, there is no evi dence show. to According to the post- Vedic view their immortality was only relative, being limited to a cosmic age. The of the gods is anthropomorphic, though only physical appearance in a shadowy it for often represents only aspects of their natural manner; also earlier
2
=

bases

described figuratively

to

illustrate their

activities7. Thus

head,, face,

mouth, cheeks,, breast, belly, arms, hands, fingers,feet eyes, hair,shoulders,, attributed to various individual gods. Head, breast, arms, and hands are are m entioned in connexion with warlike Indra the of and the chiefly equipment
Maruts. his eye is intended rays, and his physical aspect. to The limbs of Agni merely represent tongue and denote his flames. The referred to to fingers of Trita are only in order
arms

The

of

the

sun

are

simply his

illustrate his character


to

as

preparer

of

Soma,

and

the

emphasize
as

his
or

powers of

of that

having
in the
case

Two or drinkingSoma8. assuming all forms (visvarupd}.It of deities


III.
1 A.

three is
so

belly of gods
to

Indra
are

only spoken

easy

understand conceived

whose

outward

shape

was

vaguely

Indo-arische

Philologie.

20

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

in the
the

RV.

where .It is

they

are

spoken
that

of

as

probable the gods (cp. pp. 14. 17). to as gradation of rank among in when one (8, 30') it is said It is only a seeming contradiction passage all the are to with reference gods, 'none of you is small or young; you this could zods the on directly for hardly point a addressing poet great'; pt is certain that two gods tower above have expressed himself differently, Indra as the mighty warrior about deities equal in power, the rest as leading
(i, 2713).
Vedic

this statement

and old small, young great and view the settled of represents

poets

and

Varuna
to

as

the

supreme Ahura

moral of

The rulerTJ his

older

form

of Varuna supreme

owing
warrior
when

the

predominance
as

ethical
in

the qualities,

became, god of
into
the

Zoroastrianism

and

appears moral world Taws"~ot the~pKysTcaland supreme held has been It be called a popular god. cannot the

god

of

the

Mazda, while conquering Aryans.

India

Indra

developed
as

Varuna

preeminent only are contemplated, by various scholars


older
no
a

that Varuna
were

and

the

Adityaswere
Indra the in that

the

highestgods
is at

of any

an

period, but
evidence
subordinate
to

later that

displacedby
Indra
even

(p. 28). There


oldest
Mazda

rate

show

position. It
a

is true

demon

in the

Avesta. in the

power
to

with

Varuna

the

Mazda
ritual the

background when to Indra and supreme20 (cp. p. 28)."^Next These and deities Agni two along SomaJJ
of

Rigvedic period occupied is the highest god and Indra only But if Indra even possessed coordinate originally Indo-Iranian period, he was necessarily relegated made Ahura the reform of the Avestan religion
Ahura Varuna
come

the
are,

two

great

with

Indra
most

judged by
dedicated
come

frequency

the hymns
fact

addressed

to

them,

the three

popular deities
are

of the RV. their in the

For, roughly speaking,three-fifths of its hymns


The

to

praise. family books,


book,
with the of the the of

that the
the

hymns

to

Agni

and

Indra

always
to

first have
a

while

great majority of the


confirms each of
to

hymns

Soma

whole
the

ninth, to themselves,

this conclusion21. the


are

Following
in the

number

hymns

dedicated with

remaining deities,com
mentioned

RV., 2) Asvins, distinguished: i) Indra, Agni, Soma; gods may Maruts, Varuna; 3) Usas, Savitr,Brhaspati, Surya, Pusan; 4) Vayu, Dyavastatistical standard can Visnu, Rudra; 5) Yama, Parjanya22. The prthivl, frequency
names

bined

which

their

five

classes

be

of

course

be in

only
only

with about
over

Mitra)
250
400

about

partial guide. For thirty hymns,


the Asvins
can

Varuna

is celebrated

his claim

name over

being
50

mentioned
and

(mostlytogether altogether
are

times,while
times.
Yet

hymns

named

they

cannot

be

said

to

Their the

relative sacrifice
to
as

prominence
deities of

owing morning light.Again, the importance of


with
the Indra.

is doubtless

in greatness. approach Varuna with their closer connexion to the Maruts have
to

is due
enter

their association
an

Similar considerations

would

into
an

estimate

of

Such

estimate

involves

relative greatness of other deities in the list. and doubts. considerable difficulties A classification
rank would

according to gradationsof
for
an

therefore not

afford

basis satisfactory

gods. classification, satisfactory might take as its basis the relative age of the mythologicalconception,according as it dates from the period of separate national Indian existence, the Indo-Iranian, or from the Indo-European epoch. Thus be considered Rudra, Visnu may Brhaspati, the creations of purely Indian least is there at no adequate mythology; evidence that they go back It has already been to show earlier age. to an indicated (" 5) that a number of mythologicalfigures date from the IndoIranian period. But as to whether any of the Vedic gods besides Dyaus may be traced back doubt is justified. to the Indo-European period, considerable
account

of

the

Vedic

Another

but

stillless

20

III.

RELIGION,
where It is

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

in the
the

RY.

they

are

spoken

of

(i, 2713).
Vedic
It is with

probable that this to gradation of poets as


a

and old small, young great and statement represents the settled view of
as

rank in

among
one

only

seeming contradiction
to

when

gods (cp.pp. 14. 17). (8, 30 l) it is said passage

the

all are gods, 'none of you is small or young; you this the could on sjods directly point hardly great';for a poet addressing pitis certain that two gods tower above have expressed himself differently, Indra the mighty warrior as equal in power, the rest as leading deities about reference the and Varuna
to
as

the

supreme Ahura

moral of

The rulerTJ his

older

form

of Varuna supreme

became,

owing

the

predominance
as

ethical
in
(

the qualities, India Indra

god
into

of the

Zoroastrianism

Mazda,

while

developed

as preeminent only conquering Aryans. Varuna appears moral world laws "ot the "pEysTcaland the supreme are when contemplated, be called and cannot a popular god. It has been held by various scholars older the highestgods of an and the Adityaswere that Varuna period, but is Indra There evidence at rate later to 28). no were (p. displacedby any in oldest subordinate the Indra that show even Rigvedic period occupied a Mazda Indra is the highest god and only position. It is true that Ahura in the Avesta. But if Indra demon even possessed coordinate a originally in the Indo-Iranian with Varuna period, he was relegated necessarily power the reform of the Avestan made when Ahura the to religion background Indra and Varuna Mazda the to two come supreme20 (cp. p. 28).f/Next great These ritual deities Agni and two along with Indra judged by SornaTJ are, the frequency of the hymns addressed to them, the three most popular deities of the RV. dedicated to For, roughly speaking,three-fifths of its hymns are their praise. The fact that the hymns Indra first to Agni and come always have in the family books, while the great majority of the hymns to Soma a this confirms conclusion21. whole book, the ninth, to themselves, Following the number of the hymns dedicated of the remaining deities,com to each

god \yarrior

of

the

in the RV., mentioned are 2) Asvins, Indra, Soma; distinguished: i) gods may Agni, Maruts, Varuna; 3) Usas, Savitr,Brhaspati, Surya, Piisan; 4) Vayu, Dyavastatistical standard Visnu, Rudra; 5) Yama, Parjanya22. The can prthivl, of course be only a partial is celebrated guide. For Varuna (mostlytogether with Mitra) in only about hymns, his name thirty being mentioned altogether about and the named while Asvins claim can over are times, hymns 250 50 in times. Yet be Varuna said cannot to over they approach 400 greatness.

bined

with

the of

frequency

with

which

their

names

five

classes

be

Their
the

relative
as

prominence
deities of

sacrifice
to

owing to their closer connexion morning light.Again, the importance of the


with
the Indra.

is doubtless

with Maruts have


to

is due
enter

their association
an

Similar considerations

would

into
an

estimate

of

Such

estimate

involves

relative greatness of other deities in the list. considerable difficultiesand doubts. A classification
rank would

according to gradationsof
for
an

basis a satisfactory gods. Another but stillless satisfactory classification, might take as its basis the relative age of the mythologicalconception,according as it dates from the period of separate national the Indo-Iranian, or Indian existence, from the Indo-European epoch. Thus be considered Brhaspati, Rudra, Visnu may the creations of purely Indian adequate mythology; at least there is no evidence It has already been to show that they go back earlier age. to an indicated (" 5) that a number of mythologicalfigures date the from IndoIranian period. But as to whether of Vedic the besides Dyaus may gods any be traced back doubt is justified. to the Indo-European period, considerable therefore not
afford
account

of

the

Vedic

CELESTIAL

GODS.

1 1
.

DYAUS.

classification according
rest
on

to
a

the

fore

too

uncertain of

of age foundation.

the

creation mythological
various the deities task of

would

there

The furnish line of On


a

stage

which personification basis would the


on

the

represent,, might

possible
the

of

classification.
too

But

drawing
open For

clear

demarcation

involve

many bases

difficulties. Vedic which

whole,

classification of the
the natural

deities least

to

ob

is jection, in
some a

that

founded

they represent.

cases

is,and
wrong

risk

what there be a doubt the to as may is therefore involved of describinga this method and offers

substrate physical particular deity

though really
in the

the advantage of bringing together been facilitating comparison. It has therefore cognate various in The the have been phenomena grouped adopted followingpages. itself and adhered to according to the tripledivision suggested by the RV.

place,

deities of

character

thus

by

its oldest
i

commentator. 5, 219;
BRI.

OST.
PhR.

26; BDA.

12"14;

ORV.

100.

2
"

HRI.

138"40.

"

MM.,

ASL. 52;

526. 532. 546; Chips


iSoff.;
OST.

f.; KRV. 3, XXVII 33; und 26. Mitra, 105; BRI.


Henotheism
in the HRI. 4, i, 7,

266. 285. 298 f. 312 ff.; Science of Religion i, 28; OCR. LRV. OO. 00.3,449; BUHLER, 5. 6 f 12 f. 125; 1,227; note Varuna ZIMMER, ZDA. HILLEBRANDT, 19(7), 113; 175;
.
"

WHITNEY,
Classical
5

PADS.,
studies in

Oct.
honour

1881;

ORV.

101;
6

HOPKINS,

Rigveda,
139 "c."

in

of H.

Drisler
SB.
"

(New
i,

York

1894),75"83;
20,41"5;
AB.
9
"

SVL. 14-17;
HRI.
10

134;

OST.

54"8; 357"8.
"

5,

cp. ZDMG. 3, cp. AV.


"

32, 300."

MUIR,
8
"

JRAS.
7, 31;
9.
"

223;
OST. 282.

6, 208; TS.
ORV.
13

i3; 6, 5, 31;
"

187.
ORV.
"

7
"

NIRUKTA
"

347.
BRV.

353. 355. 3, 203"4. ; 281


i,
i9

93.

14i. 7, 6. 7. 5, 18.
4)
" "

WC.
ORV.

238.

BRV.
"

3, 199.
17

is

ORV.

16

OST.

ORV.

97"
on

101

"

7.293"301.
"

KATYAYANA,
and

SarvanukramanT,

5, 18"20; Introd. "2, 8;

Sayana Cp. HRI. 94"8.


the

RV.

139". 90. of the


"

l6

'Indra

Vayu
sons

89.
"

"

Agni, Vayu, Surya


22

are

of
and

are closely allied' (TS. 6, 6, 83). 20 QRV. (MS. 4, 212). Prajapati


"

21

HRI.

These

classes
are

the
on

statistics fournished
data

below

in

account

given

single gods,
RV.

based

derived

from

LRV.,

GW.,

GRV.

(2,421"3), and

AUFRECHT'S

II2, 668"71.

A.

THE

CELESTIAL

GODS.

of the word most frequent use dyaus is as it occurs sense at least 'sky', in which 500 times in the RV. It also means When 'day'1 about personified 50 times. the god of heaven, Dyaus is generally coupled with Earth in the dual as No of the RV. compound dydvdprthivi^ the universal parents. single hymn is addressed When he is mentioned to Dyaus alone. separately the per sonification is limited almost idea the of to entirely paternity. The name then in the nominative The latter nearly always appears or genitive case. occurringabout 50 times, is more case, frequent than all the other cases with the name of some other together. The genitive is regularly connected is called the of about or In three-fourths deity who son daughter Dyaus. instances of these is his daughter, while Usas in the remainder the Asvins his offspring(napata), Agni is his son are (sunu) or child (si's'u), Parjanya, his sons Surya, the Adityas,the Maruts, and the Aiigirasesare (putra). Out of its thirtyoccurrences in the nominative the name only eight appears times alone, being otherwise with Prthivl or mentioned generally associated with various deities mostly includingPrthivT. In these is he eight passages three times the father styled a father (i, 907. 16433; 4) i '"), once of Indra he is spoken of as rich in seed (suretah)and as having generated (4, 72 3), once Agni (4, 174)- in the remainingthree he is a bull (5, 365) or a red bull that bellows downwards (5, 586), and is said to have approved when Vrtra was slain (6, 723). In the dative the name is found times. In these passages eight

"

ii.

Dyaus.

"

By

far

the

designationof

the

concrete

22

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

he

is mentioned

only
once

three

times

quite alone,
an(*
once

once

being
the

called

the

father'

(1,715)^

(i, 543), 'lofty'


occurrences

TrT~tWoof

the~~four
alone is

in any made

PrthivT, once
(i, 3 14)
that

and said

without
to

'lofty abode' 1^47 7)the accusative with Dyaus is mentioned distinctive statement and (i, i;43), once
him
roar

Agni

have

for

man.

Thus

it

appears

Dyaus ninety passages


with

is seldom
is his The

mentioned

independently and

in

not paternity

Prthivl. his

only essential feature


a

is in fact

paternity.In
as a

few

expressly stated or of the personificationin the RV. Dyaus is called a bull (i, 160^passages
have
a

only one-sixth of over impliedby association

5,365) that
much is
once as

bellows

(5,586).Here
a

we

touch

of

theriomorphism
earth.

inas

he

is conceived with the

roaring animal
steed decked The of

that fertilizesthe with

Dyaus

compared
allusion to
bolt of
as

black

obvious with
a

nocturnal looks like the

sky.
a

statement

that

pearls (10, 68"), an Dyaus is furnished


He is also

(asanimat)

touch

anthropomorphism.

spoken
to

smilingthrough
Such

clouds

the

sky2. lightening

passages

(2, 46), the allusion being doubtless however, quite isolated,the con are,

free from theriomorphism and anthropo ception of Dyaus being practically usually morphism, excepting the notion of paternity. As a father he is most This Earth mother with 3. is indicated combination in of a as by thought the than fact that his
name

forms in

that in a large proportion of the of Prthivl, singularit is accompanied by the name is individualized he not and that when to have sufficiently regarded separately with he is his in Prthivl to praise,though conjunction a hymn dedicated in six. Like celebrated nearly all the greater gods4 Dyaus is sometimes it is used alone its
occurrences

compound singular(" 44),

dual

with

that

of

Prthivl

oftener

in

the

called the

asura^

(i, 122
as

x. 131

x; 8, 20*')
20

and

he

is

once

(6, 51$) invoked


with

in

(dyaus pitar) along the word dyaus is feminine, some when times even pointed out (" 6) goes personified6. Dyaus, as has been that the is no back to assume reason to the Indo-European period. There the RV. in of that that advanced and a more personification period was type has in this case primitivestage. On the contrary there relapsed to a more Whatever the case. is every to be higher ground for supposing the reverse in of that have been have existed must remote a considerably gods may age more hardly in any instance have been conceived rudimentary type and can
vocative 'Father
In Heaven'

'Mother

Earth'

(prthivi mdtar}.

about

passages

apart from
Earth been of the

deified natural
all other

embraced

objects7. As the Universal Father deified objects and phenomena,


the

who he

with would But


to

Mother have

polytheism. speak because is misleading, age for an this suggests a monotheism and the type of Zeus an incipient had been of neither these extremely remote conceptions period, though arrived at in the earlier Rigvedic times. The word the is derived from root div, to shine, thus meaning 'the brightone' and being allied to deva, god8.
greatest among
the
a

deities of
the

chaotic

him

as

supreme ruler of

god

of

Indo-European

v.
"

SCHRODER.
4

\VZKM. 119"23. 7 BDA.


"

8, 126"7.
5
"

"

PVS.
6

i, ill; 114;

SEE. cf. GW.

46, 205.
s.
v.

"

HRL

171. IF. 5,

BDA.
n.
"

BDA.
8

86.

"

BDA.

div\ OSTHOFF,

286,

111.

OST.5,2i" 3;OGR.2o9;LRV.3,3i2" S
12.

Cp. KZ. 27, 187; BB. 15, 17; IF. 3, 301. 3;BRV. 1,4" 5;Sp.AP.i6o;JAOS. i6,cxLV. been shown
The

Varun

a.

"

Varuna,
the

as

has

(p. 20),
number

Indra,
to

the

greatest of
not
a

gods

of the RV.

his

praise is
hymns
rank

sufficient criterion of his exalted


him
a

by the side of hymns dedicated character. Hardly a


is of

dozen

celebrate

he would

only

as

third class

exclusively. Judged by deity;and even

the

statistical standard
two

if the

dozen

hymns

CELESTIAL

GODS.

12.

VARUNA.

23

in which he the

he

is invoked
come

along
fifth in
on an

with order

his of

double

Mitra

are

taken

into account,

would Asvins
The

only
and

about

equality with

on

his

anthropomorphism of Varuna's than the physicalside. the moral stress are scanty, more being equipment
an

priority,ranking considerably below the Maruts (cp. p. 20). personality is more fully developed The and descriptions of his person
laid
on

his

activity.He
Varuna
as

has

face,
eats

and

hands, eye, arms, drinks. The poet


2

and

feet.

He the

moves

his arms,

walks, drives, sits,


that of

regards

face

(ariikaui)of

and of Mitra is the sun Varuna (i, 115 x; eye cp. 87 6). The this The is fact that 6ix. mentioned in the 63 x; 10, 37 x). always 6, 51 x; 7, it is that the of first ideas of that first verse when one a hymn, suggests occur

Agni (7, 88

with which is said Varuna in are thought of. The eye mankind, is undoubtedly the sun. Surya (i, 5o6) to observe Mitra and with Aryaman, Varuna called are sun-eyed (7, 66 10),a is other also. Varuna term far-sighted(i, 255-16; 8, 90 2) gods applied to and Varuna stretch their and out thousand-eyed (7, 34'"). Mitra arms (8, 90 2). (5, 64 2; 7, 62 5) and they drive with the rays of the sun as with arms beautiful-handed Like Tvastr Savitr and (supani). Mitra and Va they are with and feet Varuna treads down their hasten wiles with runa (5, 64 7), up sits on the strewn sacrifice (i, 264; at the shining foot (8, 41 8). He grass 3 "c.). Mitra drink he and other Soma and like Varuna (4, gods 722), 41 5, and mantle robe on a (drdpi) shining (i, wears a golden 251-3). But puts he and Mitra are clothed of ghee with which 62 the shining robe (5, 4; 7, 64') allusion the sacrificial offering of melted is only a figurative butter. to The the same (i, I521) probably mean glisteninggarments which they wear thing. is represented as In the SB. a fair,bald, yellow-eyed old (13, 3, 65) Varuna which is at all prominent is Varuna's The of man1. equipment only part like described the It is his car. sun (i, I2215), as having thongs as shining and for a pole (ibid.), car-seat a a whip (5,62?), and as drawn by well-yoked their car in the and steeds Varuna mount (5, 62 4). Mitra highest heaven that Varuna's he the The earth see car on (i, 25 l3). (5; 63 x). poet prays may is golden and situated abode in heaven Mitra and Varuna's (5, 67 2; sits in his mansions Varuna (j"astydsU) looking on all deeds i, i362) and (i, 2510-11). His and Mitra's seat (sadas) is great, very lofty,firm with a their house thousand columns has thousand doors (5, 68 5; 2, 415) and a his from (7,88 5). The sun abode, goes to the dwellingsof all-seeing rising Mitra of men and Variina to their (7, 60 I"3), and enters report the deeds that the Fathers dear dwelling (i, 1524). It is in the highest heaven behold Varuna the (10, i48). According to the SB. (n, 6, i) Varuna, conceived as lord of the Universe, is seated in the midst of heaven, from which he surveys him1. the places of punishment situated all around The of Varuna sometimes mentioned. are spies (spasaJi) They sit down around him the two worlds; acquainted with sacrifice (i, 24 13). They behold (7, 873). Mitra's and Varuna's they stimulate prayer spies whom they send and wise undeceived (7, 6i3), are separately into houses (6, 67 5). In the AV. (4, i64) it is said that Varuna's descending from heaven, messengers the world; thousand-eyed they look the traverse whole world. The across natural basis of these is assumed be the to but RV. the spies usually stars; in evidence of this view. The there stars said yields no are never support with night. The the spies connected to watch, nor are conception may very well have strict ruler on been earth is a suggested by the spies with whom surrounded2. and Nor Varuna for to also are Mitra, spies peculiar they are attributed to Agni (4, 43), to Soma (9, 734'7. here perhaps suggested by the Mitra and Varuna

hymn Together
a

to

24

HI.

RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

combated previous mention of Varuna), to demons In one in io8). (io, the passage general to gods That from like (8, IX). a down height look 47 spies connected Iranian
with

by
the these

Indra

(i, 33 8), and


are

Adityas
spies were
the from

said

to

primarily
that the
name

Mitra
also has Veda

and

Varuna

is to

be

inferred

fact

Mithra
as

(spas)
once

in

the

mentioned
Varuna

in the
or

alone,
and
men

who moreover, are, spies, The golden-winged messenger the RV. (io, I236), is doubtless is often with Mitra, conjointly 3. Yama
8

called

by the same (dutd) of


sun.

Varuna

called He

like

the

other

leading deities and


do, I324;
2,

both

gods

all that

exists (7, 87
with

6).

Varuna Much

27 is also
more a

(i, 247- "c.)4. 10),of the whole world


a

king (rdjd), king of all, (5,85^), and of


a

is

ruler (2, 28 J), a self-dependent

term

generallyapplied to
in association

Indra.

frequently Varuna,
monarch
to
so

alone

or

mostly

Mitra,

is called
a

universal and

is also

applied to
in which

Agni
Varuna twice

few and

times

oftener

(samrdj). This term Indra. Counting the


called, it is connected
for
to

passages with Varuna

Mitra

together are
with Indra.
one

eight or
RV.,
the The

ten

as as nearly Indra hymns celebrating

often

Considering that
is dedicated Varuna

only

every in the

epithetmay
attribute of

be

considered

sovereignty(ksatra] is

peculiarly appropriateto in a predominant

Varuna.
manner

appro

priatedto Varuna, generallywith Mitra and twice with Aryaman also. Other and the Asvins. wise it is applied only once to Agni, Brhaspati, respectively in four of its five occurrences refers to 'ruler' (ksatriyd) the term Similarly in and The the the Varuna to once or only epithet gods Adityas general. alone with Varuna, or asura accompanied by Mitra, (" 67) is connected of the proportion of than with Indra and Agni; and, taking account oftener Mitra and be said to be applicableto Varuna5. specially hymns, it may lords called and also the noble Varuna (asurd are mysterious arya) among the gods (7,652).
The
word
to

divine

dominion
term

of Varuna

and

Mitra
power,

is often

referred
a

to

with

the

mdyd6.

This

occult signifies

applicable in

demons. almost It has exact an to gods or in a bad sense in its old signification 'occult power, the English word which meant 'craft*, the one hand wile' on art' on and 'deceitful skill, magic', then 'skilfulness, like be the other. that of of The sense asura (which might good mdyd, Varuna with and rendered connected is Mitra, by 'mysterious being') mainly while its bad for demons. is reserved sense standing By occult power Varuna with a measure in the air measures the earth with the sun out as (5,855), Varuna and the sky make the dawns the Mitra send to sun cross (3, 6i7), it with cloud and obscure honied fall and (5,634); rain, while the drops 3heaven or to rain and (ibid. 7) they cause they uphold the ordinances by the occult power the of the Asura so (here Dyaus or Parjanya)?. And Varuna is the to 48 epithetmdyin, 'crafty', chiefly I4; applied gods (6, among
=

good sense in parallel

7,

284;
In

io, 99 I0.

i475).
with him

marked

contrast

while
order.

much

is said about is
a

Indra, Varuna (and Mitra)


of

has
as

no

myths
of He

related

of

him,
moral

upholder
nature.

physicaland

Varuna and

great lord
in all the

the laws

of

established heaven

and the (8, 42 '). The three heavens the three earths are deposited within him (7, 875). He and Mitra rule over whole the world the two worlds are (5,63 7) or encompass (7,6i4). They 4 heaven the of Varuna law guardians of the whole world (2, 27 "c.)'. By and earth are held apart (6, 70 '; 7, 86 *; 8, 41 10). With Mitra he supports earth and heaven (5,62 3), or heaven, earth, and air (5,69 T-4). He made the golden swing (the sun) to shine in heaven (7, 875). He placed fire in
earth

and

dwells

worlds

CELESTIAL

GODS.

12.

VARUNA.

25 has made

the wide

waters,

the for the

sun

in
sun

the

sky,

Soma

on

the

rock

path
the

the
sun

paths for
where

(i, 24s; (7, 6o4). The


of the
sun
s

Varuna, 7, 87*). order (rta) of Mitra


loosed

(5, 852). Mitra, and


and The wind

He

Aryaman
which

Varuna

open is established resounds

steeds

are

(5, 621).

(7, 8j2). at (vratani) the moon shiningbrightly moves and the but at stars are seen on high day placed night by disappear night, up has embraced (8, 4i3) it is said that Varuna (i, 2410). In another passage has established the mornings (pan sasvaje) the nights, and by his occult power with night than rah). This can hardly indicate a closer connexion or days (us divides that he regulates or night and day (cp. 7, 66 IT). In fact it is the sun with him, and the moon that is usually mentioned not or night. Thus in the is the lord of lightboth by day and by night, while Mitra, as Varuna oldest Veda be judged, appears the god of the celestial light of day only. far as as can Varuna In the later Vedic to be specially comes period of the Brahmanas through By
the breath Varuna's ordinances connected the Mitra from with the
a

air is Varuna'

with and

the

nocturnal the
to

heaven8.

Thus
4,

Mitra

is said the This


to

to

have
to

produced
belong
the
to

day

Varuna the

night (TS. 6,
Varuna

and

night
to

(TS.
who
was

2,
was more

83); and i, 74)9.

day
view be The

is said may related

have
to

arisen
sun,

desire

contrast

Mitra,
basis

still felt obscure.


/

Varuna
two

whose

natural

antithesis which

between that

is is

this world Varuna the twelve


to

differentlyexpressed by the SB. (12, 9, 2T2); is Varuna. world Mitra, that (the celestial)
is sometimes referred
to
as

asserts

the regulating

seasons.

He

knows

kings Mitra, Varuna, and Aryaman are month, day and night (7, 66 !I). in the RV. is often spoken of as Even Varuna a regulator of the waters. caused the rivers to flow; they stream He unceasingly according to his ord inance the rivers swiftlypouring into the ocean (2, 284). By his occult power
the said have

months

(i, 258)10;and
the

disposed

autumn,

the

do

not

fill it with is

water

(5,856J. Varuna
connected with in

and the that

Mitra
sea

are

lords

of rivers (7,642). but very

Varuna

already perhaps owing to


oceanic Vata in
waters

found its

in the

RV.,
Varuna

rarely,
in the

unimportance
with The
a

collection. in the

going
on

is contrasted

the Maruts that

sky, Agni
seven

earth, and
into the the
ocean12.

air

(i, i6iT4)".
as

statement

the

rivers refer
to

flow

jaws

surging abyss (8, 5812), may into the sea (7, 87")13. (sindhum) like Dyaus It is rather aerial waters that he is ordinarilyconnected the with. Varuna ascends hidden heaven to as a ocean (8, 4i8). Beholding the truth and falsehood in the of men, he midst which of the waters moves drop and sweetness clear himself in the clothes waters (7, 493). Varuna are Mitra and the gods most (9, 9o2 cp. 8, 69"' I2). He are frequently among of rain. the in makes Varuna thought of and prayed to as bestowers verted cask the its and to waters (of air, cloud) on heaven, earth, pour and moisten to the ground, the mountains then being enveloped in cloud and kine Varuna have and streams (5" 853'4)- Mitra yielding refreshment skies and flowing with honey (5, 6g2). They have streaming waters rainy bedew the with (5, 685). They pasturage ghee (= rain) and the spaces with honey (3, 62 l6).They send rain and refreshment from the sky (7, 642). Rain from them abounding in heavenly water comes (8, 256). Indeed, one entire hymn of bestowing rain. It is probably (5, 63) dwells on their powers with the waters and owing to his connexion rain, that in the fifth chapter of the Naighantuka Varuna is enumerated the deities of the atmospheric among
Varuna is said
to

of Varuna

into

descend

as are

well also

as

those

of

the

celestial In

world.

In Varuna

the

Brahmanas appears

Mitra-

and

Varuna

gods

of rain14.

the AV.

divested

of his powers

26

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

YEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

as

universal

ruler, retaining only the


with
he the
waters
as

control Soma with

of

the the

He As
a

is connected divine
waters

mountains

department of waters. (AV. 3, 33).


is
are

father

sheds

rain-waters
He is the

(AV.

in the

(AV.

lords
The

of

rain (AV.

of waters,
waters

making
are

7, 83'). he is 5, 24^- sj. jn the YV. his abode within the most of Varuna

overlord

golden house 4, i5I2J. His of waters, he and Mitra spoken of motherly


as

the

child (s'isu)

waters

(VS.

10,

7).
the

wives

(TS.

5,

5, 41). Mitra

and

Varuna

are

(TS. 6, 4, 32j. Varuna's ordinances are constantly said to be fixed, the epithetdhrtawith Mitra. vrata conjointly being preeminentlyapplicableto him, sometimes Varuna's those ordinances follow of Varuna, themselves The or (8, 4i7) gods immortal the Even obstruct Savitr and the cannot gods (10, 36 13). Mitra, Mitra and Varuna and Varuna fixed ordinances of Mitra (5, 69* cp. 5, 63"). of order are the upholders who lords of order are by means (rta) and light, is mostly applied either to them and some of order (1,235). The latter epithet in the cherishers of order times the Adityas or to general. They are gods called sometimes the Adityas are or or guardians of right(i, 2s). Varuna
leaders of waters

order

(rtasyagopa], epithet 'observer of


several

but

this term
with

is also

applied to Agni
used

and of

Soma.

The

order'

(rtdvari\, predominantly
Varuna and that

Agni,

is also

times

connected power is

Mitra. neither
the

Varuna's

so

great
the skies Varuna

birds

as

they fly nor

the

rivers wrath
the

as

they flow, can (i, 24"). Neither


of Mitra of all

reach the

limit of his dominion,


nor

his

might,
the All

and

his

the

rivers have
He

reached

(the limit of)


and the

godhead

and

(i, i5i9).

embraces

and the three earths are beings (8, 4iI"7j. The three heavens knows He the flight is omniscient. of (7,875). Varuna birds in the sky, the path of ships in the ocean, the course of the farall the secret wind, and beholds travelling things that have been or shall be falsehood truth and done (i, 257-9-"j. He witnesses men's (7,49'). No of creature him wink without men's can even (2, 286). The winkings eyes all and whatever numbered are man does, thinks, or devises, by Varuna, Varuna and knows (AV. 4, i62-5). He perceives all that exists within heaven

abodes

deposited in

him

earth, and

all that

is beyond:

man

could

not

escape

from

Varuna

by
is

fleeing far beyond the sky (AV. 4, i64' 5). That Varuna's typicalis indicated by the fact that Agni is compared with him
(10, iixj.
As wrath
a

omniscience

in this respect

moral

is roused

governor by sin, the The

Varuna

stands

far his

above

any he

other

deity.
he

His

of infringement fetters

ordinances, which
which binds

punishes (7, 863" 4).


often and

(pasah)
10,

with

severely sinners, are

sevenfold cast 8524). They are lies, passing by him who speaks truth (AV.4,i66j. Mitra and Varuna furnished with many are barriers, fetters, againstfalsehood (7, 653). Once Varuna, coupled with Indra, is said to tie with bonds formed used of rope not term (7, 842). The pdsa is only once
tells in of

mentioned (i,2415.25"; 6, 744; who threefold,ensnaring the man

connexion his BERGAIGNE

with

another

god, Agni,
It

who

is

implored

to

loosen

the

fetters

worshippers (5, 27). According the tying up of fetters is based the conception of Varuna's on the waters, according to HILLEBRANDT But is seems the fetters of night15. on to be sufficiently the of fetters of accounted for by the figurative application criminals to moral is be Varuna said diswith to a Mitra, guilt. Together and peller,hater, punisher of falsehood (i, 152'; 7, 60?. 6613). They afflict with disease16 those who neglect their worship (i, 1229). On the other hand, Varuna is gracious to the penitent. He and sin unties like a rope removes
is therefore distinctive of Varuna.
to

28

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

heightsof heaven,
whose will is law. The

who

gathers the clouds,


two

who

wields

the thunderbolt, and


of the RV.

with which the phenomena accounts largely connected, originally Varuna is the
as

greatest gods
the difference in

were

for

their

personality.

concerned

with

the law
no

phenomena recurring regularly


in the moral for
as

of celestial light,

supreme
as

upholder of
such afforded

well

as

character
as

the

Vedic nexion

Indian

in the elements, was god fighting the warrior of a as sovereign type. Owing to his close con of the thunderstorm, which are with the meteorological so phenomena and traits of than

scope strife of the

the

development

His physical world. Indra of myths. conceived by the militant

the

irregularin time
hand of the below
more

shows

myths
(" 22).

supersessionof
With the

of Indra on the one diversified in feature,the character while the centre the other he becomes on capriciousness, of the RV. The other of ROTH to as deity theory any Varuna in the Rigvedic period, is dealt with by Indra

the the
to

characteristics dominion him.


Thus

deity, conception of Prajapati(" 39) as a supreme and faded away, as a sovereigngod naturally of the waters, only a part of his original sphere, alone remained he in post-Vedic mythology an Indian ultimatelybecame growth
of the of Varuna

Neptune, god of the Sea. The that Varuna hypothesisrecentlyadvanced by OLDENBERGIS primarily be passed over from the assertion here. cannot representedthe moon, Starting that the characteristic number of the Adityas was and that their identity seven
with
Varuna the five the

Amesaspentas
and

of the

the
moon

Avesta and
were

is

an

assured the

fact, he

believes

that

Mitra

were

sun, not

lesser

Adityas representing

borrowed
in
must

planets, and during the


than

that

they

Indo-Iranian

but were deities, Indo-European skilled from Semitic more a people period character of Varuna when have

astronomy
further

the

Aryans.
of

The

borrowed

have

lost much

its

and originalsignificance

already

lunar deitycould possessed a highly ethical aspect. For otherwise a distinctly thrown who into the sun, understood hardly have Mitra, to be was clearly the
a

shade character in
to

in the
as

Indo-Iranian
account

period,

or

to

for the of

Mazda
seem

the
account

Avesta

and

supreme Varuna in the

developed so highly abstract as a moral ruler,of Ahura position, the Veda. not This hypothesisdoes
have

at all well

for

actual

characteristics of Varuna
any

in the RV. Varuna and

It also

requiresthe

absolute

of rejection

connection

between

already been mentioned period (" 5), for the Ahura Mazda

It has

that Varuna
of the Avesta

goes agrees

back with

to

the Indo-Iranian in character20

him

The be though not in name. of Varuna name even Indo-European. may At least,the long accepted identification of the word with the Greek oopavoc, has not though presentingphonetic difficulties, recent been rejected by some authorities on comparative philology21. the word is Indo-European or of a later the formation probably derived from the root var, to cover23, thus meaning 'the encompasser'. Sayana (on RV. it with this root in the i, 89^) connects of enveloping or sense confiningthe wicked with his bonds24, or commen ting on TS. i, 8, i6x, in that of enveloping 'like darkness' (cp.TS. 2, i, 7*). If the word is Indo-European, it have been attribute of dyaus, the an may of 'sky', ordinaryname later becoming the regularappellative of sky in Greece, but an exalted god of the sky in India 2^. But whether is

it period22,

ZDMG.

ZDMG. WEBER, 2 QRV. 18, 268. 286, n. 2, 9, 242; 6, 72; EGGERS, Mitra 54"7; ZDMG. OLDENBERG, 50,48.
"

"

3
--

Cp. ROTH,
OST.

5,60,

CELESTIAL

GODS.

13.

MITRA.

29

"

BDA.

120"1;
"

ORV.
7
v.

163.

6
"

BRV.
"

'

)RV.

BRV. RV.
ii

163. 294. 3, ii6ff.;


i,

Cf. BDA.

55.
WZKM.

60.

-3, 81 ; " OST. 9, 119.


.
"

v.

893;

2,

388;
I4

BOLLENSEN,

SCHROEDER, 7, 871; OO. 2, 467.


connexion

TS.
-

i,
I2

8, i6t. ROTII,
und

ZDMG. 48, 499" BRADKE, 501 PW. Varuna; s. v. 5, 70; ROTH, I, 7, id; Sayana on 9 Cf. TB. 10 1894, p. 38. Cp. WVB.
-

Nirukta,
Mitra

Erl.

ZDMG.
ID
"

6, 73. Varuna' s
203 50,
even

"

HILLEBRANDT,
-with

Varuna

later in
"

ORV-

ZDMG. MACDONELL,

61.

dropsy is traced the opposed by BRV. RV., a view l8 J9 Cp. v. SCHROEDER, ORV. 285"98.
" -

Cp. ROTH, 68. T5 Cp. HRI. 67, note. f. and 63 by HILLEBRANDT, p. J7 Cp. OLDENBERG, 3, 155.
70"1.
-

*3

"

"

WZKM.

9,

116

"

28;

20 ZDMG. 6, 69 ff. (cp. OST. ROTH, 5, 72); JRAS. 27, 947"9Studien (Zoroastrische WHITNEY, JAOS. 3, 327; but WINDISCHMANN p. 122) held be Mazda no sees to Ahura 3, introd. iii., purely Iranian, and SPIEGEL, Av. Transl. 18 1. 2I and Mazda Ahura BRUGMANN, Varuna; cp. Sp.AP. similarity between 22 d. gr. Spr. Cp. v. SCHROE Grundriss Etym. Worterbuch 2, 154; PRELLWITZ,
" "

WZKM. v. SCHROEDER, 9"14; 9, 118, KZ. ZDMG. SONNE, 12,364"6; 32, 7i6f.; BB. ZDMG. MM., Chips 42, xxiii f. 11, 329; BOLLENSEN, 41, 504 f.; GELDNER, ZDMG. 25 MACDONELL, JRAS. 26, 628. OLDENBERG, 50, 60. *\ Cp. GVS. 2, 22, note; IS. 17, 212 ZDMG. f.; OST. WEBER, 6, 70"4; ROTH, 7, 607; JAOS. 3, 341"2. und Varuna Breslau GRV. LRV. Mitra, HILLEBRANDT, i, 314"6; 58 3, 34; 75; 5, BRL GPVS. BRV. 16"9; I, 142. 188; -MM-" India 197"200; 1877; 3, 110"49; Der Varuna WC. e gli Aditya, Napoli 1889; BOHNENBERGER, KERBAKER, 98 103; Gott Varuna, altindische 189"95- 202"3. 293"8. 336,11. i; Tubingen 1893; ORV. HRI. ZDMG. 61"72; JAOS. 16, cxLviiiff.; 17, 81, note; FOY, Die 50, 43"68; DER,
n.

WZKM.

9,

127.

--

23

HILLEBRANDT also

i;

HRI.

66,

note;

70;

cp.

"

"

"

konigliche Gewalt, " 13. Mitra.

Leipzig 1895,
The

P-

80

"

(Die Spaher Varuna's).


with Varuna is

that

so predominant of the RV. alone. to him (3, 59) is addressed single hymn only one but the first verse least at The praise of the god is there rather indefinite, him. contains Uttering his voice (bruvanah) he something distinctive about the tillers with watches unwinking eye brings men together (yatayati) and
"

association

of Mitra

(animisd,said
In who here
to

also

of

Mitra- Varuna

in

7,

6o6).
words
contrast
a

another

'brings men
called Mitra's 'a solar that the

(7,362) almost the same together,uttering his voice', in This seems mighty, infallible guide'.
passage

are

applied to Mitra
Varuna who is

with

character, if
the

we

it is said them'. In

sun-god
verse

Savitr of the

compare 'causes

with

tolerablyclear reference it another verse (5, 829) where


to

all creatures
to

hear is

him

and

impels

god spoken of as the This epithet (yatayaj-jana) is found men great Aditya 'bringing it is applied to in only three RV. In one of these other of the passages Mitra- Varuna in the dual and Aryaman to Mitra, Varuna, (5,722), in another men (i, i363), and in the third (8,9i12) to Agni, who 'brings together like Mitra'. The attribute therefore have The to seems properly belonged to Mitra. hymn and further adds that he supports heaven to Mitra earth, that the five tribes of men obey him, and that he sustains all the gods. Savitr is once (5,8i4) identified with Mitra elsewhere is because of his laws, and (Val. 43) Visnu said to take his three Mitra. These two steps by the laws of passages appear indicate that Mitra of the sun. to regulates the course Agni who goes at the head of the dawns produces Mitra for himself (10,84);Agni when kindled is Mitra is Varuna, when kindled is Mitra1 born (3, 5 4); Agni when (5, 31). In the AV. in the evening, (i3,313) Mitra at sunrise is contrasted with Varuna and in the morning what has been to (AV. 9, 3l8) Mitra is asked uncover covered Varuna2. These the to by point beginning of the view up passages in the with that Mitra is connected prevailing Brahmanas, day and Varuna with night. That view have arisen from Mitra having been must predominantly conceived allied to the sun, Varuna as 3. by antithesis becoming god of night The Mitra between contrast same as god of day and Varuna as god of night is implied in the ritual literature, when it is prescribed that Mitra should
fifth
_

hymn together'.

Mitra

the

30

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

IA.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

receive

white

and

Varuna

dark

victim

at

the

sacrificial post
the Veda

of somewhat scanty evidence 91; MS. 2, 57.)4. The is a solar deity, is corroborated Mitra by the Avesta

general.
connected
The often
means

Here

Mithra the

is

undoubtedly
name

sun-god

or

(TS. 2, i, 7*. showing that and Persian religion in god of lightspecially


as

with

sun5. of in the the is uncertain6. and


even

etymology
'friend'
to

However,

the

word

also

RV.

the
is

referred
i,

in
in

the the

Veda,
Avesta

Mitra

of kindly nature as a god appearing


on

the of

god

is often

84)7, while

Mithra

the

ethical

side of

(TS. 2, peace his character


'friend'
of power
that
4

the

and

have it must guardian of faithfulness8, been have applied to the sun-god in


EGGERS 16
HILLEBRANDT

or originally signified 'ally'

his

aspect of
"

beneficent

nature.
i
"

19.
of

"

67.
is

OLDENBERG 50,

thinks

the

special connexion
BRANDT
u

Varuna

with

night
"

old:

ZDA1G. ORV.
"

64
8

67. 90;
KHF.

ORV. 113"4;

192,

'note.

5
"

Sp.AP. 183;
7

48.
"

HILLEBRANDT

EGGERS

70.

EGGERS

42

3.

5. EGGERS 190; EGGERS 53


" "

HILLE

6"13.
"

6.

13;

ROTH,

ZDMG.
v.

s. Mithra, Leipzig 1859; GW. BRV. BOLLENSEN, 29; 3, no


"

OST. 6, 70 ff.; PW.; Mitra; HILLEBRANDT, ZDMG. 503"4; A. EGGERS, Der


41,

5, 69"71; Varuna und

WINDISCHMANN,
Mitra

111"36;
BRI. 17;

WEBER,
arische 71
;

IS. Gott

17, 212; SEE.

ORV.

190

"

2;

BOHNENBERGER

85;
WZKM.

Mitra,

Dorpat 1894
46, 241. 287.

v. SCHROEDER, (Dissertation);

9,118; HRI.

OLDENBERG,

hymns of the RV. may be said to be de the of Surya specifically. It is impossibleto say how voted celebration to it being in many of the god occurs, often the name doubtful whether cases is its natural the Since his name meant or personification. phenomenon only the orb of the sun of the solar as well, Surya is the most concrete designates with the deities,his connexion being lost sight of. The luminary never adorable light of Surya in the sky is as the face (amka) of great Agni several times (5, 4o8 "c.), but he do, 7 3). The eye of Surya is mentioned is himself equally often called the eye of Mitra and Varuna (p. 23) or of is said to bring the eye of (7, 773) Dawn Agni as well (i, us1); and once the of the is indicated in a passage and the sun gods. The affinity eye the where dead the eye of is conceived as man going to Surya (10, i63 cp. he is called the 'lord of eyes' (AV. 5, 249) and is 9o3. I583- 4). In the AV. said to be the one of created beings and to see beyond the sky, the eye and the is far-seeing waters (AV. 13, i*5). He (7, 358; 10, 37*), allearth, seeing (i, 5o2), is the spy (spas) of the whole world (4, i33),beholds all beings and the good and bad deeds of mortals (i,50?; 6, 5i2; 7, 6o2. 6ix. their objects and 63 I"4). Aroused by Surya men perform their work pursue
"
14.

Surya.

Ten

entire

(7, 63*- 3). He is the soul or the guardian is stationary or (i, 115*; 7, 6o2).He has which is drawn car a by one steed, called etasa (7, 632), or by an in definite number of steeds (i,ii53;10,373. 497) or or mares by seven (5,298) horses (5,459) or swift called haritah mares (i, 5o89; 7, 6o3) or by seven mares (4, 133). (i, 248; 7, 871) or by the Surya's path is prepared for him by Varuna is his messenger Pusan Adityas Mitra, Varuna, Aryaman (6, 583). (7, 60^).
to

(7, 634). Common

all men, he rises of all that moves

as

their

rouser

produce Surya as well as Agni and the sacri from the lap of the dawns (7, 633). But from another point of view Dawn wife (7, 755). Surya's is_ i9i9; 8,90") _He also bears the metronymic Aditya, son of Aditi (i,5o12. the Adityas or from Aditeya (10,88"), but he is elsewhere distinguished The (8" 3513-15)- His father is Dyaus (10, 371). He is god-born (ibid.). gods raised him of form who had been hidden in the ocean As a Agni (10, 727).
or

The

Dawn

Dawns

reveal

or

fice

(7, 8o2. 783).

He

shines

forth

CELESTIAL

GODS.

14.

SURYA.

31

he of

was

placed by
he In is

the

gods
to

in heaven arisen the


sun

(10, 8811). According


from the eye of the is (divakara} have
even

to

another

order

ideas

said

have

(io,90^).

the AV. Vrtra. individual

(4, io5) gods

described

world-giant Purusa as having


the
sun.

from sprung Various

are

said

to

produced

Indra

generated him

heaven him shine raised him to to or (2, i24 "c.), caused him Visnu IndraIndra-Soma brought 787). (7, 99'4). generated 8, 442; up (3, raised him to heaven (7, 82 3). MitraSurya with light (6, 722); Indra- Varuna raised
or

(4, i32; 5, 63*- 7). Soma placed light placed him in heaven him to in the Sun (6, 442j; 9, 9741), generated Surya (9, 965. no5), caused him in heaven raised shine (9, 1077). Agni establishes the (9, 637), or him ascend heaven to to on high (io, 32) and caused brightness of the sun fashioned the the sun well as the moon (io, as (io, i564). Dhatr, creator, him ascend the sky (io, 623). to 1903). The Angirases by their rites caused of the the generation of Surya the notion to In all these referring passages doubtless predominates. simple luminary bird traversing space. He In various a as Surya is conceived passages is a bird (io, 177*- 2), or a ruddy bird (5, 47 J), is represented as flying(i, with to be a directly flying eagle (7, 635) and seems igi9), is compared is in called bull well He called a a as one as an eagle (5, 459)1. passage is once in another bird (5, 473) and bull2 (io, I891 cp. 5, 473). He a mottled white and brilliant steed3 alluded to as a brought by Usas (7, 773). Surya's his in number: horses are seven (which 8, 6il6),for the latter represent rays him. called i t is His the mares seven are said, bring (vahanti) (ketavati), daughters of his car (i, 50$). Elsewhere Surya is occasionally spoken of as an inanimate object He is alluded the variegated of the sky (7, 634 cp. 6, 51') and to is a gem as in midst the of heaven stone (5, 473 cp. SB. 6, i, 23). He is a brilliant placed rain (5, 631), with cloud conceal and (ayudha) which Mitra- Varuna weapon Mitrabrilliant of Varuna he is the or a car (pavi) placed in 62*), felly (5, Mitrais wheel Varuna The also called heaven sun a (5, 637). (i, i754; by of the sun' is spoken of (4, 282; 5, 2910). the 'wheel 4, 3o4) or and (7, 631), for men gods (i, 50$). He Surya shines for all the world with his darkness rolls the He a as (io, light dispels 37+). up the darkness skin into skin (7, 631). His throw off the darkness the waters a as rays witches and triumphs over (i, I9i8"9 cp. (4, i34). He beings of darkness allusions to the sun's burning heat three are or only two 7, ic"424). There in RV. is not maleficent for the the (7? 34I9j 9) I0720); sun a power4, and this for and the literature from the AV. aspect of the luminary only passages of the Brahmanas be quoted5. can the days (i,5o7) and Surya measures prolongs the days of life (8,487). drives away He and evil dream sickness,disease, (io, 374). To live is every rise the Sun to see (4,25*; 6,52s). All creatures depend on Surya (i,i6414). and the sky is upheld by him (io, 851). The epithet 'all-creating' (visvakarmari) is also applied to him (io, 170^; cp. " 39). By his greatness he is the divine priest (asuryah purohitatj) of the gods (8, 9o12). At his rising he is prayed to declare sinless to Mitra- Varuna and other men gods (7, 6oT. 622). He is said, when rising,to go to the Vrtra-slayerIndra and is even with Indra invoked styled a Vrtra-slayerhimself when (8, 82*4). The told about is that Indra vanquished him (io, 435) only myth Surya and stole his wheel allude the obscuration of to (i, i754; 4, 30*). This may the sun by a thunderstorm. In the Avesta, the sun, hvare of which (= Vedic surya6 is a desvar,
Varuna
,

2-

32

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

i A.

YEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

rivative and is called


i

to

which
of

Gk. Ahura
7,

is allied)has TjsXios?

swift horses, like

Surya, and
3

the

eye

Mazda8.
"

Cp. ZDMG.
"

475"6.
BRV.
"

Otherwise
"

HVM.
5

I, 345,

note

3.
"

"

Cp.
i,

ZDMG.

2,

J.
cp.

223; 7, 82. KZ. SCHMIDT, OLDENBERG, Nirukta


12,

I,
7

26, 9.
ZDMG.

6; 2, 2. BRUGMANN,

EHM,

Yama i, 218.

134.
8
"

"

KZ.

12,

358;
"

Grundriss

Sp.AP.

190

i;

14"16;
HVM.

145;

BRV.

I, 7;

50, 49. BRI. GKR. OST. 55"6; 20; 5, 151"61; ORV. HRI. 240"1; 29"30; I, 45; HVBP.

KRV.

54"5.

40"6.

and
nine

in

whole in eleven Savitr is celebrated hymns of the RV. " 15. Savitr. about mentioned his of name 170 times. Eight or being others, parts
"

family books, while all but three of those to Surya Savitr is preeminentlya golden deity, nearly all tenth. in the first and are He is goldenand his equipment being described by that epithet. his members all these (i, (6,71^ golden-tongued 359' 10)" eyed (i, 358), golden-handed He has him. arms (6, 71*- 5; 7, 452), and golden being peculiarto epithets is broad-handed (3,336j. He is also pleasant(2, 38*) or beautiful-handed called iron-jawed (3, 5411),and is once tongued (6, 7i4) or beautiful-tongued of attribute also. and Indra He is an (10, Agni I391), (6, 7i4). yellow-haired with He has He car a a a golden golden tawny garment (4, 532). puts on all (i, 3 5 3), just as he himself assumes pole (i, 352- 5), which is omniform is drawn forms (5, Si2). His car by two radiant steeds or by two or more brown, white-footed horses (i, 352" 5; 7" 451)and mighty attributed to Savitr, Mighty splendour (amati) is preeminently him he This stretches only (3, 388; 7, 381). splendour golden splendour to
of these
are

in

the

out

or

diffuses. He

illumines
vault of

the

of

the

earth, the

heaven

and earth, the world, the air,heaven (i,357' 8; 4, i42. 534; 5, 8i2). He which
he

spaces

raises

aloft his strong and which extend


of raising

golden
to

the

his

arms

is

beings (2,382;4, 533'4;6,'ji*-5; 7,452). The for the action of other gods is compared characteristic,
arms,
arouses

with

blesses

and

all

ends

of the

earth

raise his arms extend like Savitr (i, 95'); the dawns is and raise to (7, Brhaspati implored light 792), hymns of He his in his golden car, seeing all arms moves (i, i9"D3). praiseas Savitr and downward an a upward path (i, 352- 3). He impels the creatures, on of the Asvins shines after the before dawn car (i,3410). He path of the with
it.
as

Agni

is said

to

Savitr his

arms

dawn

(5,8 12). He bright realms of


only time
Savitr:

has

measured and

out

the

earthlyspaces,
with the
rays of

he

goes
sun

to

the three

heaven

is united

the

The

the

epithetsurya-rasmi
the the

is used

in the RV.

it is

(5,8i3" 4). applied to


up

'Shiningwith from lightcontinually


three His is
spaces, the

rays of the sun, east' (10, I391)-

w-haired, Savitr raises yello


He heaven easy

his

thrice surrounds

the

air,the
them he

three the

bright realms
air
are

of

(4, 535:
to

cp.

Visnu, " 17).


on

ancient

paths in

dustless and

traverse,

besought to protect his worshippers (i, 3511). He is prayed to convey the the righteousdwell bestows immort to where departed spirit (10, i74). He the well of life He also bestowed alityon as on man gods as (4, 542j. length immortalityon the Rbhus, who by the greatness of their deeds went to his house evil dreams (i, no23). Like Surya,he is implored to remove (5,824) and sinless (4, 543). He to make drives away evil spirits and sorcerers men
(i, 35'";
Like laws
7,

387).

other observes fixed (4, 53*). He gods Savitr is called asura and the wind (4, 534; 10, 348. I393). The waters are subject to his or dinance (2, 38*). He leads the waters and by his propulsionthey flow broadly other (3) 336 cp. Nir. 2, 26). The gods follow his lead (5,8i3). No being, not even Indra,Varuna, Mitra, Aryaman, Rudra, can resist his will and independent many

CELESTIAL

GODS.

15.

SAVITR.

33

by the Vasus, Aditi, (2, 387. 9; 5, 82 2). His praisesare celebrated Like and Pusan and Surya, he is lord of Aryaman (7,38^- 4). Varuna, is He lord of all desirable things, and is which moves that stationary(4,536). sends and blessings from heaven, air, earth (if 243; 2, 38"). He is twice spoken of as 'domestic' (damunas), an epithet other (i, i233; 6, 7 14) even other almost wise gods, he is a supporter entirely limited to Agni. Like He the whole world the of (4, 544). He sky (4, 53*; 10, I494). supports in made and firm the with bonds the rafterless space earth fixed the sky (10, I491). (i, 226) called 'child of Waters' Savitr is at least once (apdm napdt], is It otherwise to exclusively probably also applied belonging Agni. an epithet Yaska 2. in him (Nir.10, 32) commenting on this verse to regards 10, i^g2 Savitr here he as region (or atmosphere) because belonging to the middle (Aditya, who is in heaven) is also called causes rain, adding that the sun Savitr's paths are Savitr3. It is probably owing to this epithet and because in the said that this be the to once atmosphere, deityoccurs (i, 35") among
dominion
Mitra

gods

of

the

middle

region
said that
to

as

well the

as

among

those

of

heaven

in the

Nai-

ghantuka. Savitr is once (12, 3, 51) people are (i,6, 41) it is stated
Savitr
becomes is alone lord

called

prajapati of the world (4, 532). In the SB. in the TB. identifySavitr with Prajapati j and
movements

beings as
and all

Prajapatibecoming Savitr and by his vivifying power Pusan Pusan (5, 825). in his vivifying power a guardian (10, I391). In two consecutive
of
are

living beings4. (yamabhih] marches, beholding all


created

verses

(3,629-I0) Pusan

of Pusan who thought and is is the in Savitr sees invoked, second, besought to stimultae beings desire to think of the (cp. Pusan, p. 36) the thoughts of worshipperswho is the celebrated brilliance of god Savitr. The excellent latter verse Savitrl,
as

Savitr

of

connected.

In

the

first the favour

with

which

Savitr
said

was

in later times invoked


to

at the

beginningof
his laws

Vedic

5. study

Savitr
seems

is also sometimes

become

Mitra

by

reason

of

(5, 82'- 3; 7, 38*- 6) to be only an epithetof Savitr. The is indeed often added to that of Savitr so benefits) bestowing as good god Savitd form the singleexpression Savitd6. to other In Bhagah or Bhagah from Mitra, Pusan, and Bhaga. In texts, however, Savitr is distinguished several Savitr and be spoken of indiscriminately to Surya appear passages denote the same Savitr has 'God to raised aloft a deity. Thus poet says: his brilliance, for the whole has making light world; Surya shiningbrightly and air with his rays' (4, 14*). In another and filled heaven earth hymn of in terms (7" 63) Surya is (in verses i. 2. 4) spoken (e. g. prasavitr, viviSavitr is apparently fier) usually applied to Savitr, and in the third verse mentioned the as same god. In other hymns also (10, I581"4; i, 351"11. I241) it is hardly possible to keep the two deities apart. In passages such as the following, Savitr is, however, distinguished from Surya. 'Savitr moves between both heaven and the sun' earth, drives away disease,impels (veti) sinless to the C1* 359)- Savitr declares men sun (i, 123^). He combines with the rays of the sun (5,81*)or shines with the rays of the sun (10,139* cp. i8i3; i, 157^ 7, 358-I0). With Mitra, Aryaman, Bhaga, Savitr is besought the worshipper when the sun has risen (7, 664). to vivify the time of Savitr's appearance is According to Yaska (Nir. 12), 12, when darkness has been removed. RV. remarks that be Sayana (on 5, 81*) fore his rising the sun is called Savitr, but from his rising to his setting, Surya. But Savitr is also sometimes and spoken of as sendingto sleep (4,536;7,45I), therefore be connected must with evening as well as morning. He is, indeed,
identified with
the latter word is here
Indo-arische

(5,8i4). Savitr Bhaga also, unless of Bhaga (the name

Philologie.

III. 1

A.

34

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

extolled
that
an

as

the of the

settingsun
hymns
them
to

in

one

hymn
to

(2, 38);
are

and
for and

there

are a

indications

most

addressed
He

him

meant

either

evening
and

sacrifice7.

brings all
cp.
4, at
man

two-footed

four-footed
He

morning beings
his

or

to

rest

awakens wanderer
and
was

(6, ;i2
rest;
to

533;

7, 45

1).

unyokes
the work

steeds,
rolls

brings the

his command

night comes;
his unfinished
him

weaver

web her up the west Later

the
wont to

skilful

lays down assigned to


the
out

(2,38^ 4).
the east
of
to

be

(SB.
of that

3, 2,

as 3l8),

Agni
Indian

and
The

the
name

south

Soma.
has all

Savitr This

formation.

is borne

appearance by the fact

being

word

purely
which

the root

it is derived, is
in the
same

used continually other verb with

RV.

Some

action
the

in
root

connexion

along with it in a manner would nearly always be used other god. In the case any
also several

sfi, from which is


to

unique

the express of Savitr not


as

only is
and

itself used, but

derivatives

(such

prasavitr

These a perpetual play on the name8. prasavd) constituting frequent the has that of show combinations the root sense clearly stimulating, arousing, few A examples may here be given in illustration of this peculiar vivifying. aroused 'God Savitr has (prasavlt)each moving thing'(i, I571). usage. 'Thou alone art the lord of stimulation' (prasavasya: 5, 8i5). 'Savitr bestowed has arisen to arouse 'God Savitr that on (dsuvai) immortality you' (i,uo3). boons from (savaya) us' (2,381). 'Thrice a day Savitr sends down (sosaviti) the sky' (3, $66). 'Do sinless' (4, 54^). thou, o Savitr,constitute (suvatdf] us Aditi through the influence (save)of Savitr being sinless towards 'May we 'Send all boons' (para sava) evil dream, send away (5,826). possess away all calamities,bestow (asuvd) what is good (ib.4* 5). 'May Savitr remove (apa savisat) sickness' (10, ioo8). With this verb Savitr is speciallyoften of su wealth (2,566 "c.). This use is almost to besought to bestow peculiar three times applied to Surya (7,6$2- 4; 10, 37*). It but it is two or Savitr; also occurs with lisas (7;77I)) with Varuna with the Adityas (8,i8T), (2,289), with Mitra, Aryaman and This with Savitr (7, 664). employment coupled being so frequent, Yaska (Nir. 10, 31) defines Savitr as sarvasya prasavita, 'the stimulator of everything'. fact that in nearly half its occurrences is accompanied by The the name show is has of an that lost the nature to not seems deva, god, epithet, yet 'the At stimulator god'. to be an meaning epithet rate, the word any appears of Tvastr of the in two the juxtaposition (3,5519; 10, io5),where passages words
that devas
tiastd

savitd

vih'arupa and
Tvastr.

the

collocation

with

deva

indicate

Savitr is here

identical with

of Indian therefore conclude that Savitr was We an originally epithet may in the motion as origin applied to the sun great stimulator of life and the world, representingthe most all dominates which movement important in the universe, but others differentiated from that as Surya he is a more of the Vedic of abstract deity. He is in the eyes poets the divine power the sun while Surya is the more concrete personified, deity,in the conception of whom of the sun-body is never the outward form absent owing to the with that of the orb (cp. i,359. I241). of his name identity of development generally OLDENBERG9, reversingthe order recognized,

thinks that

that

Savitr
of

represents
the
sun,

an or

abstraction
of the
sun

of

the

idea

of stimulation

and

the

notion

in

direction,is particular

only

secondary in
1

his character10.
44.
a
-

HRI.

cp.
4,

v.

BRADKE,
in.
"

ZDMG.
4
rev.

40.

Nirukta
5

Erl.

WHITNEY

in

143; COLEBROOKE'S

OST.

96.

WEBER,
ed. 2,

355; Omina
in.
"

HRL und
6

48.
BRV.

--

Cp. ROTH,
"
"

Portenta

386. 392.
7

essays,

3, 39.

HRI.

36

111. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

i A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

is applied to epithet

him

in

another As

called
sin'

vimocana,

'deliverer'.

(6,55T)and he is twice (8,415"l6) passage vimuco from to deliver napdt he is invoked

the paths is prayed to disperse foes and make (AV. 6, ii23). Pusan the paths good, and to lead to remove foes, to make lead to booty (6,534), from He is invoked harm his path to 8). on (i, to 427protect good pasture is He the and to an path (10, auspicious 597J. guardian of (6, 549) grant lord of road He is and the a (6,531). guide (prapathya] path (6, 49*) every is starting roads on (VS. 22, 20). So in the Sutras, whoever a journey on and RV. 6, 53; makes to an Pusan, the road-maker, while reciting offering whoever loses his way, turns to Pusan (AGS. 3, 78-9; SSS. 3, 49). Moreover, in the morning and to all gods and beings,Pusan the roadevening offerings the of the house threshold maker receives his on (SGS. 2, 149). As
to

knower

of He

passage Cp. 3, 3, 91) said to in secret lost and hidden found the king who have was (probablySoma), and in So the him like lost beast. is sacrificed asked to a Sutras, Pusan bring it is characteristic of when to anything lost is sought (AGS. 3, 79). Similarly, that he follows and protects cattle (6, 545- 6- I0. 58" cp. 10, 263). He Pusan into a pit, brings them from unhurt, them home injuryby falling preserves His back the lost directs cattle and drives goad (6, 547- 10). (6,539). straight of guiding straight is the notion that he with the idea Perhaps connected also protects horses directs the furrow (4,577). Pusan (6, 545) and weaves and of Hence smooths the said to be beasts (10, 266). are sheep clothing and is called sacred he the cattle Pusan of to (i, 51'2), (MS. 4, 37; producer nnd

(6,48*5).

he ways is in one

can

make

hidden

goods
J5

manifest
TS.

and

easy

(i, 23^-

TB.

when

prescribedto be recited 9). pasture 3, with Pusan has various attributes in common other gods. He is called is He asura (5, 51"). (6, 5 48), strong (5, 439)" vigorous (8, 415),nimble powerful (i, I381), resistless (6, 48*5). He transcends mortals and is equal is a ruler of heroes to the gods in glory (6,48 19). He (i, io64),an uncon and and assists in battle defender (i, 895), querable protector (6,48 19). He He is a protector of the world is a (10, 173 cp. 2, 40'). seer, a protecting of old, of every suppliant(10, friend of the priest, friend born the unshaken liberal5 (2,31^). His bounty is particularly 265- 8). He is wise (i, 425) and often mentioned. He all abounds wealth (i,896), in wealth (8,415), possesses of wealth is increase bountiful beneficent gives (6, 584; (i,895), (i,I382), bestows all blessings (i,426). He is the strong friend of 8, 4l8), and abundance, the strong lord and increaser of nourishment (10, 267- 8). The distinctive of the Asvins, is a few times (1,42*; term dasra, 'wonder-working', 6, 56^) applied to him, as well as dasma, 'wondrous' (i,42 10. I384) and said of Agni and Indra. (6, 584), dasma-varcaS)'of wondrous splendour' usually is also twice (i, io64; 10, 643) called He Narasamsa 'praisedof men', an is l imited He otherwise to once epithet Agni. exclusively spoken of as 'allis termed He pervading'(2,4o6). 'devotion-stimulating' (9,883),is invoked to quicken devotion (2,4o6), and his awl is spoken of as 'prayer-instigating' (6,538; cp. Savitr, p. 33). vimoconnected with Pusan The are epithets exclusively dghrni, ajds'va, vimuco and anastaonce "tw3\pustimbhara, 'bringing prosperity', napdt, cana, no no cattle',anastavedas, 'losing goods', karambhdd, 'eating pasu, 'losing been Pusan for despising to have gruel'. The latter attribute seems a cause mentioned three times in the RV., by some (cp.6, 56*; i, i384)6. Karambha, is Pusan' s Indra's distinctive food, being contrasted with Soma as (6,572). it in shares the Indra, however, (3,527),and only two passages in which the
i, 7,
cows

24).
are

In

the

Sutras

verses

to

Pusan

are

driven

to

or

stray (SGS.

CELESTIAL

GODS.

17.

VISNU.

37

it appliesto the libation of gruel' occurs, receives the the (3, 52'; 8, So2). only god who epithet cattle' in (6, 582) directly(and not comparisons). pasupa, 'protector of is invoked Pusan The conjointlyin the dual are only deities with whom brother he is once called Indra Soma (6, 57), whose (6, 558). (2, 40) and is addressed with these Pusan most Next frequently to Bhaga (i, Qo4; two, SB. u, (1,90^; 4, 3^; KSS. 5, 13') and Visnu 4, 3o24; 5, 41*. 462; 10, 125"; cp. in all these RV. of the name i o, 66s), his 46^; 6, 2i9; 441; 7, passages 5, addressed with various being in juxtapositionwith theirs. He is occasionally karambhin adjective
'mixed Indra Piisan is other

with

deities also.
The

evidence
of

adduced
nature.

does But
a

not

show

clearly that

Pusan

represents

of passages large number quoted at the with the sun. Yaska, too, beginning point to his being closely connected 'the the Pusan be all beings', of to sun (Aditya), explains 9) (Nir.7, preserver the sun. in post-Vedic literature Pusan of and occasionally occurs as a name

phenomenon

The

path
and

of the

the

sun

which

leads

from

earth

to

heaven,

the

abode

of

the

gods

for a solar deity being both a con pious dead, might account of departed souls ductor a (likeSavitr) and guardian of paths in general. would latter aspect of his character The explain his special bucolic features which form a a guide and protector of cattle, as part of his general nature as a promoter of prosperity. Mithra, the solar deity of the Avesta, has the traits of increasing cattle and bucolic bringing back beasts that have strayed7. word the means Etymologically 'prospered as derived from the root/z/f, thrive'. This side in his is conspicuous both 'to cause of his character to epithets visvavedas, anastavedas, puruvasu, pustimbhara, and in the frequent invocations wealth and to bestow to him protection (6, 4815 "c.). He is lord of wealth, a heap of riches of great wealth, a stream (6, 55- 3). But the is in the the of Indra, Parjanya, and case prosperitiyhe confers not, as with which is emphasized by his ex rain, but with light, Maruts, connected clusive which bestows results from the welfare he epithet 'glowing'. The he and his extends from and cattle to men protection on earth, guidance of bliss in the abodes of the world. Thus the to men next conception which
seems

to

underlie

the
a

character

of Pusan,

is the

beneficent

power

of

the

sun

manifested
i

chieflyas
KRV. GW.
note ; LRV.

pastoral deity.
"

120.

is. 5, 186.
34, and

190. BRV.

"

GGA.

1889, p. 8.
FW.
--

OST.

5, 'Son
to
"

175;
of

4,

444; der

HVBP. Einkehr' and 3,

(who explains the


und Puramdhi
"

originalmeaning
ORV.

'Sohn differently);
the

unyoking): ROTH,
on means

232;
I-1RI.

cloud':

Sayana
\VZKM.

GRIFFITH

RV.

I, 421.

according
o

HILLEBRANDT, 7 Sp.AP. 184. WHITNEY,


420"30; 9, KRV.

192"3,

'active, zealous'.

51.

JAOS.
55;

OST. 3, 325; PVS. i, ii ; HVM.


Memorial 241

5,

i,
"

GVBERNATIS, 171"80; 456; HVBP. 34; ORV.


3; HRI.

Letture

82; BRY.

2,

230"3

(cp.WZKM.

252); PERRY,

Drisler

50"3.

Visnu, though a deity of capital importance in the mytho His subordinate but Brahmanas, logy a position in the RV. occupies time personality is at the same more important there than would appear from the statistical standard be a deity only alone. According to that he would of the fourth rank, for he is celebrated five whole in not than hymns more times and in part of another, while alto about his name 100 occurs only fre in Visnu the the RV. The are gether only anthropomorphic traits of strides which he takes, and his being a youth vast in body, quently mentioned who is no is of his character essential feature longer a child (i, I556). The that he takes (generallyexpressed by Ti-krani)three strides, which referred are about times. to dozen His and a urukrama, epithets uritgaya, 'wide-going'
"17.
Visnu.
"

of the

38

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

which 'wide-striding',
action.

also

occur

about

dozen

With' these

three

steps Visnu

is described

times,allude to the as traversing

the

same or

earth

The brightrealm of heaven. highest the of place highest regarded Agni, for place of and the third the Visnu place Agni (10, i3) Agni with the highest, guards Visnu the clouds: mysterious cows (probably loftiest station of guards Visnu of the is liberal like in fixed The seen an by highest step eye 5, 33). is where and his dear It where men abode, pious rejoice heaven 2220). (i, the gods rejoice(8, 297;. of honey is a well (i, I545), and where there and is the dwellingof Indra and Visnu, shines down This higheststep brightly the many-horned swiftly where are moving cows2 (probably clouds),and these three footsteps all the singer desires to attain (i, i546). Within which full and of because they are honey (i,i544),probably beings dwell (x, I542), most the third and important is full of it3. Visnu guards the highestabode is else (3, 5510) and (pdthas)^,which implies his favourite dwelling-place In another be stated to so where (i, (7, ioo5) expressly 15 4s). passage said to dwell far from this space. He is once Visnu is less definitely spoken of (i,i565) as having three abodes, trisadhastha,an epithet primarilyappro priateto Agni ($ 35). of the sun is The opinion that Visnu's three steps refer to the course But what did they originally unanimous. almost represent? The purely favoured naturalistic interpretation by most European scholars5 and by Yaska's the rising, (Nir.12, 19) takes the three steps to mean predecessorAurnavabha The of the and alternative which sun. view, setting prevails culminating, Vedas, the Brahmanas, as well as post-Vedic litera throughout the younger supported by Yaska's predecessorSakapuni and is favoured by ture, and was and the present writer8, the three steps as the course BERGAIGNE of interprets the former With the solar deitythrough the three divisions of the universe. is at variance the fact that the third step of Visnu shows no trace interpretation the contrary is identical with the with sunset, but of being connected on higheststep. The alternative view does not conflict with what evidence the RV. and is supported by the practically itself supplies, unvarying tradition in India beginning with the later Vedas. is said to bear

7, he

visible to men, Two of these are but steps or spaces the terrestrial spaces. of the birds mortal ken is or flight beyond (i,i555; the third or higheststep notion seems to be same mystically expressed (i, I553) when 992). The his third
name as

in the

of Visnu

is

identical with

That

the

idea

of

motion
three

is characteristic

of

Visnu

is shown

by other
Svide-

expressions besides
are striding'

the

steps.

The

and epithets'wide-going'

entirelylimited to Visnu, as well as the verb vi-kram. employed in allusion to the sun, spoken of as the varie gated stone placed in the midst of heaven, which took strides (5,47 3). Visnu is also swift esa of Brhaspati) said only once or (otherwise 'swift-going* evaya, (otherwiseconnected only with the Maruts). Coupled with the con evayavan idea of swift and is that of regularity. In taking motion stant far-extending his three strides Visnu observes laws Like other deities (i, 22l8). typicalof is of the 'ancient germ regular recurrence (Agni, Soma, Surya, Usas), Visnu order', and an (like Agni, Surya, Usas) is both ancient and ordainer, who the sun-god Savitr (5, 8i3), he is words recent as (i,i$62~*). In the same said (i, I541; 6, 4913) to have this the earthlyspaces. With measured out
almost
The latter

is also

may with

also the

be
sun

compared

the Visnu

statement

that Varuna
one

measured

out i,

the

spaces

scribed with

as

(p. n). in setting


names

is in like
a

passage

(i, I556

cp.

164*- 4b) de

motion

their four

(=

revolvingwheel his 90 seasons). This can hardly refer

steeds
to

(= days) anything but

CELESTIAL

GODS.

17.

VISNU.

39

the heat the

solar
on sun.

of 360 year the sacrifice. In

days.
In the

In

the

AV.

(5,26?) Visnu
Visnu's head

is

besought
cut

to

bestow

Brahmanas

when

off becomes

of Visnu's is a rollingwheel8 post-Vedic literature one weapons which is represented like the sun (cp.RV. 5, 63*), and his vehicle is Garuda, is of brilliant lustre like Agni, and is also called garutmat chief of birds, who terms and suparna, two already applied to the sun-bird in the RV. Finally has been the post-Vedic kaustubha or breast-jewelof Visnu explained as the is no Thus with though Visnu longer clearly connected sun by KUHN?. a evidence the natural the inference that he to justify phenomenon, appears in his general character, but as the conceived the sun, not as was originally the whole swiftlymoving luminary, which with vast strides traverses personified This universe. would be borne derivation the from the out by explanation which in is the used often RV. and 'to root z'/V10, tolerably primarilymeans would be the 'active one' be active' (PW.). According to this,Visnu as re OLDENBERG, however, thinks that every definite trace presentingsolar motion. is lacking in Visnu, that he was from of solar character the beginning con of wide and ceived only as a traverser that natural concrete no con space, the three The number of the ception corresponded to steps. steps he attri butes for triads in mythology. simply to the fondness Visnu's highest step, as has been indicated, is conceived as his distinctive The abode. would sun naturally be thought of as stationary in the meridian rather than find the name in Yaska else. So we of the zenith to anywhere be vimupada, the step or connected of the Visnu. with place same Probably of ideas the and 'mountainare (giriksit) epithets'mountain-dwelling' range abiding' (giristha) hymn (i, i542' 3); for in the applied to Visnu in the same called 'the two next undeceivable hymn (i,155') Visnu and Indra are conjointly who summit have stood with the of the (sanuni) mountains, as it were on ones,
an

unerring steed'. height of the cloud


expressions in
the RV.

This

would

allude

to

the

sun

mountains12
that Visnu

(cp.5, S;4).
is later

It is

from looking down probably owing to of mountains'

the such
3,

called

'lord

(TS.

4,

5')The
reason

secondary trait. He distress (6, 49 13);he traversed for man earth the the it on bestow for a dwelling (7, ioo4); he traversed to man earthly spaces for wide-steppingexistence (i, i554); with Indra he took vast strides and existence stretched the worlds for our out (6, 69$- 6). To this in the RV. Visnu's feature dwarf in traced the of be myth ultimately may intermediate carnation which The stage in,the Epic and the Puranas. appears is found in the Brahmanas (SB. i, 2, $$; TS. 2, i, 31; TB. i, 6, i"),where Visnu the of a the form already assumes by artifice to recover dwarf, in order earth for the gods from strides his three I3. the Asuras by taking The most prominent secondary characteristic of Visnu is his friendship for Indra, with whom This is he is frequently allied in the fight with Vrtra. indicated the two to whole by the fact that one hymn (6, 69) is dedicated in the deities conjointly, is coupled with that of Visnu and that Indra's name dual the with the of latter often that of as name occurs as Soma, though is also indicated of their alliance The closeness vastly oftener in the RV. the is fact that in hymns extolling the only other deity Visnu by alone, Indra associated with him either incidentally explicitly(7, 995" 6; i, i552) or im his three strode (7, 99*; i, i546. i55T; cp. i, 6i?)14. Visnu plicitly steps by tha energy is described in the preceding verse (ojasd) of Indra (8, i227), who as slayingVrtra, or for Indra (Val. 43). Indra about to slay Vrtra says, 'friend stride with out Visnu, Visnu, Indra slew Vrtra vastly'(4, i811). In company
thrice traversed

why Visnu took the earthly spaces

his

three

steps is

in

40

III.

RELIGION,
Visnu

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

(6, 2o2).
bara's

and

Indra and

togethertriumphed
hosts

over

the

accompanied by his friend opens the (i, 1564). (5,5, 51) Indra is described as shooting him while Visnu follows the thunderbolt at Vrtra, (cp.TS. 6, 5, i1). Visnu is with Indra in various singleverses also invoked (4, 24. 554; 8, io2; 10, 664). Visnu dual shares When associated with Indra Indra's powers as a divinity, his Soma well Indra victories of drinking as as (7,994~6), (6,69) conversely of striding in Visnu's participating (6, 69$; 7, 996).To both conjointly power air and of spreading out action of creating the wide is attributed the the and of and (6, Surya, lisas, Agni (7,994). 695) producing Owing spaces this friendship Indra drinks Soma beside Visnu to (8, 3*. i2l6) and thereby drank the Soma his strength (8, 38; io, H32). increases Indra pressed by
Indra's
cows' friend stall In the SB. Visnu in three cups and

99 intimate

castles

conquered the (i, 2 2 J9).Visnu

of

Varcin

Dasa, destroyedSam(7, 994" 5). Visnu is

(2, 22
a

cp. 6, of

17"),
also

which

recall for Indra cp.


i,

filled with
or 100

honey (i;i544). Visnu


brew Visnu the

cooks

buffaloes

milk

(8, 66TO
Indra

footsteps (6,17") with Mitra, 6i7). Along


100

Visnu's

three

buffaloes

(8,i59). songs the Maruts, are also drawn Vrtra-fight, into association with Visnu. the exhilerating When Visnu favoured Soma, the Maruts The like birds sat down beloved altar their Maruts are on (i,857)15. invoked of the swift Visnu at the offering (2, 34" cp. 7, 405). They are the bountiful ones of the swift Visnu (8,2o3).The Maruts supported Indra, while Pusan is the ordainer Visnu cooked Visnu buffaloe? for him 100 I711)(6, associated with the Maruts will the w hose Varuna Asvins follow and (mart/fa), 4(i, i564). Throughout one verses 5) he is associated hymn (5,87, especially with the Maruts, with whom, when he starts, he speeds along16. in the RV. be mentioned to Visnu one Among stray references may in 'Do which forms of: of Visnu conceal different (7, ioo6) not are spoken
Maruts,
celebrates in Indra's
constant

ATaruna, and

with

attendants

the

from

us

this form,
be
a

since thou

didst
of

assume

another

form

in battle'.

He

is

further said to
other Khila

deities to

embryos protector of the conception (io, 184'). In the third verse promote after io, i8417, Visnu to is, according to one reading, called upon
womb male
a

(7,36$) and

is invoked

along with

to

place in the another, a


Other

male with
are

child with
Visnu's

most

beautiful form, or,


is

child

most

beautiful form the

according prayed for18.


a

traits of Visnu

applicableto
and

ficent

(i, 1565),

is innocuous

bountiful

gods in general. He is bene (8, 2512), liberal (7, 40$),


an

who guardian (3,5510),

is undeceivable
sustains

and (i,22l8),
the threefold the world

innoxious

and

deliverer and
He

(i,i554).He alone all beings (i,i544). He is an ordainer (i,I564).


In the Brahmanas

(world),heaven
all about

generous and earth,

fastened

with

pegs

(7,993).

Visnu

is conceived
3, i,

as

taking his
These three

three

steps in earth,
are

air, and by the

heaven

(SB.

i, 9, 3?-, TB.

27).

strides

imitated
earth and
sun

who sacrificer,
with

takes
for that

three
is the

Visnu

strides
safe

ending
(SB.
the A
i,

heaven19,
of

goal, the
of

beginning with refuge,which


taken from

is the
earth

9, 310- I5). The

three
are

steps

the

Amsaspands
in the
constant

to

sphere
the Two

the

special feature
sacrifice.

sun, of the

imitated similarly
Brahrnanas is the

ritual of the Avesta20. identification of Visnu

with

to

the

with Visnu, myths connected RV., are further developed in the


the RV.

the

source

of

which Visnu In

can

be

traced

Brahmanas.

in alliance with
the

Indra the
as

is in

described

as

vanquishing demons.
as

Brahmanas not,
have

gods
in

commonly appear the RV., uniformly victorious, but

and

demons

two

hostile hosts, the former


worsted.

often

They

therefore

CELESTIAL

GODS.

17. the

VISKU.

41

recourse

to

in artifice, that Indra


as

order and much

to

recover

supremacy. stride in

In

the

AB.

(6, 15}

it is related with the

Visnu, engaged in conflict with the Asuras, agreed


as

latter
the

that

Visnu

could

over

three

two accordingly strode over belong to the Asuras SB. (i, 2, 5) tells how Vedas, and speech. The having overcome The the gods began dividingthe earth. gods placing Visnu, the sacrifice,at in the earth. The and asked for a share their head, came Asuras agreed to lie much who could Then the gods as a was on. Visnu, dwarf, give up as with Visnu, who was equal in size to sacrifice, gained the whole by sacrificing three mentioned The earth. not here, but in another passage (SB. steps are Visnu is said for the have the to 1 acquired gods all-pervading 9? 3")? power which It is further they now by striding through the three worlds. possess, stated in TS. 2, i, 3T, that Visnu, by assuming the form of a dwarf whom he the worlds three TB. had introduction The of 6, conquered (cp. i5). seen, i, Visnu is dwarf of the be accounted to for as a a disguise as naturally
"

deities.

Visnu

steps should these worlds, the

stratagem
the

to

avert
to

the the

suspicionof
myth
of

the

Asuras21. Dwarf

This

Brahmana in

story forms

transition

Visnu's

Incarnation

post-Vedic

literature 22. has its originin two of the myth of the Brahmanas passages Their is Visnu that drunk and Soma (i, 6 1 7; 8, 6610). having purport buffaloes and a brew of milk belonging being urged by Indra, carried off 100 the boar the (cloud) mountain, to (= Vrtra), while Indra shooting across This is slew the fierce (emusam) boar. in TS. the (6, 2, 42- 3) developed myth follows. A as boar, the plunderer of wealth, kept the goods of the Asuras hills. Indra side of seven the other of kusa on plucking up a bunch grass and these slew the the boar. carried hills, sacrifice, through Visnu, piercing the goods of the boar off as a sacrifice for the gods. So the gods obtained In the Asuras. the of the Kiithaka corresponding passage (IS.XL p. 161) is called Emusa. is told in the boar The same story with slightvariations the Caraka Brahmana (quoted by Sayana on RV. 8,6610). This boar appears in a in the SB. (14, i, 211) where under character the name of cosmogonic Another RV. Emusa he is stated
to

have

raised

(?" T5 51) this cosmogonic


waters,
is described
as
a

boar,
of TB.

the earth from the waters. In the TS. up which raised the earth from the primeval

form

is further

expanded
and the of of
as

in

the

of the Prajapati. This modification the In (i,i,35). post-Vedic mythology boar which raises the

myth
of the
one

Ramayana
of the The
manas,

Puranas,
Visnu.
two

the

earth, has become


be found in the in

Avatars germs but not

other

Avatars

of Visnu with Visnu.

are

to

Brah SB.

yet

connected

The

fish which

the

from the flood, Jipjsears in the Mahabharata a (i, 8, i1).^deliversMann as incarnation in the Puranas of Visnu. of Prajapati,becoming In the an SB. (7, 5, i5, cp. 11A. i, 233) JPrajapatiabout becomes to create a offspring tortoise in this tortoise is Puranas In the the an moving primeval waters. various Avatar of Visnu, who this form to recover assumes objects lost in the deluge 23. The SB. (14, i, i) tells a Visnu, the sacrifice, by first myth of how issue eminent the the of the became most comprehending sacrifice, among the gods, and his head, by his bow how off and cut startingasunder, was became this story the TA. the sun (adityd). To (5, i, i 7) adds the trait that the Asvins of the sacrifice and that the as physicians replaced the head in offer it able its form heaven to gods now (cp. PB. conquered complete form
"

7,

56)In the AB.

(i, i) Visnu

as

the

locallyhighest

of

the

gods

is contrasted

42

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

with
same

Agni
his

the

lowest, all the

other

deities
RV.
i,

being placed
1561,
where is the
Stars
in

between

them.

The

BiTihmana

(i, 30)
the

in

quoting

by

friend opens
i

states that Visnu stall', HVBP.


"

accompanied doorkeeper of the gods.


to

'Visnu

The
"

moon

others.
-

Cp.
7

BRV.

according to 2, 416.
MAX

33. Otherwise

"

according
FaW. and
"

PW.,
others.

HVBP.
"

and
100. 6

SIEG
8
"

(Leipzig 1896), 97
"

WHITNEY,
"

MULLER,

HAUG,

KAEGI,

DEUSSEN,
KHF.
222.

BRV.

2,414"5.
!

MACDONELL,
derivations
note

JRAS.

" ORV580, BB. 21,205. 228"30. note 13 2. MACDONELL, JRAS. 27, 188"9. JRAS. 27, p. 174, 2; 230, l6 MM., SEE. 32, p. 127. 133"7. u 15 BERGAIGNE, Ibid. 184. JA. 1884, p. 472." *8 19 HlLLEBRANDT, RV. II2, 687. WiNTERNlTZ, JRAS. 27, 150"!. i? AUFRECHT, 20 of the Avesta French Tr. f. und DAKMESTETER, XeuVollmondsopfer, 171 2r A. KUHN, Otherwise ORV. Entwicklungsstufender Mythenbildung, 227. I, 401;

!6.

10

Other

27, 170"5. in ORV. 229, HRI.

9
"

Entwicklungsstufen,
" "

J2

Cp. ORV.

"

"

"

"

"

"

12g. Omina

"

22

JRAS.

27, 168

"

177.

"

23

Ibid.

166"8.
226

WHITNEY,
und

JAOS.
Portenta

3,325;

338;

IStr. 2, 298; WEBER, 087.4,63-98. 121"9. PAOS. BRV. 8; ORV. 227 2, 414" 30; HOPKINS,
"

1894,

cXLViif.;

HRI.

56 f.
vat.

singlehymn of the about there as occurs times, generally thirty Vivasvat, five RV., but his name is the father of the Asvins (10, i72) and of Yama also as Vivasvat. He times (10, 1 4s. 17 T). As in post-Vedic literature he is already also in the Vedas
"
1

8. Vivas

"

Vivas vat

is not

celebrated

in any

the

father

of called

Manu

(" 50),
(=

the

ancestor

of p.

the and also

human

race,

who

is

once

(Val. 41)
Vaivasvata
progeny
once

Vivasvat

Vaivasvata,

12)

receives

the

patronymic
the also

in the of

Men are AV._and the SB. Vivasvan Adityah (TS. 6, 5, 62; SB.

3, i,

stated to be directly The 34J. gods are

(10, 63'). Vivasvat's (janima) of Vivasvat spoken of as the offspring wife is Saranyu, daughter of Tvastr (10, ij1-2). It was well as Matarisvan that Agni was first manifested to Vivasvat as is once (i, 31"). Vivasvat's messenger (6,S4) stated to be Matarisvan, but said to be is otherwise Agni (i,58 x; 4, 7^; 8, 39 3; 10, 2i5). Agni is once his from the of Vivasvat as (5, ii3). produced parents (the fire-sticks) sage The is of The five Vivasvat mentioned times. seat (sadana) gods (10, 12 7) and Indra delightin it (3,5i3) and there singersextol the greatness oflndra is notion (10, 75 l). Perhaps the same (*"53l" 3" 347) or of the waters referred is in Vivasvat be said to when to new as a hymn (i, I391) placed a centre (iiabha). with Vivasvat in several passages Indra is connected oftheRV. He rejoices in the prayer of Vivasvat beside Vivasvat his and treasure (2, (8,639) placed With the from heaven o f Indra the Vivasvat ten1 out I36)(fingers) pail pours of Vi (8, 6i8, cp. 5, 536). Indra being so closely associated with the abode there. And Soma indeed is in the ninth book to be vasvat, Soina is likely dwells with Vivasvat (9,264) brought into intimate relation to Vivasvat. Soma and is cleansed by the daughters(= fingers) of Vivasvat (9, 14 5). The prayers of Vivasvat urge the tawny Soma sisters (= waters) to flow (9,99 2). The seven
urge the flow

wise

Soma the

on

the

course

of

Vivasvat

Soma

producing
The

the

through having blessing(bhagani) of dawn


who the dwell

sieve

obtained

streams (9, 66 8). The of Vivasvat (the blessing) (9, ioS).

of and

Asvins
At

with Vivasvat
of

are car

besought
the and

to

come

to

the

offering

(i, 46 13j.
and
r

the

two

yoking bright days (probably day


the Asvins'

daughter

of

the

sky is born

night) of
and shows the
a

Vivasvat

(10,39 12;
an

cp. SB. of

10, 5,

24).
is also mentioned
In

Vivasvat the

along with
that

Varuna

gods

as

object
arrow

one worship (10,656). passage worshippers of the Adityaspray

Vivasvat
the

when hostile trait, well- wrought

the missile,

44

HI.

WELTL. .RELIGION,,

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

are

identified

with

the

twelve

months.

In

post-Vedic
to
an

literature

they

are

twelve regularly

sun-gods,evidentlyconnected
and the

with the twelve


the six

months,

Vismi

being
tioned
is
name a

one

of them
2,

greatest2.
a sun

In

addition termed
Brahmanas

in RV.
common

27*, Surya is
for the

few

times

Adityas men Aditya (p. 30), which


and have

name

in the

later.
been in

Under

the

of

Aditya, identified with


in the
the

Agni, Surya

is said to
once

placed by
an enumer

the

gods
with the

8811). sky_(io,
four of

Savitr is also

mentioned

AdityasBhaga, Varuna, Mitra, Aryaman (8,iS3). the Adityas was regarded by the poets of the RV. to the have been the seventh, the eighth been have must sun definitely seven, and Aditi throws back whom Martanda (10, 728-9) probably brings away sun. being the setting Injthe AV. (13,29-37) the sun is called the son of and moon Aditi, the sun Adityas (8, 2 I5),and_Visnuis invoked in an enu meration containinggods who in the RV. are Adityas: Varuna, Mitra,Visnu, of the Adityas is here besides Vivasvat mother (n, 62). The Bhaga, Amsa the be but said Aditi not to (9, i 4) once golden-hued Madhukasa, daughter
ation
If there fore number of the Vasus. Indra

is,however, in
the the
as

the_RV. once

coupled
I2

in

the

dual

as

an

with

Varuna

chief of the
fourth

Adityas (7, 854), and

in Val.

47

he

is

Aditya directly

Indra of Aditi, but in is a son Aditya. In MS. 2, i from the 12 Adityas. When the SB. one (n, 6, 35) he is distinguished god is mentioned alone as an Aditya, it is generallyVaruna, their chief; but in the alone hymn in which Mitra is celebrated (3,59), that deity is called an well and When two as are Aditya, as mentioned, they are Varuna Surya. invoked Varuna and Mitra, once Indra; when three, Varuna, Mitra, and Aryaman :\: when the case, the same three five,which is only once together with Savitr and Daksa the six above. in mentioned enumeration of occurs Bhaga. only The

Adityasare

often

invoked

as

group,

the

names

of

Mitra

and

Varuna

the same time. at being generallymentioned frequently They also appear (" 45) Vasus, Rudras, Maruts, Angirases, Rbhus. along with other groups Visvedevas. The in a wider used term not to be Adityas seems infrequently for the Their class in. as an nature as a equivalent sense, gods generally4. fact resembles that of the gods in general,not being specifically characterized like
are

that the that

of

their two

Mitra chiefs,

and

Varuna.

In

the

aggregate
The
moon,
as

sense

they

of

gods such light,


that based

of celestial
as

without light,
moon,

representing any
and

manifestation particular

sun,

stars,
and

or

dawn. sun,

hypothesisof
and the five

OLDENBERG

the
on

Adityas originally represented


their

planets,is Daksa) and


is also the

abstract

nature

names

(such
number

Bhaga. Amsa,
which
that be

the
number

that supposition of the

their characteristic

is seven5,
to

Iranian

Amesaspentas6.It

is here

noted

the
an

have in common, two Mithra not a not even singlename being groups in number Amesaspenta; that the belief in the Adityas being seven _isnot characteristic and old 7; and that though the identity of the Adityas distinctly and Amesaspentas has been generally accepted since ROTH'S essay8,it isAvestan scholars9. rejected by some distinguished In some of the hymns of the RV. in which the Adityas are celebrated in 2, 27), only the three most mentioned (especially together,Mitra, frequently is distant is near What to be Varuna, and Aryaman, seem meant. to them: is stationary, and they support all that moves as gods who protect the uni verse and what is good hearts and evil in men's (2,273-4). They see

the distinguish
are are

honest falsehood

man

from

the

deceitful

(2, 27^;
7,

8, i815).
66

haters

of

and

punish

sin (2, 274;


29

52 2. 6o5.

They 13). They


or

besought

to

forgivesin (2, 2714.

5),

to

avert

its consequences

to

CELESTIAL

GODS.

19.

ADITYAS.

45

transfer

Trita Aptya (5, 52 2; 8, 47 8). They spread fetters for their to (2, 27l6), but protect their worshippers as birds spread their wings their young (8, 47 2). Their servants are so protected as with armour, over ?" strike them distress shaft ward and off sickness can that no (ib. 8). They various boons such as light, long life, guidance offspring; (8, i810), and bestow (", 27; 8, i822. 56'5-20). them The are : bright (s'uci), epithets which describe golden (Jiiranyayd), many-eyed (bhuryaksa), unwinking (animisd),sleepless(asvapnaj), far-observing vast (uru\ deep (gabhira), kings, mighty (ksatriyd), (dirghadht). They are inviolable (arista), (dhrtavrata),blameless having fixed ordinances (anavadya), sinless (avrjina\ pure (rtdvan). (dhdraputa), holy is clearly a metronymic formation The from that of their mother name This is also one of the they are naturally often invoked. Aditi, with whom three derivations given by Yaska (Nir.2, 13, cp. TA. i, I41). have The dealt with already been greater gods belonging to the group the but lesser best Adityas having hardly any individuality separately, may them

enemies

be

described

here

in

succession.

about times in the RV. is so destitute 100 though mentioned Aryaman10 in that the in the of individual characteristics, Naighantuka he is passed over is in he mentioned with list of gods. two other Except always passages, with Mitra and in the great majority of cases Varuna. In less than deities, the word has only the appellative senses dozen of 'comrade' and a passages which connected with also Thus the are occasionally 'groomsman', god. Agni with the words: addressed 'Thou when is once art (the wooer) of Aryaman derivative maidens' (5, 32). The adjective aryamya, 'relatingto a comrade', a as once occurs parallel to mitrya, 'relatingto a friend' (5,85 7). Thus the conception of Aryaman that of the differed but little from to have seems The back to the Indo-Iranian name greater Aditya Mitra, 'the Friend'. goes in the Avesta. period, as it occurs One to the praise of Bhaga11, chiefly hymn of the RV. (7, 41) is devoted it other deities invoked in of the are as though some well; and the name The word and appears over means god occurs sixty times. 'dispenser, giver' in this sense in several be used than of times attributively, to more a score is conceived in the with the name The of Savitr12. also cases god regularly Vedic distributor with of wealth, comparisons hymns as a Bhaga being generally intended of India's and to glorification Agni's bounty. The word express with the sense about of 'bounty, bhaga also occurs twenty times in the RV. is sometimes in one and the Thus wealth, fortune', ambiguity played upon. where distributor is it stated (7, 41 2) Bhaga is called the (vidharta), passage that men say of the god, 'May I share in Bhaga' (bhagam bhakst). In another he is termed the 'dispenser' verse (5, 46 6) in which (vibhaktd, derived from the same is he full of be invoked root to bhaj), bounty (bhagavdn) to his worshippers. Dawn is Bhaga's sister (i, 1235). with rays Bhaga's eye is adorned (i, is62), and hymns rise up to Visnu as on Bhaga's path (3, 54 14). Yaska describes Bhaga Iranian the forenoon as (Nir. 12, 13). The presiding over form of the name is bagha, 'god',which an occurs as epithetof Ahura Mazda. The
as

word

is in the

even sense

Indo-European13, since
of in

it
reason

occurs

in
to

Old

Church that it

Slavonic

bogu
more

any
a

individual

god

'god'. There is no the Indo-European

suppose

designated
attained
than
more

merely
The

'bountiful word

than sense specialized giver'.

period, for it 'bountiful god', if indeed


less than
a

cannot

have

it meant

Amsa,

which

occurs

dozen

times

in

the

RV.,

is

46
almost

III.

RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

portion*and
of his

of 'share, sense bhaga, expressingboth the concrete 'apportioned. It is found but three times as the name of these statinganything about him besides a passages god14, only one said be is here to Amsa,, a bountiful (bhdjayii) god at the name. Agni

synonymous

with

that

of

feast'

(2, 1 4).
Daksa15 is
name

mentioned
of
a

hardly
The word

more occurs

than
more

half

dozen
as

times
an

in the

as adjective god. frequently applied to Agni (3,147) and meaning 'dexterous,strong, clever, intelligent', of 'dexterity, Soma (9, 6il8 "c.), or as a substantive in the sense strength, of the personification therefore name cleverness, understanding'.The appears 'clever' god. the 'dexterous' or mean to Excepting the verse (2,27*) which the six Adityas,he is mentioned enumerates only in the first and tenth books. he referred in another and is to with other Adityas, In one (i, 89 3) passage (10, 64 5) with Mitra, Varuna, and Aryaman, Aditi also being spoken of in his birth. with In a cosmogonic hymn is said connexion (10,72^5) Daksa when added it is from Aditi that have Aditi, to immediately sprung sprang is his daughter,the gods being born and In another afterwards. him from in the womb verse (10, 5?) it is stated that the existent and non-existent were

RV.

the

of

Aditi, in
Aditi their
of

the and
own

birthplace of
Daksa
as

Daksa.

Thus

the The

last

regard ducing
the

universal
been

parents.
shown in which

seem passages of children paradox

two

to

pro
to

parents has
RV. The
manner

(p. 12)
it
came

to

be
to

not

unfamiliar

applied in this poets follows. be The to seems as case are Adityas spoken of as 'gods particular father' for the their who have (6, 5o2), intelligence epithet (daksapitard) being in the same also appliedto Mitra- Varuna, who verse (7,66 2) are called 'very clearer (sudaksa). The expression is made intelligent' by another passage termed Varuna 'sons where of Mitra(sunu daksasya) are intelligence' (8,255), well as 'children of great might'(napata savaso as mahaJi). The juxtaposition is here not that daksa shows but the of the latter epithets a personification in Agni'sepithets used 'father of skill' (daksasya abstract word as pitr: 3, 2 7 9) 'son of strength' or ("" 8, 35). This conclusion is confirmed by the fact that called sacrificers are daksdpitarah, ordinary human 'havingskill for their father" of the (8, 5210). Such expressionsprobably brought about personification his association the father of the Adityas and Daksa In the with Aditi. as in the SB. (2,4, 42) TS. the called daksapitarah,and gods in general are Daksa is identified with the creator Prajapati.
the be
i

BLOOMFIELD,
ZDMG. 9,
122.
"

JAOS. 15, 176


"

note;

vSPH.

31.
s. v.

"

OST.
-

4,
5

117

"

21. v.

"

BOL-

LENSEN,

WZKM.
*

Cp. GW., 503. 41, " On the Amesaspentas


4

Aditya.

Cp.

SCHROEDER,
et

see
"

DARMESTETER,
7

Haurvatat

Ameretat
"

i (Paris 1875),

f. ; BARTHOLOMAE,
"

AF.

3, 26.

9 Sp.AP. 6, 69 f. ibid. 41, 503; BOLLENSEN,

ZDMG.

199; HARLEZ, HVBP. 55"6.

Cp. MACDONELL, JRAS. 27, 948. 6, 74; "ROTH, ZDMG. JA. 1878(11), 129 ff.
"
"

"

ROTH,

1. c.;

WC.

11

"

12;

BAYNES,
"

of the 8th Oriental Congress, II, I, 85 Bhaga. Transactions Biography 9; 12 HRI. 13 v. s. v. 53"6. bhaga. SCHROEDER, WZKM. Cp. GW. 9, 127. ZDMG. J5 OST. BRV. M ROTH, 6, 75; BRI. 19. 5, 51"2; 3, 93. 99; W7C. 45. OST. MM., SBE. 32, 252" 4; ORV. 185"9. WHITNEY, JAOS. 3, 323"6; 5, 54"7; 286" 7; ZDMG. 50, 50" 4; SBE. 48, 1 90; HOPKINS, JAOS. 17, 28; IF. 6, n 6. 49, 177"8; The of
-

"

"

"

S
of the name,
never

20.

Us

as.

"

Usas, goddess
mentioned
more

of

Dawn,

is celebrated

in

about the

20

hymns

RV.

and

than

the of dawn is but personification the being absent from the poet's mind, when goddess is addressed. Usas is the most graceful creation of Vedic poetry and there is no more in the of any other literature. The charming figure descriptive lyrics religious nor brightness of her form has not been obscured speculation by priestly has the imagery as a rule been marred by references to the sacrifice. Arraying

times. Owing to 300 the physicalphenomenon slight,

of identity

CELESTIAL

GODS.

20.

USAS.

47

decked her form by her in the east, and unveils her light the maiden appears withholds she from in her neither small nor light beauty peerless Effulgent she from charms her a bath, showing 6). Rising resplendent as great (ib. the darkness with light,driving away (5,80 s-6). She is young, being comes uniform hue, she born again and again, though ancient; shining with an she in mortals has life of As shone former the (i, I0). days, wastes 92 away in immortal will shine shines and she future, never aging, (i,ii313-15). now so before all the world maiden The (i, i232). Ever coming again awakes she shines that have forth, the last of the dawns shortening the ages of men, Like she revolves come1 of those wheel the first a to (i, I242). always gone, awakens have and She that feet makes the creatures anew (3, 6i3). ever s life of everything (i, 48 she is the breath and birds to fly up: 49 3). She motion waken The Dawns awakens to (i, y;1). being 929; living 7, every in
I0-

herself in gay maiden Like a

like attire,

dancer,

she

displaysher
she shows

bosom

mother

(i,92 4, cp. 6, 642). (i, I2311). Clothed charms (i, I243-4).

the

sleeping and
(4, 5 1 5).

forth, the fly up from their nests, nourishment waken seek and (i, I2412). She reveals the paths of men, men manifests tribes life She and all bestows the five new 79')(7, beings ing '"" drives evil Trita She dreams She to 10). (7,So1-2). Aptya (8, 47 away the black of night(i, ii314). She dispels robe the darkness removes (6, 643. dis evil and hated darkness wards off the She She (7, T). 2). spirits 65 75 concealed darkness and them distributes closes the treasures bountifully by awakes she (i, 92"). (i, i234'6). She illumines the ends of the sky when 15. She doors of of the She the heaven (i, H34). 48 gates opens opens their stall (i, 924). Her like radiant beams darkness the cows as appear is visible afar, spreading out herds cattle (j"asuri) of cattle (4, 522~4). She it were (i, 92 12). The as ruddy beams fly up, the ruddy cows yoke them their web of old (ib.2). Thus weave (of light) as selves, the ruddy dawns 'mother called of kine'2 Usas to be (4, 52 comes 3; 7, 772). the Day by day appearing at the appointed place, she never infringes and of order of the gods (i, 92 I2. I239. i242; 7, 765); she goes ordinance loses her direc along the path of order, knowing the way she never straight tion (5, 80 4). She service the renders to good gods by causing all wor kindled and the sacrificial fires to be (i, ii39). She is shippers to awake liberal worshipper, leaving the un and besought to arouse only the devout however (i, I2410; 4, 51 3). Worshippers are godly niggard to sleep on instead of being awakened sometimes spoken of as wakening her by her claim with their have her first wakened (4, 52 4 "c.), and the Vasisthas to is once asked not not to hymns (7, So1). She delay, that the sun may is scorch her thief She a an or as (5, 799). besought to bring the enemy gods to drink Soma (i, 48 T2). Hence probably, the gods are often described as 'waking with Usas' (i, i49 "c.). which Usas is borne is shining (7,78*), brilliant (1,237), on a car well-adorned (3, 6 1 2), (i,49 2),all-adorning "c.), (7, 75"),massive (i,48 bright and spontaneously-yoked (7, 784). She is also said to arrive on a hundred chariots (i, 48 7). She is drawn are by steeds which ruddy (7, 75 6 "c.)" guided (3, 6i2), regularly-yoked (4, 5i5), or is said to be resplendent easily with steeds as (5,79 1~I"). She is also described being drawn by ruddy kine bulls (go: i, 92 2. 124"; Both the horses and the or cows 5, So3). but the probably represent the ruddy rays of morning light cows are generally 3; distance in The the dawns explained as the red morning clouds. traverse is a day 30 yojanas (i, I238).
motion lisas
2" 10

urge When

the

living,the
shines

two-footed birds

and

the

four-footed,

to

48

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

is closely associated with the sun. She has She the of the H3l6). (i, brings gods eye opened paths She shines white with the horse beautiful the 773). (7, leads and on light of the sun (i, ii$9), with the lightof her lover (i;92"). Savitr shines after maiden man a the path of Usas (5, 8i2). Surya follows her as a young desires her (i, i2310). She the god who is the wife (i, i is2). She meets the wives of the Sun are of Surya (7,755); the Dawns (4,5 X3). Thus as his she conceived wife is mistress. But in the as or followed by sun, space As is to be

expected, Usas
to

for

Surya

travel

in time she is occasionally thought of as his mother preceding the sun has She sacrifice, (7, 7 8 3). She has been Surya, generated A gni 35). (cp. p. and of arrives with a for the Savitr, (savdya) production produced (prasutd) the Usas the of sister is Aditya Bhaga (i, i235; bright child (i, H3I"2). the kinswoman (i, I235). She is also the (jdmi) of Varuna cp. p. 45) and the elder sister (i, I248) of Night; and the sister (i, ii32-3; 10, 127 3) or dual and often as of Dawn are a (usdsdnames conjoined compound Night in the sky (7,75*); and the place of is born naktd or naktosasa}. Usas in the RV. : she most her birth suggests the relationship frequentlymentioned also is constantly called the daughter of heaven (i,30 "c.)4. She is once beloved heaven of the of as T). (i,46 (priya) spoken kindled sacrificial fire being regularly The at dawn, Agni is naturally without a sidewith Usas in this connexion, sometimes often associated not of manifestation which with the the at Agni simultaneously glance sun, appears with the kindling of the sacrificial fire (i, 124'or "c.)5. Agni appears the Dawn. before Usas causes Agni to be kindled (1,1139). He is thus called her lover sometimes like the sun (i,69 x; 7, lo1, cp. 10, 3 3). He goes she comes, the shiningUsas to as meet asking her for fair riches (3,6i6). is naturally also often connected with the twin gods of the earlymorning, Usas the Asvins her (i, 44 "c.). They accompany (i,i832) and she is their them friend (4, 522-3j. She is invoked to arouse (8, 9 17j, and her hymn is is yoked, the awakened Asvins' said to have them When the car (3,581). with the the born of associated is is (10, 39 12). Usas once "daughter sky before the dawns which anew as harbinger of being born ever moon, goes day (10,85'9). Various gods are described as having produced or discovered the dawns. is characteristically Indra who of light, winner is said to have a generated 7 also hostile to her, or "c.). But he is sometimes lightedup Usas (2, 12 her wain made the dawns (" 22). Soma being described as shattering bright the constituted them at their birth (6, 39 3) and wives of a good husband the Dawn, the sky (6, 44 23), as Agni does (7, 65). Brhaspati discovered darkness the with light(10, 68 9). The ancient (svar), and Agni, repelling Fathers, companions of the gods, by efficacious hymns discovered the hidden lightand generated Usas (7, 764). The the worshipper or on goddess is often implored to dawn bring to him wealth and children,to bestow and long life (i, 30". 48 "c.), protection of the poet (5, and glory on all the liberal benefactors to confer renown 79", ask Her from her her riches be adorers desire and to as to cp. i, 48 4). soul of the dead man to a mother and sons to the sun (7, Si4). The goes Usas to in whose (10, 58s),and by the ruddy ones lap the Fathers are said be seated, the Dawns to doubtless meant are (10,15?). Besides the in the sixteen enumerated has Naighantuka (i,8) Usas other epithets. She is resplendent, shining, white, ruddy, goldenmany bright,
as
22 IX 2 x

hued,
She is

of

brilliant bounty, born

in

law,

most

bountiful characteristically

ZDMG. (inaghonr.

Indra-like, divine, immortal6. 50, 440).

CELESTIAL
is derived

GODS.

21.

AS'VINS.
root
to

49 shine and is

The

name

of

Usas and
"

from

the

vas

radically

cognate
*

to

Aurora
i,

'Hu"? (p. 8)7.


2

GVS.

265"6.
where p.

Cp. KUHN,
rays
of Ibid. dawn
5

quoted above,
5, 190;
KRV. cp.

the
21.
"

Entwicklungsstufen, 131. are compared with cattle


"

3
or

See
cows.

the
"

passages 4 OST.

above

191.

6
"

Ibid.

193

"

4.

"

SONNE,

KZ.

10,416.

WHITNEY,
52"4;

JAOS. 3, 321"2;
BRV. i, 241"50;

OST.

5, 181"98; Usas

BRANDES,

GKR. 583"4; 35"6; (Copenhagen 1879, pp. 123).


2,

MM.,

LSL.

"
the with

21.

Asvins.
are

"

Asvins which and

the
are

they
in

Indra, Agni, and Soma, the twin deities named prominent in the RV. judged by the frequency invoked. in more entire than They are celebrated fifty
Next
to most

hymns
400

parts

of

several hold
a

others, while
distinct connexion

their

name

occurs

more

than

times.

Though

they

positionamong
with any

the

deities of light

and of

their appellationis Indian, their

definite phenomenon

has been nature a lightis so obscure, that their original puzzle to Vedic earliest times. This it makes from the interpreters probable that obscurity is in of be Vedic these the origin to a sought period. They are gods pretwins sole of one (3, 39 3; 10, i;2) and inseparable. The hymn purpose with different twin objects such them as hands, (2, 39) is to compare eyes,, birds going in pairs, and such as dogs and goats feet,wings, or with animals 9and swans or 3; 8, 35 7 eagles (cp. 5, 78* I0). There I0, io62 are, which however, a few passages perhaps point to their originally having may been they are spoken of as born separately (ndnd: 5, 734) separate. Thus here and there (ihehd), one and born as being called a victorious prince, and the son of heaven the other also quotes a passage (i, i8i4). Yaska is the called of night, the other the son of dawn' son statingthat 'one (Nir. in another 'the alone RV., moreover, (4, 36) mentions 12, 2). The passage both encompassing Nasatya', a frequent epithet otherwise only designating
" " "

Asvins The
as

in the Asvins

dual.
are

They are (8, 82j,

(7, 62 5). of 6), golden 10, 93 brilliancy and forms honey-hued (8, 266). They possess many (i, ii79). They beautiful (6, 62 5. 63 x) and are wear lotus-garlands(10, i842; AV. 3, 22*; SB. 4, i, 516). They are agile(6, 63 5J, fleet as thought (8, 22l6), or as an eagle (5,784). They are are strong (10, 244), very mighty (6, 62 5), and several times called 'red' wis (rudrd, 5, 753"c.). They possess profound dom distinctive most two (8, 82) and occult power (6, 63s; 10, 937). The and is almost frequent epithets of the Asvins are dasra, 'wondrous'., which limited to them, and is generally explained to mean entirely nasatya, which
youngest
same

the

of

(7, 67 I0), the TS. young the gods. They are at


of lustre

(7, 2,
the

7 2) even time

them describing

ancient

(7, 68 x), lords bright

(8, 2214;

'not untrue'
been

but (na-asatyd), The latter

other word
no

such etymologies2,
occurs as

as

'the
a

savers' in

have the

proposed. Avesta', which, however,


in later bute

the

name

of it.

demon
two

sheds

further

lighton
names

These Asvins4.

epithets
The attri

times

became

the

separate

rudravartani

used

only gods called (twice) of rivers.6 Of all the gods7 the Asvins with most are closely connected honey in many (madhti),with which have they are mentioned a They passages. skin filled with honey, and the birds which draw in it (4,45 3"4). them abound They poured out 100 jars of honey (i, n76). Their honey-goad (x,122 3. with which the sacrifice and the worshipper8, i574) is peculiar they bestrew them. to is described of the Asvins Only the car as honey-hued (madhuvarnd) or 'honey-bearing' said to be fond (madhu-vdhana). They only are
Indo-arische

peculiarto them, and they are the 'havinga red ( hiranyavartani), an epithet otherwise 'golden-pathed' only

proper path'5 is

of the

Philologie. III.

IA.

50

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

priestto (inadhuyu, mddhvi) or drinkers of it (tnadhupa). The is called honey-handed (10, 41 3). They give invited to come are \vhom they compared with bees (10,io610). cp. 10, 4o6) and are honey to the bee (i, 112 fond of like other Soma (3,587"9"c.) and are gods, They are, however, and HILLEBRANDT with Usas Surya (8,35'). (VM. 1,241), invited to drink it
of honey
2I

however,
The

finds

circle of the
car

traces showing that the Soma-worshipped gods.

Asvins

were

at

first excluded

from

the

of
as

the

Asvins

is sun-like

(8,82)
are

or

its parts, such It has


a

wheels, axle,
rays

reins fellies,

(i,119') or ornaments and some threefold, having three wheels, three fellies, construction, being It is swifter than nS1-2 moves other "c.). lightly (8,Q8), parts triple(i, the of than an twinkling (8,62 2). It was eye thought (i;ii72"c.) or which fashioned by the Rbhus (10, 39 I2). The Asvins' car is the only one
thousand One
the
name

(4,444" 5), and all golden (i, 180'; 8, 529. 22s). (8,8"- I4). It is peculiarin
golden

is three-wheeled. Asvins
The
came

of

its wheels of

is said

to

have

been

lost

when

the

to

Asvins'
to

wedding Surya (10, 85 15; cp. " 37). impliesonly the possession of horses, there being
that

no

evidence Their
car
6

show

they
horses

are

so

called

because

they ride

on

horses10.

(i, ii72"c.), more commonly by birds (pi, (4,45 4),eagles(i, n84), bird steeds 6, 63 "c. or patatrin,10, i435), swans described drawn as by a (6, 63 7) or eagle steeds (8,5'). It is sometimes buffalo (kakuha) or buffaloes (5,73 7; i, i843 "c.) or by a singleass (rdsabha: i, 34". n62; 9) the Asvins are said at the 8, 747). In the AB. (4, 7 have in a car drawn and Soma race won a Surya to by asses11 marriage of and Sayana'scomm.). Their car touches the ends of heaven (cp.RV. i, n67 the five countries round heaven extends and over (7,63 2"3). It moves heaven earth and in It traverses a single day (3,588), as the (i,i8o10). and of Usas that of the sun (4,5i5) are also said to do. It (i,us3) car
is drawn

by

"

goes made

round

the
course

sun

in the

distance

(i, ii2I3j.

Frequent

mention

is also

which word with one a (vartis], exception is applicable The several word is round' times connected to them parijman, 'going only. with the Asvins or their car, as it is also with Vata, Agni, and Surya. afar of the Asvins is variously from described. The They come locality and heaven from heaven heaven and from earth (8,87), (i,44 5), (8,53"), the and from from air air (8, 84. 92), ocean (8,lo1), (8,83), earth, heaven, air, from far and near (5,73 J). They abide in the sea of heaven (8,26 17), in the floods of heaven, plants, houses, the mountain top (7,7o3). They above their locality Sometimes from come behind, before, below, (7,725). about if unknown72 is inquired as (5,74 2'3; 6, 63 T; 8, 62 4). They are once three invoked (8,823) said to have three places (j"adant), possibly because times a day. is often said to be the earlydawn13, when The time of their appearance the 'darkness still stands ruddy cows' (10,6i4) and they yoke their among and receive the offerings of worshippers(i,22 to descend to earth car "c.). them Usas awakes (8,917). They follow after Usas in their car (8,52). At the their relative time yoking of their car Usas is born (10, 39 T2). Thus
of their
2

seems

to

have
car

been

between before

dawn the dawn


the

and

sunrise.

But

Savitr

is

once

said to

set

their the

in motion

of

Asvins14, the kindling of


seem

sunrise
are

to to

be
come

invoked

appearance of dawn, and sacrificial fire,the break spoken of as simultaneous (i,157*; 7, 724). The Asvins to the offering not only at their natural time, but also
or

the (i,34 10). Occasionally

in the

evening (8,2214)
of the

at

appearance

Asvins

at

the

and morning, noon, three daily sacrifices

sunset

(5,763).
have

The

may

been

the

52

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

they released
to

from

his him
:

decrepitbody; they prolonged


desirable OST.
the the
to

his life,restored
him the

him of
was

youth, rendered

his A

wife

and

made

husband

maidens restored renewed


had wives
to

(i, n610"c. to youth by


the
a

5, 143).
is Kali

detailed
in the and

story of how
SB.

Cyavana
him when

Asvins

given

(4, i, 5)21. They


befriended
to

also he

youth
wife
or

taken

(10, 398) aged (i, ii215). They brought on a


of
a

car

(i, ii219)
been

wife

(i, n6T)
spouse

named of
to

Kamadyu

the youthful Vimada (10, 65 12),who seems 10, the of the

have

the

beautiful
a

Purumitra
the

(i. n;20;

397). They
commentator

restored
son
was

Visnapu, like
Krsna

lost

animal,
10, most
was

sightof their
to

worshipper Visvaka,
the
ocean rescue

of

(i, n623.
The of

ii77; story
who

6512),who
often in and In

according to
is that of the who the

his

father.
son

referred

of

Bhujyu, udre] or
invoked

Tugra,
of him

abandoned

midst
tossed
ocean

(samdarkness

in the

the

water-cloud
the

aid

(udameghe) youthful heroes.


in
a

about

in

which

is without
rescued four
a

support they took


witli

home

hundred-oared traversed

ship. They
the

him

animated,
an

ships,which water-tight winged boat,


with

air, with

ships,
wellas

with
feet

animated

and

yoked clingingto
for ten drawn

chariot

their six horses, with swift as thought. In for

flying cars having headlong flying steeds, with


one

three

hundred

their

passage the

Bhujyu
of the

is

described
The

a support log (vrksd] Rebha, stabbed, bound, hidden by the

in

midst

waves22.

sage
waters

malignant,overwhelmed
as

in the

nightsand
out
as

nine

days,abandoned
is raised with

Soma

calamity and restored him to him up from a raising pit in which he lay hidden away as one dead (io,398) the sage or 7)24. They succoured restoringhim from decrepitude (i, ii96in his Atri Saptavadhri who with a companions was along plunged burning pit by the wiles of a demon. They brought him a cooling and refreshing draught,protected him from the flames, and finallyreleased him in youthful also from darkness. said to have delivered him When strength. They are is rescued of the Atri from heat as (10, 30^)^ Agni having spoken meaning probably is that Agni spared him through the intervention of the Asvins 2s. The
Asvins
To and
one even

dead, was by the Asvins revived and from They delivered Vandana ii25. 116". the lightof the sun (i, ny5. n86),
a

ladle 2^.

rescued

from had

the been

jaws

of

wolf

quail which

invoked

their aid26.

Rijrasvawho sheep
the
and

blinded
to
a

giving them
the

hundred one by his father for killing his she-wolf to devour, they restored

eyesightat
of blindness battle

of prayer and lameness

and cured (i, u6l6. ny1?- l8); Paravrj (i, ii28). When Vispala's leg had been cut off in she-wolf

like

the

wing

of

bird, the

Asvins

gave

her

an

iron

one

instead27.

she was They befriended Ghosa when growing old in her father's house by 6. 40$). To the wife of a eunuch giving her a husband (i, n;7; 10, 39 called Hiranyahasta (i, n6T3. they gave a son n;24; 65/627; 10, 397); who called The had left of Sayu, which is, however, once cow Syava (10, 6512). off bearing they caused to give milk (i, n622"c.). a They gave to Pedu swift,strong, white, incomparable, dragon-slaying steed impelled by Indra, which unbounded him of the family won spoils (i, 116" ".). To Kaksivat of Pajra they granted blessings in abundance,, causing a hundred jars of wine sieve (surd) or of honey to flow from a a strong horse's hoof, as from
"

or

(i,n67. ii76)28.Another mead. They placed


told

miraculous
a

deed
on

of

theirs is connected
son

with honey
who

horse's the

head

Dadhyanc,
are

of

Atharvan,

then the

them

where
to

was

mead

(madhti) of
others

Tvastr

(" 53) 2Q.


as

Besides
suc

referred persons coured befriended or

above,
the of

many

mentioned
112 were

having been
"

by

Asvins
actual

in RV.
persons

i,

and

116 saved

19.
or

These
cured

may

be

largely the

names

who

in

CELESTIAL

GODS.

21.

ASVINS.

53

remarkable
to

manner.

Their

rescue

or

cure

would

easilyhave

been

attributed

Asvins, who having acquired the character of divine deliverers and with such mira all stories connected healers, naturallyattracted to themselves The of BERGAIGNE and others the culous that various miracles opinion powers. attributed to the Asvins of solar phenomena are anthropomorphized forms thus from man meaning the release of the sun (the healing of the blind lack probability -5". At the same time the legend of Atri to darkness), seems be a reminiscence of a myth explainingthe restoration of the (cp. " 56) may
the vanished As
sun.

the physical basis of the Asvins, the language of the Rsis is so themselves do not understood to have what seem they phenomenon vague deities The other of the these represented. gods morning, the night-dispelling more Agni, the man-waking Usas, and the rising Surya are much vividly ad called dressed. be because of the latter are horses, They may possessors of of the sun's. But what light, especially symbolical rays they actually re the oldest commentators mentioned That presented puzzled even by Yaska. remarks scholar Earth and Heaven (Nir.12, i) that some as regarded them (as does also the SB. 4, i, 5l6), others, as Day and Night, others, as sun and writers' while the 'two kings, performers of took them to be 'legendary moon, acts'. holy thinks Yaska's ROTH he means Indra and the own opinion is obscure. he that the from darkness transition which GoLDSTtiCKER, to means light, sun, inseparable dualitycorresponding to their twin nature, and agrees represents an This is also the opinion of MYRIANTHEUS with this view. well as of HOPKINS, as considers it probable that the inseparable twins represent the twin-lights who before that of them could be or twilight dawn, half dark, half light, so one of alone the of Other the scholars*1 favour as son spoken Dyaus, bright sky.
to

that

the

identification and

of

the

Asvins

with

sun

and

moon.

OLDENBERG

following

believes the natural basis (ZDMG. 41, 496) of the Asvins be the morning star, that being the must only morning light beside fire,dawn, and sun. The the course of time, the luminous nature, and the Asvins round the heavens suit,but not their duality. The indeed morning star would naturally be thought of in connexion with the evening star, but they are eternallyseparate, while the Asvins are of the RV. two joined. The latter are, however, in one or spoken passages of separately; and though the morning in Vedic worship is so important, while sunset nevertheless sometimes plays no are part (5, yy2), the Asvins invoked The and (8, 22*4; 10, 391. 404) of Asvins, sons evening^. morning drive across the sky with their steeds and have Dyaus, who a sister, possess famous horsemen of Greek a of Zeus parallel in the two mythology, sons (Aid? xoupoi)34j brothers Lettic God's of Helena, and in the two who sons their steeds come the daughter of the sun, either for them to riding on woo selves the In the Lettic or moon. myth the morning star is said to have the daughter of the sun Asvins come to look at 35. As the two wed the one Lettic wed the of the Surya, so the two one daughter god-sons they sun; too the ocean, are from the daughter (like the Aiooxoupoi) rescuers delivering of the sun himself*6. the sun character If this theory is correct, the or of the Asvins idea have as derived from the of the been rescuers morning may star being a harbinger of deliverance from the distress of darkness. WEBER is also of opinion that the Asvins stars, the twin constellation represent two of the Gemini 37. thinks that the Asvins do not Finally GELDNER represent natural but saints of phenomenon, any are simply succouring (Notheilige) purely Indian origin38. MANNHARDT^2

BOLLENSEN

54

III.

RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

i A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

The any case,

and twilight

the
not

morning
not

star

theory

seem

the

most

probable.

In

it appears
character

unlikelythat the Asvins


in
name.

date from

the

Indo-European

period in
i

though
to

According
"

PVS.

note.

BRUNNHOFER,
BRV. 172.
"

variously interpreted by others; cp. BRV. I, 56"8; 3, 38 in Gothic from nasyan),Vom Aral bis zur 1/~nas ('savers'
434; PVS. HRI.
I,

Ganga, p. 99;
4

2,
"

83.
55.
" "
"

"

3 6

Sp.AP. PVS.

207;

COLIXET,

BOR.

3, 193.

"

KRV.

note

5 7

of the ZDMG.

Asvins.

HVM.

I, 237.

morning

dew;
41,

2, 433. cp. BRV. ii 80. 496; HRI.


" "

56"7, gives a list of the epithets 8 According to this refers to OLDENBERG, IQ GGA. 1875, p. 93. HAUG, BOLLENSEN,
"

On
2,

the 105.
"

car

and
*3

JAOS.
2, 432.

15,
"

269"71.
15
"

12

pvS.
"

OST.
*7
"

ORV.
18

208.

16

HRI.

83.
21

"

cp. HOPKINS, 82. HRI. H BRV. 5, 238"9; Cp. IS. 5, 183. 187; EHNI, ZDMG.
"

steeds

of the

Asvins

33, HRI.

168"70. 83. OO. 3, 1 60;


"

WEBER,
5,

IS.

5.218.
"

20

OST.

248"9.
in

MYRIANTHEUS
"

p. 93

(=
OST. HVBP.

19 227. 234. OST. 5, 250"3; has which sun

v.

SCHRSDER,
SEE.

WZKM.

9, 131;

XXVI,

set

restored KZ. 5,

273 ff;BENFEY, in the morning);

HVBP. OO. 162.

H2.

22

References

5, 244"5;
112.
--

SOXNE,
23

10,335"6;
246; BENFEY,
"

BENFEY,
OO. 3,

3, 159; 164; MYRIANTHEUS


-

MYRIANTHEUS

158;
174;

OST.

263"4.
v.

BRADKE,

ZDMG. BAUNACK, KZ. Ibid. 268; SONNE, 25 331 10, 26 MM, LSL. ZDMG. 4. 45, 482
"

50, 264"6.

(Atri
100"12;

sun);
OST. PVS.
2S
"

.ibid. BAUNACK, OST, 5, 247; cp.


24

"

2,525"6;

5,

248; MYRIAN
"

THEUS
name

78
of

"

81.
a

"

27

OST.

5, 245;

MYRIANTHEUS

i, 171

(Vispala,
149 f
" .

racing mare).
"

interpreted. Vispala is variously


"

MYRIANTHEUS

HVBP. OO. 29 BENFEY, 185. 142"3; 2, 245; MYRIANTHEUS 113. HVM. H2. 3" OST. 31 LRV. i, 535 (againstZLMMER, 5, 248; HVBP. 3, 334; f. slav. Philol. 2, 669 ff.); 32 Zft. f. Ethnologic Archiv HVBP. 7, 312 f. 47"9212 35 ORV. 34 HRI. 33 BRV. n. 78. 80; JRAS. 27, 953"4. 2, 500. 3. KRV.
note
" -

"

"

36

v.

SCHRODER,
2,

WZKM. cp.
i.

38 GVS.

31

9, 133"1. xxvii.

37

WEBER,
3,322;

IS.
MAX

5, 234;

Rajasflya100.
LSL,
2,

ROTH, ZDMG, 4, 425; OO. OST. BENFEY, 2, 245; Die Asvins MYRIANTHEUS,
"510;
HRI.

WHITNEY,

JAOS.

MULLER,

607"9:
i, 150; 2, 431

5, 234"54: oder Arischen 171. 179.

GOLDSTUCKER, Dioskuren,
47"

GRV. ibid. 255"7; Miinchen 1876; BRV. 49. 111"13; ORV.

KRV. 80-6.

49"52,

notes

180; HVBP.

209"

15;

B.

THE

ATMOSPHERIC

GODS.

"22.
His

Indra.
is

"

Indra

is the favourite national

god
^250

of the Vedic

Indians. his
one-

importance
more

indicated those
in

by
of

the

fact
to

that

about

hymns
and very

celebrate

greatness,
fourth of he

than

devoted

the total number is

hymns
he

in

other any the RV.

god
with

nearly

If the

which "into

praised or
the

which is

is associated
to at

hymns in parts of other gods, are taken

"

"

the name, As least 300. brought up of uncertain meaning, does the Indo-Iranian period and is .not designate any phenomenon of nature, the figure of Indra has become surrounded anthropomorphic and much by mythologicalimagery, more very of his indeed than that of any The other god in the Veda. so significance -character is,however, sufficiently clear. He the thunder-god,the is primarily of drought or darkness and the consequent liberation conquest of the demons 'Of the waters Se the winning of lightforming his mythologicalessence. or is the god of battle, who aids the victorious Aryan in the condarily |Tndra inhabitants of India. ] conquest of the aboriginal is the dominant He deity of the middle region. He pervades the air He the occurs (i, 5 12). gods of the air alone in the Naighantuka among of the air in the triad Agni, Indra (or Vayu), (5,4), and is the representative

-which

account, dates from

aggregate

"

Surya. Many head, arms,


"

of

Indra's

and

hands his

connexion

with

has a body, a He mentioned. physical features are is often His (2, i62; 8, 853). spoken of in belly is compared It of (2, i62 "c.). drinking Soma powers

ATMOSPHERIC

GODS.

22.

INDRA.

55

when

full of
are

Soma

to

lake

(3, 36s).

His

lips (the probable meaning


susipra or Soma jaws after drinking

of

sipra)

often

referred

is violently agitated when is exhilerated he or puts is tawny-haired (10, 96s- 8) and (2, n17; 10, 231). He is tawny, the changes being tawny-bearded (10, 23*). His whole appearance that word in entire hymn of on (Jiari) (10, 96) with verse an rung every Indra. reference is a few times to He described as golden (i, y2; 8, 5 5 3), attribute distinctive of Savitr (p. 32), as an (7, 34*), and as golden-armed iron-like (i, 563; 10, 96*- 8). His arms the thunderbolt are men as wielding often. They tioned particularly are long, far-extended, great (6, 19^; 8. 3210. beautiful the most 701),strong and well-shaped (SV. 2, 1219). Indra assumes and the ruddy brightness forms of the sun different (10,ii23) and takes many beard himself in motion forms
at

being lipped', (8j65'"). His

almost

to, the frequent attributes his peculiar to him. He agitates

siprin,'fair-

will

(3,48*. 538; 6,
I

It is the

(vajra) regular mythological fashioned as generally described


Usana is AB. also said
to

The

thunderbolt

47 l8). is the weapon of the name for him

have the

made

it and

exclusivelyappropriate to Indra. stroke (cp.p. 59). It is lightning (i, 32" "c.), but Kavya by Tvastr given it to him (i, i2i12; 5, 342).

"

said to have are gods who provided Indra with ocean (8,899). Its place is below enveloped in water that of the sun (10, 2721). It is generally described as dyasa or metallic (i, 52* "c.), but sometimes as golden (i, "72 "c.), tawny (3, 44*; 10, 963) It is or bright(3,44s). four-angled (4,222),hundred-angled (4,i710), hundredand jointed (8,66"c.); thousand-pointed(i,8o12"c.). It is sharp (7,i8l8"c.). it like a knife or Indra whets bull his horns2 as (i,130*. 55'). It is spoken a of as a stone (as'man)or rock (parvata-. 7, io419). The bolt in Indra' s hand is compared with the sun in the sky (8, from comor 59 2).Epithets derived with of which pounded vajra, some are frequent, are almost entirely very limited to Indra. with the bolt', the bolt',vajrivat, 'armed Vajrabhrt, 'bearing and vajradaksina^'holding the bolt in his righthand' are applied to him while vajrabdhu or -hasta, 'holdingthe bolt in his arm exclusively, or hand', and the commonest derivative vajrin, 'armed with the bolt',otherwise occur attributes of Rudra, the Maruts, and each as Manyu only once respectively. Indra is sometimes said to be armed with a bow and arrows (8, 454. 666" "; 10, io32" 3). The latter and are golden, hundred-pointed, winged with thousand feathers a also carries a hook (ankusa) with (8, 667- "). He which he bestows wealth he uses (8, i710; AV. 6, 82 3) or which as a weapon (10, 449). A net with which he overwhelms all his foes is also attributed to his bolt. It lies in the him

In

the

(4, i)

it is

(AV. 8, 85~8).
Indra is borne
on a car

which

is

golden (6,292"c.)

and

is swifter than

thought (10, ii22). priated to Indra. His and frequently used


horses.
even a

The
car

in

epithet 'car-fighter' (rathestha)is exclusivelyappro is drawn two by tawny steeds (/ian)*, a term very the referringto Indra's great majority of instances
a

In

few

mentioned hundred are (2, 18*-?; 4. 463; 6,47**; sun-eyed (i,i6T-2).They snort and neigh (i,3ol6). They have flowing manes (i, io3 "c.) or golden manes (8,3229.8224). Their hair is like peacocks' feathers or tails (3, 45'; 8, i25). They swiftlytraverse distances and vast Indra is transported by them an as eagle is borne by its wings (2, i63; 8, 349). They are yoked by prayer (2, i83 "c.), which doubt These 8, i9-24). steeds
are

thousand

passages eleven or

greater number

than

two,

up

to

hundred

and

less said

means

that be drawn

invocations

bring Indra
of his for

to

the

sacrifice.

Indra those
or

is

few

times

to

by
has

the

horses

22*~6), and

Vayu

Indra

Surya (10, 497) or by charioteer (4, 462. 482)


%

of Vata his

(10,

car-corn-

56

III.

RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

panion (7, 9i6). India's is in1; 5? 3l4)- Indra


8,

car once

and
said

his
to

steeds
be

were

fashioned with
a

provided
of

by the Rbhus (i, golden goad (kasd:


is

33")-'

Though the gods in general are fond addicted to it (i,io49"c.). He preeminently


it

Soma
even

(8, 2lS. 58"), Indra


stole it in order
to

drink

among (3, 484; 8, him in this respect4. It is his favourite only Vayu, his companion, coming near is nutriment (soma-pa,-pavari) frequent epithet 'Soma-drinker' (8, 4"). The characteristic of him, being otherwise only applied a few times to Agni and besides to Vayu alone. associated with Indra, and once Brhaspatiwhen
one men

44). He

is the

Soma-drinker

gods

and

(8,24),

Soma

is
as

sometimes

said

to

stimulate and

Indra

actions
But it

such

supporting earth dragon or Vrtra 222; 8, 8i6). So


or

sky
him

or

perform great cosmic spreading out the earth (2,i52).


to out
'"

exhilarates characteristically

to

carry

his warlike

slaughterof the
foes

(2,I51. ig2; 6, 47
essential
on

2)

or

the

deeds, the conquest of

(6, 27;
it to

gave

7, him

is Soma

to

Indra

that his mother

he

drank

it

the

very

day
he have

of

his birth three


at

(3,482"3" 329-10;
lakes5
a

singledraught entire lakes the One of beverage (8,66*). hymn (10,119) consists of thirty his Indra describes sensations in which after a draught of Soma. a monologue much Soma is said to produce disease in men, Indra him But just as too so from excessive indulgence in it and self is described as having to be suffering cured ceremony6. Indra also drinks milk by the gods with the Sautramani 7 with honey mixed (8,48). time eats the flesh of bulls (10,283),of one He at the same (10,272), of twenty buffaloes (6, 17"; 8, 6610), or 300 (10, 8614), or of a hundred buffaloes roasted by Agni (5,297). At the sacrifice he also eats an offering of cake (3, 527- 8),as well as of grain (3,35^. 434; i, i62),and the latter his steeds are supposed to eat as well (3,357. 52?). Indra is often spoken of as having been Two whole hymns (3, born. 48; the with of his birth. he is deal Once iS12) (4, represented 4, 1 8) subject as wishing to be born in an unnatural through the side of his mother8. way This trait may breaking from possiblybe derived from the notion of lightning the born the side of the storm-cloud. illuminates On he being sky (3, 444). bom he in the wheel of the motion set a sun Scarcely (i,130"). He was warrior as soon irre born as (3, 5i8; 5, 3o5; 8, 454. 661; 10, ii34) and was sistible from birth (i, io28; 10, I332). Through fear of him when he is born, the firm and earth At his birth are mountains, heaven 6i14). (i; agitated heaven and earth trembled all the fear of wrath his and (4,1 7 2) through 3 feared him gods (5,305)9. His mother is often mentioned (3, 48'- "c.)10. She is once he being her calf; and he (4, i810) spoken of as a cow (grsti), is spoken (10, n i2) of as a bull, the offspring of a cow (gdrsteyd).He is called the of whom once (10,101^) son NistigrI, Sayana regards as synony with Aditi (cp." 41). According to the AV. mous (3, io12- '-)Indra's (and is Ekastaka, daughter of Prajapati. has the same Indra father Agni's)mother as Agni (6,592),who is the son of Dyaus and Prthivi (" 35). According to in a hymn of a verse one interpretation (4, i74) in which his father is twice
mentioned,
verse

the slaughter of Vrtra 6, 4o2; 7, 983). For and said to is even ne 6, i7")" (5,2Q7 cp.

drank drunk

of

Soma

the

latter is Dyaus.

similar

inference

hymn (io,120') where it is said that was the highest from which this fierce (god) was other (cp. 6, 30$; 8, 364 with io, 543, and passages
an

in

Indra

may that

be

drawn
the from
i,

from

'among

worlds
a

born', and
io,

few

I386

with

164").
in

His

father is said to

have
as

made fashioned

his thunderbolt

(2, i76), which


Indra

is elsewhere

generally described

by

Tvastr

(" 38).

drank

Soma

ATMOSPHERIC

GODS.

22.

INDRA.

57 his mother
at

the He

house drank

of Soma

his

father, where
in and the house

it

was

given
Soma,
crushed widow

to

him

by

(3, 48 2).
his birth

of Tvastr stolen the the foot


a

(4, i83),
drank

Indra it in

having

overcome

Tvastr

having
by
his inferred

Indra
same

seizing
verse

his

father made be

who
to

mother that

him, and (4, i812). From


whom he

the -cups (3, 48*). in the he is asked these passages

slays in order to is Tvastr11 in of the gods, who obtain the Soma, (cp. i, So1*). The hostility said have is to are con (4, 30^) fought againsthim, perhaps one passage of his trying to obtain Soma nected with the notion forcibly.12.
it is

clearly

Indra's

father

A
to

few been

different

accounts

are

given

of the
a

originof

Indra.

He

is said

destroyer of fiends (3, 49 T), but is doubt in here the figurativesense of 'to con the verb fan no is Soma the stitute' (cp. 2, i35; 3, 5 18). once spoken of as generator of Indra other and some gods (9,965). In the Purusa hymn Indra and Agni are said mouth from the of the have to (10, 9o13). According to world-giant sprung the SB. (u, i, 614) Indra, as well as Agni, Soma, and Paramesthin, is said to created from TB. that Prajapati been have Prajapati. The (2, 2, io:) states last of the gods. created Indra (6,592)and Pusan is also his brother (6.555). Agni is Indra's twin brother
have

generated by

the

gods as only used

The

sons

of

Indra's

brother

-are

once

mentioned

(io,551),but

who

are

meant

by
Her

them

is uncertain. wife is several in


a

Indra's
name

times

referred in which

to

with

hymn in a contain few other which occurs (10, 86"- I2) and passages of goddesses (i, 2212; 2, 328; 5, 468). The SB. expressly states enumerations wife (14, 2, i8). The be Indra's AB. Indrani to (3, 227), however, mentions
Indra Prasaha and Sena MS. of
as

is Indrani

she

(i, 82$- 6; 3, 534- 6; 10, 869- 10). is represented as conversing

Indra's
3,

wives

*3.

These PISCHEL

two

are

identified

with

Indrani Saci is

(TB. 2, 4, 27- 8; the Proper name


ture15. from amoured The among of the AV. the
a

8";

4,

12') '4in
to
an

(VS.
as

2,

52)
as

thinks 'that

Indra's

wife

the

RV. Asura

well

in

post-Vedic
drew Indra that

litera down
en

(7, 382) refers gods; and the


Danavl of
a

female

who

named female with

(IS.3, 479) states live among to Vilistenga, went

Kathaka

Indra

the

Asuras,

assuming
Indra
are

form

is associated

females and of a male males. among among various other His chief friends allies and gods.

in innumerable him described are as assisting Maruts, who passages in his warlike with these deities is so close that exploits (" 29). His connexion the epithet marutvat, 'accompanied by the Maruts', though sometimes applied other gods, is characteristic of Indra, this epithet,as to well as marudgana 'attended him host', being sufficient to designate by the Marut (5,426; 9,6510). With with any than Agni Indra is more frequently coupled as a dual divinity is natural, as is a form is other god (" 44) l6. This of fire. Indra lightning said also between have have two to stones produced Agni (2, 12^) or to found is further often coupled in the waters (10, 32fc). Indra Agni hidden with Varuna and Vayu, less frequently with Soma, Brhaspati, Pusan, and Visnu attends (" 44). The latter is a faithful friend of Indra and sometimes him in his conflict with the demons I7. ("" 17. 44) Indra is in three four passages less distinctly identified with or more or Surya18.Speaking in the first person (4, 26') Indra asserts that he was once Manu and Surya. He is once directlycalled Surya (10, 89*); and Surya and Indra both in another invoked the same are verse (8, 824) as if they were receives In one Indra the epithetSavitr (2,30*). The SB. person. passage with the sun, Vrtra identifies Indra (i, 6, 4l8),too, once being the moon. the The

giganticsize

of

Indra

is dwelt

upon

in many

passages.

When

Indra

58

III.

RELIGION,
the
two

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

but a handful to him worlds, they were (3, 3o5). air and The worlds two earth, (3,46^). greatness heaven, surpasses him half of Heaven and earth do the but (6, 30 T; 10, 119')are equal to earth were times as large, suffice for his girdle (i, I736). If the ten not had hundred heavens and be equal to it (i, 52"). If Indra would Indra a him thousand would both worlds not hundred suns nor equal a earths, a (8, 59s).

grasped

boundless

He

in

His
no

greatness and
been

parallel among
or

power those born bora


or

are or

lauded
to

in the born

most

unstinted
No

terms.

He

has
or

be be

(4, i84).

one,

celestial

has terrestrial,

shall

god
nor nor

man,

recent waters

either surpasses or have attained beings


have

born, like to him (7, 322J). No one, equals him (6,3o4). Neither former, later,
his valour limit of his

to

attained
the

to

the

(5,426). Neither gods might (i, loo1*). No

nor one

men

like

rival him born, past or present, can gods; no one among All the him the in He to 1 (3, (i, 659). 46$). gods yield gods surpasses and Even the former subordinated their gods might strength(8,5i7). powers to his divine glory and to kingly dignity(7, 2i7). All the gods are unable and counsels Varuna frustrate his deeds and Surya are sub (2, 324). Even (i, ioi3 cp. 2, 389 p. 16). He is besought to destroy ject to his command of Mitra, Aryaman, foes Varuna and the (10, 89"-9) and is said to have acquired by battle ample space for the gods (7,983). Indra alone is king of world lord of all that moves and is the the whole breathes (3,46 2). He he is the (i, ioi5). He is the king of thingsmoving and of men (5,3o5); of all and leader He is the of human that sees moves (10, io212). eye and divine (3,342). He is several times called a universal monarch races (4, i92 "c.) and still oftener a self-dependent sovereign (3,461"c.;cp.p. 24). He is also said to rule alone his (ekd) by might as an ancient seer (8,641). few A times he the epithetasura receives (i, 174*^8, 796). Indra bears several characteristic attributes expressiveof power. Sakra 'mighty'applies about times and to Indra only about five times to other gods. Sacwat, 40 fifteen times and other deities only 'possessedof might' describes Indra some twice. The 'lord of epithetsacipati might',occurring eleven times in the RV. the Asvins as 'lords belongs to Indra with only one exception (7,67s),when of might' are besought to strengthentheir worshippers with might (sacibhih). In one of these passages invoked as (10,242) Indra is pleonastically 'mighty lord of might' (sadpatesaclnam). This epithet in survives post-Vedicliterature of Indra of 'husband in the sense of Sac!' (a sense claimed as a designation
him

is known

for

it

by
a

PISCHEL

even

in

the

RV.).

The

very 60

frequent
times
in

attribute RV.

satafyratu,
is with

two 'having powers', occurring some limited to Indra. In the great majorityof instances satpati, exceptionsentirely lord' is appropriated to Indra. Indra's 'strong strength and valour are also described with various other He is nimble (nrtu), epithets. strong (tavas), victorious (turd), force (i,n4. iQ26),of irresistible heroic (sura), of unbounded might (i,842). He is clothed in might like the elephant and bears weapons like the terrible lion (4, i614). He is also (i, n4 "c.) and unaging young well as ancient (purvyct). as (ajard), come Having dealt with Indra's personaltraits and his character,we now

hundred

the

to

the

great myth

which

is the
the

basis
he

of

his nature.
enters

Exhilerated
the of

by

Soma the

and

generally escorted by demon of drought, most


(S 68)
Vrtra and also very

Maruts

upon the
name

fray with
Vrtra,
when who

chief

called frequently

often Heaven

styledahi
and
2, nq-

the

by or 'Serpent'
with

the Obstructor The

'Dragon' (" 64).


fear Indra Tvastr

conflict is terrible. with his bolt

earth

tremble

strikes
the

(i,80";

I0; 6, 17$); even

forged

60

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

literal

name

(abhra "c.) it

can

hardly be denied

that; as

the waters, containing the


name

under extent to a considerable they figure mythologically udder cask well (utsd), as (udhar), spring as (go: " 61), clouds the rainThus others. meant and are probably (kosa) that the
cows

of

cow

(kavand/ia\ pail
when it is said

(8,594). giri: p. 10) that they appear (jxirvata, the mountains which the demons in the Indra on are (i,32*) They myth. down them from which he dwell casts or (i, 322; 2, I211), (i,130?; 4, 30**; from these mountains 6,265). Indra shoots forth his well- aimed arrow (8,6 66). release cleft wide the mountain He the cows to (8, 453"). Or the cloud is
roared
at

the
as

birth of Indra

It is however

rather

mountains

(adri) which place (6, i75). He


a

rock

encompasses

the the
cows or

cows

and and
were

which
the

Indra
cows

moves

from
to

its

loosened
the

rock

made

easy

obtain

(10,
cp.

ii28).

He

released

which
mountains

fast within would


seem

the
to

stone

(6, 433
the would

rocks cloud 5, 3o4). The rainless clouds seen stationary rather be the

represent
cows

moving
that
to

and

during drought, while the roaring rain-cloud (p. 10).


the mountains he

cloud

OLDENBERG
as

(ORV.
the rivers

i4of.)
in

thinks

the

poets of the RV.


also
were

well
were

as

the
In

Vrtra-myth are
and
at
a

terrestrial, though

admits
as

that

they

originally

period also very the clouds fre mythical imagery of the thunderstorm the fortresses (flirah)21 of the aerial demons. quently become They are spoken of as ninety,ninety-nine, in number hundred or a (2, i46.iQ6; 8, i;14. Sy6). These fortresses are autumnal 'moving' (8, i28), (i,1307. 1311 174^ 6, 20'"), of metal made Indra shatters them (2,2o8) or stone (4,3o20)22. (i,5i5"c.), and so the epithet'fort -shatter er' (purbhid) is peculiarto him. In one verse (10, in10) he is spoken of as a fort-shatterer and lover of waters at the time. In another the various features mentioned same of the myth are he slew the channel for the rivers,, together: Vrtra, broke a castles, made the cows pierced the mountain, and made over to his friends (10, 897). Owing to the importance of the Vrtra-myth the chief and specific epithet of Indra is Vrtrahan, 'Vrtra-slayer' 23. It is applied about 70 times to him in the RV. The only other deity who receives it with any frequencyis Agni; but this is due to Agni's frequent association with Indra dual divinity, as a few The also clearly secondary applicationsof the epithet to Soma are (" 37)24- Though Indra is sometimes expresslystated to have slain Vrtra his own by might alone (i, i658; 7, 2i6; 10, I386) other deities are very often associated with him in the conflict. The gods in general are said to have in the for action battle placed him van or (i,55^; 6, i78),or the of Vrtra have increased his vigour slaughter (8, i222).They are also said to for the fray with Vrtra infused might or valour into to have or (10, ii38), him (i, So'S; 6, 2o2; 10, 483. i2o3), or to have placed the bolt in his hands (2,2o8). But most frequentlyhe is urged on and fortified by the Maruts "c. (3"324; 10, 731when the other gods terrified by Vrtra " 29). Even fled away (8, 857 cp. 4, iS11; AB. 3, 20), they stood by him; but the Maruts themselves in one said to have him deserted are (8, 731)- Agnir passage Soma, and Visnu often also allied with in the fightwith Vrtra. Indra are Even earth sometimes in his com on associate themselves with Indra priests bats (5"3"8; 8, 5 111; 10, 449). The worshipper (jarita) is said to have placed the bolt in Indra's hands (i, 63 2), and the sacrifice is spoken of as having assisted the bolt at the slaughterof the dragon (3, 32 12). Hymns, and prayers, worship, as well as Soma, are also often described as increasing (Yvrdh) the vigour of Indra 2s.
understood such.
*

aerial

later

the

Besides

Vrtra,

Indra

engages

in

conflict with

many

minor

demons

also

ATMOSPHERIC

GODS.

22.

INDRA.

61

of these, Urana, mentioned (2, 14*) is described only once {" 69). One and while six-eyed another, Visvarupa, is three-headed having 99 arms, as of with his them bolt. Thus does He one not them, 996). always slay (10, Some with ice his with crushes foot he or (i, 51"; 8, 3226). pierces Arbuda, in general. Thus he is said Indra is described times as destroying demons with his wheel the Raksases the Asuras to (8, 859), to consume away sweep the druhah his bolt fire a dry forest (6, i810) and to with overcome or as (4, 23". 282). malignant spirits is connected the winning of light,sun, With of the waters the liberation Indra dawn. and (3, 348). The god is in won light and the divine waters slain the win When Indra had and the Vrtra to voked y84). (8, light slay his with metallic the he Vrtra for waters bolt, releasing placed dragon man, the sun (i, 5i4. 528). Indra, the dragon-slayer, set in visiblyin the heavens the motion flood of waters to the generated the sun, and found the sea, the and the after slaying the demons waters He sun (2, i93). gained cows chief When Indra slew the of the dragons and released the (3, 348"9). from the dawn the mountain, he generated the sun, the sky and waters (i, blew forth when Indra the shone the dragon from sun 324; 6, 3o5). The is usually the prize of the air (8,3*"). Though the conflict,it also sun appears
as

Indra's

(8, 129). Without the light (3, 344; 8, i55;


the the

for he weapon, reference any


10,

burns
to

the Vrtra

demon

with

the

the

434)
the

in the He
to

darkness

fight, Indra (i, io88;


the
sun,

rays of the sun is said to find

4,

i64).

Indra

is

generator

of

the

sun

(3, 494).
sun

placed
shine

the

brilliant

in light,

it mount (8,36.Sy2), and made in it in the (i, ioo6- l8;3, 349) or found gained the sun it abode darkness in which it for a (3, 39s) and made (10, path in3). Indra well the sun as as (2, 12 7. 2i4; 3, 31 l5; 32 8. produces the dawn made dawns shine has and the sun the has to 494). He (3, 442). He with dawn and the the steals the sun opened the darkness (i,625). He dawn which mentioned with the with The sun cows are (2, 20$). along and dawn alone sun (i, 73; 2, i93; (i, 625; 2, 12"; 6, i75) or with the sun by Indra, probably 3, 349; 6, i73. 322; 10, i382) as found, delivered, or won do much the waters25 the not so or rainclouds, as morning beams represent (BRV. i, 245) and others, the red clouds (" 61) or, according to BERGATGNE of dawn. The waters are probably meant by the ruddy watery (apya) cows in the following passages. clouds The (9, io86), but the morning beams or dawns he became the lord of the on him, when seeing Indra went to meet he overcame Vrtra he made visible the cows cows (3, 3 14). When (dhenah} of the nights (3, 343 cp. BRV. is in some spoken of 2, 200). Dawn passages in expressions reminding of the winning of the cows. Thus 'Dawn the opens darkness their stall' (i, 924). Dawn doors the of the firm rock as cows opens towards low the dawns (7" 794)- The cows (7,757). The Angirases burst the cowstalls of Usas dawn is sometimes the heights (6, 655). The on open said have in the same been in to produced along with the sun passages which the conquest is celebrated of the waters (i,32x-24; 6,3o5; 10,13s1-2).

sky (8,i23"). He the sky (i, 73). He

made

Thus of the
sun

there
sun

appears
after

to

be

confusion of the
at

between thunderstorm dawn. of the

the

notion
and the

of

the

restoration

the

darkness of
an

from
most

the

darkness

night

The

of the recovery latter trait is in the Indra

myth
Thus

Indra's he

probably only in the activity


to

extension

former.
more

thunderstorm the

is sometimes

is said the the

have of the

created
waters

directed
With

action Vrtra

of heaven lightnings downwards (2, 175).

directly expressed. (2, 137) and to have


and of the sun,

with fight,

the

winning

of

the

cows

is

62

III.

RELIGION,
that

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

also the the

connected
sun,

of Soma. Indra' Soma his


s

When

Indra

drove forth

and

(Soma,
hechose
became

shone juice, for


own

the dragon from the air, fires, (8,320). After his victoryover After he became

demon,
mead
out

his drink

(3, 368J.

demons,
Soma drove

Soma

property
disclosed He
won

(7,985j;he
the
at

conquered the king of


stones
as

the the and

the

(6, 20^). Indra cows (3,445).

juice pressed
the
same

with time

Soma

the

cows

the hidden in heaven the nectar found (6,4423). He found (i" 3212)- He in The the raw cow ruddy cow (usriydyam: 3, 396). goes honey accumulated all sweetness, is accumulated which Indra with ripe milk, in the ruddy cow placed there for enjoyment (3, 3o14). Indra places ripe milk in the cows which are raw (8,787) black or red (1,629),anci for which he opens (8,3225), These to have seem the gates (6, 17"). primarilyat least a mytho passages in describes the most cases to rainclouds, as the context logical reference

great cosmical
Indra 10,

actions

of Indra. have
text

is said to
later

settled the
Indra is

quaking
said
to

mountains
have
cut

and off the

wherever alighted they pleased and thus made the originally thunder the clouds (MS. i, lo1^). This wings became in post-Vedic literature. PISCHEL is a favourite myth (VS. i, 174) traces its Indra also fixed E.V. the the brightrealms of of (4, 545). originto a verse and the sky (8, 149). He propped the sky (2,i;5"c.). supported the earth wheels and asunder earth as two heaven He holds are kept apart by the and heaven earth (8,36) like a hide (8,65L stretches axle (10, 894). He out and earth is the generator of heaven He (8, 364 cp. 6, 47*). He generated that which is and shall be by his great secret name (10,552) and made the non and supporting existent into the existent in a moment (6,245).The separation the result of Indra's victory and described earth sometimes of heaven as are demon he was born over a (5,29*),who held them together (8,617).When for the Vrtra fight, Indra spread out the earth and fixed the sky (8, 785). he opened a path for visible to heaven, when The earth made dragon-slayer have he found heaven is said the streams and earth to (2, i35). Similarly have them with hidden which and waters to won were or (8,85l6) along light (3"348)- Possiblythe effect of lightextending the range of vision and seeming and earth to apparentlypressed together by darkness, may separate heaven have such of been the starting conceptions. point Indra, the wielder of the thunderbolt, who destroys the aerial demons in battle,is constantly invoked by warriors (4,242 "c.). As the great god of battle he than other is more deityas the frequentlycalled upon any with the conflicts in their enemies. of He helper Aryans earthly protects the and Aryan colour subjects the black skin (3, 349; i, i3o8). He dispersed and of the black their citadels (4, rent race i613). He subjected the 50000 Dasyus to the Aryan (6, i83) and gave land to the Aryan (4,262).He turns from of the Dasyu in the land of the seven the Arya the weapon rivers away referred to (8,2427). Other deities are as only occasionally protectors of the Aryas, as the Asvins (i, ii72I)"Agni (8, 92'), or the gods in general (6,21"). More generally Indra is spoken of as the one compassionate helper advocate of his worshippers (i,84*9; 8, 55'3. 691), as the deliverer and their strength (7,3i5), and as a wall of defence (8,697). His friend (8,8520j, as is never slain or conquered (10, I521). Indra is very often called the friend of his worshippers27, sometimes brother (3, 535),a father (4,i717; even a in one father and mother also the friend of a (8,8711). He was 10, 48 ') or the fathers in the olden time (6,2i8cp. Kausika which 7,334),and the epithet The

448). In a mountains, which earth unsteady.

plains(2, i22; wings of the

ATMOSPHERIC

GODS.

22.

INDRA.

63

favoured the family of particularly Kusikas28. Indra does desire who offers the not the friendship of him he the pious bestows libations (10, 424). But on no goods and wealth is implored not to be diverted (2, 19*. 223; ^ 27 3), and man by other his his 18^ All share benefits "c.)29. (8, 547). Both men worshippers (2, full of riches is a hands wealth filled with are (7, 373). He treasury shower his worshippers as wealth a can on (10, 42 2). He satisfying with hook shakes and down fruit Gods from a tree man ripe a (3, 454). mortals can no more wishing to give than a terrific bull (8, stop him is an lead of riches (i, 5iT)" and all the paths of wealth ocean 7o3). He him the rivers to the sea to as (6,i95). One entire hymn in particular (10,47) he
once

receives

(I,IOTI), impliesthat

he

dwells the

on

the which

manifold

wealth

which

Indra is

bestows.
most

Cows asked
to

and

horses

are

goods

Indra, like

other

gods,

often

bestow

(i,i69.

it is chieflyto him that the epithet 14 "c.), and 10 gopati, 'lord of cows' is 'desire of cows' are applied. His combats frequently called gavisti,literally his and result considered the of victories are (8,245"c.) (4,1710-11"c. : gifts Indra children also wives bestows male (4, i7l6) and 2, 178). cp. BRV. is so characteristic that the very frequent attribute (i,535"c.). His liberality entirelymonopolized by him in the RV. (cp. maghavan, 'bountiful' is almost in and remains his exclusive epithet. The literature post-Vedic epithet p. 48) vasupati, 'lord of wealth',is also predominantly applicableto Indra. main the is his combat with Vrtra, Though myth concerning Indra stories attached various other themselves the to him as performer of heroic deeds. struck Usas Some down with passages the wain describe Indra Dawn slow
as

(anas) of
rent

coming into (10, 736). He

conflict

with

Usas. wain

He of

shattered

the

his bolt
at

and of

her

(steeds) with

his

swift (mares: 2,

i56).

her wain (10, I385). Indra Indra, Usas abandoned and performed the manly exploit of striking crushingthe female medi tatingevil,Usas, the daughter of the sky; her wain lay shattered in the river of the fled in terror obscuration Vipas and Usas (4, 3o8~ 1X). The away dawn thunderstorm this of is basis the by a myth. usually regarded as Indra who that it is not Against such an interpretationBERGAIGNE urges obscures the sky but a demon, and that the application of the bolt, Indra's concludes characteristic weapon, He need not be restricted to the Vrtra-fight. that the sunrise dawn overcoming the delaying (cp.2, i56; 5, 79") is here

Terrified

the

bolt

heroic

conceived Indra
run

as comes

victoryof
in swift steed

Indra

bringing the
the who
sun

sun

3".

conflict with

in the draws

obscure and

myth
the

about

race

sun by a Etasa, car, His is hindered The car yellow steeds. sun by Indra. being ahead loses caused been in some a to have wheel, a loss which by seems way Indra (" 60 D). With that Indra the statement this myth is probably connected with stopped the tawny steeds of the sun (10, 928). Indra is also associated the myth of the of Soma. that the eagle brings the For it is to him rape is not often mentioned draught of immortality(" 37). Another myth which and the details of which in 108) is that of occur (10, chiefly a singlehymn the capture by Indra These Panis of the of the demons, who (" 67). cows here the mythical representatives seem to be of the niggards who withhold from the pious sacrificer, cows which herds of cows they keep hidden possess in a far away river. cave the a Sarama, Indra's beyond Rasa, mythical

between

the

drawn

his

tracks messenger, the Panis. In by rock the is said


to

the

cows

and

asks

for them

in Indra's

another have

pierced
the

(6,39*) Indra passage Vala's unbroken


cows are

but is mocked name, around the desiringthe cows and


to

ridge
of
as

have

overcome

Panis.

Elsewhere

spoken

confined

by

the

demon

64
Vala In

III.

RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

without various

reference the

to

the

Panis, and

driven

out

by

Indra in

(" 54). made enumerations, are frequently to Fragmentary references, Dasas human foes are over or the victory of Indra Dasyus. These primarily noseless are skin is black (i, i3oH cp. 2, 2o7), who whose (5, 29"), are god elements do sacrifice. Though doubt largely not are no less and mythological his of individual the foundation the account Dasas, victoryover mingled in human. For while Vrtra terrestrial and is slain to be of these myths seems
often in for whom of who of the

Angirasesare associated passages and the cows his releasing strongholds, shattering

with

Indra

(2, i23; 3,3o10). piercingVala,

good
or

of

man

in

general,individual
overcame

human Dasa

beings
or

are

mentioned
These

for

with
are

whom
not
as

Indra
a

the of Thus foe

Dasas.
are

proteges

Indra
seem

rule

ancestors

but priests

to

have

been

historical.
his Dasa

Divodasa

princes or warriors is the father Atithigva31

of Kulitara being Sambara, the son ddsa the from when the is whom to But term (" 69 B). applied dragon (ahi), the three-headed the waters wrests Indra (2, n2) or to six-eyedmonster struck off Indra's Trita combats whom (10, 996) or to Vyamsa who jaws An of Namuci account (4, i89),it unmistakably designatesregular demons. and Dasas other vanquished by Indra will be found in the chapter on demons. have but to be A to seems no myth which general significance simply of a later poet of the RVV is that of Indra and the invention Vrsakapi, the details of which This are given somewhat hymn obscurely in RV. 10, 86. Indra and his wife Indram about the monkey describes a dispute between Vrsakapi, who is the favourite of the former and has damaged the property and escapes, of the latter. Vrsakapi is soundly threshed but afterwards returns, when reconciliation takes place, v. BRADKE considers the story a satire, a under the of Indra and Indran! certain in which names a prince and his the famous

king Sudas,

wife

are

intended 32.

stories preserving historical traits is that of Indra Among having safely Yadu the Turvasa and rivers across (i, i749 "c.). They are the brought connected heroes of which two Aryan tribes, closely eponymous are, however, sometimes mentioned This varying attitude by the poets in a hostile sense.
is
a sure tolerably

indication
the

of of

historical matter.

Here In

the another

national
passage

warrior
Indra

god

as appears is said with Susravas

patron
to

Aryan
accounts

migrations.
twenty
of character.

have

crushed

chiefs and the

their 60099

warriors
have have in

with
all

fatal the

chariot

wheel. of
a

The

conflicts of Thus
Indra

king

Sudas

helped
answer

appearence him in the


to

historical
of his the
ten

is said to aided

battle of

the

prayers

kings (7, 333), to prieststhe Trtsus (among

have whom

him

Vasistha

is

his foes in the river Parusm prominent),and to have drowned (7, i89" I3). the of RV. relates how maiden named a a (8, 80) Finally, hymn Apala beside a river and having found Soma having pressed it with her teeth, de dicates it to Indra who she receives as a reward approaches and from whom the fulfilment of certain
as a

desires33.
the

Regarded and superiority

whole

attributes of Indra
over

of

dominion

the

those of physical chiefly physical world. Energetic action is


are a

characteristic of him, while passive sway is distinctive of Varuna. Indra is universal monarch, not the applier of the eternal laws of the universe nor as
as a

mighty arm wins victory, bestows the highest inexhaustible liberality goods on mankind, and who in the exhileration of magnificentSoma confers rich re delighting sacrifices, wards the hosts of priests officiating in his worship. The on numerous
as an

moral

ruler,but

irresistiblewarrior whose

whose

hymns

which

celebrate

him

dwell

on

these

features

in

more

or

less stereo-

ATMOSPHERIC

GODS.

22.

INDRA.

65
the Soma and He offering.

typed
is not Varuna.

terms

and

are

seldom
as

free

from

references moral

to

usually described
There
are,

possessingthe
several
are

elevation
ascribe

grandeur
later

of

however,
character

characteristic of Varuna34.
in which fessed
or an

There

passages also a

which

to Indra

actions

few, mostly
to

in the

books,
is
con

ethical

is attributed faith in

him

and

faith in him his

enjoined (i, 555 "c.),

the

realityof
attained

existence

being
Once
austere

sometimes
he is said

expressed as
in
a

againstthe
of the

disbelief of
RV.
to

(2,12$ ".)35. sceptics


heaven

late

passage

have

by
are

fervour To due

(10, 167*
the
more

cp .I594). intense anthropomorphism of Indra's and immoral


to

nature

doubtless the moral of the

certain

sensual

traits which him and

are

at

variance
to

with

elsewhere perfection

attributed

essential

the

character

be accounted for by different passages cannot gods. This incongruity different stages in the development of his char chronologically representing

Vedic

acter, for
the In the
same one

it is apparent in the words connected It is chiefly verse. is said

of

the

same

poet, sometimes
excessive fondness

even

in

with
to

his hear

for Soma.

zeal

(8, 6y5- 6) he passage in the of mortals, and


One is intoxicated is
even

vigorous draught.
which power. cessive Indra It

and see everything,viewing belly is described as full of the entire hymn (10, 119) consists of a monologue in of his greatness and capricious with Soma, boasting
next
verse

his

indicated

that

he

once

suffered

from

the

effects

of

ex

is even represented as having drinking (" 69). His love of Soma driven him to parricide (4, i812). In judging morally of Indra's immoderate indulgencein Soma, it must be borne in mind that the exhilaration of Soma in the eyes character of the Vedic partook of a religious poets and that the itself led to its being regarded as the drink influence of Soma intoxicating is of immortality.It is probably from the latter point of view that Indra conceived his cosmical such as as grandest feats, fixing having performed heaven and

earth, under poets with


to

the the

influence effect

sympathy
moral

of the

standard

the

absent entirely
trace

from
even

age. the exploitsof Indra in the the

Amorous

(2, i52). of Soma the god on the adventures, on


in the RV. that It is
on

of

Soma

And but other there

the

evident

reflects the

and he is

is

hand, are hardly a


of
as

of

such of

Brahmanas,

paramour

Ahalya
Soma

wife

except of Gautama36.
have dwelt

spoken
natural

the the his

only

that of

poetry of the
nature.

should offering

the

thirsty aspect

It has that the

been

maintained

by

RoTH^7
as

followed

by
an

WHITNEY older order This

(JAOS. 3,327)
of view

preeminence
of the

of Varuna

belonging to
transferred

gods

was

in the

course

Rigvedic period

to

Indra.

is based

partly on the fact that not a singleentire hymn in the tenth book is addressed to Varuna, while is celebrated in forty-five. Indra There two are, however, with in which is lauded other Varuna hymns (126, 185) of book two X, is invoked of that book Varuna Adityas, and in many or re single verses ferred to along with other deities. The from number of the hymns argument is not in all the earlier books far more of the RV. hymns cogent, as very addressed are Indra book Varuna. In to than III to to no hymn is devoted Varuna but in book and II there is only one 22 to Indra, and to Varuna to Indra. books added 23 considerably Moreover, these two together are shorter than the tenth alone. is much less It is, however, true that Varuna
mentioned frequently in the
seems

last book
to

than

in the and

earlier books
decisive of of
a

of

the

RV.

Beyond
session

this fact there of Varuna of the

be

no

direct

proof
RV.

by

Indra

during

the

composition
form

the

of the super One hymn the

(4, 42)

earlier

in the part, describing


1 A.

dialogue
5

rivalry

Indo-arische

Philologie.

Ill,

66

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

i A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

between

Indra

and

Varuna

has, however,
transition from conclusion
2,

been
an

a indicating acteristically

older is
of
on

portance
statements

of the of time

gods. The another (cp.GRV.


two

401)
that

regarded (GKR. 27) as char period in the relative im perhaps hardly justified by the the last book (10, i24)38. At
the
one

the
to

same

it must

be

remembered

hand in

Varuna the

seems

have important occupied a more period,while on the other, Indra in chief of the Indian epics has become tion
to

positionthan
the Brahmanas and heaven

Indra

Indo-Iranian
in the

(AB. 8, 12) and


even

maintains
of
course

this

posi

under

the

Puranic

triad Brahma-Visnu-Siva,
had become Thus AV.

though
must

subordinate powers least BENFEY

them39. the

Varuna of the

meanwhile

divested
there

by

time

(p. 26). (Hercule


et

of his supreme have been at

of popularity graduallyincreasing

Indra Cacus

even

(OO.
with

i,

48) and
rather

BREAL

have to superseded the with regard to the Indo-Iranian maintained Trita b e probability greater Trita RV. mentioned in the For is there described as Aptya. though rarely the the same as performing exploitsas Indra, occasionally appearing even in the myth (" 23). more important personage of Indra The name occurs only twice in the Avesta40. Beyond the fact but his character there his is uncertain41. of being no god, only a demon, in the distinctive Vedic Indra's in the Avesta also occurs epithet vrtrahan

sidered

Rigvedic age. By is con 101) Indra in the Vedas ancient Dyaus. This may perhaps

in the

form

of

thunderstorm

with Indra is, however, unconnected verethraghna, which the of God myth, designating merely Victory42. Thus

or

the

it is

probable that the Indo-Iranian periodpossesseda god approaching to the Vedic of the Vrtra-slaying Indra. form It is even that beside the thundering possible the of have known heaven, as a distinct con god Indo-European period may and in a drinker,who slays ception a thundergod gigantic size, mighty eater bolt4^. the dragon with his lightning The etymology44 of Indra is doubtful, is connected but that the root with that in indu, drop, seems likely.
i

ZDMG.
--

32,
HVM. 2,
"

296"7;
i,

WZKM.
"

i,
3

67.

119.

ROTH

9, 232. Nir. 5, on
--

HVM. KHF.
AIL.

i, 44,

note.
"

"

ZDMG. 5, 5, 49;

1 1 ;

138"9.
275.
"

6 7

SB.

TS. 12, 7, i"; PVS. 2, 242 9 PVS. 2, 249.

3, 2, cp.

HVM.

i,

266;

ZIMMER,
and

HVM.

238.
244.

53;
--

LANG,
10

58"62;
FIELD,

PVS. ZDMG.
"

i, 44.

"

Religion i, 183; 2, U3f. ^ ibid. 2, 51"4; MACDONELL, JRAS. 27, 183. 12 ibid, i, 211. X3 Cp. ibid. 2, 38, note i.

Myth,

Ritual

"

BRV
H

3,

"

"

BLOOM-

48, 549"51.
*7

"

15 18

Ibid. HRT.
AV.

548.
92.
"

16
"

MACDONELL,
passages
HVM.
"

JRAS. 25,470"1;
i, So4"

27,
4, AIL
24

I7S.

Ibid. Also

27,

175.

"

19
"

Other
20

M;
21

262; 8, 319-20. 6*; 10, 92*. 1249;


42.
"

13,441.
;

i, 313.

2, 13-1; ZLMMKK,
-

22

Kalhaka

IS. 12,
"

161

MACDONELL,

JRAS.
"

BRV. 497; i, 259; 29 OST. 5, 106"7.


91

25 QST. 25, 472. KRV. 42 (raincloud).


"

30

BRV.
note.
"

2,
"

193;
31

23 ZDMG. 8, 460. 27, 181. 26 AUFRECHT, ZDMG. 13, 5, 91"2. 28 QST. 27 OST. 5, 104"5. 5, 348"9. MM. KZ. Chips 2, 10, 416"7; cp. SONNE,

JRAS.

"

"

f.; ORV.
"

169; HRI.
172"4. 3,
34

77,

BRV.

2, 209; 4,

HVM.

i,

96. 107.

"

32

ZDMG.

46, 465 cp. ORV.

33

AI-FRECHT, IS.
OST.
"

i"8;
--

7-6"7der 95"7; LXXXI;


v.
.

BRV. Akad.

143.

--35

Berliner OST. Sp.AP.

1887, p. 903.
"

37

5, 103"4. ZDMG. 6, 73;

3"

ZDMG. OLDENBERG, 39, WEBER, Sitzungsberichte


;

PW.
"

cp. BRI.
40

27.

"

3^ ORV.

5, 121"6.
195; ZDMG. OST.

39

ZDMG.
note

6, 77;
212.
--

25,
41

5. 121,
-

SPIEGEL, SBE. DARMESTETER,


31.
-

Av.

Tr. Ill, IV2, LXXII;

42 Sp.AP. 48, 422. 43 ORV. i; 195. 134; 34, note SCHRODER, WZKM. 44 YN. RV. BENFEY, i, 34; 10, 8; Sayana on 9, 230. OO. MM., LSL. I, 49; ROTH, PW.; (1891)2,543, note; 'OGR. 218; AR. 396; OS T. BB. ZDMG. 208; GW.; 5, 119, note. i, 342; BRV. 2, 166; BOLLENSEN, 41, 505"7; JACOBI, KZ. 31, 316; IF. 3, 235. KHF. ZVP. 8; ROTH, ZDMG. DELBRUCK, i, 72; WHITNEY, JAOS. 3, 319"21; OST. 1865, 277-9; BRI. 12"3; 108; LRV. 5, 77"139; 4, 99 40"7; 3, 317; KRV. BRV. PERRY, Indra in the Rigveda, JAOS. 11, 117 2, 159"96; 208; HILLEBRANDT,

HILLEBRANDT,

"

"

"

Literaturblatt f. Or.

Philol. HVBP. WZKM.

1884"5,
60"80;

p.

108; Die
ORV.

Sonnwendfeste
ZDMG.

in Altindien 49,

(1889),
HRI.

16; SP. AP. 194-7; v. 91"6; SCHRODER,

134-75;

174"5;

9, 230"4.

68

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

i A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

to

bring wealth
the
sun

in

stream

on

the

of Trita (9, 102$). Soma ridges (prsthesti)

summit (sdnu) of Trita the dwells the the bull that on out mountains, stalk, They press (9,374). him is the he summit; on hymns as like purified a buffalo, accompany who, in the is When who Varuna cherishes ocean Trita like) (him (9,95*). roars; of Trita (9, 8620). the mead, he calls up the name Soma pours caused

along

with

the

sisters to

shine

on

the

There
as

are

several passages
nature. original
no

from Thus

which his
name

little or
occurs

nothing can
in
some

be

gathered

to

Trita's
furnish

enumerations

which

(5,4
In

1 9-

I0)

the

one

in whom

passage all wisdom Trita

(2, 3i6; 5, 4i4; 10, 643). In two other verses is to be interpretation uncertain, as the text seems corrupt. of Varuna Trita is described in the middle a as one hymn
information is centred, as the have harnessed this steed
and the
nave a

in the wheel celestial steed

(8,4i6).In
fashioned

another

passage
sun

is said to

from said
to

the
be

and

given by Yama,
Yama,
the dozen about passages

being

in the

followingstanza
secret

identical with
The half

Sun,
of

with Trita
AV.1

'by

(i,i632"3). operation' Trita, add


remote
no

which

mention

definite

information
whom

him.

They
bestower
as

suggest
of

guiltor
Trita

dream
as a

is transferred

only the idea of a (i, ii3I"3; 19, 564). The


life. This
of

TS.
a

god, to (i, 8, io2)


secondary

describes trait2
The Ekata

long
one

is the

no

doubt

accruing to Trita Brahmanas speak


and

the

preparer
as

Soma,
from
a

of of
on

Trita

of three

draught of immortality. the other two deities, being


t

3, 2, 810-

Dvita, sons "). Sayana


same

Agni
RV.

and i, 105
are

born

the

waters

(SB.1, 2, 3*'2; TB.


in Satyayanins,
a

quotes
three

story of the
cast

which
other

the
two.

three is

brothers that

Rsis, Trita
the
once

being
names

into
a

well

by the
sense.

It

clear

here

have

numerical

along with Trita (8,47l6) and once alone and (5,i82) apparentlyidentified with Agni. The of list of deities in the Naighantuka. Trita is mentioned in the not name Yaska in wisdom' to (Nir.4, 6) explains the word mean Very proficient it from to the three brothers Ekata, (deriving ytr\ or as a numeral referring Dvita, Trita. In another passage (Nir. explainsTrita as 'Indra in 9, 25) he three abodes' e. (i. heaven, earth, air). In examining the evidence of the RV. Trita in find that Indra and we three or four passages Trita perform the same a demon. feat, that of slaying in one is impelled by Indra, while in another and Indra is inspired Trita; by
twice
the

Dvita

in already occurs in an hymn Agni

the RV.,

Indra

is said to in the
takes abode
as

have

acted

for Trita.

Further, Trita
he finds

is associated

with
in of

Maruts and

thunderstorm.
up

Moreover,
in human hidden,

heaven,

his abode
and of Soma

Agni, kindles Agni dwellings,clearlyas a form


Soma is there. from In who find

Agni.
book
a

His Trita

is remote
preparer

and

the ninth
is

the Soma.

divergesmore
to

Indra,
we

only

drinker is
a

of
man

Corresponding
becomes in

Trita

in

the Avesta

who 9,

is once Indian Epic). He (= Soma) for the prepared Haoma (Athwya Aptya being the second) and once (Vend.20, 2) the first healer who from Ahura as received Mazda thousand ten healing the white Haoma, the tree of immortality. Thrita plants which grow round, is also called the son of Sayuzhdri in two (Yasht 5, 72; 13, 113) in passages of which he is said to have dwelt in Apam one 3. on earth) napat (as a locality This shows that Trita was with Soma connected the Indo-Iranian as early as other side of Trita's activity, period. The the slaughterof the three-headed find in the Avesta six-eyeddemon or transferred to a cognate dragon we the fiendish serpent (Azi dahdkd), the threeThraetaona, who slays personage, in mouthed, three-headed, It is noteworthy that Thraetaona six-eyeddemon. the

(as Trita
as

Thrita, (Yasna

io) described corporeal world

the

third
=

man

who

ATMOSPHERIC

GODS.

24.

APAM

NAPAT.

69
seek
to

his

expeditionagainstDahaka
him the The it
was

is word

on way4. slay Tptto;5, the third. That shown by the occurrence

accompanied by two brothers who tritd phonetically corresponds to


felt to have in the the The in the

the Greek is third',,

meaning
RV. and collocation

of

'the

beside

it of Dvita

by

the invention of

of Ekata with Trita

beside

these

two

in the Brahmanas. AV.

same (RV. 9, 102^; 5, i1) points of the RV. (6, 4423)6 the word trita highly probable that in one passage 'third'. in the plural means Trita's regular epithet Aptya seems derived from to be dp, water, and in be to to Apam sense hence equivalent practically napat7. Sayana (on RV. epithetof Trita, 8, 4715) explains it as 'son (putra) of waters'. Another is formed like a patronymic and once (10, Taibhuvasa,) which only occurs

direction.

trtni, three, Finally,

it is

46 3) may
The
a

be

connected

with

Soma8.
the perhaps justify

above of

evidence

the of fire, originally the middle aerial form or lightning, of natural of the triad Agni, Vayu member or a Indra, Surya. By process this in ousted Indra have a lmost identical to selection seems god originally with obscure character himself, with the result that Trita occupies but an in this Trita's RV. the If be even interpretation correct, original position would with Soma of Soma from heaven the connexion signify bringing by (as in the Soma-eagle myth: " 37). The paucity of the evidence lightning need of these be mentioned has led to many Only some divergentviews9.

god

may third

conclusion

that

Trita

was

here.

ROTH

BRANDT10 be
1

(ZDMG. regards him


of the

2,

224) considered
as a

Trita

water

and PERRY who the


was

wind

god.

HILLEhim
to

deity of
than of

the

brightsky.
PISCHEL and that of
sea

believes

god

storm,

older

Indra11. the

'a god be to 86) thought him (GGA. 1894, p. 428) expressed the healer who
i

formerly (PVS. i, has recently waters'


a originally

opinion

Trita

human

was

later
WHITNEY'S
"

deified.
AV.

HARDY

thinks
s.

Trita
v.
"

is

moon
2

god12.
Otherwise

See

Index

verborum,
"

Trta.

"

PISCHEL,

5 BRUGMANN, Grundriss 3 SP. AP. 4 SP. AP. 271. 1894, p. 427. 2, 229; 193. meant according to FICK, Vergleichendes Worterbuch originally 14, 63. 229, Trita 6 ORV. IF. 4, 136. 7 Cp. JOHANSSON, sea. 183, n.; cp. POTT, KZ. 4, 441. 8 date in JRAS. to 9 Stated JRAS. 25, 450. 25, 4, 19 143. up 23. " 10 " und Varuna Mitra HVBP. 35"8. 94"5. JAOS. n, 142"5. the The To authorities here MACDONELL, god Trita; JRAS. 25, 419"96. be added: LRV. KRV. 112 d; BRI. 82, quoted may II; BDA. 33, note 3, 355"7; n. cxxiii; LUDWIG, 1894, cxix AJP. 1 1, 341 ; PAOS. 71 ; BLOOMFIELD, 3; Sp.AP. 262 1894, CLXXIV; FAY, PAOS. Rgveda-Forschung AJP. 17, 13; ORV. 117"9; 143; SEE. 46, 406; I1RL OERTEL, JAOS. 18, 18"20. 104;

GGA.

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

The Apam deity called Apcam napat is celebrated in napat. of a hymn to the waters hymn (2, 35), is invoked in two verses and is times mentioned (10, 30^- 4), nearly thirty by name altogether in the RV. The stood around of waters; the youthful waters the brilliant Son waters desire to give food to him him around the divine females three youthful; go the divine; he sucks the milk of the first mothers (2, 353~5). He, the bull, in and the the he child, sucks engendered them; they kiss him embryo of waters (v. X3);the Son growing strong within the waters, shines forth (v.7). He in lightning fuel in the waters shines without (v.4; 10, 3o4). Clothed the Son of waters the the mounted of has lap slanting (waters); upright him the swift (waters) golden in colour (v. 9; cp. carrying him go around is golden in form, appearance Son of waters and Agni in i, 954- s). The sits down and he food his to colour; coming from a golden womb gives in he shines the with worshipper (v. I0). Standing always unhighest place dimmed the swift waters (splendour); carryingghee as food to their son, fly

"

24.

--

one

whole

70

HI.

RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY. the

around maidens
in secret

with their garments

kindle, whose

colour

(v. I4).The face is golden, and


which
in

of

the

Son

of waters, whom

whose his
own

food house
son v.

is

has cow a (v. "). He (v. ?). Steeds (vrsanah) swift as


son

thought carry
with
are

the

of

ghee, gives good milk waters (i, i865).


son

increases

The has

of

waters

is connected

rivers

(nadya\
branches

I). The
of

of

waters

merely of the Apam last stanza napat hymn, the deity is be identified with him. Conversely Agni is in some of as Apam napat (cp.VS. 8, 24). Agni is spoken engendered
He But

all

beings,who

him
as

(v. 2- 8). In

the
must

invoked

Agni
waters

and
to

hymns
the
a

addressed
of

him,

Son

is the

Son

of

waters

who

sat

down

on

earth

as

dear

(3,9T)priest(i, I431).

of waters, with the Son Agni, accordant distinguished. unites here with the Vrtra (6,i33). The Son of waters The asuhejnan, 'swiftly epithet body of another as it were (2,3513). speeding'1, used applied three times to Apam napat, is in its only other occurrence of Agni. in various enumerations,especially with Aja Apam napat is mentioned and Ahi Savitr budhnya (i, i865; 2, 3I6; 7, 35'*), ekapcad (2, 31*; 7, 35^), (2, 3 16; 6, 5o13). The epithet is directlyapplied to Savitr at least once Savitr represents another of Agni. form fertilizing (p-33); perhaps because in who clothed is is in the d wells Apam golden, lightning, highest napat, in of the waters, concealment, shines forth, is the offspring place, grows down is identified with Agni, appears comes to earth, and to represent the in the cloud. form of Agni which is concealed For lightning Agni, besides also is the called termed Apam being directly embryo (garbha) of the napat, he has been waters (7, 93; i, 7o3). As such dwellings deposited in human (3, 53), his abode is in the waters (8,43^) and the two fire-sticks engender Agni who is the embryo both of plants and of waters (3, i13). Agni is also called the 'son of the rock' 20? (10, can hardly refer to cp. 6, 48$), which which issues from the cloud As mountain. con anything but the lightning trasted with his celestial and terrestrial forms, the third form of Agni is de scribed as kindled in the waters, the ocean, the udder of heaven, the lap of the waters (io,45T~3).*n ^act tne abode of the celestial Agni in the waters of the best established points in Vedic is one mythology2. The term Aptya Trita bear similar to to a applied (g 23). interpretation appears creation of Indian mythology, but goes back to a Apam napat is not the Indo-Iranian of the waters, period. In the Avesta Apam napat is a spirit lives in their depths, is surrounded who by females and is often invoked with them, drives with swift steeds, and is said to have seized the brightness * in the depth of the ocean3. SPIEGEL thinks this deity shows indications of considers him to be the an igneous nature in the Avesta, and DARMESTETER bom from the cloud in lightnings.L. v. SCHROEDER with as fire-god agrees this view6; some is of opinion scholars,however, dissent from it. OLD ENBERG7 that Apam water a originally napat was genius pure and simple,who became confused with the water-born Agni, a totally different being. His grounds confers also they are victoryover are, that
one

of

the

two

hymns
nature

in which

he

is celebrated

(10, 30), is
with water,
on

con

nected
even

in the in

ritual with

ceremonies

concerned exclusively

while other
MAX

hand,
MULLER"

his aqueous 2,35 followed by HARDY


that he

HiLLEBRANDT9, predominates8. Apam


napat
is the
moon,

the and

I0, thinks
sun or

is the

lightning.

2 FaR. WINDISCH, RV. also Cp. especially 144. 3, I (GVS. i, 157"70); 3 Cp. HVM. 5 7, 494; 10, 96. SEE. 4 Sp.AP. i, 377"8. 192"3. Avesta traduit 2,630, note, 3, 82 (cp. Ormazd 42, LXiii; 1' et Ahriman 34);but see i
"

5"

"52;

"

"

"

HILLEBRANDT,

ZDMG.

48, 422.

--

WZKM.

9,

227"8.

"

ORV.

118"20,

cp.

ATMOSPHERIC

GODS.

25.
1.

MATARISVAN.

357. HVM.

8
_

Cp.

v.

SCHROEDER,
ZDMG.

WZKM.
"

c. ;

MACDONELL,

JRAS.
"

27,
410;

955"6.
NR.

"

I,

365"80;
Revue

RIALLE,
Studien

48, 422 f. de Ling. 3, 49 ff.;


Avesta etudier Tr.

*o

HVBP.

38 f.

"

Chips, 42,
SPIEGEL'S

WINDISCHMANN

in

500. Zoroastrische
2,

177"86;
3, 45; 25,

SPIEGEL,
pour

36

"

7;

Manuel Die
HRI.

GRV. 3, xix. Liv; le Sanscrit vedique,


BDA.

I, 45;
s.
v.

BRV.

17"19.

181;

GRUPPE,

griech. Culte
106.
"

1,89;

82,

note

2;

4, napat; LRV. apam LRF. MACDONELL, 93;

JRAS.
"
25.

475"6;

Matarisvan.
the in
name

Matarisvan
there of

RV.,
one

and times

is found latest
once

the and

portions
in the

hymn of the any only twenty-seven times, occurring twentyand otherwise that Veda only five times
book. with
on

is not

celebrated

in

in

the

third is

sixth

In

these
or

six

older

Matarisvan

always either
of

identified is based

Agni
the

is the

producer myth

passages of fire. fire and these

Though
aT Two
can

the

myth

Matarisvan

distinction between
the shows

which personification
to

produces it, the

analysisof
of the

be said

identical.
to

Nothing
in the

even

in

any

later

books

be

show and

clearly that

the

conception

of Matarisvan had

of the RV., prevailingin


to

the that

other Veda.

Vedas

post-Vedic period,
of

begun

appear

in

Matarisvan This
end is

is

name

Agni
where

in
the

three
name

passages
occurs

(3, 59. 262;


in the

i,

96*).
at the

probably an verse, Agni hymn (9, 88 X9). In another is given, he is spoken of explanationof the name Agni: 'As heavenly germ he is called Tanunapat,
case

also

the

vocative
an

of

where
as one

etymological
the forms of Narasamsa mother

of

he

becomes in his wind'

when
mtta

he

is

born;

when

as

Matarisvan he became

he the the Once

was

fashioned

matari-.

is further said

cp. i, i4i5), 'One elsewhere:

swift wise

of flight call

being

(ami(3, 2911)- It variously: they speak of


is also
a

Agni, Yama, Brhaspati,who


Elsewhere

Matarisvan'
is several

(i, i6446).
times
at

Matarisvan
with

form

of

identified

appeared (sam abhavat]


Matarisvan born" in
the

the is

rite

as

Agni (" 36): 'That Matarisvan' (i, i9o2).

Brhaspati

from distinguished

Agni.

'He

(Agni) being

appeared to Matarisvan' (i, I432). 'Agni first and at the choosing Matarisvan Vivasvat; the two worlds trembled appeared"to" of the priest' (i,3i3). 'Agni being the highestof the luminaries has supported

highestheavens

with
who

his flame
was

the

firmament,

when
verse

Matarisvan
follows

kindled
one

the

oblation-bearer

Agni is directly in contiguous The called Matarisvan. a discrepancy only explanation of that the name of a specific of the same to be verses personi hymn, seems is used fication of Agni in the latter verse as an Agni epithet of the generic the in the former. Matarisvan brought to Bhrgu as a gift gloriousofferer, births who has two the banner the of the~~sacrificiar]gathering~ messenger
concealed'

(3,510).This

in which

such

the

(Agni) from the sky, the eagle wrested (i, 601)..Matarisvan brought the one the rock from other (i, 936). Matarisvan brought Agni the (Soma) Matarisvan adorable (and) the gods (3, 2^). priest,the dweller in heaven for the first adorable the Bhrgus produced, as fashioned Agni, whom (priest) has from afar for the Matarisvan man brought man (10, 46^). Him, god, afar of Vivas vat, brought hither from (i, I282). Matarisvan, the messenger the mighty seized in the lap of the waters (6, 84). Agni Vaisvanara, whom from the hidden afar Matarisvan from friction, by Agni, produced brought the hidden friction the gods (3,1)5). Matarisvan (i,i4i3). Agni produced by in human and i was set up was produced with friction by Matarisvan the dragon and abodes for Trita from (i, 7i4. I481). Indra produced cows delivered the cowstalls to Dadhyanc (10, 482). (and) Matarisvan in late hymns which There few obscure are hardly shed any a passages
further

lighton

the

character

of

Matarisvan.

In

two

of

these

he

seems

to

72
be

HI.

RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

i A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

"and regarded ras purifying


is mentioned in Indra
an

enjoying Soma
enumeration
once

(9, 6;3X;
Fathers

10,

H41);
whom

and

in

another, he
drank
Soma

of

beside him
s as

Indra
a

(Val. 42).

is in
same a

compared
to

with

with

skilful

artificer (10,

io56),probably
the in

allusion
verb

Matarisvan' is used).

skill in This

producing
of skill

Agni (cp. 10, 469, where is probably also present


Matarisvan
lovers
svan

taks

notion

verse

of the

is invoked along with other in a very " Finally, 38). Tvastr, (cp.

wedding hymn (10, 854?), where deities to join the hearts of two
obscure
verse

(10, 109*) Matari

is

spoken
with

of

as

'boundless'
in the

times
the

used

vdta

several (salila, an 'wandering' adjective attributes which AV.), possibly alreadyrepresent

and

conception of
Matarisvan
who
at

Matarisvan thus
same

to

be

found
to

in later times.
a

would
the

appear

Agni, brought down lightningcan


of messenger is a messenger of

time
fire from

is

the be

hidden his

natural
from

basis. heaven

Vivasvat
of

of a celestial form personification of as having like Prometheus thought heaven to earth. Hardly anything but This for his being the would account to earth (6,84),just as Agni himself
be

Vivasvat

Matarisvan

is still found

("35) between as a mystic name


name

the
of

two

worlds1.

In

the

AV.

generallyin
all the
to

that (AV. 12, i51 "c.) and is in is


be

other
a

the subsequent literature,

this conception to a in his mother, became he Matarisvan formed the swift was as 'Agni, when air of in is and the elsewhere as a com wind'2, Agni raging flight serpent the with wind Such have statement a (i, 791). rushing might easily pared the wind. been Matarisvan taken later to interpret as word The matarifvan, which is without a cognate in any other Indoof being a purelyIndian compound European language, has every appearance The durgfbhisvati). (likemdtaribhvari, rjisvan, Rigvedic poet's explanation of the name 'he who is formed in his mother' as can hardly be dismissed in all likelihood dates from as an etymological conceit, since the word a of It in his mother' contemporary phase language. probably means 'growing (YSU, to swell,from which we have sis'u, child,and other derivatives) 3, Agni being also said to grow (Yvrdh) in his mothers (i,i4i5). There is a change of accent from the second to the third syllable, probably due to the influence of numerous words in -van either the (likeprdtaritvaii). By the mother lower aram the thundercloud or might be meant; but the latter is the more from heaven. probable, as Matarisvan Yaska comes (Nir.7, 26), who regards Matarisvan of the as a designation Vayu, analyzes compound into mdtari (= antarikse)and svan to breathe ds'u an to breathe (from svas or quickly),
so as

found

Agni (AV. 10, 8^9- 4"). but and Samhitas, the Brahmanas of The wind. transition designation already quoted (3,29"): passage

to
1

mean

the
122,
a

wind
n. I

that
thinks of BDA.

breathes
the has

in

the

air.
Matarisvan is

ORV.

frequentlyexpressed opinion that


no sure

nothing but simply as the 2 Cp. BRV.


Sanskrit 31, GW.
note

form

Agni,
of the

foundation, and

Prometheus
i, 27;

51;

Roots 8. 1 4 BRV.

p.
;

176;

ROTH,

108, n. RV.; cp. ORV. SEE. 3 Cp. WHITNEY, OLDENBERG, 46, 306. Nirukta KZ. in IS. I, 416; REUTER, 3; WEBER,
" "

regards Matarisvan 46, 123. i, and SEE.

544"5KHF.
s.

MUIR, JRAS. 20, 4 1 6, note


i, 52-7; BRL 9;

OST.

5, 204,

note

SCHWARTZ,

KZ. SEE.

20,

2 10

v.;

KRV.35;

HVBP.

no;

EGGELING,

12,

186,

2;

ORV.

122"3.
--

name

The budhnya. serpent of the Deep, Ahi budhnya, whose solely in hymns to the Visvedevas, is spoken of only twelve times in the RV. and alone. He is associated five times hardly ever with Aja ekapad, three times with three times with the ocean Apam napat, is mentioned and (samudrd), twice with Savitr. There
are

S 26. Ahi

only

three

verses

(5,41 l6;

ATMOSPHERIC

GODS.

26.

Am

BUDHNYA.

27.

AJA

EKAPAD.

73

7,

34l6'I?)
to

in which with

he

is

invoked

alone.

When

only

one

other

deity is

referred

644).
same

When
verse,

him, Apam napat (i, i865) or mentioned budhnya and Aja ekapad are they are always (with the slight exception of
Ahi
most

it is either

Aja ekapad (10, together in the 10, 66 IJ) in juxta


name

The position.
are:

characteristic enumerations
Ahi the

in which

the

is invoked

budhnya, (7, 35I3)j Ahi Apam Aja ekapad, ocean, budhnya, Aja ekapad, Trita,Rbhuksan, Savitr, Apam napat (2, 3i6); the ocean, the "stream, the space (rajas],the air,Aja ekapad, the thunderingflood, Ahi all the Ahi associates gods (10, 66 II). Judged by these budhnya, and would is in be and he enumerated to seem an atmospheric deity, budhnya the divinities of the middle aerial region. the Naighantuka (5,4) among or he is mentioned alone definite than that anything more But it is only where this can information be gathered. In the verse which about him, gives most 'I with the in the poet exclaims: water (abjdm\ praise serpent born songs in the bottom in the spaces' (7, 34l6; cp. 10, (budhne) of the streams sitting and Yaska 935). This indicates that he dwells in the atmospheric ocean, air budhna In the as (Nir.10, 44). verse explains immediately followinghe is besought not and identical these to to injury, give his worshippers over
napat, Prsni
words that
are

addressed is

to

him

in another
in his

passage

also Ahi

(5, 4il6).This
a

suggests
com

there

something
to

hurtful

nature.

is otherwise
waters

term

monly
as

applied
air

Vrtra the

(" 68), and


or

Vrtra them of

enclosing the
or (ibid.)

is described

overflowed the

by
said

waters

lyingin
space

at the
a

bottom

of and

(i, 526). Agni


to

in been

the

air is called in the that

raging ahi

(budhna) (i,791)
great

is also

have

produced
be

space
not

(4, ii1).
different from

Thus Ahi

it may

surmised
he

depth (budhne} of Ahi budhnya was


as a

the

Vrtra, though
baleful

is invoked

divine

originally being, who

Apam aspect only being hinted at. In later Vedic is connected texts Ahi with Agni Garhapatya (VS. 5, 33; budhnya allegorically AB. 3, 36; TB. literature Ahi budhnya is the name i, i, io3). In post-Vedic
of
a

resembles

napat, his

Rudra
.

as

well
IS.

as

an

epithetof
ROTH,
41
"

Siva.
s.
v.

WEBER,
3, 24"5;

i,

96;

PW.
name

budhnya;

OST.

5,

336; BRV. with Ahi


of the in

2,

205"6.

401;

HVBP.

(as a
This

of the

moon). budhnya,
latter and the latter

" 27. Aja


his
name once

ekapad.

occurring five
unaccompanied
of the

times

in

connected being is closely with that juxtaposition The

only

by it (10, 6513).
the

deities invoked

'the passage, the supporter

thunderingPaviravl
sky,
the

of lightning': ('daughter PW.), Ekapad

aja,
Sara-

stream, the

oceanic
those

svatf, are, however, almost


'the ocean,

identical with

waters, enumerated

all the in

gods,

the

following

hymn: stream, the aerial space, Aja ekapad, the thundering flood, Ahi budhnya, and all the gods' (10, 66 ll). These two passages suggest that Aja ekapad is an aerial deity. He in the is, however, enumerated the deities the of the Naighantuka (5,6) among celestial region. In AV. Aja ekapada is said to have made firm the two worlds (AV. 13, i6). The TB. (3,i,28) speaks of Aja ekapad as having risen in the east The commen his passage tator defines on kind of and Aja ekapad as a Agni, Durga on
Nirukta
1

2,

him interprets what

as

the

sun.

Yaska

himself

does

not

express
as or

an

opinion
with
as one

as

to

Aja ekapad represents,


as

merely explaining Aja


or

ajana,
drinks

and driving,

ekapad
Ahi the

'he

who

has
any
a

one

foot'

'he

who

protects

foot'. Though
as

hardly

longer an
libation
the
name

Aja ekapad independentdeity,


in the of

well

2,

i52j. In
an

budhnya receives Epic Ajaikapad is


whom GRASSMANN

domestic
one

ritual (Parask. eleven

both

of the

Rudras

and

epithet of Siva.
with

RoTH1,

agrees2, regards Aja ekapad

as

genius

74

IH.

RELIGION,
storm,
that
as

WELTL.

WIRSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

i A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

of

the

the translating

name 4

as

the he

'one-footed
a

Driver
solar

or

Stormer'.

BLOOMFiELD3

and
'the 'the the

VICTOR

HENRY goes

think
alone'

represents
moon. one

believes
the who be
name

goat who
unborn
one

is the

5 deity.HARDY BERGAiGNE6, interpreting

(a-ja) who

has

only

inhabits

isolated

mysteriousworld.

If

foot',thinks this means another conjecture

he may

added,

the

name,

of designation

mountains, and
i

a figurative originally 7, was meaning 'the one-footed goat' the 'goat' to its agile swiftness in the cloudalluding lightning, which strikes^'theearth. foot to the singlestreak the one
s. 1
"

PW.

v.

cp. FAY, AJP.

1891,

p.

24.

7, 24"5. 5 HVBP.
i,
--

2 GW. I a/a(cp. OST. s. v. 5, 336). aja\ Nirukta, Erl. 165"6 4 Les hymnes Rohita, Paris 3 AJP. 12, 443 ; SEE. 42, 664.
" " "

41"2.

6
"

BRV.

3, 23.

"

ORV.

71"2;

cp. BRI.

24.

WEBER,

IS.

96. This

28.

Rudra.

in being celebrated with Soma, while conjointly His physical features

god occupies a subordinate positionin the RV., only three entire hymns, in part of another, and in one
his in
name occurs

about the

75

times.
has
a

the

RV.

are

lips (2,337"c.), arms braided hair (i, H41-5). His colour is brown (2, 33s) and (likePusan) wears (babhru\ shape is dazzling(i, H45), and he is multiform 2, 335 "c.). His like brilliant sun, like gold (i,43s). He is arrayed HG shines the (2i 339)' with golden ornaments a (2, 33^) and wears gloriousmultiform necklace1 later Samhitas (2, 334). The (niska: 2, 33in). He sits on a car-seat (espe traits. VS. number of other He is (AV. add a 1 6) cially thousand-eyed u, has a belly, 22- ?, VS. a 1 6, 7). He mouth, a tongue, and teeth (AV. n, 26). His He is blue-necked (VS. belly is black and his back red (AV. 15, i7'8). and is copper-colouredand red (VS. blue-tufted 1 6, 7) (AV. 2, 276). He He is clothed in a skin (VS. 3, 61; 16, 51) and dwells in mountains 1 6, 7). (VS. 1 6, 2-4).
(2,33^;VS.
The
to

16, i),and

firm limbs

following. He (2,33"). He has

hand

beautiful

RV.

often

mentions in his

Rudra's
arm

weapons

of

offence.

He

is

once

said

shaft (didyut) dis (2, 333). His lightning the from earth the sky traverses (7, 463). He is usuallysaid to be charged armed and with a bow which arrows (2, 3310- "; 5, 42"; 10, 125*), are and is He Krsanu swift with the archers invoked and (7, 46 x). (" 48) strong when Indra is compared with the archer to be intended (10, 648);and seems the car-seat on (6, 20", cp. 2, 33 IT). In the AV. he is also called an archer other later Vedic his bow, texts (i, 28'; 6, 93 x; 15, 51""7).In that and club referred 285 or are to (AV. i, bolt, arrow, frequently "c.; SB. weapon,
hold

the thunderbolt

9, i,

i6).
One
of

the

points most
He of

mentioned frequently is their father


as

about
2,

Rudra

is his rela
or

to tionship
more

the

Maruts.

(i, ii469;
and
are

33');
from

they

are

frequently spoken
or

his

sons

also

several

times the

called

Rudras udder
the

Rudriyas2. exploitsof

He

is said to
But

have is
for

generated them
does
r

shining
is, with

of Prsni

(2,342) 3.
the

Rudra

never

associated, as
not

Indra in

warlike demons.

Maruts,
common

he

engage

conflict with

the is
to

Tryambaka, a already applied to Rudra


refer
to

epithetof
texts

Siva

post-Vedicliterature, in,
seems

in Vedic

him

once

even

in the RV.

(VS. 3, 58; SB. 2, 6, 29) and (7, 5912).The meaning appears


in allusion
a

to

be

'he who
of

has

three

mothers'
i,

the universe

(cp.GRV.

(cp. 3, 565) 555). Ambika,

to

the

threefold

division

for wife, is mentioned Rudra's not as wife, but

the
as occur

Siva's
In

wife,seem
a

first to
of the

passage

RV.

of Siva's post-Vedic name first time in VS. 3, 5, appearing here, however, his sister. Uma and of Parvati, regularnames in the TA. and the Kena Upanisad. (2, i6) Rudra is one of several deities identified

76

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

descend

elsewhere
and

(AV.

n,

225; 10, i23).


222-

He

is

even

said

to

assail with

widepoison8 (AV. n, 26; 6, 90 op. 93). fever, cough, their prey unchewed, also spoken are mouthed, howling dogs, who swallow the afraid of the strung of (AV. 10, i3", cp. VS. 16, 28). Even gods were of Rudra, lest he should and the arrows bow (SB. 9, i, i1- 6). destroy them he cattle of Mahadeva is said the to slay name Under (TMB. 6, 9 ?). In of a compound he is said to have formed been Brahmana another passage terrible substances of all the most (AB. 3, 331). It is probably owing to his and Sutras Rudra is regarded characteristics that in the Brahmanas formidable When the the other attained from isolated heaven, Rudra as gods gods. ritual after offerings behind remained to other (SB. i, 7, 31). In the Vedic Rudra GS. is remainder to not (Gobh. a assigned uncommonly gods, i, 828; with and beast His disease which attack S. and Dh. man hosts, Ap. 2, 423). just as blood death, receive the bloody entrails of the victim (SSS. 4, i98), of the sacrifice9 (AB. 2, 71). their peculiarshare is poured out to demons as Rudra's
,

The

abode
while

of

Rudra that
nature

in of the that

these
other

later

texts

is

commonly
east.

north10,
his with four

gods
RV.
as a

is in the Rudra
dual

It is

regarded as perhaps
once

in the due
to

formidable
another
stanzas.

in the

deity (Soma: S 44)

only appears in one divinity

associated
of

short hymn

the VS., besides many to repeat, several other epithets too numerous he is called a 'robber, Thus mentioned. attributes of Rudra are disgraceful and robbers' (16, 20 i). In fact, his cheat, deceiver,lord of pilferers the various character shown as occurringhere, approximates to epithets by of the post-Vedic Siva. the fierce, nature terrific, impure, and repulsive He is also Rudra is, however, not purely maleficent like a demon. in evil the RV. that the the from the comes to avert or supplicated anger from gods (i, ii44; 2, 337). He is besought not only to preserve calamity but to bestow (i, H41- 2; 2, 336), and produce welfare for blessings (5, 51 13), mentioned with especial and beast are man (i, 436). His healing powers he He commands grants remedies (2,33"), frequency. every remedy (5,42"), and has a thousand remedies (7, 463). He carries in his hand choice reme his hand is restorative and dies (i, ii45). and healing (2,337). He raises is his for he the heroes remedies, greatest physicianof physicians by up remedies his worshipperhopes to live a hundred (2,334), and by his auspicious his worshippers' sickness from \vinters (2, 33 2J. He is besought to remove that all in the and be and favourable to to man beast, (7,462) offspring In free from this be disease connexion well-fed and (i, H41). village may Rudra has two which are peculiarto him, jaldsa^ (perhaps)'healing' epithets and jaldsa-bhesaja, remedies (i, 434; AV. 2, 276). These h ealing 'possessing medicines rains11 sickness are (cp. 5, 53M; 10, 599). That against probably of a hymn in this attribute was essential to his nature, appears from a verse which various deities are characterized without being named (8,295): 'One in his hand'. fierce, bright, possessinghealing remedies, holds a sharp weapon and his remedies also Rudra's lightning mentioned are togetherin another with the Rudras is invoked to be favour verse (7,463). The healing Rudra In
"

able
as

(7. 356).

The

Maruts and

are

also in another remedies other

verse

associated

with

Rudra of 49;

possessingpure
is sometimes
2,

beneficent
to

(2, 3313).The
Samhitas

healingpower
3, 59;

Rudra AV.

referred
much

in the

(VS.
or

16, 5.

276);

but

less frequently than


are

his destructive

Sutras, sacrifices to him cattle (AG. 4, 84"; Kaus.


The

prescribedfor removing

In the activity. disease in preventing

evidence

of

S. 51, 7 "c.). does the RV. not

show distinctly

with

what

physical

ATMOSPHERIC

GODS.

28.

RUDRA.

29.

THE

MARUTS.

77

basis his the

Rudra is

is connected.

He

is that

missile enemies

maleficent,unlike
of his the

generally regarded is of Indra, which


appears simple,but would rather
account

as

directed
to

storm-god. But only against


have

worshippers.
storm

Rudra and

therefore

originally
side in the

representednot
destructive
and for his with agency

pure

its baleful for his

of the

I2. lightning father

This

or being said to have and been who are lightning and would be based of lightning' healing powers (i, 2312). His beneficent action the thunderstorm of and the and on partly partly fertilizing purifying the de indirect Thus action whom he the of those might slay. on sparing rise to the euphemisticepithet of his wrath (s'iva), 'auspicious' precations gave in post-Vedic which of Rudra's historical successor became the regular name

chief

of the

Maruts

armed

deadly shafts are or Storm-gods, who 'from the born laughter

mythology.
with

This in the
IJ

explanation would
RV.

also

account

for Rudra's

close

connexion

Agni
WEBER

deity in the earliest period speci (the plural therefore meaning the and Storm but that the of fire is as analogous, Maruts), ,Firecom roaring and the epithets of the Satarudriya bined to form destruction, a god of rage Fire. Rudra and Storm partly from Agni being derived partly from either that Rudra form of H. H. WILSON was a Agni or thought 'evidently chief of the Rudra the Indra'14. L. v. SCHROEDERIS as regards originally dead souls of the conceived as storming along in the wind (cp. p. 81). is of opinion that Rudra OLDENBERG a god probably represented in his origin mankind10. disease shafts and the of attack of mountain whence forest, is somewhat rudra uncertain as regardsthe The etymology of the word meaning. It is generally derived from the root rud, to cry, and interpreted it is derivation18. By GRASSMANN^ is the This the Howler17. Indian as shine' 'to with of connected rud root a or, having the conjectural meaning would the 'bright' thus mean according to PISCHEL, 'to be ruddy'20. Rudra
the view that this expresses ally designated the howling of the Storm
= =

or

the

'red
i

one'21.
"

2 6, 504. 66"; 120"1. 5, 4215; i, 642- 12. 85"; Cp. PISCHEL, ZDMG.40, is once said to have 3 Vayu generated the (cp. 5, 59 8; 7, 561. 585). is approximated to Rudra in 10, 1691. from Maruts the sky (i, 1344) and Vata 5 Cp. BLOOM4 i, 271" (cp. Nir. 10, 8; Erl. 136); 3, 25; 4, 3 i; 5, 33; 8, 6i3. 6 46. 54; ORV. PVS. Cp. BDA. 4. I, 57; 359, note AJP. 12, 429; FIELD,

8,

2017

"

"

"

"

GELDNER,
the
cause

FaW.

20.

"

BLOOMFIELD,
of AV. and
I,

AJP.
12 as

12,
a

428"9.
prayer
to

explanation (AJP. 7, 469"72)


of fever, headache,

8 Cp. BLOOMFIELD'S lightning conceived


"

as

IS. 4, 405). 9 HRI. WEBER, coughs (otherwise I0 488. 302"3Cp. ORV. 335, note 3. 5- 458250, note 2; cp. ORV. 334" the ii The draught of immortality, remedy is explained by BRV. 3, 32 as Soma, and HOPKINS, and by BLOOMFIELD 83"4, by HVBP. (AJP. 12, 425"9) followed *2 of Rudra). MACDONELL, the mutra PAOS. Dec. s a 1894, CL ff.,as rain (Jala HRI. Dec. PAOS. 38, 1894, p. CLI; 112; HOPKINS, JRAS. cp. KRV. 27, 957;
"

"

note

133.

"

13

IS. 2,
cp.

19"22.

--

J4
io.
"

Translation
15

of the
9,

RV.,

introductions
16
"

to

vol.

i,

26"7.

37"8;

(cp. HOPKINS,
WEBER,
"

PAOS.

vol. 2, 9 1. c.).
"

"

WZKM.

248.

ORV.

216"24

17

18
20
-

OGR. IS. 2, 19"22; MM., TS. 6, I, 310; I, 5, ii; SB. pvS. 120. i, 57; ZDMG. 40, ZDMG.
2, 222;

KZ. Herabkunft KUHN, 2, 278; 177; 3, 335; 61. ZDMG. v. BRADKE, 216; otherwise 40, 359"

YN.
"

10,
21

5;

Sayana
BRI.

on

RV. HVBP.

i,

1141.

"

19

GW.

ROTH,
Studies 152"4;
v.

WHITNEY,

1873, p. 34"

4, 5; OST. WZKM. SCHROEDER,

14; Cp. and Oriental JAOS. 3, 318"9; LRV. 2; BRV. 299"363. 420"3; 3,320" HRI. 248"52; 99. 578. 9, 233"8.

83.

Linguistic
3, 31" 8.

"
three with
gana

RV., thirtythem to at least to them conjointly alone, seven hymns being dedicated form and Pusan. with each them and a troop, They to one Indra, Agni sardhas with in connexion used (i,37I-5"c.), them) or (a word generally
29. The Maruts.
--

These

are

prominent

deities in the

78
of
or

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

deities mentioned thrice


seven

only (i, 133";

in the AV.

plural.Their

number

is thrice

13, iT3). Their

birth is often

referred

(8, 858) sixty to (5,

of Rudra (p. 74), being also often called Rudras 575 "c.). They are the sons 7 of Prsni and sometimes (i, 387; 2, 3410 "c.), and Rudriyas (i, 394- "c.) the also often prsnimatarah, receiving epithet 6o5; 6, 663), (2, 34 2; 5, 52l6. Prsni cow 'having Prsni for their mother' (i, 23'" "c.; AV. 5, 2I11). The is their mother (8,83 x) and they bear the epithet or simply a cow ($" S2'6); mother' for their cow (i, 85^, cp. 8, 2o8). This cow a 'having gomatarafa the storm-cloud mottled (""43. 6iB.); and the flaming presumablyrepresents whom they come (2,345), can hardly cows having distended udders with refer from
to

anything but
the Maruts been
to

the
are

clouds

charged with
with
the
or

rain and
fires

Prsni
to

compared
from

said

have

born

Agni
once once

is said

have

fashioned

laughterof begotten them


in the

When born lightning. (6,66 1-3). They are also lightning (i,23 12,cp. 38*).

(6,3s;

i,

71*). Vayu

is

said to

have

engendered
the
sons

they
heroes

are

called

the

of heaven

(vtrdh) of heaven (3,54'3; 5, 596). Once (i, i682;


are

wombs of heaven (i, I344), and (10, 772), being also referred to as (i, 64! 122*; 5, 54I0j or as the males (niaryah) them of heaven

they
p.

are

said. to

have

the

ocean are

for their

mother,
self-born

sindhumdtarah 5,

(10, 78" cp. 8;z).


among whom

51).
none

Elsewhere is eldest

they

said

to

be

for

or 60$), youngest (5,596. they are equal in age (i, I651). They have grown together (5, 565; mind "f one (8, 2O1- 2I). They have the same birthplace 7" S^1) an"^ are and the abode same (i, 165*; 7, 56'). They are spoken of as having (S) S33) heaven on earth, in air, and (5,557) or as dwellingin the three grown

They

brothers

heavens

(5,6o6J.They
are

are

also

once

described

as

in dwelling

the mountains

(8, 83' 2). They

associated
Sarasvati

with

the

goddess Indram,
who is described

who

is their friend (10,

86g), and
closest

with
the

(7, 96 2, cp. 395). Their

connexion
as

is, however,
on

with

their

car

goddess RodasI, bringingenjoyments (5, 568) or


all the five passages in

standingwith them
she

simply
her
name

as

standing beside them


occurs,

(6,

666).
with

In

which

is mentioned

their bride

been to have (cp. i, i674- 5). She therefore appears regarded as (like Surya as the bride of the Asvins). It is probably to this that they owe the epithetbhadrajanayah,'having a beautiful wife' connexion (5,6 14) and their comparison with bridegrooms (5,6o4) or youthfulwooers

them

(10, 786).
referred to. They are golden, constantly of sun-like brightness, like blazing fires,of ruddy aspect (6, 662; 7, 59"; 8, 7 7). They shine like tongues of fire (10, 78^). They have the form or the brilliance of Agni (10, 84*; 3, 26 5), with whom they are compared in fires like (10, 7S2). They are brightness (2, 34*) or kindled fires (6, 662) and are expressly called fires (3,264j. They have the brilliance of serpents (ahibhanavah: i, I721). They shine in the mountains (8, 71). They are almost self-luminous (i,372"c.), an epithet exclusively appliedto them. They are as frequently spoken of in a more general way shining and brilliant (i, 165" "c.). often associated with lightning, They are particularly vidyut (5,542'3'11; The smile down shed their the Maruts earth when on lightnings i, 645). mother ghee (i, i688, cp. 5, 52"). The as a lightninglows like a cow, her calf,when following they shed their rain (1,38 8).They are like lightnings shining with rain (7, 5613). Lightning is so characteristic of them that all
Maruts the five The

brilliance of the

is

compounds

of

vidyut

in the

RV.

are

connected

with the Maruts

and,

ATMOSPHERIC

GODS.

29.

THE

MARUTS.

79

excepting
hands Their

singleinstance,

with

them

only. They
and lightnings

hold
cast

in lightnings

their

stone a (5, 543). (rsti)are often mentioned, and that these represent the lightning is shown (i, i68S; 5, 5213).Less by their epithetrstividyut, 'lightning-speared' (i, 372. 883; 5, 33*. 572; 8, 20*), frequentlythey are spoken of as having axes which are (ibid.) golden (S,732). Once they are said to bear the bolt (vajrd), their in hands. Sometimes India's said to be peculiar weapon, they are with and armed bows arrows (5, 534. 572; 8, 2o4- I2), once being termed but in the numerous this trait is rare archers as shooting an arrow; hymns it borrowed addressed be from father Rudra. their Maruts The to them, may with garlands and other ornaments decorated are (5,534). They wear golden mantles (5, 556). Like rich wooers they deck their bodies with golden orna anklets ments (5, 6o4). Armlets or (khddi) are an ornament peculiarto them. shine like with With these the sky like showers from stars and they glitter describes their appearance the clouds verse (2, 342). One more fullythan their shoulders, anklets their feet,golden usual. on on They have spears i n their ornaments on breasts, fiery lightnings their hands, golden helmets their heads (5, 5411)upon ride The Maruts which on cars (i, 881; 3, 5413), gleam with lightning which which have wheels fellies are golden (5,571), golden or (1,64". 885), in which have buckets are (5, 576), and which standing in them weapons which their cars draw coursers are ruddy or tawny (i, 8S2; (i, 87*). The and swift as 574)" 72?), golden-footed (8, thought (i, 85*). These coursers 5" the from are spotted, as appears epithet prsadasva, 'having spotted steeds',

(8, 723; 5, 54"), they

delightin

lances

which

is several

times

and

connected exclusively draw their


car are

with

the

Maruts.

More

fre

which quently the animals prsaflh (i, 396 "c.). These

spoken of in the feminine as in two are (5, 556.586), mentioned passages with the masculine The Maruts asvah. also described are as having yoked the winds steeds to their pole (5, 58?). as The and earth Maruts are great as the sky (5, 5 7 4), they surpass heaven in and others reach (10, 773), are immeasurable no can greatness (5, 582), the limit of their might (i, i679). The Maruts are (i, 642. i652; 5, young divine (asura), vigorous, impetuous, imaging (i, 643). They are 42 l5) and without soil (i,64-- I2) and dustless (6,662). They are fierce (i,19*), irascible (7, 568),terrible (5, 562- 3; 7, 58'), of terrible aspect (5, 56*), of fearful form (i, i95. 642), and are terrible like wild beasts (2, 34*; cp. p. 75). They are calves playful like children or (i, i662; 7, 56l6; 10, 786). They are like black-backed boars swans (7, 597). They are iron-tusked (i, 885); they are like lions (i, 648). noise which is The is often referred to (i, 169? "c.) and they make it is winds called thunder but of the also the (i, 23"); (7, expressly roaring with fear (8, 720). They it were are 56j). At their coming heaven roars as often described to as quake as well as making the causing the mountains earth or the two worlds tremble the fellies of their cars r. With they rend the with is mountains rock when the winds the or they come (i, 64"; 5, 529). It like that they cause rend and mountains the trees to quake (8, 74). They wild elephants devour down before forests bow the forests (i, 395. 64?). The them terrestrial through fear (5, 6o2). Resistless as mountains they cast down and afraid of them celestial creatures (i, 858). are (i,643). All creatures They speed like boisterous winds (10,78^) and whirl up dust (i,64"). They make with the the winds noise the of the winds or (7, 5 63). They come winds (8, 73- *" X7) and take them steeds their as (5,587). One is to shed rain. They are of the main functions of the Maruts

8o

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

and shed rain (1,389). (5,574). They rise from the ocean worlds the with rain (i, blow two through well, they Milking the unfailing 646; 8, 716).Rain follows them (5,5310). They bring water and impel rain the their brilliance with rain (5,591). They cover (5"S^3)- They obscure when with darkness the cloud with create rain (5,595). They eye of the sun they speed with winds (8,7*). they shed rain (1,389).They scatter mist when of the mountains the streams the heavenly pail (5,536.598) and They cause flow A terrestrial the When waters 586). hurry (5, to they (5, 597). on, pour Maruts' 'swelled the its river receives (10,75s), from Marudvrddha, by name, Rudra rain became of the sons of The sweat this action. (5,587). The milk referred is also figuratively to as (i, i663), rain shed by the Maruts said milk and to out are or (i, 64b); ghee they pour ghee (i,853; 10, 784); earth raise with the the honey (5,548)2. They spring (i,85") or to wet from to sea waters sky and dischargethem from the sky upon the earth with which connected waters (AV. 4, 274). The they shed are often clearly rush to the thunderstorm. give water, whirlinghail, violent, they Desiring and winds with their might, with thunder lightnings on (5, 543). They cause the udder, and fill the from earth with milk (i, 64s). milk heavenly gifts The thunders which The milk, (i,646). they sky, the ruddy bull, spring the the stallion to make shed when bellows waters they (5,586).They cause the rain of heaven and shed water (i, 646). They bestow abundantly the of the stallion (5,836). They assume streams a golden colour when they

clothed

with

rain

make of the

water

with when

the

steed

(2, 3413).

The of

streams

resound

with

the

fellies
waters

Maruts,
Indra

they
are

raise the

voice

the

cloud

The (i,i688).

which

by the Maruts' (i,8o4). the Maruts of rain, with their character shedders receive the In connexion as in epithets purndrapsdh (5,57s) or drapsinah (i,642)'abounding drops' and well'. the frequent suddnavah, 'dripping They also avert heat (5,541)- But (7,5620);produce light(i, 8610), and prepare they likewise dispeldarkness the also said to have measured a out path for the sun (8, 78). They are the terrestrial stretched well the out an" as (5? 552); regions as bright realms of heaven, and held apart the two worlds (8, 83q" IX).
marutvatih, 'attended
Doubtless

sheds

called

in allusion to

the sound

of

the wind, the the

Maruts

are

several heaven

singers (5,521. 6o8; 7, 35^). They are the sun (S"575)-They sing a song (i, i94. i667J. While singingthey made shine to (8, 29") and while blowing their pipe they cleft the mountain he slew the dragon, they sang a song and pressed (i, 85'").For Indra when Soma In (5,292. 3o6). singing a song they created Indra-might (i, 852). have Though their song must primarily representedthe sound of the winds (cp.4, 224), it is also conceived as a hymn of praise(3,i44). Thus they when addressed to be in the company come of Indra as priests (5,29^ and with first to are the compared priests(10,781). They were perform the sacrifice as Dasagvas (2,362), and they purified Agni in the house of the pious, while the Bhrgus kindled him (10, 12 25). Like the other gods they several times also spoken of as drinkers of Soma are "c.). (2,36*;8, 839" are Being identified with the phenomena of the thunderstorm, the Maruts naturallyintimate associates of Indra, appearing as his friends and allies in innumerable and prowess (3, 359; 6,17"), They increase his strength passages. with their prayers, and hymns, songs3 (i, 165" "c.). "They generallyassist Indra in the Vrtra fight(8;6$2- 3; 10, ii33). They help Trita as well as Indra in slaying Vrtra (8,724). They are besought to sing a Vrtra-slaying (8, 781"3). hymn, They helped Indra in the conflict with the dragon and with Sambara Indra (3,473- 4). With them gains the light(8, 654), found
times
called

singersof

I2

ATMOSPHERIC

GODS.

30.

VAYU-VATA.

Si

the

.all his

sky (7,475). In fact Indra accomplishes 101. (i, 100. 165; 10, 65). Some company in Maruts the these times more independent exploits.Thus they appear strike Vrtra,,assisted by Indra (i, 23") and are even spoken of alone as having rent Vrtra joint from joint (8, 723) or as having disclosed the cows (2,34*)in Indra have their the chief as 238 general) (like gods (i, "c.) and They Indra like Indra to (10, I282). They are sons accompanied by (i,ioo5) are The called his brothers Maruts three and two (i, 170'-). are or are, however in the lurch. said to have left Indra him in the alone times They involved him verse (8,731). One fight with the dragon (i, i656) and they abandoned between of Indra evidence and the the when hostility Maruts, even gives him: dost kill thou seek Indra? kill in to Do not latter say to 'Why us us, the fray' (i, i7o2 cp. i7i6)4.A Brahmana (TB. 2, 7, n1) also refers passage
cows

celestial

(i,65) and supported exploitsin their

the

to

conflict between
When
not

the

Maruts with
to
some are

and

Indra. the Maruts

associated

Indra,
extent

occasionally exhibit
maleficent off the

male
nature

volent

traits.

They
Rudra.
nor

then

in the participate
to

of their father

They
to

implored
which

ward them

from lightning

their worshippers
to

(7,s69), and are besought (i, i722), their lightning their and and bolt from cow(7, 561?). Evil can come man-slaying (7, 574), is them deprecated (i, 171'; 7, 58s), and they are said (i, 398j, their anger of the serpent (i,648-9). like their father Rudra, the But the wrath to have Maruts are supplicated to bring healingremedies, which abide in the Sindhu, mountains the Asiknl, the seas, and (8, 2o^~6), and once they are associated in Rudra the of remedies with beneficent possession salutary, and pure, remedies be the waters, for the Maruts bestow to (2"33 13)- The appear several times also said medicine by raining(5, 53 H). Like Agni, they are be pure to or pavaka (7,5612 "c.). purifying, association the constant with lightning, of the Maruts From thunder,wind, and clear that rain, as well as from other traits mentioned above, it seems the According to the native interpreters they are Storm-gods in the RV. and the word the the is Maruts of winds, post-Vedic meaning simply represent in the RV. 'wind'. But and simple, they hardly represent the winds pure
avert

let their ill-willreach the


stone

their

arrow

and

they

hurl

as

some

of and dead

their attributes
BENFEYS held and

are

borrowed Maruts this view

from
to

cloud

A.

KUHN

the with is

be MEYER

and as lightning of the personifications


6

well. souls sub

of the

(cp.p. 77),
This in

and

v.

ScHROEDER7 the RV.

stantially agree.
no

origin

historically possible, but

furnishes
throw appears with
no

evidence

support of it. The


the in the latter the
"

additional
be hard
mart to

lighton
but whether The of

etymology8 being uncertain can beginningsof the conception. The root


sense

to

of

'to die', 'to crush', or


seems

'to

it is shine', the

decide.

meaning, however,
in
the BRV.

to

accord

best

description given
i

Maruts
2

the
various 2,

RV.
names

PVS.
op.

BERGER,
"

2, 73. cit. 43-4."

On
3

for rain
4

in the
5

RV. OO.
8

see on

BOHNENRV.

391."
"

PVS.

i, 59." 9,

1,64.
13;

Indogermanische
KZ. ZDMG.
2,

Mythen
SEE.

I, 218. BDA.
112

7
"

WZKM.

248
40,

"

9.

"

Niruktair,
KRV.
note

GRASSMANN,

16, 161"4;
2, 222;

MM.,
I, 44;
v.

Vedic

Hymns,

32, xxiv"

XXV; KRV.

3; ZDMG. HRI. 97.

349"60;
OST.

136;
GRV.

ROTH,
BRV.

WHITNEY,
BRI. 14;

JAOS.
39;

3, 319;
MMPhR.

369"402;
117"25;
--

317"20;

5, 147"54; HVBP.

83"5;
and Vata

BRADKE,

FaR.

ORV.

224"5.

283" HRItwo
names

96~ 9of

" 30. Vayu-Vata.


is used
to

Each the

of

the

wind

Vayu Vayu
6

express

both

physical phenomenon
and Vata the

and

its divine

personi
is cele half

fication.
brated

But

Vayu
in
one

is

the god chiefly

element.

alone

whole
III. 1
A.

hymn

besides

parts of

others, and

in about

Indo-arische

Philologie.

82

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

dozen

others

with conjointly

Indra. of the
verse

Vata tenth

is invoked
book of

only
the
RV.

in two The

short
names

hymns
of

(168

and

186)
occur

at

the

end
same

both

sometimes
the two the

in the

between

is illustrated by the fact


two

(6, 5o12; 10, 92^). The difference that Vayu alone is as a god associated
often

with

Indra,
was

deities
as so

being

then

invoked

as

Indravayu.
native

This

couple

regarded
of

closely connected

by
the
on

the

ancient

inter

preters, that either region in the Vedic

them

triad

might represent (Nir. 7, 5). Vata


with vivid

deities of the
the other

atmospheric hand, being less


connexion
sets

is only associated fully personified, is much more with the thunderstorm


of

Parjanya (" 31), whose


than

that

of

Indra.

Different

are applied to the two wind-gods, those belonging to Vata being epithets expressiveof the physicalattributes of swiftness and violence. chiefly The made worlds references said toto Vayu's origin. two Few are are have spoken of as the songenerated him for wealth (7, 90^). He is once is not mentioned in-law of Tvastr (8, 262I~2), though his wife's name (cp. is have he from said the the Purusa of breath In to hymn " 38). sprung is connected with the the world-giant Maruts. He (10, 90^). Vayu is, rarely from the wombs said to have of heaven generated them however, once (i, I344) and to be accompanied by them (i,i4212) as well as by Pusan

is rather indefinite. He personal attributes are is with beautiful (i, 21) and spoken of as touching the sky, swift as is once said to have thousand-eyed (i, 232" 3). He thought, and roaring has drawn team a car ioo2). a or Vayu shining by velocity(10, by a pair steeds. of red His of consists team or (rohita) ruddy (arund) (4,484)r 99 attribute niyutvat, ioo or even 1000 (4, 463) horses yoked by his will. The 'drawn with reference his car, being to Vayu or by a team', often occurs otherwise used only once twice in each case with reference to Indra, Agni, or Vayu's car, in which Indra is his companion (4,462. Pusan, or the Maruts. the sky (4,464). Like the other 482; 7, 9 15),has a golden seat and touches fond is of which he often invited to come is with his to Soma, Vayu gods,

and

the

Visvedevas.

His

Indra

teams

and

the

first

pany The first

with Indra:
AB.

draught of which he obtains i,i354),f"r ne *s tne swiftest of


a

(2, 25) tells draught of Soma,


also called

story of how
reached

in

race

(alsoin com the gods (SB. 13, i, 27"c.)2. which the gods ran for the
as

his share1

Vayu

the

goal

first and and

Indra has the

second.

He

is

in the RV.

epithetwhich Indra shares with him. He is also once connected once with the 'nectar-yielding' in steeds, wealth (sabardugha) cow3 (i, 1344). Vayu grants fame, offspring, and for oxen, gold (7, go2- 6). He disperses foes (4, 48*) and is invoked by the weak (i, 13 4s). protection of wind, is celebrated in a more Vata, as the ordinary name concrete
an draught)', manner.

epithetsudpa,

a protector of Soma 'drinkingthe clear (Soma

(10, 855)

characteristic

His

name

is

frequently connected
of the

with

the

root

vd, to

blow,

from

hymns devoted to his praise (10, 168) de scribes him as follows. Shatteringeverythingand thundering, his din presses he the dust of the he in the air wanders on; along whirlingup goes earth; his on he is a friend of the paths; he does not rest even a day. Firstborn, he This deitywanders where waters; but the place of his birth is unknown. hears his roaring,but his form one does lists; one not see (cp. i, i6444). He is the breath of the gods (cp. 7, 872; 10, 92^) and is worshipped with
oblations.

which

it is derived.

One

Vata, like Rudra,


treasure

also

of

in his house immortality its

doubtless

represents

prolongs life,for he has the of wind (10, 186). This healing power of wind character (cp. p. 77). The purifying activity

wafts

healingand

84
with

HI.

RELIGION;
he

WELTL.

WlSSENSCH.

U.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

(asura) father implored to withhold besought (S" S33' 6). of after shedding it (5,83'"). It is, however, implied that the action rain Parjanya, as well as of the Maruts, in shedding rain is subordinate to that Varuna of Mitra and (5, 6^~6). He is several times said to thunder (5,83). down the whole strikes he world is trees, demons, evil-doers; Thundering terrified at his mighty weapon (5,832). He and Vata are the wielders of (10, 66 10). Parjanya is also associated with lightning, mighty thunder though winds blow The than with thunder. less frequently forth,the lightnings fall, when Parjanya quickens the earth with his seed (5, S34). Parjanya thunders in the also appears with (aerial)ocean (AY. 19, 30-). He to be lightning the in of the RV. the who to thunders Visvedevas, a hymn by god meant, with lightning excites the two worlds, and roars, rich in clouds and water, who them (5,4214). besprinkling in a specialdegree the of rain Parjanya is naturally As the shedder When and of nourisher he vegetation. quickens the earth with producer in his activity his seed, the plants spring up; are plants of every form; he 5* has produced plants for nourishment (5, 83** I0, cp. 6, 526; AV. 4, i52'3'15; and the increaser of plants; protected by the god fructifier He is 721). 8, Reeds and fruit bear (7, ioiI"5). good produced by his action they grass are not (7, I021, cp. 5, 75'5; AV. i, 2T. 31; 19, 3o5). Parjanya places the germ and women (7, io22), and is invoked to only in plants but in cows, mares, is the bull that impregnateseverything: He bestow in fertility (5,83?cp.6,52l6). him stands is the soul of what and moves (7, ioi6; cp. i, H51). He is even described rules the whole as a over self-dependentsovereign,who world, in whom all beings and the three heavens the are established,and in whom flow (7, ioi2-4"5). Owing to his generativeactivity threefold waters Parjanya several times receives the epithet of 'father' (7, ioi3; 9, 82^ AV. 4, i512; is once called 'our divine (asura) father' (5, 836); and in an 12, i12). He other occult of the Asura' 'the refers him. to (5,633-?) perhaps passage power His wife is by implication Earth the (5,834; 7, ioi3, cp. i, i6o3). The AV. (12,i12) states that Earth is the mother, Parjanya the father2,but else where calls Vasa his wife (10, io6). In these respects as well as explicitly the him of his relation as a to theriomorphic conception bull, thunder, and rain, he approximates to the character of Dyaus (cp. io, 454; lightning, he is once called son (7, I021). Parjanya himself is said 2, 46. 2715) whose to of plants (7, ioi1, cp. v. 3; 5, 831), the germ produce a calf (vatsam), who perhaps represents lightning. Soma however, be meant, for his father may, is once (9, 82 3) said to be Parjanya3,and he is spoken of as 'increased by (9, 1133). Parjanya^ Parjanya is associated with various other deities. His connexion is closest with Vata, who, with the singleexception of Agni in one is the only passage, with him also a few (" 44). The Maruts god forming a dual divinity are times invoked with Parjanya (5, 636. 835) and called to are sing his upon celebrated in is with him of one praises(AV.4,i54). Agni two verses hymn in common with the 'rainy' l6;cp. " 44). Indra has much (6,526Parjanya. being compared with him in this respect (8,61). The two gods have in fact much the same natural with which basis, the connexion is,however, much clearer in the case of Parjanya (cp.p. 82). is of uncertain derivation. But it is still usuallyidenti name Parjanya's of character, with that of the Lithuanian thundergod fied,owing to the similarity Perkunas4, though the phonetic difficulties of the identification cannot be ex The plained. freshness of the conception in the RV. renders it probable that
thunder
comes as our

shedding
for

rain-water

divine

He

is

rains (7, ioi5) and

is

ATMOSPHERIC

GODS.

32.

APAH.

85
form
an was

if the

two

names

are

really connected,
that well the in
as

their RV.

Indo-European
the word
name

still an

clear appellative.It seems as the thundering rain-cloud the

the the The

proper
senses

god

who

actually sheds
the

rain.

of later

of appellative of its personification, and rain-god rain- cloud is

both

through dictionaries explain the appellativeas 'thunder-cloud' identified with Indra found the deity is sometimes
survive
i

Brahmanas

into

the

native language. The (garjanmegha "c.), while


the Mahabharata.
or

in

and i, KRV.

Cp. OO. or Vyoman


note

I, 223.

"

The

TA.

i, 10, 12
--

says

that

Bhumi

Earth

is

the

wife OO.

Sky
ZDA.

is the 19,

husband.

Cp. BLOOMFIELD,
f.;
LRV.

223'; ZIMMER,
139;
OO. RV. HVBP.
"

BUHLER,
302"5 \VC.

164 f., cp. AIL. IIiRT, IF. 1, 481"2. DELBRUCK, i, 214"29;

42

153. 3, 322 f.; ZDMG. 275 f.; ROTH, 30;


KRV. 40;

FaR.

--4

32,

314!".;
24, 14;

ZVP. BRV.

1865,

p.
"

ZDMGBRI.

(on
56 f.;
A

i,

165);
80"2;

OST.
ORV.

5, 140"2;

3, 25

226;

SEE.
are

46, 105; lauded

I1RI.

103-4.

" 32.

pah.
10,

The

Waters,
as

Apah,
as

in

four
verses.

(7, 47.
invoked is

verses personification along many hardly extending beyond the notion of their being mothers, only incipient, and the sacrifice. bestow boons to come wives, and goddesses who young armed Indra follow who the of the (7,473). are path goddesses gods They in channel and them for with bolt the (7, 474. 49'), they never dug out a (7, 473). They are also said to be under the commands fringehis ordinances celestial, as well as flowing in channels, and have of Savitr (p. 32). They are where the gods the sea for their goal (7,49*). It is implied that they abide the sun and is beside and the seat of Mitra Varuna are (io,3ox). They are in their midst, looking is with them and the sun moves (i,23*7). King Varuna falsehood the truth and of men at least, down on (7,49^). In such passages be the the rain-waters But enumerates must meant (HRI. 99). Naighantuka (5,3) the terrestrial deities only (cp. YN. the waters 9, 26). among Agni is often described as dwelling in the waters (p 92). He is said to into have entered them (7,494). As mothers they produce Agni (10, 9i6, called of Waters' of whose forms is 'Son AV. ("24). The i, 331), one cp. 2"; who of the world, equal mothers the wives waters are (10, i710; i,23l6), are fluid in age and origin(io,3o10). They are besought to give their auspicious of all like loving mothers the most (10, 9'). They are producers motherly, is and that fixed moves (6, 5o7). and The cleanse defilement; waters purify; these goddesses bear away cleansed the worshipper comes and of them out (10, They i710). up pure sins invoked the of cleanse from moral are to even violence, cursing, guilt, and io,98). They are remedial (6, 5o7), bestowing remedies lying (i, 23" and contained in them for all remedies, immortalityand healingare long life, in the house health man's (HGS. (10, 95~7; i, 23T9~21). They watch over excellent of boons and wealth and bestow strength and dispose 2, 45). They immortality(10, 95. 3o12). Their blessing and aid is often implored (7, 474. themselves invited to seat they are along with the 49X~~4; 10, 9. 30 IX), and Son of waters the sacrificial grass at the offering of the on soma-priest(10,

49; in

9.

30),

well

in

few with

scattered other

hymns of They

the RV.
are

also

detached

deities. The

30M. 15).
The
waters
are

several

times

associated

mix

their

milk

with

honey

The (i,23l6).

the drink ghee it became Apam napat is besought to give waters rich invoked the wave, to heroic to pour waters are strength (10, 3o4). The in honey and from them released con gladdening the gods, for Indra who which is produced the draught of Indra, which finement; the wave intoxicates,

dripping with

they honey; it exhilarated (7,47T"2)of Indra, whom Indra rich in honey, by which grew honey.
As
wave

with
of

mothers

the

waters

is rich in

86

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

in

the

sky (10, 307~~9).


the

These
were

passages

appear
as

to

show

that

sometimes

at

least

celestial waters
the

regarded
of
seem

containingor
other passages When

identical with
the waters used

the
in

heavenly Soma,

beverage

Indra.
to

In be

bearing appear with the priests, bearing wellghee, milk, and honey, they are accordant in them as for Indra a man delights (io;30^). Soma young pressed Soma who a as in lovely maidens; he approaches them lover; they are maidens the youth (10, 3o5~5). before down bow preparing the
meant. OST.

terrestrial Soma

they

5, 24,

note.

73"4;

WC.

56;

343. 345; Sp.AP. 153"5;

BRV. ORV.

i,

260; DARMESTETER,
242.

Haurvatat

et

Ameretat

C.

TERRESTRIAL

GODS.

" 33.
the

Rivers.

"

Beside

the
RV.

divine
The

Waters, deified rivers


of the
one

unimportant positionin the


Sindhu
or

whole

hymn

not a occupy celebrates (io;75)

Indus

with

the

exception of
besides mentioned
to

fifth verse,

in which

several

of its tributaries are


a

invoked rivers
are

other
as

number

of

other

streams, while in the sixth verse affluents of the Indus. Another


and

entire
streams

is devoted hymn (3, 33), and Sutudrl. Vipas


SarasvatT the

the

invocation

praise of
than

the

sister

The

is, however,
of of

more

greatlycelebrated
case

But

though
the
to

in this personification the


the

others,
present
the
are

connexion
the

goddess
poets.

with

goes the

much

any other river. in the further than

river is in the

RV.

minds in
numerous

Sarasvati
verses.

is lauded

in three

always hymns of

Sarasvati, Sarayu, and Sindhu elsewhere (10, 649) (10, 755) Ganga, great others known and unknown, altogether Sutudrl,Parusnl, and Yamuna, Sarasvati, of the addressed. Kings and peoples livingon the banks twenty-one, are iron fort,flows with Sarasvati referred to (7, 96*; 8, 2il8).Sarasvati,an are in greatness; she fertile flood, a stream (sind/iu) surpassingall other waters from alone the mountains, from the (celestial) of rivers appeared pure, flowing with her the ocean (7,95*- 2, cp. 5, 43 II). She tears away mighty waves and of and flood immense her moves mountains, impetuous roaring peaks is distinguished the (6, 6 12* 8). She by greatness among great, she is the and active of the active, is implored not to withhold her milk (6, 6i13). most
RV. invoked
as

and

detached

streams

and

The

poet

prays

that

he

may
seven

not

be

removed

from

her

to

fields which

are

strange (6, 6i14). She of seven, mother one a

has
of

sisters and

is sevenfold
is the

(6, 6i10-12).She
best of

is
of

streams2

(7,366).She

mothers,

is called pavlravl, an She (applied goddesses (2,4il6). epithet also to tanyatu, 'thunder',in 10, 65^) probably meaning 'daughter of light 3, and is said (6, 49?) to be the wife of a hero ning' (probably Sarasvat). She fills the terrestrial regions and the wide atmospheric space and occupies three abodes (6,6iII"12). from the sky, from the great She is invoked to descend The the three sacrifice last to mountain, (cp. also 7, 952) (5,4311)passages allude like that of Ganga in postseem to of a celestial origin, to the notion Vedic called divine or (7,96Z). The goddess mythology. She is once asurya

rivers,and

of

comes on

to

the

sacrifice

on

the

same

chariot

as

the she

Fathers
must

and

seats

herself
as

the

sacrificial grass
in the

Even (10, i78-9).


two following
verses

here

be
are

conceived invoked

the

river
from

goddess, for
defilement. She herself is

the waters

to cleanse

streams'

purifier (i,3"). She is besought to (6,526) and, along with the waters, the bestowers
a

come

with 'swelling

of

wealth,

progeny,

TERRESTRIAL

GODS.

33.

SARASVATT.

87

and offspring (io,3o12). She bestows vitality immortality,to grant vitality with deities who assist procreation (10, i842). She (2,4i17) and is associated named Divodasa have is also said to to Vadhryasva (6, 6I1). given a son of kind riches breast AB. Her unfailing d, i6449). She (cp. 4, i) yields every said nourishment bestow is often to (7, 952; 8, 2i17; wealth, plenty, and times receives and the several 'bountiful' i73-9), epithet subhaga, 6732; 10, 9, mother As she (ambd} to the a 6; 2i17). 8, reputation (i, 89^; 7, 954grants and She devotions the of unrenowned stimulates, directs, (2, 41 Ib). prospers is invoked her worshippers (i, 310-xl; 2, 38; 6, 6i4). She along with the goddesses of prayer (7, 37"; 10, 6513). She destroys the revilers of the gods, and is terrible, a Vrtra-slayer(6, 6i" 7). But to her worshippers she affords their enemies and (7, 95^ 5; 2, 3o8; 6, 497). protection conquers with deities. is often other Besides SarasvatI invoked and Pusan Indra, associated with the Maruts she is particularly (3, 541-3; 7, 95. 39s. 4o3) and is said to her friends4 be accompanied by them as (2, 3o8) or to have them in the with She is RV. connected also the the When Asvins. once (7) 96 2)is refreshed him said to have latter aided Indra, SarasvatI (10, i3i5). With the same the gods cele reference to myth the VS. (19, 12) states that when Asvins brated the and SarasvatI sacrifice, as a healing physicians through The VS. even vigour to Indra5. speech (vdca) communicated speaks of the wife of the Asvins SarasvatI as (19, 94). SarasvatI is several times asso ninth in the eighth and ciated of the dpri and verses dpra hymns with the sacrificial goddesses Ida and BharatI she forms (with whom a triad),and

and

sometimes
to

also

with

Mahl of

and the of

Hotra. river. the

This

association
is made Drsadvati

may
to

have

been

due

the

sacred
on

character the
to

Allusion
and

for AB.
on

sacrifice

banks
a

SarasvatI

Agni being kindled (3, 23*) 6; and the


SarasvatI. of Hence of the

(2, 19)
the banks

refers of

sacrifice performed
there
were

the

SarasvatI

by Rsis on the perhaps places

worship

of the Bharatas, would Bharatas; in that case, BharatT, the personified offering in the AprI litanywhich naturally find a fixed place along with SarasvatI sacrifice7. accompanied the animal Though there is nothing to show (cp. 7, 35") that SarasvatI is distinctly ever anything more, in the RV. than a river goddess, we find her identified in the Brahmanas (SB. 3, 9, i?; AB. 3, i10), with Vac, Speech, and in postVedic has become she goddess of eloquence and wisdom, invoked mythology
as a muse

and the

regarded
above. been much

as

the

wife

of

Brahma8.
to

The found in

transition from
passages the is and

the

older 19,
12

to

later

conception is perhaps
controversy
is
a

be

like VS.

quoted
has the of the

There of

as

to

the

identityof

stream

which
that been

goddess
the latter

SarasvatI

with
have ROTH

Avestan river

river which

name personification. The Haraqaiti in Afghanistan9, was

identical it may But

first lauded

as

the

SarasvatI10.

and of ZIMMER (PW.), GRASSMANN (GW.), LUDWIG", (AIL. 10) are SarasvatI meant a opinion, that in the RV. originally usually and mighty (SarasvatIbeing the sacred and Sindhu the secular stream, probably the Indus in Madhyadesa, name), but that it occasionally designatesthe small stream
to

which

both MAX

its

name

and

its sacred it to

character be

were

in with

later

times small the

trans

ferred.

MtiLLER12 with the and reached affords

believes
Drsadvati which the

identical the the


to

this
of the
X3 a

river
sacred

SarasvatI, which

formed itself in

boundaries
sands OLDHAM
was

region
in

Brahmavarta

loses
sea.

of

desert, but
survey of

Vedic

times

According
that the

ancient

riverbeds
Sutudrl

evidence
modern

SarasvatI that

a originally

tribu
its

tary of the

(the

Sutlej)14,and

when

the

latter

left

88

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

old bed of

bed

and

joined the Vipas,


has
a

the

Sarasvati

continued

to

flow

in the

old

of the

Sutudri.
male have

Sarasvati the river in

correlative named
been sung his

Sarasvat,
verses

who of
one

after

the

praises
(7, 96),

goddess
the

in three

hymn
and

is invoked

protectionand

offspring, and his exuberant waters even fertilizing In another (i, i6^2), Sarasvat, here referred to. breast are passage appar with rain. ROTH is the bird of spoken of as refreshing Agni1*, ently a name bestows fertility. (PW.) regards him as a guardian of the celestial waters who
next

three

wives by worshippers desiring

plenty.

Here

HiLLEBRANDT16
and
HARDY*?
i

identifies expresses
i,
a

Sarasvat

with

Apam
to
"

napat

(=

Soma,

the

moon)

similar view.
"

Cp. BRV.
for her

ocean
"

mother',

2 326. According owing to the accent.

BERGAIGNE
3

ROTH,

Cp. Marudvrddha
6
" "

as

the

name

of

river

(ibid.) 'havingthe (celestial) i65f.; FW. ;,BRV. I, 327. 5 Cp. SB. (10, 755). 12, 7, 3 ;
Nir.
"

OST.
"

"

5, 94 note. 7 ORV. 243. des Nachrichten 2, 86.


" "

PVS.
2,

12

Buddha II, I7f.; OLDENBERG, 413 f. Cp. Manavadharmasastra 1" 8 HRI. 9 Sp.AP. i, 84; 27, 705. 105 f. 31. Cp. ZDMG. liber Geographic etc., Prag 1875"6, p. 13; AV. und RV. qx 13 JRAS. 25, 49"76. '4 OST, Vedic SBE, 32, 60. Hymns
"
" " "

345. OST.

15

BRV.

i,

144;

2,

47.
i,

"

10

HVM.

I,

380"2.
ORV.

"

17

HVBP. 499;

382"3

BRV. 5, 337"43; Sarasvati (celestial


=

BOLLENSEN, 325"8; 98; milky way); HVBP.

ZDMG.

41, 243.

42-3. HVM.

I,

The Earth, PrthivT,being, as has been shown (p.22),. in only one short with Dyaus, is lauded alone conjointly in in and and RV. beautiful the one of three 84) stanzas a (5, long hymn but of the The the i s attributes AV. the in personification slight, (12, i). RV. of the the she those physicalearth. According to goddess being chiefly the burden of the in heights,bears abounds mountains, and supports the of the forest in the ground (ksma}. She trees quickens the soil, for she of heaven shed of her showers from the lightning and the are scatters rain, and firm She is great (ma/it), cloud. (drlhd] shining(arfum}. The meaning of Prthivi is 'the broad one'; and a poet of the RV. (2,i52} he says that Indra upheld the earth (prthivT) alludes to the etymology when it out and (paprathat). The TS. (7, i, 5) and TB. (i, i, 3s) in de spread of Prthivi from the origin of the earth, expresslyderive the name scribing

J"

34.

Prthivi.

"

generallycelebrated

the

root

prath,

to

extend,
of
as

because

she

is extended.

in the dead man Earth', to whom wirh Dyaus,. mentioned hymn (10, i810), is exhorted to go. When Prthivi frequently receives the epithetof 'mother' (cp."" n. 44). Prthivi is

spoken

Mother 'kindly

funeral

BRUCE,
LENSEN,

JRAS. 1862,
41,

ZDMG.

OST. 5, p. 321; HVBP. 25"6; 494"5;

21-

2;

BRV.

i,

4"5;
4,

BDA.

48;

BOL

THURNEYSEN, is

IF.

84.

"35centre

Agni.
the of and

The
as

chief the

primary importance
of ritual the in

deity of the personification


of the He he Veda. Next

terrestrial

Agni, being naturallyof


is the
most to

sacrificial fire,which Indra


he
200

poetry

is the

prominent
the

Vedic
several

gods.
besides

is celebrated is invoked

in at least with conjointly

hymns

of

RV.,
As

other

deities.

of fire, the anthropomorphism designation regular is only rudimentary, his bodily parts having a. physical appearance clear reference the phenomena of terrestrial fire mainly in its sacrificial to He is butter-backed (5,43"c.),butter-faced (3,il8"c.) and beautifulaspect. is He butter-haired tongued (i, 147). (8,492), flame-haired (i,456 "c.) or and has a tawny beard tawny-haired (3,21-*), (5,77). He has sharp (8, 493"c.) or burning jaws (i,585 "c.), golden (5,2") or shiningteeth (5,74) and iron is once footless and described headless (4, iix)" grinders(10, 872). He as

his

name

is also the

of

his

TERRESTRIAL

GODS.

34.

PRTHIVI.

35.

AGNI.

89
three heads and

but

elsewhere

he

is said

to

have

burning
is

head

(7, 31)
said
to

or

faces seven rays (i, 146*; 2, 53). He is often mentioned (8, 6il8 "c.). He

in all directions also

(2, 31 "c.). His tongue


have three

tongues

(VS. 17, 79), his steeds also being seven-tongued (3, 62). later given to each of these A name was seven tongues x. Butter is Agni's is he four-eyed (i, 3i13), thousand-eyed (i, 7912), and thousandeye (3, 267); horned bears he (6, i8). In his hand gifts for men (i, 72*). Like many (8, i932). He is called an archer Indra, he has the epithet sahasra-muska (4, 41) or is compared with an archer (i, 7oxi), who sharpens his flame like iron blade of a (6, 35). is often likened He doubtless with various animals, in most to a cases view his functions rather than to indicating representing his personal form. is frequently called bull (i, 585 "c.). He is a strong bull with a mighty He a neck in seed (5, 212). As such he bellows (10, 81), abounds (4, 53), and is with horns which he he provided sharpens (8, 49 Ij), which (5, i8; 6, i639), him difficult to seize (i, 140"). He is many times make shakes, and which is also often com born calf (vatsd). He a spoken of or alluded to when as pared with (i, 582"c.) or directlycalled a steed (i, 149^; 6, i26)2. The tail which he agitateslike a horse When (2, 44) is doubtless his flame. puri fied by sacrificers he is compared with a groomed horse (i, 60$ "c.). Sacrihim in motion like a horse ficers lead set (3, 2''),excite, and (7, 71 "c.). is the horse He direct (2, 5'; 3, 2 7 3). He is kindled and they seek to tame like a horse that brings the gods (3, 27^). is attached He to the pole at places of sacrifice (2, 21) or to the pole of the rite (i, I437). He is yoked in order waft the sacrifice to the gods (10, 5i7). He is also compared to is further likened with (3, 263) or directly called a neighingsteed (i, 368). He horse from to a as to dangers (4,28). conquering (8,9i12) or causing escape is the eagle of the sky (7, 15*) and like a bird. He Agni is,moreover, a divine bird (i, i6452). As the aquatic he resembles dwelling in the waters bird hamsa bird perches ontakes a as (i, 659). He possessionof the wood is is winged (i, 58*; 2, 24), his course tree a (i, 662; 6, 35; 10, 9i2). He with the and he darts a flight(6, 37. 46 "c.), gods (10, 64). rapid flightto is once He described as a raging serpent (i, 791)Agni is besides frequently compared with inanimate objects. Like the he his tongue resembles stretches he out sun, gold (2, 24; 7, 36). When is he times is several like elsewhere also he which (6, 34) com a hatchet, to pared (i, 1273 "c.). He resembles (i, i4i8 "c.) or is directlycalled a car in battle (3, ii5), as bringingriches (i, 583; 3, 155) or as being formidable directed by others, for he is be thought of as (i, 666). He seems to car a conducted to the sacrifice like a laden compared (10,1763). He is even car wealth to (i, 58". 60') or to wealth (i, 731). acquired by inheritance Wood is his beverage butter (2, 76) or ghee (7, 31) is his food, melted his is nourished mouth into (2, 76; 10, 692). He (3, 2ix; poured by ghee is and the forests and chews oil He eats of eater 5, n3"c.) an (AV. i, 72). with sharp tooth with his them (1,1435) or eats and blackens tongue (6,6o10; is all-devouring times three a day 10, 792). He (8,4426). He is nourished and the (4, I21, cp. i, i4o2; 7, 1 1 3). He is sometimes spoken of as the mouth the gods eat the sacrifice (2,iI3tongue by which I4); and his flames are spoons with which he honours the besprinkles or gods (i, 76s; 10, 64). But he is more himself 281"6). Writh to eat the (3, 2I1"4. frequentlyasked offerings he strives after the ghee that is offered (i, 127'), upright,god-ward form Though the regular offeringto him is fuel or butter3, he is sometimes, and then nearly always with other juice (i, 14'", gods, invited to drink the Soma (3, 2o2)
or seven

90

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

i A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

199.

11' 3; 2,
5"

364). In
He

one

hymn

he

is called the

somagopd,

'guardianof

Soma'

(10, 45

I2).
as

is invited

down on sitting spoken 1 1 ii2. *, 433). 265; 7) Cp. 5, dwelt He is of brilliant lustre is naturally much upon. Agni's brightness (7, 15" "c.), clear-flamed (2, io2 "c.), brilliant-flamed (6, io3),bright-flamed and (i, 140*; 5, 2 3). He has a golden form (4,31 bright-coloured (8, 433I)" shines like the sun (i, I493; 7, 36). His lustre is like the rays io, 2o9). He of the rain-cloud (io,9i4-5). the lightnings like and dawn and the of the sun the he with shines even sun at night (5,74). Like He dispelsthe darkness and sees is a destroyer of darkness his rays (8,4332). He through the gloom he opens the gates of darkness of the night (i, 945; 7, 92). Kindled (3,51). and in darkness visible when the earth The sky become Agni is enveloped dawn and is the only individual god at born (io, 882). For he is kindled who is described as (though the gods collectively Svaking at dawn', usarbudh receive this epithet). sometimes On the other hand, Agni's course, path, or track, and his fellies are his steeds make black black (i, 1417; 2, 46-7; 6,6'; 7, 82; 8,23*9), and furrows (1,140*). Driven by the wind he rushes through the wood (i,584-5), and the hairs of the earth the forests shears invades (i, 658), shaving the beard earth as a barber a (io, I424). of the sea like the roaring waves His flames are (i,44"). His sound of Heaven the thunder like 2 is like the Wind roars 5s; or (5, 7, 36). He lion the thundering Dyaus (io, 454), or Parjanya (8,9i5), or a (3,211). He of

is often sacrifice (10, 989j and to to come the sacrificial grass along with the gods (3,i42;

bellows fied
cannot at

like
the be

bull

when when

he

invades

the

forest

noise
checked

his

grass-devouringsparks
than the

the birds are terri trees, and arise (i, 9410" IX). He
of

loose, or
the

(8,23'). His His red smoke rises up to heaven smoke (7, 3\ i63). spreads in the of a post (metr), he supports the sky with his sky (6,26). Like the erector the ridge of heaven with his crest and smoke (4, 62). He touches mingles with heaven He his with the rays of the sun (7,21). encompasses tongue in the bright (8, 6il8) and goes to the flood of heaven, to the waters space and above below the sun (3, 223). The Agni of Divodasa spread along mother earth the gods and stood towards the ridge of the sky (8,92 2). on connected 'Smoke-bannered' is a frequent epithet exclusively (dhumaketu) with Agni. that is luminous a car car (3, I41), on Agni is borne on an lightning (i, I4Q1), bright (i, I4i12),shining(5, i11), brilliant (io, iSj, golden (4,i*) beautiful (4, 24). It is drawn or horses4, which are butterby two or more and backed (i, i46),ruddy (rohita^ arusa), tawny ruddy (7, 42-), beautiful (4,22J, omniform mind-yoked (10,70"), active (2,42), wind-impelled(i,94 10), them the He (i, i46). to summon gods (i, i412; 3, 66; 8, 641). For yokes he is a charioteer (i,253 "c.) of the sacrifice (io, 92* "c.). With his steeds he brings the gods on the same his car seated on as car (3,69). He comes the gods (3, 4"; 7, n1) or in advance of them Varuna (io, 7o2). He brings from the air (io, 70"). Indra from the sky, the Maruts to the offering, According to the ordinary view of the Vedic poets, Agni's father is of Dyaus (4, He is the child (sis'u) 1 56; Dyaus, who generated him (io,458).
cannot

the bolt (i, I435). Agni flames upwards (6,i52).Driven and wavers sky (8,43*). His smoke

more any of heaven

sound

the

Maruts,
his flames
be

an

army shoot

let

by

the

wind

into

his flame

seized

6,492) and
He is often

is said to
called the

have
son

been of

born

from and

the

belly

of

the

Asura5

(3,291).
10, i2. 27.

Dyaus

Prthivl

(3,22. 3". 25';

92 When

III.

RELIGION,
is called there may

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

i A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

he

the be

embryo
a

of

trees

(i, 70*)
the fire

or

of

trees

as

well

as

(2, i1),
friction The the

side-glanceat
trees.

produced

in

forests

plants by the

of

the

boughs
the

of

terrestrial existence
of earth'

'navel

Agni is (i, 592). This


of
to

further

indicated

by his being called


in the many the sacrificialAgni
or

expression appears,
the

passages
on

in which

it occurs,
altar
or

allude
In hollow the
or

to

receptacle of
ritual
uttard

the

excavated
term

redi*$.

the

Vedic
in the

ndbJd

'navel'

is the

technical

designatingthe
use

vcdi,

in

which

Agni

is-

deposited14.The earlier the gods made Agni the


two
occurrences

of

term

'navel' RV. of

centre

in

the

the

probably suggested the figure,that of immortality(3, i;4). The only attribute vedisad, 'sitting the altar', on
is often
a

refer to

Agni. Agni's origin in


as

the

aerial waters
shown

referred distinct

to.

The

'Son

of

waters' the

has, 'embryo' (garbha)

has

been of

(" 24), become


waters

deity.Agni
in of the

is also
waters

the
is

(3, i12- J3);he


who has grown

is kindled
in the

(10, 45 z; AV. (10, 81); he


or

a 13, 1 is ocean-girt (8,9i5). He

5");he

bull

lap

the waters
the dhanu

is also said to descend


to

from

dwelling in 10, the of In such the brightspace Agni must passages of the later hymns of the RV. Some be meant. (10, 51 3. I24)15 tell a and plants and being found by the gods. legend of Agni hiding in the waters in the Brahmanas16. In the AV. the Agnis This legend is also often related the from those that of in the waters are on distinguished lightning path go the celestial Agni with the lightning from or (AV. 3, 2iT- 7; 8, i11) and are dwelt of the RV. also said to have earth (AV. 12, i37). In one on passage SS. and in it is stated that Agni rests in all streams (8, 398, Ap. 5, 21); cp. in the later ritual texts the in is invoked connexion with waters Agni ponds Thus in the oldest Vedic and water-vessels. even period, the waters in which Agni is latent,though not those from which he is produced, may in various have thinks that the been regarded as terrestrial. OLDENBERGI? passages and terrestrial waters in this connexion doubts, whether the meant are chiefly in the first hymn of the third book18. In any lightning Agni is intended even the of Agni in the waters notion is prominent throughout the Vedas.. case, Water is Agni's home, as heaven is that of the sun (5, 852: cp. AV. i3,i5"; also mentioned 1ne often waters are along with the plantsor wood I9" 331)'9 his abode as (2, i1 "c.). is moreover Agni's origin in heaven frequently spoken of. He is born in the highest heavens He existed (i, 143*; 6, S2). though not potentially in the heavens and from was actually highest (10,5'), heaven, from brought afar by Matarisvan (" 25). In such passages Agni doubtless represents lightning; for lightning is regardtd as coming from heaven from the waters well as as in a Brahmana it is spoken (AV. 3, 2iK 7; 8, i11), and (AB. 7, 72) passage of as both celestial (divyd) and aqueous mentioned is (apsumai).When lightning
cloud-island
"

(i, i445; (6,62).

45)

and

be

the

shiningthunder form lightning

by its
with

proper

name

vidyitt(which

occurs

hardly
and in
to

30

Agni, it is commonly compared with him20, doubtless as a concrete phenomenon


of the

times in the RV.) alorg from thereby distinguished with

contrast

myth, too,
the actual

descent
of

of

fire from

heaven

earth, due

god. The undoubtedly to


the

caused conflagrations by the stroke of lightning, of the celestial Agni and The implies the identity heavenly origin lightning. of Agni is further implied in the fact that the acquisition is of fire by man and of the regarded as a gift gods as well as a production of Matarisvan; the allude of men' Agni's frequent epithet ot 'guest(atithi) same to may notion (5, i9 "c.).

observation

TERRESTRIAL

GODS.

35.

AGNI.

93 the Vedic for the

In

other of

as a an Agni, in the bright sky, waking at dawn, the head of light of heaven side of the air and sees all things born heaven the other (3,2^). He was on rising in the morning (10, 886)21. The (10, iS;4'5). He is born as the sun when remarks the AB. 285that (8, sun Ij) settingenters into Agni and is him. identification is from The same probably alluded to in passages produced stating that Agni unites with the light or the rays of the sun (5, 37'; 7, 21), that when men lightAgni on (6, 23), or that earth, the celestials light him (3, 2712; 8, 4429). Sometimes, however, it is difficult Agni shines in heaven decide is intended. whether solar aspect of The to lightning or the sun is often mentioned, the sun not Agni's nature being too individual a pheno be generally conceived form of fire. Agni is usually thought to menon as a of in his terrestrial form, being compared identified with the sun. rather than Thus the poet says that the minds turned of the godly are to Agni as eyes towards the sun time there is frequently a side- glance (5, i4). At the same forms, it being therefore in many which doubtful of his at Agni's other cases

"conception

passages, the sun

again, Agni
form of

is to

be is

identified with
undoubted

sun;

belief.

Thus

Agni

is the

aspects is intended.

Owing to the diverse births Jiaving a triplecharacter22, which

described, Agni is often regarded as is expressly referred to many passages with some form of the numeral fthree'. This earliest Indian is important, trinity it is based for much of the mystical speculationof the Vedic on age*3. three threefold him Agni's births are or (i, 95^; 4, i/). The gods made is threefold He threefold (10, SS10). light (3,267), has three heads (i, 146'), three tongues, three bodies, three stations (3, 2o2). The epithettrisadhastha, is predominantly connected with Agni24, and the only 'having three stations', in the which word three occurs tripastya,'having (8,398), it dwellings', passage is an attribute of Agni. The triad is not always understood in exactly the same
above in
or

way

mentioned

in

the

same

order. time of

Thus from
us

one

poet
is

says: also

'From

heaven

was first_.Agni (10, 451, cp.

born, the
vv.
2-

second order

(=

men), thirdlyin

the waters

heaven, earth, one verse (8, 44l6; 10, (i, 953) has the variation: Sometimes the terrestrial Agni comes heaven, waters. ocean, first: 'He first born in houses, at the base of great heaven, in the womb was of this atmosphere' (4, i11); 'the immortals kindled flames of Agni: of three these they placed one and with man, for use, the sister-world' went two to terrestrial Agni in (3, 2"). A Sutra passage a (Ap. SS. 5, i64) distinguishes in the waters, and celestial one in the sun. Occa animals, an aerial one a
waters

3).

The

in

other

passages

Agni's abodes 27. 469), while

the sionally whom backed' 'the

terrestrial

Agni

comes

third. is

He

is

one

of

three the

brothers

of

middlemost

brother

lightning(asnaJi) and

third is butter-

(i,164*, cp. i4i2). 'Agni glows from the sky, to god Agni belongs the kindle Agni,. bearer of oblations,lover of ghee' (AV. 12, i20, cp. air, men i3,321; 18,4"). third form The of Agni is once spoken of as the highest(19, i3; cp. that his predecessor Sakapuni 5, 33; i, 722" 4). Yaska (Xir. 7, 28) mentions regarded the threefold existence of Agni referred to in 10, 88 as being in third mani earth, air, and heaven, a certain Brahmana considering Agni's which is in heaven, to be the sun Nir. This threefold festation, (cp. 12, 19). of Agni, so nature clearly recognised in the RV., was probably the prototype not only of the- posterior triad of Sun, Wind, Fire (8, iS19), which is spoken of as distributed in the three worlds (10, 158'; AV. 4, 392) and is implied in' another verse (i, 164^), but also of the triad of Sun, Indra, Fire, which though not Rigvedic is still ancient. Here Vata or Vayu and Indra have
broad
10

94 taken

HI.

RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

the

place

of

Agni, Agni Vaidyuta, the lightning


This
lack of any be
name

as

the Brahmanas
to

and

commentators
nature

call him.

substitution is perhaps partly due


other therefore have the the

the transient

the
or

and partlyto the lightning which could lightning, personified triad of Agnis may allusions. The
of of the
are

Agni for expressed only by epithets suggested and would explainthe


sacrificial fires 25 fire26 and
The which in the form
an

than

division Vedic reacted


as

sacrificial fire

into

three

ritual

kept
of the

distinct from
cult in the

domestic

which

essential feature
on

Brahmanas27.

myth. At any of the three representative


the may three
on

rate, later Hindu


forms
to

ritual may have then literature took the three fires


known the
to

of

Agni
of

the RV.2S

The

three
to
an

sacrificial fires anterior himself in the

period29.

go Thus

back

the

time

RV., possiblyeven
the and

to Agni besought bring gods (yonisu: 2, 364; cp. 5, n2; 10, 105^). receptacles to

is

seat

Doubtless and

the

basis of the twofold


several

division of the Universe said to


have
two

into heaven

births, being the earth, Agni passages of 6oT. as dvijanman (i, i4o2. i492- "'). An only singlegod spoken upper birth are mentioned and lower (2,9^),his abode in lower and upper spheres a the opposition is generally between terrestrial is referred to (i, i283), and least celestial fire (3,54%- 10, 45 10),though in one and at (8, 4328) passage
the
contrast

is in

is between his supreme

his birth in heaven abode

and

in the waters.

Agni

is

sum

thence to the lower ones 7) and comes he is brought from When the highest father he rises into the plants (8,6415). as (i, 1 4 14). Here Agni is conceived coming down in rain and then entering he of which is the plants,out again produced. The fires,like water, after (i, i6451). On this distinction of descending to earth again rise to heaven of fire are such based forms that Agni should sacrifice to two as prayers descend that he himself (10,76),that he should should bringAgni (7,395),or the sacrifice (3, 69 "c.). Allied to this distinction is the with the gods to notion kindled by the gods as contrasted that Agni was with men3" (6, 23). latter notion is due The to the assumption that celestial fires must be kindled and sacrifice like men one gods must (cp.AB. 2, 34). by some another From births (10,5'). point of view, Agni is said to have many This multiplicity doubt fires kindled no on primarilyrefers to the numerous For terrestrial altars. said to abide in every Agni is very frequently family, house, or abode (4,68. 71- 3; 5, i5. 6s "c.). He is produced in many places bodies (10, 9810). Scattered in many (3"5419) and nas many places, he is in many and the same one king (3,554). Kindled places, he is but one branches to him to a tree (Val. io2). Other fires are attached as (8, i933). Thus be he comes invoked with the to Agnis (7, 3T; 8, iS9. 49'; io, i4i6) all the Agnis (i, 26"; 6, i26). or The involve accounts sometimes given of Agni's abodes or birthplaces divisions. Thus his brilliance in heaven, earth, air, waters, and plants cross is referred to (3,222) or he is said to be born from the heavens, the waters, of a similar kind stone, woods, and plants (2, i1). Longer enumerations elsewhere occur occasionally (AV. 3, 21; 12, i19; Ap. SS. 5, i64). When Agni is said (i, in dwell rock is to the reference a 7o4, cp. 6, 48 5) (adrau) probably the lightning to latent in the cloud (cp.p. io). The is probably the same when he is said (2, i1) to be produced from case stone a (asmanaK) or to have been two stones 12 generated by Indra between (2, 3); but here there lurk allusion the of heat is of to fire from flint. Animal an production may be when meant in the heart of man course Agni is said to (io, 51),or in beasts, horses, birds, bipeds and quadrupeds (AV. 3, 2i2; 12, i19. 233; XS. and 4, 6, 1 3). As being the spark of vitality so widely diffused in nature,

moned

from

(8,1

TERRESTRIAL

GODS.

35.

AGNI.

95 is

Agni naturally

comes

to

be

described exists

as

stationaryor moves The rise to of Agni gave triple nature of sacrificial (i, I641); while the multiplicity of Agni's elder brothers idea who are spoken
of number of these is later stated Hotrs
once

and

all that

germ (i, 7o3; AV. the

the

(garbha) 5, 257).
of have

of

what

notion

three

brothers

fires may of in the

to

be of

three

probably
where

meant

by

the

four is be

the

(TS. 2, gods, of whom


as

suggested the (10, 5i6). The plural The same are 6, 61).
the first three died Else

(Kath. 25, 7)31. Varuna


Indra is said with
to

spoken
twin brother other
a

of

Agni's brother

(4, i2).

his with

associated the

Agni
with

than

only god
to

whom

Agni

any forms

(6,592)32. Indra is indeed oftener exceptions, god and is,with two slight dual divinity(" 44). It is doubtless

owing
heat

this

association
and

that

hymn
and

(8, 46l6) (i, 93) Agni

vanquishing the
is also

described as Agni Panis unbelieving


with with Soma other

is

burstingthe
(7, 63).
In

rock
one

with entire

coupled

Agni
Mitra33

is

identified occasionally

(" 44). with gods, especially

Varuna

when the sacri he goes to (2, i4- 3, 54- ^ I23). He is Varuna is Varuna when Mitra fice (10, 8s). He he is born and when he is kindled (5, 31). Agni in the evening becomes Varuna, risingin the morning he be the air,becoming Indra he illumines comes Mitra; becoming Savitr he traverses the sky in the midst of the RV. (AV. 13, 3^). In one (2, i3" 7) ne passage is successively with identified dozen about a gods besides five goddesses. He various divine forms assumes (3, 387) and has many names (3, 20^). In him all the surrounds whom he are a comprehended as 31), gods (5, fellythe spokes (5, i36). What is probably the oldest function of fire in regard to its cult,that evil spirits hostile magic, still survives of burning and and in the dispelling 34 Veda. the with his drives and receives 1 light (3, 5 "c.) Agni goblins away the kindled he consumes epithet raksohan, 'goblin-slayer' (10, 87')- When with heat with iron teeth and scorches the sorcerers the goblins well as as (10, 87 5- 14),protectingthe sacrifice with keen glance (ib.9). He knows the races of the sorcerers and destroys them (AV. i,84).Though this function of dispelling terrestrial demons is shared with Agni by Indra (as well as by Brhaspati, the Asvins, and especiallySoma), it must primarily have belonged aerial demons is to Agni alone, just as, conversely, that of slayingAsuras or transferred This is borne to Agni (7, 13') though properly peculiarto Indra. out by the fact that Agni is undoubtedly more prominent as a goblin-slayer than Indra, both in the hymns and in the ritual 35. with life than other human Agni is more closely connected god. any His association with the dwellings of men is peculiarly is the intimate. He the only god to whom frequent epithet grhapati, 'lord of the house', is He dwells in abode applied. (7,i52), never (8,49*9). leaving his home every The attribute 'domestic' (damunas) is generally connected with him (i,6o4"c.). This household of ideas; for in the deity probably represents an old order
r 2'

later other

elaborate
two

ritual of

the

three
eastern

sacrificial and

fires, the

one

from

which

the

is called

the

(the dhavariiya or gdrhapatya or


observe sacrificial fire

it is
traces

to interesting

of

the

(4, 93. I51), strides round three times (4, 64- 5. i52);
he is led He He is
a

or southern) were taken, belongs to grhapati. In this connexion that even as early as Rigvedic times there are been For Agni is led round transported36. having round the sacrifice the offerings(4, i53) or goes

the daksina

that

which

and

as

soon

as

he

is released

from

his

parents,

to

the

east

and

again

to

the

west

(i, 3i4).

is further

guest in

in human abodes. (atitht] constantly designated a 'guest' house (io,9i2), the first guest of settlers (5,82). For every

96
he any has the

III.

RELIGION,
immortal

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

is

an

(a
who
or

term

much taken up

more

commonly
abode
human
to

applied to Agni
mortals

than

to

other
been

god),

has

his

established

settled among
caused mortals

domestic
a

Agni

who

(8, 6oT). He among habitations (3, 5 3; 4, 62). It is is a leader settle (3, iI7j. He
the

(3, 25) and settlers' is


Thus

protector of settlers (i, 96*), and


connected
to

epithetvispati,'lord
kinsman
of
man

of

8, 49

mainly Agni comes T0),or simply a


described

with
be

him. the
nearest

called

(7, 15';

is oftenest

kinsman (i, 2 63 "c.) or a friend (i, 75* "c.). But he also father brother as a as a (6, i5 "c.), sometimes
and
eyen seem as a son

(8; 43l6; I0; 73 "c-)"

(2, i9)
to
an

or

mother order of

(6, i$),

of

his

worshippers. less Agni was


intimate
The

Such

terms

to

point

older of

when things,
an

sacrificial and, as, the centre is not relation such as easilyfound

domestic
the

life,produced

in

in the house of Agni's presence continuity the ancestral than other him more god with the past. Hence closely any is of Agni with his worshipper (i,7i10) probably more typicalof friendship the forefathers kindled, is the god whom him than of any other deity. He is made of an Agni of Bharata mention (2,7*; to whom they prayed. Thus of Divodasa of Devavata of (3,233), (8,922), Vadhryasva (10,69*), 7,84"c.), The sometimes of ancestors identified and of Trasadasyu (8, I932J38. names of the RV. in part those of families to which be with Agni are composers had have historical of like to Some seem a Vasistha, origin, these, longed. while others, like Angiras (" 54) and probably mythical Bhrgu (" 51), are (cp.S 58). Agni is further brought into close relations with the daily life of man in the sacrifice. He is,however, not merely a passivereceiver of the offering, transmits the oblation heaven and earth. He but is an intermediarybetween do not to the gods, who get exhilarated without him (7,n1). On the other hand, he brings the gods (3,i42) to the sacrifice as well as takes it to them them the seats strewn on (i, 31 17; 8, 443), to eat the (7, ii5). He grass He the on IIT"C.). offering (5, paths leading both to the gods (10,98") goes and to earth (8, 72),knowing these paths (6, i63). He is therefore constantly called knows and who the paths and a characteristically (dutct), messenger who all sacrifice visits flies swiftly the abodes (i, or (4, i8); 727) conveys between heaven and earth (10, 64), moving (4, 78. 84; 10, 42), or the two who has been appointed by the gods (5,86"c.) men (4, 22-3); races, gods and and oblation-bearer by men (10, 4610), to be an (havya-vah or -vdhana, connected with and the hymn of the wor terms to announce always Agni) shipper (i,274) or to bring the gods to the place of sacrifice (4,82). He is the messenger of Vivasvat of the gods (6, i59) and (p.42); but as knowing of heaven, as the sacrifice, the innermost and bringing recesses conveyingof men. the the gods (4, 78. he is considered be to 8J) mainly messenger A later text states that Agni is the messenger of the gods, and Kavya Usanas or Daivya that of the Asuras (TS. 2, 5, 85. n8). Another describes Agni not as the messenger of, but as the path leading to, the gods, by which the summit of heaven be reached (TB. 2, 4, i6). may In consequence of his main of officiating function in the Veda at the celebrated as the divine counterpart of the earthly to be sacrifice, Agni comes the 'priest' priesthood.He is therefore often called generically viprd) (rtvij^ the and or 'domestic more specifically priest' (purohitd], frequently constantly, in fact than by any other name, is who the 'offerer' (hotf)or chief priest, He is a Hotr (8, 491; 10, 7s) poet and spokesman in one. appointed by men and of Hotrs eminent by gods (6, 16'). He is the most adorable, the most

worship of other gods 3 1. would connect naturally

TERRESTRIAL

GODS.

35.

AGNI.

97

is also termed He an adhvaryu (3, 54) and (likeBrhaspati, brahman (4, or a 94). He combines in himself Indra) Soma, prayingpriest human of the various the functions, in a higher sense, priestscalled by the and other specific above names (i,946; 2, i2"c.). He is constantly invoked honour to or worship the gods (3, 25'; 7, n3 "c.), while they in their turn said to honour are Agni three times a day (3,42). He is the accomplisher of the rite or sacrifice (3,33.272), promoting it by his occult power (3,277), and which he causing the offering making the oblations fragrant (10, i512), is the father (3,34), the king (4,31), protects to reach the gods (i, i4). He the ruler (10, 63), the superintendant (8,4324), the banner (3, 33. io4; 6, 23; is sacrifice. it related of In that Agni grew 1 one (io, 5), hymn 51) 10, his and refused fulfil of the sacrificial service but on to offices, being weary he required from the gods, continued to act as granted the remuneration high priestof men3?. Agni's priesthood is the most salient feature of his

(10, 21.

9 and

18).

character.

He

is in fact of

the

as great priest,

Indra

is the from

great warrior.
the

But

though
the end

this

of the

phase RV.,
due endless

Agni's character
it is of those
course

is
from

so a

prominent historical point of


the

beginning to
view
compara

tively recent,
led
to

to

mystical sacerdotal

speculationswhich
later ritual texts.

ultimately
From the

the

sacrificial

symbolism
the

of

(havya-vah or -vdhana) is offering the form distinguished 'corpse-devouring' (kravyad: VS. three forms, as the Agni who devours distinguishes rawcp. " 71). The flesh (amad\ the corpse-devouring or funereal,and the sacrificial Agni (VS. The TS. (2, 5, S6) also distinguishes three, the Agni that i, 17, cp. 1 8, 51). bears the oblation the (havyavdhana),as belonging to gods, the Agni that bears the funeral offering as (kavyavakand), belonging to the Fathers,and the Agni associated with goblins(saharaksas)as belonging to the Asuras. Agni is a seer (rsi) as well as a priest(9, 6620); he is kindled as an eminent seer (3, 2i3); he is the most (6, i42); he is the first gracious seer
of conveys Fire which is called
seer

ordinarysacrificial

Agni

who

Angiras (i,31').

He

is the

divine

one

(asurd)

among

the

sages

(3,34).

the sacrifice exactly (io, no11) and all rites (io, I222). knows Agni knows the rectifies which he mistakes the commit seasons Knowing men proper the ordinances of sacrificial of the through ignorance gods (io, 24- 5) He of heaven (4, 82- 4). He knows everything (io, n1) by (10,913). He has all wisdom (3,i1?; io, 2i5), which he embraces the fellythe wheel as born as (2,53)and which he acquired as soon (i,96x). is 'all-knowing' He and the of all (vis'vavid); epithets'possessed knowledge' the intelligence and 'possessing of a sage' (kavikratu) (visvavedas), (kavi), 'sage' He bears the epithet are to him. predominantlyapplicable jdtav"fas, exclusively which is there (6, i513) ex and times in the RV. occurs upwards of 120 knows all generations' plained as meaning 'he who (visva veda janima)*0. He knows the divine ordinances and of men the generations (i, 70'- 3). He knows and all creatures hears the invocations sees (3, 55'"; io, i874) and addressed to him (8, 43 23). Agni is also a producer of wisdom (8, 9i8). Wisdom and arise is him from He an (4, n3). (io, 465), inspirer prayers inventor of brilliant speech (2, 94), the an first inventor of prayer (6, i1). He is also said to be eloquent (6,44) and a singer (jaritf). with a of his worshippers. He Agni is a great benefactor protects them hundred iron walls (7, 3?. i610, cp. 6, 488; i, i892). He them from preserves calamities takes calamities in them the or across sea as ship over (3,2o4; a is a who friend of the man deliverer (8, 495) and 5, 4"; 7, i22j. He a entertains him a as guest (4, 410). He grants protectionto the worshipper who sweats fuel (4, 26), He watches with a thousand to bring him eyes the
recesses

knows

the

his wisdom

Indo-arische

Philologie. III.

1 A.

98
man

III.

RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

brings him food and nourishes him with oblations (10, 795). He enemies like dry bushes (4,4*) and strikes down worshippers' is (6, the malevolent tree 85, cp. AV. 3, 21 "c.). a as destroyed by lightning in which he leads the van in battle invoked is therefore He (8,4321), (8,738). in food whom he and The man protects and inspires battle wins abundant him as branches issue from from be overcome (1,277). All blessings never can (i,i3.3i10. tree (6, 13*). He gives riches, which he abundantly commands a in and him he door All collected the of are (10, 66) treasures 36*). opens all riches in heaven and earth riches (4, 511) or in (i,6810). He commands (7, 67; 10, 913). He gives rain from heaven (2,6s) earth, heaven, and ocean is therefore constantly and is like a water-trough in the desert (10, 41). He boon: of bestow kind deliverance from food, riches, besought to every poverty, The demons41. boons which enemies, and are childlessness, Agni bestows and for the most while Indra rather domestic prosperity, welfare, offspring, sin42 committed glory. Agni also forgives victory,and part gives power, before Aditi makes (4,i24; 7, 93?, cp. p. 121), and averts guiltless through folly, frees from wrath Varuna's even (4, i4). He by a man's guiltcommitted mother father and (AV. 5, 3o4; TB. 3, 7, 12*- 4) (samrdj), strong as Indra (7,6 *). His Agni is a divine (asura] monarch that of heaven mighty (i,595).He is greater than heaven greatness surpasses
who
consumes

his

and

all the worlds, which he filled when born earth (3, 62; 10, 8814), than (3, 310). He is superiorto all the other gods in greatness (i,68 2). All the he abides in darkness (6,97). He gods fear and do homage to him when is celebrated and the all the gods and Maruts, worshipped by Varuna, Mitra, tremble (3,98. 14*; 10, 69q). Agni performed great deeds of old (7,62). Men his

at

mighty

deeds

(8,923). In
from
curse

battle he

and

he

delivered

them

procured space for the gods (i,595) of thousands (7,i32). He is a conqueror

attribute of Soma). He the drives away an (sahasrajit: more commonly Dasyus from the house, thus creatinga wide lightfor the Arya (7, 56). He is a promoter of the Arya (8,92')and a vanquisherof irreligious Panis (7,63). He receives with the of and two some or frequency epithet 'Vrtra-slayer', three

'fort-destroyer' {puramdard), attributes primarilyappro priateto Indra (p.60). Such warlike qualities, though suitable to Agni in his lightning he form, are doubtless derived by him from Indra, with whom is so frequently associated (p. 127). he is nevertheless called of Heaven and Earth Although Agni is the son the generator of the two worlds does his ordinance, which (i, 96^ cp. 7,57)" and earth (7, 54). He stretched not perish(2,83),being followed by heaven them his like two skins (6, 83). With out out (3, 65; 7, 54) or spread them flame his he supported the vault of heaven smoke or (3,5'";4, 62). He kept asunder the two worlds with true (6, 83). He supported earth and heaven is the head of the world of the hymns (i, 67^). He stands at the head or earth at night (10, 885- 6), but he is also the head and summit (kakud) of the sky (i,592; 6, 7*; 8, 44l6). He measured the air and the touched out vault of heaven with his greatness (6, 82). He measured out the aerial spaces and the brightrealms of heaven caused the sun the to ascend (6, 77). He the The notion that of exercised sky (10, i564). a kindling magical Agni influence on the sunrise seems in the RV.43. Such absent to be not entirely the meaning of the poet when to be he exclaims: 'Let us light appears Agni, that thy wondrous brand shine in heaven' (5,64). This notion is clearly may stated in a Brahmana sunrise he produces him before 'By sacrificing passage: (the sun), else he would not rise' (SB. 2, 3, is, Cp. TS. 4, 7, 133). Otherwise the kindling of Agni and the sunrise are represented merely as simultaneous
of
r

times

that

ioo

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

and

improbable52.It
in wood and

seems

to

mean

'son
to

of

himself',, as
father 53.
to

spontaneously
as con

generated 'the bodily(i. e. own) signifies


trasted with

cloud.

According
of the Narasamsa

BERGAIGNE'S

it interpretation,

son'

divine

Tanunapat
'the

Matarisvan

and

is said

be

divine

embryo' (3, 29 ll).The dawns are said to kiss Agni 'the domestic of the ruddy one' (10, 92 2, cp. 5, 58"). Tanunapat is beautifulTanunapat tongued (10,no2). He is besought to take the sacrifice to the gods (i,i32; distributes the sacrifice rich in ghee and mead he (i, 142% cp. 10, no2); honour times him three The a day, Varuna, Mitra, Agni, every i882). gods (comparing 9, 5*) identifies Agni Tanunapat with day (3, 42). HILLEBRANDTS* of form to be a special Agni Somagopa or the lunar Fire, which he assumes 55. Agni Narasamsa which is given as an somewhat The more frequent epithet and in the Naighantuka (5,3) is unaccompanied by independent appellation of Agni in the RV., is not restricted to Agni, being twice connected the name its fixed place in with Ptisan (i, io64; 10, 643)56. It has the third verse as in which and second those called the the Apr! hymns are technically Apra. is 'four-limbed' (10, 92") and of a is the 'lord celestial wife Narasamsa honey on his tongue and in his hand, he performs (gndspati: 2, 3810). With times a day he besprinkles the sacrifice the sacrifice (i, i33/ 5, 52). Three three heavens He the and the anoints with honey (i,I423). gods (2,32). of the gods and makes for them the sacrifice pleasant He comes at the head (10, ;o2). Through his sacrifices worshippers praisethe greatness of the gods
(7, 22).
one

(asura) the priest,

Soma

is

said

to

go

between

Narasamsa

which between the to mean, seems (9,8642), Agni. As contrasted with Tanunapat and Matarisvan, Agni is called Nara when he is born samsa (3,29"). In one hymn to Brhaspati(10, i822) is for in invoked and he is spoken of as the Narasamsa another protection, sacrificer of the seat of heaven in these two passages (i,i89). He thus seems nttra-sdmsa is apparently an im identified with Brhaspati. The word to be compound (in which the m of the genitivepluralhas disappeared), proper in two and accent having a double having its parts separatedby particles As the and devdndm naram (9, samsa 86*2; 64^). expressions passages 10, calls Agni samsam samsa occur (2,346; i, 141") and a poet once dyoh, 'Praise of Ayu' (4,6"), Narasamsa 'Praise of men' in the to mean appears of 'he who is the object of men's the sense praise'.BERGAIGNE expresses that the exact of of that is opinion57 aspect Agni representedby Narasamsa, human of second like a a god Brhaspati. prayer,
i

celestial (daivya) terrestrial and the celestial


the

and

Mund.

Up.
5

i, 24;

cp.
"

ZDMG.
3

35,
104;

425

"

6; SEE.
"

46, 159. 207.


EDA. 50"1
"

ORV.

552. SEE.

"

46, 144.
indische
2, 2,

Tieropfer77
PVS.
"

52;

2,

50.

"

510.

JOLLY
ZDMG.

in

37-9;
12

ROTH,
16

cp. ZDMG. 62.


"

6 SCHWAB, altDas ; OLDENBERG, 8; ROTH, Indisches Feuerzeug, ZDMG. 7 BRV. 43, 590 5. 8 ROTH, and Nirukta, Erl. 120; PW. s. v. yuvati tvastr\ OO. *o this Encyclopaedia II, 8, p. 25. KHF. ed. Schrader (1889) " KHF. note HRI. 18; KRV. 35, 561. 121; 107.
" " " " -

46, 128. ZDMG. 39, 69.


"

Cp. OLDENBERG, 4 Cp. BRV.

ZDMG.
i, 143;

50, SEE.

43,
15
"

593;
17 112.

ORV. ORV.
"

121.

"

*3

Cp. Cp.

HVM. GVS.

i,

179

note

4.

"

14

AB.
-

2, p.

OLDENBERG,
21

ZDMG. 115. Other


"

39,
18

68"72;

MACDONELL,
i,

JRAS.
"

HAUG, 26, 16 ff.


113
"" I2

LRV.
2.
--

are 3, 144; 8, 565; 10, 88 passages AV. 22 OST. 13, 113; TS. 4, 2, 94. MACDONELL, 5, 206; BRV. i, 21"5; ORV. 23 Cp. HRI. 24 See GW. 106; SEE. 25, 468"70; 46, 231. 105. 26 ORV. 25 LRV. 27 Cp. SB. 3, 356; BRV. i, 23. 348. 2, i and 28 SEE. HRI. LING, 12, 274 ff. 29 BRV. 106; cp. LRV. i, 23; 3, 356.
" "

note

5, 504. 20 ibid.

157"70.

19

ORV.

JRAS.
s.
v.

"

"

"

"

EGGELRV.
i, 103.

"

"

"

SEE. OLDENBERG, 3" 355; 3' LRV. 5, 504"5.


"

30,
32
"

3" BRV. 46, 362; ORV. 348. Cp. Sayana; ROTH, Nirukta, Erl. 140; MM., x, note

i;

"

LSL.
-

2,

614.

"

33

Cp.

BRV.

3, 134 f.

34

BRV.

2,

217.

"

35

ORV.

128.

36 SEE.

46, 361.

TERRESTRIAL

GODS.

36.

BRHASPATI.

101

37

ORV.

132"3.

"

38 OST.
"

i,
4"
"

348"9;
OST.

cp.

SEE.

46,
42

DONELL, and
43
"

JRAS.
i,

26,
140
"

12

22.

"

WHITNEY,
41

AJP. 3, 409;
5, 218.
" "

123. 211. otherwise

"

39

MACI, 94
-

PVS.
299
"

BLOOMFIELD,

JAOS.

16, 16.

Cp. ORV.
"

300.

view of KHF. SEE. The 44 69 ff. ff.; ORV. 46, 330. 109; FaR. ORV. 48 PW.; 46 45 ORV. MM.PhR. 102. 47 KNAUER, 64. 103. IF. 5, 222. 49 BRV. 117 (cp. KIRSTE, WZKM. 7, 97); rejected by BARTHOLOMAE, Nir. Erl. 7, 19. 5" ROTH, 51 ROTH, Nirukta, Introd. 36 f.; Erl. 117"8. 153"6. 52 ROTH, MM.ASL. IS. 10, 89"95; GRV. Nir. WEBER, 463"6; 121"4; i, 6. SEE. 53 BRV. Erl. 117; cp. OLDENBERG, 54 HVM. 46, 10. i, 339. 2, 99 f. Erl. 56 ROTH, 6. 55 Ibid. 330 57 BRV. i, 305"8. 209 f. 117 f. ; cp. Sp.AP. LRV. KHF. 1 JAOS. 3, 317"8; OST. 105; WHITNEY, 199"220; 3, 324"5;

Cp. BRV.

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

KRV.

35"7;
v.

BRV.

53; 147" MM.PhR.

SCHROEDER,

i, 11"31. KZ.

38"45.
29, 193 HVBP.

70"4.
ff.

100"

i.

139"45; 19,

BRL WZKM. HRI-

9"11;

Sp.AP. 225"30;

(cp. BB.
ORV.

230);

144"203.

252"302;

63"8;

102"33;

105"12.

" 36. Brhaspati. --This


minence also about The forms
120

in the
a

RV.,
and of

eleven Indra in the


name

pair with
the

times forms

god occupies a positionof considerable pro entire hymns being dedicated to his praise. He in two occurs hymns (4, 49; 7, 97). His name form of Brahmanas pati about 50 times besides.
alternate in different
verses

two

of

the He
4,

same

hymn
is
seven-

in 2, 23). The of Brhaspati are few. physical features and mouthed seven-rayed (4, 5o4),beautiful-tongued(i, 190*;

(e.g.

50*),sharp-

horned

(5, 4312), hundred-winged (7,977)- He is golden-colouredand (7,977), ruddy (5,4312), bright (3, 62"- 7, 977),^pure and clear-voiced has is the rite a (7, 975). He bow, the stringof which (rfa), and good arrows (2, 248; cp. AV. 5, i88-9). He also wields a golden iron axe, which and is with an hatchet armed Tvastr (7, 977) sharpens (io, which slays 539). He has a car (10, 103*) and stands on the car of the rite, wins is drawn the goblins, bursts the cowstalls,and the light(2, 23^). He steeds (7, 976). by ruddy and with heaven from first born Brhaspati was great lightin the highest darkness thunder (ravena) drove (4, 5o4; cp. 10, 6812). He is the off away been is also said to have of the worlds but two 978), (7, spring generated is the father Tvastr On he of the gods called the other (2, 231?). by hand, forth the births of the gods like a black (2, 263); being said to have blown smith (10, 722). Brhaspati is a domestic priest1(2, 249; VS. 20, n; TS. 6, 4, 10; AB. ancient almost seers placed peculiar to Agni (p.96). The 8, 264), a term him at their head (puro-dha) (4, 50*). He is Soma's purohita (SB. 4, i, 24). is also a brahman He once or probably in the prayingpriest2(2, i3; 4, 5o8)_, the brahman is In later Vedic technical texts Brhaspati sense (10, i4i3). called the prayer or priest(in the technical sense) of the gods3. He is even the devotion (brahmd) of the gods (TS. 2, 2, 91 "c.) Brhaspati promotes (i, i87). As yoking of devotion, and without him sacrifice does not succeed of feast the the to gods (2, 236-7). a good the access pathmaker he makes awakens him the gods obtained their share of sacrifice (2,23'). He From even the hymn in which himself pronounces the gods with sacrifice (AV. ig} 63 x).He Indra, Varuna, Mitra, Aryaman, the gods take pleasure (i,4o5). He sings heaven chants metre (i, i9o4) and to (10, 36s). His song (sloka) goes (chandas)belongs to him (MS. i, 92). He is associated with singers(7, io4; (10,67^),by whom sings with his 'friends that cry like Hamsas' 10, 1 43). He mentioned in the preceding verse the Angirases4 (" 54) to be (io,672) seem said is also be He to meant. accompanied by a singing (rkvatY host the reason (gana: 4, 5o5). This is doubtless why he is called ganapati, 'lord also (io, ii29). Indra of a host' (2, 231), a term once applied to Brahmanas the name As pati shows, the god is a 'lord of prayer'. He
blue-backed and

(10, i552),

io?

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.
famous the

is also sages

described

as

the

(2, 231). Mounting

supreme the car

king
of

of

the

prayers, rite he

the

most

sage

of of

(i,i9o2), priest ')ord of speech', a vdcaspati a term applied to Brhaspatias god of specially (MS. 2, 66,cp. SB. 14, 4, i2-3), in post-Vedic literature.6 eloquence and wisdom identified with in which several passages There Brhaspati appears are is invoked Mitra' like handsome lord of 'the Thus Agni, prayer, Agni. identified with other i3 (2, ff.)Agni, though (i, 38*3). In another passage with Brahmanaspati, as connected intimately gods as well, is clearly more in vocative. In the verse one these are names (3, 262) both Mlitwo only the the wise the to and seem tarisvan swiftly-moving' priest, guest, 'Brhaspati be seems to be an epithetsof Agni, while in another (i, ipo2) Matarisvan who takes is his of blue-backed, Brhaspati, Brhaspati. Again, by up epithet is golden-colouredand ruddy (5,43 12), in the house, shines brightly, abode In be other verses two (i, i819; io, i822) Brhaspati meant. seems Agni must as Narasamsa, a form of Agni (p. 100). Like Agni, Brhaspati to be the same is called 'Son of strength' is a priest, (i,4o2) and Angiras (2,23l8)as well burns and the him to exclusively), (the epithetangirasa belonging goblins also of is as spoken (io,io34). Brhaspati (2, 2314) or slays them ascending abodes to heaven, to the upper (io, 6710). Like Agni, Brhaspatihas three of houses the is he adorable abodes one (7,97s),and 'lord of the (4,So1); 7 called sadaspati, i,2i5). sadasas pati (i,i86; Indra-Agni are once dwelling', the other On kavi, 'sage of prayer' (6,i63") hand, Agni is called brahmanas and heaven earth favourable is besought (2, 2 7) to make and by prayer is much from Agni But more (brahmana). commonly Brhaspati distinguished named or (2, 253; 7, io4; io, 689), chiefly by being invoked along with him in enumerations (3,20$ "c.)8. Like Agni, Brhaspati has been into and firm has obtained drawn a the Indra the of The in of mountain release the cows. footing yielded myth when the Angiras,opened the cowstall and with to his splendour, Brhaspati, Indra his companion let loose the flood of water darkness as by enveloped (2, 23l8, by his singing host (cp." 54) he cp. i, 56s. 899). Accompanied with a roar rent Vala; shouting he drove out the lowing cows (4,5o5). He and the and treasures won waters desiring light, great stalls full of cows; the irresistible Brhaspati slays his foe with flames firm What was (6,733). what he he drove was the cows, was out loosened, strong yielded to him;
He and of the gods (2,233-8). prayer communicates and (i, 405) He utters prayer later to be called he comes (io, 9827)- Thus cleft Vala

is the

conquers generator of all prayers the human to prayers

enemies

with

Brhaspati piercedwith might, honey, that the celestials drank, while out they poured together abundantly the fountain When (2,24-^4). watery Brhaspatiwith fiery gleams rent the defences of Vala, he revealed the treasures of the cows; if splitting as open eggs, he drove the cows of the mountain; he beheld out the honey enclosed by the he it cloven forth he with his smote stone; brought out, having (Vala) roar; it the of Vala as were and drove the cows marrow out (io,684~9). He distributed them in heaven (2, 2414). Brhaspatifetched the cows out of the the cows of Vala, he took rock; seizing possessionof them (io,685). His of Vala is characteristic that it became so conquest proverbial(AV. 9, 32). Being in the clouds (abhriyd)he shouts aloud after the many cows (io,6812, mentioned the which cows cp. 673). These are represent waters, expressly may (2, 23l8; 6, 733) or possiblythe rays of dawn (cp. io, 675. 689). In releasing the cows Brhaspati seeks lightin darkness and finds the

the

stone-mouthed

prayer; well

he

covered

up

the darkness which

and

made

heaven

visible;

filled with

TERRESTRIAL

GODS,

36. BRHASPATI.

103

and the darkness light; he found the Dawn, light, (10, Agni, and dispelled found the fort, he the Dawn, the Sun, the Cow 684' 9). In shattering (10, hid or the darkness and made visible the light (2, 24$; 675). He dispelled to comes acquire more general warlike traits. He 4, 5o4). Brhaspati thus full of riches and penetrated the mountain splitopen the strongholds of Sambara (2, 242). Brhaspati Angirasa, the first-born holy one, cleaver of rocks, bull at the two roars as a worlds, slaysVrtras (prtrdni\ shatters forts,over foes (6, 731- '). He comes disperses foes and wins victory(10, 103^). No him in great fight or small overcome one can (i, 4o8). He vanquishes the in battle is in combats be He invoked (2, 23"). to (2,^313) and is enemy a praised in conflict (2, 249). priest much and Being the companion ally of Indra (2, 23l8. 24'; 8, 8515), he is invoked with that often is a somahe deity (4, 50 "c.). With Indra drinker like (4, 49^. 50*") and, him, is styled maghavan, 'bountiful' (2, 2412). he forms Indra, too, is the only god with whom a pair (2, 2412; 4, 49T~6). he comes Thus to be styled vajrin, 'wielder of the bolt' (i,4o8) and to be the bolt, the Asura-slaying described missile (AV. n, as^hurling lo1^). He is with the Maruts time also invoked Indra at the same as (i,40*) and is once he be Mitra, Varuna accompanied by the Maruts, whether besought to come Pusan he is said to have heard the prayer of (10, 98')- In one or passage in a well and Trita buried have him to delivered (i, 105*7). who offers prayer the Brhaspati favours the man (2, 251) but scourges of hater He the from all 23^). man (2, pious dangers prayer protects and and calamities,from curse malignity,and blesses him with wealth and of all desirable (i, 18^; 2, 231" I0). Possessed prosperity things (7, 10*. 97*), he is opulent, a procurer of wealth, and increaser of prosperity an (i, i82). is a prolonger of life and He of disease (i, i82). Having such a remover benevolent traits he is called a father (4, 5"D6; 6, 731)is asurya, 'divine' (2, 232), belongs to all the gods (3,624; 4, 5o6), He is the most and god-like of the gods (2, 243). As a god he widely extended and embraces all things (2, 24", cp. 8, 6il8). the to gods Mightilyhe holds asunder ends his roar the of the earth with (4, 5oT). It is his inimitable deed that sun and is also spoken of rise alternately(10, 6810). He moon t he of Later as growth plants (10, 97^- ^j. Brhaspati is brought stimulating into connexion with certain stars. Thus in the TS. (4, 4, lo1) he is stated to be the deity of the constellation Tisya9, and in post-Vedic literature he is regarded as the regent of the planet Jupiter. forms of the name occur Brhaspati is a purely Indian deity. Both throughout the older as well as the later books of the RV. But since appella tions formed with pati (like vacas pati, vastos pati, ksetrasya pati} to designate deities presidingover be must a as particulardomain, comparatively recent of this reflexion10, products mythologicalcreation can hardly go much further back than the beginning of the Rigvedic period. The of the accentuation word it to be an The member brhaspdti shows compound. improper prior in -as*1, but the form noun might possibly be a neuter contemporaneous brdhmanas indicates that the poets of of explanation, is a kind pati, which the RV. of a noun root as regarded it as the genitive12 brh, from the same
t

10-

IX

brahman. The
was
an

evidence

adduced

above
as

seems a

to

an originally

aspect of Agni

divine

vis'dm

(unlike other epithetsof pati, grhapati, sadaspati)had attained the beginning of the Rigvedic period, though

aspect which

Brhaspati devotion, priestpresidingover with pati, such as Agni formed


favour that
an

the

view

independent
connexion

character

by
was

the

with

Agni

104

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

not

severed. entirely

LANGLOIS^,

H.

H.

WILSON

I4, MAX
was

MULLERXS
of

agree

in

sacerdotal
KAEGi17 has
a

Agni. regarding Brhaspatias a god is a direct impersonationof varietyof


think deeds
of and

ROTH16

opinion

that this

OLDENBERGIS

him

to

be

of devotion. the power Similarly abstraction of priestly an action, WEBER


Z9

which
to

the appropriated

of earlier

gods.
lord

considers

Brhaspati

be

abstraction priestly holds

Indra,
to

and
a

is followed

Finally,HiLLEBRANDT21
of the As

him

be

in this by HOPKINS 20. of plants and a personification


of that been

moon22,
the

predominantly the igneous side representing to have divine brahman Brhaspatiseems priest,
the
chief of the -Hindu

luminary.
the

proto
of the

type of Brahma,
i

triad,while
of the
note

the

neuter

form

word, brahma, developed into the Absolute


Cp.
ZDMG. 32,

Vedanta 46, 190.


"

philosophy2^
"

316.

"

ORV. Maruts:
"

396,
ZDMG.

i; SEE.
I,

ORV.

382.

"

the they are 10. Maruts, Vedainterpretation ROTH


thinks
10.
"

ZDMG.

77.
"

i, 77.

8
ii

OST. HVM.
--

5, 283.
T4

"

9
"

72.
249.
16 19

--

i, 409.

Die Naksatra WEBER, " KZ. MACDONELL, 34, 292


i, xxxvii.
"

Stars, HVM. i, 416; 7 Cp. HILLEBRANDT, Vedaint. "" ZDMG. ROTH, 2, 371. i,
5
-"

6.

"

13

RV.

Trans,
-

i,

254. 578.

RV.
"

Trans,
*7

J5

Vedic 66-8. Tr.


2,

Hymns,
381"2;
ix; EDA.
22

SEE.

ZDMG.

i, 73;

PW.
2"

KRV.

32.

"

18

ORV. RV.

Vajapeya
23

15.

"

HRI.

136; cp. WILSON,


ZDMG.

32, 94. SEE. 46, 94. 21 xi. HVM,


"

i, 404.
-

418"9
BRV.

277); (cp.

cp. OLDENBERG,

49, BRV.

173."

Also

HVBP. KRV.
420.

46"7.
73"4; of the

136. i, 304; HRI. OST. ZDMG. ROTH, i, 72"80; LRF. HVM. BRI. 6; i, 404-25; 15
"

5, 272"83;

i, 299-304;

97"8;

PISCHEL, GGA.

1894, p.

" 37. Sojna. ritual of the RV. T,the


-

Since

the Soma is

sacrifice forms

the main

feature

god
114

Soma

one naturally

of the most

importantdeities
other

of

that Veda.
to

All

the

hymns

of

the ninth

besides

6 in

books,

are

praise. He is also celebrated in portionsof four or five other with Indra, Agni, Pusan, or Rudra, in about hymns, and as a dual divinity in compounds, occurs six more. The of Soma, in its simple form and name of times in the RV. the standard hundreds of frequency, Soma Judged by therefore of importance among third in order the Vedic comes gods. Soma less anthropomorphic than Indra is much or Varuna, the constant presence of the plant and its juicesetting limits to the imaginationof the poets who describe its personification. form Consequently little is said of his human
dedicated
or

his

action.

The

marvellous
common

and
to

heroic
almost other
to

deeds all the

attributed

to

him
or

are

either

colourless, because

greater gods,
the receive

else

only

secondarily belong
as on over

to

him.
to

Like
come

gods, he is, under


the

name

of Indu

well the the

as

Soma,

invoked
The

sacrifice and

the

offerings
sung

strewn

grass2.

ninth

book

tangibleSoma
strainer into
grass
to

while
wooden
as

it is

mainly pressed by the


in

consists of

incantations

woolen

the

vats,
a

which

stones, flows through the it is finally offered on a

litter of
IX

in fire (i,9414; 5, 51; beverage, sometimes which The it is subjected "c.) or drunk to 8, 43 by the priests. processes overlaid with the most are varied and chaotic imagery and with mystical fancies often incapable of certain interpretation. In order to make the mythology of Soma, the basis of which intelligible the concrete terrestrial plant and are the intoxicating juice extracted there from it is necessary describe these as well as the treatment to briefly they undergo. The part of the Soma plant which is pressed is called ams'u, 'shoot stalk' (9,672b).The or shoots swelling with their udders give milk like cows from the stalk,the whole Soma (8,9T9).As distinguished to be plant seems intended andhas from by (8, 32*8; io,948 "c.),which is said to have come heaven (9,6i10) and to have been broughtby the eagle(5,459;9,686; 10,1445). The same is applied to the juice also3 and term Indu is distinguished from the god (9, 5 1 3; (which 10, 115^). The juice is also designated by soma

the

gods

TERRESTRIAL

GODS.

37.

SOMA.

105

means

the

plant

as

juice styled mada, 'intoxi with also referred to 'food' (7,98*; catingdraught'4. Soma is occasionally anna, with the Asvins term 8, 412; SB. i; 6, 4s). The madhu, which in connexion of 'sweet to be applied, in the general sense means 'honey' or 'mead', comes milk and but draught',not only to ghee (ghrta), especially to the (payas) Soma is the equivalent of Soma juice (4, 275; 8, 696). Mythologically madhu the latter means when celestial ambrosia the (amrta)s. Conversely, amrta is frequently used as an equivalent of ordinary Soma (5,23; 6, 373 "c.; VS. SB. is Soma when amrta 6, 34; pressed (VS. 19, 72). 9, 5, i8)6. King Another mead' 'Soma expression is somyam madhu, (4., 265; 6, 2o3). Figu the Soma juice is called piyusa (3, 482 "c.),milk (9, io712),the wave ratively of the stalk (9, 968) or the juice of honey (5,43 4). The most frequent figur ative name is indu, the of applied to Soma 'bright drop', another term similar meaning, drapsa, 'drop', less common. being much The extraction of the juice is generally described by the root su, 'to but 'to milk' (3, 366-? "c.). The 62* often also by duh "c.), press' (9, juice is intoxicating madhumat (i, 1253; 6, 17". 2o6) and 'honied', (9, 971*)- The latter expression simply means 'sweet',but as applied to Soma originally have with 'sweetened to meant seems honey", some pointing to passages this admixture (9, i78. 8648. 97". io920)7. As flowingfrom the press, Soma is compared with the wave of a stream called (9,8o5) and directly wave a of honey (3,47*). With reference (9, 64" "c.) or a wave to the juice collected in the vat, Soma is spoken of as a sea (arnava: 10, ii53) and frequently (samudra-. 5, 473; 9, 64" "c.). The as ocean is also called an heavenly Soma well a (utsa),which is in the highestplace of the cows (5,458), which is and placed in the cows guided with ten reins (i. e. fingers:6, 4424), or a well of honey in the higheststep of Visnu (i, i545). The colour of the plant and juice, as well as of the god, is described brown as (babhni) or ruddy (aruna\ but most frequently as tawny (Jiari). Thus Soma is the branch of a ruddy tree (10, 94^); it is a ruddy milked shoot (7, 981); the tawny shoot is pressed into the strainer (9, 921). The colour of the Soma is plant or its substitute prescribed in the Brahmanas which is the price paid in ruddy (SB. 4, 5, lo1); and in the ritual the cow the purchase 9f Soma, must be brown that is Soma's colour or ruddy because SB. 3, 3, i"4)8(TS. 6, i, 6J;
Soma

the

is called

well) and generally by and pitu, the 'beverage';

rasa,

fluid. In

one

hymn

(i,187)

it is often

is described

as

with purified

the

hands

(9, 8634), by
maidens who

the
are

ten

fin

(9, 84. i58 "c.), or, figuratively, gers by the ten i7. (9, 65), or by the daughters (naptt]of Vivasvat

sisters

the (9, i45). Similarly, maidens of Trita are said to urge the tawny with stones on one as a drop for Indra drink to is also (9, 322. 38"). Soma spoken of as purifiedor the it is said brought by daughter of the sun (9, i6. 72^. H33)9. Sometimes to be who The Soma purified by prayer (9, 9613. H35). are priests press Adhvaryus10 (8, 4"). The is crushed shoot with a stone (9, 6719) or pressed with stones the is (9, ic"710); plant pounded to produce the Soma draught (10, 853). The its skin (TB. 3, 7, I31). The lie on stones tear stones a skin; for they 'chew him the hide of the cow' the vedi on are (9, 794). They placed on altar (5,3i12): a practice differing or from that of the later ritual11. They held with hands are or arms two (7, 221; 9, 794; AV. arms i10). The n, and the ten fingers the the said Hence stones stone are to 434). (5, yoke be guided by ten reins (10, 948). Being spoken of as yoked, they are com

pared

with

horses

(10,946). The

usual

name

for

the

stones pressing

is adri

io6

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

used -with (generally with vad, to speak,or

the

verb

su,

to

verbs

of cognate

tendency
either in
also and
was once

to

than personification12

connected press) or grdvan (generally hence and meaning, showing a greater terms adri). Both nearly always occur

the

singular or

the

called respectively

The stones are plural,and not in the dual. bharitra as'na (3,367), (8, 22), (3,358) parvata The

parvata adrayah (10, 941).


the usual
mortar

pressingof
of the

Soma But

by
the the

means

of

stones

method and
to

in the

period

RV.

extraction

of

the
was

juiceby
the

already known
The

which is also sanctioned pestle, the RV. (i, 28T~4); and as this go back
to

by

ritual texts,

method

is in

use

among

Parsis,it may

the

Indo-Iranian
upon it

age.
10

strainer
he very of goes

poured pressed drops are of sheep's wool (9, 699). For


cleansed
to

(9,63
removes

"c.) and
Soma's This

pass

over

the
that

impurity,so
which strainer,
It is called
a

the

feast

of the

gods (9, 78*).


various
names. or (pavitrd),

is

frequentlymentioned, passes wool hair (romaii), (vdra\ (tvac],


the

under filter

skin

ridge (sdnu,
or

as

the top

formed

contrivance).All from sheep. am,


in this
or sense.

these The

terms

are am

used

with

without

word

itself is sometimes

ployed
pavamdna

pundna^

is mrj\ 'to cleanse'^ but also to strainer,

passing through the strainer Soma 'flowingclear' (from rfpu). The more of not only applied to the purification
As the

adjective em figuratively is usually called general term


an

Soma

with

the
The

addition

of

water

and

milk

(9, 86".

9i2).

but much called suddha, 'pure', juice is sometimes oftener sukra This unmixed Soma or ( 8, 3o2). s'uci, 'bright' 2TO; 9, 332; i, 5s. and is offered almost the t o Indra, exclusively Vayu epithetsucipa, 'drinking clear (Soma)' being distinctive of Vayu (p.82). This with the later agrees clear Soma is or ritual, where, in the Grahas draughts for dual divinities, with milk for offered to Vayu and is mixed but Mitra-Varuna, Indra-Vayu, and with honey for the Asvins1-3. After Soma flows into jars (kalafa,9, 6o3 "c.) or passing the filter,

(unmixed) purified

Soma

vats

buffaloes like
a

rush of Soma streams to (drona)**. The flies bird like the a (9,33*. 926); god

the
to

forest

of

the

vats

like

settle in the vats


the

bird

on sitting

tree, the

tawny
in the
the

one

settles in United
he rushes

bowls the the

(9, 31); (camu:


the

is mixed with water 9, 7 25). Soma stalk roars bull on Like a (9,745).
the

vat.

with
on

wave,

herd,

vat, into

roaring bull; clothinghimself in waters, Indu rushes around the vat, impelled by the singers(9, y65. icy26). The wise milk him into the waters and with their hands the wool over 794). (9, Having passed in the cleansed the Several he is maidens ten playing wood, (9,65). by other of water with Soma (9, 305. 534. 868-25). passages refer to the admixture The Soma said to spread brightnessin the streams (9, 761). drops are Besides the verb 'to which is the used to cleanse', mrj\ commonly express admixture of water (e.g. 9, 6317),a-dhav, 'to wash', is also employed (8, i17). In the preparationof Soma, the pressing then the mixing comes (~\/~su) first, with water later ritual the the in (7, 326; 8, i17. 318; AV. as just 6, 21), is the bowls Soma In the 'pressure', precedes ddhavana, 'washing'. savana, mixed with milk (9,86 "c.)15,which is said to sweeten l6. In several it (8,23)
lap
the

of

waters,

the addition of both water and milk is mentioned. passages that Soma clothes himself in waters, that streams of water
when he

Thus

it is said after

flow

him,
press

desires to
him

clothe

himself him

in

cows

(i.e.
2,

milk:
as

9,

23-4). They
9, 86?4-5.

him with stones, theywash


men

in water,
the RV.

him clothing
cp.
as

it were

in cow-garments,

milk

out

of

the

stalks

(8, i17;

36'; 6, 4o2;
three

96^).

recognised (trydtir: sour 5, 275), with milk (gavasir),


in

Soma

is

milk

having and barley(yavd(dadhydsir],

kinds

of

admixture

io8

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

The into the

sound
vats
or

made

by the

Soma

juice as

it is
It is

and being purified

rushes

(9,4 13).
is said is
to

But flow

the

to. compared bowls, is often language is generallyhyperbolical.Thus

referred

with
the

that of rain
sweet

drop
noise

over

the

filter like the

din of combatants

(9,69").

The

bellow (krand, or constantly designatedby various verbs meaning to roar verb 'to Even the thunder',is used stan, nad, md, ru, vas: 9, 9i3. 954 "c.). stalk' (9, 869) and the wise are described as 'milkingthe thunderingunfailing with connected the in also is verses some purification (9, 726). Lightning
of Soma of

(9,4
the

13. So1. 843.

8;8); this
and may he

in all
have

alludes probability
referred
to

to

the

purifi
of

cation the

celestial Soma is said to


'As
a

the

phenomena

thunderstorm28.
When Soma bull. and
roar

is

commonly
in the wood'

called
bellows
out

bull

he

bellows

compared with or directly (9, 73); 'the tawny bull


with
to
or

shines
are

milk,29 usually that

(9, 26). As the waters, added relation of Soma the called cows, figuratively
with the Sun'
bull the
a

with is

them

of

to
cows

cows.

He

is

bull

967)
cows

or

is lord
or

of

(9, 724).
the He The

He
cows

among bellows like

the
a

cows

bull
cows

(9, i66. 69! the traversing


also
as

(9,7 19)
him
the

like

bull towards

the (9,7i7),
as

bellowing
earth

towards
and

(9, 8o2 "c.).


(6,4421)-

is the

bull of heaven Soma

well

of the several

streams

impetuosity of

is also

times

he even comes to comparison with a buffalo (mahisd). Thus the cow-waters, animal (pas'u:9, 8643). Being a bull among Soma is the fertilizer of the waters (10,368, cp. 9, i95). He is also (9,8639) in the an an epithetespecially applied to the moon impregnator (retodha), of fertility YV. he is a bestower (e.g. MS. i,69).Hence (9,6o4. 745). Soma being so frequentlycalled a bull (uksan, vrsan, vrsabhd) is sharp-horned in the RV. is an (tigmasrngd), epithetwhich in five of its six occurrences word drink (manthd) of meaning 'bull'. Thus the brewed accompanied by a Indra is like a sharp-horned bull (10, 86 IS). Soma is also said (like Agni) 3". to sharpen his horns (9, i54. 70?) Soma is swift (i, 47) and, in illustration of the speed with which the pressedjuiceflows, is very often compared with or designateda steed. Thus the ten maidens said to cleanse him like a swift steed (9,6s). The drop are which intoxicates Indra is a tawny steed (9,6317). Soma flowing into the is also sometimes vats to the wood compared with a bird flying (9,72$ "c). Owing to the yellow colour of the juice,the physicalqualityof Soma mainly dwelt on by the poets, is his brilliance. His rays are often referred and he is frequently to assimilated to the sun. He shines like or with the illustrated by be called an
sun or

clothes
sun

himself
stands

in its rays
above
sun

(9, 76! 8632; cp. 7i9).

He He

ascends

the

car

of

the

and rays

all

beings like

the

sun31a

fills heaven

and

earth

with

like the shine


to

his parents to Thus it comes it off with

(9,41 5). When (9, 93). The daughter


said of him
that
creates

be

light (9, 8622), or

brightson, he caused him of the sun (9, i6). purifies he combats the darkness (9, 97),wards the darkness bright light, dispelling
born

(9,6624. ioo8. io812 "c.). Its mysteriouslyexhilerating and that of action, surpassing invigorating ordinary food or drink and prompting to deeds beyond the natural powers, led to Soma life. immortal being regarded as a divine drink which bestows Hence it is mythologically called amrta, the draught of immortality.It is an immortal stimulant (i, 84^),which the gods love (9,85") and of which, when and mixed with milk, all the gods drink (9,109*5); for they pressed by men hasten to exhileration (8, 2l8)and is become exhilerated (8,58"). Soma immortal (i,439; 8, 4812; 9, 3T "c.)j and the gods drank him for immortality

TERRESTRIAL

GODS.

37.

SOMA.

109

confers (9, io68). He immortality on the gods (i,gi6; 9, io83) and on men and imperishable He (i, 9 11; 8, 483). places his worshipper in the everlasting world where him there is eternal light and immortal where glory, and makes

king

Vaivasvata Thus Soma

lives

(9,ii37-8)32.

also. for a It is medicine naturally has medicinal power sick man Soma the is Hence heals whatever sick,,making (8,6i17). god and the blind to see the lame to walk (8,682; 10,25"). He is the guardian bodies and of men's occupies their every limb (8,489), bestowing length of life in this world Soma (i, 9i6; 8, 484"7; 9, 46. gi6). The draught is even said to dispel sin from the heart, to destroy falsehood and truth. to promote imbibed When stimulates the voice (6,473; 9, 84"*.955. 9732)"which Soma his boat he impels as the rower the reason (9,95 2). This is doubtless why is called 'lord of speech' vdcas Soma pati^ (9, 264. ioi5) or leader of speech, vdco agriya or agre (9, 73. 6225~6. 8612. io610). He is also said to raise his voice from heaven (9,68s). In the Brahmanas 'speech',is described as vac, the price paid by the gods for Soma34. Soma also awakens thought eager 'We have drunk (6,473). So his worshippers exclaim: Soma, we have become have entered into light, have known the gods' (8,48 3). Thus immortal, we we he is also spoken of as a lord of thought and as father, leader, or gener a is a leader of hymns35. He of poets, a ator seer (9, 966). priests among He has the mind of seers, is a maker of seers (9,96 l8) and a protector of (6,523). He is the 'soul of sacrifice' (9, 210. 68), a priest (brahma) prayer the their share of sacrifice gods (9, 96"),and apportions to them among wisdom Soma's thus be to (10, 85 19). comes predominantly dwelt upon36. is a wise He knows the races of the gods (9, 8i2. 952. seer (8, 681). He is a wise man-seeing wave with intelligence (9, 782). Soma 977. io83). He is Hence he creatures (9, many-eyed (9, 265) and thousand71 9). surveys eyed (9, 6oT). Soma stimulated the Fathers to deeds (9, 96"); through him the Fathers found the lightand the cows is also said to be united with (9, 9739). Soma the fathers (8, 4813) or be accompanied by them SB. to (AV. 18, 412; 2, 6, i4, "c.), the Fathers, conversely, being called soma-loving,(somya: 10, i46; AV. 2, 125). The effect of the draught on exhilerating man was naturally transferred main the Soma offered. The to the gods, to whom was applicationof its is in his its Indra effect conflict with the intoxicating stimulating on power hostile powers of the air. That Soma for the strengthens Indra fight with in innumerable the of RV. 8i17 Vrtra, is mentioned (8, "c.). In passages the intoxication of Soma Indra and all foes resist no one can (9, i10) slays him in battle when he is the soul has it (6,47'). Soma drunk of Indra (9?"53), the auspicious friend of Indra (10, 259). whose vigour he stimulates he aids in slayingVrtra (9, 762) and whom (9, 6i22). With Soma as a com the waters and slew the dragon (4, 281). for man panion Indra made to flow Thus Soma is sometimes called the bolt (vajra) of Indra even (9. 727. 77* Indra's a in3). Soma, juice, becomes thousand-winningbolt (9, 473). It is the intoxicating is n forts (9, 482) and draught which destroys a hundred the god Soma Thus is said to be stalk (6, 17"). Vrtra-slaying intoxicating 'like Indra and a to a (9, 884) and comes slayer of Vrtras fort-destroyer' .receive half a dozen times which the pri epithet vrtrahan, 'Vrtra-slaying', marily belongs to Indra37. When drunk caused the sun to rise in heaven by Indra Soma (9,8622). So this cosmic the
sun

action
to

comes

to

be

attributed
caused

to

Soma

independently.
the

He

caused

shine

(9, 28s.

374),

the

of lights

sky

to

shine

no

III.

RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

K.UNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

(9" ^59), and produced the sun. to rise, impelled it, obtained
He makes

in and

the

waters

bestowed

(9, 42*) 38. He caused it, and


the
sun

caused the

the dawns and

sun

to

(9, 45) shine39. the found light(9,594) and wins light and (9, 35'). He lightfor them the sacrificial butter is spoken of as the 'navel heaven (9,32J. Just as even world the whole the which rests of immortality', on (4,581-11), conception of of that be extended universal dominion to a Soma to of comes being is 'lord of the who the who (9, ii32), performs quarters' (9, 8628-*9), great worlds actions of generating the two cosmic (9,901), of creating or estab and earth, of supportingheaven, and of placinglightin the lishingheaven
his
finds
sun

in worshippers participate

(6, 4423~4- 473'4)40-

in the with Indra conflict with Vrtra, intimatelyconnected He is a victor, Soma to be spoken of independently as a great fighter. comes heroic of unconquered in fight,born for battle (i, 9i21). He is the most victorious of the the fiercest He ever 6 6l6~7). terrible, (9,, heroes, conquers for his worshippers cows, chariots,horses, gold, heaven, water, a thousand reference his warlike boons to (9, 784), and everything (8, 681)- Without

Being

so

character, he

is constantly said
so

to

bestow

all

the

wealth
T

of

heaven

and

earth,food, (SB.
i,

cattle, horses, and


a can

called occasionally is,

treasure

6, 45). Soma

also

(9,45^. 49^. 52 (rayi: 9, 48^) or the afford protection from


forth

"c.). Soma
wealth foes of

himself
the

gods
He

(10, 257).

other deities but more goblins(9, 495) and, like some frequently, away is the only god who receives the epithetof goblin-slayer (raksohan). Soma is called a slayerof the wicked (9,286 "c.). In the later Vedic literature that Brahmans who drink Soma able to slay at a the statement occurs are (MS. 82)*1. glance 4, is said to have which like a Being a warrior, Soma (9, 96l6), weapons and in his hand hero he grasps which and terrible are (9,y62) sharp (9,613". he is said to have obtained his weapons 9o3). In one by robbing passage with his malignant father of them armed a as (6,4422). He is described shaft bow his swift and is thousand-pointed (9,83s. 864") (9, 9o3). rides in the chariot Indra Soma same as (9,Sy9. 962. 1035). He is Indra charioteer to the car-fighter (AV. 8, 823). He drives in a car (9, 35), which has light(9,8645) or is heavenly (9,in3). He filter for his car a the is He best of charioteers He has (9" 83s). (9,6626). well-wingedmares of his own like Vayu (9,883). (9, 8637) and a team is naturally Soma sometimes with Indra's intimate associates, connected the Maruts. They are said to milk the bull of heaven (9, 108", cp. 54*)

drives

is attended Indra, Soma (6, 475) or the troop of the Maruts by (9, 6622). The Winds, said to be too, are (9, 3i3) and Vayu is his guardian gladdening to Soma forms (10,855). Soma a pair with Agni, Pusan, and Rudra respectively A few 128 times he is mystically indemnified with Varuna (p. 9). (9, 775. 954; cp. 733'9;8, 4i8).
to

and

adorn

the

child when

born

(9, 96*7). Like

the

Maruts

"

The

which

Mujavat'.

Mount 'produced on in the mountains as dwelling or (giristha)^ growing in the mountains44 (parvatavrdh: 9, 461). Mountains also called 'Soma-backed' are (AV. 3, 2i10), a term which, perhaps by sacri ficial symbolism, is applied to the stones (adraya/i)in RV. 8, 522. pressing All these terms the abode of the Soma to point plant being on terrestrial mountains of the (cp. especially 9,823). This is confirmed by the statement
mean

in the plant is once according to later statements42


Soma

Soma

RV.

(10,341)

described

as

maujavata,

would

is also

several

times

described

Avesta

that Haoma

grows

on

the mountains^.

Since

the

Soma

plant actually

TERRESTRIAL

GODS.

37.

SOMA.

in

of on mountains, it is probable that this fact is present to the mind grew 'on he that the heaven vault of the poet even when sweet-tongued says bull' (9, 8$l" cp. 954). Terrestrial hills may friends milk the mountain-dwelling has placed Agni in the waters, (5,852), or that 'Matarisvan brought the one (Agni) from heaven, while the eagle carried off the other (Soma) from the rock' doubt, as 'mountain' and (i, 936); but here there is more 'cloud' (p. 10). 'rock' mythologically often mean is a terrestrial plant, it is also celestial (10, n63); in fact Though Soma its true it is said that Thus are origin and abode regarded as in heaven. it has been the birth of the plant is on received high; being in heaven by earth (9, 6i10). The 'intoxicating juice'is the 'child of heaven' (9, 38s), an In one however, he is called epithetfrequently applied to Soma. passage, the offspring (9, 931) and in another Parjanya is spoken of (jdh) of the sun the father of the mighty bird (9, 82^ the AV. In the as origin ii33). cp. is also traced the seed of amrta of Parjanya (AV. 8, y21). When Soma to is called a child (sis'u) this is doubtless simply (9, 96 I7) or a youth (yuvan), in allusion to the fact that, like Agni, he anew46. is continually produced is the milk is Soma of heaven in heaven (9, "c.), purified (plyusa) 51 his dear with flows the heaven 86 He of stream to (9, 832. "c.). places the spaces with his stream (9, i28). He runs across through heaven (9,37). He (9, 859), is in heaven (SB. 3, 4, 3^), or is the lord of occupies heaven bird of heaven heaven earth and regards As he looks down (9, 86 II-33). on all beings (9, yi^). He stands like god Surya (9, 543). above all worlds The been the air,on heaven, from drops being purifiedhave poured from the surface of the earth (9, 6327)47; for he is a traverser of space (rajastur: him surrounded milk fon third rub with the ridge,in 4, 484. io87). Fingers realm heaven' the bright of (9, 8627). His place is in the highest heaven (3,3210; 4, 266; 9, 86'5) or in the third heaven (TS. 3, 5, 71 "c.)"8. 'Heaven', be of the strainer of to however, also seems a frequently mystical name This wool49. is spoken be the when Soma of as to seems sheep's case being 'on the navel of heaven, on the sheep-filter' (9, i24), as traversing the lights of heaven, the sheep-filter (9, 373), as running with Surya in heaven, the filter (9, 27$); or it is said that 'the bull has when on occupied heaven, the king goes strainer' (9, 859 cp. 868). The the term soaring over sdnu, is suggestive of divah sanu, 'the 'summit',so frequentlyapplied to the filter, summit of heaven'. Such would with be connected terms to come naturally the terrestrial Soma, because is the abode heaven celestial Soma of the or amrta (6, 4423). Soma has heaven been brought from (9, 6327.663"). The myth most this belief is and of Soma the that of commonly expressive eagle. It was bird from that highest brought by the eagle (i, 8o2). The brought Soma heaven mead (4, 266). The or (madhu) to Indra eagle brought the Soma swift eagle flew to the Soma (3" 437; 4, i813). The plant (5,45^); the eagle off the sweet tore stalk for Indra The (4, 20"). eagle brought it for Indra through the air with his foot (8, 71 9). Flying swift as thought, the bird broke he through the iron castle (cp. 4, 271), going to heaven brought the Soma for the wielder of the bolt (8, 8gs). The the bore eagle plant from from heaven afar, (9, 68". 772. 8624; 10, n*. 998. I444). The myth is most it is Gayatri, a and fullydealt with in RV. 275". In the Brahmanas 4, 26 of Agni 5 x, that carries off the Soma. In the RV. mystical sacerdotal name the eagle is constantlydistinguished from Indra the Soma to him. as bringing There is only one (unconnected with this myth) in which Indra seated passage also be intended when it is said
on

that 'Varuna rock'

the

sun

in heaven,

and

Soma

the

22

1 1 2

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

is called an eagle (10, 998). 'Eagle of heaven' is an offering twice said of the Maruts), the term otherwise epithetapplied to Agni (7, i54: with Agni Vaidyuta or lightning (TB. 3, 10, 51 cp. i2,i2), eagle is connected and Agni is often called a bird in the RV. (p. 89). On this evidence BLOOMof RV. interpretations subjectshis predecessors' 4, 27 to a search FIELD, who the much with explains carrying off of Soma plausibility by ing criticism, of the the of the simple phenomenon eagle as a mythological account and causing iron castle) of lightning, descent e. the dartingfrom the cloud (i.
at

the

Soma

the
same

fall of the time


he of

ambrosial
refers Soma
to
are a

fluid Soma
passage of

(i. e.
the

the RV.

water

of

the

cloud).
the

At

the

of fire and

mentioned

bably
as

mere

embellishment
away

the
a

eagle carried
feather

(i, 936) together52. A detail of the myth (pro added by the individual poet) is the trait that the archer KrsanuS3 shot at him Soma, knocking
in which descent
AB. 3,
a

out

(4, 272- 4;

Cp.

25).
feather

This
or a

trait is related
claw
a

with

greater
to

detail in the Brahmanas.


been shot off. The

Either
the

is here

stated

have
a

Falling to
tree

salyaka
xion

tree.

or ground, parna (palasa] s acred in character conne hereby acquired a specially

it became

with

the
the

ritual54.
most

been is said to have born as important of herbs Soma have Soma their also which said to as are king55 plants(9,ii42), receives the epithetvanaspati, 'lord of the wood' (9, 9718""9).He (i,gi6; is said to have generated all plants(i,9i22). In the Brahmanas 9, 127) and with Soma, connected (SB. 12,, i, i2)50. plants are being styled saumya of his is lord of like Soma other leading often, being Irrespectively plants, is also a king of rivers (9, 892), a king of the gods, called a king57. He earth whole 8610. 872. 109*) a king father of the gods (9, a king or (9,97s8), of gods and mortals and of Brahmans a (VS. 9, 40; TS. i,810; (9,9724), king MS. called is of course often he is a god; but in one passage 2, 69). He (a god pressed for the gods' (9,36described as ?). In the post-Vedic literature Soma which of the moon, is a regularname is regarded as being drunk is the and tillit filled so waning, gods up up by In the is again by the sun. Chandogya Upanisad (5,lo1) the statement found that the moon is drunk of the and is king Soma, the food gods, up

Being

the

lord

of

by them58.
is

Even

in the

Brahmanas

the identification of Soma

with

the

moon

that the moon already a common-place59. Thus the AB. (7,11) remarks is the Soma of the gods; the SB. (i, 6, 45), that king Soma, the food of the gods, is the moon; and in the Kausitaki Br. (7, 10; 4, 4) the sacrificial is of the plant or juice symbolical moon-god. The mythology of the Brah due the gods and manas to as already explains the phases of the moon Fathers consists of ambrosia60. eating its substance, which Soma, as the in is the YV. also lunar the daughters conceived the as asterisms, moon, having of Prajapati, for his wives61. times the AV., moreover, several In Soma the means of scholars moon (7,8i3'4; n, 67, "c.). A large number agree that even in a few of the latest hymns of the RV. tenth first and the (in Soma is the identified moon62. books) with of them, however, Most already hold that Soma as a god is celebrated in the Vedic hymns only as a per sonification of the beverage, regarding his identification with the moon as the of merely a secondary mythological growth6-3. The most important in which the identification is generallyadmitted,is that which de passages scribes the wedding of Soma and the sun-maiden Surya (10, 85)64. Here Soma is spoken of as 'in the lap of the stars', and it is said that no (v.2), of that Soma one eats which the priests know and which is contrasted with that which of the moon they crush (v.3). The Soma nature being referred

TERRESTRIAL

GODS.

37.

SOMA.

113 it cannot

to
a

as

secret

known The

to Brahmans

only, shows
which the

that

yet have

been

popular
with

notion. the
moon

lesced

by process difficult to is not

celestial Soma
Soma

understand.

continuallythought of as celestial and bright,sometimes the and other hand, it is very often swelling in the waters; on would there called a 'drop',indu (6, 4421)65. Comparison with the moon in is said in the Thus Soma bowls itself. to fore easily one suggest passage in in and like the moon the waters another, (8, yi8; cp. i, I051); appear the drop (drapsd] which Soma as looking being described goes to the ocean, is generallyadmitted with the eye of a vulture (io;i238), to allude to the moon. HILLEBRANDT, however, in his Vedische Mythologie not only claims this
hand,
darkness

gradually coa the one is, on as dispelling

identification for
the

number

of

other

the whole of the ninth book Soma (p. 309) and nowhere in fact being a book of hymns to ordinary plant (p. 326), the ninth book he in earliest well latest the the the moon66. as as maintains, Soma, means, hand, and, plant or juice on the one parts of the whole RV., only the Soma the other a on as deity,only the moon (pp. 274. 340. 450). According to his view, the moon and is a receptacle of Soma is the god whom amrta or when he which is part of the the the worshipper means draught, presses ambrosia. HILLEBRANDT this lunar further than even complete iden goes

in passages is the moon

the RV.,

but

asserts

that

in

tification of Soma

and the

the

moon

in the RV. of Vedic

He

also and

asserts

that

the

moon-

(p. 277), being the and ruler of the world much than the sun creator more (p. 313), while Indra is the most popular Vedic god only next to the moon67 (p. 315). In oppositionto this hypothesis, it has been argued that, in the vast in the RV., the character of the god as to Soma majority of the references of the plant and On the other a juice is clear and obvious. personification while the identification Soma is of and the hand, moon perfectly clear in the later literature, there is in the whole of the RV. no single distinct and explicitinstance either of the identification or of the conception that the is the food of the gods. It is only in passages the brilliance where moon of Soma, so with connected is the constantly vaguely expressed, that sun, references the moon to be found. At the same time it is possible that can chaotic details of the imagery of the amid the Soma hymns, there may and the moon. Here occasionallylurk a veiled identification of ambrosia
as

god

Soma

forms

centre

belief

cult

and

there

passages such

the celebrating notion.

luminous
a on

nature

of the with

Soma

or

to referring

his swelling (apyayana), which


may allude
to
a

affords But

parallelto the whole,

swellingof
the few

the late

moon,

certain that to the seers be to generally admitted, it appears is a of the terrestrial plant and god Soma personification juice68. It is, moreover, in whose hardly conceivable that all the Vedic commentators, and the moon believed should be know that day Soma to were not one, RV. the Soma
means

tions

excep of the

the
an

moon

in the fact in
on

RV. that

also69.

It is

undoubted celebrated

Soma,

the

Avestan

Haoma,

was

already
is the

prepared
described Avesta it
a on

and
as

the

Indo-Iranian
or

growing
to

the
a

mountains certain it is

period. In the RV. Soma a particular mountain; in


In the RV. Varuna

it is said the

rock;

on grow in the Avesta

mountain.

skilful

god.

In

the

RV.

distributed from
is

its native In both Soma

king

of

plants.
7".

placed on the great mountain it is brought by an eagle; in the Avesta mountain it In both by certain auspicious birds. it is a medicine which and gives health,long life,
it is in the

places Haraiti by

removes

death. The

As

Ardvi-sura
Indo-arische

grows pressing and


1 A.

waters,

so

Haoma
was

in

the
an
Q

waters

of

offeringof Soma

already

important

Philologie, III.

ii4

in.

RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

feature
to

of Indo-Iranian

worship.
are

But

while

three

dailypressingsare
(Yasna
10,

referred In both

in the

RV., only
that
was

two

mentioned

in the

Avesta

2).

it is stated
and

the

stalks

(amsu
milk

dsu}

were

yellow and the terrestrial, from is distinguished of Soma it is home the mythical heaven, whence sacrificial h ad the both the Soma fire) draught (like is vrtrahan, god and is called a king. As Soma
10, the

mixed

with

(Yasna

pressed, that the juice was 13). In both the celestial Soma beverage from the god. In both
comes

down

to

earth.
a

In

already become
so are remove

mighty

Haoma

is verethrajan the machinations


Both in the

and
=

casts

missiles (vadare
and

Vedic
=

of the

hvaresd] wicked,
names

wise

(sukratu

bestow

victoryover
preparers

vadhar). Both hukhratii). Both foes, and confer


The RV. and

lightwinning (svarsa
celestial world.
Avesta
even

the the and

grant steeds
the
one

and

excellent

children.
of

agree
on

of and

ancient

Soma,

Vivasvat

Trita

Aptya

The belief Vivanhvant, Athwya, and Thrita on the other71. of which d ivine the home be was an beverage, heaven, may intoxicating have been If it of must regarded as a kind Indo-European. honey-mead so, As. medii) brought down its guardiandemon to earth from mddhu, Gk. jxsftu, (Skt. by an eagle (theSoma-bringing eagle of Indra agreeingwith the nectar-bring ing eagle of Zeus and with the eagle which, as a metamorphosis of Odhin,

hand,

in

Indo-European, was but have survived into replaced in the Indo-Iranian period by Soma; may the Vedic period,by amalgamating with Soma73. Soma Haoma means Etymologically 'pressedjuice', being derived from the root 'to su hu, press'.
or
=
"

carried

off the

mead)72.

This

madhu

honey-mead,

if

i
=

OLDENBERG,
SB. 32,
12,

ZDMG. 7,
-

42,

241.

"

BRV.
"

i,
5 8

182.

"

HVM.
"

i, 47.
6 9

"

4 Anna

sura

38;
-

ZDMG. ORV.
12

301.
10
"

I, 264. cp. HVM. HVM. i, 243"4.

HVM.

i,

518.
-

KHF. cit.
i,
--

128 182.
15
"

389.
"

HILLEBRANDT,
-

Op. cit. 16. Vedainterpretation


" " -

28.

Op.

468 ff.;
"

ir

HVM. 141. cit. 229.


22

J3 Op. cit. 206 Op. cit. 151. 7. 16 LRV. 17 HVM. I, 186. 3, 378"9. 20 cit. 195. Op. cit. 256, note 3.
" -

14

WINDISCH,
210.
"

FaR.
i*

HVM.
'9

i,
21

Op.
"

Op.
"

Op.

cit. FaR.

189.
140.

LRV.
25

5, 260. i,
"

23

Otherwise 129.
"

HVM.
142.
27

i, 392"3.

24

WINDISCH,

pyS.

87"8;
26

KHF.

123"4. in i, 399;
29 31

1894,4. 13227; KZ. I, 521 ff.; GGH. 70. 115; WVB. 28 BRV. Op. cit. I, 170; lightningis associated i, 165.
"

HRI. rain
-

with 7, 470.
moon.

5, 843;
-

7,
3"

56^3;
HVM.
I, 601.
"

10, 915 i, 340


"

BRV.

I, 204. References in HVM.

BLOOMFIELD, 5, 834; thinks the horns those are


cp.

AJP.
of the 192.
10,
"

"

32

KRV.

i,

185;
"

HVM.
35

i, 349.

34 note

ROTH,
2;
"

ZDMG. HVM.

308; BRV. 35, 687; WEBER,


note
"

I,

33

BRV. HVM. KHF.

IS.
i,

360;
"

i, 79-

BRV.

i, 300,

i, 403.

36 BRV.
"

185"6.
"

37

38 HVM. in HVM. 39 References MACDONELL, JRAS. 25, 472. i, 387"8. 41 ZDMG. 42 VS. i, 388. 7, 511. 7, 331. 375. 4o_Cp HAUG, ZDMG. 3, 61 and 43 Twice, Ap. oS. 12, 5, 1 1 ; YN. 9, 8; cp. AIL. 29; HVM. comm., i, 63 ff. 105;
"
"

"

also

said

of Visnu,
"

once

of

the

Maruts.

HILLEBRANDT, 44'Bergfroh', ROTH,


"

Veda-

45 On the habitat of the Soma plant, see interpretation 15. MM., 134"9; 42. Biographies of Words (London, 1888)222
" "

ZDMG.

38,

46

JRAS. 25,437.

47

WINDISCH,
TB. BRV.
I,

FaR.

140.

211;
1

I, 310;

353"60.
"

384;

3, 2, ii. Methode LUDWIG,


"

9;
52
a

3, 322

ff.; PVS.

in IS. 8, 31; VS. i, 23, 10 ZDMG. 5" ROTH, 36, 361, note 3. Revue de linguistique 18, 30. 66; KOULIKOVSKI, HVM. FaR. 149"55; BLOOMFIELD, i, 207"16; i, 278"9;
"

48 Also
49

6, i, 6i; Kath.
i,

HVM.

"

ORV.
-

180-1; WVB. 1894, p. 5. BLOOMFIELD, JAOS. 16, 1"24;


"

5i

Cp.
ORV.
to

bB.

176. 180
any
-

KHF. 130 f. 144 f. 172. 3, 9, 410; to thinks there is no reason connexion KHF.
between

see

natural
water
"

agent

in

the
-

bird,
53

or

assume

the 209;
-

Soma WVB.

and

the

of clouds.

Sp.AP.
"

224.

54

I59f.

170.
-

55 Cp. ZDMG. 56 HVM. 1894, p- 557 Op. cit. 25, 647. 4. I, 390, note 58 DEUSSEN, 317"8. 59 WVB. 1894, p. 16"7. System des Vedanta 415 ff. 60 HVM. 61 WEBER, Naksatra ZDMG. i, 296. 2, 274 ff ; OLDENBERG, 49, 470; Soma on dwelling with Rohinl, cp. TACOBI, FaR. 71, note; R. BROWN JR., Academy 62 HVM. BRV. 64 WEBER, IS. 5, 178 ff.; WVB. 42, 439. i, 269. "63 i, 1 60. 1894, p. 34; OST. ib. 49, 227; OLDEN 167"8; 5, 237; EHNI, ZDMG. JACOBI, 33, 66 ib. 478. 65 EHNI, 1. c. MM. BERG, AJP. 14, 491"3; Cp. BLOOMFIELD,
" "

"

--

"

"

"

1 1

III.

RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

with the genitive of that which is supported) used (almost exclusively frequently and other Indra of occurs once as an gods, independent name an epithet as other and deities Dhatr (7, Tratr, the 'Protector', 353). Similarly, along with Indra of and, in the plural,of the Agni or mostly employed as an epithet in five passages God' along independentlyas 'the Protector Adityas, occurs deities (i, 106"; 4, 555" 7; 8, i820; 10, i287). In ROTH'S with other opinion, also Bhaga intended and are Savitr especially by this god2. A 'Leader in one three times is invoked two or God' (deva netr) hymn (5,50) as a in life. guide to prosperity of this type, who The besides B. Tvastr. only deitybearing a name
"

Savitr

is mentioned

with

any the

frequency,

is Tvastr.

His

name

occurs

about

65 times
the

in the
as

RV., pretty
well
as

uniformly in eighth),but
to

the

family books

in (though rarely in

seventh
No

tenth.
No

hymn

is,however, devoted

his

oftenest relatively praise.

the

first and

part of Tvastr's
characteristic described
Tvastr
as

physicalform
him
to

is mentioned
an

except

his

arm

or

hand,

it is

being
once

of

hold

iron
to

axe

in his hand

yoking

his two

steeds

his chariot and


or

(8,293). He greatly shining

(6, 4719).
He is

is beautiful-armed
to

(sugabhasti\ 6} 499),
him and
3,

beautiful-handed

predominantly applied (supdni\


a

skilful workman
an

(i, 859;

Savitr). 5412),producing
the
most

various

objects

showing
versed
to

the

skill of

artificer. He

is in fact

craftycontrivances (10, 539). He is several (ytaks) the bolt of Indra. He also sharpens the iron axe formed of Brahmanaspati (10, 539). He a new (i,2o6) which contained cup the food of the asura (i,no3) or the beverage of the gods (i,i6i5; 3,35s). vessels of which AV. thus possesses the gods drink (10, 539). The He out him full bowl describes old of as an man a (9, 43" 6) wealth, bearing a cup From he of Soma. Tvastr the swift horse was and produced (VS. 29, 9), givesspeed to the horse (AV. 6, 921). The RV. that Tvastr all beings with form adorned further states (10, in He womb and the all the is of the forms, no9). developes shaper germ and animal (i,i889;8,9i8;10, i84x). Similar statements human are frequently made he is characteristically in later Vedic texts a (AV. 2, 26% "c.), where of forms creator (SB. n, 4, 33; TB. i, 4, 71)3.He himself is called omniform fashioner of living As (visvarupd)oftener than any other deity in the RV. he and bestowing is described as forms, presidingover generation frequently and wife he is said to have fashioned husband (3,49 "c.). Thus offspring for each other from the womb (10, io5; AV. 6, 782). He has produced and nourishes a great varietyof creatures (3, 5519).Beasts belong to Tvastr (SB. universal is indeed a father,for he produced the whole 3 7) 311- 8, 3"). He world (VS. 29, 9). He is also the ancestor in so of the human far as his daughter race wife of becomes the mother of the Saranyu, Vivasvat, primeval twins Yama and YamI said to be his son-in-law (io, ly1- 2, cp. 5, 4213). Vayu is once (8, 2621). Tvastr begot Brhaspati(2, 23*7). Agni produced by the ten fingers, is the offspring of Tvastr and Earth, the (i, 952), who, along with Heaven the him and inferred is It to be Waters, (io, 2?. 469). Bhrgus, generated that Tvastr also the father of Indra (p.57). Tvastr is especially was a guardian of Soma, which is called 'the mead of Tvastr' (i,ii722). It is in his house that Indra drinks Soma and presumately steals it,even slayinghis father in order it (p.57). The to obtain has a son 'omniform' Tvastr named Visvarupa is directed The is a guardian of cows. of Indra (the Omniform), who hostility in order these win to against the son just as against the father in cows,
in
have

skilful of workmen, times said (5,3i4 "c.)

fashioned

ABSTRACT

GODS.

386.
Even

TVASTR.

117

order with

to

gain possession
at

of the Indra

Soma.

Tvastr and is

himself is said to tremble


inferior
to

fear

the

wrath

of

(i, So1*)

he was not even as Indra, inasmuch by Indra TS. had son (2, 4, I21) tells (10, 4910). The assist slain by Indra, refused the latter his sacri allow Soma been to to at and drank off the Soma often by force. The Brahmanas fice,but Indra came relate a similar tale (SB. i, 6, 36, "c.). in the womb4, of his creative agency Tvastr is closely Probably because wives allied with the of the celestial females (gndh, janayak) or gods, who his most mentioned are (i, 229 "c.)5. Tvastr is chiefly frequent attendants with gods of cognate Pusan, Savitr, Dhatr, Prajapati. 'Savitr' is indeed activity, attribute of Tvastr in two the an (3, 5519; 10, io5) in which occurs passages identical savitd collocation devas tvastd visvarupah^^ 'god Tvastr, the omniin both form and the generativeor of which creative faculty of the vivifier', the Kausika In to. deity is referred Sutra, Tvastr is identified with Savitr and in the and Purana, with Visvakarman Prajapati7, and Markandeya is the of twelve one Prajapati. In the later mythology Tvastr Adityas in the Mahabharata and is once and the Bhagavata Purana twice form or a of the The Tvastr's
sun.

represented as able to perform a feat done a Tvastr, whose story of how

RV.

adds

few is

rather said
to

which indefinite traits, be the first (i,

throw

no

lighton

i310) or the first-born who before As of the Angirases a (agrajd} and one (9, companion 59). goes he knows the region of the the to gods (10, 70^), goes place of the gods between earth is heaven and He of blessings (MS. 4, i49). (2, i9) a bestower is possessed of excellent and wealth is supplicated (10, 7o9. 92"). He to riches his and in their to to delight (7, worshippers hymns 3421). grant also confers Tvastr long life (10, i8"; AV. 6, 783). is derived from The word verbal root rare a tvaks^ of which only one nominal in the RV., and the cognate form, besides some occurs derivatives, is found of which, thwaks, in the Avesta. It appears in be identical to with which is the with used the name of Tvastr root meaning common taks, in referring of Indra's bolt. The to the fashioning meaning therefore appears
to

character.

He

be

the Tvastr

'Fashioner' is
one

or

'Artificer'.
obscurest members of the Vedic

of

the

pantheon8.

The

due obscurity of the conception is explained by KAEGi9 to Tvastr, like as and of gods who ousted were others, having belonged to an earlier race thinks Tvastr derived from by later ones; while HILLEBRANDT was a mythical tribes. Different explanations have been cycle outside the range of the Vedic Trita offered A. KuHN10 of Tvastr's

originalnature.
that he
meant

Owing
the him
sun,
as a

to

Tvastr
seems

being
later11 the year,

called
to

Savitr,
with

thought
him

but

have

drawn
BERG

this view. believes

LuDwio12
to

regards
a

god

of

while OLDEN-

be

I3. activity
sun,
not

HILLEBRANDT

a definite characteristic pure abstraction expressing holds earlier view KUHN'S that Tvastr represents the

to

be

probable14.
seem

HARDY

also this of the

considers

him
a

solar

deity15. It
to

does

indeed

unlikely that
creative
themselves

god,
sun's

in

period

anterior
was

the
case

RV.,
the

represented the Rigvedic poets

aspect
were

nature.

If such

the

of it. The only very dimly conscious name itself would have the of accretions illustrative encouraged growth mythical of creative skill,the desire to supply the pantheon with a regular divine artificer being natural in the same it was supplied with enough. Much way divine priest in the person a of Brhaspati. The of Tvastr has been explained as the 'bowl of the year' or the cup nocturnal conceived full sky. But neither of these could well have been as

1 1

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

of Soma
moon

and
is
more
i

drunk

gods. HILLEBRANDT'S (cp.p. 133). plausible


by
the
5,

of interpretation

it

as

the

OST.
12,
s.
v.

395"6;
HRI.
"

V.

HENRY,
n. I.
"

Les
2

Hymnes
ROTH,
5, 229.
"

AJP.
PW. Omina
i,

429"44;
tvastr.

209, Ibid.
"
"

5
"

OST.
8

Rohitas, Paris 1891; BLOOMFIELD, WC. 3 Cp. PW.; 9" 10. cp. GW.; 6 ROTH, Nir. Erl. 144. 7 WEBER,
"
" "

und
"

Portenta
"

391 109. 30"1. IF.

2.
"

GGH.

113"6.
"

9 J3

KRV. ORV. BRI.

note

131.
"

"

10

KZ.
i,

448.
"

KHF.

12

LRV.

3, 333"5Kultur

233.
22;

HVM.

517.
HVM.

15

HVBP.

ZDMG.
I,

I, 522;

513"35;

GEIGER, Ostiranische i, 8; EHNI, Yama


"

304;

BRV.

4"16;

OLDENBERG,

SEE.

3, 38"64; 46, 416 f. 248.

A few other abstract deities originating Prajapati. the supreme and all representing in compound god who was being epithets in the RV. the found As the end of the Rigvedic period, are evolved at the and five RV. times in Visvakarman of a god occurs only name always Two whole to his praise. in the tenth book. hymns (10, 81. 82) are dedicated attribute once word also occurs The as an (8, 8y2) of Indra and once (10., is the It Sun allnot uncommon of the as an as creating'. adjective i7o4) it also appears attribute of Prajapati an as in the later Vedas, where (VS.

"39. Visvakarman,

12,

61). The

two

hymns
as

of the

RV.
a

describe

Visvakarman and

thus.

He

is all-

seeing,having
this the Brahma

eyes, of later

well

as

face,

mythology, who

side. feet, on (In arms, every is four-faced and four-armed, resembles

father. He our provided with wings. He is a seer, a priest, of speech (vdcas pati}, swift as thought, beneficent, the source and he alone knows all places and their all prosperity. He beings, gives the highest is wise and energetic, to the gods. He names apparition (paramd samdrk). He is an establisher (dhdtf) and a disposer (vidhdtr),having pro the earth and that the word disclosed the sky. It seems duced was likely in the but later first attached the to as an at Rigvedic epithetchiefly sun-god, of the almost names one given to the one god period became synonymous then being tentatively was evolved, and (10, Si3) the conception of whom who as Visvakarman owing to the name, mainly thought of in his archiwas, in the Brahmanas techtonic aspect1. Visvakarman is expressly identified with the creator (SB. 8, 2, i10. 3^, cp. AB. 4, 22). In post-Vedic times Prajapati conceived the artificer of the gods. he was as of the RV. in one Prajapati occurs (4,532) as an epithetof passage is spoken of as and prajdpati of the Savitr, who a supporter of heaven world2, and in another, as an compared with Tvastr and epithet of Soma

him.)
a

He

is also

is

lord

of

Indra

(9, 59). Otherwise

the

word

is found
The

four

times

as

the

name

of

is invoked (10, deity, always in the tenth book. god Prajapati is besought, along with Visnu, 8543) to bestow abundant offspring (prajdui}, Tvastr, and Dhatr, to grant offspring (10, 184*), and is spoken of as making As cows a prolific (10,i694). livingbeings protector of generation and his

distinct

Prajapatiis praisein
verse.

also the

often

invoked

in the AV.3

In

the this

one name

hymn
only
heaven

devoted

to

RV.

(10, 121), he is invoked


he all
one

by

in the last

In

this

hymn
and of

is celebrated that

as

the
was

creator

of

and the
one

earth,
lord
one

of

the waters

lives; who
of all

born

(jdtd)as
and the

(pati}of god above


established
embraces

all that

is, the
and
arms

king
who

all that

breathes and

moves,

the

the with
name

gods;
his

whose

ordinances

beings

heaven

earth;
the supreme

traverses

whole

world

and

in the space all creatures.

gods follow; who atmosphere; who


Here

is Prajapati
once

the clearly

of he

the

god. Though

only mentioned

in the

RV.

in

this

Brahmanas, n, i, 614; TB.

in the AV. in the and VS., and is commonly regularly sense, the is He the of the chief father recognized as gods, (SB. god.

8,

i, 34

"c.), having existed

alone

in

the

beginning (SB.

ABSTRACT

GODS.

39.

VIS'VAKARMAN,PRAJAPATI.
as

40.

MANYU,

SRADDHA.

119

(TB. 2, 2, 2^)4. He is also described is identi the first sacrificer (SB. 2, 4, 41; 6, 2, 31). In the Sutras Prajapati as fied with Brahma (AGS. 3, 4, "c.). In the place of this chief god of the later Vedic theology, the philosophy of the Upanisads put the impersonal the universal the Absolute. soul or Brahma, of his A (4, 212) of Prajapati myth is told in the MS. being enamoured transformed herself into a gazelle;whereupon he trans She daughter Usas.
2,

41).

He

created

the,Asuras

well

formed his did the


seem arrow

himself
at

into

the

him,

when

not

shoot

(cp.RV.
(AB.
3,

corresponding male. Prajapati promised to io,,6i7). The story


33; SB. of
to i,

Rudra make

incensed him lord

at

this aimed if he
to

of beasts referred

is several

times

in

Brahmanas
to
a

7, 41; PB. RV.

be

two

passages
seems

the

basis of this myth 8, 2IO)s. The in the incest which (i, 7i5; 10, 6iS~~7) his

of

father

(who

be
an

Dyaus) with
archer
verses

daughter (here apparently the


10,
121

Earth)
In

is referred the
to

to

and of the

is mentioned6. of RV. the Who ? supreme The

refrain
as

first nine

god

interrogative answer Ka, pronoun all beings. This Prajapati alone embraces later led to the employment of Ka not only as an epithetof Prajapati(AB. but used o f as a 227), god (MS. 3, 12$). In by itself, the supreme name, 3, is identified the TS. Ka with Prajapati7. (i, 7, 66) expressly the In first verse of RV. the supreme god is referred to as 10, 121 the 'Germ lord of what of Gold', the one exists. This is Hiranyagarbha, in the the it of the but is several mentioned name RV., only occurrence times in the AV. literature of and the the Brahmana period (cp.p. 13). of the AV. it is (4, 28) where Hiranyagarbha is also alluded to in a passage stated that the waters it was as born, produced an embryo, which was being in the In TS. is a enveloped golden covering. ex (5, 5, i2) Hiranyagarbha pressly identified with Prajapati. In the later literature he is chiefly a desig nation of the personal Brahma8. by
the

is referred

unknown

given

in

the

tenth

verse,

is that

OST.
14, 4,

4,
"

5"n;
3

5, 354-55
See
12, PW.
s. n. v.

AJP.
OST.

493. 45;
"

WC. 80"5; prajdpati.


"

SPH.
4

33-40.

"

Cp. BLOOMFIELD,
i.
"

Cp. OST.

5, 80"

ASL.

529;

FaB. WVB. DELBRUCK, 1894, p. 34; GELDNER, 24; 6 FaW. 21. 7 SPH. SEE. 46, 78 f. Cp. BRV. 2, 109 f.; OLDENBERG, 27,11.2; 8 ASL. ASL. SEE. 12, 8. 569 f.; OGR. 18; 433; IS. 2, 94; 4, 15 295; OST. 1. c. GELDNER, 5" 352- 355; WC. i; HVM. 141"2; i, 380, n. 50 i; HRI. i;
" " "

SEE.

284,

"

40.

Manyu,

Sraddha
nouns.

"c.

--

We

have
a

yet

to

deal

with

the

deifica

Manyu, personification Wrath, suggested chiefly in two by the fierce anger of Indra, is invoked (10, 83. hymns of the RV. is of irresistible might and 84). He self-existent. He glows like fire,is a is Indra, Varuna, Jatavedas. He god; who slays Vrtra, is accompanied by the and bestows wealth. with like United Maruts, grants victory Indra, and foes. One short Tap as, Ardour, he protects his adorers slays their, the Faith1. hymn of the RV. (10, 151) is devoted to praise of Sraddha, She is said to be invoked and night. Through Faith fire is morning, noon, kindled and ghee offered. Through Faith wealth is obtained. In the Brahmanas Sraddha is the daughter of the Sun (SB. 12,7,3") or of Prajapati (TB. 2, 3, still further worked in the Epics and Puranas. lo1). Her relationships are out Favour twice in the Anumati, (of the gods), occurs as a personification RV. is besought to be gracious and She let her worshippers long see the sun (10, 596) and her protection is referred to (10, i673). In the AV. and VS. she becomes a goddess of love and presides over propagation. The
later ritual before connected her
2.

tions of abstract

with

the

day

full-moon

Aramati,

the regarding her as representing Devotion, Piety, is occasionally personified


moon,

120

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

in the RV.
earth
as

The
as

name

has

counterpart in the
the

Avestic

Armaiti,

geniusof
to

well

wisdom

3, but

can personification

hardly go

back

the

Indo-Iranian
two
or

period. Sunrta,
times
one

three

in

as a goddess Bounty4, appears to be personified is the RV. (i, 40^; 10, i4i2)- Asunlti, Spirit-life,

in personified

of the RV. (10,595"6J, being besought to prolong passage and nourishment5. Nirrti, Decease, Dissolution, lifeand grant strength appears death. about as twelve times in the RV. a personification presidingover

Other

personifications appear

for the first time Here

in the later Vedas. he

Kama,

is not, as in post-Vedic (9, 2; 19, 52). all desires. His arrows, with a literature, god of love, but a deitywho fulfils he pierceshearts, are which alreadyreferred to (AV. 3, 251). He is described

Desire, is deified in the AV.

as

the

first who
to

was

born
to

(AV.
the

(10, i294), is called 'the first seed of mind'6. Kala, Time, is personifiedas a cosmogonic force in the AV. (19, 53. 54)7, and of the A V. Skambha, Support, an abstraction postulatedby the speculation be the universe created by Prajapati, to comes to uphold praised as the Allgod (AV. 10, 82)8. Prana, Breath, is also deified and identified with Prajaof a like nature abstractions are pati (AV. n, 412 "c.)9. Other personified of found Fortune be in Sri AV.10 or as to a personification Beauty the, first appears in the SB. (n, 4, 31)11the RV.
i

probably (p. 13) of

be

traced

9, kama

2I9). The

originof

the
a

which 'desire',

in

conceptionis most cosmogonic hymn

519;
BERG,

Cp. OLDENBERG, 8, 770; 9, 690

ZDMG.
"

50, 450 f.
151.

"

ZDMG.

2;
"

Sp.AP.

200"3;

7, HVBP.

608; IS. 5, 229. 136. 91; HRI.


"

3
"

ZDMG.
4

7, IS.

OLDE*5, 4.

224; HVBP.

ZDMG. 5 But JRAS. 2, 460, n. 2. 50, 440. cp. MM., SPH. ZDMG. OST. 76"7. 17, 290; 14, 269; 5, 402; 8 SPH. " HRI. 88. SPH. 9 SPH. 209. 50"9; 35.
" " "

6
"

WEBER,
SPH.
"

"

78"82;
GGH.

14.

"

the as interpreted deity who, if rightly in the those treated of a pure like personification preceding abstraction, is not paragraph, occupies an anomalous positionin the RV. For the name collection. but occurs the limited to the latest portion, This would throughout be in which for by the peculiarmanner the personification accounted came Otherwise this to be correct. about, supposing the explanationoffered below have classed with abstractions of the epithettype (" 39). to be deity would The the subject of any separate hymn, but is often Aditi is not goddess celebrated in the her name incidentally RVV occurringnearly eighty times. alone with her Very rarelymentioned (8, i914), she is constantly invoked the Adityas. sons, She definite physical features. has no is often called a goddess She w ho is sometimes 'intact' (2, 4o6; 7, 4o4). She is widely (devi), styledanarva, She is bright expanded (5,46"), extensive,a mistress of wide stalls (8, 6"712). and (i, I363: otherwise said of Mitraluminous, a supporter of creatures Varuna and Earth). only),and belongs to all men (7,io4: also said of Heaven She is invoked and at morning, noon, sunset (5,693)1. Aditi is the mother of Mitra and Varuna (8, 253; io, 36^.1 326)as well as of called of kings (2, 27% cp. v. x), is the mother Hence she Aryaman (8,479). of excellent sons (3,4"), of powerful sons (8,56"), of heroic sons (A V. 3,8 3; of eight sons said to be the or i11), (10, 728; AV. 8, g21). She is once n, mother of the_ and Rudras, being the daughter of the Vasus (strangeto say) sister of the Adityas (8. 90^), and the AV. (6,41) mentions her brothers as well as her sons. In another of the AV. VS. 21, 5) she is (7,62 passage

"41.

Aditi.

"

There

is

one

invoked

as

the

great mother

of

the

devout,

the

mistress

of

rta" strong in

might,undecaying,widely extended, protecting, guiding.Such passages skilfully and the constant invocation of Aditi along with the Adityas,her sons, show

ABSTRACT

GODS.

41.

ADITI.

121

that

her

motherhood housewife

is

an

essential

and

characteristic
also

trait.
to

Her her

epithet
mother

pasty a,
hood. and of VS.

In mother

the of in
=

(4, 553; 8, 27^) may possibly Epic and Puranic mythology Aditi is the daughter of Daksa the gods in general, and expressly of Vivasvat, the Sun, and
dwarf 7, incarnation. She is said
to

allude

Visnu

his

be

the

wife

of

Visnu

in

(29, 6o
Aditi

TS.

514).
times

distress (amhas), and from spoken of as protecting but she is she is said to grant complete welfare or safety (10, 100; i, 94 15), release from to more (i,24*5), frequently invoked guilt or sin. Thus Varuna free from to guilt against Agni (4, i24), and Savitr (5,826), are besought sin and Varuna Aditi. Mitra, are Aditi, (2, 2714), Aditi implored to forgive bonds and to loosen (the of) sin (7, 93 7). Worshippers beseech Aryaman, sinless (i,i6222); prayingthat by fulfilling Aditi to make them her ordinances without sin towards be and be cut evildoers Varuna that (7, 877) they may may Aditi off from Hence other (10, 87l8). though gods, Agni (3, 5410), Savitr Heaven and Earth (4, 543),Sun, Dawn, (10, 35*' 3) are petitioned to pardon of releasing from it is much with more sin, the notion closely connected fetters that bind sinners Aditi and her son are characteristic, Varuna, whose unties sin like a rope and who and it (p. 26). removes This is nearly allied to the etymology of the name. notion The word aditi is primarily a noun 'bondlessness', from di-ti 'binding' meaning 'unbinding', derived from the root (= Gk. 5=-ai-c), da, 'to bind'. The past passive parti is verb describe 'bound' of this to ciple (di-td)to the employed Sunahsepa stake Hence Aditi is invoked her to release as a goddess (5,27). naturally worshippers like a tied (baddhd) thief (8, 6714). The original unpersonified of the RV. Thus seems to survive in a few meaning of 'freedom' passages 'who that back I to see a exclaims, worshipper gives us great aditi, may father and mother'? The Adityas are (i,241). besought (7, 5I1) to 'place the freedom (adititvef. The (andgastve) and offeringin guiltlessness poet and Earth for 'the the same he prays to Heaven perhaps means thing when and aditi also occurs unlimited secure gift of aditi* (i, 1853). The word is several several attribute
4,

times twice

in of

the

of sense adjectival Dyaus (5,598;10, 633)

'boundless'. and
more

It

is thus

used

as

an

frequentlyof Agni (1,94*5;


lent itself to the

i20; 7, 93; 8, i9"4).


The indefiniteness the of the
name was

would

easilyhave
recent

and identifications,

Aditi, the Waters, and Earth (10, immediatelyfollowing,the 'boundless' Sky (dyaur milk. Here there to supply the gods with honied fore she appears identified with the sky2. Elsewhere to be (1,72$;AV. 1 3,1 38) this identification is frequent Aditi seems identified with the Earth, and to be in the TS. and SB. of is given as a synonym In the Naighantuka the name in the of the of Heaven and Earth3. In earth, and, dual, passages many and Earth from Heaven RV., however, she is distinguished by being mentioned (i;8910)Aditi (io,63IO"c.)+. In another separately along with them passage 'Aditi is the Universal of Nature: a personification sky; Aditi is represents the the air; Aditi is the mother, and Aditi is all and gods and father, son; shall be the five tribes; Aditi is whatever has been born; Aditi is whatever born' (p. 1 6; cp. Katha Up. 4, 7). Though according to the older mythology of the RV. Aditi is the mother of Daksa as an Aditya (2, 271), she is in a cosmogonic hymn (10, 72*- s) said to be his daughter as well as his mother generation by the reciprocal
been born from

cosmogonic said to have the gods are In the verse 14). 63 2; cp. p. their aditi), mother, is said

conception speculations found in

naturallyaffected
more

by

mystical theogonic and


RV. Thus

the

portionsof

the

122

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

i A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

which

is of

notion
the

not

unfamiliar
book

to

the

RV.

(p. 12;
deities

(5". 645) be the mother of Daksa, but seems rather to be scarcely way of some of the leading him. subordinate to Though Aditi is the mother also. Thus she deities,she plays an inferior part in a few other passages her the with of Savitr sons Varuna, Mitra, Aryaman, celebrates, along praises (7, 38*) and is said to have produced a hymn for Indra (8,i214, cp. 5, 31$). luminous of the Adityas, Aditi is sometimes Probably as the mother for light(4, 25^, cp. 10, 36^), her im is asked with light. She connected is called the face of Aditi lightis celebrated (7, 8210), and Dawn perishable (i,ii319). OccasionallyAditi is referred to in general terms which might she is implored to protect or bless her wor apply to other deities. Thus and their cattle their (8, i86- 7; i, 43 2J. She is prayed to children, shippers, for wealth are (7, 40*), her pure, intact,celestial, imperishablegifts suppli cated (i, i853), and the large blessingsbestowed by the Maruts are com deeds of Aditi (i, i66I2j. pared with the beneficent of RV. the In some (i, I533; 8, 9ol5; 10, n1 "c.) as well as passages in later Vedic texts (VS. 13, 43. 49), Aditi is spoken of as a cow, and, in ceremonial the is commonly addressed Aditi5. Terrestrial cow as a ritual, Soma of Aditi (9, 96^); and milk is compared to the milk be only can of who the Soma meant6 by Aditi he flows to the vat as yieldsto daughter be a similar allusion when with their ten fingers (9, 693). There priests may the lap of Aditi (9, 261. 7i5). said to purifySoma are on review of the evidence indicates that Aditi has two A and only two

hymns

tenth
can

these

other cp. 10, go5). In two connected in such are a

that Aditi

prominent
of
a

characteristics.
of

The
name

first is her

motherhood.
a

She

is the

mother

metronymic formation from hers. group main Her second in conformitywith the etymologicalmeaning characteristic, of the name, of releasingfrom is her power the bonds of physicalsuffering and moral lead the name would on to her guilt. Mysticalspeculation being boundless identified with her a as or to plenty, styled cow, representing being gods
represents
the boundless

whose

earth, heaven,

or

universe.

But

how

are

we

to

account

for

so

of such for Aditi abstract idea, and in particular an early a personification ? BERGAIGNE? thinks the transition to Aditi's becoming the mother of the Adityas is to be found in such an expression motherhood as dyaur aditih,the 'bound less sky', the mother who with milk (10,633)- According suppliesthe gods and secondary adjectival to this view, the rare meaning 'boundless' would have of the sky,otherwise characteristically developed from being an epithet regarded into as does this explanation a an father, independent female deity. Nor for the to from seem account satisfactorily conception of Aditi releasing aditeh bondage. Another explanation is possible. The putrdh, expression of Aditi, several times applied to the Adityas in the RV., may sons in the Vedic 'sons of freedom' period have simply meant (like sahasah preputrah, 'son of strength': and describing a prominent qualityof Varuna p. 12) as Such the would lead an to gods. cognate personification easily expression^ of Aditi as mother. SavasT of Indra's evolved a wa? name as a Similarly mother in the RV. itself from his epithet'Son of Might' (savasah: p. 12) and Indra's epithetsacipati,'lord of might',later led to sad being personi fied as the wife of that god, the compound of 'husband as being interpreted Sacf. The of a metronymic Aditya, son formation tend to of Aditi, would the limitation of the group deified personification The comprising her sons. would with the original naturally retain a connexion meaning of existence free from all fetters, but would few additional assume a attributes, fluctuating such from the Adityas. As as mother of the leadinggods of some brightness,

124

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

E.

GODDESSES.

" 43. Goddesses.


Vedic
The

"

Goddesses

occupy

very

subordinate
rulers

positionin
of the world.

worship. They play hardly any part as importance is Usas, who judged by the statisticalstan any dard ranks as a deity of the third class (p. 20). But, unlike nearly all the share in the Soma received Sashe no offering1.Next to her comes gods, with the lowest ranks of class deities. A rasvatl (" 33), who, however, only in other few one Prthivi, hardly sepa hymn each. goddesses are praised short of three from rable stanzas (" 34). hymn Dyaus, is praised in one Like is also in invoked her sister one (10, 127). hymn Dawn, Ratri, Night, is She conceived the the of Heaven. she is called not as dark, daughter shines manifoldly with her eyes. Decked but as the bright starlit night. She she fills the valleysand with all splendour, heights, drivingaway the darkness home like her birds to their nests. with light. At return men approach and the the is invoked wolf She to keep away thief, guiding her worshippers to safety. Night probably became a goddess by way of antithesis to Dawn, she is invoked in several verses with whom as a dual divinity2 (pp. 48. 129). in is celebrated one (10, hymn Vac, personified Speech, 125 cp. 71), in all and she She the describes herself. which accompanies gods supports and Rudra's bow the Asvins. She bends Mitra-Varuna, Indra-Agni, against the unbeliever. Her She all place is in the waters, the sea. encompasses called and In of the another she is beings. (8,89IO"n) gods passage queen In the divine3. the Naighantuka (5,5) Vac is enumerated deities among
belief and
one

only

of

of the

atmosphere;

and

thunder,

or

mddhyamika

vac,

'the voice
,

of the

middle

in the nave (Nir. 1 1 27), may region', terminology of the commentators of about A Vac been the starting the point personification. legend frequently referred is that of Soma to in the Brahmanas being bought back from the Gandharvas the price of Vac into a woman transformed at (AB. i, 27). whose about nine times in the RV., is goddess of name occurs Puramdhi, with BhagaS, two three times or Plenty4. She is nearly always mentioned and also with Pusan and \vith Visnu Savitr,and once Agni. Parendi, com considered a goddess monly regarded as identical with Puramdhi, is generally of riches and abundance vesta6. Yast the in A HILLEBRANDT, (cp. 8, 38) is a however, thinks Puramdhi goddess of Activity7. Another goddess of

abundance

is D his is the the


cow. an as one

an

a,

mentioned

nearly

dozen

times

in

the

RV8.

I la,

Nourishment,
RV.)
from of

(mentioned less than a dozen times in the personification of and milk butter,thus representingplenty derived offering
Hence actual of Ida
name

the

is in the

Brahmanas cow; of
cow.

frequently connected
in the

with,
of

though
it
occurs

never

of, the

and

Naighantuka (2, n)
to

the

synonyms

Owing
and the

the

nature

the
As she

Ila offering
a

is called

butter-handed

(7, i68)
in

butter-footed

(10, 7o8).
in which

personificationshe
a

generally
the

usually forms
whether

triad with
or

SarasvatI

appears and

Apr!
or

hymns, by
the

Mahl

BharatR

It is doubtful

the literal
the
son

sense personified

is intended
of the
to

phrase ilayas
once

_pade, 'in
called
called

place
of

of

nourishment' is also
the herd

(i.e.
to

sacrificial fire). Agni is


the

the

Ila, clearlyin allusion


said
be and of

(3"299' I0)the
once

Pururavas

mother

(yutha]
Dadhikravan
the SB.

place of his production her son (10, 95l8). She is once with UrvasT connected (5,4i19).
the Asvins

She

is

mentioned

with

and she

in reference

to

the

morning (i, 8, i8; ii,


The
name

sacrifice (7, 44").


5,

In
as

is called

the

daughter

of

Manu
i, to

35)

as

well

of Mitra-Varuna
occurs

(1,8, i2?;
four

of

the

goddess

Brhaddiva

times

14, 9, in

427;ASS.

7?).
the

hymns

43Visvedevas. She is called

GODDESSES.

125 is mentioned with from Ila

mother

(2, 314;
to

give) is
of

Raka 5, 41 T9), SarasvatI mentioned only twice in the RV.

and

(10, 6410) and (5, 42"). Raka


as a

(probably
bountiful

Yrd,

rich and

goddess,

is referred others to in two (2, 327; 5, 42I2J. Sinivali is She sister of the (2, a hymns gods, broad-, 10, 184). 32; mistress of is the hipped, fair-armed, fair-fingered, prolific,a family, and with implored to grant offspring. She is invoked SarasvatT, Raka, as well as Gungu (who is only mentioned here). In the AV. (8, 46^) Sinlvali is the RV. called tion
a

who

is invoked

with

the

wife

of

Visnu.
a

The

later

Samhitas

and the

the
new

Brahmanas
moon10. moon,

also Raka the the

men

goddess
are

Kuhu,

personificationof
connected actual is

and former

Sinlvali

in later Vedic

texts

with phases of the

being
the is to A

the

presidingdeity
of
new moon.

of the There

day

of

full show

moon,

and

of latter,

first be

day

nothing to

that any

such

connexion

found few

in the

RV11.

in the RV. have goddesses occasionally mentioned already been referred of the Maruts to. Prsni, the mother (p.78) pre incidentally storm-cloud12. word is also used The sumably represents the mottled as an of speckled (cp. 7, io36-IOJ, in the adjective in the sense as an singular attribute of both in the bull and and which milk plural,of the cows cow, Soma for Indra to mean (i,84*"- "; 8, 61?. 710. 58^. It thus came 'speckled in the RV. cow', and finally occurs once 'speckled cloud'. Saranyu (10, if2) the of Tvastr's Vivasvat. The to as name most daughter, wedded likely which be that with identifies her the sun-maiden to seems interpretation The word also occurs four times Surya; or Usas, the Dawn^. as an adjec tive in the RV. meaning 'swift'. It is an ordinarySanskrit formation, derived with the suffix -yu from run), like caran-yu speed (]Ar, to sarana, other and others. Goddesses
as

wives

of
are

part in the Veda.


the representing

They

anything
from

about of

whom spouses is mentioned them

play an insignificant great gods similarly altogetherwithout independent character,simply such have had. gods as Indra must Hardly
but feminine their
names,

the

which Thus in

are

simply

formed

those

the

gods

with

the and

suffix -ani. also she


occur

Indrdm

is

simply

'wife of Indra'14.
Rudrani
ant

VarunanI till the

is not

found

Agnayl Sutras, but


of the called

the of the the

part in the cult than any Asvins is once in the RV.


the

other

plays a goddesses in AsvinI (= Surya:


to

RV., but rarely. decidedly more import


-dni^. The

the

wife of

gods' (devandm
an

patmti)

occasionallymentioned
them in

'wives p. 5i)x6. The in the RV. in have


the cult

Brahmanas

established

place assigned

apart from

gods (SB.
i

i, 9,

211)17.
Recherches
"

BERGAIGNE,
HRI.

sur

1'histoire de

la

liturgievedique,

p.

9.

2
"

OST. 39,

5, 191;

79 f.

WEBER,
142"3.
LXX; 23,

58"9;
1

WC.
ORV.

6, 19;
9;

85"6; 63.
25;

HRI.
"

IS. 9, 473 ff.; BRI. ZDMG. 16; OLDENBERG, 226. 4 PVS. BLOOMFIELD, 2, 202"16;
"

JAOS.
Sr.AP.

Cp. OLDENBERG,
4, ii; 2, 24554,
121
"

SEE.

46, 190.
SEE. Or.

6
"

DARMESTETER,
PVS.
I, 202;
"

Ormazd

et

Ahriman
"

SEE. BOR.

MILLS,

31,

25;
i,

207

COLINET,
WZKM.
de la

; Trans.

Cong. 1892,

396"420.
ire

7 HILLE-

BRANDT, Memoires
"

Vedica, 3, 188"94. 259 73; cp. also V.HENRY, 8 pyS. de Societe ling. 9. 2, 82 ff.; OLDENBERG,
"

WEBER,

156. 191. Cp. ROTH the opinions


12
"

BRV. 168"9; i, 325; KZ. 288; BAUNACK, 34, 563." i,


on

IS.

GGH.
"

51; 9,
M

ORV.
LVIII.
"

serie, p. iff., 2. 46, 120 238.326; SEE. 46, 11.


SEE.
"

ZDMG.

IS. 5, 228 172


"

ff.

"

Nir. his

10,

39,

p.

145.
are

"

J3

BLOOMFIELD,
"

JAOS.
172;
and the

15,

88, where

of

predecessors
"

stated.

ORV.

16 KRV. 15 ORV. n. 148; on 219. 32, 299. BRV. IS. 5, 178"89; PVS. 486; 2, i, 13"29; ORV. female divinities cp. HOPKINS, 17 On 241.
"

Surya
PAOS.

KZ. cp. LEUMANN, Asvins cp. WEBER, GGA.


p. CLXII;

OLDENBERG,

1889, 7"8;
on

1889,

Sarama

(above

pp.

63

"

4)

see

below,

" 62.

126

III.

RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

F.

DUAL

DIVINITIES.

".

44.
a

A number

peculiarfeature
of deities whose in

of

Vedic
names

pairs of
kind
of

mythology is the celebration in are joined in the form of a special


members
are

dual

compound

which
a

both dozen The

dual, accented,
enters

and

occasionally separable1. of the least sixtyhymns at


more

About RV.

gods
name

are

thus
Indra far the

conjointly praised in
into
seven or

of

than
"

half

of

these

combinations,
of several
to

but

hymns
about

and parts twenty-three,


Eleven
to
are

Mitravdrund,.
seven

dedicated
to

of largest number others is addressed, to the pair Indragnl, nine to Indrd-vdrund,

by

"

six Jndra-vayii,
one

two DySvd-prthivt,
e

each

to

Indrd-sdmd

and
nine

and Indrd-brhaspdti,

each A

to

I Indrdvisnii, other

Somd-nidrd,
or

and

Agm-sdmd.

few

ndrd-pusdnd,Somd-pusdnd, of couples, includingthe names

in detached invoked above, are verses. These are Indra-ndsatyd, Indrd-parvatd, Indrd-marutah, Agiii-parjanyd,Paror (less often) Ndktosdsd, jdnyd-vdtd (once Vdtd-parjanya), Usdsdndkta
ten

deities not

mentioned

Suryd-masd
There
was

or can

Suryd-candramdsa.
be littledoubt that the

analogy
and

for this favourite

formation

Heaven furnished Earth2, the pair which to by Dyavaprthivl, in nature, that the myth of connected earlythought appeared so indissolubly their conjugal union is found widely diffused among primitive peoples3 and the Veda from down has therefore probably come to a period anterior to that immediately preceding the separationof the Indo-European nations. In RV. that the itself this couple is so closely associated while they are invoked is devoted to the as a pair in six hymns, not one praise of Dyaus alone

and

only
to

one

of

three

verses

to

that

of

Prthivl.

So

hard

was

it for

the

poets

dissociate the rain of heaven

two,
from

that

even

in this hymn

Prthivl is

praisedfor send
occurs, other moreover, in

ing
occurs

the

her cloud

than frequently Dydvdksdmd cluding the comparatively rare synonyms about hundred than the name a times, or more frequently
much
more

the

(5,843). The dual compound, of Dyaus as a god. It name


and
of any

Dydvabhiiml,
pair.

Heaven
i,
a

and

Earth
to

are

i855, owing
hundred

the in

called rodasi, the two worlds (spoken of as sisters, of the gender word), an expressionoccurring at least
the RV.

also

Heaven Earth and are parents, being often father also and as pitard, mdtard, janitri, and styled separately addressed mother (i, I591"3. i6o2). They are primeval parents (7, 532; 10, 658). Their and sustain marriage is referred to in the AB. (4, 275~6)1 They have made all creatures i6o2. themselves (i,I592. 185'). Though footless, they support much with feet (i, i852). They the offspring are parents of the gods also; for to them exclusively belongs the epithet dei'dputre, 'having the gods as sons'. of Brhaspati (7, 978) They are in particular said to be the parents^ and and, with the Waters Tvastr, to have begotten Agni (10, 2 7). At the time they are in different passages created by same spoken of as themselves individual gods. Thus and observes who heaven that he a produced poet earth must have been the most skilful artisan of all the gods (i, i6o4; 4, 563). Indra is said to have generated or fashioned them (6,3o5; 8, 36*; 10, 296.543). Visvakarman received their produced them (10, 8i2 cp. AV. 12, i6o)5. They forms from Tvastr (10, no?). They sprang from the head and feet of Purusa (10,90*4). But one produced and which poet is puzzled as to how they were of the two first came into being (i, 185*; cp. p. i3)6. Many of the epithets applied to Dyavaprthivl are suggested by their physicalcharacteristics. The is a prolific one bull,the other a variegatedcow (i, i6o3). They are both rich in seed (i, I592; 6, 701-2). They yield milk, ghee, and honey abundantly

times

44-

DUAL

DIVINITIES.

127

old (6,70*). (6, 7Q1"5), and produce amrta (i,i$92. i856). They never grow (i, i6o2). They are broad and They are great (i, I591) and wide-extended (i, i856). They are fair-faced, wide, manifold, with ends which great abodes far away attributed are (i, i856-7). Sometimes, however, moral are qualities them. wise and father to As They are righteousness (i, I591)promote and mother they guard beings (i, i6o2) and protect from disgrace and mis fortune (i, i8510). They grant food and wealth (6, yo6; i, I595) or bestow and fame dominion to be i6o5). (i, are They sufficiently personified great called leaders of the sacrifice and conceived be themselves to as seating around the sacrifice (4, 562"7), as coming to their worshippers along with the heavenly folk (7,532), or taking the sacrifice to the gods (2, 4i20). But Heaven and Earth attained never to a or living personification importance in worship. These deities in most of the two But are quite coordinate. other of the two couples one greatly predominates, his characteristic qualities being shared by his companion. Thus Indra-Agniare conjointlycalled 'wielders of the bolt' and Occasionally an attribute of the lesser deity 'Vrtra-slayers'. is predicated of both. Indra-Visnu Thus taken are together said to have wide strides (6, 6g5). Frequent association of this kind lead to a deity may he receiving by himself an epithet to which originallyhad no right. Thus is often called a 'Vrtra-slayer'. alone characteristics The Agni when mentioned of each member of the pair are, however, in some distinguished7. passages Next and is Mitrato Heaven Earth, the pair most frequently named Varuna. These deities are invoked conjointly in many two more hymns than their dedicated Mitra As has are to hardly any individual separate praise. the same attributes and functions traits, belong to the pair conjointly as to Varuna alone. added therefore be here what to Scarcely anything need has already been said about conceived Varuna. The are as couple young men (3,54'"; 7,62s). Like various other gods, they are spoken of as shining (candrd), bright(sud), sunlike (svardrs),ruddy (rudra), and terrible (ghora}. The in the compound of Mitra priorityof the name to indicate might seem that he was t he it more important deity; originally is, however, probably due the the shorter word the first member of a com simply to tendency to make pound. This dual invocation goes back to the Indo-Iranian period, for Ahura Mithra and thus coupled in the Avesta8. are the two universal monarchs the Indra-Varuna, out (i, 17'), hollowed channels of the waters and in motion in the sky (7, 82^). They the sun set are vanquishers of Vrtra (6, 682), aid in battle (4, 41")? and grant victory (i, 177). They cast their mighty bolt against the wicked They (4, 4i4). bestow of protection and prosperity(i, i77'8),fame, wealth, and abundance steeds their car drinkers of the pressed Soma, (4, 41 *-10; 6, 688). They are and themselves to the sacrifice, seated comes to exhilerate they are invoked the sacrificial grass characteristics the on of In some (6, 6810-11). passages each member the is of Varuna besought to pair are distinguished.Thus divert his wrath Indra from his

worshippers,and
as

Indra

to

procure

them

wide

space

slays Vrtra, with Varuna god who in wisdom and men asso supports (6, 68^; 7, 825-6.853). The peace ciation of the is invoked is very intimate; for Indra couple Indra-Agni^ with Agni in more conjointly hymns than with any other deity10,while Agni is otherwise addressed dual divinity as a only in one hymn and two detached with Soma verses and in one with verse Parjanya. Indra-Agni, the best of Soma-drinkers drink their car Soma to (i, loS1), and are on (i, 2I1), come invited together to sit down it (7, 936; 8, 384-7~9), to drink and on come the sacrificial grass with themselves the and exhilerate at the to offering,
the warlike who

(7,842).

is contrasted

128

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

i A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

Vrtra-slayers. They are is sharp (5,863). They with the bolt (6, 593 "c.), armed lightning aid in battle (i,1097-*). They who together demolished fort-destroyers are 862). They (3, i26) and are invincible in battle (5, the 99 forts of the Dasa their imprisonment (8,48s) and released the rivers from accomplished heroic traits bountiful (5,863). All these are are deeds together (i, io85). They

pressed draught (i, lop5). They

are

often

called

and

their

Indra-Agni are also called the two priestsof sacri wise (8,403). They are lords of the abode are (sadaspafi) fice (8, 381), and features the goblins (x,2i5). These more are and drive away appropriate have father twin brothers who The one two (6,592). to Agni. gods are in close allusion this Asvins11 called to (i, io94), possibly They are once food, wealth, strength, cattle,steeds (4,6oI3~14). They bestow relationship. heaven and than mountains (i, io96). earth, rivers, and They are greater addressed when as The not a are once contrasted, two pair; though gods The but the two said Indra to slay, Dasyus (6, 284). Agni to burn, being invi consist chiefly of to Indra-Brhaspati hymns (4, 49; 7, 97) addressed and of prayers tations to drink Soma to bestow abounding in great wealth invited to devotion. steeds and are to Indra-Vayu constantly promote them. and Soma else about said drink little They come (i,231"2 "c.), being with their teams car to the (4,472~4) or in their golden-seated come offering themselves the sacrificial litter (7, 9i4). They are on (4, 46*) and seat lords of might lords of devotion (dhiyas patt: i, 233), and thousand-eyed, in wealth in and bestow battle (savasas patl: 4, 473). They help (7,924) warlike and exploits perform the steeds, cattle, gold (7,9o6). Indra-Soma
characteristic of Indra.
characteristic of Indra
or

the flow

great cosmic
for of
man,

actions

so

often
seven

ascribed

to

him.
the

They
of the

made

the

waters

released
sun

the

rivers, slew
The
true

dragon, depressed
two

the

wheel
was

the

(4,28I"2;6, 72^).

work

they destroyedtheir foes and broke open enclosed in the rock what was (4, 284- 5). They performed the first great and deeds in findingthe sun the darkness, causing the sun light, dispelling the earth to shine, supporting heaven, and out (6, 72'- 2). They spreading
bountiful

gods

that

too

of bodies placed ripemilk in the raw who might to men (ib.5).Indra-Visnu,

cows are

(ib.4). They grant victorious receptaclesof Soma, lords of


their steeds,to drink Soma,
out

intoxication and
to

are (madapaft)^

invited it.
the The

to

come

with

fill their of

belly with
made

two

gods

strode

widely
out

in

the

in for

toxication existence.

Ever As of

Soma, victorious,they grant


generators
their
of all prayers,

air broader, and

spread
and

the

spaces hear the

dangers.
vocations

wealth, they are

conduct
to

safely
invoked
a

across

besought
are

in
con

in only one jointly pound only twice.

worshippers (6,69) I2. Indra-Pusan short hymn (6, 57), and their names
When Indra
a

form

dual

com

made

the

great

waters

companion.
drinks

friend,Indra slays Vrtras steeds with which by two the other desires gruel (karambhd) and is drawn by goats. Mention is once made the of of abode (i, i622) a (pdthas) Indra-Pusan, to which goat con ducts the sacrificialhorse. The two gods are as usual also besought to confer welfare and booty. Soma-Pusan invoked darkness and to quicken (2, 40) drive away are the seven-wheeled five-reined car, yoked which out measures by thought, and They are generators of wealth, of heaven earth, and protectors space. of the world the gods made of immortality. the centre (cp. 10, i73), whom
as

With and

him

Soma

is drawn

his was flow, Pusan (6, 562). One of them he slays Vrtras, while

For

them
bestow

Indra

is invoked

to

produce ripe milk


and

in

the

raw

cows.

Together
and
food.

they

victory over

foes

grant

abundance

of

wealth

44-

DUAL

DIVINITIES.

129 made

But

they
the

are

also the

contrasted. other dwells

One

of them

has

in air; one earth and on in Soma-Rudra *3. (6, 74) are seeing everything voked sickness and decay from the house, to place all remedies to drive away them all sin, and in the bodies from of their worshippers, to to remove the free from fetter of Varuna. they are besought Wielding sharp weapons, have and beast. and to are implored for prosperity to man Agnimercy confined Soma the celebrated are streams, together for having released obtained time the light, in the sky. At the same and the luminaries set they said from M atarisvan the have to one are distinguished, brought heaven, being and the eagle the other the rock from (i,93). Their joint help and pro tection are invoked, and they are besought to grant cattle, horses, offspring, several health, happiness, and wealth (10, 19*. 667). This pair is mentioned times in the AV. 'two The of In the MS. as are eyes'. spoken (3,71) they SB. refers to them that the also brothers sun as (n, i, 619), belongs stating to Soma to Agni and the moon (i, 6, 324). In the ritual Agni-Soma seem share in the Soma but to receive never a offering, only cakes and animal sacrifices. It is somewhat who that the two remarkable great ritual deities, form outside in sacrificial the the a literature, should, frequent couple very mentioned twice their devoted be one to as a hymn (i, 93) praise, only pair,and that only in the most recent part of the RV.14 A few other pairs are invoked in detached verses only. Agni-Parjanya mentioned in one are are 52l6). together besought to (6, They passage bestow food and time the one the but at same contrasted, being are progeny, said to have other oblation and the the (garbham). (ildm) offspring produced bulls of earth invoked in four passages. As Parjanya-Vata are they are besought (6,496) to impel the watery vapours Along with Indra(purisani). Vayu and other gods, they are invoked as (purlsina)bulls (10,659). vaporous In another food (6,5o12). abundant enumeration entreated bestow to they are connected with 'the also Nir. invoked as once They are (10, 6610 cp. 7, 10) invoked several and Night are thunderingbuffalo' (probably Dyaus15). Dawn times. almost or They are mentioned exclusivelyin Visvedeva Apr! hymns. (7, 26; 10, no6), They are rich goddesses (2, 31$; 10, yo6),divine maidens like wives (i, I222) of heaven two daughters (5, 417; 10, 7o6). They are and suckle abound in milk their colour a they single (2, 36). Changing child who sisters beams and earth between two heaven (i, 965). They are who and of one mind but of different colour, whose are path is the same clash stand and never or endless,who, taught by the gods, move alternately still (1,1133). They of order the shiningmothers (i, I427); they con are

heaven, while

high in generatedall beings,


his abode

while

other

moves

duct

with

brightrays

every

(5.4i7) offering
invoked,
well-adorned all form the the

and and

weave

the
on

web

of

sacrificegrass
"

much are bountiful, and (7, 26). They are great Appearing alternately they arouse
are

(2, 36). They

sit

the

sacrificial

(10, 361. no6; i, i37. 1427). things (2,3i5)16. Sun and Moon living
of

mentioned

five times

in

the
are cases

snrydmasd
dual

and

three

times

in with

that the

"j
.1

suryacandramdsa. of SuryaT7. In name Thus they are said to the act of Brhaspati
Creator
fashioned
sun sun

of

These
most
move

only

compounds
luminaries
we see

formed

concrete

so alternately sun moon

that rise

that and

and

moon

meaner only are It is (i, io22). may The 6810). alternately(10,

path
few

like

and the

fication when

sun passages in of their thought Indo-arische

(10, 190 3). A poet says, 'let us go on our moon' personi is,however, an incipient (5, 5i15). There with other deities (10,64$. 9212. 935). In a pair is invoked and evidently though not expressly mentioned, are moon,
dual
A.

character.

'The

two

go

round

the

sacrifice like
9

Philologie. III. 1

130

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

i A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

(the bright
immortals
i

playingchildren; the one surveys is seasons' (10, 85l8). There


eyes of Varuna

all
no

the beings,

other

is born
are

again,ordering
by
made the
two

doubt

that they
two

meant

(8, 4i9)
OGR. Primitive vol.
7

and

by

the

eyes

of

heaven

by

the

(i, 72").
KHF.
"

i6if.;
3

240. Translation

TYLOR,
of the
2,

i, 297 f.; HVM. Culture 322"8 2,

98.

"

Sp.AP.

159;

cp. ORV.
"

(Chapter on
ibid. 2, 299.

AB.,
-

308.
2,

"

Cp.

Mythology). 6 Cp. Nirukta


"

93. HAUG
22

3,

MM., 842.
50,
14. i,

LSL.

606.
8

RV.

404-5;

6, 52*6. 572.

683;
"

853. 46.
"

OST. 5, 220;
"

5,
12

OST.
2,

"

"

LSL.
"

456. 1890, p.

14

614. OLDENBERG,
HVM. 39,
i,

Mitra EGGERS, 70; 29"31; MACDONELL, JRAS. 25, 470. 13 MACDONELL, JRAS. 27, 175. des Die Hymnen Rigveda I, 267; HILLEBRANDT,
" "

362. 825-6. 839. ZDMG. OLDENBERG, io Cp. FAY, 'AJP. 17, OST. 5, 180; HVM.
7, GGA. OLDEN KRV. 52;

401;

458"61.
79. G.
"

15 17

Cp.

LRV.

4,

228.

"

16

BERG,

ZDMG.

89;

HRI.

OLDENBERG,
OF GODS.

ZDMG.

50,

63.

GROUPS

of more recognised a certain number associated with less definite groups some or beings,generally par whose ticular god. The largest and most important of these, the Maruts, 180 stated to be 21 is variously in the RV. number or (p. 78), is, as has described been as attendingIndra in his warlike exploits shown, constantly of Rudras the name is occasionally under same asso (p.57). The group

" 45.

The

mythology
of

of

the Veda

divine

ciated treated
AB. group
seven

with as, SB.


a

their

father

Rudra in

(7, io4. 356).


the

The

number
to

of

the Rudras,
eleven The the

separate class

Brahmanas,
the

is stated TS.
two

be

in the
smaller

and

of
or

in (p. 19) but is thirty-three whose number the Adityas, eight (p.43) and in the Brahmanas

(i, 4, n1).
passages of

in

RV.
the

is
RV.

becomes Aditi
more

twelve, is in

constantly associated either with their chief Varuna (7, 356 "c.). This group
Maruts

mother

(7, io"- "c.)


than A the

or

with their
of the fre

is

definite
names.

that

inasmuch

as

its members
the RV.
nor

have

separate
vague

third

group

quently mentioned
are

in

is

more

than

other

two, for they

neither
as

characterized

is their with

number

mentioned.
is shown the

That

they

were

conceived which with

speciallyconnected
or are

Indra,

Varuna the

Aditi with invoked

the

Adityas, Rudra

with

in by two passages Rudras, and Indra


texts

Vasus,

(7,io4.

356).But

in later Vedic

Agni

is the

leader SB.

'

and They are regarded as The three groups of the (p.19), but in the TS. (5, 5, 25) become 333. and Vasus of the invoked are together in a few passages Adityas, Rudras RV. Brahmanas The 6612 io*. as 356)2. (2,3 11; io, distinguish,, three cp. 7, of gods, the Vasus of earth, the Rudras of air,and kinds the Adityas of heaven (SB. i, 3, 4"; 4, 3, 51). In the Chandogya Upanisad (3, 6 io) five with Agni, the Rudras with are mentioned, the Vasus being connected groups with Soma, and the Sadhyas with Indra, the Adityas with Varuna, the Maruts Brahma of the semi-divine (cp.RV. io, 97- l6)3. There is besides the group who with are Angirases chieflyconnected Brhaspati("" 36, 54) and the small of the three Rbhus who one are nearly always associated with Indra is formed of the Visvedevah (" 46). Finally,a comprehensive group or who in f or least the at an sacrifice, All-gods, forty important position occupy entire hymns of the RV. devoted to their praise.It is a factitious sacri are ficial group should be meant to represent all the gods in order that none in laudations excluded be addressed intended all. But the All-gods to to sometimes conceived are as narrower a being invoked with other group, such the and Vasus as Adityas (2, 3^)4. groups,
Vasus1.
r
"

of the

eight in number

in the AB.

IS.

5, 240;

BRV.
"

2,
3

370;

BLOOMFIELD,
IS. 9,

FaR. 23.
"

151.
4

"

LRV.

6, 147;
note
i.

cp.

PERRY, JAOS. 16, 178.

WEBER,

6; SPH.

HRI.

137. 143,

182.

132

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

"c.); their skilful deeds (suhastdh) and skilful (apds,suapas: 4, 331'8 said to have acquired the being incomparable (3,60-*). They are frequently
handed
rank of

gods

in consequence

of their marvellous

skill.
their

Through
deeds

their wondrous

(3,60 T). By divinity they like and immortal, alighting eagles in gods
deeds
of

obtained

skilful

they

became
are men

heaven

the

air who

skilful services

by they

their
went

mounted heaven to energy the path of immortality to the and

(4, 358). They (i, no6).


the host of

For the

their

gods

gods (4, 353), obtainingimmortalityamong mortals, children of Manu, who by their originally 353. 364). But they were The AB. (3,3o2) speaks of industry acquired immortality(3,6o3; i, no4). who them men as by austerity (tapas)obtained a right to partake of Soma the gods rejoiced so greatly in their work, that Vaja gods. The among artificer the of the of Indra, and Vibhvan of Varuna became gods, Rbhuksan the sacrifice, obtained share of to the gods and or a (4" 339)- They went the skilful i2i6their work 2ou8. the sacrifice, gods through (i, /). among the third or Thus evening pressing or libation (savana) belongs to them, it by obtained their skilful work they having (i, i6i8; 4, 33". 344. 35"). They are thus sometimes expresslyinvoked as gods (4, 365. 37').
Like the

their

friendship (4,333"4.

higher gods, they

are

besought

to

ment,

(4?338-375X m to the Soma (i,in2). They grant treasures offspring, dexterity presser (1,20?; 4,356).He whom they help is invincible in fight(4, 366), and Rbhu and Vaja are besought to give aid and booty in battle (i, n55). verb The same to the taks, to fashion,is generallyused with reference manual skill of the Rbhus The five great feats of dexterity to that of Tvastr. as by which they became gods, are spoken of with pretty uniform frequency
horses, heroes cattle, (4, 3410), and
and
are

and wealth give prosperity nourish to grant vigour,

all

or

most

of

them

mentioned
or

in
a

their which
car

praise. They
is

which
in

When

338. 362), The horseless,reinless, three-wheeled, and traverses (4,361). space round for fashioned Asvins the 2o3. they i6i6; 10, 3912). (i, goes each of their feats with a single verse a (4,349) which enumerates
made

fashioned

nearly every car (i, in1.

hymn
i6i3;

dedicated
4,

to

word, they
to

are a

said
loose

to

have of

fashioned

the the

Asvins
same

themselves, this

appears

be

only
For
10

way

to referring

Indra

they fashioned
It appears
are

the

two

bay

steeds

exploit. (hari) which


to

waft
same as

him
feat

(4?33
when made

"c.).

the Rbhus
one

horse
further

be to only a varied represented as desiringto after another (i, i6i3-?).

reference make
a

the
or

horse

having

They
nectar

fashioned is

or

(i, 2o3)
out

and

formed
for

of

hide
her

and all-stimulating (i, no8) or extracted

They guarded

and
be

formed

inferred Brhaspati may yoked the two bay steeds and the omniform (cow). A minor nected with the foregoing one, with
her The
were

(i, i6i3; 4, 34$), which yields they (4,338). This cow from (arinitd) a hide i6i7"c.j. (i, her flesh (4,334).That they formed this cow from verse a (i, i6i6) which states that Indra the Asvins the car, while Brhaspati drove up feat,only twice referred to and perhaps con consists in their having re-united the mother
a cow

made

omniform

calf

(i, no8,
also

Rbhus
and

frail

two

who their

were

of

feats

in1). rejuvenated their parents (i, 2o4. in1; 4, 355), who the lay like decaying posts (i, no8; 4, 33 2-3). They made old young in the brief enumeration again (i, i6i3- 7). When already referred to (4,349), they are simply said to have
the
that
same

fashioned fame
among
so

their parents,
the
to

feat is doubtless made the

meant.

It very
same

was

their laudable

again

as

walk

gods, they (4, 36^). In

their frail and


first
verse

of

the

old parents young hymn it is said

LOWER

DEITIES.

46. RBHUS.
their divine
seem

133 that power, intended be to

to

have

been and

the earth

great proclamation of
to

heaven

thrive.

The

latter thus

they by

made their

parents.
and frequently mentioned appears the Rbhus in the character of showing thought greatest, in their having made rivals of Tvastr, consists successful the the one cup, of Tvastr, into work four is the (i, 2o6. no3; 4, 352- 3. 364). This cup (i, iio3). The drinkingvessel of the gods (i, i6i5; 4, 355) or of the Asura commissioned Rbhus were by the gods through their messenger Agni, to make into the one of wood, that they was four, promising as a reward cup, which should receive worship equally with the gods (i, i6iT" 2). Tvastr praised make to (panayaf) the proposal of the Rbhus two, three, or four cups, and he the when four saw acquiesced (avenat) shining cups (4, 33$' 6). But in
to

The

exhibition

of

skill which

is most
as

have

been

the

another among vessel

it is said that passage desired the females and of the

Tvastr,
to

on

seeing the
Rbhus Rbhus for in
a

four

cups,

hid

himself

kill the the

the drinking desecrating

same hymn measuring

gods (i, i6i4" 5), though (v. T) disclairn any wish to


like the
are a

out

field

fame
to

among when they

immortals said
to

of the previous verse They are described as wide the one drinking vessel (fiatra), desiring feat is less definitely referred (i,no5). The same formed fashioned have or (i, i6i9; 3, 6o2 cups desecrate it.

is incidentally exemplified by the of the Rbhus statement sacrifice and the worlds (10, two 8o7), (3, they fashioned 5412), prayer that the of (4, 349), or they are supporters sky (10, 6610). Another the Rbhus with Savitr. said have to myth connects They are round been the sky, wind-sped, in swift course (4, 331 cp. i, i6i12). After much the house of Savitr,who to conferred wandering they came immortality them when to on they came Agohya (i, no2- 3). When, slumbering for twelve fair days, they had rejoiced in the hospitalityof Agohya, they made fields and directed the streams, plants occupied the arid ground and waters lowlands the the heights and (4, 337). By their skill they made grass on in the depths, when in the house of Agohya waters they slumbered (i, I6:11). Having slept,they asked Agohya as to who had awakened them; in a year around (ib.I3). they looked is apparently derived The rbhu the root word from rabh, to grasp (cp. thus in the RV. meaning 'handy', 'dexterous'. It frequently occurs 2, 38)1, as an adjective and is several times thus used as an attribute of Indra, Agni, and the Adityas. It seems be elbe and to identical with the German the the vaj) means 'vigorous one' 3, and English elf2. Vaja (from the root Vibhvan4 both the (from m and the root bhu), 'the eminent' (artist).Thus and of the Rbhus the account in of them the RV. indicate that name given that their essential It character that is that
were

cp. 4, 355)skill The

of

skilful artificers.
as

is clear

they
their

regarded
connexion

not

having
Indra

been in

gods

from
to

the do

beginning.
with their in the their

Whether

close

with It is also

has

original
as an

nature

is doubtful. since

uncertain
sudhanvan It

patronymic Saudhanvana,
RV. attribute that

the and

word

occurs

of Rudra who
are

of the Maruts.
so

by only twice is,however, most


with
sun

way any is meant who

probable
and

their parents
The notion

mentioned

often, represent heaven


their 'who taken twelve moon,

earth5. of be

that in

they produce
house of have therefore
are

sojourn
cannot to

twelve

days
three

the

concealed'6.
of the winter

They

is connected fertility the Savitr or Agohya, by various scholars 7


at
a

been

be

genii
of the

seasons8,which
cup

stand-still

during the
the

days

solstice. The

of Tvastr

possibly represents

134 and

HI.

RELIGION,
four into it

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

i A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

the the

which

it

was

transformed
that the Rbhus

by

the
were

Rbhus, its
them various

four

phases.
or

On

whole

seems

aerial elves, whose strative of sufficient to


1

probable gradually dexterity


skill. But
any the

terrestrial originally

attracted

to

myths
is

illu

marvelous
warrant

evidence

furnished

by

the RV.

hardly

certain

conclusion.
Gr.
p.

Cp. WACKERNAGEL,
KZ.
-

Altind.

70.

2
"

BRUGMANN,
24,

Grundriss
3

A.

KUHN,
134;

4,
-

103"20;
4

BRV. stufen whom


i,

2, 407.

WACKERNAGEL, SEE. Cp. OLDENBERG,


6
"

KZ.

297.
-

"

'Riches'

2, 298; cp. according to

46, 191.
note
c.

A.

KUHN,
BRV. KRV.
are

Entwicklungs53"4;
3, 52, 'from HVM. skilful

AIL.
is

366.

WVB.
"

1894, 37,
7

nothing

concealed'.
8
-

AIL.

1.

3; LRV.

according to
3, 335;
c.,

100. HVBP. 515; time, past, present,

and

1. According to WEBER, future; according to BRV. whose number Paris

they

genii of creative
ancient with the triad ZDMG.

2, 412,

three

sacrificers who

acquired immortality and


sur

is connected

of sacrificial fires.

NEVE,
126;
GGH. OST. 108. fur 9,

Essai

le

Mythe
GKR.

des

Ribhavas,

1847;
2,

5, 226"7;
WC. no; deutsches

24"6;
Altertum

GRV. BRV. i, 103; 119; Germanische E. H. MEYER, 13, 31"5; ORV.

cp. ROTH, 403"13;


v.

2,

Mythologie

3, 51"5; An124;

zeiger
WZKM.

235"6

(cp. L.
of

SCHROEDEK,

253).

" 47.
in the RV.

The

Apsarases.
almost there

"

appears

Apsaras denotes a kind completely separated from

nymph

that

even

her

physical basis.
occurs

The
five

information times.
The

obtainable
smiles

at Apsaras the preceding verse) in the highest heaven of the Apsaras (7, 33I2j and the Vasisthas The (ibid. Apsarases 9). Apsarases of the with Soma the water reference to (9, y8J),

is very scanty, as the name her beloved (the Gandharva

only
in born
to

mentioned
was

(10, i235).
are sea

Vasistha
sat
as

said to
are

have

close

the

described is mixed

which is

with

flowing to the juice.

The
on

ascetic long-haired
the

with

semi-divine
and the

path

of

the

is also

doubtless
in is the

meant

Apsarases by the
the and

powers Gandharvas

aqueous

nymph
in the

spoken of as able to move (10, i366). The Apsaras (apyd yosa), the wife of the
AV.

Gandharva
More

waters

(10, io4).
Apsarases
in

said

about

Their

abode

is in the

waters,
to

whence

depart from (AV. 4, 373).


described
are as

come a they are besought go of men the bank of the waters to the river and vicinity The Visvavasu are goddesses accompanying the Gandharva connected with and stars (AV. 2, 24). They clouds, lightning,

they
the

trice (AV.

2,2^);and

expressly called wives


the latter has

of the the In

Gandharvas character the SB. of

(AV.
a

2,

25), and
in

their connexion later Samhitas

with

assumed

formula

the

de (n, 5, i") the Apsarases are scribed as into themselves of kind bird a transforming aquatic (dtayaJr. cp. RV. often spoken of as post-Vedic literature they are 9, 59). In the very forest lakes and rivers, found the Ganges, and they are frequenting espescially in Varuna's is The the word of palace in the ocean2. etymologicalmeaning

(VS.

30, 8; AV.

8, 99, "C.)1.

most

probably 'moving
The above
a

in

the

waters' 3. that

evidence

indicates

is that of
sort

celestial water

nymph,
earth

conception of already regarded in the RV.


In the

the

oldest

the
as

Apsaras
the of
con

the sphere and to Apsarases to trees. They are spoken particular of as inhabiting in which (asvattha], banyans (nyagrodhd] and sacred fig-trees their cymbals and lutes resound the (AV. 4, 374). Elsewhere trees as same well as other varieties of the fig-tree said be and (udumbara to plaksa) are the houses of Gandharvas and Apsarases (TS. 3, 4, 84). The and Gandharvas Apsarases in such trees are entreated to be to a passingwedding propitious procession (AV. 14, 29)4. jn the SB. (n, 6, i) the Apsarases are described as engaged in dance, song, and play. Post-Vedic texts even speak of mounta

of

genius named
extends

Gandharva.

later Samhitas

the

the

in

LOWER

DEITIES.

47.

THE

APSARASES.

135
these
two

ains, both beings5.


bestow

mythical
The AV.
at

and

actual, as
the

favourite the

resorts

of

classes

of

adds

traits that

luck mental

causing (AV. 2, 3s "c.).


The love
7"

play (AV. 2, 25 "c.), but derangement, magic therefore


the

fond and of dice Apsarases are that they are feared as especially

being employed againstthem

of the great beauty6 (cp.86.13,4 are Apsarases, who the but even by Gandharvas, only by men occasionally 3 such is related least A of union at (cp. 10, 959). myth turning on a one individual Apsaras in Vedic literature. The other names only of several there The mentioned. AV. refers to Apsarases are three, Ugrajit,Ugramand Rastrabhrt several (AV. 16, nS1-2), while the VS., airing others, pasya, and Menaka SB. speaks of Urvasi (VS. 15, 15 (3, 4, i22) also 19). The of the royal family of the Bharatas? specifiesSakuntala, the ancestress (SB. well UrvasT as (SB. u, 5, i1). 13, 5, 4T3), as ^ The of these names only one occurring in the RV. is that of Urvasi. she That there from the fact that; was regarded as an Apsaras, appears Vasistha is said in one have been born of Urvasi to verse" and, in the next,! of an invoked with the streams Apsaras (7,3311' I2). She is once (5, 4iI"?). is Her mentioned8 otherwise in twice late and obscure name only a hymn consists of a dialogue between her lover her and Puru (10, 95IC- X7), which is there of Ila. She described the (apyd), as as filling ravas, son aqueous atmosphere, and traversing space (the latter expressionis also applied to the celestial Gandharva in 10, i395). She is said to have spent four autumns is and (V. I7)- The mortals (v. l6) besought to return among request is ap receives the promise that his offspring shall parently refused; but Pururavas while himself shall enjoy bliss in he worship the gods with the offering, heaven find their settingin a of this hymn (svarga:v. l8). Several verses continous in told SB. which in details partly based the fills (n, 5, i), story It is there related that the Apsaras on a misunderstandingof the text of RV. Urvasi of Ila, in an alliance, the permanence joins herself with Pururavas, son of which him naked. The depends on the condition that she shall never see Gandharvas the noise Pururavas a by during night. stratagem produce a he is seen springsup naked, when by Urvasi illuminated by a flash of light in search vanishes forthwith. Pururavas wanders about of her, ning. Urvasi till he last observes at her swimming in a lotus lake with other Apsarases in the form him of an Urvasi herself discovers to aquatic bird. and, in his him for to receive to consents entreaties, one night a year later9. response He the appointed time, and returns at the following day the Gandharvas on him the boon of becoming of themselves one grant by producing fire in a which of Pururavas, particular way. means Excepting 10, 95, the name RV. of the where 'calling aloud', occurs (i, 31*), only in one Agni passage is said to have caused the (vdsaya) for the righteousman sky to thunder word The have the (manave) Pururavas. here, however, adjectival may Pururavas and have scholars10 been sense. Urvasi interpreted as by some of

8),is enjoyed

not

"

sun

and

dawn.
See
PW.

2 ZDMG. 3 Ex HOLTZMANN, 33, 635. 641. by ap-sarim; cp. MEYER, Indogermanische Mythen l, 183; GGH. 10 ; PVS. Methode IS. 13, LUDWIG, 183 ff.'; I, 79 cp. WEBER, 91; otherwise BURY, BB. IS. 5, 394; I35" GW., 4 HAAS, 7, 339. MEYER, op. 13, 136; E. H. cit. 13. ZDMG. 5 HOLTZMANN, cit. 67; MANN33, 640 f.; v. SCHROEDER, op. 6 und WaldFeldkulte in the HARDT, I, 99 ff. Epic period the Apsarases have become IS. i, 198 7 Cp. WEBER, regular celestial courtesans. HOLTZMANN, 201; ZDMG. 8 Cp. ZDMG. ibid. 498 ff. v. 48, 80"2; BRADKE, 33, 635 f. ; LEUMANN, SEE. have OLDENBERG, named 46, 323. son 9 They a Ayu: cp. KHF. 65. 71; 1

s.

v.

gandharva.

"

"

plained by YN.

5, 13

"

"

"

"

"

"

136

III.

RELIGION,
197; GVS.

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

10 SEE. 46, 28. OLDENBERG, 283; BRV. WEBER, 2, 324; 10; Chips 42, 109 f. Essays p. 61 ; Essays i, 408 note 8; ROTH, Nirukta 71 2; KHF. 1,432, LASSEN, Indische Alterthumskunde v. SCHROEDER, (cp.WZKM. 2, 90"6; 155"6; GRV. op. cit. i, 23"39 2, 488; BRV. GGA. ZDMG. 73"6; 1890, 420 flf.; 37, 81 ; 39, 52 n. 4. 9, 253); OLDENBERG, Die Liebesgeschichte des Himmels, GVS. SIECKE, Strassburg 1892 95; i, 243

IS.

i,

i,

"

IS.

I,

196; MM.,

Oxford

"

"

"

(Urvasl " 48.


even

moon);

HRI.

137.
"

Gandharvas.

With

the
a

Apsaras
male the

or

Apsarases
or

are

associated Ganare

in the

RV.,
the

as

has

been
occurrences

shown,
of

being

beings
RV.

named

dharva. in the

Of

twenty

word

in the

only three

in the AV. half are in the occurrences plural, while of the thirty-two in the found few Avesta times is Gandarewa1 The a as name (a plural. the in This and the Gandharvas -like to monster) singular. points only dragon class having been as a being. In the later graduallydeveloped from a single Samhitas they are spoken of as forming a distinct class by the side of Gods, is fixed as 27 and Fathers Asuras (AV. n, 52; TS. 7, 8, 252). Their number in and be the said AV. is to in some even (n, 52)2. 6333 Yajus texts back The fact that the conception goes to the Indo-Iranian period, accounts of the RV. for its obscurity. The evidence extent to some is,moreover, so and its certain definite that result character to no as original scanty vague that the name is found in It is worthy of note is attainable. only once VIII it occurs twice as that of a being hostile books II to VII, while in book word be sometimes The It is to to Indra. 3. seems only an appellative all the occasionallyaccompanied by epithet visvdvasu, 'possessing goods' (9, 8636; 10, i394- 5; AV. 2, 2*; VS. 2, 3). This epithet is in one hymn in the later used alone to designateGandharva (10, 85"cp. 4"- 4I); and it frequently occurs Samhitas, the Brahmanas, and the post-Vedic literature,
22

as

the
In

name

of RV.

an

individual

Gandharva.
seems

the He

Gandharva
a measurer

to

be

localized

in the

high region

of

air

or

sky.

is

of

less

vault

of spaces of heaven His

air (8, 665).

(10, i395). He is found in the space is heavenly (divyd)and stands He erect


He

fathom
on

the

(10,I237).
is
in

is the

lover

on

whom the

the Blest

Apsaras

smiles
the

(ib. 5).
some

abode

heaven
several

Gandharvas
form

(AV.4, 343). In
of celestial

2, 21- 2) and Gandharva passages

(AV.

live with

connected is closely

with

light. Thus he is brought into relation with the sun, of Varuna' (10, I236), with the sungolden-winged bird, the messenger bird (10, i772), with the sun-steed (i, i632), with Soma likened to the sun is further connected with the 27 stars of the moon's orbit (9? 8512)' He is He with Rohini (VS. 9, 7) and in particular (AV. 13, i23). possiblyalso associated with the rainbow4 in one hymn of the RV. (10, 123). In the VS. the Gandharvas with Agni, Sun, Moon, and Wind. enumerated (18, 38 ff.) are In of the mirage is 'cityof the of the names post-Vedic literature one
'the

Gandharvas'

5.

Gandharva

is, moreover,
He

in the RV.
the

often

associated

in (chiefly

the ninth

book) with Soma. the gods (9, 834

of and place of Soma protects the races all forms of he stands the 2214). Soma, Observing cp. i, the vault of heaven on (9, 85* 2). Together with Parjanya and the daughter of the the Gandharvas cherish Soma (9, H33). Through Gandharva's sun, mouth the gods drink their draught (AV. 7, 733). The MS. (3,810) states that the Gandharvas for the gods, but having allowed it to be kept Soma the from excluded Soma as a stolen, were punishment draught. Doubtless is described owing to this association with Soma, Gandharva as knowing that Gan plants (AV. 4, 41). It is probably as a jealousguardian of Soma dharva in the RV. is pierced by Indra in hostile being, who as a appears

guards

LOWER

DEITIES.

48. GANDHARVAS.
Indra
to

137

the For the the have

regions of
in form
a

air (8,
text

665)

or

whom

is invoked elude the

to

overcome

(8, i11).
Visvavasu dwelt among in

later of
an

Soma

is

besought
stolen

Gandharva said to have

eagle (TS. i,2,9T).


or

Soma

is further

Gandharvas been

to

have

been

by

the

Gandharva

fond as bought from the Gandharvas, they were TS. MS. 6, i, 65; price of the goddess Vac (AB. i, 27; 3, be old, for in the Avesta to (Yt. 5, 38) the hostile Gandahostility appears is fought of the white Haoma, dwelling in the sea Vourukasa, the abode rewa, shoots with and the archer who overcome Krsanu, by Keresaspa. Moreover, carries off the Soma Gan the at to be (RV. 4, 27^), appears a eagle that in TA. dharva6, being expressly said to be one i, 9'. Gandharva waters' and the is sometimes connected with alluded the
to waters.

Visvavasu, but to of females, at the trait of 73). The

'Gandharva

in

the

'aqueous nymph' are is (10, lo4). Soma poured into water with waters' the Apsarases, is also said to (9, 8636). Gandharva, connected in the AV. is in the waters dwell (2, 23; 4, 3712). In the Avesta Gandarewa in who dwells lord of the the waters (Yt. 15, 28). a abyss union The of Gandharva with the water nymph is typicalof marriage. with and the unmarried connected the is therefore He wedding ceremony, is said to and maiden Gandharva well Soma to to as as belong Agni (10, is regarded Visvavasu in the first days of wedlock 3540-1). The Gandharva is rival of the husband love of women a (ib.22), and the Gandharvas' as in later MS. Gandharvas and thus The texts 73). Apsarases (cp. prominent 3, and desire are offspring(PB. preside over fertility prayed to by those who 19, 32)Yam! Of in the
10,

and of Yama the parents as called 'the Gandharva of the

conceptionof the Epics and later,there


the
are

Gandharvas
seems

which being celestial singers,


be
no

to

distinct

trace

in

the

appears RV. (cp.

i772. ii2).
There

only
are

two

or

three

references

to

their

physical
has 37;

the

They (10, i237). The


are

RV.

wind-haired

(3, 386)
definite have half

and

Gandharva

AV.

is

more

(especially 4,
animal

in appearance brilliant weapons Here 8, 61 ff.). they in


as

said

to

be

shaggy

and

to

Elsewhere, however, dangerous to men. adds The RV. the touch (SB. 13, 4, 37- 8). in the while (surabhi] garment (10, 1237),
of the earth is said
to

forms, being they are spoken of


that AV. Gandharva

ways many handsome


a

wears

(12, i23)
as

the

odour

fragrant (gandha)

rise to

the

Gandharvas. from

This

mology,
The this the
name

suggests the derivation if true, would even seem


has
even

gandha
no

to shed

possible.But such an ety conception. lighton the original


in order in
7 as

been

identified

with

Ksvraupo;; but
has the
to

to

justify
well
as con

equation
doubtful

the

aid

of

popular etymology
of
u

be

called

epenthesis
appear

assumed have

in

Greek

word8.

The

two

The utmost, from nothing in common. review of the evidence, it seems the original nature a possible to say about of the Gandharva is,that he was a thought bright celestial being, sometimes of as dwellingin the waters with his spouse the Apsaras. Various conjectures Some have, however, been made regard the Gandharvas by different scholars. others think that Gandharva as wind-spirits9, represents the rainbow10, or a genius of the moon11, or Soma12, or the rising sun13, or a cloud-spirit14.

ceptions, moreover,

to

1 2

Yasht

5, 37;
p. 34.

19,
"

41;
3

WVB.

1894,
cp.
"

cp. HVM.
l.

SP

AP.

276;
"

BARTHOLOMAE,

ZDMG.
BERGAIGNE

42,

158.

i, 427.
"

Disputed by
s.
v.

and

HILLE-

BRANDT;
6

ORV.

246,

note

See

PW. p.

KHF.

WEBER,
Sp.AP,

WVB. 151 2; IS. 2, 313"4;

1894, 7"9
KUHN in KZ.

(cp. 1888,
i, 523;

13, 181.

ROTH,
ORV.

gandharva-nagara, -pura. to Krsanu, as cp. also ZDMG. 36, 359; BRV. 3, 30 ff.;

n.);
7

223"4;

BLOOMFIELD,

JAOS.

16, 20;

"

v.

SCHROEDER,

GGH.

73;

138

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY. 481.
MANN-

MEYER,
HARDT

Indog. Mythen
201;

164 f.

8
--

Cp. BRUGMANN,

Grundriss
op.

I,

"

op. cit. i, 219 f.; v. SCHROEDER, GRV. DPV. 10 Nir. Erl. 145; 2, 400; 253; ROTH, 12 BRV. LRV. 11 158; HRI. 157. 2, PW.; 4, KHF. 14 10 1. LRF. 153. IS. i, 90; 5, KZ. A. KUHN, i, 513 ff.; WEBER,

MEYER,

cit. 71; HVM. WZKM. KIRSTE,


ff.
-

I, 446." 9, 164. 34.


-

38

13

WC.

36 cp.

"

185. 210;
i,

13,

I34f.; MEYER,
Sp.AP. 210"15;

op. cit. 11"2.16"8.23.55. ORV. HVM. i, 427"66;

179; 244"9;
"

BRV.

3,

ZDMG.

64"7; PVS. 49, 178"9.


name

77"81;

" 49.
seven

Tutelary
in the He

Deities.

The

of three
a

Vastos
stanzas

pati

occurs

only
remove

times
his

RV.,
man

and

one

hymn
to to

of

(7, 54) is devoted


entry,
cattle
to

to

praise.
to

is there and

invoked

grant

favourable

disease,
and

bless

beast,

confer

in prosperity

and

horses,

of the hymn immediately always to afford protection.In the first verse of is all he who described as assumes disease, a destroyer following(7,551) with identified He is Indu. forms. once as (7. 542) Soma, being addressed is invoked the All-gods (5, 41 8) he of a hymn in immediate In a verse to is perhaps identified with him with Tvastr and the great as juxtaposition is he firm called cuirass of artificer. In another a verse a (8, i714) pillar, and be identified with Indra. In the only passage to seems Soma-pressers, of the tenth book

which

mentions

him,

he

ordinances
6

who, along with


to

17). According
that above
was

GELDNERX

prayer Rudra

was (brahmct),

of is spoken of as the observer fashioned by the gods (10,

is here

epithetof
the
name

god

in TS. 3,40, io3.


there
seems no

Though

meant, Vastospati being an identified with various deities in


reason

passages,

sufficient

to

suppose

that

the

attached to any one originally particular greater deityas an epithet The Sutras (AGS. 2, 99; SGS. 3, 4; PGS. (likegrhapati to Agni). Grhya when is to house a new 3, 47) prescribethat Vastospatiis to be propitiated entered. of the be This, together with the contents hymn devoted to his praise,points to his having been simply a tutelary deity of the house2, as the name of the dwelling' He itself 'Lord thus seems of to be one implies. the lower order of deities which in primitive beliefs animate, inhabit, or preside
over

natural To

objects such
same

as

trees

and

mountains.

the
He
as

order

belongs Ksetrasya
first three and
verses

pati
of
4,

the

tutelary deity of the


to

field.
horses In
a

is invoked, in the
well of
as a

57,

grant cattle and

to

fill heaven

verse

hymn
and

Savitr, the

Dawns,

3. earth, plantsand waters with sweetness the All-gods (7, 35") he is besought,along with to Parjanya, to bestow prosperity. In a similar hymn

desire to have him (10, 66I3), worshippers express a as a neighbour. The field is Grhya Sutras state that he is sacrificed to or worshipped when a of SGS. In (AGS. addressed one verse ploughed to a hymn 2, io+; 4, i35). deities (4,576) agricultural to grant rich blessings Slta, the Furrow, is invoked and Sita later appears the (PGS. 2, 179) as wife of Indra crops. (perhaps
r

because

that cp. 4, passage


as
i

8,

2i3

Sutra

god is once bears 577) and just mentioned


21;

in

the the

RV.

called

urvarapati, 'lord
Savitrl (TB. 2, 3,

of

the

field': In

scribed

'having a
FaW. der DRISLER
k.

the patronymic zo1). the blessings of Urvara, the arable Field, de invoked. are garland of threshing-floors',
=

V.

Agni, WC.
241,

22.

--

Cp. BLOOMFIELD,
is

SEE.
meant.
"

42,

343"4.

PERRY,

Memorial sachs.

thinks

Pusan

probably
ORV. 254

Cp. WINDISCH,

Berichte

Gesellschaft

1892, p. 174; PRIESTS


AND

5.

IV.

MYTHICAL
As the

HEROES. is often
when

" 50.
the
sense

Manu. of
a

'man', there
name

is sometimes in the RV.

Manu Manus or appellation an uncertaintyas to It appears


to

used

in
the

it has

value

of

proper

have

the latter

signification

140

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY. 162"96;
BRV.

KZ.
i,

62"70;

Mum, JRAS. 1863, 410"16; 17, 334; ORV. 275"6; HRI. 143.

1865, 287ff.; OST.

i,

"51. RV., only


a are once

Bhrgus.
two

"

"

Bhrgu

is in

name

met

with
form

twenty-one

times

in

the

besides

occurrences

the

adverbial
therefore twelve

in the of

group

and singular; mythical beings. with


treasure

appears

Mentioned

bhrguvat. It is found to have properly designated times in Agni hymns, they


fire to
men.

chiefly connected
as a

the
to

communication

of
or

Matarisvan hidden

brought Agni
for1 the

Bhrgu

(i, 601)

kindled

the

Agni

and the gods fashioned Agni for Manu, Bhrgus (3,510). Matarisvan him the while (10, 469). The Bhrgus with might produced Bhrgus found him in the worshipping 462); waters, they Agni lurking in the waters (ip, him abodes of the in established man or 4). They 42 (2, Ayu cp. placed Agni in the wood men (6,i52) or as a treasure among well-deposited (i, 586). For Agni is the Bhrgus' gift(3, 2 4). Rubbing him they invoked him with prayer (i,1277). With songs of praise they caused him to shine forth (10, 1225) in wood (4,71). They brought him to the navel (cp.p. 92)

like

friend

of the

earth

(i, i434). While

Atharvan

established

rites with

the sacrifices,

themselves as (10, 9210).Their skill, gods with their dexterity Bhrgus showed in manifested is fire, producing incidentally primarily spoken of as artistic. For make for Indra the Asvins the Bhrgus (made) a or a as worshippers prayer car (4,i620; 10, 39'4). For sacrificers speak of them, togetherwith They are an ancient race. the Angirases and Atharvans, as their Soma-loving fathers (10,14") and in the Angirases,and voke Manu did (8,43 13). Agni as the Bhrgus (bhrgitvat), They implore Indra to hear their prayer like those of the Yatis and Bhrgus he did the Yatis, Bhrgus, and Praskanva as (8, 6l8),or to aid them (8, 3?). The the and with the foes are mentioned, along Turvasa, as Bhrgus Druhyus of king Sudas in their name (7, 18"). In the last three passages appears the of the historical character designationof a tribe. The Bhrgus are in with all the thirty-three voked drink soma to gods, the Maruts, the Waters, the Asvins, lisas, and and Surya (8, 353). They are compared with suns said to have gained all their desires (8,3l6).In one (9, ioiJ3)they passage connected with unknown are an myth, when worshippers express a wish to the niggardly, drive away the Bhrgus the demon as (makham\ Thus the Bhrgus never in the RV., but designateactually existing priests

only

relation Vasistha
The connected from
as

group of
to

of

ancient
as

sacrificers and

chief, just
that of the
of the

Angiras
of

does

ancestors, to which Bhrgu bears the of the Angirases, or the group to its communication
But fetch while
to

Vasisthas. descent
and fire and the
man

myth
with
as

Matarisvan

heaven

the lightning,

Bhrgus. Bhrgus do not


and

Matarisvan
are

it,but
the the
as

rather
on a

chiefly brings it regarded


earth.
seer re

is

kindlingit for
In

the

establishment literature

diffusion of
as

sacrifice
name a

the

later

Vedic

presentinga seed japati's


(AB.
n,6,
shine'.
3, 341

tribe (AV. 5, 19*; AB.


and cp.

Bhrgu occurs 2, 20?). He

of

arises

receives being adopted by Varuna PB. is expressly called 1 8, 91) and


word

the
a

spark patronymic
son

from

Pra-

Varuni

of Varuna

(SB.

i1)2.

Etymologicallythe
BERGAIGNE^
name

bhrgu
there
can

means

from 'shining' be
a

the

root

thinks
of

hardly
and

doubt

that the

bhraj, 'to bhrgu was

originally a
the the form of

Bhrgus
1

in agree fire it represents is lightning. KuHN6 and WEBER7 with the Greek as fire-priests "pXey6at. KUHN* BARTHS
SEE.

while fire,

further

opinion that identify


"

Cp. OLDENBERG,

46, 243.

"

WEBER,

ZDMG.

9, 240

ff.

BRV.

i,

MYTHICAL

PRIESTS

"c.

51. BHRGUS.

52.

ATHARVAN.

53.

DADHYANC.

141

52"6;
2i"2.
"

cp.
7

HOPKINS,
ZDMG.

JAOS.
9,
-

16, 280.
"

"

KHF. ORV.

9"14.

"

BRI.

10.

6
"

KHF.

242.

OST.
name

i, 170;

123;
occurs

HRI.

168.

"
the Atharvan

52.

Atharvan. in

The

of

Atharvan several

fourteen found in

times
the

in

the AV. RV., thrice in the character ancient of an priest. He rubbed generally appears did (6, i517)- Agni Agni forth (6, i613) and priestsrub Agni as Atharvan the messenger of Vivas vat (10, 2i5). Atharvan became produced by Atharvan while showed the Bhrgus first established themselves (order) by sacrifices, their skill first extended the paths; (10, 9210). By sacrifices Atharvan gods by then the sun Manu and was produced (i, 835). Atharvan along with Father (i, 8ol6). Indra is the helper of Atharvan practised devotion as Dadhyanc Matarisvan and well as of Trita, Dadhyanc (10, 482). The goblin-destroying divine the with flame like down fool burn to Atharvan Agni is invoked traits. adds further AV. Atharvan some (10, 8y12). The brought a cup of Soma to Indra (AV. 18, 354). A miraculous cow was given to him by Varuna is a companion of the gods, is related to them, (AV. 5, n; 7, 104). Atharvan and in heaven is dwells the Atharvan SB. In (AV. 4, i?, "c.). spoken of ancient teacher as an (14, 5, 522.7, 32S). enumerated Fathers In the plural the Atharvans are as along with the and Angirases, Navagvas, and Bhrgus (10, i46). They dwell in heaven are called gods (AV. u, 6I3j. They destroy goblins with a magical herb (AV. 4, 377)In
a

plural, and

is also

times

few

passages

of

the

RV.

the

word

atharvan

it is an the appellative meaning of 'priest'.Thus it seems of a hymn to be an (10, i2o9 cp. 8). In this sense epithet composer is described of Agni, when the Atharvan seer as a pouring the libation on it is said The word when also that the mix Atharvans (8, 97). means priest Soma receive hundred that from (9, 42) or a cows a they patron (6, 47 24). That this is the is borne out sense by the fact that the cognate original Avestan for
atar

to have appears attribute of Brhaddiva,

the

word

dthravan

which signifies 'fire-priest',

is also the

sense etymological

also occurs the Vedic (for athar], fire, is the same as athar-*, which in athar-yu, flaming (said of Agni, 7, i1). This old then have must name been ancient of a semimythologically applied to designatean priestlyrace divine character,generally represented in the singular by their chief.
1

BRUGMANN,
IF.

Grundriss

2,

360;

THOLOMAE,

LASSEN, BRV.i,

rejects the 5, 221, Indische Alterthumskunde


49; HRI.

cp. BLOOMFIELD, connexion of atar

SEE.
with

42,

xxm,
-

n.
-

2;

BAR-

atharvan. I,

Cp. also
i,

1,523;

KHF.

10;

IS.

289 ff.; OST.

160;

160,

n.

i.

is the son of Atharvan (6, i614; Dadhyanc. Dadhyanc, who nine times in the RV. exception, n722), is mentioned and, with one the ninth, the tenth, and is a seer who He especially the first book. kindled with and is mentioned Agni (6, i614) Atharvan, Angiras, Manu, and other ancient sacrificers (i, 8ol6. i399). The Asvins horse's head to Atharvan's a son Dadhyanc, who then gave the (place of the) mead proclaimed to them (i, ii722). (madhu] of Tvastr With the head the Asvins of a horse the to (place of Dadhyanc proclaimed mead the of The Asvins heart the then the) (i, n612). won Dadhyanc; horse's head is also connected with this spoke to them (i, ii99). Indra in of the horse hidden myth. For it is said that, when seeking the head the of Da mountains, he found it in Saryanavat and slew with the bones from dhyanc ninety-nine Vrtras (i, 84^- I4). Indra, besides producing cows the dragon for Trita, gave Matarisvan cowstalls to Dadhyanc (and) (10,482). These which of are probably the cowstalls Dadhyanc by the power opens

"

53.

"

i, n612. only in

142

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

Soma which
Atharvan with

(9, io84).
the
name

It is of

noteworthy that in he Dadhyanc occurs,


a

the

only
son

older

is the

(6, i614)in passage of the ancient fire-priest


he is
connected chiefly of release be

and
secret

is himself abode of head

kindler
Soma and

of

fire. with

Otherwise
Indra he
can

the
to

and his

in

the

the

cows.

hardly of sense etymological of 'curdled milk'. 'fond either 'possessing'or In BERward' might signify in originfrom differ essentially Soma2. not GAIGNE'S opinion Dadhyanc does certain conclusion. But evidence The is,however, insufficient to justify any that it does not seem an improbable conjecture altogether Dadhyanc originally form of fire. The would horse's head indicate its representedthe lightning speed, the voice with which it speaks,the thunder, its bones, the thunderbolt. Owing
name

his horse's
the

ciated

from

steed

Dadhikra.

The

altogether disso 'curddadhi-aiic,

His

connexion with the

with

the

secret

abode The

of
name,

Soma,
too,

would

resemble the

that

of

the

eagle
of the the Vrtra

celestial Soma.
In and

suggests
name

curdling effect

thunderstorm.
of

post-Vedic literature
in the fashioned
"

the

form

Dadhlca,
have

Mahabharata
out

the

in generally occurs for slaying thunderbolt

is said to

been

of

his bones3.
"

2,

2 i BRV. 'Uni au lait', BRV. 3 PW. s. v. Cp. also BRV. 2, 457. 2, 458. 456" 60; GRV. 2, 84; PERRY, JAOS. ii,i38;LRF. 120"2; OERTELjAOS. 18,16"18.
"

" 54.
in the RV. also

Angirases.1
about there

"

Of
are

the

more

than

occurrences sixty

of of the

this
word

name are

two-thirds about

in the

plural. Derivatives
whole
group. of
one

found
to

voted

the

(3, 537; 10, 6y2 cp. 4, 215). They who of the seers are sons are gods (10, 624). A single Angiras being 'sons of Angiras' (10, 625). regarded as their ancestor, they are also termed of them Poets 'fathers' 'our fathers' as speak (ib.2j, (i, 7i2), or 'our ancient fathers' (i,622). They with mentioned fathers the Atharvans are once as and associated with Yama (ib.3~5). They Bhrgus (10, i4fc), being especially
sons are

The

praise of Angirases are

The times. thirty the Arigirases as a of heaven2

hymn

(10, 62) is

also

in

more

general way
Atharvans

connected

with

other the

groups

of

divine

beings,

the
as

Adityas,Vasus, Maruts
well
as

them to (9, 629), gods (3, 537; 10, 62). They are brahman priests Agni hidden in the wood (5, n6) and thought of the first ordinance of sacrifice (10, 672). It is by sacrifice that they obtained well the of Indra as immortalityas (10, 621). friendship With the latter deity the Angirases are closelyassociated. To them Indra disclosed the cows and he opened the stall (i, 5i3. I344), (8, 523), for them drove the cows which Vala out were hidden, castingdown (8, i48). Accom panied by them Indra piercedVala (2, n20) and drove out the cows (6, i76). As their leader Indra is twice called aiigirastama, chief Angiras (i, ioo4. 1302). Soma (as inspiring said to have Indra) is also once opened the cowstall for the Angirases (9,8623). In connexion of with the myth of the deliverance the cows the song of the Angirases is characteristic. Praised by them Indra and opened and burst the cowstalls slew Vala piercedVala (2, i58), (4, i6l8), his citadels (6, i85), or dispelledthe darkness, spread out the earth, and established the lower of heaven (i, 62^). So characteristic is their space with their varied said to be like the An singingthat the Maruts are songs and the the chants with girases(10,785), gods are invoked to the offering of the Angirases (i, io72). Hymns addressed to Indra are by actual priests also several times those with of the compared Angirases (i,62 T-2 "c). Indra the Angirases in less prominent positionthan Incidentally assumes a the myth of the cows. Thus have said the Angirases are to emptied the and

the

(7, 444; 8, 3514), or (AV. n, 813). Soma

Adityas,Rudras, Vasus,

is offered

they are invoked (7, 421). They found

like

MYTHICAL

PRIESTS

"c.

54.

ANGIRASES.

55. their Indra

VIRUPAS

"c.

143

stall Here

containing cows
we

and

horses, with
to

Indra

as

companion (10, 627).

altogether, his char Angirases themselves. By the rite they drove the cows and Vala caused the out to sun 2), (ib. pierced the and cleft earth the rite mount (ib.3). By sky, spread out mother they with the rock and shouted the cows (4, 3"). Singing they found the cows the light(i, 722). (i, 62 2). They burst the rock with their songs and found with The further connected the of the of the cows Angirases are finding Panis for Indra ioS8is said assisted Indra to have by Sarama (10, I0),who and the Angirases in tracking them (i, 62 3 cp. 728). The Angirases are also described alone and steeds of Pani as (i, 83*). having found the cows is with who connected receives the the same myth (10, loS6-11), Brhaspati^ epithet Angirasa when (6; 731) or piercingthe rock and capturing the cows like Bhaga (10, 682). giving cows the cows he drives out Brhaspati is even directlycalled Angiras when and releases the waters with in Indra Otherwise (2, 23l8). nearly all the of the word in the singular, occurrences Angiras is an epithet of Agni, who is the first seer Angiras (i^i1), the ancient Angiras (10, 9215) or the oldest (i, i272) and the most inspired (6, n3) of the Angirases. Agni is several times also called the chief Angiras (i, 752 "c.). This term is,however, once twice applied to Indra, Usas, and Sometimes Soma. or Angiras only desig ancient 'the ancient nates an priest without direct allusion to Agni, as when is mentioned in of enumeration ancestors an (i, I399) or when Angiras' the context shows that in the form 'like Angiras' angirasvat the singular sense is meant (i, 453). In one (i, 3i17), in which the poet exclaims, 'O passage the name to Manus, to us as to Angiras, o Angiras', Agni, come as designates
have the the acteristic action

transition

omission
to

of

being directlyattributed

the

both

the

ancestor
to

and the

Agni.
tradition found
as

According

in
an

the

Amikramam

of

the

RV.,
the
com

the

Angirases must
position of
also
as a seem

have ninth

been book
to

regarded
in the

actual members

as priestly family,

the
to

is attributed

to

of

it 3.

Priestlyfamilies
occurs

be

alluded the

compound
Veda

which Atharva-angirasah,

designationof
5, 67 "c.)4. On the whole
as a race

AV.

in that

itself

(AV.

10,

720) and

later

(SB.

n,

it
of

ceived

con probable that the Angirases were originally as gods and men, higher beings intermediate between seems

attendants and earth may heaven angiras

They
to

Agni, who (p.96), and have possibly


(cp. RV.
with

of

is that been

so

often

described

as

their

character priestly the is borne

heaven between messenger later development5. a was flames of fire


as

of personifications view
out

messengers

of

7, 33). This the Greek


were

opinion that they


i

by the etymological connexion ayyeXo;, 'messenger'0. WEBER, however, is IndoTranian the of period7. priests originally
5, 23;

of

KHF.

10;
"

OST.

GW.;
45.
"

BRV.
3

i, 47

ORV.
p.

2 127"8. Cp. BDA. 4 Cp. BlooMFiELD, 31.


--

Cp. WEBER,
i8o" 109;
2;

JAOS.
cp. HVBP. ff. i, 291

17,

WC. 69"72; 2, 308"21; History of Ind. Lit., Engl. tr. SEE. xxvii. 5 Cp. 42, xvn"
"

8;

"

PW.; ROTH, 2, 188; HR1.

BRY.

2,
"

167.

309; 7 IS.

ORV.

127.

6
"

BRUGMANN,

Grundriss

the the Angirases are plural. The Angirases, the Virupas, are of of heaven sons sons Virupas are (3, 53"). The seers, born from from heaven occurs as Agni, (10, 62 5-6). Virupa once Angiras, the name of a single (8,646) being, who singsthe praises of Agni. in a stanza in which The also has name immediately followingone Angiras is invoked. in the is indicated the singular sense adverb 'like by Virupa', as viruparat,

" 55.

A.

Virupas1.
name

--

Closely

connected times

with

Virupas, whose

is mentioned

three

in the

144

HI.

RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

i A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

(1,453) of Priyamedhavat, Atrivat, besides in a verse in its patronymic form (10,145) Angirasvat. with the Angirasesand the Vairupas. As the word is invoked in which Yama is most a usually a simple adjectivemeaning 'of variable form' and, when in company with that of Angiras or the Angirases,it is always found name, been than an would to have seem epithetof the latter. hardly more The of these beings occurs fourteen B. Navagvas2. name altogether in the RV., six times in association with that of the Angirases. The times
the
occurrence

in the

same

stanza
occurs

The

word

once

Navagvas are spoken of as 'our ancient fathers' (6, 222), or as 'our fathers' the Atharvans, and the Bhrgus (10, i46). Like the along with the Angirases, with the myth of Indra, Sarama, and the cows they are connected Angirases, Panis of the (i,623-4; ^ 457- I0) io8s). Indra with the Navagvas as his Soma friends sought the cows they laud Indra with songs; (3,395). Pressing broke of stall the the cows they (5, 2912). In one hymn they are open
described
In
two
as

having
occurrences

sung

with in the

the

of its in
one

pressingstones for the word plural navagva


attribute of
the rays

ten

being
also

of

these

cases

an

found

three

times

in the

when singular,

it appears

(5,457"I1)simpleadjective, of Agni (6, 63). It is be to an epithetof


is
a

months

Angiras (4, 5i4; 10, 626) or of Dadhyanc (9, io84). It apparently means of of) nine'3, designatingas a plural noun 'going in (a company a group nine ancient priestly ancestors. C. Dasagvas2. This name times in the RV., three times occurs seven in the singular, and that of the Navagvas. The twice unassociated with only the first who offered sacrifice (2,34* 2). Indra with the Nava Dasagvas were and with the ten Dasagvas found the sought the cows sun gvas (3, 395). With the Navagvas and the Dasagvas Indra and Vala the rock rent (i, 62-*). The the stall of the Navagvas and Dasagvas praise Indra and broke open the Navagva dawns shine on cows (5,2912). The Afigira and the sevenmouthed with Navagva, is once Dasagva (4,5i4). Dasagva, mentioned spoken of as chief Angiras(10, 626). Dasagva is described in one as having passage been succoured by Indra (8, i22). The being merely a numerical name, variation of Navagva, was most probably suggested by the latter.
D. The
seven as

numerical times

group in the RV.

(4,428). They
the

are

ancient seers are represented by a definite four Rsis',who however, only mentioned are, One the seven 'our fathers, seers' as poet speaks of them in another called divine (10,130?),and passage (10, io94)
The

Rsis4.

'the

seven

number gods. The may technical priests suggested by that of the seven (enumerated in 2, i2), of whom they would, in that case, have been regarded as the proto individualized by each types. In the SB. they become receivinga name (SB. Brhadar. the In 26; Brahmana 26). same 14, 5, Up. 2, (2, i, 24 cp. 8, i, 10) in the constellation of the Great stars they are also regarded as the seven Bear and stated to have been are bears5. This identification is originally
are

'seven been

ancient

seers'

associated

with

the

have

doubtless

due
the

partly

to

the

sameness

of

the

number

in

the

two

cases

and

partlyto
RV.
means

of similarity

sound

between

and rsi,'seer',

rksa, which
as

in the

both the

'star' (i, 24'") and


same

'bear'

'(5, 563).
referred to
the
seven

Probably
who (viprdk) the
seven

ancient

sacrificers are
made

priests
or

with

the

Navagvas praise Indra


Manu

Hotrs6
the

with whom

cp. 3, the first offering to the

(6, 222

31$; 4, 2^),

Mmilarly
times nical

ft\vo divine RV.


seem

in the

to

Sacrificers' (dairy a Jiotdra]mentioned have been the celestial counterpart


BRV.

gods (10, 637). nearly a dozen


of
two

tech

priests7.
1

GW.

s.

v.

vintpa; BRV,

2,

307,

note

4.

"

2,

145

"

6.

307

"

8.

"

MYTHICAL

PRIESTS

"c.

56.

ATRI.

57.

KANVA.

145

Cp. YN.
42,
2.
"

n,

ZDMG*"

282,
7

n.

cows'. 4 ROTH, PW, ; OLDENBERG, 19; BRV. 2, 145: 'having nine 5 WEBER, SEE. IS. i, 167; EGGELING, 276"8. 12, 236; ORV. 383" 4; SEE. 46, 189. 322. "_Cp_JioPKixs, JAOS. 16, 277; ORV.
" " "

ORV.

391;

SEE.

46, This

cp.
one name

BRV.

I, 234"5.
seers

"

56. Atri.
in the

"

is The

of the
occurs

of

ancient
about

mentioned

RV.

there

days most forty times

frequently
in the sin

of his descendants. Atri gular and six times in the plural as a designation tribes and is the five mentioned is spoken of as a seer to (i,ii73) belonging of the human and other ancestors race (i,399). along with Manu Atri (7,i55) as a well as other ancient helped Agni is said to have the prayer of Atri (8,367) and seers (1,453; 10, 1505). Indra also heard opened the cowstall for him and the Angirases (i, 5i3). Atri is, however, chieflyrepresented as the protege of the Asvins, and the characteristic myth with them. is connected the darkness him about They delivered Atri from him with rescued of chasm all his host out a 784) (5, (6, 5o10; 7, 718). They (i,n73). (i, n68. n73), when they destroyed the wiles of the malignant demon which from he has fallen and The chasm into which they deliver him is a draught (i,n68. n87). They burning one, but they gave him a strengthening his abode made chasm the (rbisa] or (grhd) agreeable for him burning from (I0?399; 8; 62?); they prevent the fire burning him (8, 62s). They res in the heat cued Atri who was (10, 8o3), they protected him from the heat the burning heat agreeable for him with coolness (i, up6; 8, 623), and made Once have had said to are rejuvenated Atri, who (i,ii27). they grown old (10, I431-2). it was when In one hidden hymn Atri is said to have found the sun Svarbhanu and to have placed it in the sky (5,4o6-8). But by the demon is attributed in the very the Atris collectively. to next verse (9) this deed and in the sky (AV. 13, the The AV. also refers, to Atri finding sun placing Atri is SB the who jn darkness a 24. 36^ priest dispelled (4, 3, 421), is even and identical with her (14, 5, 25). from Vac (1,4, 513), originated in the RV. in the last The plural form of the name regularly occurs Atris here of a hymn. The of the last verses or one designatethe family of seers the of the who whole of are hymns (5, 39s "c.). The composers is attributed and fifth book the of the the Atris, about one-fourth to family of the name in the singular of the occurrences or pluralare found in that book. is perhaps derived from the root The of name ad, to eat, in the sense word in the the RV. used as a adjective 'devouring', atrin, frequent cognate this meaning. The have word atri1 itself is to describe to demons, seems with this once employed as an attribute of Agni, probably (2,8s). signification is even BERGAiGNE2 of opinion that, though Atri has become he a priest, form of Agni. The of Atri is four times name originally represented some The accompanied or, in the next verse, followed by that of Saptavadhri. latter is a protege of the Asvins, a seer whom invoked release to they are from is said to have captivity(5,782- 6),and who sharpened the blade of the Agni with his prayer (8, 628). For Atri Saptavadhri the Asvins made burning chasm agreeable (10, 399). The two are therefore probably identical 3.
12. i a BRV. SEE. 46, 35. 214. Cp. OLDENBERG, ZDMG. BAUNACK, Cp. also PW., s. v. 50, 266. ZDMG. 213; BAUNACK, 50, 266"87.
" "

2,

467"72.

"

Op. cit. 467;


ZDMG.
42,

Atri;

OLDENBERG,

V "
the RV. in the of
as

57.
as

Kanva that of

"c.
an

"

The

name

of Kanva

occurs

about

sixtytimes

in

and singular the


son

of

and of his descendants, the occurrences seer is spoken plural being nearly equally divided. Kanva Nrsad (io; 3iIT) and bears the patronymic Narsada (i,ii78;
III. 1
A.

ancient

Indo-arische

Philologie.

10

146
AV.
as

III.

RELIGION,
He

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

i A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

4,

iQ2).
and

is mentioned

in

an

enumeration

of

ancient

ancestors

such

Manu

Angiras (i, i399).


him and
were

The

I7). Agni helped as Atri, Trasadasyu, others, 5o5), and is Kanva, as (10, n55). Indra conferred spoken of as a friend and chief of the Kanvas and others and cattle on (Val. i10- 210). The Maruts Kanva, Trasadasyu, gold and Turvasa Yadu with Asvins The (8,7 l8). bestowed wealth on Kanva along have Kanva said times several to (1,475.ii25; 8, 5?5.820). He helped are restored his sight succoured blind when was by the Asvins (8,523),who (i, "8?). of the RV. attributed to the of the hymns of the eighth book Most are themselves of and there The Kanvas. of as name Kanva, speak poets family whose that of a family is therefore historical. But the ancestor name was as in the RV. in reality1 that of a con transferred to them never as appears been have thinks his origin may ROTH mythical like that of temporary. of that the is blind Kanva and BERGAIGNE opinion Angiras2; represents the the hidden Agni or Soma3. sun during the night or, more generally, of Kanva, being called by the patronymic Medhyatithi, a descendant nine times in the RV., occasionally with Kanva Kanva (8,2*"), is mentioned
who

kindled

blessed

gods gave Agni to by him (i, 36IO"


in

Kanva

and

others,

""

well

and

battle (10,

in enumerations who
four has
or a

of

ancestors

X7). (i. 3610-11beside that

The

name

seems

to
name

mean occurs

'he

sacrificial guest times his and

e. Agni)'. Priyamedha, (i.

whose

five

is found

of

Kanva

(8, 525), belongs


in

to

the

past, but

descendants

often

speak
7.
"

of

themselves

the

plural as
2,

Priyamedhas4.
4
i ZDMG. OLDENBERG, ZDMG. OLDENBERG, 42,

42,

216"

pw.

s.

v.

Kanva.

"

BRV.

465."
is
in

217.

" 58. A.
mentioned
the

Kutsa1.

This

warlike
in
a

hero
RV. of

belonging
The
name

to

the Indra

myth
once

nearly forty times pluralas a designation of

the

occurs

only

family

Indra
of

is four times called (7, 25$). Kutsa ii223 of a son Indra is made of his, whom "c.). Mention Arjuna (i, is young and brilliant aided in fight against a Dasyu (10, io5XI). Kutsa called upon Indra for aid when (i, 633). He is a seer, who plunged in a Indra as car (4, 16"; 5, 299), who pit (i, io66). Kutsa rides on the same him him his charioteer wafts as (2, ig6; 6, 20$). (5,3i8; 8, i11) or takes with him is similar to Indra (4, i610) and is even invoked in a dual Kutsa their car (5,3i9). on compound as Indrakutsd, the pairbeing besought to come
The
smote

singerswho address a hymn to son by the patronymic Arjuneya,

foe

againstwhom

Kutsa

is associated

with

Indra

is Susna.

Indra

for Kutsa Susna (i, 633. i2i9; 4, i612; 6, 263), aided Kutsa against him to (7, i92), or, associated with Kutsa (i,5 16), subjected Susna and the ,gods, with Kutsa vanquished Susna (5,29$). Indra is invoked to fight Susna Kutsa of to Susna (6, 3i3) or (i, i754). as a against bring slayer for Kutsa Indra Gandharva even fights againstthe gods (4,3o2~5j Or against results in the stealingof the wheel of the conflict with Susna (8, i11). The Indra off the wheel foes his sun tore (i, i754; 6,3i3). For Kutsa pressed by with of the sun he while the other Kutsa to (4,3o4) to drive on (5,2910). gave of stopping the This miracle be to a sun (cp. i, i2i10; 10, I383) seems transference of the myth of Indra for human gaining the sun happiness,to the reminiscence of a semi-historical battle. In winning the sun Indra is said Susna
to to

have crush

made
the

wide
fiends

space with

for Kutsa

his charioteer
and
to

Kutsa forward

(6, 20$).
the

He

is invoked of

roll

wheel foes

the

sun

Indra is said to have subjected other (4,i612). In one passage the Vetasus to Kutsa, viz. Tugra, Smadibha, and (10,494).

than

Susna

148
was

III.

RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

(" 65) and as gods might be conceived having Vedic The gods themselves being anthropomorphic higher animal forms also. beings of the Veda which have an animal form in character, the supernatural demoniac semi-divine only or lower order, being a to according as belong the the is useful to as or as animal injurious, the man, cow, serpent. More him animals has attached various which to serviceable are just as man over, the great anthropomorphic gods are naturallysurrounded to him, so by a celestial animal world of a similar character. Lastly,actual animals are in with mythological conceptions of the gods. They are the ritual connected intended only as an instrument for the time being representatives symbolical in This the fetishistic point some influence gods they respect resemble. to faded the of of identification view remnant is probably of a more primitive The such animal fetishes play in Vedic part which gods with visible objects. of deities by times is, however, no longer great,,since the representation of the gods as mighty animals conflicted with the higherconception prevailing and to the sacrifice. coming invisibly men dwelling in heaven
not

definitelydrawn

" 60. The


draw

Hors_e_L.
of the of the
most

"

A.

Dadhikra.

Besides divine

the celestial horses


steeds
occur

which

the

cars

gods,
of

various

individual
of these

in Vedic in

mythology. One
four rather there late2

notable the R.V.

is Dadhikra, who
40; the 7,

is celebrated
name

h\mns times.

(4, 38

"

44).

The form

is

men

tioned which Dadhikra

twelve
ten

with times, interchanging


The
name

extended
occurs

Dadhikravan,
Vedic
in the
texts.

is found is
so

hardly ever
that the
He

in other is

steed a characteristically
as a

word

given

Nai-

ghantuka (i, 14)


the first steed
at

the chariots (7, 44*) and a vanquisher of chariots speeds like the wind (4, 383). The people praise his swift 9- 3). him he runs and every Puru as on a ness (ib. praises precipiceas it were the of the He also He bounds is conceived curves as paths (4, 40*). along his wing being compared with that of winged. For he is called bird-like, of a bird and a speeding eagle (4, 4o2-3). He is likened to a swooping called and even an directly (4,40^) eagle eagle (4, 38s-2). In one passage he is spoken of as the swan the Vasu well in (hamsd) dwelling as as light, in the air, the priestat the altar,the guest in the house all epithets appropriateto various forms of Agni. Dadhikra is a hero, smites the Dasyus, and is victorious (4, 38Z~~3' 7). of heaven, when His adversaries fear him he the thunder as against fights and the tribes cry after him in con a thousand; he wins booty in combats 8the dust and tests (ib. 5- 4). Making himself (krnvana) a garland, he tosses 6it from brows his scatters (ib. 7). He belongs to all the tribes,pervades the five tribes with his power, and observes as Surya the waters with his light, the assemblies the victorious (ib. him, 4). Mitra-Varuna steed, like gave shiningAgni, to the Purus (4, 392 cp. 381-2); they gave us the horse Da dhikra as a blessing for the mortal (ib.5). The steed Dadhikravan is praised when Agni is kindled at the dawning of Usas (4,393). He is invoked with the Dawns (ib.1. 40'), who are prayed to the sacrifice like Dadhikravan to turn (7,4i6). He is regularlyinvoked with Usas, nearly as often with the Asvins with Agni, less frequently and with other deities also (3, 201-5; 7, 44I"4j 10, ioix); but Surya, sometimes Dadhikra is invoked first (7,441). The be said to throw etymologicalmeaning, being uncertain 3, cannot additional light on the of Dadhikra. The nature second any original part

synonym head of

of horse.

is swift

(4,38*'9. 39*), being

(rathatur),who

2-

I0-

of the word

compound
would

may
mean

be

by-form

of

the

then

curdled 'scattering

and root kr, 'to scatter', milk', in allusion to the dew

the
or

ANIMALS

AND

INANIMATE

OBJECTS.
to

60.

THE

HORSE.

149

rime think the

appearing
that
sun.

at

sunrise, according
represents
is in the

ROTH form the of fact

and
a

GRASSMANN*,
steed the the
sun

who

both of

Dadhikra This is most


or

ball circling with whom

view

Dadhikra
as a

supported closely connected


31) (p.
notion the
name

by
is he

that the

deity
is often
as

lisas, that
is sometimes

conceived

steed

bird

and

that
was

regarded
and of those

warlike

(ib.).
be BER-

The

statement

that the that

Dadhikra of

connected
GAIGNE

with

the of

sun

given by Mitra being the eye


refers rather

Varuna

might

deities.

thinks

Dadhikra

to

he

LuDWic6,

represents Agni PISCHEL?,


that Dadhikra
or

in
v.

BRADKE8,
was

general, including his solar and and OLDENBERG^, however,


not
a

but that lightning, lightningforms 5. in agree famous the


as a

opinion
racer

deity,but
divine

an

actual

horse,

It

has in

charger, already

which been

received remarked

honours. that he

(p. 142)
nature,
since

dhikra
horse's B.

name, head.

and

possiblyin

Dadhyanc is spoken

is allied of
as

to

Da
a

having

is Tarksya, whose is name Nearly related to Dadhikra Tarksya. mentioned late hymn, con (i, 8Q6; 10, 178*). One only twice in the RV. his praise. He is there to (10, 178), is devoted sisting of three stanzas described as a god-impelled mighty steed (vdjin),a vanquisher of chariots as a (cp. 6, 444), swift,and speeding to battle. He is invoked giftof Indra. words In the identical (4, 3810), he is said to have per applied to Dadhikra That his power, vaded the five tribes with as Surya the waters with his light. is his steed shown he was conceived (v.2; i, 896) by as a epithet primarily

aristanemi, 'whose

fellies beside
occurs

are

intact' and

(which in VS.

dependent
the word Vedic
texts

name

Tarksya
as a

Garuda).
of

as 15, 1 8 appears In the Naighantuka

an

in

(i, 14)

later tdrksya synonym in referred the and to a as bird; Tarksya is,however, Epic and is identical with swift bird Garuda, the vehicle he the subsequent literature, the whole of Visnu. It seems on represented probable that Tarksya originally In
one or

'horse'.

two

the from

sun

in

the the

form
name

of

divine
a

steed10. with This the

The

word

seems

to

be

derived
once

Trksi,
was

of

man,

patronymic Trasadasyava,
leads Fov11
to

mentioned

in

the
an

RV. actual

(8, 227).
race

derivation

believe
Trksi

that of the

Tarksya
C.
to

horse

(likeDadhikra), belonging to
is that which the is

family of Trasadasyu.
Paidva. Another

mythical steed
The

Asvins therefore

are

said called

have

replace an inferior be inferred from the description of Pedu horse, as may as agkds'va,'he who has bad is times This horse' steed several a (i, n66). spoken of as 'white', is praiseworthy (i, 119"; 10, 39"; cp. 4, 382) and sveta (i, n66, "c.). He is to be invoked like Bhaga (i, n66) by men, (10, 3910). He is compared with Indra is and called ahihan (i, ii910) (i, 1179. n89 a 'dragon-slayer', is in He a epithet otherwise peculiar to Indra. cp. 9, 884), an conqueror vincible in battles,seeking heaven (i, ii910). Here again the evidence, as
it goes, appears symbolical of the sun12. far
as

Paidva

brought to Pedu (i, n66; 9, 884).

which (i, iig10; 7, 7i5) and to object of the giftwas

to

favour

the

of interpretation

the

steed

of

Pedu

as

D.

Etas

a.

The

word

etasa, which

occurs

few

times

as

an

meaning
dozen
sun,

'swift', more
as

designates the
times
often

'steed' in the RV. frequently signifies horses of the sun (7, 622; 10, 37^. 497). in the a name singular,, always proper
reference
to

In It

the

adjective plural it
about with
a

occurs

connected is the

the

with

the

wheel

of

the

sun.

Savitr

steed (etasa)
draws the

who the

measured

out

the the

terrestrialregions (5,8i3). The


sun

swift god Etasa

bright

form

of

(7, 66I4j.

Yoked

to

the

pole,

Etasa

moves

150

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

wheel
India Etasa

of the

sun on

(7,6.32);he
the

brought the
the

wheel

of the

sun

(i, i2i'3; 5, 31").

urged contending in
to

steed
a race

of (etasd)

sun

(8, i11

with and end

Surya (i, 6iI5).


that Etasa fixes

cp. 9,6s8). Indra helped be It may gathered from

stray references
up the lost wheel the

this
of

mythicalcontest,
sun

being
car

at first

behind
he has the

takes
now

the

it to
seems

the
to

of

Surya;
to

gained

lead, and
before his

in the
own

Surya

concede

him

place

of honour

car13.

of interpretation satisfactory that Etasa E. The of

this myth.
of the of

It appears to It can,
sun.

be

impossibleto suggest any however, hardly be doubted


That the in

represents the
Horse the
a

steed

symbolical
is indicated

Sun
a

and

Fire.
of

horse

is sym Dawn

bolical said to
which the be

sun,

by
to

lead

white

steed

(7,77^,
is said of

passage is suggestedby and have been

the RV.

which

is

another

(i, 163*) in

the sacrificial steed


sun14. In
a

fashioned

by

the

gods

out

of
to

form particular

the Soma

the horse ritual,


has

also appears

(p.89),spoken symbolical of Agni. A horse is look the fire is produced by friction. at stationed so to as place where the east, it is deposited in the track towards of the When the fire is borne of the in front16. In the ceremony which horse the piling fire-altar, goes 'In heaven is thy highestbirth,in air thy with the verse: horse is addressed (VS. n, 12). Such a rite is explained in the SB. navel, on earth thy home' Brahmana same as bringingAgni together with himself17. The speaks of from the clouds the waters horse descended or as a (SB. 5, i, 45; lightning a"). 7, 5,
often,as
is been shown of
as a

symbolicalof the sun's. Agni, the swift and agilegod,


steed.
In the ritual the

is

horse

Cp. GUBERNATIS,
"

34" cp. SEE.

303HRI.

Zoological Mythology Gr. Altind. Cp. WACKERNAGEL,


--

i,

283
15.
"

ff.

"

E.

V.

ARNOLD,
GW.
s.

KZ.
v.

p.
i,

ROTH,

PW.;

46, pretation 17"18.


-

55, 282.

note

5. 6 LRV.
" "

BRV.
4,

2,
--

456"7;
7

cp.

MACDONELL,
124;
--

79.

PVS.

cp.
9

MM., 25, 471; VedainterHILLEBRANDT,


ORV. 71; im SEE. RV.
"

JRAS.

ZDMG.

i"

PW.

BRV.

2,

498;
BRV. KHF. ORV.

62"3;
BRV.
M
-

GRIFFITH,
2,

Transl.
13

462"3. 447"9. Gleichnisse und HIRZEL, of SV. i. 69, note


42,
"

46, 282.

Metaphern
"

(1890)27.
-

KZ.

34, 3;

366

51-2. 81.

"

2,

330 52; 77.


"

"

Cp.
15

AB.

6, 35
"

"c.;
16

3; ORV. IS. WEBER,


17

169 f.; cp. PVS.


n.

i, 42;

7. GVS.

12

Cp.
ff. 270.

2, 161 2,

ORV.

ORV.

13, 247, 80.

Die

Naksatra

"

1.

A.

The

Bull.

Indra

is in

the

RV.

constantly designated a
to occasionally

bull, a term gods, such


and
the bull

less frequently to Agni, and applied much as Dyaus (p. 22). In the AV. (9, 4?) a bull

other

is addressed
form1.

as

Indra,

in the SB.

(2, 5, 3l8)the
as one

bull

is stated

to

be

Indra's of

In the Avesta Avestan

Indra2. the god

appears In one Rudra3.

of

the

incarnations
Vedic the

Verethraghna, the
bull and also much

of the A and
-

sacrifices of the

ritual,a
obscure

represents
discussed

bull

plays

part in

myth

MudgalanI (RV. 10, io2)4. on earth, the cow Owing to its great utility naturally enters of Dawn largelyinto the conceptions of Vedic mythology. The beams draw her rain-cloud is are The personified as cows5, which car (p. 47). the mother of c alf This personified as a cow, a (lightning) (pp. 10. 12). cloud-cow is individualized as Prsni6,the mother of the Maruts (VS. 2, 16), her milk (6, 48") and udder being several times referred to (cp.p. 125). The bountiful clouds the doubtless are prototypes of the many-coloured cows which all desires of the Blest (AV. 4, 348) yield (kdmadugha) in the heaven and which the of the often forerunners Cow of Plenty (kamaduK) so are mentioned in post-Vedic of the of 7. the Ida, offering personification poetry milk and Aditi butter, has a tendency to be regarded as a cow (p. 124).
B. The Cow.
-

of

Mudgala

ANIMALS

AND

INANIMATE

OBJECTS.

61. THE

BULL

"c.

62. THE

GOAT

"c.

151

also called

is

is, how released the rock from by Indra (pp. 59. 61). ever, The terrestrial cow herself has already acquired a certain sanctity in Aditi the RV., being addressed and a as goddess, while the poet impresses his killed hearers should she be that not on (8, Qo15'l6 cp. VS. 4, 19. 20). is further indicated The of the cow aghnyd, by her designation inviolability which 'not to be slain', sixteen times in the RV. occurs (the corresponding masculine form aghnya being found only three times). In the AV. the worship is fully recognised (AV. 12, 4. 5.)8. In the the sacred animal as cow a 9f SB. is said beef be born eats to again (on, earth) as a (3, i, 221) he who for guests (SB. 3, 4, i2)9. of evil fame; though beef is allowed to be cooked man
most
i

spoken of cow-born, gojdtdh. The in the myth of the kine

sometimes

as

(p.122). The gods are of the cow frequent application


cow

sometimes

Cp. MS.
82.
"

i,
4

1016; TB.
Last

I,

6, 74;
of
5

ORV.

treated
"

in

JA. 1895
145;
"

(6),516 "48.
v.
"

Erl.

PW.'s.
WVB.

KHF.

656. "
with

1894, p. 36; HRL Goat "c. his --In


car

2 ORV. 76, note 2. Ap. SS. 8, 1119. (with reference to his predecessors) by V. HENRY 6 Nir. Cp. ROTH, Cp. GRUPPE, op. cit. i, 77. 8 HRT. 188. SEE. 156; cp. BLOOMFIELD, 42, Hochzeitsrituell 189; cp. WINTERNITZ, 33.
" " "
-

62.

The
as

the

RV. It

the also

goat

is

speciallyconnected
as a

Pusan in

drawing
form of

(p. 35).
the

being
the with

the Vedic

Aja

ekapad,
goat

there appears one-footed Goat ("

divine
In the

27)1.
or

later

literature the

is several

times

connected

identified

Agni2.
The
ass

appears

in

Vedic

mythology
RV.

mainly

as

drawing

the

car

of the

Asvins The brindled

(p. 50) -3.


dog4
hounds is found of in the

Yama,
as

called
descendants

in the form of the mythologically This indicates name Sarameya (p.173).


5

two

that

they
Indra.

were

regarded
There
as a

is

nothing in

the
in

RV. the

(p. 63), directlyshowing that


of later Vedic literature
as

Sarama6

of messenger there Sarama was she is

the

bitch, though such and Yaska by (Nir. u, (devaswii).


The boar
occurs

conceived

25)
RV.

is

described

the

'bitch

of

regarded as the gods'


the

in the In the form


waters.

as

designationof Rudra, figurative


this animal
appears it is the in
a cosmo-

Marufs, "anoTTrtra

7.

TS.

and

TB.

gonic
the

character
out

as

the the

assumed A

earth

of

by the Creator later development

when Prajapati of

he boar

raised incar

nation
In

of Vismi8. the later

is raised the tortoise to a semi-divine position beside or (VS. 13, 3i)9, or, as Kasyapa, often appears identical with Prajapati in the AVV the epithet svayambhu, he receives where 'self-existent' (AV. 19, 5310)10. In the AB. (8, 2i10) the earth is said to have been In the SB. Prajapati is described promised to Kasyapa by Visvakarman. he produced all tortoise form himself into as a (7, 4, 35), in which changing in postThis became the creatures assumed form of creator (7, 5, i1)11. Vedic In the TS. mythology the tortoise incarnation of Visnu12. (2, 6, 33)

Samhitas

as

'lord

of

waters'

the

sacrificial A

cake

(purodasd) is
appears in for
a

said late

to

become of

tortoise.

monkey who favourite,


restored
to

hymn

the

is

expelled
("
22,

his

mischievousness

(10, 86) by Indram, but


RV.

as

Indra's is

finally

favour

the objects of a pane rains are in RV. Frogs awakened by 7, 103 and and gyric as bestowing cows as to be conceived seem possessing long life, This MAX MtJLLER14 '3. been magical powers interpretedby hymn has, however, satire Brahmans. BERGAIGNE as a on interpretsthe frogs as meteorological phenomena^.

p. the

64).

152

in. RELIGION,

WELTL,

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

i A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

SEE. thinks i ORV. 46, 62; BLOOMFIELD, 42, 625. 664, who Aja .72; SEE. reference TB. to 3, I, 28 ('Ajaekapad. has ekapad is undoubtedly the Sun, with is not which, however, risen in the east',"c.),a passage cogent for the Rigvedic 4 2 WVB. ORV. 3 1894, p. 26, n. 2. 78. Cp. HOPKINS, The conception. SEE. 5 Cp. WHITNEY, BLOOMFIELD, 42, 500. Dog in the RV., AJP. 1894, 154"5;
" " " "

Sanskrit KRV.
n.

Grammar2,

1216.

"

Op.

cit. Ii66b;
"

WACKERNAGEL,
?

Altind.

Gr. " 52 a.;

14, 58313, 493"9; 149; ZDMG. stufen JAOS. 136; IS. i, 272, note; HOPKINS, i" 9 Cp. IS. 13, 250. 178"89. Cp. SPH.
" "

DONELL,
14

JRAS.
494"5;

27, cp.

166"7.
OST.
-

"

'3

ORV.
"

ASL.

5,

436.

15

177"8; Entwicklungs8 MACDONELL, 17, 67. JRAS. 27, ii 12 8 1. MAC Cp. IS. i, 187. BLOOMFIELD, 70; JAOS. 17, 173"9. BRV. 100" i. i, 292 "c.; cp. HRI.

Cp.
"

KHF.

"

"

Birds figure largelyin Vedic is mythology. Soma is frequently compared with or called a bird1 (p.106). Agni in particular likened to or directly being spoken of as the eagle designated a bird 2, once is also sometimes conceived bird (p.3i)4, of the sky (p.89) 3. The sun as a

" 63. TJae Bird.

often

twice Vedic
same as

under

the

name

mythology is notion (cp.p. 39). The carries the eagle which


In lightning6. the

garutmat^. Garuda, the chief


main
off

of

The of

fact

that

Visnu's

vehicle

in
on

postthe
is
to

birds,is probably based applicationof the bird in the


the
for Indra and

Veda

the

Soma

which who

represent
an

the

Kathaka

it is Indra

himself

in the

appears form

of

Soma amrta. or Similarly in the Avesta, Verethraghna Varaghna, the swiftest of birds,and in Germanic mythology, the god Odhin to the transforminghimself into an eagle,flies with the mead of the gods (p. H4)7. realm birds as well as beasts are occasionally Ominous with certain connected they are supposed to be sent. Thus in the RV. the owl and gods by whom of Yama the pigeon are (" 77)8. In the Sutras spoken of as messengers of evil spirits'; the owl is 'the messenger of prey while the beast besmeared

eagle captures
the form

assumes

of

with RV.

blood
a

and of

the
omen

carrion
is
SV.
once

vulture

are

called
to
syena.
"

messengers

of

Yama9.

In

the

bird
i

invoked
v.

give auspicioussigns (2,42^).


"

Cp. BENFEY,
4
v.

29. 75.

"

BRADKE,
ZDMG.

ZDMG.

"

Cp.

2 BLOOMFIELD, HRI. 5 GW.; 356. 45. SEE. 42, 474. 31, 352 ff.;BLOOMFIELD,

glossary,s.
40,

FaR.
6
"

152.
II.

"

3
"

KHF. ORV.

"

BRL
9

ORV.

76.
or

" 64. Noxious


show
the

Animals.
Demons

These

generally appear
in the RV.

as

demons
to

demoniac

traits.
mrga,

are

sometimes

referred

with

demon beast' (i, 80?; 5, 29*. 323). One who (2, nl8; 8, 3226.662) is called Aurnavabha, 'Spiderreferred to only once brood'; another Urana, 'Ram'. (2,14*) is named The in form animal most this is the serpent1 common applied way Av. 2. This is generallyonly another of the demon (ahi azhi) designation Vrtra, who of probably received his name (cp." 68) as a formidable enemy

generic term

'wild

is mentioned

three

times

enveloping his prey like a serpent in his coils3. The Vrtra-slayer is said to have slain the serpent Indra, who is also called the serpent-slayer, 82 the of and Vrtra Ahi (8, the terms is clear where identity cp. 4, I71); interchange (i,32I-2-7-I4)jand by the 'first-born of the serpents' (ib" 4) no other can be meant than Vrtra' (ib.5). In several passages, 'Vrtra,the most
2

mankind

too, the
When
the
same

words

are

in

appositionand

may

be of

translated Indra's

Ahi

is mentioned
as

in

the

case

alone, the results of Vrtra, the god


or

'the serpent Vrtra'4. him are victory over


waters waters to
are

causing the
The

flow, deli
also

vering the
cribed
as

seven

streams,

winning
the

the

cows5.
the

des

being expressed by the root vr others. swallowed said to be are similarly They (Vgras) by the serpent (4, i;1; 10, ui9). Ahi with lightning is armed thunder and hail (i, 3213). He ahiis bright,for the Maruts called are bhanavah, 'shining like Ahi' (i, 172'); and the term ahi is applied to Agni,
encompassed (2, i92) among

by

serpent,

action

63. THE
who is
once

BIRD.

64. Noxious
as
a

ANIMALS.

65.
the

PREHISTORIC

NOTIONS.

153

is described

'ragingserpent,
a

like

word whom

is

besought to deliver an enemy occasionally used to express


is the first-born

(i, 791)5. Soma Ahi to (7, 1049). The plural of the of demons of race (9, 884; 10, I396),
as
a

rushing wind'

the Ahi The

(i, 32^4).
appears
to

serpent, however,

also

divine

being

in side

the

form

ot

Ahi
acter

budhnya
of Ahi In the

("26),
Vrtra. later

who

seems

represent the

beneficent

of the

char

Samhitas

the

serpents

(sarpah)
and

are

found

as are

class

of of
are

semi-divine
as

being
as

in

beings beside the earth, air, and heaven


in the invocation

Gandharvas

others. cp. TB. In

They
3, i,

often

mentioned
an

AV.6,
of

one

(VS. 13, 6; hymn of which


serpent
heaven

i7).

spoken They

(n, 9)

is sometimes the Sutras

inter

preted
to

offerings (AGS. 2, i?; PGS. 2, i49) are ,presatiated scribed; serpents are along with gods, plants, demons, "c. (SGS. blood is poured out for them (AGS. 4, 827). In 4, 93. i54; AGS. 3, 41), and its this worship the is to hurtfulness, naturally regarded as serpent, owing has to be propitiated. In a similar sense having a demoniac nature, which sometimes to made ants (KS. 116). are offerings
the

certain

divinities7.

serpents of earth, air,and

Cp. BENFEY,
7;

GGA.
Der 204.
6
"

392 261. SEE.

"

WINTERNITZ,
4

1847, p. 1484; Sarpabali, Vienna


5

GUBERNATIS,
1888.
"

Zoological
Sp.AP.

Mythology
3

2,

257.
note
"

"

Cp. Sp.AP.

"

BRV.
"

2,

GRIFFITH,

RV. PW.

Transl.
s. v.

i,

133,

i;
7

MACDONELL,

JRAS.

25, 429.
42,

\VEBER,

Jyotisa 94;

sarpa.

Cp. BLOOMFIELD,

631"4.
of
"

that form the in


name

The prehistoric notions. primitiveconception in the left a few traces from has not man beast, essentially order. These of a belief in beings of the werewolf are represented by man-tigers (VS. 30, 8; SB. 13, 2, 42)1 and by the Nagas, human beings does differ but in Sutras2

" 65. Survival

appearance in the

reality serpents, (AGS. 3, 41). It


connexion due
no

which does the


to

are

first mentioned
seem

under the

this
later but

not

likely that
Vrtra of the
on

serpent worship had


its For

any

with rather
trace

myth
the

of the influence

serpent,
the

development
on

was

probably
there is

aborigines.
other The when

the been

one

hand

of

it in the the

it has

found

prevailing very widely


found the the cult land

among

RV., and non-Aryan


among survivals the

Indians. natives

Aryans doubtless they spread over


the from belief in the

extensively diffused
of

India,
are

serpents
the RV.
race

\ some or

there Similarly,

possibly in
of the human

of

totemism
or

or

descent

of individual

tribes

families

the name of a seer or (9, ii42) plants. Kasyapa, 'Tortoise', priestlyfamily (AB. 7, 27), is also frequently found in the AV. and the later Vedic that of a cosmogonic literature4 as nearly related to power identified with of the SB. (7, 5, i5) the Creator or Prajapati. In a passage in the form tortoise (kurma}. it is remarked Here of Prajapati appears a is identical with all kurma 'therefore men that, as beings are the kasyapa, say: children mentions of the tortoise (kasyapa)'. The RV. tribal as (7, i86-/9) the Matsyas (Fishes) names 5, the Ajas (Goats), and the Sigrus(Horse-radishes). As of Vedic the Gotamas6 names (Oxen), the priestlyfamilies also occur Vatsas Kausikas and the Sunakas the (Calves), (Dogs), (Owls), Mandukeyas 7 The in father of Samvarana RV. (Frog-sons). (a name occurring 5, 53 10), the kings of the from whom claimed Kurus descent, is in the Epic called Rksa doubt whether the names of (Bear)8. HOPKINS, however, expresses a animals totemism in the RV.9 to ever point and of
a
t

animals

Cp.
ORV.

the

Man-lion
note
2.

incarnation
"

of Visnu.
s.

"

Cp. WINTERNITZ,
459.
"

Sarpabali 43.
mentioned in

"

69,

PW.

v.;

IS. 3, 457.

Also

154

HI.

RELIGION,
2,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.
8

Manu

19.

"

BLOOMFIELD,

Superlativeof go. JAOS. 15, 178, note.


Terrestrial

"

7 9

See PAOS.
"

PW.

sub

vocibus.
CLIV.

"

ORV.

85"6;
and

"

1894, p.
A.

" 66. Deified


forces of

Objects.

Besides
earth

the

phenomena

natural
as as

and nature, mostly aerial and celestial, well the of earth's features surface, as RV. It is the It is not

the
as

itself(" 34), various treated

artificial objects,are

deities in the useful to


Rivers man1.

worship of inanimate thingschiefly regarded since each object is regarded as a pantheistic,


fetishistic in its character.

but separate divinity2,

is rather

Mountains

as personified goddesses have (parvata)are often in the

already been
RV.

dealt
as

with

(" 33).

conceived

animate, divinely

being invoked as the singular.In


natural
or as

deities nearly twenty this


as

times

in the

capacitythey

never

appear

plural and four times in alone, but only with other

objectssuch

with

gods

plants,trees, heaven and earth waters, rivers, others (6, 49 M, "c.). They like Savitr,Indra, and

(7,3423,"c.),
are even

invoked
three

in plenty (3, 542J). Parvata manly, firmly fixed, rejoicing times lauded with Indra in the dual compound Indrdparvata

is

pair are spoken of as drivingin a great to to the offering (3, 53*). Here Parvata seems Indra. of as a companion anthropomorphically also Plants as (osadhi) are personified
The

car

and
a

be

i326j. besought to come mountain god, conceived


(i, I223.
are

divine.

The

whole

of

long

to their praise, mainly with reference (10, 97)^ is devoted and goddesses (v. called mothers *), and to their healing powers4. They are their another is In described whom text as trees are king. Soma, to subject,

hymn

of the

RV.

herb

to

be

used

medicinally is spoken
An animal
to

of

as

'goddess
even

born

on

the

goddess
order
to

earth'
remove

(AV. 6, I361).

sacrifice is attainment

offered to plants in

their obstruction

the

of

(TS. 2, i,53j. offspring


a or

Large
addressed
as

called vanaspati, 'lord of the forest',are trees, deities either in the plural (7, 3423; 10, 648)
with Waters

few the

times

singular
refer

(i, 90*; Val. 64), chiefly along


to the

and

Mountains.

Later
5

texts

adoration
forest

paid
as a

to

largetrees
appears is invoked

passed in
as a

The

whole

marriageprocessions (cp.p. 134). of Ar an van I, deityunder the name


10,

the

mother

jungle goddess, who of beasts, abounding


heard forest but in in her dark

in RV. without

146.

Here

she

is called

the

in food

sounds and

solitudes

deities,however,
even

play
in

and the tillage; described. are weirdly insignificant part very


ritual
seem

various uncanny
The
not

RV.,
while nected

in the

AV.

and

the

of
to

the have

lesser been

plant, tree, only in the domestic sacrifices;


more

the

Buddhist
human

with

literature they life than other any


group

closelycon

lower of

deities6.

B. Implements. Another and personification worship is

formed

deification

of

these

is by
the
tree

BARTH7
most

ritualistic pantheism8. The

objects susceptibleof implements of sacrifice. The of called by the rather misleading name the sacrificial of these is objects important
inanimate

by

various

post, which
in RV.
and 3, 8. anointed and
as

under The

name

of here

vanaspati
described
the

and
as

svaru

is deified and
the

invoked
axe,
as

is

well-loppedwith
set

adorned
go
to

by

and priests;

posts
the

up
or

are by priests

gods,
of the

gods
beside
of the
as

the

gods (vv. 6- 9). In


as

tenth

eleventh

verses

Apr! hymns10,
set
verses

the the

post is described
fire is invoked the
to

thrice anointed

with
to

ghee

and

being

up

let the

offering go

the

gods.

In other

same

addressed

sacrifice, as
The

the a more frequently goddesses (devlr dvdrah). (grdvan, also adri) pressing stones

hymns god, and

sacrificial grass

is twice (2,34; (bar/its) 10, 7o4) doors leading to the place of deified in three

are

hymns
more

(10, 76.

94.

175).

They

are

spoken

of

as

immortal, unaging, and

156

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

VI.

DEMONS

AND

FIENDS.

" 67. A.
volent

Asuras. called

"

beings
of

by
of

various the

Opposed to the beneficent Asura designations.


celestial demons
who
are

is

gods is a body of throughout the


as

male

Vedic

literature the adversaries


as

name

regarded
who The of

the

regular

the of few

gods
men

in their

mythicalconflicts
8, 65; KS.
RV. with the

and

only rarely appear


term, however,
demon. It is Indra

present foes

(e.g.
in

AV. the

8;16; 881).
later
sense

occurs

only
found

times
four

meaning. in godlessAsuras (8, 859). Otherwise they are only mentioned the tenth book, always as opposed to the gods in general. The gods, it is the Asuras (10, i574;. Agni promises to devise a hymn by which said,smote the said to (10, 534). The gods are even gods may vanquish the Asuras in the The Asuras word formidable have also occurs (10, i5i3). placed faith three times as the designationof an individual demon. Brhaspatiis besought to piercewith a burning stone the heroes of the wolfish Asura (2,3 o4). Indra shattered the forts of the crafty Asura Pipru (10, i383) and Indra- Visnu smote
there

only

times

in the

with plural

this

is invoked

to

scatter

the

the
also and

i oo

ooo

heroes

of

the

Asura

Varcin

(7, 995).

The

sense

of

'demon'

is

in the epithetasurahan, 'Asura-slayer', \vhich occurs three times applied to Indra (6, 224), to Agni (7, 13*), and to the Sun (10, i7o2). The older Rigvedic notion of the conflict of a single demon, god with a single Indra and mainly exemplifiedby Vrtra, graduallydeveloped into that of the in general being arrayed againsteach in two other gods and the Asuras hostile camps. This and is the A new regularview of the Brahmanas.

found

is

frequent
the

feature
are

of

the

gods
the
In form the

worsted

at

conflicts constantly described and the outset only win is the


of
are

in these

works

is that
most

by

artifice. The

notable
in

illustration of this notion


of
a

myth

of Visnu

takinghis
darkness

three strides

dwarf

on

behalf Asuras
to

the

gods1.
with

Brahmanas
to

the

associated

(SB.2,4,

5)2.

(TS. i, 5, 92). They gods, night and of Prajapati constantly spoken of as being the offspring as having been originally equal to and like the gods3. It is perhaps for this reason that malignant spirits deva sometimes included are by the term (TS. 3, 5, 41; AV. 3, i55j.
the Asuras ever, In word the AV. and

Day

belongs

the

are, how

later
a

asura

means

'demon'

only;

but

in the

RV.

the

is

predominantly
is the An that
name

(== asura)
the

of has

the

older.
to

attempt
of

Ahura designation of gods, and in the Avesta of 'god'is clearly the sense highestgod. Thus been made to explain the transition from this

meaning
the Asuras

from 'devil', of extra- Vedic


no

national

conflicts

There

or gods is,however,

tribes became

of which in consequence 'demons' to the Vedic Indian4. of

traditional evidence
to

in support
has

this view.

The

ex

planationseems
Veda shade
of

rather
as

be

found

in

the deva

following development
in its older

within

the

sense a peculiar Mitra-Varuna b, or especiallyapplied to Varuna whose 'occult dwelt upon 7. But the word or power' is particularly may a of 'craft' is also applied to hostile beings8and is closely may a in the sense connected with the bad Vedic of asura To the sense (10, I245. i383)9. poets therefore have asura must of occult meant 'possessor power'10 and as such would have been hymn of potentially applicableto hostile beings. In one

itself 5. Asura

compared
is

with

meaning.

It

the

RV.

(10, 124)

both

senses

seem

to

occur".
to

Towards
the

the

end
to

of the fall into


to

Rigvedic period the application of the word disuse. This tendency was perhaps aided by

the

want

gods began of a generalword

DEMONS

AND

FIENDS.

67. ASURAS, PANIS, DASAS.


power and

157

denote

the

higher hostile

demoniac

by

an

incipient popular
to

logy12 recognising a negative in the word in the Upanisads) I3. found 'god' (first sura,
B. of Indra and the Pan is.
"

and

leading

the

etymo invention of

group

of

demons

of

the

(10, 108; the alluded wealth Panis of the treasure to as or 6, 392) or (2,246; 9, in2). is a similar reference when There Agni is said to have opened the doors of described the Panis the gods are (7, 92). In one as having found in passage the cow the ghee hidden by the Panis (4,58*). The Panis are comparatively powerful, for they are said to be surpassed in might by Indra (7, 5610) and attained the greatness of Mitra-Varuna to not to have (i, i5i9). in the RV. The about sixteen times in the plural, but is name occurs in the singular also found four times Thus as representativeof the group. described Indra robbed Pani the from or are Agni-Soma as having cows is invoked the voracious Pani who to strike down (10, 676; i, 934), or Soma is a wolf (6, 5 114). with The word pani occurs considerablygreater frequency, and here oftener than of 'niggard', a a with as plural,in the sense singular especially From this signification it developed the mythological regard to sacrificial gifts. similar to those who the treasures of meaning of demons primarily withhold
heaven14. C. The word ddsa
or

demons

(6, 2o4. 392J, secondarily also of In nearly all the passages in Angirases, are the Panis. either mentioned are are named, their cows expressly

the enemies air,primarily upper his allies Soma, Agni, Brhaspati,, which these

its

equivalent dasyu,

is also of

used of

to

Its history is the converse atmospheric demons. Primarilysignifying the dark aborigines of India

that

Vrtra

designate (" 68).


fair

contrasted rank

with

their

Aryan
line

the as mythological historical and This is mythical is not clearly drawn. with individual of whose especiallythe case Dasas, some names even (e. g. to a Susna) lend themselves mythological interpretation, though others seem those of nonto be (e. g. Ilibisa)1^. Aryan men Thus both the singular (2, i210, "c.) and (mostly of dasyu) the plural to (i, ioi5) are frequently used designate foes vanquished by Indra, some times beside the of Vrtra is sometimes Indra name (6, 232, "c.). Hence called and is several the combat dasyuhan, 'Dasyu-slayer' (i, zoo12, "c.) times referred to of individual as dasyuhatya (i, 5i5- 6, "c.). In favour 'sent to Dasas sleep' (i. e. slew) 30000 proteges Indra (4, 3o21), bound a thousand cowstalls from the for (2, or won Dasyus i39), Dasyus Dadhyanc aid is invoked Indra's (and) Matarisvan (10, 48 2). When againstboth Arya and Dasa foes (10, 383, "c.) or when he is spoken of as discriminating between Aryas and Dasyus or Dasas (i, 51"; 10, 86IQ), terrestrial foes are This is probably also the case when Indra undoubtedly meant. fightsagainst the Dasyus in favour of the Aryas (6, i83. 252). Owing to the Dasas being so ddsa frequently taken captive by the conquering Aryans, the word comes be used to three times in the RV. two or of (7, 867; Val. 83) in the sense its ordinary meaning in post-Vedic Sanskrit l6. On 'servant', 'slave', the other hand, the Dasyus who cast down are endeavouring to scale heaven by Indra he burnt down (8, i414 cp. 2, i212), the Dasyu whom from heaven (i, 337), whom he vanquished from birth (i, 51"; 8, 66I-3)? Or whom he aids against the be demons. This must is also when the case, Indra gods (10, 541), the Dasyu, scattering attacks mist and the darkness (10, 735), or wins the and the waters after slayingthe Dasyus (i, iool8), and sun when the gods and the Dasyus are contrasted foes be meant must as (3, 299). A demon conquerors, between what
to

it

frequently rises

in the RV.

is

158 by
The

III.

RELIGION,
who

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

the

Dasa

is the

husband makes

of the

the

waters

(i, 32";
a

which

by
seven

his

victoryIndra
of the

wives

of

noble

Dasas, which, like those of Vrtra autumnal atmospheric. (6, 2o10 cp. 7, 103 9), are doubtless and ddsa the words As 'malignant foe' and then dasyu primarilymean them convenient 'fiend'. to render 'demon' I7,it seems by They are frequently the fiends of combated individual added names as a generic term to by thus commonly applied to Namuci (5,307~9, being most Indra., "c.), Sambara to (7, 19*, "c.), sometimes Pipru (8,32*; 10, i383), (4, 3o14, "c.), Susna Dhuni and Varcin Cumuri (4, 3o15; 6, 4721),Navavastva (10, (2, 15$; 7, i94), Tvastra and the to to (2, n19) 496-7),once dragon Ahi (2,n2).
forts
i

30$; 8, 85l8), (10, 438). (i, i742), are called


5,

husband

MACDONELL,
22.

JRAS.
"

27,

168 BDA.

"

77. 109.

"

HRI.
5 8

187.

"

OST. 106.
9

4,
"

52.
6

5, 15. 18. ff. 120


"

230.
2.

Cp.
cp.
10

"

Otherwise
BRV.

EDA.
"

58"62; Op. cit.


cp. Ahriman

BRV.
note

3, 81
-

GVS. ORV.

ORV.

164,

I, 142. 162 5;
"

"

3, 80.
to

AV.

passim;
et

cp. DARMESTETER,

Ormazd 86 'Herr'

Indo-Iranian 269 f. The meaning " ZDMG. OLDENBERG, 39, 70, note ZDMG. HVM.
16

was 2. s.
-

according
-

BDA.

(lord).
"

12

On
-

the
H

40, i,

347"9"

X3

Cp.

PW.

v.

sura.

etymology cp. v. Cp ORV. 145;


Grammatik 109"13. i,

BRADKE,
otherwise
xxn.
"

J5 83 ff. Cp. WACKERNAGEL, Cp. 'Slave', originally 'captive Slav'.


=

Altindische
"

*/"

Cp.

AIL.

" 68.
most

A.

Vrtra1. and

Of
most

the

individual

atmospheric

demons

by

far

the

mentioned is Vrtra, who is the chief frequently slaughterthat deity is said to have been born the most distinctive epithetof Indra or (8, 785; I0, 55). Hence grown is vrtrahan, 'Vrtra-slayer'. of This compound is analyzed in two passages the RV.: the 'May Vrtra-slayer slay the slayVrtra' (8, 78^) and 'Vrtra-slayer, Vrtras' (8,179). Indra's conflict with Vrtra is also frequently referred to with of Vrtra' and sometimes with vrtraturya^ vrtrahatya,'slaughter 'conquest

important
of

the

adversary

Indra

and

for

whose

of

Vrtra'.

It has
of His
a

already been
Indra

shown
he

that Vrtra is without

is conceived feet
or

as

serpent (" 64).

Hence

hands

having (i, 32?;

the 3,

form

3o8)2.

(i, 52"; 8, 6b. his jaws, into which Indra strikes his bolt (i, 526). His referred hissingor snortingis sometimes to (8,857; 5, 294 cp. i, 52". 6i10; has thunder 6, i710). He at his disposal(i, 8o12), as well as lightning, mist,

head, which 652), as well as

pierces,is

mentioned

several

times

and

hail

(i,32*3).
s

Vrtra'

mother
seems

is called
to

Danu

and
the

is

compared
ddnu,
as a

with
which

cow

(i,329).
times

This
used
waters

name as a

be

identical with
'stream'
term
to

word

is several
to

neuter

meaning
3. The

and is
or

once

feminine

of

heaven
of
a

same

the
as

sense

metronymic,
Aurnavabha

Vrtra

applied as a the dragon (2, 12";


to
seven

designate the masculine, apparently in


4,
as 30?),

well Indra

to

the

demon
The

(10, i2o6).
a

(2,nl8), and regularmetronymic Danava


by
the Indra and

demons five times

slain by
to

is used

designate
Indra
cast

demon
the

combated wiles of

doubtless

identical with

Vrtra.

down the snorting (2, n10), he struck Danava (5, 294), to release the waters (5,321). Vrtra has hidden a released by the waters, when (ninya) abode, whence Indra, escape the waters lies on overflowing the demon (i, 3210). Vrtra (i, 121"; 2, ii19) or enveloped by waters the bottom at (budhna) of the rajas or aerial space (i, 526). He is also described as lying on a summit Indra made (sdnu), when the waters to flow (i,8o5); or as having been cast down by Indra from lofty heights(8,3*9). Vrtra has fortresses, Indra which shatters when he number in slays him (10, 897J and which are ninety-nine (7, i95; 8, 822).

down

wily Danava

DEMONS

AND

FIENDS.

68.

VRTRA,
vr-tra

VALA

"c.

159

There 'to
cover or

can

be

no

doubt

that Poets

the word several

is derived

from
as

the

root

vr,
en

encompass'4.

times

speak

of Vrtra

having

(2, 14% "c.) or vrtvl (i, 526j, or as compassed the waters, apo varivdmsam nadl-vrt of rivers, (i, 522; 8, i226 cp. 6, 30*; 7, 2i3). being an encompasser the allusions is also to There These are etymology of the name. clearly it said when is derivation that Indra 'encompassed evidently a play on the avrnot Vrtra he uncovered the encompasser', vrtram (3,433), or that in slaying (i, 32". 5i4). A similar notion is implied (apa vr) the prison of the waters in a passage in which the (cloud) mountain (parvata) is described as being Indra and strikes the within the belly of Vrtra streams, placed in a covering is also said to be an declivities (cp. i, 576). Vrtra encloser (vavri), down (3,336J. (paridhi) of the streams above that Indra's understood shown It has been epithet vrtrahan was not only 'slayerof Vrtra' but also as 'slayerof by the Vedic poets to mean is of frequent occurrence in the RV. is This and Vrtras'. plural, which in the sometimes of various names mentioning always neuter, appears passages fiends individual result of Indra's conflict with the (7, 19*; 10, 496). The is the release of the waters Vrtras (7, 34^) or of the rivers (8, 85 l8)which (4, 42 ?). It is the Vrtras which, as well as the are 'encompassed', vrtdn born and he has to as (6, 2")6) fiends, he is to smite as soon destroy which With the the bones he slew of Dadhyanc been gods (3, 49 T). produced by (i, 8413) just as he shatters the ninety-nine forts of Vrtra (7,195). 99 Vrtras is regularly employed with The the verb term Vrtras, which ban, 'to when terrestrial also refers to and Dasas are foes, as slay', distinguished Aryas kinds of Vrtras two (6, 2210. 333). There as are, moreover, passages many in which it is quite as enemies celestial demons. to applicable to human as Then, however, it does not mean simply 'enemy', which is amitra (= inimicus) is but satru or at the demon 6, 732), employed with a side-glance (cp. Vrtra,
much is das the 'fiend' in the English word as This relation of 'devil'. suggestive
a

its present of

use,

when

applied
converse use

to

men,

meaning
then

is the

of of
a

that
vrtra

in in

dasyu, plural,as it
or

which is then

first meant

ffoe' and
can

'fiend'. The

zation such which In


as

of

the

proper

name

always neuter, Vrtra, but

hardly be derived
be based Avesta of the
on an

from

must

earlier
means

generali meaning
'victory',

then 'obstructor'. In the 'obstruction', is,however, a secondary development the Brahmanas Vrtra the is
sun,
occurs as interpreted

verethra

'obstruction'.
moon,

which

is swallowed

by
is

Indra B.

identified with Vala6.


This

at

new

moon5.

and twenty-four times in the RV. of the cows regularly by Indra or his allies, Indra whom especially the Angirases (" 54). Vala is a guardian of cows, he robbed when Pani of his cows for rent (10, 676 cp. 6, 392). He laments his cows taken when which has 68 He castles by Brhaspati (10, cp. 676). forced were by Indra (6, i815), fences which were pierced by Indra open summit which broken (i, 52s), and an unbroken was by Indra (6, 392). The TS. (2, i, 51) speaks of Indra having opened the hole (bila) of Vala and the best beast in others cast out how it,a thousand following. There are, several in which the word is still unpersonified. The ever, passages primary have been 'cave' (from the to seems meaning in these cases or 'covering' Thus is the word twice to root cover). (i, 624; 4, 5o5) used in appo vr, sition with phaliga, the receptacle of the (atmospheric) waters (8, 3225j and in the Naighantuka (i, 10) as of megha, 'cloud'. Indra a appears synonym is said to have driven the cows and out opened (apa var) the vala (2,i43) to have or opened (apdvar) the aperture (cp.i,32XI) of the vala containing connected with the release
10

word

about

160

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.
of the

cows

(i, ii5).
or

The
a

PB.

(19, 7) speaks
In several

of

the

cave

(vald)
word may

Asuras

sense (i, 525; 2, 12 3; 3, 3410). It has probably personified imme the latter in Indra's epithet valamruja, 'breaker of Vala', which occurs o f Vrtra' The after transition vrtrakhdda, 'destroyer (3, 45* cp. 2, 12*). diately in a passage (3,3o10) in which Vala is meaning appears to the personified and as having opened (vi ara) spoken of as the stable (vraja) of the cow the personification is not fully developed, Indra strikes. That for fear before and when is indicated by the action of Indra others, they attack Vala, being sometimes by dr, 'to cleave',Qiruj, generallyexpressed by bhidt 'to pierce', of Vrtra) by han" 'to slay'. The 'to break', but not connexion (as in the case of Vala bhid with the name is preserved in valabhid, which of the verb is a in of Indra is literature. Here Vala post-Vedic frequent epithet regarded as the two in Indra's compound of Vrtra, and associated the brother are epithet

the

being closed primary

with
the

stone.

passages

the

have

either

vala-vrtra-han,'Slayer of
C. Other demon five is
a

Vala of

and

Vrtra'.

foes times

Indra.

Arbuda

is mentioned

seven

times

(twice oxytone,
of Indra.
cast

proparoxytone) in the
whose
cows

RV., always
drove down head
out

He down

wily beast,

Indra

him

pierced him
tioned
nature two to
or

with

(2,n20. 14* cp. 8, 323), ice (8,322) or struck


times with Vrtra

trod

him

with

an adversary (8,3*9). Indra his foot (i, 5i6), as

off his

(10,6;12).
appears
to

He

is

men

three

(or Ahi)
is
a

and

be

cognate

in

him7. the
son

Visvarupa8,
Trita his
and

of

Tvastr,
cows or

three-headed

demon

slain by both

Indra,

who

seize his
in and
two

(10, 88- 9). He


three other

is mentioned

simply by
he

patronymic Tvastra
as

scribed
over

rich in horses
to

cattle (10,7 63) and

in which passages, is said to have been

is de

delivered

by Indra

Trita

though rupa, Mahabharata the In


are

related

(2, iiJ9; cp. pp. 61. 67). In the TS. (2, 5, i1) Visva the Asuras, is spoken of as Purohita to of the gods9. of and Tvastr Vrtra (5,22f.) the three-heated son
a

identical.
Svarbhanu10

is

demoniac

(asura) being mentioned


is described
as

four
sun

times in
with
sun

one

hymn
ness.

of

the

Indra

(5, 40). He fought againsthis


RV.

the eclipsing the eye The of

dark

wiles and

Atri put
several

the

(back)
to

in heaven.
In
mean

This

demon

is also

mentioned

times

in the
name

Brahmanas. appears

post-Vedicmythology his place is taken the lightof the sun'. 'withholding


Urana,
a

by

Rahu.

demon

slain
once

by
BRV.

Indra

and

described

as

having ninety-nine
ZDMG. 50,
;

arms,
2

is mentioned
i

only
i "

(2, 144).
2,

BREAL,
and

Hercule GW.

87"99;
"

196"208;
220
-

ORV.

135"6;
SEE.

665 f.

"

Cp. Agni
PW.

in 4,

to
=

cp. 2, 23. the words 94.


8
" "

3 BRV.
are

2,

cp. OLDENBERG,
-

46, 123
n,

according
Vrtra
2,

distinct 197.
i,
_

4 6

Cp. PERRY,
;

JAOS.
s.
v.

135;

'Restrainer'
"

HRI. GW.

HRI. HVM.

p\y. 531"2.

GW.
"

vala\ BRV.
OST.

319

"21.
10

Cp.

Cp.

519.

Cp.
ZDMG.

IS.

i,

3, 164 f.; LRV. 5, 508; BRV. 2, 468; 464. 507, n. i; LANMAN, FaR. 187 90.
"

OLDENBERG,

5, 230-2." HVM. 42, 213;

" 69. Individual


about
Indra eggs that

Dasas.

"

A.

Susna1. chief enemy

This
of

times forty

in the

RV., is the

fiend, who Kutsa, for


it may
i,

is mentioned
or

with whom
He

vanquishes him

(8,4o10- 1X), i. e.
he

(4, i612; 5, 299, "c.). He is horned brood a (cp. 10, 22"), from which
He is described
as

(i,3312).
be

has

inferred

545)2. He is which is otherwise spoken as a term asusa, only once applied to Agni and has strong forts (i, 51") or 3. He perhaps means a 'devouring' fort (4,3oT3), which is moving (8,i28).Indra in shattering releases the waters Susna's forts (i, 51"), obtains the receptacle of waters (krivi) in smiting
a

is

serpent.
of

hissing(svasana-.

six times

DEMONS

AND

FIENDS.

69. SUSNA, SAMBARA, "c.

161

wins when he waters destroys the heavenly (svarvafiJi) is four times of Susna (8, 40 T0). The name accompanied by in harvest'. In the two the epithet kuyava, 'causing bad corn or passages is used this word of a demon which independently as the name (i, io38. and result of the conflict between Indra refer to Susna. The io43), it may is not Susna always the release of the waters, but is als9 the findingof the cows (cp. " 58). Susna in his conflict (8, 8517), or the winning of the sun is in 'son miho with Indra of mist', a darkness, moves napdt, and a Danava is called is Danava who a (IS.3, 466) Susna (5?324)- In the Kathaka Susna brood of Susna in

(Val. 38), or

possession of
The above from foe.

the

amrta.
seems

evidence the

to

point
than the

to
a

Susna

having

been of
some

demon

of

drought
human be

beginning
view is

rather

reminiscence

historical

This

supported by
root
name

either 'hisser' (from the


B. Sambara. He The RV. is mentioned

must etymological meaning which s'vas,sus) or 'scorcher' (from sus, 'to dry').

of

this with

fiend

occurs

about

twenty

times

in

the

along
and

io38; 2, i96;
the

6, i88),and
he
cut

Varcin., Indra
Sambara Sambara struck the

fight againstthe dragon


when down the mountains

Susna, Pipru others, chiefly in re-inforced by the Maruts was the summit (3,474). Indra shook

(i, ioi2.

of, heaven
in

(1,54*).He
him down mountain from

found the the

Sambara mountain

dwelling
(i, 130?;
the

(2,I211)
down

and from

6, 26s). He

struck

great

Dasa

^Sambara,

struck down who of Kulitara the height Sambara, from son (4,30^). He is often said to have thought himself a little god (7, i820). Sambara forts, (2,i96,"c.), or a hundred (2,i46, ninety (1,1307), generallyninety-nine "c.). in The 'the word sambara the forts of once occurs neuter plural, meaning Sambara'4. These Brhaspati is said to have cleft and then to have entered mountain rich in treasure the in the (2, 242). Indra vanquishes Sambara interest of Atithigva (i, 5i6), but Divodasa of ig6, (2, generally "c.), and sometimes of both The two (i, 130?; 4, 263). names are usuallythought5 to but this is doubted refer to the same by BERGAiGNE6. person, C. Pipru. This times eleven in the RV., is the enemy fiend, mentioned of Indra's protege (Val. i10)Rjisvan, who and is aided offers Soma to Indra him in the conflict Indra with IOIT(5, 29"; 10, 99"). by 2; 10, Rjisvan (i, i383) or for him (4, i613; 6, 2o7) conquered Pipru. The fiend, who has the wiles of Ahi, possesses forts which shattered are by Indra (i, 51$; 6, 2o7). When Indra slew the Dasa other rarely mentioned Pipru as well as some he shed the When the waters beings, (8, 322). sun unyoked his chariot in the midst of the sky, the Aryan found Indra match for the Dasa: a acting with Rijisvan, shattered the strong forts of the wily Asura Pipru (10, 1383). delivered He wild the beast (mrgaya) Pipru to Rjisvan, overthrew 50000 who those blacks, and rent the forts (4, i6'3). With Rjisvan he drove out have black brood7 is Since called Asura well as a (i, ioi1). as an Pipru he a foe with a historical Dasa, it is doubtful whether represents a human scholars think8. The of a has the foundation, as some name appearance Sanskrit word si-sn-u as a reduplicated derivative of the root par or pr (like from \fsan)9, possibly meaning 'resister', 'antagonist'. D. in the in the
texts.

NamuciI0is

mentioned SB. He

nine
once

times receives

in the the

RV.

besides

several

times

VS., TB., and


RV. He is also

epithet asura,

'demoniac',

in later Vedic (10, 13 i*; SB. 12, 7, i10) and is called an Asura of in Dasa of the RV. three a four as spoken or passages and Namuci Indra (5" 3"7' 8""c.) is once as 'wily' (i, 537). In vanquishing twice associated with Nam! is Sapya as his protege (i, 537; 6, 2o6). Namuci slain like several other demons (2, 148; 7, 195) Or struck down (i, 53") by
Indo-arische

Philologie.

III.

1 A.

\\

62

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

i A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY. Namuci

India.
The the of

Indra

destroyed a

hundred about
the

Vrtra castles, slaying

and

(7, i95).

characteristic feature
head
Vrtra. of Namuci

conflict is that he

Indra

twirls ( }fmath) off

(5, 30";6, 2o6),while


Indra
to to

is said to twisted
foam the

Otherwise

is described twisted

as

having

pierce \rbhid) that (uartayd)the head


(8,14X3). The
the foam of
as

of Namuci Brahmanas the

(5, 307)
also In

or

have

it off with

ofwater

refer
one

Indra's of

cuttingoff Namuci's
the RV.

head

with

waters11.

having
Sarasvati The

drunk cured

wine him

passage beside the

demoniac

(10. 1314-5) Indra is described the Asvins aided Namuci, when


Panini

and

'not

(cp.p. 87). etymology of the name letting go'.In that case it would
E.

is
mean

according to
'the demon
Dasa

(6, 3, 75) na-muci, the waters' I2. withholding


is mentioned six times, association
of the

Dhuni

and

Cumuri13.

The

Cumuri
The

with
of

one

appearing as a dual compound being 7, i94)^rhe same alone said of Cumuri Pipru, Susna,,they were that castles their crushed were by Indra, so destroyed (6, iS8). They were sent to by Indra (10, ii39) in favour of Dabhlti, who sleep or overcome for him rewarded was (6, 20*3) and who by the god for his pressed Soma of mention the Indra faith (6, 266). Without is also said to two fiends, any
these

exception always along with Dhuni. is shown once two by their names
Indra
sent

closeness

(6, 2oT3).

them

sleep (2, i59; 6, 20^; (6, 266).Along with Sambara,


to

have the

sent

to

sleep
him

for

Dabhlti
'

30000

Dasas

(4, 3o21)
word

and

to

have

bound

Dasyus
Dhuni the RV.
hand F. V

for
means as an

without 'Roarer'

cords

(2, i39). the dhvari), (}/


of

in

in the adjective like


and
a

other

looks
arc

borrowed

also being frequently Cumuri sense on raging'. 'roaring, name14. aboriginal

used
the

in

others.
an

Varcin

is mentioned
but he and

four

times, always with

Sambara.

He

is called

Asura Indra

(7,99$),
is said
to

Sambara

together are
forts of the Dasa
varcas,

termed
of

Dasas

(6, 47 2I).
and
to

have

shattered
100000 mean

the hundred

Sambara

have

dispersedor
name

slain the
appears
to

warriors

Varcin

(2, i46; 4, 30I5). The

from 'shining',

'brilliance'.
Several names occur others, whose only once, are mentioned, along with and other Such are Vala, Susna, Namuci fiends, as vanquished by Indra. Srbinda and Ilibisa Drbhika, Rudhikra Anarsani15, (1,33 12). (2,14^5), (8,322), of prominent terrestrial foes. They probably preserve a historical reminiscence the last two of these names For have does it an un- Aryan nor appearance;
seem

do

not

that original individual demons likely demoniac attribute a designate

should like
the

have

received

names

which

Vrtra, Vala, appellations


516;
ORV. ORV.

and

Susna.
i

KHF.
--

52

ff.; BRV.

2,

333-8;
svasatha

GVS.

2,

163 ff.; HVM.


to

i,
3 5

155.
-

2 158"61. Cp. y'svas and 4 Perhaps through the influence

applied
neut.
"

Vrtra.
--

--

Cp.
PW.,
=

159.

of the

pi. vrtrani.
7

GW.,
2,

OLDENGW. but

BERG,
s. v.

ZDMG. the

42,
"

210.

"

krsnagarbha.
sense

LRV.

with

of 'filler'or

2, 342"3. 3, 149; EDA. 95; 'o 'rescuer'. LRV.


"

BRV.

Ace.

pi. fern.:
"

waters, 349,

ORV.

155. 5, 145; BRV.

BRV.

2,

345"7;
-

LANMAN,

JAS. Bengal 58, 28"30; Sanskrit Reader BLOOMFIELD, 375b; JAOS. 15, 143"63; n OLDENBERG, ORV. 16 1. 1893, 342"9; BLOOMFIELD, Gottinger Nachrichten 12 KZ. JAOS. 15, 155"6. 13 BRV. ORV. 8, 80. Cp. KUHN, 157. 2, 350; 14 Altind. Gr. 15 WACKERNAGEL, i, xxn. Cp. JOHANSSON, IF. 2,45; PERRY, who treats of all the demons combated by Indra, JAOS. n, 199 205.
" " " "

" 70. A.
RV. for

terrestrial demons

mentioned

always in

in the By far the most frequent generic name It is enemies of mankind, is raksas. goblins1, (upwards of fiftytimes) both in the singularand plural, nearly connexion with a god, who is invoked to destroy or praised for
"

Raksases.

or

64

in.

RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

invoked to burn, ward frequently (as well as some this capacity he

off

(10, 873-6, "c.)7. In destroy them other deities) receives the epithet of
or

raksohan,
These

'Raksas-slayer'.
evil

only spontaneously but also at the insti the RV. Thus speaks of the 'yoker of Raksases', raksoyuj gation of men. of and the Yatu sorcerers (7,104^; (6,629), and refers to the Raksas drives the Raksases hostile from One by away suffering sorcery 8, 6o20). in of the AV. and Yavistha a hymn (TS. 2, 2, 3*), (2,24) to Agni sacrificing

injure not spirits

demons
As
neuter
as

are a

upon of designation

called

to

devour

him raksas

who

sent

them.
as an

demons the
to

is both

masculine also in

oxytone and
may be form

paroxytone
the
root

(in

latter

case

meaning
occurs

It 'injury').

derived
in the

from AV.

raks

8, which injure

only

one

verbal

It is,however, possibly connected (cp. also rksay 'injurious'). it must have raks meant to protect9. In this case with the ordinary root off'. BERGAIGNE, however, thinks it may is to be warded 'that which originally of celestial treasure. have (avaricious)'guardian' signified third and A B. Pisacas. important class of goblins are the Pisacas. in the RV. The as a occurs singularin the form of pisdci name only once crush the here is invoked Indra to yellow-peaked(pisangabhrstim) (J" I335)-

watery

(2, 4,
to
seem

Pisaci and (ambhrnam} i1) the three hostile groups


three
to

to

strike down

every The

Raksas.

In
are

the TS.

of Asuras, and

Raksases, and Pisacas


Pisacas the
or

opposed
therefore

the

classes been

have of
as

gods, men, connected specially


eaters

of

Pitrs. with
flesh

would

dead.
corpses

spoken
term
to

kravyad,
be the

of
as a

raw

They are frequently (AV. 5, 299 "c.), a

which
restore

may
to

regarded
sick
man

the

of Pisaca10. synonym the Pisacas flesh which

Agni
have

is

besought
away

eaten

also thus apparently a kind of ghoul. Pisacas are (AV. 5, 295). They were human spoken of as shining in water (AV. 4, 20?. 3710)", or infesting (AV. 4, 368). dwellingsand villages about times in the RV. lesser group of demons, mentioned A dozen a the in and frequently later Vedic of Aratis12, a personification texts, are (a-rati)and, owing to the gender of the word, always feminine. illiberality of 'injurious' A group and female, is referred demons, the Druhs, both male twelve times in the RV. to about are Indo-Iranian,their name They occurring in the Avesta as druj (" 5, p. 8).

Goblins

of
are

various sometimes

kinds

crowd,
named The

but

usuallyconceived thought of as pairs. The


are

as

forming
10,

an

indefinite
a

latter

constitute

class

Kimidin,
nature

already mentioned of the spirits which


their
names.

in the surround

RV. the

(7, io423;

8724)13.
man con

sists in

and injury,

that of their various

speciesin
are as a

everyday life of kind a particular


whole least the
to

of

injury
with
from

usuallyindicated by phenomena or forces the spirits of dead


above powers

They
Less
more

unconnected

of nature,

enemies14.
due
to
a

seeming partly at personal than


advanced
a

be

derived

demons

mentioned

and

probably
are

which

conceived
so

as

kind

and childlessness, guilt,

forth,which
to

thought,are the hostile of impalpable substance of disease, in about the air produce in flying
one

order of

fection,and
Some

to

deflect which these

enemies

is

of

the chief tasks

of sorcery

I5.

of
as

terrestrial

regarded
foe

helping at
Arbudi
at 14,

others, with (AV.


i

3,24.
BRV.

25';
2,

but are spirits however, not injurious, are, the harvest for life the while or bride, weaving long their head, assist in battle by striking into the terror i45; u, 912)ORV.
"

216"19;
218"22.

262
3

"

'sorcerer':

Sp.AP.

Cp.

73. ORV.

"

Yatu
note

in the
I.
"

Avesta
4

263,

HOPKINS,

and 'sorcery' AJP. 1883,

ESCHATOLOGY.

71.
6
"

DISPOSAL

OF

THE

DEAD.

165

p. p.

i^s.

"

5
-

ORV.

269.

Cp. CALAND,
ZDMG.

Altindischer

3. 4. BRV. 2,

Cp. HlLLEBRANDT,
Sanskrit
"
"

33,
v.

248
raks 1.

"

51.
"

ROTH,
M

218; WHITNEY, FaB. 97"8.


60"2;
cp.

Roots, s. Cp. HILLEBRANDT,

c."
--

ORV.

ROTH,

FaB.

98.

"

15

Cp. RV.

10,

Ahnencult, Leiden 1893, " 9 PW., GW. Cp. " *" ORV. 264 note. Cp. J3 WEBER, IS. 13, 183 ff. KS. IS. 17, 269. 14, 22; 10312;
-" -

VII.

ESCHATOLOGY. Dead.
seers

S 71. Disposal
reference desire
to

of When

the the

death. it should

that

overtake

their

hymns there is little mention a it, they generally express enemies, while for themselves they wish
--In the

Vedic

their that the future life engages It is chiefly at funerals long life on earth. One of the RV. cremation concurrent. were hymn thoughts. Burial and funeral (10, iS10"13)1, (10, 1 6) describes a by burning, and part of another 'house The of clay'is also once one spoken of (7, 891). Fathers by burial. referred with with fire (i. burnt burnt fire and those to e. buried) are not the dead usual for the to was (10, i5M; AV. 18,,234). But cremation way knew reach world. the next The later ritual (cp. AGS. only 4, i) practically children this method; for besides and ashes of adults,only young the bones and

ascetics
With

were

buried2. of

the

rite

cremation

therefore the

the
to

mythology
the other

of

the

future

life

was

connected. specially the

Agni

takes

corpse

gods (10, i6z~4. i73). He places the mortal tality(i, 3 1 7). Through Agni, the divine bird, men whither the of the righteous, of the sun, to the highest heaven, to the world have (VS. ancient, earliest-born 18, Agni seers 2). Garhapatya 51 gone conducts of righteousness(AV. 6, I201). Agni the dead to the world man his body and then places him in the world of the righteous burns (AV. 18, 3?I). The the Agni the body from Agni that devours (kravydd} is distinguished that takes the offeringto the gods (10, i69). Agni is besought to preserve is his portion (10, i64). the corpse the goat (aja)* which intact and to burn the A with the sacrificial horse to before, as goat is also immolated go first portion for Pusan, and the offering to the gods ere, it reaches announce the highestabode (i, i622-4. Z6312- '3). In the ritual (AGS. 4. 2; KSS. 25, 7^)
"

and

world, the fathers, in the highest immor go to the highest place

the

is laid corpse ficed,it is a cow also

on or

the
a

skin

of

black

goat, and

when

an

animal and

is sacri Soma
are

prayed
on

to

heal

any

goat5. During the cremation injurythat bird, beast, ant, supposed


way the dead
to

Agni
or

serpent may
to
on

have

inflicted The world

it dead

(10, i66).
man was

(AGS.
and

4,

47)6.

The

thither

go is

with
a

the

smoke

the which

heavenly
Pusan which
a

distant

path

protects and

Savitr
announces

conducts the before

precedes
of thick

deceased

sacrificial goat (10, i74). The the to fathers,passes through


third vault of heaven

gulf

darkness

reaching the
provided with
of the
custom

(AV. 9, 5I"3;
use

cp. 8, i8). The dead the


next
1

man

was

ornaments

and

clothingfor
in the

in

the life,

object

(AV.
widow bundle
out

8, 431).
and of his

Traces weapons and thus

even were was

survive
once

(RV.
burnt
to

being 10, i88"9j which


with the from
10, 23" Die

still understood

Veda his A

indicate
of the

that

the

body
of

husband7.
to

faggots (kudi)
to

attached hinder death RV.

corpse

the

departed
way back

wipe
the

his of

track the

finding its
i82.

to

world

living(AV.

5, ig12 cp.

97l6)8.
SCHROEDER,
WZKM. 9, 112"3;

i ZDMG. ROTH, 8,467" 75; cp. BRI. PAOS. HOPKINS, 1894, p. CLIIII; CALAND,

4;

v.

altindischen

Todten-

und

Bestattungs-

66

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.
MAX the 9,
iv.

gebrauche, Amsterdam
ibid,
l
"

1896, S 49"
271
"

5"3

"

ROTH,

ZDMG. taken
5

9, 471;
to
mean

MULLER,
'unborn'
v. xxx.

LXXXII;
--4

HRI. Chand.

3.

"

A/a

is

by

some
--

(a-j'a) part.
xxxii. 6
"

HILLEBRANDT,
ZDMG.
12. 40,

ZDMG. ORV.

Cp.

Up. 5, 103;
711;

37, 521. Brhadar. Up.

MM.,
"

ZDMG.
7

HILLEBRANDT,

586"7.

8
"

6, 119. FaB. ROTH,

WEBER,

98"9;

66; BLOOMFIELD,

IStr. I,

AJP.

u,

355; The the

4i6.
"

" 72.

Soul.

Fire

or

the

grave the
even

only.
This

But

Vedic

capable of
continued

of the personality is based on conception from the body, separation

real

deceased

the body to destroy regarded as imperishable. primitivebelief that the soul was during unconsciousness, and of
are

believed is

existence
of
one

after

death.

Thus

in

whole

hymn

(10, 58),

the

soul

lying apparentlydead is besought to return from the indication in the Vedas is no of the it is wandering. There distance where in but Brahmana the statement later doctrine of transmigration; that a occurs do not who those perform rites with correct knowledge, are bprn again after food and the of death their decease (SB. 10, 4, 310). repeatedly become and 'breath' times the express Besides prdna, (several 'respiration', atman^ the usual terms of vdta, 'wind'), are denoting the animating principle parallel of animals (i, H3l6" i4o8), even 'spirit', expressingphysical vitality asu, of thought and the seat (AB. 2, 6), and as emotion, which 'soul', manas, in the RV. be to (8, 895) seems regarded as dwellingin the heart already in the AV., show that life and death (hrd) I. Many especially passages, and the terms or or manas departure of asu depend on the continuance \ refer to the conduct asiinita, 'spirit-leading' asuriiti) by Agni of the souls of dead the path between this and the the world other on (10, 15*. i62)2. Funeral ritual texts never invoke the asu of the deceased, but only or manas individual himself the forth. and the Hence as 'father', so 'grandfather', soul is not but is its a mere shadow, regarded as retaining personalidentity. obtain immortality only after partingfrom the body (SB. i o, 4, 39), Though men the corpse plays an important part in the myth of the future state, which is corporeal. For the body shares in the existence of the other world (10, i65; AV. which all imperfections 1 8, 226). A absent are body, however, from (AV. 6, I2o3), can hardly have been regarded as a gross material body, but rather of Agni (cp. 10, i66), refined by the power one as something like the 'subtile' body of later Indian An indication of the speculation. importance
(manas)
who

is

of the
a

corpse man's dead

in

connexion
which

with

the

future

life,is

the

fact

that

the

loss of

bones,

cremation, was a severe RV. (10, 1 63) the eye and his breath (dtmd) to sun
of the

after collected according to the Sutras were In (SB. one 6, 3"; 14, 6, 928). punishment n, passage of the

dead

man

is called

upon

to

go

to

the
the

the

wind.
as

But

this

notion, occurring in

midst

of
can

verses

which

refer

to

Agni

world,
about
his

Purusa

only be an incidental the (10, 90*3), where


the

conducting the deceased to the other fancy, suggestedperhaps by the speculations


eye of

the latter

becomes

the

sun

and

breath
of

wind.

In the

the

same or

spoken
contains

as

going
germ

to

waters

(also in 10, 58?) the soul is passage the plants, a conceptionwhich perhaps

theory metempsychosis'. the fathers trod (10, 147), the spirit of path which the deceased to the realm of eternal light(9, ii37),being invested with goes lustre like that of the gods (AV. n, i37),in a car or on wings (AV. 4, 34*), the wings with which on the Raksases (VS. 18, 52). Wafted up Agni slays ward by the Maruts, fanned by soft breezes, cooled by showers, he recovers his ancient body in a complete form and meets (AV. 18, 22I~6), glorified with the fathers who revel with Yama in the highest heaven (10, i48-10. i544"5). This is spoken of return Yama home he as a (astam: 10, i48). From

the

of the the

of

Proceeding by

ESCHATOLOGY.

72. THE

SOUL.

73. HEAVEN.

74. HEAVENLY

BLISS.

167

obtains

restingplace (10, i49),


to

when

recognized by

Yama

as

his

own

(AV.

ordinary belief is that the dead leaving this which the wicked burn but let the good go world between two fires, pass latter proceed, either by the path leading to the Fathers or by by4. The the In there that leading to the sun two "c.)5. are (SB. i, 9, 32, Upanisads the Absolute, the one of com know (as a consequence paths for those who world the other the of heaven, to plete knowledge) leading to Brahma, has been after the fruit of good works whence returns exhausted, the spirit rebirth. Those the of for other earth the hand, go to to 'Self, on ignorant
the

8, 237). According
1

SB., the

the

dark
1

world
ORV.
5 6

of
525.
to

evil
"

or spirits
2

are

reborn

on

earth

like

the
the
"

wicked6.
breaths
4
or

The

AV.

is

already acquainted with


HRI.

vital
KZ. HRI.

airs

familiar
"

post-Vedic
ZDMG.

literature:

153."

BRI.

23.

Cp. KUHN,
SVL.
121;

2, 318. 206.
"

WEBER,
227.
-

9, 237;

IStr. 1,20"1;

OST.

5,314"5;

HRI.

dwell, is the sky (10, (10, i48), in the is eternal of the third heaven, the inmost recess sky, where light AV. also (9,1137-9). The speaks of it as the highest (11,4"), luminous world (4, 342), the ridge of the firmament (18, 247), the third firmament third and the heaven (9, 51'8;1 8, 43), (18, 2*8). In the MS. (i, iol8;2, 39)
"
situated 73. Heaven. in the midst
-

The

abode

where

the

Fathers

and

Yama

of

the

i514), in

highestheaven

the

abode

of

the

Fathers RV. also

is said

to

be

the

third

world1.

The

abode

of

the

spoken of as the highest point of the sun (9,ii39). with united The Fathers the are or sun (10, io72. I545), or are connected guard of the shine with the rays for sun (i, 1097; cp. SB. i, 9, 310)2, and suns in heaven with them connected the (i, I256). They are step of Visnu said to rejoice in the dear abode, the highest are (10, 153), and pious men Visnu Visnu his three of As took the gods (i, i545). step steps to where
Fathers
are

is in the

exhilerated 3,
Stars

so

the

sun

follows

the

Dawn

to

where

pious
who

men

offer

sacrifice4.
are

also

said

to

be

the

heavenly (TS. 5, 4, Rsis, besides Atri and stars (TA. i, n, i2)s.


seven

world

i3; SB.

lightsof 6, 5, 48),and
are

virtuous ancient
to

men

go

to

the

men,

especially the
raised
to

Agastya,
tree

said

have

been

the

The

RV.

mentions This third


i,

beside
the AV.

which

Yama is
a

drinks

with

the the

(10, i35r)abide
in the
i

according to
heaven
211. 1 1
"

(5,43)

(no
2
"

mention
1

being
"

made

where fig-tree of Yama).

gods gods
172.

PVS.

JAOS.
5

6, 27.

WINDISCH, 74. The

FaB.
most

8.

WEBER,

Naksatra

2,

Cp. MACDONELL, 269; KRV.

JRAS.
note

27,

"

286.

to the future life are prominent references ninth of the RV., but it is also sometimes referred in the first. Heaven is regarded as reward to the of those who practise rigorous penance (tapas\ of heroes who risk their lives in battle (10, i542~ 5), all of those who but above bestow liberal sacrificial gifts (ib.3; i} I255; 10, io72). is The AV. full of references to the blessings accruing to the latter. In heaven the deceased delectable life (10, i48.i514. i62-5), enter upon a in which all desires are fulfilled (9, i^-11), and which is passed among the in the the of and two gods (10, i414), particularly kings Yama presence Varuna old (10, i47). There (10, 2721). they unswervingly overcome age dear and the welcome to Uniting with a glorious body they are gods and (10, i48.i65. 561). There see sons they (AV. 6, I2o3), father,mother, unite with wives and children and (AV. 12, 3*7). The life is free from imper fections and bodily frailties (10, i48; AV. 6, I2o3). Sickness is left behind

"

distinct and
books

in

the

and

tenth

68

HI.

RELIGION,
are

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

i A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

and the and

limbs AV.

not

lame that the

or

crooked
are

(AV.
in

and dead

SB.

deceased
often

3, that

285).
world
in

It

is

often

said in

in

complete
terms

body

limbs1. The
are

in

the

RV.

spoken

of

general

(madanti,

mddayante) as enjoyingbliss (10, i410. i514, "c.). The most detailed account is given in RV. There life in heaven are of the joys of the 9, 1137-". is unrestrained (cp. TB. 3, 12, 2?); and swift waters; there movement eternal light
there of be

is

food spirit
The of love

and

satiety;there
here

and joy, glee,gladness,

the

fulfilment

all desires. those

joys

referred indefinitely

to,

are

later

explained to

(4, 342) states (TB. 2, 4, 66 cp. SB. 10, 4, 4* ); and the AV. of sexual gratification. Accord that in the heavenly world there is abundance hundred times Blest the of SB.' the are a as the joys great as the ing to the of the the heaven RV. further In i32~ Blest, 3). higheston earth (14, 7, of songs is heard of the flute and (10, I357)2; Soma, ghee, says, the sound are and honey flow for them (10, I541)- There ponds filled with ghee and streams flowing with milk, honey, and wine (AV. 4, 345'6; SB. n, 5, 64).

yieldingall desires (kdmabright,many-coloured cows neither rich nor neither powerful nor are dughdh: AV. poor, 4, 348). There of the life in the Samhitas the To celestial Blest (AV. oppressed 3, 293). and the the lower in transient bliss Brahmanas and Upanisads corresponds is followed by rebirth, of the gods which of the heaven only those who know and the changeless joy of unending peace the truth attaining to immortality Thus the in life of the righteousdead by absorptioninto the world-soul3. in material which of heaven freed indolent, bliss, was clearly regarded as one which united with the gods, and all frailties they were from devoted was to and sensual joys (such as the gods themselves are music, drinking, occasionally alluded to as indulgingin: cp. 3, 536). world of material joys as Heaven is a pictured by the ima glorified of the righteous ginationnot of warriors but of priests4.It is the world familiar and where with rites i64), (10, (rtd) dwell in righteous godly men, what have and united bliss5. There with sacrificed they they are given of their pious giftsto priests (isfdpurfa)6, especiallyreaping the reward
There
are

at

hand

(10, i543 "c.)7.


above

In

the

Brahmanas

it is said that abode with

those the

who
sun

sacrifice properly

all attain union but

and

of identity

Agni,
(SB.
as

also

with

Vayu,

and with (aditya) Indra, Varuna, Brhaspati,Prajapati and Brahma 3, 10, become

2,

6, 48; n,
union
a man

4, 421. 6, 22-3; TB.

n6).
a

certain

sage

is described

having through
obtained
that

his

knowledge
sun

golden
certain

and
occurs

with the

TB.

(3,10, 9").
of

to heaven, swan, gone In the TS. (6, 6, 92) the notion

by
the

the

performance
in
a

rites

can

reach

heaven

without One

dying (fivan)*.
who

reads and
to

Veda

particular way

is said

to

be

freed

from

of nature (sdtmata) with (SB. 10, identity is born knowing a certain mystery a man again, have in the SB. the beginnings of the (SB. i, 5, 314). Thus we doctrine of retribution and transmigration.That doctrine (as well as the doctrine of hell)is not only to be found in the earliest Sutras 9, but appears fully developed in the later Brahmana period,that is to say, in the oldest Upanisads, the Chandogya, the Brhadaranyaka, and especiallythe Katha Upanisad10. In the latter Upanisad the story is related of Naciketas,who Brahma

dying again

attain
for

5, 69). As a in this world

reward

pays

visit to

the

realm

of for

Death heaven
enter
a

and

is told by and
the
or as

that the latter,

those who

have

not

sufficient merit
of

fall again immortality, of

into the

being

power born again and

death

and

upon

again with

body

cycle a stationaryobject.

existence

again (sainsard),
He

and

who

ESCHATOLOGY.

74. Visnu's

HEAVENLY

BLISS.

75. the

HELL.

169 hand,
2

controls
no

himself for
1

reaches
not in

highestplace.

On

other

there

is

hell

those

found
OST.
was
"

worthy11.
5, 315;

References
Manes
4

to

the
"

music 532.
6
"

performed,
si,
note

HRT. 411; cp. AIL. lutes being (vino)

205.

"

At

the
"

sacrifice
3 HRI.

played (KS. 84, 8).


1542"5;
to 8
-

239. VS. the 237


v.
"

ORV. OST.

1152.
FaB.

15, 50.
AV.
see

WINDISCH, 5, 293,
HRI. Litt.

115 433;
"

1545; 8.
"

IO,
"

15*.
7

174.
20
"

AV. the

6, 951. 1203;
same

For i,

references

idea

in

cp.
9

IStr.
HRI. GARBE

ff.
"

WEBER,
145,

ZDMG.
note 4;

9, cp. p. 15.

ff.; OST. SCHROEDER,


"

5, 317;
Indiens

204. Kultur u. TB.

175.
in 10,

HRI.

245;
Cp.

this
n.

Origin
Hell.

of the
"

myth,
If in

3, 118;

SVL.

i;

encyclopedia 3,4, BRI. 78.


RV. the

"
tuous

75.

the in
some case

opinion of
the kind in the future of

the

received
believed the

their reward
at
as

of the composers it is natural that life, if not As is in far


as

vir

have for

least

in

abode,
in

future the

they should punishment,1


AV. and the

wicked,

is the

Avesta2.

hell The AV. are concerned, the belief beyond doubt. of female below, the abode 193) speaks of the house goblinsand with in contrast called ndraka loka, the heavenly loka?", sorceresses, svarga is consigned murderer hell the this realm Yama To the of (12, 436). world, described darkness' 'lowest as (VS. 30, 5). It is in the AV. several times (5, 30") and 'blind darkness' (18,33). (8, 224 "c.), as well as 'black darkness' described in the AV. The also once of hell are torments (5, 19) and with in it is till the the SB. (u, 6, i)4; for not period of the greater detail Brahmanas that the notion of future punishment appears plainlydeveloped5. Katha

Upanisad
5,

(2, 143;

The and

same

Brahmana in
a

is

weighed
are ?

every receivingreward balance6,,


or

further

states

that

one or

is born

again after death punishment according as


i1).
the This

his works Iranian.


of

good
8

bad

(SB

n,

2, 7

33; cp.

12,

9,

idea

is also

ROTH

favours

the view

that
to

the be

of religion

RV.

knows

nothing

Evidence by death. of the of some is,however, not altogether wanting in the RV. Thus, 'this deep place' is said to have been produced for those who untrue are are (4, 55). Indra-Soma evil,false,and besought to 'dash the evil-doers into the abyss (vavre),into bottomless darkness, so that not even 'she that the of them (the one poet prays get out' (7, 1043); and may like about owl an demoness) who concealing herself, malignantly wanders and robber fall into the endless abysses' (ib. I7),and that the enemy may few below the three references and lie all earths are (ib.11). But such may evidence the be said to go beyond cannot showing belief in a hell as an The underground darkness. thoughts of the poets of the RV., intent on the to have rarely dwelt on the joys of the next happiness of this earth, appear still less on its possible punishments9. The of the Brahmanas doctrine life, is that after death, all, both good and bad, are born again in the next world and are recompensed according to "their deeds (SB. 6, 2, 22?; 10, 6, 31),but is said as notion the eternityof reward to or punishment10. The nothing there that those understand and also occurs do not who practise the rightly rites of sacrifice, of their depart to the next world before the natural term terrestrial life (SB. n, 2, 733). idea The dead all the of a formal must submit, judgment to which of the two seems or hardly traceable to the Vedic period. One passages in which indefinite RV. it has been reference to too to are found11, justify such In the TA. an (6, 5*3) it is said that the truthful and interpretation. untruthful are separated before Yama, but that he acts in the capacity of a judge, is not implied12. the belief in a hell goes That back to the Indo-European even period, I4 has been argued by WEBER13 the strength of the equation on Bhrgu cpXsfuai

hell,the

wicked in

being supposed
kind

annihilated

belief

hell

170

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

and
Varuna

the

fact that for

the
see

former

is described
of

in the
the

SB.

as

sent
are

by

his father for

prideto
a

the tortures
tortures

hell,and
But the the

latter

condemned
the two
seems

is
a

pride to undergo probably only


later
1 2

severe

in hell.

of similarity
torments

legends
to

coincidence, as belief in
in India15.
but HOPKINS SCHERMAN, Fa\V. GELDNER, 22,

of hell

be

development
ZIMMER

and
6
"

considers thinks
in
"

this conclusion hell is and loth Brahmanas:


6
"

pedantic.
WHITNEY,
ZDMG.

"

ROTH,
RV.

JAOS.
10,
10 civ.

in

3, 345; by the
4

that
AV.
5

referred directly

to

word

vtci.

"

Naraka

JAOS.
9,
-

13,

WEBER,
"

ZDMG.
7

9, 240 also

ff.

HRI.

175.
Or. 9,

WEBER,

238; OST.
8

5, 314"5.

JACKSON,
cp.

Trans,

of the ZDMG.

ROTH,

JAOS.

4i8ff.; SCHERMAN, ORV. 538 ff.; HRI.


12

3, 329-47; Romanische 147.


" "

WEBER,
5,

Congress 2, 67"73. 9 Cp. AIL. 238 f.


-

Forschungen
10

569 ff.; SVL.


"

I22ff.; KRV.
"

n.

287a;
-

WEBER,
"

ZDMG.

'4 '3 ZDMG. 541-2. 9, 242. OERTEL, JAOS. i, 42-4; JaiminiyaBr. ed. BURNELL 206. Altertumskunde Eranische I, 458; HRI.

ORV.

9, 237"43. KHF. 23; WVB. 15,

SVL.

152"3.
"

234"8;

'5 Cp. 1894, p. 3. SVL. 5"8; SPIEGEL,

" 76. The


are

Pitrs.
or

"

The

blessed

dead
are

who

dwell in the

third heaven

called Pitrs

Fathers.

By

this term followed dead


go of

first ancestors the


are

who (10, i58I0), which the the


are races

the
to

paths by
connected
of the

recent

the early or generallymeant who made paths, seers them (10, i42-7-15). They join

ancient

with
RV.

(third) step
to
are

Visnu

(io; i53

cp.

i,

I545).

Two

hymns

devoted

their

Their

different

mentioned

Angirases, Atharvans, Bhrgus, Vasisthas identical with the names tradition attributed the of priestly to whom families, composition of the AV.1 and of books II and VII of the RV. Among these The the Angirases are Pitrs Yama a ssociated with i4" 5). particularly (10, and of and earlier are as spoken lower, higher,and middle, as later, though all known known not to their descendants, they are to Agni (10, I51I3). The AV. speaks of the Pitrs as inhabiting air,earth, and heaven (AV. 18, 2^ cp. RV. 10, i52). The libation (10,i58). ancient fathers themselves offered the Soma once (10, i410 cp. 135*; AV. 18, 410), and feast with the They revel with Yama divine life as the gods,they receive almost gods (7, 764). Leading the same honours. the and the Indra on same car as They come gods (10, i510). the sacrificial on They are fond of Soma (somya: 10, I51- 5 "c.) and sitting grass to the south, they drink the pressed draught (ib"6). They thirst for the libations prepared for them with invited to come are on earth, and his father Vivasvat, and Yama, Agni, and to eat the offerings along with Yama 8~". i44'5). Arriving in thousands (ib. they range themselves in order the sacrificial ground (10, i510-"). When on the Pitrs come to the sacrifice, evil spirits sometimes intrude into their societyin the guiseof friends accord ing to the AV. (18, 228).
2-

praise(10, 15. 54). as Navagvas, Vairupas, by name the last four (10, i44~6. i58), being

The

Fathers is referred the

receive
to

oblations
the
term

as

their
svadha

food, which
as

in

one

(10, 143)
call to

with

contrasted

with

svaha,

passage the

gods2; so too in the later ritual the portion of the gods at the of the Pitrs (SB. 4, that daily pressingswas strictly distinguishedfrom 4, 22). They receive worship, are entreated to hear, intercede for and pro tect their votaries, and sin invoked for any not to injuretheir descendants 6 5is committed im humanly againstthem (10, i52cp. 3, 552). Their favour plored along with that of the dawns, streams, mountains, heaven and earth, Pusan and the Rbhus (6, 52*. 75"; 7, 3512; i, 106*). They are besought to give riches, and offspring, (10, is?-11;AV. 18, 314. long life to their sons who desire to be in their good graces 462), (10, i46).The Vasisthas collec-

172

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

him

heaven. In his abode (sddand2) being in the highest is surrounded of the gods (devamana] Yama home is the by songs which of the flute (10, i357). and the sound and he is Soma I4), pressed for Yama, ghee is offered to him (10, i/j.1-^ and the himself the sacrifice on seat (10, i44). to place is besought to come is invoked to lead his worshippersto the gods and to prolong life (10,i414). He

along with

YamI

as

his as Saranyu is mentioned the Vaiby (10, i;1). patronymic vasvata "c.). This trait is Indo-Iranian, for in the Avesta Vivanhvant, (10, 14.*, who the first man as pressed Soma, is said to have received Yima as a son 3
His father

is Vivasvat
He

(10, i45) with


several

whom

mother

is

also

times

called

is described Yama as (18, 232 cp. 36l~~2) superiorto none. Vivasvat, being surpassed by and Yarn! call themselves In their dialogue in the RV. (10, io4) Yama and the water children of Gandharva nymph (apydyosa)*.Yam! further speaks is said to have of Yama (v. 3) as the 'only mortal'. In another hymn Yama his body (10, i34)5. He death and abandoned chosen passed6to the other the ancient fathers passed to where world, findingout the path for' many, died (AV. 18, 313). Here that first of He mortals the was (10, 2). 14'away later 'mortals' can even mean 'men', though spoken of as gods are only be he would first and oldest of As the dead mortal7. easily regarded as
in

reward.

In

the

AV.

himself

the

chief

of

the

dead

that

followed

him8.

He Yama

is called
men come

'lord of settlers' in later texts


62 cp.

'our (z'ispati)9,
to

father'
as

(10,I351)- Through
of

be

described

descendants

Vivasvan
RV. Yama

(TS. 6, 5, adityah10
seems

SB. with

3, i,

34;

RV.

i,

the
the cp. AV.

sun; for the solar abode

1059). Even heavenly courser granted by Yama path


of Yama
to

in the

to

be

connected

(the sun) 'givenby


to

Yama'

those

who

become

probably means immortal (i, i632

835).
Death

is the

(i, 385) and


be
as

once

6, 2831. 93 J) he

appears

identified with

foot-fetter

(padbisa) is spoken of 97l6).Owing to such traitsand also


extent

parallelto

(i, i654; cp. MS. 2, 56; (mrtyu)11. Yama's of Varuna12 the bond (10,
death
Yama But in
must to
a

have

been

an

object

of

his messengers, fear in the RV.


to

certain
and

the AV.

the

later mythology Yama,


came means

being
of

more

associated closely
even

with the terrors

of

death,

to

be

the

god

death
In

(though
the
later

in

the

Epic

his

sphere

is

by

no

limited to
the

Antaka,
293; MS.
the 5, AV.

^\ hell) Ender, Mrtyu,

Samhitas
39, of

Yama and

is mentioned

beside

Death

(VS.
lord

2, Death

56), and Sleep


yamd
several

Mrtyu
to
comes

is his messenger
be the from Yama's

is said

24X3-4), and
The word
occurs

(AV. 6, Nirrti, Decease 18, (AV. 5, 30' 2; 227, "c.). In of Manes Yama the (AV. men, realm (19, 561 "c.).

13),

has

also

the

sense

it

times

in the

appellative meaning of 'twin'I4, in which in the dual masculine RV. or (generally


few Yam!

feminine), while ydma, which is found a or guide'. Yama actually is a twin with
sense

times
in

in the the but

the

of

'twin' also
is who

seems

to

belong
not

to

Yima

in

'rein' RV., means (10, io)'5. The Avesta (Yasna 30, 3).
RV.

sister of Yima
later

mentioned,

in the

Avesta,

in the later literature16

only, as
a

death

with her brother Yimeh, produces when Yama period of Indian literature, who punishes the wicked, the name was this derivation

the first human had become


to

couple. the god


be

At of

understood
in

derived the ideas

from 'to restrain': 7, but yam, of the Vedic age. A

is not

keeping with

is said to bird, either the owl (uluka) or the pigeon (kapota), of Yama with identified (10, i654 cp. i236)18 messenger apparently
The

be

the

death. be the

messenger

of Yama

and

of

death

would

therefore

appear

to

ESCHATOLOGY.

77.

YAMA.

173 of whom fuller

same

(AV. 8, 8").
is

Yama's

regular

messengers,

however,

two are dogs. They are four-eyed, broadof Sarama (udumbala], sons (sarameyd).They that guard the path (10, 14") or sit on the path (AV. i8,212). dead is exhorted The hasten to man straightpast these two dogs and to is besought to join the fathers who rejoice with Yama (10, i4IOJ; and Yama account

given (10, i4IO~12),


(sabala), brown

nosed, brindled are guardians

deliver

him

to

them

and

to

grant

him

welfare
men

and

freedom about

from

disease. the
en

Delightingin
peoples joyment
in the
as

lives

(asutrp)they
messengers. the sun. those
enter

watch

and

wander
to

among

Yama's

They
Their
who

are

entreated

grant continued
seem

of the

lightof

functions
are

therefore in
In

to

consist
on

trackingout

path over eyed yellow-eared dog keeps


from this world of
to

men among who those

to

die, and
Yama.

keeping guard
the Avesta
a

the watch

realm
at

of

four-

the head with his

of the Cinvat

bridge I9, which

leads from

the fiend barking scares away There hell20. them to holy ones, drag does sufficient be for that the evidence not to two seem dogs of supposing Yama the souls of the wicked, though it is were regarded as keeping out RV. quite possible that they were so regarded21. If, however. 7, 552~5 is the exclude the object of the dogs was to rightlyinterpreted by AuFRECHT22, wicked. In the AV. the messengers him of Yama, sent are by men, among spoken of both in the plural (AV. 8, 2Ir. 811) and the dual (AV. 5, 3o6). Of is described the two dogs one as sabala, 'brindled' and the other as sydma, the

next, and

the

souls

the

lest he

should

'dark' but

(AV.

8, i9).

The has

word

sabala called in

has

been

identified with

Kspj3spo;23,

been equation (i, 93) thinks question24. BERGAIGNE the two form of Yama dogs are simply another (as fire)and YamI; and the trait of the later mythology, which Yama as coming to fetch the represents dead is him identifies BLOOMFiELD25 as himself, regarded by primary (1,92). Yama's moon26. and two dogs with sun The from all the available evidence most to be drawn probable conclusion the most to seems a be, that Yama mythological type found among represents diverse This would chief that of the of the of souls the peoples, departed. mankind and the naturally follow from his being the mythical first father of first of those that died. The myth of the primeval twins that produced the human The the race, Yama
to

this

and clear

Yam! Yama

Ytma the

and

Yimeh

27, seems

to 10,

be

Indo-Iranian. shows

attempt
belief in

of

guiltof

incest in RV.

10,

that

been himself have already existed28. Yama may period as a king of a golden age, since in the Avesta he is the ruler of an earthly29,and in RV. that of a heavenly para dise. That Yama is the view conceived of ROTH was as a originally man, and other scholars^0. E. H. MEYER, later creation be to a thinkingYamI like Indrani and represented others, believes that Yama, the twin, originally that

incest

regarded

in the Indo-Iranian

the

soul

as

the

alter

ego^.
a

number

of

other

scholars Some

believe he

that
was
a

Yama form of is the

originally represented
of the

Agni^2,
dead^s.

the

sun^

the

of nature. phenomenon parting day 3*, or the


3"3 thinks

think

sun setting

and

thus

god
dying
with

HILLEBRANDT thus the mortal

Yama of the

is the
sun

moon,

in which

typical,and
Manes. Iranian where He

child

and

closelyconnected
or

him, however, to have been a moon-god in either the Avesta period only, but no longer so he is merely king of a terrestrial paradise or of the realm
i

considers

in the the

Indo-

Veda,

of the Blest.
7; 18

By

LRV.

4,

134
RV.

56. 3

70^

which
cp.

seems

regarded always to
10,

as

hell.
the

"

This

abode

(also AV.
or

2,

12

mean

world

of Yama

the

place of
to
a

burial

TA.

6, 7, 26 of Yama'. A

18U)
Yama,

is

understood

harmya

of

spoken

of in

AV.

refer to by PVS. I, 242 18, 455, is understood

'chapel by EHNI

174

HI-

RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

A.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

to

mean

'tomb'

(cp,
these

SVL.
two

138).
as

3
"

Cp.
with
6

ROTH,
Vivasvat

ZDMG. and Nir. is 14,

2,

218.
"

MM.,
The

with inter 113.


once

Sayana, pretation
7

regards
is 128.
"

identical

Saranyu.
"

doubtful,
8

cp. KHF. and

SVL.
21

146.
"

Cp.
--

ROTH,

Erl. often

'138;
said
"

SVL. of

"

HRI. twice
mean

SVL.
I0
"

137.

9Vispati
ROTH, BLOOMFIELD,
IS.

Agni,
the

or

of

Indra 'Yama

Varuna.

Cp.

393.

But

"

passage
13
"

may 155.
heaven:

(and)
cit.

Death'."
note
I.

"

Cp.
fl5
SB.
*?

AJP.
Yarn! TA. the 130,

11,

354"5.

SVL.
as

J4
"

Op.
4,

142,

Yama 7, This
18

and
2,

mentioned

"

together
16
--

in Era-

TS.

2,

53;

VS.
i, KZ.

12,

63;
"

11"; is SVL. also

6,

42.

SPIEGEL,
of
19

nische KZ.
reason

Altertumskunde
n,
to

527.
32,

explanation
note

GRASSMANN,
There
is
no

13;
assume

LEUMANN,
such

301.
in

"

3.

"

bridge
RV. 152;
10,

RV.

9,

412 SVL.
22

(Cp.

SVL.

no)
2"
"

nor

river 42,

(WEBER,
LXXIV.
"

Indische
21

Skizzen 419; 274. IS.


i,
"

10)
SVL.
23

in

631"

(cp.
"

ill).
is.
4,

SEE. Cp. AIL.

AIL.

127.

ORV. Vedica

538.
und

341
"

ff.;

421;

KRV.
2,

note

BENFEY, MM.,
note

Verwandtes 250;
VAN DEN

149

64;
2,

KUHN,
595;

KZ. Selected

314;

WEBER,

2,

298;
KRV.

Chips
274
a;
note

42,

LSL.

(1891),

Essays 1883.
"

(1881),
24

494;

GHEYN,

Cerbere,

Brussels

Cp.
14
a

ROHDE,

Psyche
p.
101,
note

i,

280,

i.
"

25

JAOS.
9 cp.

1893, day
and

P-

l"3

"

72.,
SB.

26
"

Kath. I, 51

37.
(moon

(MS.

2),
on

Kauslt.

Br. of Yama Calcutta

n,

(=
also

night);

II,

heavenly
pp. 225. 94. 510

dog);
96;
"

the

dogs

RAJENDRALALA
2,

MITRA,
Sp.AP.

PRASB. 239"40;

May
HVM.

1881,
i,
28
"

Indo-Aryans,
CASARTELLI,
3,

1881,
of

156"65;
BOR.
et

i;

Dog
DARMESTETER,

Death,
Ormazd been the IS. 14,

4,

269

f.
"

27

Sp.AP.

246.
ZDMG. SVL. fur K.

ROTH,
420;
n.

JAOS.
on

335;
of

Ahriman
man

106.
"

29

ROTH,
cp.

4,

traces

Yima ZDMG.

having
4, p.
"

first 392;

in

the

Avesta,
Festschrift
31
"

148

i.

30
"

ROTH,

425

ff.;
HOPKINS,

SCHERMAN,

HOFMAN,

Erlangen

1890,
229.
10

573
32

ff.;
KHF.

PAOS. BRV. YamI Gotth.


i,

May
89;
=

1881. cp. voice ved.

Indo-

germanische
suya SVL.
34

Mythen
n.

i, 12,
33

232.

208; Agni,
urspr.
35
"

WEBER,
of

Raja-

15, 132, WVB.

I;
n. 2.

YN.

(Yama
22"3;

lightning
Die

thunder);
p. India 26 "c.
224;

BRI.
p.
I

"

EHNI,
=

d.
2,

Yama,

1894, BERGAIGNE,
also HVBP.

(Yaml
Manuel

night). Vedique

MM.,
that

LSL. has

634"7;
36
"

AR. IF.

297"8;
i,

283

(sun

set).

HVM.

i,

394

ff.

7;

43. cp. 13,


cm"

On

this 3,

chapter

also

ROTH,
vm; OLS.

ZDMG.
i,

4,

417

"

33;

JAOS.

342

"

5; 3,

WHITNEY,
402"40;

JAOS.
OST. 5,

327"8;

46"63;
10"14.

WESTERGAARD, 28;
AIL.

IS.
22;

284"335;
69
HVM.
"

DONNER,
71;
i,

Pindapitryajna,
AP. 243
"

408"
Reader Der

BRV. 377

1,85
" "

94; SVL. des

2,96;
122"61;

KRV.

SP.

56;

LANMAN, 48,
421;

Sanskrit

85;

489"513;
1890;
Die

ZDMG.

EHNI,
des

vedische

Mythus
Yama,
PsR.

Yama, 1896;
ORV.

Strassburg
HOPKINS,
524"43; PAOS.

urspriingliche
xciv"

Gottheit

vedischen

Leipzig
177"207;

1891, 46,
29;

v;

HRI.

128-50. JAOS.
17,

204"7;

MM.,

SEE.

JACKSON,

185.

LIST
AB.

OF

ABBREVIATIONS.
auf
dem

Aitareya
Arische
=

Brahmana.

gebiete

der

Rgveda-forschung
Translation. Lectures
on

AF. AGS.
AIL.

Forschungen. Grhya Asvalayana


Altindisches

(1893)Sutra.

LRV.
LSL.
=

LUDWIG,
MAX

Rigveda
MULLER'S

ZIMMER'S American

Leben.

the

AJP. Ap.
AR.

Journal

of

Philology.
MGS.
Reli MM.

Science
=

of Manava

Apastamba.
MAX

Language Grhya

(ed. 1891).
Sutra.

MULLER'S

Anthropological History
Srauta Sfitra.

M^
MAX

MULLER. Samhita.

gion.
ASL.
=

MAX

MULLER'S
Literature.

of Ancient

NR. Nir. OGR.

MULLER'S

Natural

Religion.
and Growth

Sanskrit ASS. AV. BB.


BDA.
= = =

Nirukta.
=

Asvalayana
Atharvaveda. BEZZENBERGER'S
=

MAX

MULLER'S

Origin
and

of

Religion.
WHITNEY'S Oriental

Beitrage. Dyaus
and
Asura.

OLS.

Linguistic

BRADKE,

Studies. Record. OO. ORV.


=

BOR.
Br. BRV. Dh. DPV. FaB. FaR. FaW.
= "=

Babylonian
Brahmana.

Oriental

BENFEY'S
=

Orient
Die

und

Occident.
des

OLDENBERG,
=

Religion

Veda.

BERGAIGNE,
=

La Sutra.

Religion
des

Vedique.
Veda.

S.
==

Dharma

DEUSSEN,

Philosophic
an
an

Original Sanskrit PAOS. of the Proceedings Oriental Society.


=

OST.

MUIR'S

Texts. American

Festgruss Festgruss
=

BOHTLINGK. ROTH.
an

PB.

Pancavimsa
=

'Brahmana
Grhya

(=

TMB.)

PCS.

Paraskara
MAX

Sfltra.

Festschrift

WEBER

(GurupujaAnzeigen.
Gotter

PhR. Ps.R.

MULLER'S MULLER'S

kaumudi).
GGA. GGH.
und
=

MAX

Physical Religion. Psychological Reli


of the

Gottinger
SCHROEDER'S
Heroen.

Gelehrte

gion.
PRASB.
=

Griechische

Proceedings
of

Royal

Asiatic

Society
KAEGI, ROTH,

Bengal.
Vedische Studien. Worterbuch

GKR.

GELDNER,
des

Siebenzig
of the

PVS. PW.

PISCHEL,
and

Lieder GRV.
=

Rigveda.
Translation

Petersburger
ROTH'S

(B6HTSanskrit

GRASSMANN'S

j
RV. V,

LINGK

larger

GS. GVS. GW.

Rigveda. Grhya
= =

Dictionary).
Sutra. Vedische Worterbuch Studien.

GELDNER,

|SB.
SPH. SV. SVL. SSS.

Rigveda. Satapatha
=

Brahmana.
Books Die of
.

GRASSMANN, Hiranyakesi
HOPKINS,
==

(Rigveda IJ5BE.
STp.AT.
=

Sacred
=

the. -East.
.

Lexicon).
HGS.
HRI.
" "

Grhya

Sutra.
of

SPIEGEL, SCHERMAN,
Samaveda.

Arische

Periode.

Philosophische
Visionslitteratur. Sutra.

Hymnen.

ff Ninons,

India./

FrVB"pT
HVM.

HARDY, HILLEBRANDT,

Vedisch-brahmanische

SCHERMAN,

Periode.
=

==

Vedische

Mytho-

TA. TB.

IF.

logie. Indogermanische
Indische
=

Forschungen.

TMB. TS.
=

IS. IStr.

Studien. Streifen.

Srauta Sankhayana Taittirlya Aranyaka. Taittirlya Brahmana. Mahabrahmana Tandya Taittirlya Samhita.

(=

PB).

Indische

Up.
Val.

Upanisad.
=

Journal Asiatique. Journal of the American JAOS. Society. of the Journal JRAS. Royal
= = =

JA.

Valakhilya.
Vajasaneyi
Samhita.

Oriental

VS. WC.

WALLIS, WEBER,
der Wiener

Asiatic

WVB.=

of the Rigveda. Cosmology Vedische Beitrage (SitzungsBerliner

Society.
Kaus. KHF.
=

berichte Kausika Sfltra.


des

Akademie).
fur die

S.

WZKM. Feuers
und des

Zeitschrift

Kunde Oriental

KUHN, KAEGI,
Kausika

Herabkunft

Morgenlandes
YASKA'S Nirukta.

(Vienna

des KRV.
=

Gottertranks.
Der

Journal). (quoted translation).


Rigveda
Srauta Sutra. from YN.
YV. ZDA. ZDMG.
= =

ARROWSMITH'S

Yajurveda.
=

K.S. KSS. KZ.


LRF.

Sutra.

Zeitschrift
=

fiir deutsches
der Deutschen

Altertum.

Katyayana
KUHN'S

Zeitschrift

Morgen-

Zeitschrift.

landischen
neuesten

Gesellschaft. fiir

LUDWIG,
N.B.
The

Ueber

die

arbeiten

ZVP.

Zeitschrift
an

Volkerpsychologie.
refer
to

figures

in

parentheses

without

added

abbreviation

the

Rigveda.

CONTENTS.
Page
I.

Page
I

INTRODUCTION " 8 8 S 8
I. 2.

8 S
E. F.

41. 42.

Aditi Diti GODDESSES DUAL GROUPS


DEITIES

120

Religion ology

and

Mythology
of Vedic

123
124

Characteristics

myth

S 438
44-

DIVINITIES
. . .

.126
. .

3.
4.

Sources Method The


Avesta

of
to

Vedic be and

5.

Mythology pursued Vedic mytho


.

G.
H.

S 45LOWER

OF

DEITIES

.130 131

8 46. 8 47. 8 48. 8 49.

Rbhus
.

131 UrvasI
.

logy
8
II. VEDIC WORLD 6.

Apsarases.
Gandharvas

.134

Comparative
CONCEPTIONS AND

Mythology
OF ITS ORIGIN
.

136
Deities: Vastos

Tutelary

THE

"c pati,' IV. MYTHICAL HEROES PRIESTS AND

138

% 8 8
III. THE

7. 8.

Cosmology Cosmogony
of Gods and Men
.

138
"

9. Origin VEDIC General

" jig^JManu^^.^ 8
51.

"

"

^_JL___12^_
140 141 141 142

GODS
....

Bhrgus
Atharvan

S
and classi 15
21 21 22

52.
53. 54. 55.

S
A.

10.

character

S 8 " S

Dadhyanc
Angirases Virupas,
Seven

fication CELESTIAL GODS

Navagvas,
Rsis
....

Dasagvas,
143

8 8 " S

II.

Dyaus
Varuna Mitra

12.

56. Atri
57.
Kanva

"..__.
"c

^_^-^-^

145
-

13.
14.

29
.
.

145 Usana "c.


.

Suryj^
Savitr Pusan Visnu Vivasvat

^__^_._

30 32 35 37 42 43 V.

58. Kutsa,
AND

Kavya

146

J"T"
8 S " S S S
B. 16. 17. 18. 19.
20. 21.

ANIMALS

INANIMATE
.....

OB
.

JECTS
S 59. S 60. S 6
General The
Horse

147 147

Traits
....

Adityas
Usas Asvins GODS

Dadhikra,
Etasa,
B.

Tark"c.
.

46
49 54 54
1.

A.

sya, The

Paidva,
Bull.

148
150

The

Cow
.

ATMOSPHERIC

" 62.

The

goat, boar, tortoise,


Bird
.

dog, monkey,
. .

22.

Indra Trita

frogs
....

.151 152

" 23. 8
24.

Aptya
napat

....

67 69
71 72 73 74

" 63. The

Apa"m
Ahi

....

" 64. Noxious " 65. Survivals


about

animals;
of animals

serpent,

"c.

152

8 25. " 26. S 27. S 28. S 29.


S 30.

Matarisvan
....

prehistoric notions
. .

budhnya Aja ekapad


Rudra The Maruts

....

.153
.

....

"
VI.

66.

Deified

terrestrial

objects
. .

154

....

77 81

DEMONS

AND

FIENDS demons
......

.156
Asuras,

Vayu-Vata

....

67. Aerial
Vrtra,

Panis, 156

S 31. S 32.
C.

Parjanya Apah
Rivers. Prthivl

83
85
S 68.
86 86

Dasas

Vala

"c
.....

158
Namuci,
and "c. other 162
. .

TERRESTRIAL

GODS SarasvatI

" 69. Susna, "


70.

Sambara,
Pisacas

160

" 33. " 34. S 35-

Raksases,

terrestrial VII. ESCHATOLOGY

demons

Agni 8 36. Brhaspati


S 37D. Soma GODS
....

101

.....

165
dead
. .

104

S 8 8

71. 72. 737475-

Disposal
The
Heaven

of
......

the

165
166

ABSTRACT

Soul
......

S 38. Two
A.
B.

Classes
....

167
of
.......

Various Tvastr

Agent

Gods
.

S
116

Joys
Hell

the

future

life
.

.167 169
.170
.

S 39S
40.

Visvakarman,

Prajapati
.

118
. .

S 76. The 8
in
on

Pitrs

or

Manes
. .

Manyu,
NB.

Sraddha"c. The

119
was

77-

Yama,

King
23,

of

the

Dead

171

Manuscript

sent

September

1896.

I. SANSKRIT
The

INDEX.
unless

references

in

both

Indexes,
of

accompanied
of
129;

by ",
atrivat

are

to

pages.

Amsa
amsu

43,
104,

45,

46.

Dyaus
as

21;
sun

son

strength
his
m

144. 141.

114.

aiphas 121. Agastya 147, 167. agohya, 35, 133. Agnayl 125. ASni S 35 (88"100);
11, 23,

12; restrial
waters

the

ter

atharyu
Atharvan

form 57,

91,

92; his

the

" 52 (141); 139, H7


with 4. ah

70;

wfscTonT

identified
Atharvaveda

Agni

141.

97 ; his youth 91. Agni associated with Atri 145,


2, 7, 10,

Atharvarigirasah 143.
Atharvan

146; with

Kanva

145;
129;

with with

140,' 141,
"

142,170.

15,
24,

l6, 17, l8, 19, 22, 25, 26, 29, 30, 32,

Parjanya
Soma

84,
;

95

contrasted

with Soma

V'ad 145. Aditi "41(120


1

33,
44, 99,

35,

36, 38,

40,

42,

43,

Parjanya
129.

129;

with

6, 33, 44,

123); 13, 14, 45,46, 56, 121,


her
two

45, 46, 48, 92, 94, 97, 116, 121, 123, 124, 126,
142,

123, 130, 150, 151;


main characteristics with

130, 139, 141, 171.

145, 147,

148, 151, 152, 156, 168, 170,

Agnl-parjanya 126. Agnl-soma 126. agraja 117. agriya 109.

122; 121,
name

associated
122; 121;

Daksa her

etymology of
frees
her
sons 121.

from

guilt 121
the universe
122;

Agni kumara 75, garhaspatya 165, yavistha 164, vaidyuta


94,
112.

jagre

109.

identified with
121; her

arikusa

55.

motherhood

Agni's

aerial

form

92

his

friendship 96; as benefactor a 97, 98; as a bird 88; his births 91; his
thre"r"b~irths births burns
car

ancestral

Angira 144. Aiigiras 96, 97, 102, 139; as an epithet of Agni 143, 146. Angirasah " 54 (142" 143); 15,
44,

13.
122.

adititva Aditeh
adri 10,

putrah
60.

94,

105,

106, 154.

61,

64,
141,

67, 101,
143, 144,
;
as as

117, 145,
an

adhvaryu
anarva 120.

97, 162. 45.

105.

94;

his

~93 ; his many brothers 95;


"

130, 140,

goblins 163
and steeds form
92;

164; his
his
ce

^47, 159, 170, 171 cient fathers 142;


of the Panis 142;
are

Anarsani

foes

anavadya
anastapa"u
anastavedas
anas

90;

compared with inanimate objects 89; conductor of the dead 165, 166; corpse-devouring 171; his actions cosmical 98
"

lestial

157; their song of Dyaus 21. sons


142. 144.

36. 36, 37.


1 21.

angirastama aghasva 149. aghnya 151.

63.
45. 99, 119. 172.
10, 104.

jarigirasvat143,
|/aj99.

anagastva
animisa Anukramam Anumati

143.

99; of 90;

demon-dispelling 95;
95, 96;
name

domestic
the his

etymology

99 ; his father food 89; is foot headless his

aja 74. Aja ekapad S 27 (73" 74); 70,


72, 151-

Antaka
antariksa andhas
anna

72.

less and forms

for various

gives sin 98;


5, 6;

his

greatness

98; hidden_i4O^r46jhymns to Agni 140; identified with other gods 95 ; is Indra's


twin brother Indra

ajana 73. ajara 58. Ajah 153. ajasva 36. Ajaikapad 73.
atithi 92,

105.

ap

69, 159.
132.

apas

Apam
73,
with

napat "24 (69 70);72, 85, 88, 99; identified


"

95.

Agni
is the

70,

with

Savitr

with form

57; contrasted 97, 98, 99; his

Atithigva 64, 147.


atka

33;

Avestic

Apam

107. 145.

lightning form
100;
as
a as

98;
a

his lunar

Atrayah 145.
atri Atri

napat 8. Apala 64.


apya

96;

priest as 166 ; his roar a raksas-slayer ing 90; his seven tongues 89; as a serpent 153; son
Indo-arische

messenger 96, 97;

61. 35;
"

" 56 (145); 15, 53, 139, 160, 167 ; finds the sun 145 ;

apya

yosa

134,

172.

etymology
atrin
1 A

of the

name

145.

145.

Apsaras 136, 137. Apsarasah " 47 (134"135)apsujit 59.

Philologie.

III.

178

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

IA.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

apsumat 92. abja 73abhra 60, 83. abhriya 102.


amati amitra
amrta

asu

66. 166.
1

118, 119, 126, 130, 131, 138,


141, 142, 144,

asutrp 173.
asunlta

147, 149, 151,


associated

154, 155,

J56, 159, 160, 161,


170; 57,

asumti Asuniti
asura

66.
120.

162, 168,
with
102,

32. 159. 105, 107, 108, 151, 161.


III,

Agni
124,

113,

127, amba

87.
74.

24, 32, 36, 58, 75, 84, 97, 98, 116, 1*3, both god and 156; means demon 156; identical with 22,

60, 67, 95, 126, 127, 128, 126, with


Parvata 37, with

79,

with Kutsa

the with

Asvins Pusan

146,

126,
103,
Maruts Varuna

126,

Ambika ambbrna
aram

the Asura

Avestic 133,

ahura

164.
72, 91. 154. 119.

90, asurahan

7. 161, 162.

128, with

156.

Brhaspati 101, the 126, 128, with 57, 60, 126, with

Aranyani
Aramati

Asurah

Aratayah 164. arati 164.


45aristanemi
aruna arusa

S 67 A; 5, 39, 41, 57, 6l, 95, 96, 97, 119, 136, 1 60; offspring of Prajapati

82,
Visnu

126, 127, with Vayu 106, 126, 128; with 57, 60, 91, 126, 127,
Soma
an

arista

149.

82, 105.
75.

dark with 156; connected ness 156. Ahalya 65. ahi 58, 64, 73, 152, 153. Ahi 158, 1 60, 161; identical

128, 156, with 126, 128, 169; as


44;
stower

60,
;

Aditya
be-

god

of battle 62

of riches

56 ; his
of
his
car

63 ; his birth bolt 6, 56, 5 7 ; brother


57, of Pusan 57; 55; his leadingchar"

arjuna 88. Arjuna 146.


arnava arnas

with Ahi

Vrtra

73.

Agni

105. 59.

budhnya 70, 72, 153. ahibhanu 78, 152.


ahihan 149.

acteristic"64 65; contrast ed with Agni 128; contrast


ed with Varuna
a

Arbuda
1 60.

6l, 67, 160; his

cows

20,

64, 65,
in

Arbudi

164.
" 19
29,
120.

Aghrni 35, 36. 102, 103, aiigirasa (43); 16,


30, 33, 23, 34, 44,

127; 143.
Avesta

as

demon

the

Aryaman
24,

25,

atayah 134. ii. ata


atman

8, 66; etymology of the name 66; his father 56; slays his father 1 8, 57; his

45,

46,

aryamya avi 106. Asani


asusa asna asman asva

45.

wind

166; connected 1 66,


29,
42,

with

physical
his
the

features

54

"

55;
his

food

56

fightsagainst
146;
"

aditeya 30.

gods

18, 57,
size 57

avrjina 45.
75. 160. 93, 106.

Aditya

139,

188. 5, H,

gigantic

Adit'yah S 19 (43"46);
15, l8,
30, 121, 34,
20, 24,

42,
21.

26, 27, 28, 116, 117, 120,


sons

greatness 58; as and 62; immoral


traits cation

58; his a helper capricious

55, 94.

130, 106. 106.

142;

of

79. asvattha 134. asvin 131. 51, 128.


21

Dyaus
a-dhav adhavana

18, 19, 65; his intoxi 65 ; identified with Manu5 7; his steeds55; threa the Maruts tens 18, 81 ; his mother the wings of 56; clips
the mountains

AsvinI Asvinau

Apah "32(85"86);
"

identical 7. of the

"
124,

(49

54); 16,

20,

with

Avestic 70;

apo

mountains
12;

62; settles the 62; his parents


the
cows

24,32,36,40,41,42,43,48,
106, 151,
basis
are

Aptya

etymology

releases 59;

of

word 125, 132, 141, 149, ; 69. 162; their physical; 107. a-pya 53; their locality 50; 107, apyayana

the Panis 57; earth 61 124,129,154.


;

produces Agni and produces heaven


62;
is

red-white

1 ;

j originally japra
49;
are

13.

perhaps separate
matutinal

87, loo. aprl 87,99, loo,


97.

produces the produced from


to

sun

the

mouth ticism

of Purusa
as son

morning
53;
are come are

gods 51 ; perhaps evening star succouring gods 51 ;


and

amSd i ayasa

his truth

57; scep existence


12;

55.
135
sun n.

65;
9,

of

his .the

divine
to

physicians 51; the sacrifice three

Ayu loo, ayudha


arya
asir

140,

147.

steeds
streams

55;

releases

31.

Arjuneya 146.
62, 98.
70. 107. asuheman

and with
to
ence

59; supports heaven identified earth 62;

times

a day 50; ancient of their nature explanations of Dyaus 21, sons 53; are

Surya 57; transference


of Varuna's
20,
car

him

preemin

of Vivasvat and i asura IOO, 1 60, 161. 51 ; their wife 51; ahavanlya 95. their sister 51; their ships boat 52; associated with or Ida 139, 150. Atri 145, with Kanva 146, indu 66, 105, 113. 5
1 ; sons

the his 6 1,
as

66; shatters of Usas 18, 48, 63;


"

65

Saranyu

weapons

64;
winner

his

55; his wheel wife 57, 125; of light 6l; as 62.

winner

of

Soma

with 50;

Agni
asat

50, with Usas identified with Indra128.

Savitr

Indu

104,

106, 138.

Indra
12,

"

22

15, 35, 43,

(54"66); 6, 10, 1 1, 16, 17, 19, 24, 26,


36, 37, 38, 39,
4t,

Indra-nasatya 126. Indra-vayu 126.


Indra-kutsa

146.
154.

13. 8 Asiknl

31,
1.

42,

45,48, 53,

H5,

Indragm 126. ll6, Indra-parvata126,

i8o

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

IA.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

ghora
Ghosa Cakra candra
camu

127. 52. 155. 127. 106. Brahmana 125.


41.

Tvastr 23,
101, 141;

S 38 B;
34, 55"

115, associated his cup

12, II, 19, devaputra 126. 172. 56, 58, 82, 91, devamana Agni 118, 126, 138, Devavata, with the Indra Rbhus

of

96.

devasunl devah devi


devlr Destrl

151. 5.

116, 117,
133;
his

with
1

Caraka caranyu Cumuri with

16, 117, 13^; daughter 125; etymo


name as
a

120.

dvarah 115.

154.

158, 162; associated


Dhtmi 51.
101.

logy of the
mead

117;

his

162.

52;
1

shaper of

forms his
Tvastra 14.
son

Cyavana
Chandas

16; his skill 116; 160; his steeds 116.

158.
12, 12, 13,

I3aityah 123. daivya 100. Daivya 96. daivya hotara

Chandogyopani.sad VJan 57janayah 117.


janitrl 126.

Dyavaksama
Daksa dak.sa

144. 126. 9, 20,


21,

43,44,46,

121.

DyavaprthivT
126.

123,

46. daksapitr 46.

janima

daksasya pitr46.
daksina Dadhikra Dadhikravan Dadhlca 142. 95.
142, 124,

97.

jaritr60, 97. jalasa 76. jalasabhesaja 76. ja HI. jata 1 1 8. jatavedas 97, 119. jami 48. jlvan 168.

148, 149. 148. (142


141,
"

126. Dyavabhuml dyaur aditih 121, 122. Dyaus pitar 8. Dyaus " II (21"22); 2, 12, 19, 25, 27, 28, 30, 53, 61, 83, 88, 121, 123, 124, 126,

Dadhyanc
157; his

" 53
bones
the

143);
149, ety
142;

52/71,139,
mology
as an

144,

has 129; bull 21;


22

a as

boh
a

22;

as

father of
as

8, 21,
Indra

159;
name

as

father

of

21; 22;

conceived

feminine

ancient 162. 33, 15.

fire-priest 142.

his incest with


22;

J/taks72,
Tanunapat

1 1

6, 117,

132.

dadhyasir 106.
Dabhlti
damunas

ated
21,

119; associ Prthivl 90; roars Zeus 90; 8. iden

71, 99"100.

thunders

tanyatu 86. tapas 13, 17, 132,

95.
144.

tical with

167.

darbha

Tapas
tavas

119.

58. Tarksya 149. tigmasriiga 108. Tisya 103. Tugra 52, 146.
tura

Dasagvah 80, dasma 36.


dasmavarcas

58.
64, 140,
147.
'

Turvasa

146, 171.

Turvayana V'tr 68.


-tr

36. Dasyavah 62, 64, 98, 148, 162. dasyu 146, 157, 158, 159. dasyuhatya 157. dasyuhan 157. dasra 36, 49. I/da 121, 123. Danava 59, 158, 161.
Dana danu Danu
vi

drapsa 105, 113. drapsin 80. druh druj 8. Druh 164.


=

druhah
drona

61.
140.

Druhyavah
106. 92. Dhanu Dhartr
dhatr

115.
1 1

1/dha '115.
8. 118. Dhatr 13, 43, 116, 117, patl 128.
124.

(suffix) 115.

57.

Trksi

149. Trtsavah 64.

158.
158.
157,

dhiyas
Dhi
sana

Trasadasyu
of Tratr
trita
"

146, 147;

Agni

96.
it

6.
'

158, 159. Dhuni 158, 162. 158, 161, 162. 40, dhumaketu 90. Dasah"69(i6o 162);64,157.
Dasa
"

dasa

Trasadasyava
69.
S 23
7i"
"

149. 43,

dita
diti

dhrtavrata
dhena

121.

45. 162.

61.

121,

123.

Trita

(67-69); 6,
73,

Diti
div

S 42

(123).
10.

ydhvan
Naktosasa

64,
141;

47, with

80, 103, 117, Aptya 8, 14, 45, associated 66, 67; Agni 67; his abode
his

8, 9,

48, 126.
story of 168.
159.

Divodasa

87, 90, 161 ; Agni of" 96; Atithigva 147. divya 92, 136.
"

Naciketas,
nadlvrt

67;

fingers

17;

his

disah

9.

67, 105; associated dlrghadhl 45. with the Maruts 67; is dundubhi 155. remote Somaa 68; as Durga 73. 67. presser durgfbhisvan 72.

maidens

napat 131. napata savasah napti 105.


nabhasvat Naml

46.

tripastya 93. triprstha 107.


trisadhastha
trini

|/duh
duta

105.

83. Sapya 161. Namuci 64, 158, 161 mology of the name
"

2;

ety
162.

96.
160. 88.

narasamsa

100.

38, 93, 107.

|/dr
drdha
drti

Narasamsa navagva

36, 71,
144. 141, 144,

loo,

102.

69. Tryambaka 74. tryasir 106.

83.
162.

Navagvah
Navavastva naka 8. 153.

170.

Drbhlka DrsadvatI deva

158.

|/tvaks117.
tvac

87.

106.

8, 34, 156.

Nagah

I. SANSKRIT

INDEX.

181

nadya
nabhi naraka

70.
42,

patra
Parvati

133.
128. 74. 81. 86.

Paidva

149. Savitr
4,

92. loka 169. 145.

pathas 38, pavaka


pavlravl Paviravi
pasa
'

Narsada

praja 118. prajapati 118; Prajapati S 39;


16, 17, 19,
57,

33.
14,

5" ^3,
41,

Nasatya 49. ninya 158. niyutvat 82.


Nirrti
niska 172.

28,

46, 56,

73.

26.

I/pi 107.
Pitarah

nirnij 107.
74.

" 76;

164;

classes of
actions of

115, 117, 120, 140, 151, 168; identified with 153, and Savitr 33; Usas 119. j/prath 88.

170;
171;

cosmical

Nistigrl 56. nrtu 58.


Nrsad
netr

worship of 170.

145.
116. 19,

Naighantuka
4",
121,

25,

33, 45, 115,

54, 68, 73,99, 123, 124, 134. 147,

100,

148, 149,

pitara 126, 131. pitu 105. pitrloka 171. pinv 107. Pipru 156,158,161,162; mology of the name
his Pisacah
forts

pradisah 9. prapathya 36. pramantha 91.


prasava 34.

prasavitr 33, 34.


48. prasuta 140. ety- Praskanva 166. 161; prana
Prana 14,
120.

159.

161.

nyagrodha

pisangabhrsti 164.
164.
105,
in.

prataritvan 72.
Prasaha

57.

Pajra 52. paclblsa 172. Panayah 95, 98, 143, 144, 157;
their
cows

pisaci 164.
plyusa

putra
pur

69.
1

63

as as

foes foes

of of

Brhaspati 157;
Indra

punana 60.

06.

146. Priyamedha priyamedhavat 144. priya (Usah) 48. plaksa 134.

157. 159formed

pani 157.
Pani 157,

puramdara 98. puramdhi 37, n.


Puramdhi 124. 129. 129.

Phaliga 159.
5. Baddha
Babhru barhis
121.

74,

105.

patatrin 50. pati 51, 118;


with

purlsa
names

(deified) 154.
158.
14. 141. 124.

purisin
Purukutsa
;

103,

138.
125.

patnlr devanam

purudrapsa
Purumitra Purusa
to

147. 80. 52.

bila 159. budhna 73,

Brhadaranyakopanisad
Brhaddiva

pada 50. Vpan 133.


payas

105. Paramesthin

13, 15, 31, 166; 82.


12,

hymn

Brhaddiva

57.

purusasukta
Pururavas puruvasu

57. 135.

Paravrj 52. parijman 50. paridhi 159. parisayana 59Parusni

124,

brhaspati, etymology of 103. Brhaspati " 36; II, 13, 20, 24, 32" 38" 48, 71, 83, 100,
117,

37. the
sun

126, 129, 130, 132, 143,


his
abodes 102;
1

purodasa 151. purohita 96;


Purohita 160.

156, 159, 161, 168, 171;


=

31.

three with

identified his
car

64, 86.
I5"
2O"

Agni

02; his

and

Parjanya S31;

1/pus 37pustimbhara 36, 37. 90, 136, 138, addenda, 83; etymology \'pvL106. 30; his car
37, line
of the
;
as

steeds
actions
cows

lot;

cosmical
the

103;
as

releases

name

84

as

father
ill;

Puru

148.

pflrbhid 60. fructifier 84; his identity purvya 58as doubtful with Perkunas 8; Pusan S 16;
84
resembles bles
2 i ;

father of Soma

103; ciated
12,

alight-winner 102; his origin 103; asso


with the Maruts

103;
101,

associated

with

singers
a

15, 20, 35;


;

33,

102; hita

Indra

84;
son

resem

40,

82, 100,
his the

117,
car

124,151,
con

his song 1O] ; as his weapons loi;

puro
101.

Dyaus 84;
subordinate

of
to

Dyaus
Mitra-

165, 170;
ducts
the of the is is dead
name son

dead

35 37;
of

protects goats
Asvins

Brahma
{ LQ

iT,13,
15y"
97
1A2

14,

101,

104,

Varuna

84; his wife


126.
1 2.

84.

165;

etymology
his the

Parjanya-vata
parna Parvata
1 (tree)

brahman
lo*

101,

102,

103,
14,

18; 60, 106, 159.


51; 30;

parvata

10,

55,

Surya's messenger
35.
i

Brahmanas
10I

pati S 36; 87,


I30"
104, l68-

13,

154.
110.

is toothless

parvatavrdh palasa 112.


pavamana

VP? l61prthivi 9, 123.


Prthivi I24"

Brahma

115,

118,

II9?
2, 19, 21, 22, Brahmana

106.

S 34;
I26-

Brahmavarta

87. 81, 93, 94.

Pavamana

107.
106.
=

pavitra
pasu

Prsni Soma 108.

73,

74,

78, 125,

150.

47;

prsnimatr 78.
prsat) 79.

Pasupati 75.
pasupa

37.
12 1.

pastya
Panini

prsadasva 79. prstha 9, 68.

162*.

Ped'u 52,

149.

Bhaga S 19; 37, 44, 45, 48, 1 16, 123, 124, 149; his eye 45; his path 45; his sister bagha 7, 8. 45; bhaga 45, 46.
=

82

III. RELIGION,

WELTL.

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

IA.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

bhagavat 45.

jbhaj

45-

bhadrajani 78. Bharata 96. Bharatah 87, 135. Bharadvaja 147.


bharitra Bhava 106. 75. 117.

rain 79, So; their remedies 81; their roaring 79; as Soma of drinkers 80; sons

yama yama
Yama

172. 172.

S 77;

16, 19, 20,

27,

Dyaus

21;

sons

of Rudra Trita

78';their
associated
marutvat marutvata

steeds

with

18, 79; 67.

42,43,68,71, 139, 142, 144, 151, 152, 166, 167, 169,170;


his abode 172; his
1

1 ;

his foot-fetter

57.
80.

Bhagavata Purana bhajayu 46. Bhara'tl 87, 124.

marudgana
Marudvrdha

57.

1 72, 1 73 5 died 172;

152; messengers the firstmortal that his


;

80, 88.

steeds

171

path 172; his with connected


associated with with 172, the the 15.

ybhid
Bhujyu
bhumi

60, 162.
133.

1/bhu'

52. with vi
9.

78. marya Mahadeva 75, 76. Mahabharata 41, 85, 117, 142, 160.

the Yami

sun

172;

116, 137, 171, 8;


has

identical 173; Avestan Yima

bhuryaksa 45. Bhrgavah S 51;


141, 142,

(= Soma) mahi'88.
mahisa

108.

patronymic

Vaivasvata

yamarajan
Yamuna

80, 99,
ancient

170;

fire-

116, Mahi 87, 124. 1/ma 71, 108.

171. 86.

Yayati
153. 72.

139.

priests140.
Bhrgu
71,

Mandfikeyah
96,
139,
140;
matara

126.

yavasir 106. yavistha 91.

mataribhvarl

yavisthya 91.
16, 42, 92,
115, 129,

bhrguvat 140. ] bhraj 140.


Makha
140.

Matarisvan 99, 139,


100, 140,

" 25;
102, 141,

yajnika 99.

in,

yatayajjana29.
yatu

157, 171;
name

etymology
as matr a name

of the of

71; 71, 72.

8, 163, 164. yatudhana 163.


Yaska 15, 19, 33, 49, H5, 53, 39, 45" 34, 37,38, 68, 72, 73, J39, 151.
Hi.

63, 103. maghavan maghoni 48. Matsyah 153.

Agni
124.

71,

72.
vac

madhyamika
madhvi
maya

93, yuvan

99,

123.

I/math
mada

{/mad
madhu
141.

91, 162; 168. 128. 52,


44.

50.
24, 24. 40

(=

Soma)

156.

105. 49, 105, ill,


114,

mayin
maruta

yutha 124. yojana 47.

madapati

yoni
Purana
44. 24,

94.

Markandeya
Martanda Mitra

117.

13, 43, 7,

j/raks164.
raksas

Madhukasa

S 13;

16, 20, 23,

162, 164. "


70; 61
;

madhupa
madhumat madhuvahana

50. 105. 49.

25" 27,

45, 46;

33, 34, 40, 43, 44, etymology the name the Aves15, 16,

Raksasah

their

appearance

163.
no,

madhuyu 50. 87. Madhyadesa


manas manu

30; identical with Mithra tan 7. Mitra-Varuna


12, 124,

raksoyuj 164.
raksohan

95; 10,
111.

164.

85, rajas

9,

73, 158.

13, 166. 135.

106, 120,
15, 41, 139; first
42,
'

15^, 157;
12, 141,

Manu 43,
as

" 50;
140,

associated

127, 131, 148, their eye 23; with other gods

rajastur

|rathatur
rathestha

148.
55.

144,

145, 146;
as

31;
Mitravdruna 126.

IVrabh 133.
rayi
rava rasa 110.

first
man

ancestor

first

14;

as

sac-

mitrya
miho

45.

101.

rificer 139;
manusvat

called Vivasvat

napat 161. mlclhvas 75.

105.

Rasa

63.
125.

139.

Mudgala
MudgalanI

150.
1

j/ra125.
Raka raksasa

Manus Manor mantha

138, 143. napatah 131.


108.

50.

Mujavat
mrga

no.

163.
a

Manyu I/mar
Marutah

" 40.
81.

152. 161. mrgaya mrj 106.

Rajany
Ratri

13.
41.

124.

Ramayana
Rastrabhrt rasabha Rahu

18, mrtyu 172. 20, 23, 25, 37, 38, 40, 44, megha 83, 159. 76, 119, 122, 130, 142, 146, metr 90. 161, 166; Medhyatithi 146. 150, 151, 152, their brilliance 78; their Menaka 135.
2,

$ 29;

n,

12,

135.

50. 1 60.

j'ru 108.
160. ]/ruj

cars name

79;
8
1 ;

etymology
as as

of the

maujavata

no.

|/rud 77.
rudra Rudra 73, 49,

80" 81 in
;

81

allies of Indra hostile to Indra with 8

associated their

Yajurveda 4, 26. light yajna (= yasna) 7.


traits

75, 77, 127S 28; 12, 16, 20,

35,

ning 78; malevolent


character
as

Yatayah
Yadu

140.

[ ;

as

64, 146, 171.


172.

priests 80;

130, 138, 74, 119, 124, identified with Agni 151; 75, 77; his colour 74; his

shedders

of

I/yam

injuriousfeatures

18;

con-

I. SANSKRIT

INDEX.

183
|Vivasvat " 18; 6, 12, 14, 15, 116, 121, 7i, H4,
170, 172;
his

trasted of

with

Indra 75;
as

77;

his

varcas

162.
40, 156, 162.

malevolence the Maruts

father

Varcin

158, 161, 162.

43, 125,
arrow

44,

74,

78;

is his

vartaya
vartis
varsa

139,

mountain-dwelling 74; his physical features 74; remedies 76; is clothed in skin a 74 ; his repulsive traits 76; his weapons 74.
rudra-vartani 49.

50. 59.

42,

42, 43; his daughters 105; his messenger 42,

Vala

S 68 B;

63, 64,

102,

142, his

144, 159, 143, castles 159.

162;

72; his messengers identical with the Vlvaiihvant vis 39, 139. 8.

96, 141
Avestan

valamruj 160.
129. valabhid

Rudra-Soma
Rudrani Rudrah 142; 19-

76,
125. 5,
44,

160.
1

valavrtrahan 74,
I2O, 130, in number
vavra

60.

vispati 96, 172. Vispala 52.


Visvaka

67, 169.
159.

are

eleven

vavri
Vasa

52. visvakarman Visvakarman

31.

83, 84.
19.

Rudriyah 74, 78.

Vasatkara
Vasavah 142; Vasistha 140,
are

Rudhi'krk 162.
retodha Rebha
rocana

108. 52.
9. 9,

5, 33, 44, 120, eight in number 15, 64,

130,
19.

96, 134, 135,

" 39; 115, 117, 118, 126, 151. visvarapa 34, 116, 117. Visvarupa 12, 61, 116, 160; his of cows 160; as son
Tvastr

147.
47, 170.

67.
97. 37, 147. 97.

rodasl
Rodasi
roman

126.

Vasisthah
Vasu

visvavid visvavedas Visvamitra


visvavasu Visvavasu

78.
106. 115, 82.
14,

148.
107.

vasupati 63. 136.


17, 115.
vastra

Rohini rohita Rohita

136.
134,
'

|/va 82.
vac

136, 137.

109.

123.

Visve

Vac

Linga

155.
vacas

87, 124, 137, 145. pati 109, 118.


133.

devah" 26; 14, 16, 72, 82, 84, 125, 130, 131;
the
"

133-

vajra 55, 79, 109, vajradaksina 55. vajrabahu 55. vajrabhrt 55. vajrahasta 55. vajrin 55, 103. vajrivat 55. vatsa 84.
Vatsah
vadhar

147.

Vaja 131, 132, Vajapeya 155. vajin 149.


vata

hymns to vistap 9. Visnapfl 52.


Visnu

129.

S 17;
124,

4,

9, 10, 151;

n,

72, 25;

66.
as a

20,35,37,44, healer

45, H5" 149,


41,

16, Il8"
Ava

Vata

82;

his

121,
tars
as

steeds

55.

of
a

Vata-Parjanya 82, 84.

Vata-parjanya 126.
Vamadeva 147.
12, 20,

his his

39, 41, for Indra friendship head


becomes

14, dwarf
"

139,

151;

156;
39;
sun

the

153.
1

Vayu

2,

14.

vadhEyu 51. Vadhryasva 87 ; Agni of vanaspati 154; (= Soma)


"

116, 168; his car Indra's 82; as

72, 78, 1 10, and steeds charioteer

39, 41 ; as lord 39; identified


crifice 40.
41

of mountains

with
;

the

sa

96.
112.

55;

as

soma-drinker with

56;
:

identical vayu

the Avestan

Vandana
vara

52.
1
.

7.

Vayu- Vata
vara

" 30

(81-83).

Varunag 12; 3, 6, li, 16, 17, 18, 19, 29, 30, 33, 34, 40,
42,

106. 140.

highest place 169; his highest step his 18, 105; highest step abode of the fathers 167; as his steps 38; his three steps 29,156; his third step 170;
his

his

Varuni varya

wife

125. 39.
with

43,

44,46,48,
1/2;

119,

130,

123. 135. 107.

visnupada
vlra

168,
23; Avestan his the
as

171,

his with Mazda

abode the

108, j/va's
vasas

78.
159; apa 159. 52. 159.

identical
Ahura

|/vr 152,
vrksa
vrta vrtra

8; Vastospati 138. car etymology of vi-kram 37, 38. 23; 28 ; his face 23 ; vidyut 78, 92. name father of Bhrgu vidhartr i/o; 45.
fetters
Indra

(masc.) 159; 159, (neut.)

his with

26; contrasted 28; he and Surya


to

vidhatr Vidhatr

11

8.

115.

etymology of the word 159. Vrtra " 68; 6, 18, 21, 31, 39, 56, 58, 59, .60, 61, 67, 40,
73,

subordinate his

Indra

messenger natural basis 27; with

136;
with 25,

58; Vipas 63, 86, 88. his vipra 96, 144.


vibhaktr vibhavah
Vibhvan Vimada vimuco
a

80, 81, 119,

127,

147,

connected
rain

45.
131.

156, 157, 158, 151,152,153, 160, 162; his belly 159;


his forts

night 25,
with omniscience

29,

158,

25,
his holder tical

waters

26;

131, 52.

132,

133.

mother
the
moon

6;
with

159; identified

his with

26;
24;

as

of order
with of sin

up iden
as

napat

35, 36.

ciated

asso 57, 159; Indra 158.

U'jpavo? 8;

vimocana

36.

vrtrakhada

160.

punisher

26; his spies virupavat 143. with Yama 23, 24; associated Virupah " 55. 167. Vilistenga 57.
125. vi-vas 43.

vrtraturya 158.

vrtrahatya 158.
vrtrahan6o,
159-

66, 109,

114,

158,

Varunam

184
Vrtrah
vrtvl

III.

RELIGION, WELTL.
141,

WISSENSCH.

u.

KUNST.

IA.

VEDIC

MYTHOLOGY.

103, 159.

158,

159.

SusnaS

J/'vrdh 60,
Vvr? 59vrsan

72.

putrah 9, 69 A; 146, 147, 157, sahasah 160, sahasrajit98. 158, 162; his brood 161 ; his eggs 89. 160; his forts sahasramuska 168. 160. i6oj his horns ; satmata
13.
sadana

122.

108. 108.

sudra
sura

172.

vrsabha

58.
173. 52. 119. 161. 160. 149. 153. 168.
120.

sadhya 130.
39, Samaveda
sanu

Vrsakapi 64.
vrsti

syama syava

68, 106, 111,


4.

158. 69,

59.

vrstimat

Vetasavah Vedanta
vedi 92,

83. 146.
104.

Sraddha Sri
svas svasana

Sayana 28,
107, Sinlvali sindhu Sindhu
sindhumatr

33, 41, 43, 68, 173.

123. 151, 125.

72,

Sarameya

105.
92.

vedisad

sveta

86, 87.
Si, 86.
51,

]/ven 133.
vaibhiivasa

69.
144, 12,

Samvarana Samsara 109, 139,


sat

78.

Vairupah
Vaivasvata

170. 42,

13.

Sira 155. sisnu 161. 105, 106, "J/su


sukratu 114. 114.

172.

satpati 58.
71, 99.

Vaisya 13.
Vaisvanara

Vyamsa
vyoman

64.

(of Vivasvat)42. sadasas pati 102. sadaspati 102, 103.


sadana

sugabhasti 116.
sudaksa
sudanu sudas

46.
80.

vraja
Samsa

9. 160.

sadaspatl 128.
sadhastha samdrk 107. 145. cele

64, 140,
133. 131.

147.

100.

(parama)11 8. 52, Saptavadhri (Atri)


sabardugha
samudra stial
waters

sudhanvan Sudhanvan suparna 39. 116.

Sakuntala sakra
sad

135.

82.
=

58.
58.
57,
122. 122.

52, 72, 105;


10.

supani subhaga
sura

87.

Sacl

saclvat

sacipati58, 58.

samudriya 107. samraj 98.


sarana

123, 157. surabhi 137.

125. 42,51.

susipra55.
Il6" 125" 139"
susravas

58. Satapatha Brahmana


satakratu

Saranyu
4.

64.
132. 72. 34,

satarudriya 77satru

172. Sarama
144,

suhasta

63, 125 (note 143, 17),


151, 86. 173.

Vsu
sunu

159.
^

daksasya 46.
120.

sabala sambara Sambara

173. 161. (neuter)


40,

Sarayu
Sarasvat

sunrta

86, 88.
12,

Sflrya "
33,
;

14;

2,

64, 80, 103,


52.

158,

SarasvatI
124, the

161,162; his forts 161,162.

Sayu,
sardhas Sarva

cow

of 77.

125; Asvins

73, 78, 86"88; with associated and with


with

34,

35, 38, 40,

15,16,20,23, 44, 48,

Indra Indra
the

87

of

form 148, 149, 150; as a Agni 30; his daughter


is
a son

associated
141.

162;

Saryanavat
75.

associated

Maruts

51; his

ofDyaus

21;

salyaka 112. savasah putrah


savasah
savasas savasi savaso

87; as a sacred sarpah 153.


122.

river

87.

eye 30; vanquished by Indra measures 31; days 31 ; his messenger 35 ; is a


spy

salila 72.
sava savana

131. patl 128.


12,
122.

sunuh

34,

48.
139.

his

30; wife

his 30.

steeds

30, 55;

106, 132.
" 15;
20, 44, 10, u,

Savarna Savitr

suryarasmi 32. Surya 50, 51, 125;


15,

associated

napatah 131. Sakapuni 38, 93, 99. Satyayaninah 68. Sigravah 153. sipra 55'. siprin 55.
siva

16,

with

Soma

112.

17,' 19,
37,

23, 45,

26, 29, 35,


48, 55, 57,
;

Suryacandramasa 126,
Suryamasa
Srbinda Slta Sena
soma

129.

38,
122,

126, 129.

70,72,73,85,115, 116,117,
123, 124, 138, 149, 154, 171; his arms 32; his and steeds 32 ; conducts car the with the dead

162.

118,

138.
57.
104.

75, 77.
4,

Siva

73,

74,

76, 155.

165;
as

connected well
as

Soma
14,

sisu 72, 90; (= sisnadevah 155. sukra 106. suci 45,

Soma)

in.

evening
34; 34;
name

17,

S 37; 2, 6, 9, 10, 12, 18, 20, 23, 25, 26,


40, 42,

morning

etymology of he is golden
34; iden with 33,
1 1

35, 137^

38,

43,

46, 47,
134,

48, 50, 72,

125,

130,

126, 127. sucipa 82, 106. Sutudrl 86, 87, 88.


suddha Suna
106.

the name 32; play on is called prajapati 13; tified with Tvastr

138,139,146, 147,152,

Bhaga

33,

as

153, 162, 168, 170,171,172; bestower of wealth no; with


Vac

Prajapati 117,
1 1 121.

Surya

bought
a

109;

as

155.
161.

7,Visvakarman 97.

7.

brahma

priest 109;
108;
ill
"

his

Sunahsepa
sus

saharaksas sahas 91.

brilliance
an

brought by
112; his
car

eagle

I.

SANSKRIT

INDEX.

185

and

steeds
his

no;

is

celestial

!09,withtheMaruts
his

io,with
Pusan

svayambhu
svar

151.

III; cosmical

colour
actions

105; 109
name
"

Parjanya
37,

84,
129,
with 129,
;

with
rain with

31, 154.

48.

no; 114;

128,

107,
waters

svaru

etymology
as

of of
a

withRudra

svarga

135. loka
127.

drink

immortality
no; 82
;
as

86,
first
rain Hi; lio; Avestan

107

compared
with

with

svarga
svardrs svarbhanu

169,

171.

08;

as

fighter
of
"

83,

Surya
with with Varuna

108,

draught
of fond cessive
his the of
"

food

identified
identical

145, 161.
114.

160.

gods

112;

the Indra's in
"

gods
ex

the Pava-

svarvat

108;

haoma
6.

"

svarsa

indulgence
power
as

56;
as
a

mana

svaha

170.

healing
112,

109; of

somagopa somapa somapavan

(Agni)
56. 56.
126. 126.

90,

lio.

king
154;
no; mixed

<