Sie sind auf Seite 1von 306

Über dieses Buch

Dies ist ein digitales Exemplar eines Buches, das seit Generationen in den Regalen der Bibliotheken aufbewahrt wurde, bevor es von Google im
Rahmen eines Projekts, mit dem die Bücher dieser Welt online verfügbar gemacht werden sollen, sorgfältig gescannt wurde.
Das Buch hat das Urheberrecht überdauert und kann nun öffentlich zugänglich gemacht werden. Ein öffentlich zugängliches Buch ist ein Buch,
das niemals Urheberrechten unterlag oder bei dem die Schutzfrist des Urheberrechts abgelaufen ist. Ob ein Buch öffentlich zugänglich ist, kann
von Land zu Land unterschiedlich sein. Öffentlich zugängliche Bücher sind unser Tor zur Vergangenheit und stellen ein geschichtliches, kulturelles
und wissenschaftliches Vermögen dar, das häufig nur schwierig zu entdecken ist.
Gebrauchsspuren, Anmerkungen und andere Randbemerkungen, die im Originalband enthalten sind, finden sich auch in dieser Datei – eine Erin-
nerung an die lange Reise, die das Buch vom Verleger zu einer Bibliothek und weiter zu Ihnen hinter sich gebracht hat.

Nutzungsrichtlinien

Google ist stolz, mit Bibliotheken in partnerschaftlicher Zusammenarbeit öffentlich zugängliches Material zu digitalisieren und einer breiten Masse
zugänglich zu machen. Öffentlich zugängliche Bücher gehören der Öffentlichkeit, und wir sind nur ihre Hüter. Nichtsdestotrotz ist diese
Arbeit kostspielig. Um diese Ressource weiterhin zur Verfügung stellen zu können, haben wir Schritte unternommen, um den Missbrauch durch
kommerzielle Parteien zu verhindern. Dazu gehören technische Einschränkungen für automatisierte Abfragen.
Wir bitten Sie um Einhaltung folgender Richtlinien:

+ Nutzung der Dateien zu nichtkommerziellen Zwecken Wir haben Google Buchsuche für Endanwender konzipiert und möchten, dass Sie diese
Dateien nur für persönliche, nichtkommerzielle Zwecke verwenden.
+ Keine automatisierten Abfragen Senden Sie keine automatisierten Abfragen irgendwelcher Art an das Google-System. Wenn Sie Recherchen
über maschinelle Übersetzung, optische Zeichenerkennung oder andere Bereiche durchführen, in denen der Zugang zu Text in großen Mengen
nützlich ist, wenden Sie sich bitte an uns. Wir fördern die Nutzung des öffentlich zugänglichen Materials für diese Zwecke und können Ihnen
unter Umständen helfen.
+ Beibehaltung von Google-Markenelementen Das "Wasserzeichen" von Google, das Sie in jeder Datei finden, ist wichtig zur Information über
dieses Projekt und hilft den Anwendern weiteres Material über Google Buchsuche zu finden. Bitte entfernen Sie das Wasserzeichen nicht.
+ Bewegen Sie sich innerhalb der Legalität Unabhängig von Ihrem Verwendungszweck müssen Sie sich Ihrer Verantwortung bewusst sein,
sicherzustellen, dass Ihre Nutzung legal ist. Gehen Sie nicht davon aus, dass ein Buch, das nach unserem Dafürhalten für Nutzer in den USA
öffentlich zugänglich ist, auch für Nutzer in anderen Ländern öffentlich zugänglich ist. Ob ein Buch noch dem Urheberrecht unterliegt, ist
von Land zu Land verschieden. Wir können keine Beratung leisten, ob eine bestimmte Nutzung eines bestimmten Buches gesetzlich zulässig
ist. Gehen Sie nicht davon aus, dass das Erscheinen eines Buchs in Google Buchsuche bedeutet, dass es in jeder Form und überall auf der
Welt verwendet werden kann. Eine Urheberrechtsverletzung kann schwerwiegende Folgen haben.

Über Google Buchsuche

Das Ziel von Google besteht darin, die weltweiten Informationen zu organisieren und allgemein nutzbar und zugänglich zu machen. Google
Buchsuche hilft Lesern dabei, die Bücher dieser Welt zu entdecken, und unterstützt Autoren und Verleger dabei, neue Zielgruppen zu erreichen.
Den gesamten Buchtext können Sie im Internet unter http://books.google.com durchsuchen.
This is a reproduction of a library book that was digitized
by Google as part of an ongoing effort to preserve the
information in books and make it universally accessible.

https://books.google.com
MISS ACTON 'S COOKERY-BOOK THOROUGHLY REVISED .
Newly revised Wood
and much enlarged fep.Edition,with
Engravings, additional Plates and
8vo. price 7s.6d.
MODERN COOKERY
FOR PRIVATE FAMILIES.
Reduced to a System of easy Practice in a Series of carefully tested
Receipts, in which the Principles of Baron Liebig and other
eminent writers have been as much as possible
applied and explained.
BY ELIZA ACTON.
ACTON'S
IN sary Cookery -Book both the QUANTITY of every article neces
tor the preparation of each receipt, and the TIMEreguired for its prepa
ration , are minutely stated. The contents are comprised in Thirty -two Chapters,
as follows:
1. SOUPS.
2. FISE
12. MUTTON & LAMB 23. SWEET
13. PORK
DISHES, OR
ENTREMETS.
3. DISHES OF SHELL- 14. POULTRY. 24. PRESERVES.
FISH . 15. GAME
4. GRAVIES. 16. CURRIES, POTTED 25. PICKLES. 26. CAKES.
5. SAUCES. MEATS , ETC. 27. CONFECTIONARY
6. COLD SAUCES, SA- 17, VEGETABLES. 28 . DESSERT DISHES.
LADS, ETC . 18. PASTRY 29. SYRUPS , LIQUEURS,
7. STORE SAUCES. 19. SOUFFLES, ONE ETC.
8.3. FORCEMEATS. LETS, ETC.
BOILING , ROAST 20. BOILED PUDDINGS. 30. COFFEE, CHOCO
LATE, ETC.
ING, ETC. 21. BAKED PUDDINGS. 31. BREAD .
10. BEEF 22. EGGS AND MILK 32. FOREIGN AND JEW .
11. VEAL. ISH COOKERY
Preceded by copious Introductory Chapters on TRUSSING and CARVING.
" TTHEwith
wholea fewofMiss
triflingAcron'srecipes, excellentof meat,
exceptions, which couple quarts ofthatgravy
we from
may it get
: nora
are scrupulously specified , ale confined todo they deal with butter and eggs as if
such asmay
having been beproved
perfectly depended
beneath istheya good
our ownon roof,
from cost nothing. Miss way
book in every ACTON'S
; therebookis
and under ourown personal inspection . We right-mindedness in every page of it, as
add,moreover,thatthe
able, recipesare
and never in any instance allreason
well ofasthethorongh
extravagant.
ence subjects knowledge
she handles."and experi
They do not bid us sacrifice ten pounds of MEDICAL GAZETTE,
Also,by Miss ACTON, in fep. 8vo. price 4s. 6d.
THE ENGLISH BREAD -BOOK
FOR DOMESTIC USE .
" MISS ACTON 'S little book is ad - yeast, acid and alkaline fermenting
I dressed chiefly to mistresses of ovens, bricks, and metal - quantities of
families
valuable toof all
all those
ranks, who
and know
will bethatveryit liquid
baking.andHacmeal,
book and lengthnothing
contains of time
thatforis
is a very important thing to have good not of
bread - still more important to those who
know that, and are anxious to get it at the bread
lowest cost compatible with excellence. bread
Miss Aeton teaches all that is necessary Engli
concerning
meal, whites,
seconds householdyeast,
- German Hour,brewers'
whole- writt

London : LONGMAN, GREEN,


EXERCISES
ON THE

ETYMOLOGY, SYNTAX, AND PROSODY


OF THE

ENGLISH LANGUAGE.
By the same Author.

ENGLISH , or the Art of Composition ......


HELPS to ENGLISH GRAMMAR .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 6

ENGLISH SPELLING -BOOK.......... ..........


ENGLISH SYNONYMES CLASSIFIED, & c............ . . 60

ENGLISH STYLE. .........


STUDIES from the ENGLISH POETS ...
FIRST STEPS to LATIN WRITING .....
ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE ;
OR ,

EXERCISES ON THE

ETYMOLOGY, SYNTAX , AND PROSODY


OF THE

ENGLISH LANGUAGE.

ADAPTED TO EVERY FORM OF TUITION .

BY

G . F. GRAHAM ,
AUTHOR OF

“ ENGLISH COMPOSITION,” “ ENGLISH STYLE,” & c.

302 ? . f . 41.
LONDON :
LONGMAN, GREEN, LONGMAN , AND ROBERTS.
1862.

( 500. Q . 112
DI TU

BO
EIAN L
ODEC
20
OXFORD
X

LONDON
PRINTED BY SPOTTISWOODE AND CO ,
NEW -STREET SQUARE
PREFACE .

THE want of a sufficiently practical book on


English Grammar has induced the author to com
pile the present work .
Most English grammars consist exclusively of
rules and explanations, intended to be studied or
learnt by heart . But it may be reasonably
doubted whether rules are,of themselves, of much
value to a young student, more especially , as in
many cases, they are not very clearly understood.
To be of real utility , a grammatical rule should be
immediately followed by an exercise , in which the
principle is practically applied and illustrated by
repeated examples. In this case , it is much more
likely to make an impression on the young mind ;
as it is the application of the general principle to
the particular case that invests the rule with some
interest, and partly removes from the study of
grammar that dryness of the subject so commonly
complained of by young people.
PREFACE

This work differs from others of its class in


several respects.
1. It contains exercises on many minor points ;
of grammar, ofwhich little notice has been hitherto
taken ; such as, the letters, gender and number of
nouns, use of the tenses, & c.
2. The practice, in many cases, of making the
learner choose between two forms of expression ,
or supply the correct form , is intended to bring
his powers of discrimination into play.
3 . Someterms generally used in grammar are
here dispensed with ; such as nominative case,
active verb , neuter gender .
4. Somenew terms are introduced ; as, subject
and object for nominative and accusative; parti
ciples, complete and incomplete, for past and pre
sent, & c.
5 . The exercises in prosody and versification -
a part of EnglishGrammar which has been hitherto
unaccountably neglected — are , as far as the
writer is aware , quite novel in a work of this
sort.
CONTENTS.

PAGE
Letters . . . . . . . Demonstrative pronouns .PAGE
53
Vowels . . . . . . . Interrogative pronouns . . 54
Consonants . . . . . . 2 Relative pronouns. . . .
Syllables . . . . . . .. 5 Verbs . . . . . . . .
Capitals : . . . .. 6 The verb “ to be ' . . . .
Active voice (moods and
ETYMOLOGY. tenses ) . . . . . . .
Parts of speech . . . . Table of the active voice . .
Articles . . . . . . .. 13 Form of the active voice .
Nouns . . . . . . . 15 Passive voice (moods and
Concrete nouns (common & tenses) . . . . . .
proper) . . 17 Table of the passive voice , 77
Nouns(collective and verbal) 18 | Form of the passive voice .
Compound nouns . . . . 20 | Exercise on active and pas
Abstract nouns . . . . . 21 sive forms . . . . . 82
Gender . . . . . . . 23 ) Verbs transitive and intran
Number . . . . . . . 26 / sitive, and exercise on .
Nouns having no plural . . 28 On classesof verbs (weak and
Nouns having no singular . 29 strong ) . . . . . . 86
Irregular plurals . . . . Strong verbs . . . . . 87
Foreign plurals . . . 33 Contracted and mixed verbs 88
On the use of nouns . . . 35 | On the use of the tenses : 91
Adjectives . · · · · · 38 | The subjunctive mood . . 97
Rules for comparison . . . 39 The infinitive mood . . . 98
Irregular comparisons . . 41 Adverbs
Participle for infinitive . . 104
101
On the use of adjectives | . . . . . . .
Adjectives used as nouns | Conjunctions . . . . . 106
Numeral adjectives . . . 46 | Prepositions . . . . . . 107
Pronouns (personal) . . . On the use of certain prepo
Possessive pronouns . . . 49 sitions . . . . . . . 109
The reflective pronoun . .
Distributive pronouns . . SYNTAX,
Indefinite pronouns . . . 52 Subject and verb . . . . 116
viii CONTENTS
PAGE PAGE
Adjective and noun . . . 127 Of the predicate . . . . 195
On the use of the article . The extended predicate . . 196
On the place of theadjective 135 | The direct object . . . . 197
On the agreement of pro The indirect object . . . 198
nouns . . . . . . . 137 The qualification of the pre
Government : dicate . . . . . . . 199
Verb and object . . . . 139 Analysis of simple sentences 204
Verb and relative . . . . 144 The complex sentence . . 207
Syntax of adverbs . . . 151 The noun proposition . . 208
, conjunctions . . 152 | The adjective proposition . 210
, interjections . . 154 The adverbial proposition . 211
On ellipsis . . . . . . 156 | Analysisofcomplex sentences 213
Exercises in incorrect phra The compound sentence . . 218
seology . . i . . . 159 | The copulative relation . ..
The adversative relation . 219
ORTHOGRAPHY. The causative relation . . 220
Rules for spelling . . . . 162 | Examination questions on the
On initial syllables . . . 166 construction of sentences . 222
On final syllables . . . . 171
On English and French words 178
On hard words . . . . . 180 Prosody . PROSO DY.
. . . . . 224
PUNCTUATION . On metrical feet . . . . 226
Of the period . . . . . 182 Iambic metre . . . . 233
Of the comma . . . . . 183 Trochaic metre . . . . 235
Of the semicolon . . . . 187 Anapæstic metre . . . 237
Of the colon . . . . . 188 Dactylic metre . . . . .
Of notes of interrogation and Formsof verse . . . . . 239
exclamation . . .. . . 190 Poetical licenses . . . . 243
Poetical figures of ortho
ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF graphy . . . . . . . 244
SENTENCES. Poetical pauses . . . . 247
Of the subject . . . . . 191 | On rhyme . . . . . . 251
The extended subject . . 192 Exercises in versification . 257
ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE .

GRAMMAR is the science ofwords.'


Words are composed of letters.
All the letters of the English language, taken
together, are called the Alphabet.
There are twenty -six letters in the English
Alphabet, viz. a,b, c,d ,e, f, g,h , i, j, k, l, m , n , o,
P , 9, 7, 8, t, U , V, W , X , Y, and z.
The letters are divided into vowels and con
sonants.
VOWELS.3
Vowels are those letters which , when uttered,
produce a full sound. They are a, e, i, o ,
and u .
a has five sounds ; as in hate, hat, bar, balm ,
ball.
e has three sounds ; as in we, met , her.
¿ has three sounds ; as in mind , thin, birth .
The word " grammar,' from the Greek grapho, ' I write,' was
originally applied to written language.
2 The word alphabet' is derived from the names of the
first two Greek letters, Alpha ( A ) and Beta ( B).
3 Our word “ vowel' is derived directly from the French voyelle,
which again is from the Latin vocalis (litera), a sounding letter.
ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE
o has five sounds ; as in note, not, born, come,
tomb .
U has four sounds ; as in use, us, full,
rude.
w and y at the end of words are considered
as vowels, as in cow , sty , & c.
Two vowels coming together and making but
one sound form a diphthong ; as in rain , seize ,
good .
CONSONANTS.
Consonants are those letters which do not
make a full or perfect sound of themselves ; but
which , when combined with vowels, assist in
forming words. They are b ,c, d , f, g, h, j, k ,l, m ,
n , p , q, r , s, t, v , X , Z.
b has always the same sound ; as in bad, crab,
sabre.
c is hard (i.e. like a k) before a , 0, and u ,as in
came, cold , cut ; and soft (i.e. like an 8) before
e, in and y, as in cell, cite , cymbal.
d has always the same sound ; as in dim , bad ,
rider .
f has always the same sound ; as in fat, if ,
swift.
g has two sounds; hard before a, 0, and u , as
in game, got, gun ; and soft before e, è, and y , as
in gem , giant, gymnastic .
i Consonant is from the Latin con , with,' and sonans,
sounding.'
CONSONANTS

h is hard, as in hat, heel, hit ; or mute, as in


heir, herb, honest.
j has the sound of g soft ; as in jest.
k , l, m , n , and p, have always the same sound ;
as, in kick , late , map, not, pen.
q is always followed by U , and is sounded as in
quake, queen.
go is rough, as in rob ; and smooth , as in hard ,
more.
8 is soft, as in those ; hard , as in this.
t, v, and w never change; as in tin , vain ,win . •
x has three sounds ; as in Xenophon , fix , exist.
y and z are invariable ; as in you, yes, day,
zeal.

Of these b and p are called labials, or lip


letters ; g (hard ) and c (hard ) are called gut
turals , or throat-letters ; d and t are called pala
tals, or letters made with the tongue and palate ;
f and v are called dentals, or tooth -letters, made
by placing the upper teeth on the lower lip ;
8 and are called sibilants, or hissing-letters ;
h is called an asperate, or rough -breathing letter ;
and l, m , n , and r are called liquids, or semi
vowels.
j, q, and a are called double letters ; for j =
dg ; q = cw, and x = ks or gs.
These are more clearly exhibited in the fol
lowing table : —
B 2
ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

TABLE OF THE ENGLISH ALPHABET.


Labials Gutturals Palatals Dentals Sibilants
Mute
Conso
Soft | B G D Z
nants. Hard / P
Hard
C (K )
Vowels A U WY
M
Liquids L
Asperate H
Donble ? J = DG X = KS Q = CW
letters S

EXERCISE 1.
Point out all the vowels, diphthongs, and consonants in
the following words:
From - instant - woman — disperse — corn – short
- small — window = write — improve — particular —
gain — cotton — spoiled — prisoner — letter — sound
- people — sometimes — thousand — finger.
Certain simple sounds are represented by two
letters; these are ng, sh, ch , gh , ph, th (hard ), th
(soft ); as in song, shall, choose, ghost, pheasant,
thief, this.
EXERCISE 2 .
Mark these combinations in thewords of the following
sentences ; also, point out all the consonants in italics,
as being labials, gutturals, dentals, & c.
The doctor was displeased. They lifted the ladder.
You said you would sing that song. Three men were
threshing. The key was kept in the cupboard. His
SYLLABLES

cough continues to trouble him . They were chatting


together very cheerfully . Gather the gooseberries.
The father found fault with his son. The baker
brought the bread. Give me the pen, ink, and paper.
They travelled in the train from Tring. The victors
vowed vengeance on the vanquished . There are five
zones, and twelve signs of the Zodiac. His haughtiness
has made him hated . The man made me miss the
train . The night draws near. The robbers were res
cued . The judge took a long journey. Six pounds of
flax will be wanted. Philip shot three pheasants. His
nephew looked ghastly pale.

SYLLABLES.
A syllable is that division of a word which
makes but one sound.
Every syllable must contain at least one vowel.
1. Words of one syllable are called mono
syllables.
2. Words of two syllables are called dissyllables.
3. Words of three syllables are called trisylla
bles.
4 . Words of more than three syllables are
called polysyllables.
Rules for the division of syllables.
1. Proper names, and words of one syllable,
must never be divided ; as, ' strength,' “ thought.'
2. A long vowel must stand alone at the end
of a syllable ; as, cá -ble, ré-gal,' 1-dle,''nó-ble,
• dú-ty.”
B 3
ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

3. A short vowel, when accented, attracts the


following single consonant into the same syllable
with itself ; as,“ ráv -el, bév-y,' ' vís -it,' “bód -y,'
bús-y.'
4 . When two consonants come together in the
middle of a word, one goes to each syllable ; as,
ad-ding,' “ er-ror,' shil-ling,' ' rob-ber,' 'mur
der.'
5. The double letter X, between two vowels,
must be put with the former syllable ; as, ' ex -alt,'
' ex-empt,' ex-ist,' ' ex -otic,' ' ex -ult.'
EXERCISE.
Divide the following words into their syllables according
to the above rules ; and mark them 1, 2 , 3 , 8c., ac
cording to the number of syllables they contain .
My sister begs you will excuse her this evening. He
a deserted his benefactor in his difficulties. The ladies
addressed the little children . Divide this orange be
tween you . The country was inhabited by a barba - ,
rous people. Last autumn provisions were abundant.
We spent a most agreeable evening with some very
sensible and sociable companions. The gardener planted
potatoes on Thursday afternoon.
CAPITALS.
Capitals, or large letters,must be used in the
following cases :
1. The first letter of the first word of every
sentence ; as, ' Hither shalt thou come, and no
further.'
CAPITALS

2. The first letter of every line in verse, as -


• Then , in the scale of life and sense, 'tis plain ,
There must be somewhere such a rank as man.'
3 . Proper names in any part of the sentence ; as,
* Here come James and John.' " The Thames
is themost important river in England.'
4 . Qualities personified ; as, Come, gentle
Spring.'
5. Epithets ; as, “ Charles the Bold , William
Rufus.'
6. All the names of God , Jesus Christ, and the
Holy Ghost ; as, “Maker,' • Creator,' “ Redeemer,'
Comforter,' & c.
7. All pronouns referring to God ; as
Here finished He, and all that Hehad made
Viewed , and behold all was entirely good .'
8 . The pronoun I, and the interjection Oh !
9. Titles of rank or dignity , when followed by
the names of their possessors ; as, “ The Duke
of Monmouth ;' King Louis ;' • Doctor Thomp
son .'
10. The titles of books, and the divisions of
printed works ; as, an Essay on Satire ; Book the
First ; Section the Second ; Chapter the Sixth ;
Volume the Tenth, & c.
11. The names of nations, used either as nouns
or adjectives ; as, the English people ; the French
army ; the German literature ; the American
republic, & c.
12. Names of religious sects, used either as
B4
ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

nouns or adjectives; as, a Christian ; a Maho


metan ; a Presbyterian , & c.
13. Adjectives derived from proper names ; as,
Shaksperian ; Miltonian ; Elizabethan, & c.
EXERCISE ON CAPITALS.
To be written from the teacher's dictation. The pupil
is required to state why he writes certain words in
it with capital initials.
My brother Robert is just arrived from Oxford .
They say the Emperor of Morocco is dead . The
Spenserian stanza consists of nine lines. The battle
of Trafalgar was won by Lord Nelson in the month of
October, 1805 . On that occasion, the combined French
and Spanish fleets were almost annihilated . You will
find the passage in Canto the Second of Lord Byron's
• Childe Harold 's Pilgrimage.'
Some ne'er advance a judgmentoftheir own,
But catch the spreading notion of the town .'
As for me, I shall take no further steps in this mat
ter. The majority of the Scotch adopt the Presbyterian
form of Christianity . The Mosaic account of the
Creation is given in Genesis. Let us be obedient to
Him from whom no thoughts are hidden ,
• Father of all, in every age
And every clime adored ;
By saint, by savage, or by sage,
Jehovah, Jove, or Lord ! '
The reign of Louis XIV. is called the Augustan age
of French literature.
. this, and what needful else
That calls upon us, by the grace of Grace
Wewill perform in measure, time, and space.'
ETYMOLOGY

ETYMOLOGY.
Etymology is that part of grammar which
treats of the nature and derivation of words.
Words are divided , according to their nature,
into classes, or parts of speech .
There are, in English , nine classes of words,
or parts of speech , viz. noun, adjective, pro
noun , verb , participle, adverb, conjunction, pre
position, and interjection.
1. A NOUN is a word which expresses the name
of somebeing or thing ; as,man , tree, virtue.
2 . An ADJECTIVE is a word which expresses the
quality of a being or thing ; as, hard , soft, white,
good.?
3. A PRONOUN is a word which stands for a
noun ; as, I, he, they . .
4. A VERB is a word which expresses action ;
as, come, go , think, read.
5. A PARTICIPLE is a word which expresses a
? The word noun is derived from the Latin nomen , through
the French nom (' name') .
? Adjective comes from the Latin adjicio, ' I place to,' or ' put
close to ' : it is a word put to (or added to ) a noun, to show
some quality the noun possesses.
3 Pronoun, from the Latin pro, . for,' or ' instead of,' and
nomen, ‘ noun .
4 Verbum is the Latin for word.' The verb is so called in
Grammar from being the chief or most important word in a
sentence .
10 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

state or condition of things, and is always de


rived from a verb ; as, coming, loved , seen ."
6. An ADVERB is a word put to or with a verb,
to qualify an action ; as, slowly, here, then .2
7. A CONJUNCTION is a word used to connect
nouns or sentences together; as,but, and, though.3
8. A PREPOSITION is a word used to show the
relation between things or persons ; as, in , from ,
to. 4
9. An INTERJECTION is a word used to express
some strong feeling ; as, oh ! ah ! alas !5
EXERCISE ON THE PARTS OF SPEECH (1.)
The learner is to copy out the following sentences,
marking the parts of speech of every word ; n for
noun, adj. for adjective, & c.
Mybed was in that room . The huntsman walked
through the dark forest. That pretty bird flew into the
tree. The fire burns rapidly and brightly . Good men
are happy . His brother will go to school to -morrow .
My father andmother areboth of that opinion. Oh, my
? Participle is from the Latin participium , compounded of pars,
part,' and capio, I take' ; and is so called because it partakes
of thenature of the verb (action ) and the nature of the adjec
tive (quality ).
2 Adverb is from the Latin adverbium , compounded of ad ,
• to,' and verbum , ' verb .'
3 Conjunction, from the Latin conjungo, ' I join together.'
4 Preposition is derived from the Latin pre, before,' and
pono, ' I place ' ; because it is placed before certain nouns or
: pronouns in the sentence .
5 Interjection , so called from the Latin interjicio, ' I throw in ’;
because it is an expression thrown in , or put between the parts
of a sentence.
ETYMOLOGY — PARTS OF SPEECH il

dear friend, how glad I am to see you ! Though he


was in the room when I told that story, he did not say
a word. I found the children prepared to go out. Ha !
what has happened ? Show me how I am to do this.
My cousin arrived in this country from India last week .
They were repeating their lessons to the master . Every
man is expected to do his duty . Somemen are more
skilful than others. The book which I lent you is
beautifully bound.
EXERCISE 2.
The sameword may, under different circumstances, be a
different part of speech.
The learner is to copy out the following sentences,
marking the words in italics, n., a., V., conj., & c.,ac
cordingly as they may be nouns, adjectives, ģc.
It was a calm day. Calm yourself. A calm ensued .
I own my fault. It washis own estate. That boy tells
me that he cannot use the pen that you mended for him .
This is a round table. The girls were running round the
garden. The room was hung round with black. The
boy is blind . The snow and dust blind the eyes . They
all went but me. I called on my friend, but did not
find him at home. “ Rage, thou angry storm !” He
flew in a violent rage. The secret was well kept. I
placed the letter in a secret drawer. You require rest.
Where is the rest of this cloth ? “ Rest, warrior, rest.”
The paper is covered with blacks. The black men were
sold for slaves. The servant was desired to black the
shoes. The weather is very cold . A severe cold pre
vented him from going out. He is guilty of base in
gratitude. Cæsar fell at the base of Pompey's statue.
12 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

My uncle leaves us to -day. Put all the leaves together.


I long to go out. We took a long walk . Do not be .
long. It is a common practice . The sheep are grazing
on the common. It stands as firm as a rock . The firm
has failed. This is a beautiful view . I view the matter
differently . Give me a nail. Help me to nail up this
board. The man came back yesterday. They were
obliged to back the horses. I have broken the spring
of my watch . Spring from the ground. There is
grave cause to fear. The grave was fifteen feet deep .
In fine, his cause wasdesperate. The magistrate im
posed a heavy fine. It was a fine morning. They de
termined to fine him for this offence. You need not do
this. “ A friend in need is a friend indeed .” This
book is for you. He did not come; for he was unwell.
Go in . You will find your brother in the study.
Stay here till I come. He put the money in the till .
It is difficult to till rocky ground. She is very kind .
What kind of book do you want ? He fell ill. They
mean to fell that oak. I like this better. He is very
like his brother. She is quite well. The well is nearly
seventy feet deep . He left his son all his property .
Keep to the left side of the road. Fetch me a light.
Hewas carrying a light parcel. Light the candles. He
is a mean fellow . What does this mean ? I have just
seen him . He is a just man .
ETYMOLOGY — THE ARTICLES 13

ON THE ARTICLES.
Articles are little qualifying words used before
nouns, and must be considered as adjectives.
There are in English two articles ; a (or an ),
and the.
A (or an ) is the numeral article, and is a
less emphatic form of the numeral adjective
one.
The is the demonstrative article, and is a
less emphatic form of the demonstrative pronoun
this or that.2
The numeral article (a ) is used before words
beginning with a consonant, or an h asperate ;
as a pin , a book , a house, a hammer.
The form an (one) was formerly used before
1 The article a is called numeral, because it is in fact only
a softer form of the numeral adjective one ; the whole differ
ence between one and a being that the former specifies the
number more emphatically than the latter. One book means
not more than that number; a book means any one book you
choose. In the continental languages, the same word stands
for both one and a , as in French , un livre ; in German , cin
Buch ; in Italian , un libro, & c. There is no doubt that the
English article a was once in the same condition ; and that
the following changes have taken place in it : 1. One ; 2.
Ane (still found in old Scottish poetry ) ; 3. An ; 4. A .
2 The article the is called demonstrative, because it demon
strates or points out certain beings or things. It bears the
same relation to the demonstrative pronoun this or that as
the numeral article does to one. The same connection may
be observed in Continental languages. In German , der, ‘ the,' is
only a contraction of dieser, ‘ this. The Italian il and the French
le are the first and second syllables of the Latin ille, “ that.'
14 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

both vowels and consonants ; but it is now con


fined to those cases where a vowel, or an h mute,
begins the following word ; as, an apple, an
orange, an hour, an heir.
The words in the following list, though be
ginning with vowels, require the article a before
them .
union unity usage usurious yell
uniform universe usual yacht yellow
unicorn universal usurper yard yoke
unison use usurping yawn youth
unit useful usurer year youthful
The following words beginning with an h
asperate, but having the accent on the second
syllable, require the article an before them .
habítual hereditary histórical
harángue heretical horizon
harmónic heróic hostility
harmónious hexámeter hypocrisy
heráldic hexágonal hypothesis
herbáceous historian hystérical

EXERCISE .

Supply a, or an, in the blank spaces.


This is useful book . It hasbecome — habitual
practice. Stephen was — usurper of the crown. The
orator gave us - - - harangue which lasted two hours.
They were not used to so heavy — yoke. It was
considered - heretical opinion . What united
family ! Hebore on his shield - heraldic device. It
A must precede words beginning with an open u ; as, a
unit, a uniform . When the initial u is close, an must be
used ; as, “ an unjust sentence,' an unbeliever,' & c.
ETYMOLOGY - NOUNS 15

is well known as historical fact. Thatwas


heroic action . I only follow — usual practice . This
prince had hereditary claim to the crown. It is at
least year since I saw him . What - harmonious
effect ! You will do injustice. My friend is
excellent man . Imagine - horizon bathed in floods
of gold ! Such — one I beheld this morning. He
demanded — usurious interest. Hannibal cherished
- hostility against the Romans, remarkable in —
youth ofhis age. Every man forms — unit in society .
The room was of hexagonal shape . Mr. G . is
- historian of eminence. How much - yard ?
- hexameter line consists of six feet. This has now
become — universal practice . She went into —
hysterical fit. One of the gates has the figure of —
unicorn placed on the top. Hewas dressed in — uni
form of a new pattern. This is hypothesis on
which few would be inclined to argue. Thatwas —
union productive of much happiness.

ON NOUNS.
Nouns are either concrete or abstract.
A noun is concrete when it is the name of a
thing which possesses substance, and which can
be perceived by the senses; as, man , stone,
tree.
A noun is abstract when it denotes qualities or
i The word concrete is derived from the Latin concretus,
' united in growth , and the term is applied to all nouns which
representmaterial substance, the particles of which are united
so as to form a solid mass .
16 ENGLIS GRAMM PRACTI
H AR CE

states of being, or action considered independently


of the persons or things in which they may exist ;
as, virtue, friendship , kindness."

EXERCISE .
The learner is to copy out the following sentences, under
lining all the concrete, and doubly underlining all the
abstract nouns.
The horse and his rider were swallowed up in the
waves. Prudence is commendable. Alexander's greatest
vice was his anger. The ship sailed down the river.
The father sent his son to fetch the books. We find
here neither prejudice nor partiality. My cousin is
living in Edinburgh. The governor apprehended much
danger from the violence of the people. The shepherd
has lost his crook .' I shall never forget your kindness.
We had the greatest difficulty in quelling the insur
rection. Of whom did you buy your maps ? He is a
man of the strictest integrity . Several villages are seen
from the road. He is held in the highest esteem . The
people were all dispersed, and their property was sold .
The water of this fountain is used medicinally . His
features are noble and dignified . The house occupies a
commanding position . This mountain cannot be as
cended without great difficulty. The summit of this
| Abstract is from the Latin abstractus, the participle of the
verb abstrahere, and literally means drawn from . The human
mind has the power of abstracting, or drawing away, any one
quality from an object of sense, and considering it apart from
all others which may belong to that object, or apart from the
object itself. The word 'man ' is a concrete noun ; but we can
abstract from man ' his height, his talent, his virtue, and many
other qualities ; and these are therefore called ' abstract.'
ETYMOLOGY — CONCRETE NOUNS 17
peak is more than 4000 feet above the level of the sea.
The vine had entwined itself among the loftiest branches
of the trees. They regarded their pastor with the
greatest war. An armiers were all we. The
greatest respect and affection . The emperor has pro
claimed war . An army of 60,000 men was brought
into the field . The soldiers were all wounded. Imust
now draw our correspondence to a close. The trees are
covered with leaves. Notwithstanding his assertions, I
shall not change my course of conduct. The boats
were rowed by four men. A damp climate produces
fever. The field is covered with daisies and butter
cups.

CONCRETE NOUNS.
1. COMMON APPELLATIVES.
2. PROPER APPELLATIVES.
1. Nouns denoting species of animals or things,
are called common ; as, horse, tree, river.
2 . Nouns denoting individual persons, animals,
or things, are called proper; as, George, Rome,
Thames.
EXERCISE .

Copy out the following sentences, underlining the common ,


and doubly underlining the proper nouns.
Vienna is the capital of Austria . In the night there
arose a violent storm . Some of the houses in London
were unroofed . Have you ever been in Switzerland ?
The Duke of Wellington commanded the British army
at Waterloo. I received a letter from my cousin .
Richard I. went on a crusade. On Tuesday I expect
some friends. There is a report that a battle has been
18 ENGLISH GRAMMA PRACTIC
R E
fought. A despatch was sent off on the 4th of Feb
ruary. The boat sank, and all the men were drowned.
Julius Cæsar was one of the greatest heroes the world
ever produced. Xerxes, King of Persia , invaded
Greece. The gardener was very kind to the poor tra
vellers; he gave them food, and dried their clothes by
the fire. Louis XI. of France was a cunning and trea
cherous king. I have brought you the Times ' news
paper . The Emperor of the French declared war
against Austria . Where is themap which was on your
table just now ? Dinner will be on table at six o'clock .
His name is well known in the city . Louis XIV .
reigned seventy -two years. Tell the servant to put
this letter in the post.
3. COLLECTIVE Nouns.
4. VERBAL Nouns.
1. Nouns are called Collective when they ex
press a number of individual persons or things
taken together, and considered as a whole ; as,
parliament, crowd, people.
2. As nouns are the names of whatever may
be the subject of discourse, verbs (which are the
names of actions) are often used as nouns.
Nouns derived from verbs are called Verbal,
and are formed in various ways.
I. Some, denoting external action, have the
same form as the verbs from which they are
derived ; as, from to walk , comes a walk :
rise spring cover shout
fall walk screen call
slide blaze , stain crash
plunge flash hinge knock, & c.
ETYMOLOGY — NOUNS : COLLECTIVE, VERBAL 19

II. Some, generally expressing the continuation


of an action, have the participial ending in ing';
as, -
binding fishing lodging
clothing gardening mourning
drawing hearing opening , & c.
III. Some, expressing a person habitually per
forming an action , end in ant, or ent; as, —
assailant dependant president
attendant inhabitant correspondent
combatant protestant student, & c.
* EXERCISE.
Underline all the collective nouns in the following sen
tences, and doubly underline the verbal nouns.
His writing is illegible. We heard the crash of the
falling tree. They are a very happy people. He was
a dependant on the bounty of his friends. The court
rose at 10 o'clock. The majority voted for the former
member . He was blinded by a flash of lightning.
With one spring he bounded over the fence. They
supplied the poor with clothing. The binding of this
book is very elegant. The parliament will soon meet.
The army was completely routed . The blaze was seen
from afar. In consequence of a fall, he was obliged to
keep his bed. Have you seen this drawing? Hetook
a lodging in an obscure village. He is a regular at
tendant at church . Some of the combatants fell into
the stream . The peasantry rose in insurrection. Seve
ralhouses were attacked by the mob . On their return
home, they gave a loud rap at the door. I admire the
colouring of this painting. Sketching from nature is
delightful. The assailant attacked the outer wall. The
C2
H AR CE
90
ENGLIS GRAMM PRACTI

council decided the matter. The multitude dispersed .


I have to make several calls. The inhabitants sent a
memorial to the president. Part of the army was slain ,
and part escaped. The generality of mankind are of
this opinion . There was a tinge of blood upon the
waters . The clergy petitioned against the measure.
The boy drove the cattle. Fishing in troubled waters
is of no avail. The cloth was marked with stains. My
hearing is much impaired . Take the cover off the dish .
The screen was placed before the door. He made a
sign to the prisoner. In her last illness her suffering
was dreadful. The student read the paper attentively .

COMPOUND NOUNS.
Many nouns are called compound, i.e. they are
made up of two nouns ; as, bread -basket, table
cloth, a cork jacket, a lead pencil. These are
sometimes joined by the hyphen (-).
? Rules for the use of the hyphen .
1. When each of the two nouns retains its
original accent, the hyphen must be omitted ; as,
a máster carpenter ; Búrton ále.
2. But if the second loses or alters its accent,
the hyphen must be inserted ; as, a fôot-stool, a
ship-builder.
3. When the first of the two nouns denotes
the material of which the second is made, no
hyphen must be used ; as, a silk dress, a cédar
box.
ETYMOLOGY - ABSTRACT NOUNS

EXERCISE .
The following sentences are to be written by the pupil
from dictation, the hyphen in the compound nouns
being omitted or inserted according to the above
rules.
Walking down Oxford-street I met the Lord Chan
cellor. The room was covered with a Turkey carpet.
The book - case is locked . Show me the picture- frame.
Sèvres china is dearer than stone ware. There was a
straw bonnet lying on the work -table. Drive to the
Marble Arch . Take off the dish -covers. The box
must be sent to the trunk -maker's. The lamp-lighter
spoke to the milk -man. Take the tinder -box and the
cork - screw out of the drawing -room . He got into a
hackney coach . The silver spoon was found in the
ice-house . The lady had on a satin dress trimmed with
Brussels lace.
ABSTRACT.NOUNS. .
Abstract nouns are formed in various ways:
I. From adjectives; as, —
1. From pure ·
, able .
purity
. ability
moral . . morality
serene . . serenity
„ false . . falsity vain . . vanity
2. From good • goodness bold . . boldness
weak . weakness kind . . kindness
• sad . sadness idle . . idleness
3. From long . . length
- deep . . depth
strong . . strength
warm . . warmth
» wide . . width young . youth
II. From nouns ; as, –
1. Friend . . . friendship ; fellow . . . fellowship ;
worth . . worship ; I partner . . partnership.
ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

2. King . . kingdom ; I birth . . . birthdom ;


thrall . . thraldom ; martyr . . martyrdom .
3. Child . . childhood ; L man . . . manhood ;
priest . . priesthood ; 1 boy . . . boyhood
III. From verbs ; as, -
1. Mock . mockery ; | bribe . . bribery ; | rob . robbery.
2. Judge . . . . judgment ; engage . . . engagement;
amuse . . amusement.
3. Learn . learning; | bless , blessing ; | say . saying.
EXERCISE .
Change the adjectives , nouns, and verbs (printed in
italics), in the following sentences, into their corre
sponding derivative abstract nouns.
We admired the learned man,
Example :{ into
( Weadmired the learning of the man .
I admire this beautiful picture . He overcame this
difficult enterprise. We all felt the severe weather. I
was much fatigued by my long walk . His lively con
versation was very agreeable. Her simple manner is
charming. They were rescued from a watery grave by
the brave sailor. Every one was attracted by hermodest
deportment. This is a very strong horse. The wall
was fifteen feet high. These true words made a deep
impression. They interrupted the merry party. The
proud man was humbled . The girl was reproved for
being curious. The boy showed he was grateful. The
mother expressed herself anxious. The pure air was
very beneficial to me. The pavement was four feet
wide. To bribe is dishonourable. Not to know these
things is shameful. The boy declared he was innocent.
ETYMOLOGY — NOUNS — GENDER

To judge soundly on such things requires us to be expe


rienced. We should always say what is true. It is
sometimes necessary to be bold . To be beautiful is of
less advantage than to be intelligent. It is frequently
necessary to be patient. To know is to be powerful. It
is the duty of all men to be honest. This rash project
ruined the speculator.

GENDER .

Gender is the distinction between male and


female species of beings.
There are two genders , the masculine and the
feminine.
Nouns denoting beings of the male species,
are of the masculine gender ; as,man , boy, bull.
Nouns denoting beings of the female species,
are of the feminine gender ; as, woman , girl,
COW .
Nouns denoting objects without life , have,
properly, no gender ; but they are frequently
referred to as masculine or feminine. In this
way, the sun is masculine; the moon feminine ;
a ship , feminine. Abstract nouns personified ,and
the names of countries, as England, France, & c.,
are also , in this sense, feminine.
Many nouns are of the common gender - that
is, they are either masculine or feminine ; as,
parent, prisoner, child .
Feminine are distinguished from masculine
nouns in various ways :
C4
24 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE
1. By the termination ess ; as, —
abbott . . . abbess , master mistress
baron . . . baroness mayor . . mayoress
count . . . countess peer . . . peeress
duke . . . . duchess poet . . . poetess
elector . . . electress prophet . . prophetess
heir . . . heiress sorcerer . . sorceress
jew . . . . jewess shepher shepherdess
lad . . . . lass viscount . . viscountess
2. By the termination is ; as, -
administrator , administratrix inheritor . inheritrix
executor . . executrix | mediator · • mediatrix
3. By the termination ine; as, —
landgrave . . landgravine | hero . . heroine
4. By a different prefix ; as, —
he-goat . . she-goat | man-servant , maid -servant
cock -sparrow hen -sparrow male-child . . female-child
5 . By a different word ; as, —
beau . . belle | cock . . hen I lord . lady
boar . . Sow d rake . duck man woman
boy . . girl father , mother nephew niece
bridegroom bride friar . . nun ram . ewe
brother sister gander · goose son . daughter
bull . . cow | husband wife uncle . aunt
bullock . heifer horse . mare widower widow
buck , doe king , queen wizard witch.

EXERCISE 1.
Change the masculine nouns in the following sentences
into their corresponding feminines,and vice versâ.
The prophet predicted great calamities. Themaster
spoke harshly to the boys. The mother promised her
daughter a new desk . The countess is an excellent
ETYMOLOGY — NOUNS – GENDER 25
woman. A bull broke through the fence, and damaged
my father's garden . A shepherd was tending his flocks.
At the ball given by the lady mayoress, the queen
held a long conversation with the viscountess. The
testatrix has left most of the property to the niece of
the princess. The marquis desired the man - servant to
take the letter to the post. The author of that work is
nephew to the Duke of Lancaster. The nuns chanted a
hymn. The mistress was left executrix to the estate.
His uncle is a son of Baron B . My brother was left
heir to a large estate. Some village lads were playing
on the green . The widow drove the goose across the
common . The Jewess acted as mediatrix between the
mother and daughter. The bridegroom rode a bay
horse. My son , with his wife and two daughters, is
coming to pay us a visit. The women and girls are
haymaking. He was regarded as the hero of his age.
This emperor was a zealous patron of the arts. She was
burnt for a sorceress. The maid - servant told the girls
that tea was ready. The king invited the duke to
dinner. The cows were driven into the meadow . They
believed he was a wizard . My sons are all at school.
His aunt was extremely kind to him . What has be
come of that little boy ?
EXERCISE 2 .
Mark the nouns which have no gender with an N ;
personified nouns with an M or F ; and nouns of the
common gender with a C .
The table was thrown down in the scuffle. England
is remarkable for the number andwealth of her colonies .
The children are walking in the fields. Where is your
ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE
cousin ? Italy will probably secure her independence.
My parents are dead . The prisoner was brought into
court . Some of the furniture was destroyed by the
people. The sun cheered the whole prospect with his
bright rays. My friend told me the whole story .
France is increasing her navy. The doctor is gone to
visit his patients. The moon unveiled her peerless
light. I am no judge of these matters. The vessel,
with all her crew , was lost on a reef of rocks.

NUMBER.

Number treats of nouns as one, or more than


one.
There are two numbers, the singular and the
plural.
The singular number expresses one being or
thing ; as, lion , book.
The plural number expresses more than one
being or thing ; as, lions, books.
General Rule.
The plural is formed from the singular by
adding 8 ; as, pen , pens; table, tables.
Particular Rules.
1. When a noun ends in y preceded by a con
sonant, the plural is formed by changing the y
into ies ; as, fly, flies ; lady, ladies.
2. But if the y final be preceded by a vowel,
ETYMOLOGY - NOUNS - NUMBER 27

the plural is formed by the general rule ; as,


chimney, chimneys ; valley, valleys.
3 . Some nouns ending in f or fe, form their
plurals by changing these endings into ves ; as,
loaf, loaves; wife, wives.?
4. Nouns ending in ch (soft ), sh , 88, X , or 0,
preceded by a consonant, form their plurals by
adding es to the singular ; as, church , churches ;
dish , dishes ; loss, losses ; box , boxes ; negro ,
negroes.
EXERCISE .
Change all the singular nouns in the following sentences
into their plurals, and all the plural into their singular
forms.
Give me the watches. I see the newspaper on the
tables. She introduced me to her son. I encouraged
the lady to proceed . The stories were interesting. He
related his grief to me. The ship is close to the wharf.
Lend meyourknife. The roof of the house is injured .
The attorneys have just finished their duties. Put the
sashes in the drawers. The solo was well sung. The
farmers sustained great losses. The knives are clean .
The churches were well filled . Pick up the leaf. The
chimney smokes. This match will not light. The box
is arrived. Drive the calf into the stable. The valley
was illuminated . The wolf attacked the boys. They
performed a long journey. The ally was successful.
Wewalked down the alley. The thief stole the loaf.
Chief, handkerchief, grief, hoof, roof, reproof, turf, gulf,
fife, strife, and safe, form their plurals by adding s.
2 Canto, junto, portico, duodecimo, octavo , quarto, solo, and
tyro, take s only in the plural.
28 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE
Wewere sitting on the bench. In all his woe, he was
resigned. The proof was wanting. Hand the lady her
scarf. The canto contains about seven hundred lines.
We heard the echo from the mountain . He took up
his crutch. The monarch imposed a new tax. The
brush was put in the safe. The book is on the shelf.
The coach will be here immediately. They went out
in a fly.
NOUNS HAVING NO PLURAL.
Many nouns have no plural form .
1. Those signifying a collective number or
weight; as, gross leash
brace score
couple head pair thousand
dozen horse stone cwt.
foot hundred sai]
2. Abstract nouns, when used in a general
sense ; as,
ambition l generosity moderation , temperance
clemency I hatred obedience vice
eminence justice prudence | virtue
fortitude • knowledge I sobriety | wisdom
3. Concrete nouns, denoting substance or ma
terial ; as, —
barley gold meat stone
beer grass paper rye
corn hemp pitch wheat
filax iron shell wood
EXERCISE .
Insert in the blank spaces appropriate nouns, extracted
from the above lists.
Three of partridges flew into the field . How
many years is it since the invention of — ? It
ETYMOLOGY — NOUNS — NUMBER 29
is — to avoid . He bought three — of shoes.
The most precious of metals is -- ; but — is far
more useful. The cook bought three of ducks.
Without , we can never gain much — These
houses are built of - Give him a glass of
Four handkerchiefs at thirty shillings a — Bread
made of — is better than bread made of -
- is the passion of noble minds. His age is now
three years and ten. That man weighs fifteen
- Thirty and ten — marched. The
fence was made of — Of how many of the line
does the fleet consist ? There is no excuse for
Somelocomotive engines will draw more than forty -
weight. is the queen of virtues. We saw several
fields of . He bore the pain with the greatest
- This event occurred three years ago.
NOUNS HAVING NO SINGULAR.
Many nouns are found only in a plural form ;
such are,
ashes bellows fetters premises tidings
alms clothes fives riches tongs
annals downs goods shears trousers
archives | dregs measles snuffers victuals
arms eaves nuptials sciss
SCIS ors ! wages

EXERCISE .
Supply the nouns of this form in the vacant spaces.
The — were placed in an urn . This event is
.recorded in the — of the empire. Give to the
poor. They took up to defend their country.
His — are worn out. Weoften walk on the — at
R
30
ENGLISH GRAMMA PRACTICE

Brighton . The nest is sheltered by the of the


house. They saved their - - from the fire. The boy
caught the — from his brother. The will be
celebrated — next week. have great influence.
are used for cutting cloth . Wehope to hear good
of your friend. What is the amount of his — ?

IRREGULAR PLURALS.
Plurals in EN .
I. Some few English nouns of Saxon origin
form their plurals in en ; as, ox, oxen ; man ,
men ; woman , women ; child , children ; sow ,
sowen (now , swine) ; cow, cowen (now , kine,
butmore generally cows).
Strong Plurals.
II. Another, and a still smaller class, form
their plurals by a change of the internal vowel
of the singular number ; such are, - goose, geese ;
foot, feet; tooth , teeth ; mouse, mice.
Double Plurals.
III. A few nouns have two plurals, but used
in different senses; as, — 1. Pea, peas (individual
grains), pease (the species of vegetable ) ; 2. Bro
ther,brothers (sons of the same parents ), brethren .
(beings of the same community) ; 3. Die, dies ( for
coining), dice (for gambling ) ; 4. Penny, pennies
(distinct coins), pence (collectively, to express a
certain sum ).
ETYMOLOGY — NOUNS - NUMBER 31
Uncertain Plurals.
The number of the following nouns is a subject
on which grammarians are not agreed : -
1. Alms: in Anglo -Saxon was ælmesse, a sin
gular form ; the word is now more frequently
used in a plural sense.
2. Riches: in old French richesse (this word is
also better used in a plural sense ).
3. News : sometimes used as a plural noun ;
better, singular.
4. Means: plural in form ; either singular or
plural in meaning (this means, or these means).
5 . Pains : properly used in a plural sense.
6. Amends : plural in form ; singular in sense.
7. Gallows: plural in form ; singular in sense.
EXERCISE .
EXERCISE .

Change the singular forms of the nouns used in the


following sentences into their corresponding plurals.
The man drove the ox into themeadow . The woman
was milking the cow . The child saw the sow lying in
the mud. My tooth aches. The foot of the goose is
webbed . The mouse was caught in a trap. He sowed
four (peas, or pease ? ) in his garden . I have three
(brethren , or brothers ? ) The police found nine (dies,
or dice ?) in the coiner's room . Can you give me four
(pennies, or pence? ) I have not enough money by
four (pennies, or pence ? ) half-penny. The alms (was,
or were ? ) given with a most benevolent intention.
Riches is (or are ?) desirable; but (it, or they ? ) (are,
The s in the word news is not a plural, but a neuter ending.
Compare the German ‘ neues.'
ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE
or is ?) not sufficient for our happiness. The news
(were, or was ? ) received last night. By (these, or
this ?) means heaccomplished his purpose. Great pains
(was, or were ? ) taken with this task . Such amends as
he can make (are, or is ? ) sufficient for the occasion .
The gallows (were, or was ?) erected for the execution
ofthe prisoner.
Plurals of Compound Nouns.
The following compound nouns form their
plurals by adding s to the first part of the com
pounded word :
1. father-in -law knight-errant
son - in -law : court-martial
aid-de-camp cousin -german
The following form their plurals by adding 8
to the second part of the compounded word :
2 . spoon-ful l pail- ful et- cetera
mouth -ful camera -obscura man -trap
hand -ful church -warden ave -maria

EXERCISE .
Change the nouns within the parentheses into their plural
forms.
How many (son -in -law ) has your friend ? In the
tenth century (knight- errant) were found in all parts of
Europe. The general had several (aid -de-camp). Two
(court-martial) have been held this year. Where are
your (cousin -german )? The (church -warden) did their
duty. Give the patient three ( spoon -ful) of this medi
cine. He did not eat more than two (mouth -ful).
* (Man - trap ) are set in these grounds. How many
more (et-cetera ) will you add ? He repeated ten (Ave
Maria ).
ETYMOLOGY NOUNS NUMBER 33

Irregular Plurals (continued ).


FOREIGN PLURALS.
Many foreign nouns adopted in English form
their plurals irregularly.
I. Italian.- Bandit, virtuoso, and dilettante,
make in the plural, banditti, virtuosi, and di
lettanti.
II. French.— Beau makes beaux ; madam ,mes
dames ; and monsieur,messieurs (contracted into
Messrs.)
III. Latin . The following words ending in
us form their plurals byuschanging us into i :
1. focus mag stimulus
genius! radius terminus
The following change the a final into ce : -
2. formula lamina nebula
larva macula scoria
The following change um final into a :
3 . addendum dictum medium
animalculum effluvium memorandum
arcanum emporium postulatum
datum encomium stratum
desideratum erratum speculum
These change ex or is final into ices : —
4 . apex index vertex
appendix radix vortex
IV . Greek. The following change is final
into es : -
1. analysis crisis oasis
antithesis ellipsis phasis
axis hypothesis parenthesis
basis metamorphosis amanuensis
i Genii - spirits : geniuses - men of high talent.
D
34 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

The following change on final into a in the


plural :
2. automaton ephemeron
criterion omenon

Antipodes, illuminati, literati, and minutiæ ,


have no singular forms.
Genus makes genera ; ephemeris, ephemerides;
aphis, aphides ; and sphinx, sphinges in the
plural.
Apparatus, congeries, hiatus, series, and super
ficies are alike in both numbers.
Cherub and seraph, make cherubs and seraphs,
as well as cherubim and seraphim , which are
Hebrew forms.
Dogma and stamen, make dogmas and stamens,
as well as dogmata and stamina (their classical
plurals). Simile has similies in the plural.
Index makes indexes (tables of contents ), and
indices in a mathematical sense .
EXERCISE.
Add the plural terminations to the nouns in italics in the
following sentences.
I have made some memorand in my pocket-book
concerning the errat of that book. The termin of the
railwaysmeet at that point. He has several amanuens
at work. The nebul are not visible to the naked eye.
Medicines which excite the nerves are called stimul.
I have not yet seen the addend. Many of the phenomen
of nature are wonderful. The heavenly bodies revolve
on their ax. There are three or four oas in the Great
ETYMOLOGY - - NOUNS — CONSTRUCTION 35
African Desert. We cannot decide correctly from such
criteri. The wise men of the East were called may.
These wordsmust be put in parenthes. The animalcul
in water may be seen through a microscope. The
effluvi from such deposits are highly injurious. In one
of these violent cris,we thought he would expire. It is
among the desiderat of modern science. The book has
three distinct (indexes, or indices ?) I was surprised at
these sudden metamorphos. They stood like so many
automat. In the science of botany, flowers are arranged
in orders, gen,and speci. I met with several hiat in the
manuscript. Extract all the simil from the first book
of ‘ Paradise Lost.' The cherub and seraph veiled their
countenances. On what dat do you arrive at that con
clusion ? The superfici of these solids are equal to
one another. England has produced many geni. Two
sphin guard the entrance to the hall. The Orientals
believe in geni. The dogm of Plato were received by
many. They were attacked in themountains by Italian
bandit. The parcel was addressed to (Monsieur ? )
Smith and Thomson. Many encomi have been passed
on this work. The critic entered into the minuti of the
question . There were many beau at the ball. The
school is conducted by (Madame?) Le Blond and Piret.
The question was argued upon false hypothes. The
moon appears in various phas. Who will ever pene
trate all the arcan of nature ?
ON THE USE OF NOUNS.
In the construction of sentences, nouns are
used in various ways :
1. Subjective 4 . Vocative
2 . Possessive 5 . Absolute
3. Objective
D 2
36 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

1. A noun is used as a subject when it is the


word concerning which an affirmation is made.
When so used , it is generally, with some few ex
ceptions, put before the verb ; as, “ The gardener
locked the gate .' Here, gardener is the subject;
as it is concerning the gardener that the sentence
is written .
N . B. Every subjectmust have its verb . There
can be no subject without a verb, expressed or
understood.
2. The possessive form of the noun is marked
by an apostrophe ( ' ) followed by an s final; as,
“My friend's books are lost.' This means, the
books belonging to, or possessed by, my friend
are lost.
N .B. When the plural ends in s, the possessive
plural is expressed by an apostrophe placed after
that 8 ; as, 'My friends' books are lost ;' that is,
the books belonging to my friends are lost.
3. When a noun follows and depends on a
verb, a participle , or a preposition , it is used
objectively — that is, it is the object of that' verb,
participle, or preposition ; as, “ Putting the keys
in his pocket, he left the room . In this sen
tence, the noun “ keys' is an object governed by
the participle putting ;' the noun pocket ' is an
object governed by the preposition in ;' and the
noun -room ' is an object governed by the verb
" left.'
4. Nouns are used vocatively when they ex
ETYMOLOGY — NOUNS — CONSTRUCTION 37
press persons or things addressed ; as, “ Henry,
do not tear your book . “ Breathe soft, ye winds.'
In these examples, · Henry ’and winds'are both
used vocatively.
5. Nouns are used absolutely when placed
apart , with an adjective or participle, and inde
pendently of the other parts of the sentence ; as ,
“ The lesson being finished, the scholars departed.'
The evening being chilly, we were well wrapped
up.' In these examples, the nouns • lesson ' and
evening ' are used absolutely .

EXERCISE.
Copy out the following sentences, marking all the nouns
sub., poss., obj., voc., or abs., according to their
construction.
God created the world . Mybrother has just received
a letter from his friend. The rain will spoil the flowers.
Health is the best of gifts. His companions were de
lighted with his simplicity . My dear friend, I am quite
of your opinion. The danger being over, we had
leisure to consider our condition . My cousin accom
panied me to the next village. The captain allowed
three weeks' absence to the sailors. O wretched
fellow - citizens, what madness is this !' A change
had taken place in theministry . The majority being
absent on this occasion , their forces were rallied the
next day . "Macbeth , beware Macduff !' Tyrant,
think on this. His brother's essay was by far the
best. The summit gained , behold the proud alcove.'
Man is a creature formed for Heaven 's highest pur
D3
38 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

poses. A smile upon the face is often but a mask ,


worn occasionally , and in company, to prevent a sus
picion of what is passing in the heart. ' I add thy
name, O sun , to tell thee how I hate thy beams. The
war being finished , the soldiers returned home. He
obtained a two years' leave of absence. James, what
have you done with your slate ? Eagles' nests are
built in high trees. They spiked all the ship's guns.
Joan of Arc's execution took place at Rouen .

ADJECTIVES
Adjectives are words which qualify nouns —
that is, which show what sort of beings or things
they are ; as, an old man, a young woman , a
pretty cottage.
In English, adjectives undergo no alteration in
form to express a difference of gender or number;
we say, with equal propriety, an old man, an old
woman , an old house ; old men , old women, old
houses.
Adjectives have three degrees of comparison -
the positive, the comparative, and the super
lative .
The positive degree is used when we assert
that a certain quality belongs to some noun ; as,
“ the table is long : ' or when we assert that one
of two beings or things has the same degree of
quality as another ; as, “ this table is as long as
that book -case.'
ETYMOLOGY – ADJECTIVES - COMPARISON 39

The comparative degree is used when we as


sert that one being or thing has more of a certain
quality than another ; as, this table is longer
than that side-board .'
The superlative degree is used when we assert
that one (or more) out of a number of beings or
things has most of a certain quality ; as, this is
the longest table (of them all).'
RULES FOR THE FORMATION OF THE COMPARATIVE
AND SUPERLATIVE DEGREES.
I. The simple adjective itself is in the positive
degree ; as, high , tall.
II. When the adjective is a monosyllable,
add er to it to form the comparative, and
est to form the superlative degree ; as,
Pos. high . . . . Comp. higher . . . . SUPERL. highest .
Pos. low . . . . . Comp. lower . . . SUPERL. lowest.
N . B . When the adjective ends in e silent, this
e is left out in forming the comparative and
superlative degrees ; as, wise, wis- er, wis-est ;.
nice , nic -er, nic-est.
III. When the adjective is a word of more
than one syllable, the comparative is formed by
putting the sign “more ,' and the superlative,
by putting the sign “most, before the positive ; as,
Pos. elegant. Comp. more elegant. SUPERL, most elegant.
N. B . Adjectives of two syllables, and ending
in y preceded by a consonant, form their com
paratives and superlatives by changing the y final
04
40 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE
into ier and iest ; as, lively, livelier, liveliest ;
heavy, heavier, heaviest.
The following adjectives, though dissyllables,
may form their comparatives and superlatives
by adding er and est to the positive : -
Pos. Comp. Superl. | able
Pos Comp. Superl.
pleasant
handsome
er est er est
er est humble er est
bitter : est gentle est
slender est nimble est
tender est noble est
clever erest idle : est
honest simple est
proper .- est subtle est

EXERCISE .
Supply adjectives, in their proper degree, in the blank
spaces.
The way was — than we had expected . It was a
- night. This is the night we have had this
winter. Itwas the -- - sight I ever witnessed . He is
a much — man than his brother. She gave him the
tap with her fan . The serpentwas the beast
of the field . Nothing can be . This is the
night I ever spent. What a mien ! The Thames
is than the Seine. Solomon was the of
men. Iron is a metalthan gold. The minstrelwas
and He was not only a man, but the
- - ofmen. The Shannon is the river in Ireland.
Mont Blanc is the mountain in Europe. She is
1 In comparing these adjectives, we should avoid the repetition
of a syllable ; thus, do not say bitterer, or honestest.
2 Avoid idler as the comparative of the adjective idle, to pre
vent confounding it with the noun idler (onewho idles).
ETYMOLOGY — ADJECTIVES — COMPARISON 41
much than her sister. His behaviour on this oc -,
casion wasmuch — than usual. The exhibition was
- last night than the one given on Tuesday. That
man is the who has the wants. He is the
man in the village.
IRREGULAR COMPARISONS.
Many adjectives in common use have irregular
comparatives and superlatives ; such are, —
Pos. Comp. Superl. Pos. Comp. Superl.
bad worse worst ' little les s least
good better best much most s
fore former foremost many ] more
first ?
forth further furthest nigh nigher Snighest
| next
far farthers farthest S older oldest
ne s laters latest elder . ( eldest?
late latter last

EXERCISE,
Supply irregular adjectives, in their proper degrees, in
the blank spaces.
James has industry than his brother. It is -
not to hurry. He sat — to his mother. Which is
the of the two brothers ? This is a very exer
1 .Worse and worst ' are derived from 'wear.'
• Foremost (in place); first (in time or order).
3 . Further' means more in advance; farther,' at a greater
distance.
4 •Later' and latest' (in time); " latter ’and •last’ (in order).
5 .Much ' is derived from mo (an old word, signifying a heap
or quantity ), by adding "like,' Thus mo- like becomes much ,' as
so-like, such, and who-like (Scotch whilk ), which. Much'de
notes quantity or bulk ; ' many,' number.
6 Next' is a contraction for nighest.'
? • Elder ' and ` eldest' are applied only to members of the same
family.
42 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

cise . He eats — than his friend. We are from


the mark than ever. You are come - The weather
was very gloomy — week . Give him some meat
This is the oak in the forest. Jane is the — of the
family . She was the writer in the school. He
could not endure the opposition to his will. They
who stand in the battle are not always in the
fray. In — days they managed things differently.
She has not as - sense as her cousin . John is — in
his studies than myself. His condition is now than
ever. — considerations prevented him from giving
himself any — trouble in this business. This he de
clared with his breath . He ate food than
any of his companions.
ON THE USE OF ADJECTIVES.
Adjectives are used either as attributes, or as
predicates.
They are attributes when placed close to the
nounswhich they qualify, as : “ He is a good man .'
They are predicates when they express what
is declared of some person or thing ; as, the man
is good.
EXERCISE .

Copy out the following sentences, marking all the adjec


tives ; the attributes with an A , and the predicates
with a P .
A strong horse is useful. The poor man returned to
his cottage. The difference is not great. He grows
sleepy . What a beautiful day ! They have become
troublesome. You have grown tall. He is an ignorant
ETYMOLOGY — ADJECTIVES

man . Pride is odious. His verses are considered very


beautiful. Demosthenes is said to have been the
greatest orator of antiquity . The young lady was
silent. The big tears chased each other rapidly down
his aged cheeks. What can be more delightful than
to see a happy and united family . All nature looks
cheerful and gay. He told me a long story about his
misfortunes. The Rhine is very wide at Cologne, and
is a much larger river than the Moselle. They began
the campaign with a bold move. His character was
eccentric in the extreme. This nobleman possessed
profound and extensive learning. A victim was neces
sary. This interview was delightful.

ADJECTIVES USED AS NOUNS.


Though every adjective really belongs to, and
qualifies, some noun , that noun is not always
expressed ; as,' The memory of the just is blessed ;
but the name of the wicked shall rot. (Here
just and wicked , signify just and wicked men or
persons.)
EXERCISE .

Copy out the following sentences, underlining all the ad


jectives used as nouns.
“ Such place Eternal Justice had prepared
For those rebellious — "
The young and the old , the rich and the poor, the
wise and the ignorant, have all duties to perform .
Burke wrote a treatise on the Sublime and Beautiful.
The righteous shall flourish like a bay tree. The un
ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

godly shall not stand in the judgment. This level is


used for a cricket-ground. Time will show whether
this be for good or evil. See that thou do no wrong to
any man. You have no right to do this. That is the long
and the short of the matter. The poor ye have always
with you. They sailed across the bosom of the deep .
The boys are playing on the green. I prefer blue to
pink . The Roman emperors were invested with the
purple. He was dressed in black . Shehas the best of
the argument. The crooked shall be made straight.
It is the folly and misfortune of mankind to prefer the
present to the future, the agreeable to the useful, the
shining to the solid.
When adjectives denote qualities perceptible
to the senses, they are used concretely ; as, a cold
stone, a bright sun .
When they qualify states of the mind , they are
used abstractly ; as, a cold heart, a bright thought.
EXERCISE .
Copy out the sentences below , marking all the adjectives
with a C or an A , accordingly as they are used in a
concrete or in an abstract sense.
The children are diligent. In hot weather, the
little boys play under the shady trees. I received a
warm welcome. The girls sat at a long table. It is a
long time since I saw him . That is a bright thought.
This lesson is very hard . He gave me a cold look.
The sky is bright and clear. The prisoner lay on a
hard bed. This dark deed was discovered. I have
strong reasons for thinking so . Do not be so cross.
ETYMOLOGY — ADJECTIVES 45

Brewers must have strong horses ; they drag heavy


loads. One dark night, the boy fell into a deep well.
At this spot the stream is very shallow . It is but a
short distance. He has a shallow mind. Life is short.
There is a wide difference in their opinions. This wine
is sour. The streets are very wide. His temper is
sour. The plot was ripe for execution . She has a
sweet disposition . He has filled the highest offices.
The fruit is ripe and sweet. Snowdon is a very high
mountain .
Adjectives derived from proper namesare called
proper adjectives ; as, French, from France ;
Shaksperian, from Shakspere, & c.
When two nouns come together, the one quali
fying the other , the qualifying noun must be
considered as an adjective ; as,watch -chain , bread
basket , & c.
EXERCISE .

Mark the proper adjectives in the following sentenceswith


a P, and the qualifying nouns (adjectives)with an A.
The Russian fortress was bombarded by the English
and French . She wore a silk dress. The chain pier
at Brighton is an elegant structure. The Spanish com
mander approached the castle walls. The Pompeian
decorationsare remarkable for their brightness of colour.
He took a cedar pencil from his pocket-book . The
Spenserian stanza consists of nine lines. This poem
belongs to the Elizabethan age of our literature. The
salt water is brought through iron pipes. Lycurgus is
said to have collected the Homeric poems. The woman
46 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

had on a cotton gown. They live in a brick house .


The Italian language is melodious. The Alexandrian
library was celebrated . He drew out a gold watch.
The garden was laid out in gravel walks and grass plots.
The Provençal poetry flourished in the tenth century .
The Troubadour language was used in the South of
France. The Reform Bill was passed in March, 1832.
Put a paper cover on your book . Alexander destroyed
the Persian empire. They have just built a new cattle
market. .

NUMERAL ADJECTIVES.
Numbers, or numeral adjectives, qualify beings
or things as to their number or order.
Numbers are divided into three classes — car
dinal, ordinal, and multiplicative.
· 1. Cardinalnumbers are one, two, three, four, & c.
2. The ordinal, which express the order in
which any person or thing is mentioned, are,
first, second, third, fourth , & c.
3. The multiplicative numeral adjectives are ,
single, double, triple, & c.
EXERCISE .
Point out the cardinal, ordinal, and multiplicative nu
merals used in the following sentences.
The first time I saw him he was not more than six
teen years old . I shall require a double lining to this
cloak. Tuesday is the third day of the week . The
battle of Hastings was fought on the fourteenth of
October, 1066. He had eight faults in his exercise ;
ETYMOLOGY - PRONOUNS 47
this is the second time he has written it so badly.
Give me two or three apples. There is not a single
letter in that word well formed . He was confined to
the house for six weeks. It happened on the twenty
fourth of February. On state occasions the Pope
wears a triple crown. It amounted to double the sum
I had expected.

PRONOUNS.
Pronouns are words which stand for nouns,
or qualities ; some of them have the nature of
nouns, and some of adjectives.
PERSONAL PRONOUNS.
Personal pronouns are those which stand for,
or represent, persons. They have number and
gender, like nouns. There are three persons in
each number.
SUBJECTIVE FORMS.
Singular. Plural.
1st. I 1st. We
2nd . Thou 2nd. You or ye
3rd. He, she, it 3rd. They
The FIRST person is the person who speaks or
acts ; as (sing.), I am thirsty ; (plur.) we are
tired .
The SECOND person is the one spoken to ; as
(sing.), thou art powerful; (plur.) you are happy.
The THIRD person stands for the person or
US
ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE
thing spoken of, and may be of the masculine
or feminine gender ; as, he is good ; she is young ;
or it may refer to a thing without life ; as, it
(the pitcher ) is broken .
The pronoun of the third person plural is of
the masculine or feminine gender ; as, they (the
boys) are playing ; they (the girls) are sewing :
or it may refer to things without life ; as, they
( the tables) are mended. .
When these pronouns are used as objects — that
is, when they follow and depend on a preposition,
a verb, or a participle — their formsare :
OBJECTIVE FORMS.
Singular. Plural.
1st. Me 1st. Us
2nd . Thee 2nd . You
3d. Him , her, it 3rd . Them

EXERCISE .
Copy out the subjoined sentences, underlining the per
sonal pronouns used as subjects, and doubly under
lining those used as objects ; also, mark the number
and person of each.
I wish to ask you whether you think he will come.
Tell him to pay us a visit. “ Dost thou answer me
with ifs ? ' We will come and see you to -morrow .
They are never at home. “I see thee still.' What
have they done to you ? You will find it where I told
you . Have you seen her ? She was a very good girl.
I have lost the books. Have you found them ? They
are playing at cricket. I thought the news would have
ETYMOLOGY - PRONOUNS

killed him . They are staying with us. Your slate is


missing ; I did not see it in the school-room . Come to
me. Your brother is tired ; he is gone to bed . I can
not open my trunk ; it is locked. My friends, I wish
to address you on this interesting subject. ' Breathe
soft, ye winds.
POSSESSIVE (ADJECTIVE) PRONOUNS.
Each of the personal pronouns has its corre- ·
sponding possessive. These possessive pronouns
are used as adjectives, and are either conjunctive
(joined to), or disjunctive (separated from ), the
nouns which they qualify.
CONJUNCTIVE POSSESSIVES. DISJUNCTIVE POSSESSIVES.
Singular. Plural. Singular. Plural.
1st. My 1st. Our lst. Mine lst. Ours
2nd. Thy 2nd. Your 2nd. Thine 2nd. Yours
[ His 2nd S His lo
3rd. Her } 3d. Their ( Hers } 03rd. Theirs
Its

EXERCISE I.
Copy out the following sentences, underlining the con
junctive possessives, and doubly underlining the dis
junctives. Mark the underlined pronouns 1, 2, 3, —
ar D ,- singular or plural, - according to the above

hip is this ? Where is yours ? My top is


He has lost his book . Is this pencil yours,
or y brother's ? Our dog has hurt his leg. Which
is you cousin 's house ? That house is theirs,and this
is ours. Her slate is unfastened . Their holidays are
50 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

already begun. Where is Robert's hat ? This is his


hat; but I cannot find mine. The bird has injured
its wing
EXERCISE 2 .
Explain the pronouns in the following sentences.
Will you lend me your pen , for I have lost mine ?
I cannot lend you mine, as I am using it. Do you know
where my brother keeps his pens ? I think he keeps
them in his drawer . Have you torn your book ? No ;
but it is covered with ink, and has lost several of its
pages. My sister has promised to lend me her 'book,
asmine is quite spoiled, and I cannot learn my lesson
from it. Will you do me the favour to examine my
exercise ?
THE REFLECTIVE PRONOUN.
The reflective pronoun self (plur. selves ), is
frequently added to the possessives my, thy, our,
your ; and to the personals him , her , it, and
them , to refer the reader to the subject of the
sentence.
EXERCISE .

Supply the reflective pronouns in the blank spaces.


Who did that? I did it . The little girl has
hurt - I gave it to " You — are old .'
He kept the money for It is in very per
nicious. I have been accustomed to the same
practice. I am afraid you flatter - They brought
it - Physician, heal ,' I said to the
ETYMOLOGY - PRONOUNS

same thing. We often imagine to be better than


we really are. I found her sitting by — in a corner
of the room .
DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS.
The words each , every, and either are called
distributive pronouns, and refer to persons or
things making up a number, but taken singly.
They are, properly, adjective pronouns, being
used as qualifying words. Each and either may
be used apart from the nouns they qualify ; every
is never so used .
Each refers to two or more taken singly .
Every refers to several (more than two) taken
singly .
Either refers to one or the other of two taken
singly .
N .B . Either cannot be said of more than two
persons or things. Neither = not either. .
All these pronouns are of the singular number ;
as, · Each boy has his task ;' • Every day brings
us good news ;' • Either of them knows how to
manage this matter.'
EXERCISE .

Supply the proper distributive pronouns in the blank


spaces.
I gave a piece of bread to of the boys. Which
deserves the prize ; John or Robert ? Itmay be justly
given to — I was thanked by man, as I
E 2
52 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

passed. man has naturally an idea of right and


wrong. I have not seen of them . When school
was over, — boy put away his books. ' rose
has a thorn .' — of you, whichever chooses, may
write . This custom prevails in part of Europe.
Which of us two shall go ? " To his
sufferings.' - part of the garden is well culti
vated. one of these letters bears a regular date .
- town and village was burnt ; - grove and tree
was cut down. In proportion as of the two
qualities, perspicuity and correctness, is wanting, the
language is imperfect. We read some interesting
work — evening. — of these two houses will be
large enough for my purpose. We receive some new
information on this subject — day.
INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.
The words all, any, both , few , many, much ,
no, none, one, other, same, several, some, and
such, are indefinite pronouns.
They are used as adjectives, and are called
indefinite, because they do not define, or specify,
an exact quantity or number of beings or things.
EXERCISE.
Supply the proper indefinite pronouns in the blank
spaces.
Give him food. people have heard of
this transaction . He has failed times . I have
found one glove ; where is the ~ ? I did not buy
- apples. - man can tell how long he may
live. That question gave rise to disputes. I
ETYMOLOGY - PRONOUNS 53
thought it better to ask questions. men as
these are the best for this purpose. His example was
followed by _ Have you figs ? people
took one side, and the — These two are
exactly the — I see difference between them .
Can you give me a nails ? What can do in
- a difficulty ? - are so blind as those that will
not see. My two brothers are come home from
school. men must die . What can do in
a case ?

DEMONSTRATIVE (ADJECTIVE ) PRONOUNS.


The demonstrative pronouns are this and that,
with their corresponding plurals, these and those .
They are called demonstrative, because they de
monstrate , or point out, persons or things.
This (plur. these ) is used in speaking of what
is near us ; that (plur. those ) points to what is
at some distance from us. This also refers to the
present time; that, to the past.
The words this, that, these , and those, like
other adjectives, are frequently used indepen
dently, as nouns, referring to things or persons
understood ; as, “ Give me that; ' « What are
these ? ' & c.
EXERCISE .

Substitute demonstrative pronouns for thewords in italics,


and supply them in the blank spaces.
Show me the books (which are near you ). What
have you done with the pens (which you had yester
E 3
54 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

day) ? Which do you prefer; the desk (on the table


near me), or the work -box (yonder) ? What can all
mean ? Both wealth and poverty are temptations:
the one tends to excite pride; the other , discontent.
What is the cause of — noise ? Which pens will
you have; - or ? Your brother is arrived.
Yes, I know — They are disputing about what
you spoke of — day when we were in the country .
Did he say — ? Now , is the difficulty (which
I am going to explain ). - apples (before us) are
not so good as — we bought yesterday. You shall
have it minute. He rose instant from his
seat. Luxury and avarice are both injurious to society :
the former by its enervating effects ; the latter by its
manifest injustice. Come and look at — insects.
- were the only persons left behind . Take –
book from the shelf.
INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS.
FORM OF THE INTERROGATIVE AND RELATIVE PRONOUN.
Singular and Plural.
Subj. Who which what
Poss. Whose
which
Obj. Whom
" oom which what
The words who, whose, whom , which , and
what, are called interrogative pronouns when
they are used in asking questions ; as, Who did
that ? ' • Whose book is this ? ' Whom did you
see? ' •Which will you have ? ' What do you
want ? '
Who, is used of persons ; what, is used of
things.
ETYMOLOGY - PRONOUNS 55

Which, is used both of persons and things.


Whose, is used possessively (and means ' be
longing to whom ? ').
Whom , is used objectively , and depends on a
verb or preposition .

EXERCISE .
Supply the interrogatives in the blank spaces.
- of the brothers is ill ? did you say about
the weather ? To — did you give the money ?
- spoke ? — book is this ? Mine. - house
do you prefer ? have you done with your needle ?
- can you be thinking of? With — have you
been conversing ? - is the better historian , Livy
or Tacitus ? - do you think of the present state of
affairs ? - opinion do you approve of ? - will
be the more advisable, to drive or to walk ? — do
you intend to do in this matter ? - business is it ;
yours or mine ? do you suppose I met in the
park ?
RELATIVE PRONOUNS.
The above pronouns are also used as relatives
that is, when they relate to persons or things
already mentioned ; as, This is the boy who
brought the apples;' « The pen which I mended ;'
“ He whose opinion was asked.''
The person or thing referred to by the relative is called its
antecedent.
E 4
56 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

What, is used relatively for the thing or things


which ;' as, “ This is what you want.'
That, is frequently used for the relative who
or which :
1. In speaking of things without life ; as, “ The
box that I bought.'
2 . After an adjective in the superlative degree ;
as, “ The most beautiful view that can be ima
gined.
3 . After the interrogative pronoun who ; '
as, · Who that thinks deeply on such matters can
fail to arrive at this conclusion ? '

EXERCISE .
Let the pupil supply the proper relative or interrogative
pronouns in the blank spaces.
The man — brought these books is the person to
- I paid themoney. Where is the rose - I gave
you this morning ? I have just met with something
- will suit you exactly . These are the dresses –
we were speaking of. Who has any feeling can
resist such an appeal ? do you think of this
affair ? They — think so are very much mistaken .
I did not quite understand you said . have
you been talking about ? This is the best plan —
you can adopt. I have lost some of the paper - I
bought yesterday. — did you see in the park ? It
is the boldest design - was ever conceived . They
cannot be the boys - I saw atyour house . - will
you have, the apple or the pear ? I do not care —
ETYMOLOGY — VERBS 57

Give me the pencil was here just now . This is


he of — I spoke. I said is perfectly correct.
He did not neglect - he conceived to be his duty.
- of you has done this ? No one can tell — may
happen to -morrow . that reflects for a moment
can doubt of this truth ? - notion was that ? Is
this the letter - you showed me this morning ? I
cannot tell you may be thinking of. Demosthenes
was the greatest orator — ever lived.

VERBS.
A verb is a word which expresses action or
being ; as, be, come, talk , think.
Verbs have number , person ,mood, tense, and
conjugation .
They have two numbers, singular and plural,
as in nouns ; and three persons, the first, second ,
and third, in each number.
Singular. Plural.
1st Person . I talk 1st Person. Wetalk
2nd Person. Thou talkest 2nd Person . Ye or you talk
3rd Person . He talks 3rd Person . They talk

Mood means manner. There are five moods


or manners of expressing an action : 1st, the
Indicative ; 2nd, the Imperative; 3rd, the Po
tential ; 4th , the Subjunctive ; and 5th , the In
finitive.
1. Indicative means ' pointing out,' or show
ing.' Those forms of the verb in which an action
58 : ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

is indicated or pointed out, are of the indicative


mood ; as, ' I shall come to -morrow ; ' Hewrites
well.
2. Imperative means " commanding. When
ever the verb expresses a command ( or a request),
the form is of the imperative mood ; as, “ Come
to me; ' . Tell me that story.'
3 . Potentialsignifies having power;'as,ʻImay
serve ;' “ He might work .
4 . Subjunctivemeans joined to ' — that is, de
pending on some other assertion ; as, “He will
be fatigued , if he walk too fast.? Here, the form ,
‘ if he walk ,' is joined to , and depends on , the
form he will be fatigued .
5. Infinitive means " unlimited. All the other
moods are limited by number and person ; but
the infinitive is simply the name of the action ,
not circumscribed or confined to any person or
number. The sign of the infinitive mood is 'to ; '
as, to love ; to run , & c.
Before studying other verbs, it is necessary to
be acquainted with the forms of the verb “ to be,'
which are very irregular. It is conjugated as
follows :
.
MOOD
INDIC ATIVE
.
PRESENT
INDEFIN
P.I RESENTITE COMPLETE
P.IIRESENT
.Plural .
Singular .
Plural
.
Singular 1.We
are 1.Ihbeen
ave 1.We
been
have
1.Iam been
h)(yhastou
e
2.YTave
been
hou
2.Thou
art )a(y2.Yreou
e 3.He
been
has 3.They
been
have
is3.He 3.They
are
.
PAST
INDEFIN
P. AST ITE
III COMPLETE
P.IVAST
.
Plural .Singular .
Plural
.
Singular 1.Ihad
been 1.We
been
had
1.Iwas 1.We
were yhadst
Tbeen ad
e
)h(2.You
hou
2.Thou
wast )w(y2.You
ere
e been
had
.T3 hey
3.He
was 3.They
were 3.He
been
had
ETYMOLOGY — VERBS

.
FUTURE
FINDEFINITE
V. UTURE COMPLE
. UTURETE
FVI
.
Plural .
Singular .
Plural
.Singular 1.We
be
shall been
W
have
sshall
1.I halle
sbe been
have
wwilt
w)(yY2.Tbe ill
ou
hou
ou
)(yill
ee
be
1.Ihallwilt
.T2 hou been
have
been3
will
e Y2.
e
be3.Hwill 3.Twill
be
will
1Hhey
.
MOOD
IMPERATIVE
60

.
INDEFINITE
PRESENT
.
Singular .
Plural
1.Lme
be
et .1Let
be
us
2.Be
thou 2.Be
ye
3.Let
be
him 3.Let
be
them
.
MOOD
POTENTIAL
.
PRESENT
.
INDEFINITE
PRESENT .
COMPLETE
PRESENT
Singular
. .
Plural .
Singular Plural
.
m.I1 ay
be may
1.W
bee Imay
1.W
been
have
may e
have
Tbe been
)m(ymayest hou
2.Ymayest
may ou
eeay
e
.3may
Hbe 3.They
be
may may
have
been e
T.H3 hey
.
PAST
.
INDEFINITE
PAST .
COMPLETE
PAST
ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

.
Singular .Plural .·Singular .
Plural
?1.Imight
be 1.We
be
might Imight
1.W
been
have
might
e
2.Tmightest
be
have
been
might
Ybe e
| hou
might
Hbe e
been
T3.have
|hey
could
are
signsust
w?T.mac·anhould
',”sother
ndould
he
.
MOOD
SUBJUNCTIVE
.
PRESENT .
PAST
.PRESENT
INDEFINITE .
INDEFINITE
PAST
.Singular Plur
. al Singular
. .Plural
Ib1.fe 1.If
be
we wI1.fere 1.If
were
we
be
thou
2.Iyef thou
wert
2.If
were
ye
3.If
be
he 3.If
be
they 3. f
Ihe
were I3.f
they
were

.
MOOD
INFINITIVE
.
INDEFINITE
PRESENT .
COMPLETE
PRESENT
be
To been
have
To
ETYMOLOGY - VERBS

.
PARTICIPLES
.
INDEFINITE .
COMPLETE
Being Having
been
62 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

EXERCISE .
The learner is to explain the forms of the verb to be,'
used in the following sentences.
You might have been ready. I shall be happy to
see you. He had been on a visit to his uncle. If I
were in your place, I should be more diligent. "Be
thou familiar, but by no means vulgar.' We shall
have been here a month to-morrow . He was ten
years old yesterday. They were more successful last
week than they had been for somemonths before. Let
us be thankful that we are free. They will be here
immediately . You may have been too rash . If he
were our leader, we should be sure to succeed. I am
not sure that he will be faithful. Art thou he ofwhom
I have heard so much ? It is a disgrace to have been
so long about this business. To be good is to behappy.
To-morrow will be Thursday. How is your brother ?
I should have been here much sooner . The servant
had been there some time when you arrived. He was
then in the prime of life. I have been talking to my
friend about this matter. Ihope they will be happy.
Being in great distress, he applied to me for assist
ance.
EXERCISE ON THE MOODS.
Copy out the following sentences, marking all the verbs
imp., poten., subj., infin ., accordingly as they may be
in one or other of these moods.
He said so before. You wish to take a walk . If he
study diligently, he will soon acquire knowledge.
Think before you speak. He proposed to accompany
ETYMOLOGY — VERBS 63
us in our walk. If this happen, the consequences will
be serious. Listen to what I say. Do not speak so
loud. If he do but attend to his business, he will be
sure to prosper. The magistrate investigated the sub
ject. No one can be sure that he will live till to
morrow .

TENSE.
Tense means time. Verbs have three tenses —
the present, the past, and the future — under
each of which there are various forms.

ACTIVE VOICE .
INDICATIVE MOOD.
PRESENT TENSES.
Of these there are five : - .
Action. Time.
1. I serve . . . Indefinite . Present .
2. I am serving . Incomplete
3. I have served . . Complete .
4. I have been serving . Progressive
5 . I do serve . . . Emphatic . . . ,

PAST TENSES.
The past tense has also five forms:
Action . Time.
1. I served Indefinite . Past .
2. I was serving . . Incomplete
3. I had served Complete . . . ,
4. I had been serving Progressive
5 . I did serve . . . Emphatic .
64 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

FUTURE TENSES.
The future tense has four forms: —
Action . Time.
1. I shall serve . . Indefinite . . Future.
2, I shall be serving , Incomple te . .
3. I shall have served . Complete . .
4. I shall have been serving Progressive . .
N .B. The future tense has no emphatic form .
IMPERATIVE MOOD.
PRESENT TENSES.
The present imperative has three forms:
* Action . Time.
1. Serve (thou ) . . . Indefinite . . Present.
2. Be serving . . Incomplete .
3. Do serve . . Emphatic . . . ,

POTENTIAL MOOD.
PRESENT TENSES.
The present potential has four forms: -
Action . Time.
1. I may serve . . . Indefinite . . Present.
2. I may be serving . . Incomplete
3. I may have served . Complete .
4. I may have been serving Progressive
PAST TENSES.
The past potential has also four forms:
Action . Time.
1. I might serve . . Indefinite . . Past.
2. I might be serving . Incomplete
3. I might have served . Complete
4. I might have been serving Progressive
ETYMOLOGY - VERBS . 65
SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD .
PRESENT TENSES.
The present subjunctive has five forms:
Action . Time.
1. If I serve . . . Indefinite . . Present .
2. If I be serving . . Incomplete . .
3. If I have served . . Complete .
4. If I have been serving . Progressive . .
5. If I do serve . . Emphatic . .
PAST TENSE.
The past subjunctive has but one form :
Action . Time.
1. If I were serving . Incomplete . . Past.

INFINITIVE MOOD .
PRESENT TENSES.
The present infinitive has four forms:
Action . Time.
1. To serve . . , Indefinite . Present.
2. To be serving . . Incomplete
3. To have served . . Complete .
4. To have been serving . Progressive
PARTICIPLE.
There are three forms of the participle: –
Action.
1. Serving Incomplete.
2. Served, or having served . . Complete.
3 . Having been serving . . . Progressive.
EXERCISE 1.
The learner is to study the following table of the verb,
and to write similar tables of the verbs “to procure,' ' to
promise,' to amuse,' “to study,' to learn,' “to adorn ,'
'to employ,' to examine,' & c.
Voice
VERB
ATHECTIVE
TABLE
.-OF 99

.
Indefinite .Incomplete .
Complete .Progressive .Emphatic
sIndic
.I erve Iam
serving hserved
I ave been
hI ave
serving do
Iserve
erve
.Shou
)B(tImper
serving
e Do
serve
ARENGLISH

mserve
Poten
.I ay served
serving
be
Imay
have
ay mserving
I ay
been
have
GRAMM

.
Subj IsIferve IfIbe
serving hserved
IfIave been
IhIfave
serving Idserve
Ifo

Present.
CE

Infin
.To
serve Tobe
serving served
Tohave been
Tohave
serving
PRACTI

Part
. . . . . Serving Having
served Having
been
serving
.Iserved
Indic serving
Iwas Ihad
served been
hI ad
serving Idid
serve
mIserve
serving
served
have
have
beight
been

Past.
Poto

.Ishall
Indic
serve beserving
Ishall served
Ishall
have serving
shave
I hall
been

Future.
.
VOICE
ACTIVE
THE
OF
FORM
.
MOOD
INDICATIVE
.
TENSES
PRESENT
.
INDEFINITE
·Singular .
Plural
1.Iserve 1.We
2.Thou
servest Y2. ou
serve
3.He
serves )3.They

F 2
.
INCOMPLETE COMPLE
. TE
.
Singular .
Plural .
Singular .Plural
a1.I m 21.We
are h1.I ave 1.We
have
2.YThou
serving
art
serving
are
ou hou
hast
2.Yserved
have
|Tou served
is3.He |3.He
has 3.They
have
ETYMOLOGY - VERBS

are
T.3J hey
.
PROGRESSIVE .
EMPHATIC

1.
.
Singular Plural
No
. have
been
Singular .
Plural
hI ave
been 1.W520e
been
have 60d1.I o 1.We
do
2.Thou
been
hast You
E!2.Tserving
been
have
serve
dost
hou 2.You
do serve
3.He
been
has does
Jol e
3.Hbeen
have
They 3.They
do
68

-(continued
MOOD
.)INDICATIVE
.
TENSES
PAST
.
INDEFINITE
. lar
Singu .
Plural
1.Iserved .e
1W
2.Thou st
served 2.You
served
e
3.Hserved )3.They
.•INCOMPLETE .
COMPLETE
.
Singular .
Plural .Singular .
Plural
w1.I as 1.Wweree 1.Ihad hade
1.W
2.Thou
wast 2.You
serving
were serving Thadst
2. hou served served
had
2.You
3.He
was T3. hey
were 3.He
had )3.They
had
.
PROGRESSIVE
ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

.
EMPHATIC
.
Singular .
Plural Sing
. ular Plural
2dhad
1.W
been
Ihoade a 1.Idid 21.We
did
Thadst
been
2.>E hou 2.You
been
had dids
T2. hout 2.You
serve
did
3.He
been
had 3.They
been
had did
H.3 e )3.They
did
.
TENSES
FUTURE
.
INDEFINITE .
INCOMPLETE
.
Singular . al
Plur .
Singular .Plural
s1.I? hall 1.We
shall .Ishall
11
be 1.We
be
shall
serve
wilt
will
2.YThouou will
Ybe
Thou
serving
wilt ou
2.serve
J3.Hwill
e 3.They
will |3.He
be
will 3.They
be
will
serving

.
COMPLETE .
PROGRESSIVE
.
Singular .Plural .
Singular .
Plural
21.Ishall
have e
shall
1.W
have Isshall
1.W
so
been
have hall
e so
2.Twilt
haveě
hou 2.Ywill
haveou 52.YTou
been
wilt
been
have
will hou
3.He
Ja
have
will 3.They
have
will 3.T|Hhey
Jo
been
have
will
ea

served
.
MOOD
IMPERATIVE
ETYMOLOGY — VERBS

INDEFINITE .
TENSES
PRESENT .
INCOMPLETE
.
Singular .Plural .
Singular .
Plural
1.Let
serve
us 1.Let
be
us

.
)(t2.Sye erve
2.Shou
erve 2.B)s(terving
ye
hou
e
3.Lthem
serve
himet 3.Let
serving
him
be
them
serving }
.
MOOD
POTENTIAL
.
TENSES
PRESENT .
INCOMPLETE
.
INDEFINITE
.
Singular .
Plural .Singular .Plural
m1.I ay W
1. e
may )1.Imay
be may
W1.bee
2.Thou
mayest ?2.You
serve
may T2.I hou
mayest
be be
may
2.You E
.He
3may may
T)3. hey Hmay
3. e
Jbe 3.Tmay
be
hey

serve
serving
.
COMPLETE .
PROGRESSIVE
.
Singular .
Plural ,
Singular .Plural
may
1.W
have
Imay e been
have
may
201.Wbeen
Imay e
have
mayou
}2.Ymayest
Thou
have .Y2Tou
52
mayest
been
have
may
hou
JThey
3.Hmay
have
maye .He
13
been
have
may 3.They
been
have
may

served
serving

.
TENSES
PAST
.
INDEFINITE .
INCOMPLETE
.
Singular .
Plural .
Singular .
Plural
ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

1.Imight be
m1.Imight
1,W
7ight e be
might
W
1.520 e
2.Thou
mightest be
might 2
2hou
ou
.TE1ou
be
}2.Y5mightest
-3.He
might J3.T13
mighte
Hbehey 3.They
be
might
serving

c|Tanhe
are
signs
.'maother
ust
nd
—(continued
MOOD
).POTENTIAL
.
TENSES
PAST
.
COMPLETE .
PROGRESSIVE
.
Singular .
Plural .
Singular .
Plural
Imm0ight
amight
have
)81.W
been
have ight
e
mightest
have hou
.YsE2Tmight
might
ou
5been52
been
13
Hhey e
)3.Tmight
been
have
SUBJU
.MOOD NCTIVE
.
TENSES
PRESENT
.
INDEFINITE

F4
INCOMPL
. ETE
.
Singular .
Plural Singular
. .
Plural
)I1.(f ])w1.(If e )Ib1.(fe )w1.(Ife
be
)2.(Itfhou tyserve
Iserving
2.(be ou
hou
)}sferve
)h3.(If es )t3.(Ifhey he
J)t3.(Ibe
|hey
f
ETYMOLOGY – VERBS

.
COMPLETE .
PROGRESSIVE
.
Singular .Plural .
Singular .Plural
)1.(Ihfave have
)w1.(Ife fave
)Ih1.(been been
have
)w1.(Ileofe
Ihave
)t2.( fhou have
})y]2.(Ifou been
Ihave
)t2.( fhou have
)y}2.(IFou
been
)h3.(Ife
have 3.(Ifhey
)tJun
have been
have
)h|3.(Ife Job
have
)t3.(Ifhey
been
Jo
71
SUBJUNCTI
cMOOD
).-( ontinued VE
72
.
TENSES
PRESENT
.
EMPHATIC
.
Singular .Plural
I)d1.( fo 7)w1.(Ife
do
)y2.(Ido
serve
do fhou
I)t2.(fou
)hfe
I3.(do J)t3.(Ifhey
do
.
TENSE
PAST
INCOM
. PLETE
.
Singular .
Plural
wI1.fere If
we
1.were
wert
thou
2.If serving
. 2. f
were
you
Iserving
3.If
were
he they
were
J3.If
ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

INFIN
MOOD
. ITIVE .
PARTICIPLES
1.Tserve
o Indefi
. nite 1.Serving I.; ncomplete
servin
be
T.2 o g .
Incomplete aving
Hserved
C2.:omplete
Chaveo
served
.3Tomplete Hbeenaving ve
-rogressi
P3.serving
ETYMOLOGY - VERBS 73
73

EXERCISE 2 .
Underline the verbs in the following sentences, and
mark their forms ; for example : - 1 Sing. Poten :
Pres : Comp. : I may have served – that is, first
person singular, potential, present, complete.
We shall have finished our work at four o'clock . He
did play much better than he does. You have been
talking more than two hours. Next Christmas I shall
have been learning French four years. You will find
him there. · She is working in the arbour. I had been
teaching for six hours. To-morrow I shall be writing
all day . He was digging in the garden . I had finished
breakfast. We were writing our exercises when the
postman brought the letters. I do think it very unjust.
Tell me what has happened . He has served me very
faithfully many years. The master promised the
broth The boys read an hour every day .
scholars a holiday.
though MIyshouldeahave
ting tfinished
hree my exercise before
II thought
dinner. My brother says he may arrive on Thursday
next. He was repeating those lines to me when you
knocked at the door . Whatever you may think, I shall
be quite ready. Having been writing all the morning,
he wished to go out. If he had been industrious, he
might have been now gaining his livelihood. I fear he
will never succeed. He had been working four hours
when I called upon him . I had finished my breakfast
before you arrived. Seeing the necessity for exertion ,
the secretary resolved to adopt a new plan. Do tell
me what you think about this matter. I have been
endeavouring to discover his real motives. By next
spring, he will have travelled over the greater part of
the Continent. He expects to see all his family .
74 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

PASSIVE VOICE,
INDICATIVE MOOD.
PRESENT TENSES.
The present indicative passive has three
forms :
Action Time.
1 . I am served . . Indefinite . . . Present:
2. I am being served . Incomplete . . ·
3. I have been served . Complete ·. .·
PAST TENSES.
The past indicative passive has three forms: —
Action . Time.
1. I was served . Indefinite . . Past.
2. I was being served . Incomplete . .
3. I had been served . Complete . .
FUTURE TENSES.
The future indicative passive has only two
forms:
Action . Time.
1. I shall be served . Indefinite . . Future.
2. I shall have been served Complete . .

IMPERATIVE MOOD .
PRESENT TENSE .
The present imperative passive has but one
form :
Action . Time.
1. Be served . . Indefinite . . Present.
ETYMOLOGY - VERBS

POTENTIAL MOOD .
PRESENT TENSES.
The present potential passive has two forms:
Action . Time.
1. I may be served . . Indefinite . . Present
2. I may have been served Complete . . .
PAST TENSES.
The past potential paşsive has also but two
forms :
Action. Time.
1. I might be served . Indefinite . . Past.
2. I might have been served Complete . .

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD .
PRESENT TENSES.
The present subjunctive passive has two
forms:
Action. Time.
1. If I be served . . Indefinite . . Present .
2. If I have been served Complete . . .

PAST TENSE .
The past subjunctive passive has but one
form : -
Action. Time.
1. If I were served Indefinite . . Past.
76 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

INFINITIVE MOOD.
The present infinitive passive has two forms:
Action . Time.
1. To be served . . Indefinite . . Present.
2. To have been served Complete . .

PARTICIPLES .
The passive participle has two forms: -
Action .
1. Served, or being served. Indefinite.
2. Having been served. Complete.
VOICE
VERBASSIVE
.-POF
THE
TABLE
.Indefinite .Incomplete .Complete
.Indic aserved
|I m served
being
Iam served
hbeen
I ave
Imper
. Be
served
.Poten mbe
served
I ay I. . . served
been
have
Imay
.Subj served
IbIfe IfIhave
been
served

Present.
.Infin To
served
be been
have
To
served
Par
. t Being
served been
Having
served
.Indic wserved
I as been
Ihad
served

EXERCISE 1.
.Poten be
mI ight
served have
Imight
been
served
ETYMOLOGY — VERBS

Past.
.Subj Iwserved
Ifere
.Part Served been
Having
served
sbe
served
hall
I.Indic have
Ishall
been
served

Fut.

be commanded,' ' to be obliged,' 'to be ruined .'


·There
progressive
no
are
or
inemphatic
forms
passive
.the
voice

to be named ,' ' to be addressed,' ' to be injured,' ' to


Let the learner study the above table, and write similar
tables ofthe verbs to bepersuaded,' 'to be examined,'
FORM
OF
THE
PASS
VOIC
. EIVE
INDIC
MOOD
. ATIVE
PRES ENT
.TENSES
INDEFINITE
.
Singular
. .
Plural
a1.)I m W
.1 e
are
art
serv
T.2 houed are
served
Y.2 ou
is3.He T3. hey
Jare
INCO
. MPLETE COMPLETE
.Singular .Plural .
1Ia. m arW
.
Singular .
Plural
.1art
being ee
T.2served
Y2. hou being .I1 ave
hbeen W
have
been e
are ou 1.hast
been
have hou
ou
YT2.E}been
is3.He 3.Tare
served
.3hey
hase
Hbeen have
.T3 hey
been
served

PAST
TENSES
.
INDEF
. INITE
ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

Sing
. ular Plur
. al
wI.1 as W
1. e
were
was
T2. hout served Y.2 ou
were served
H
was
.3 e T3. hey
were
.
INCOMPLETE .
COMPLETE
.
Singular Plural ,Singular .
Plural
2on
being
were
as
1.WIwbeen
h1
ad e1 1.Whade
been
2.YThou
being
wast
being
were
ou 2.Thou
been
hadst 2.You
been
had
3.He
being
was been
had
3.Hweree
JThey
being 3.They
been
had

served
served

served
.
TENSES
FUTURE
.
INDEFINITE .
COMPLETE
.Singular .Plural .Singular .
Plural
10
be
shall
1.Whave e
been
|Is8 hall 1.We
been
have
shall
2.Thou
be
wilt 2.You
be
will 2.Ywill
been
have
Tou
wilt hou
be
will
3.He )Hhey
3.Tbe
J8
been
been
have
will
e

served
served

.
MOOD
IMPERATIVE
.PRESENT
TENSE
.
INDEFINITE
ETYMOLOGY

.
Singular .
Plural
.1 .1Let
served
be
us
.)s(y2Bterved
ehou
erved
e
beserved
them
.3Lhim
beet
VERBS

.
MOOD
POTENTIAL
.PRESENT
TENSES
.
INDEFINITE .
COMPLETE
.
Singular .
Plural .·Singular .Plural
be
31.W
mmay
tobe e
I ay 1.Wbe
be
might
Imight e
be
bemayest
Tmay ou
Y}2. hou 2.YThou
bemightest
might
ou
be
mayJa
3.THhey
e might
be3.TJo
|Hhey e
served
79

served
are
c2TmThe
are
signs
.',s•wother
ould
anould
hould
he
ust
POTENTIAL
cMOOD
).-( ontinued
80

.·PAST
TENSES
.
INDEFINITE COMPLETE
.Singular Plural
. .
Singular .
Plural
1.Imight
be might
21.W
been
have
Imight
be
might e
2T}8 hou
.Ybe
82
mightest
been
have
mightou
3.HJThave
be
been
have
might been
TJo ehey
3.might
Hhey
be e
served

.
MOOD
SUBJUNCTIVE
.
TENSES
PRESENT
.
INDEFINITE .
COMPLETE
.
Singular .
Plural Singular .
Plural
I1b. fe 1. f
we
be
I13 )1.Ihwe
been
have
ffave
be
thou
f
}2.Iyou
bez §2.I|f
thou
been
have
you
3.If
be
he Ja
be
they
3.Ithey
3.I|ff
Jan
he
been
have
served

.
TENSE
PAST
ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

.
INDEFINITE
.
Singular .
Plural
Iw1.fere 1.If
were
we
2.If
wert
thou 2.If
were
you
served
were
he
3.If J J3.If
were
they
ETYMOLOGY — VERBS

INFINITIVE MOOD .
1 . To be served . Indefinite.
2. To have been served . . Complete.

PARTICIPLES.
1. Served, or being served . . Indefinite.
• 2. Having been served . . . Complete.

EXERCISE 2.
Copy outthe following sentences,underlining the passive
forms, and explaining them (as at p. 73).
The brother was praised for his diligence. The sol
dier will be kindly treated ; for he has been severely
wounded. The letter is now written . You had been
often told so . They will be well received. The men
had been warned of the danger. It will have been
finished long before we arrive. The book may have
been spoiled . The prisoners might have been released .
Wine is imported into England. If the letter be written
in time, it may be sent to the post-office. Let him be
praised, if his lesson be well said . The question having
been settled, and everything being now prepared, it was
resolved to proceed at once. The house was let for a
month . Being praised too frequently, he became con
ceited . I am delighted to hear of your success. The
quarrel was settled long ago. If I be killed in battle,
let my body be conveyed to England. I wish to be
informed more fully on this subject. This step would
have been taken before, had it not been opposed by
82 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

some of themembers. The lessons will have been said ,


and the exercises corrected by nine o'clock . Pythagoras
is said to have been impressed with this belief. A loud
noise was heard in the street. Her spirits had been
broken by this ill treatment. The principle will be
explained by the lecturer. I might have been per
suaded last week ; now , it is too late. I am glad that
you were kindly received. This difficulty having been
overcome, the work was soon accomplished . A glorious
victory has been gained . Come, be persuaded ; and let
the order be issued.

EXERCISE 3 .

ON ACTIVE AND PASSIVE FORMS.


The learner is to write out the following sentences ;
marking and explaining both the active ànd passive
forms of all the verbs used.
They used to work and read together. He was
accompanied by his son . She gave me an account
of what happened. A new calamity had befallen him .
He had now sufficiently recovered his health to pursue
his journey. Themalady had reduced her to a deplo
rable state of weakness. She was writing to request his
advice. The father, when his daughter was somewhat
composed, detailed the intelligence he had received .
All was now going on well. The city was besieged .
Brought up together, they had been inseparable com
panions from youth. It pleased him that his friend
should occupy this position. It might have been dif
ferently arranged. The queen will be attended by
ETYMOLOGY — VERBS

some of her ladies. I offered him a home. He is


negotiating this matter. His absence lasted three
weeks. During the whole of next month , he will be
preparing for his examination. It may be thought
that I am indifferent. Do attend to my injunctions,
and be not persuaded to act against them . “ Had I
but served my God as diligently as I have served my
king, he would not have left menaked to mine enemies."
“ Praise Him , ye winds, that from all quarters blow .”
The command having gone forth , it could not be re
voked. If I comply with his wishes, it will be much
against my will. I had been often solicited by him .
If I were treated as you have been , I would act very
differently . Had Imanaged affairs better, I mighthave
been now enjoying a large fortune. I shall have been
informed on this subject when I see you again . We
may be doing much harm without intending it. You
may be much more injured than you imagine. She
directs him to explain his position more fully. Do not
forget to mention this circumstance. Seek the society
of the virtuous. Be assured that I will follow your
advice . Hehas been extremely well received. “ Hither
shalt thou come, and no further .”

EXERCISE 4.
Write out the following sentences, changing all the active
into passive forms, and vice versâ .
The boat will be rowed by James and John. The
prisoner was condemned by the magistrate to three
years' penal servitude. My hat has been quite spoiled
by the rain . The robbers effected an entrance at the
G 2
ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE
,south gate. This report may have been spread by my
cousin . The guide conducted the travellers to an inn .
All the members of the society read and condemned
that book . That house was built by my father. It is
now inhabited by some of our friends. The carpenter
mended the stool. I was most kindly received by my
friends. A child may make some progress in drawing.
The English are surpassed by other nations in music
and sculpture . My sister devotes much time to the
practice of music and painting. Nature has endowed
some people with great powers. This exhibition will
attract multitudes. It is thought by some that this
opinion is incorrect. The subject may be badly taught
by the master . Many arguments may be adduced in
favour of this view . Children easily contract bad
habits. My brother surmounted this difficulty . The
ink was spilled by my cousin . The historian mentions
that fact. This book was written by an illustrious
philosopher . The gentlemen drank six bottles of wine.
The ditch will have been dug by the labourers. All
my brothers were included in the invitation . The tree
had been struck by lightning. The judge made no
further remarks.
Verbs are transitive or intransitive.
A verb is transitive when the action it expresses
passes on to some person or thing. This person
or thing is called its object, as : The man drew
his sword,' · The gardener plants roots. Here,
the verbs drew ' and plants are transitive, be
cause the action of drawing and planting passes
on to the objects sword ' and ' roots,' which are
required to complete the sense .
ETYMOLOGY – VERBS 85

A verb is intransitive when the action it ex


presses does not pass on to a person or thing ; as :
• The boy sleeps,' the dog barks. Here the
action remains in the subject, and the sense is
complete of itself. We cannot say the boy sleeps
a thing, or sleeps a person ; neither can we say
properly, · The dog barks a man or a house.'
Therefore the verbs to sleep,' ' to bark, and
all such are intransitive.
Sometimes the same verb may be used transi
tively or intransitively ; as : - The man walks
( intrans.); or, “ The man walks the horse (trans.)
i. e.makes the horse walk .

EXERCISE 5 .

Write out the subjoined sentences, marking the verbs


with a T, or an I, accordingly as they are transitive
or intransitive.
When the kettle boils, make the tea. Last night,
the comet shone brightly. She lay on the sofa all the
morning. The wind blew violently . The doctor cured
his patient. The door creaks. The poorman moaned.
The mistress will carve the meat. I awoke at six
o'clock . The patient recovered. When will he return ?
He has not yet returned the book. The mistress praised
the little girl. The enemy fled from the field . The fire
burns brightly . The boy burnt his hand . The vessel
sailed yesterday. He sank , to rise no more. The boy
swam across the river. The thieves had stolen the
G 3
86 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

plate. The poor people have thriven since this affair .


She wore the same dress. The sportsman shot seven
brace of partridges. I laid the papers on the shelf.
They slept the whole night without once waking . He
fell to the ground. Yesterday, I wrote six letters. The
policeman took the culprit into custody. Imust finish
my work by this evening. When will you go to mar
ket ? He had served his country twenty- five years .
The dog is lying under the table. Call your brother .
Tell him he may come with us. The sun glitters on
the morning dew . They danced till two o'clock in the
morning.

CLASSES OF VERBS.

English verbs may be classed under two heads ;


weak and strong.
Weak verbs are those which form the past in
definite of the indicativemood by the addition of
d or ed to the present indefinite ; as, adorn (pres.)
adorned (past) ; amuse (pres.) amused (past).
Many of these are contracted in the past tense :
as put for putted ; sent for sended, & c.
Strong verbs are those which form the past
indefinite of the indicative mood by changing
the internal vowel sound of the present; as,blow ,
blew ; run , ran , & c.
Mixed verbs are those in which the past tense
indicative is formed by both processes ; a change
of the vowel sound of the present, and the addi
tion of d or t final ; as, tell, told ; keep , kept, & c.
ETYMOLOGY --- VERBS 87
STRONG VERBS.
Strong verbs are subdivided into classes dis
tinguished by the vowel sound of the present
tense .
FIRST CLASS. THIRD CLASS.
AN A SOUND. An I SOUND .
Present. bore
bear
Past. Participl
borne
e. Present. Past. Participle.
break broke broken bite bit bitte n
forsake forsook forsaken chide chid chidden
shake shook shaken hide hid hidden
stand stood stood slide slid slidden
swear swore sworn begin began begun
take took taken bid bade bidden
tear tore torn
wear wore worn clung (or bid )
cling clung
draw drew drawn dig dug dug
fall fell fallen drink drank drunk
hang hung hung fling flung flung
ring rang rung
SECOND CLASS. shrink shrank shrunk
AN E SOUND.
sing
sink sang
sank
sung
sunk
beat beat beaten spin spun spun
bleed bled bled spit spat spat
breed bred bred spring sprang sprung
eat eat (ate) eaten stick
sting stuck stuck
feed fed fed stung stung
lead led led strike
string struck struck
meet met ' met strung strung
read red reăd swim swam swum
cleave clove cloven swing
win
swung
won
swung
won
freeze froze frozen wring wrung wrung
speak spoke spoken
steal stole stolen abide abode
weave wove woven drive drove driven
get got gotten or give gave given
got
forget forgot forgotten liriede lay
rode
lain
ridden
tread trod trodden rise rose risen
see saw seen - shine shone shone
G +
88 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE
Present. Past. Participle. FIRST CLASS.
smite smote smitten Present. Past. Participle.
stride strode stridden
thrive throve thriven burstcast
burst burst
cast cast
write wrote written cost cost cost
bind bound bound cut cut cut
hit hit hit
find found found hurt hurt hurt
fight fought fought knit knit knit
grind ground ground let let let
wind wound wound put put put
rid rid rid
FOURTH CLASS. set set Set
shed shed shed
AN O SOUND. shut shut shut
blow blew blown slit slit slit
crow crew crowed split split split
fly flew flown spread spread spread
grow grew grown thrust thrust thrust
hold held held 2 SECOND CLASS.
know knew known
throw threw thrown bend bent bent
build built built
choose chose chosen gild gi lt gilt
shoot shot shot gird girt girt
lend lent lent
rend rent rent
FIFTH CLASS. send sent sent
A U SOUND. spend spent spent
run ran run
become became become MIXED VERBS.
come came come Mixed verbs are those which
form the past tense by a change
of the vowel sound, and the
CONTRACTED VERBS. addition of d or t final ; as :
Contracted verbs are divided tell - tol-d.
into two classes ; 1. Those which bereave bereft bereft
make the past the same form leave left left
as the present; and 2. Those creep crept
which change the d final ofthe feel felt crept
felt
present into t in the past. I flee fled fled
I Crowed or crew .
Formerly holden ; as 'a court will be holden.'
ETYMOLOGY - VERBS 89
Present. Past. Participle. / Present. Past. Participle.
keep kept lose lost lost
sleep kept
slept slept shoe
do
shod shod
weep wept wept did done
deal dealt dealt bring brought brought
dream dreamt dreamt think thought thought
hear heard heard buy bought bought
mean meant meant work wrought wrought?
seek sought sought owe ought
beseech besought besought say said said
catc h caug
taught caught may might
teach ht taug ht can could ?
sell sold sold shall should
tell told told will would

EXERCISE 1.
Mark the verbs in the following sentences ; the Weak
with a W ; the Contracted with a C ; the Strong with
an S ; and the Mixed with an M .
He was expelled from school. A heavy sea struck
the vessel. No one knew anything about it. He
invited me to dinner. They amused themselves. I
saw it had been changed. We built seven houses.
The smith shod the horse. They slept the whole night.
The mob burnt several houses. Tell me what you
think of this. Heheard his brother repeat the lesson.
When did you come? I arrived last night. The
thieves stole much property. He slit up his pen .
They entertained hopes. He spoke to his friend. He
possessed no power. How many pages do you write
every day ? The enemy advanced rapidly. I forbear
to say anything. He dealt in timber. We bent our
1 Also worked .'
3 The past tense of ' can ' was originally coude ; the I was
afterwards introduced from its apparent analogy to would and
should, the pasttenses of will and shall.
90 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

steps homewards. The government banished him . I


thought he had proposed the same arrangement. This
event excited the king's mind. His companions pushed
him out of the room . They lent me some books.
Will you give me a pen ? The servant swept the floor,
and dusted the room . My brother rode to town. The
boy fell from a tree, and hurt himself severely. What
are you buying ? The king convoked the parliament.
He brought home the gun , which burst as he was
shooting. They swam across the river. See, what I
have got for you ! Ring the bell. The duke won
the battle.

EXERCISE 2 .
Change the past into the present, and the present into the
past indicative, of all the Strong verbs used in the fol
lowing sentences .
I take your word for it. Hewears a new coat. The
bell rings. The boy tore his clothes. We saw your
meaning. He sprang from the ground. All his friends
forsake him . The wind blew violently . The sports
man shoots well. I knew my lesson . My friend often
comes to see me. The bird flew away . The enemy
fled from the field . They do their duty . The shop
man sold two yards of cloth . That farrier shoes our
horses. We heard something about it. I taught him
Greek . The girls lose their time. We catch cold .
The boy fares ill. I leave the house . The children
sleep soundly. The father sends his son to school. I
say what you tellme. The king holds a council. The
boy grew very fast. The men fight desperately. It
froze hard. I eat a hearty breakfast.
ETYMOLOGY — VERBS

EXERCISE 3.
Substitute the participle (complete) for the verbs in
parentheses in the subjoined sentences.
I have (bear) with your insolence long enough. He
was (forsake) by all who had (know ) him in his pro
sperity . The song was exquisitely (sing). His clothes
are (wear) out. They had (take) away his books. The
cloth has (shrink ). The water was all (drink ) and the
bread all ( eat). The pond will be (freeze) to-morrow .
I have (forget) what you said . We were afraid he
had ( sink ) ; but we found he had (swim ) safely across
the river. The clock has already ( strike) one. The
silk was ( spin ). The cattle will be (drive) to market.
I had (lie ) down some time. The book was (lay ) on
the shelf. These words were (speak ) solemnly . The
traveller had (rise ) early . The foundations of the
earth were ( cleave) asunder. Darius ‘had (fall) from
his high estate.' The earth was (tread) down.

ON THE USE OF THE TENSES.


A distinction must be made in use between the
indefinite and the incomplete forms of tenses in
the indicative mood .
1. The present indefinite expresses general or
habitual action ; as,“ I read , that is, I read gene
rally, or, am in the habit of reading.
2. The present incomplete expresses the con
tinuation of an action, that is, an action now
ISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE
92 ENGL

begun and not ended ; as, ' I am writing, that


is,my writing is begun, and is going on.
3. The past indefinite expresses the perform
ance of an action at a past time, without specify
ing the exact time; as, “ Iwrote a letter.'
4 . The past incomplete expresses the perform
ance of an action begun at a past time, and not
ended ; as, “ I was writing, that is, my writing
was begun, but not ended.

EXERCISE .

Write out the following sentences, selecting the correct


one of the two forms in the parentheses.
I always ( am reading, or read ? ) half-an -hour every
day before breakfast. He (talked, or was talking ?) to
my friend when I was arriving, or arrived ? ) I (wrote ,
or was writing ? ) to my sister last week. What do you
speak, or are you speaking ? ) of ? I (am telling, or
tell ?) him what (occurred , or was occurring ? ) the
other day when we (were walking, or walked ? ) in the
park. When I (stayed , or was staying ? ) in the
country , I (was walking, or walked ? ) out every day.
An obedient child always (is doing, or does ?) what he
is told . I think , or am thinking ? ) you are right.
Yesterday, when I (was speaking, or spoke?) to him
about this affair, his friend ( interrupted, or was inter
rupting ?) us. The gardener (is carrying, or carries ?)
his goods every day to market. The scholars (repeat,
or are repeating ?) English poetry. My friend (was
disputing, or disputed ? ) the question before we (were
ETYMOLOGY — VERBS 93

arriving, or arrived ?). I (remained, or was remain


ing ?) during the whole day. I (expect, or am ex
pecting ?) that you (will come, or will be coming ?)
He (will be considering, or will consider ? ) this an
insult. (Tell, or be telling ?) me what you are
wanting, or want?). Will you (come, or be coming ?)
to see me to -morrow ? I (was thinking, or thought?)
it would ( offend , or be offending ? ) him to (be speaking,
or speak ?) on this subject.
The present complete expresses a time present,
and an action completed or finished ; thus, I
have written ' shows a time present ( I have now ),
and an action completed (written ).
CAUTION. — Take care not to confound the pre
sent complete with the past indefinite.

EXERCISE .

The pupil is here, as in the last exercise, to select the


correct one of the two forms in the parentheses.
Julius Cæsar (has fought, or fought?) many battles.
The Duke of Wellington (won, or has won ?) the battle
of Waterloo in 1815. I (have visited , or visited ?)
your uncle yesterday ; but (found, or have found ?)
him no better. I have just seen , or just saw ?) your
friend. I (wrote, or have written ?) my letter, and
shall send it to the post immediately . When (did you
see, or have you seen ?) your schoolfellows? He (has
come, or came ?) to see me last Monday. See ! I (have
brought, or brought ?) you some flowers. Last Christ
mas (I have begun, or began ?) to learn French . They
94 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

(went, or have gone ?) to town yesterday, and (are


just returned, or just returned ?) The last time I (saw
or have seen ?) my friend, I (have understood , or un
derstood ?) from him what you now (are telling, or
tell ?) me. They (spoke, or have spoken ?) to the
governor last night. I never before (knew , or have
known ?) what you (have told , or told ?) me last Sun
day. During the lecture on Tuesday, we (heard , or
have heard ?) what greatly (has astonished , or asto
nished ?) us. We (met, or have met ?) some of your
companions about an hour ago. I (was, or have been ?)
in Germany last summer . I then (have studied, or
studied ?) the language very diligently . My sister (has
written , or wrote ? ) to her uncle last week . When
(have you seen , or did you see ?) him ?
The past complete expresses an action com
pleted, before another past action : it is always
connected with the past indefinite ; as, “ I had
finished (i.e.) before something else happened .
CAUTION.— Take care not to confound the past
complete with the past indefinite.

EXERCISE .

Write out the following sentences, choosing which of the


two expressions in the parentheses is the correct one .
He (had finished, or finished ?) talking, before I (en
tered , or had entered ?) the room . I soon ( saw , or had
seen ?) that some one (had been , or was ?) there before
me. I had understood, or understood ?) it to be as I
(told, or had told ?) you ; but I (found,or had found ?)
ETYMOLOGY — VERBS 95

some time ago that I (had been, or was ?) all the while
in error. I ( saw , or had seen ?) my friend before I
(had met, or met ?) you . After some time (was, or
had been ?) spent in visiting the North of England, we
(had gone, or went ? ) abroad. He (rode, or had rid
den ?) some miles, when he (had felt, or felt ?) too
unwell to continue his journey . How long (were you ,
or had you been ?) there when the bell (had rung, or
rang ?) ? They (were , or had been ?) assembled in the
school-room , and (had commenced , or commenced ?)
their studies, when a loud noise (was, or had been ?)
heard in the outer court. I (had thought, or thought)
it unnecessary to explain this to you , till I (found, or
had found ?) you (misunderstood, or had misunder
stood ?) the rule. He (came, or had come ?) in from
his walk, and (had taken , or took ?) his seat at the
breakfast table, when he suddenly (fell, or had fallen ?)
from his seat, and (had expired, or expired ?) . What
(had you been , or were you ?) doing before this (had
occurred, or occurred ?) ? He (had been , or was ?)
occupied during the three previous months in preparing
his work for the press.
Use the participle complete, and not the past
indefinite , after the forms of “ to have,' and ' to
be ' when used as signs.
CAUTION. — Take care not to confound the par
ticiple complete with the past indefinite.
EXERCISE .

To be written as the last.


I found some one had (stole , or stolen ?) my hand
kerchief. Hehad (run, or ran ?) into the garden . He
96 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

(began, or begun ?) Latin long beforehis brother. He


had not (wrote , or written ?) a page before he was
called away. They said they had (forgotten, or forgot?)
all about it. I fear he has (drank, or drunk ?) too
much wine. Who (rung, or rang ?) the bell ? They
have (chose, or chosen ?) a wrong part. Have you
(eat, or eaten ?) all the bread ? The wine was ( shaken ,
or shook ?) by the servant. I thought he had (spoke,
or spoken ?) to you. The exercise was well (wrote, or
written ?). They told methe boy had (fallen ,or fell ?)
from the top of a tree . He had (showed , or shown ?)
mehow to do it. The glass was (broken , or broke ?)
in pieces. The cattle were (drove, or driven ? ) to mar
ket. He was (forsook , or forsaken ?) by his former
acquaintances. The pond is (froze, or frozen ?) over.
She (sung, or sang ?) that melody beautifully . He was
(mistaken , or mistook ? ) for another man. Say, what
disaster has (befell,or befallen ?) you. Theman told me
he had (forgiven , or forgave ?) his son. The paper was
(tore, or torn ?) in several places. The tradesman had
(thriven, or throve ?) so well, that hewas able to retire.
A proposition stated as a universal truth , even
though quoted at a past time,must have the verb
in the present indefinite of the indicative mood.
But if the dependent proposition be not a uni
versal truth , a past, present, or future tense must
be used, according to circumstances.

EXERCISE .
To be written as the last.
Bacon declared that the best way to arrive at the
knowledge of physical truth ( is, or was ?) by experi
ETYMOLOGY — VERBS

ment. The secretary informed the president that the


letters (were, or are ?) not forthcoming. It did not
escape the observation of the ancients that fever (pro
duces, or produced ? ) thirst. Galileo was imprisoned
by order of the Inquisition for asserting that the earth
(moves, or moved ?) round the sun . My friend said he
(was, or is ?) happy to see us. Every one must have
felt in all ages that virtue (was, or is ? ) its own reward .
Themessenger tells me that the governor of the castle
( is, or was ?) asleep, and (can, or could ?) not be dis
turbed . It was as plain as that two and two (make, or
made ?) four. Many of the ancients believed that the
soul (is, or was ?) immortal. On that occasion several
statements were made which (are, or were ?) incorrect.
The captain told the man he ( can , or could ?) do no
thing for him . The master explained to the pupils
that a circle (is, or was ?) a plane figure contained by
one line, which (was, or is ?) called the circumference,
and (is, or was ?) such that all straight lines drawn
from the centre to the circumference (were, or are ?)
equal to one another.
THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
Verbs that express condition, supposition, or
uncertainty as to some future action, and are
preceded by a conjunction, must be in the sub
junctive mood .
But when the sense is positive, the verb must
be in the indicative, even when preceded by a
conjunction .
N .B. -- The subjunctive mood is always coupled
with the idea of a future action or state. “ If it
98 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

be so,' expresseswhat may possibly at some future


time prove to be true. “ If it is so,' expresses
what is now ascertained to be true.
EXERCISE .
The pupil is to select the correct form in the parentheses.
If he (listens, or listen ?) to your directions, he will
be sure to do well. If, as you say, the bill (is, or be ?)
passed , we shall soon feel its effects. If he (speak , or
speaks ?) only to display his abilities, he is unworthy of
attention . Unless the pupil ( learns, or learn ?) faster,
he will never know much . Though I (was, or were?)
perfect, yet I would not presume. If I (were, or
was ?) in your place, I would act differently . Remem
ber what thou (wert, or wast ?) and be humble.
Despise no one,lest his condition (happen , or happens ?)
to be thine. If he (desires, or desire ?) to gain the
love of others, he does not use the proper means.
Though self-denial (produce,or produces?) some uneasi
ness, it is light when compared with the pain of vicious
self-indulgence. Suppose it (was, or were ?) different;
what then ? If you (be, or are ?) of that opinion, I
have nothing to add. No fear lest dinner (cools, or
cool ?) Take care that your work (is, or be ?) not spoiled .
Tell me if it (is, or be ?) so . Whatever (happen, or
happens ? ) you shall be the first to know it.

THE INFINITIVE MOOD.


The infinitive mood is used in three ways — 1st,
subjectively ; as, ' To act honestly is the duty of
all men.' 2nd , objectively ; as, “ I wish to see
ETYMOLOGY - VERBS 99

you . 3rd, intentionally ; as, “ He went out to


purchase some books.'
N .B .— When the infinitive is used objectively,
its sign to ’ is not always expressed .
EXERCISE .

Mark the infinitives used subjectively with an S ; those


used objectively, with an 0 ; and those used to express
intention , with an I. Also underline the infinitives
which have their sign ' to ' understood .
This mademe think differently of him . Endeavour
to improve your character. To bear complaints with
patience is the duty of friendship. We heard the thun
der roar. You need not explain this any further . His
mother lets him do just as he pleases. I hardly know
what to adopt and what to reject. It is better to live
on little than to spend more than we can afford. His
friend wished to undertake this speculation . They can
not escape. I have known him speak for three hours
together on this subject. Desire the servant to call a
coach . The design of learning is either to render a
man an agreeable companion to himself ; or, if he is not
born to an estate, to supply that defect, and furnish
him with the means of acquiring one. To be affected
in any way is at all times, in all places, and in all de
grees, to be disagreeable. He promised to send back
the music. He is here to answer for himself. It is not
pleasant to be spoken to in this manner. My sister is
just going to pay you a visit. They expected to see us.
To have been overruled in this matter was a subject of
great mortification .
12
100 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

The infinitive indefinite, when used objec


tively, expresses what is present or past with
regard to the time of the governing verb ; as, ' I
believe him (now ) to be an excellent man ;' ' I
believed him (then ) to be an excellent man.'
The infinitive complete expresses an action
performed prior to the time of the governing
verb ; as, Galileo is said to have invented the
telescope.'
EXERCISE .

The pupil is to select the correct form in the parentheses.


I intended (to call, or to have called ?) on you yes
terday. He is reported (to have been , or to be ?)
present on that occasion . They expected to have
heard, or to hear ?) from you this morning. It was
their business (to interpose, or to have interposed ?)
their kind offices. I desired the boy (to have taken,or
to take ?) back the parcel to the coach-office. It was
his duty (to do, or to have done ?) as he was desired .
It was necessary for them to have lost, or to lose ?) no
time. They would have found it difficult (to invent, or
to have invented ?) such a species of beings. Judging
from his conversation, he seems (to have studied, or to
study ?) the classics with great attention. If these per
sons had intended (to deceive, or to have deceived ?)
us, they would have taken care (to have avoided, or to
avoid ?) those objections. It would have been gratify
ing to me ( to relieve, or, to have relieved ?) him in his
difficulties. His determination was too strong (to have
been , or to be ?) shaken by so slight an opposition. He
ETYMOLOGY — VERBS 101
was much better than I expected to find, or to have
found ?) him . It would have afforded me great plea
sure (to be, or to have been ?) the bearer of such good
news. I believe my late friend (to have been , or to
be ?) a most excellentman . The Roman orator Cicero
is said (to be, or to have been ?) a man of most amiable
disposition. No modern nation hasbeen found ( to have
excelled , or to excel ?) the ancient Greeks in art.
Julius Cæsar is considered ( to be, or to have been ?)
one of the greatest soldiers of antiquity . Nothing
could have induced him (to have acted , or to act ?)
against what he considered to be, or to have been ?)
his duty .
PARTICIPLE FOR INFINITIVE. -

After some verbs, the incomplete participle (in


ing) may be used, instead of the infinitive.
N .B .- The infinitive expresses the simple act ;
the participle, the continued or repeated act.
EXERCISE.
Write out the following sentences, substituting the parti
ciple ( in ing) for the infinitive mood .
I saw the boy strike his brother . We heard him
speak to his friend. The travellers beheld the sun set
behind the mountain . They observed him climb the
wall. If I ever find you act in this way again , I shall
be extremely angry . He felt the sun scorch him
terribly . The water has just begun to boil. The
culprit was observed to escape through the garden .
The prisoner was seen to carry off all the booty . Did
H 3
102 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

you hear your brother say anything about it ? They


saw the gardener dig up those roots, and transplant
them to another part of the garden.
The participle complete, and the past indefi
nite indicative of weak verbs, both end in ed :
take care not to confound them .
N .B . — The participle expresses a condition or
state of things ; the verb expresses an action .
EXERCISE.
Mark all the words in italics in the following sentences
with a P or a V, accordingly as they are participles
or verbs.
She amused the little children . I found her seated in
the arbour. This story, though badly told, was in itself
interesting. Freed from all anxiety , he now devoted
himself to his favourite study. Secluded from society,
he passed his life in retirement. The merchants
engaged in this commerce. Alarmed at this intrusion,
they violently remonstrated. I continued my occupa
tion undisturbed. Many, allured by this prospect,
settled in the island. Struck with consternation, they
immediately conceded all our demands. The republi
cans, flushed with success, now becamemore ambitious.
The two ships sailed , both commanded by skilful
captains. Being endowed with many high qualities,
he acquired a great reputation. You may go, pro
vided I am well enough to accompany you . When
informed of these transactions; he hesitated . Both
sides prepared for war. These fears, added to the
horrors of the impending contest, increased their pros
ETYMOLOGY - VERBS 103

pect of new enemies. The minister, well acquainted


with the conspiracy , ordered all those concerned in it
to be arrested . The enemy retained possession of the
city. Spain abandoned all the towns conquered in the
last campaign . He refused to comply with the request.
Deceived by these appearances, the Commons voted a
large sum for the prosecution of the war.
Both the participles , complete and incomplete ,
may be used as attributive adjectives .
N .B.— When so used, they are always placed
before the nouns they qualify.
EXERCISE.
Mark the words in italics either with a P or an A ,
accordingly as they are used as participles or adjec
tives.
It was a very amusing story . I found him amusing
his companions with an account of his adventures.
Astonished at this event, the king ordered the general
to quit thenmácountry.
r length clThis
r astonished
ew gtoovethe
nplot imesnletter
or. Rrevealed
agovernor
the whole
isin in their de
Rising
mands, they at length claimed the right of organising a
new government. He was then a rising officer. No
arguments could induce the terrified captive to be com
posed. Terrified by these threats, the soldiers imme
diately. laid down their arms. He expressed sorow for
his offence , promising to do better for the future. This
boy is one of my most promising pupils. Thus aban
doned by his partisans, he began to despair of success.
He is an abandoned character. They became declared
enemies. I shall adhere to the principles already de
H4
104 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

clared . This was the finishing stroke to his policy.


Finishing the despatch , he delivered it to the messenger .
She is a finished performer. Incensed at this news, the
king ordered the president to be arrested. Nothing
could appease the anger of the incensed monarch . The
prince, always intriguing, repeatedly insulted the queen
and the cardinal. By the advice of this intriguing pre
late, the prince was arrested . His opinion was openly
declared .

ON ADVERBS.

An adverb is a word which qualifies verbs,


adjectives, and sometimes other adverbs, as to
time, place , manner , degree, & c.; as, ' He often
comes here ; ' . She was extremely kind ; ' . The
water flows very gently .''
Adverbs are of various classes : —
1. Of time; as, now , then, when , always, often,
seldom , before, late , to -day, to -morrow , yesterday,
early, presently , long, ever , hereafter , yet , soon .
2. Of place ; as, here, there , where ; hither,
thither , whither ; hence, thence, whence ; yonder ,
above, below , around, backwards, forwards ; near,
far , within , forth , off, by.
3 . Of manner; as, how , so , softly, quietly,
quickly, well, ill, brightly, ably , & c.
. ! In some few cases, adverbs qualify nouns; as, It is
almost time,' - nearly seven o 'clock,' & c.
ETYMOLOGY — ADVERBS : 105
4 . Of udegree
ch .
; as, very, too, almost, quite ,
nearly, much.
5 . Of quantity ; as, much , little, enough .
6 . Of affirmation and negation ; as, yes, yea,
aye, no, nay, not, never.
7. Of number ; as, once, twice, thrice ; first ,
secondly, thirdly, & c.
EXERCISE .
Point out the adverbs in the following sentences, and
show to which class they belong.
How do you do ? Very well, I thank you. It sel
dom , if ever, happens. Shall you arrive late ? No ; I
shall be with you early . He is so easily alarmed that
I am always on my guard . “ Fly not yet.' They live
close by . It was well done. The room was hung
round with festoons. The affairs were so ill managed
that the company soon failed. She was almost dead
with fright. I am quite certain that I never saw him
before. They called once or twice. Have you enough
to eat ? Oh, yes ! I am much obliged to you. He is
not so diligent as he was formerly . I was then too
young to understand the question ; now , I find it easy
enough. The boys were swinging backwards and for
wards on the gate. Will you take any more ? I am
far from being of the sameopinion . He was just going
off, when the bell rang violently . Hence, loathed
Melancholy ! ' Where is your brother ? Yonder he
walks. Softly ; not so fast, if you please. My brother
is nearly fourteen years of age. It will not be long
before I see you again . My sister will be here pre
sently .
106 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

ON CONJUNCTIONS.
A conjunction is a word that joins nouns, ad
jectives, and sentences together ; as, 'My brother
and sister are gone;' He is good and wise ; '
I will do so , since he advises it.
Conjunctions are divided into classes, as:
1. Copulative ; and, also, both — and.
2. Disjunctive; either — or, neither — nor,
whether — or, lest, but, nevertheless, though ,
although, yet.
3. Causal ; because, for, since, that.
4. Comparative ; than.
5. Conditional; if, unless.
6. Nlative; ' then, therefore, wherefore.
7. Of Equality ; so, as, as-well-as.
The conjunctions in the list below are followed
by others as their correlatives :
As . . . . . as . . I am as old as he.
As . . . . . so . . As this has happened , so will it happen
again .
Both . . . . and . Both he and my brother came.
Either . . . or . . Either one or the other is wrong.
Neither . . . nor . It is neither you nor I.
So . . . . . as . . He is not so clever as his brother.
Though . . . yet . Though
him .
he is strong, yet I do not fear
Whether . . or . . I do not know whether he or his friend
will come.

That is, leading to an inference or conclusion.


ETYMOLOGY - PREPOSITIONS 107

EXERCISE .
Mark the conjunctions in the following sentences, as
copulative, disjunctive, &c.
Since you will not undertake this affair, either I or
my brother will do it. I have no doubt that you will
accomplish your purpose. "Enough is as good as a
feast.' Though I cautioned him , yet he would not take
my advice. He adopted this plan, because he thought
it thebest. James is fourteen months older than John .
Not only my sisters, but some of their friends also, are
coming. I told him that you were very angry. The
outhouses ,as well as the building itself, were consumed.
I cannot accompany you, for I have an appointment.
He would not do this, lest he should vex his father .
You will never improve, unless you work more dili
gently. Both the boy and the girl are ill. He can
neither read nor write. I conclude, then , that you
will not come. The weather is not so fine as it was
yesterday. He is good, therefore he is happy. It is
of no consequence whether he think so or not.

ON PREPOSITIONS.
A preposition is a word placed between nouns
and pronouns, to show the relation of one to the
other ; as, “ The box is on the table.' (Here, the
preposition on ’ shows the relation between the
box and the table.) The box is under the table.'
(Here, under shows a different relation between
the box and the table.)
108 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE
The prepositions in most frequent use are :
about | before during upon towards
above behind except over under
across below for out of underneath
after beneath from regarding up
against beside in respecting with
along between into since within
amidst beyond instead of through without
among by near throughout
around concerning of to
at down on |touching
N .B . — The noun or pronoun which follows and
dependson a preposition is always objective- i. l.,
governed by the preposition .
EXERCISE .
Underline the prepositions in the following sentences.
Books and flowers were arranged in various ways
about the room . He sat between meand my brother.
Above themantel-piece hung a portrait of my father.
Rowing across the river, the boatmen ran against a
barge. They were walking along the lake, when they
perceived something in the water, which they at first
took for a fish . After a time, however , and on closer
inspection , it proved to be a lady's slipper. Among
the boys,there was one, in the first class, of superior
abilities. He will be here by six o'clock ; long before
breakfast. They are all gone up to town except his
brother. Instead of waiting for his companions, he
walked down the street alone. I have heard nothing
of this matter since Christmas. During the night a
storm broke over the house. This is the third time
within a few years that he has been in difficulties.
ETYMOLOGY - - PREPOSITIONS 109

Their country -house is situated upon an eminence near


our estate. He will never get through his work with
out assistance. The dog is lying among the papers
under the table. Concerning such behaviour, we may
say it is beneath our consideration. He is far beyond
his brother in his studies. They sat beside the master.
Riding round the walls of Mantes, William 's horse put
his hoof on somehot ashes. The sun set behind the
hill. They are walking with some friends. The boy
fell into a pit, and was with much difficulty rescued
from his perilous situation . In the room below the
ground floor there were two engines. The carriage
is driving up the avenue.
ON THE USE OF CERTAIN PREPOSITIONS.
The idiom of the English language requires
that certain nouns, verbs, and adjectives, be fol
lowed by particular prepositions ; as, ' I confide
in his friendship ;' He is proud of his new
dignity,' & c.
Thewords in the following list require the pre
position at after them :
blush frightened look shudder
catch frown offended surprised
concern grumble overjoyed stay
connive knock rejoice value
dexterous land smile wonder
estimate | laugh | murmur 1 exasperated
The following require against after them :
caution I fight , murmur protest
contend ' lean operate sin
dash I militate l prejudiced I strive
To contend against, when opposed ; to contend with, when
several strive for some common object.
110 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

The words in the subjoined list must be fol


lowed by for :
affection care | fondness praised | taste (noun )
ask consoled good punished thirst
atone design grieve regard weep
blame fit long (verb) substitute
The words below must be followed by be
tween : –
agreement | affinity difference
analogy | contrast i intervene
After the following, from is required :
alienate 1 defend differ exclude recover
averse depart different free refrain
avert |derogation dissent hinderrelieve
banish descended distinguish inseparable retire
borrow desist emerge preserve subtract
conceal detract | escape prevent swerve

The following are used with the preposition


in : -
abound deficient I glory
acquiesce delight hold (verb ) | persevere
persist
arrayed difficulty inserted poor
bathed expert interested pride
confide fruitful involve versed
The following require into after them :
entry | initiated | penetrate | sink
After the following, the idiom requires of :--
accuse capable diminution |hear | pursuance
abhorrence clear dispose ignorant rob
acquit composed divested independent
inform sensible
ambitious consist doubt significant
approve convinced enamoured observance sick
beg deprive exclusive possessed void
bereft deserving fond productive want
boast destitute greedy | proud worthy
ETYMOLOGY PREPOSITIONS 111
The following must be used with on , or
upon : -
bestow I depend frown reflect
call devolve impose rely
confer fawn intent smile
The words in the list below must be followed
by the preposition to :
abandon amount conform inclined pertain
accede annex consonant indifferent preferable
access answer condemn inured prejudicial
accommodate antipathy conduce indulgent pursuant
according approach congenial insensible subject
adapt apply consent introduce suitable
add aspire consign invite troublesome
address assent derogatory necessary true
adequate attain dislike obedient trust
adhere attend endeared obliged useful
affinity bind exception offensive yield
agreeable compare exposed opposed
allude |concede foreign ( partial

EXERCISE 1.
The learner is to insert the proper preposition in the
blank spaces.
They steered clear all obstacles. The king
conferred honours his nobles. He lived conform
ably - this example. I am convinced the
truth of his statement. His character is deficient
— firmness. Their safety depended the skill
and activity of the guide. This duty now devolved
- the eldest son. The subject is involved -
obscurity. This opinion differs the one you held
yesterday . His manners endeared him all his
friends. This is no exception the rule. This
112 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

calculation is exclusive — incidental expenses. His


remarks are foreign — the question . “ Fortune
frowned his humble birth . The man was greedy
honours. He was ignorant - the elements of
the language. The one idea is inseparable — the
other . The boy is intent his book . Themother
was proud - her son. This step was most preju
dicial - his interests. I did this in pursuance
your orders. When I reflected — what had hap
pened , I could not be offended him . Every one
rejoiced his success . You may rely - my
word. We ought not to repine - our lot. His
friend sympathised him .

EXERCISE 2 .

Has he a taste - music ? My cousin has a con


tinual thirst knowledge. The minister triumphed
all his enemies. You may confide — a man
who is true his principles. Are you versed
these matters ? I waited an hour — my friend . The
plan failed for want funds. That subject is un
worthy his talents. He expressed his abhorrence
such conduct. The style abounds — technical
terms. As Mr. A . is absent this meeting, I shall
abstain making any remarks on his conduct. The
father acceded his son 's request. All ranks had
easy access the governor. This has been done
according your request. King George III. was
deliberately accused - falsehood - John Wilkes.
I am not acquainted him . The dauphin did not
acquiesce - this arrangement. We must acquit
him all participation the crime. His lan
ETYMOLOGY - PREPOSITIONS 113

guage was well adapted — the understanding of his


audience. Words are often inadequate the ex
pression of strong feelings. The king was every day
more and more alienated the people . You should
attend — what is said . He is averse — going
much into society. May Heaven avert such a misfor
tune - us ! The gardener bestowed special atten
tion - these flowers ; and had good reason to boast
- his success — rearing them .

EXERCISE 3.
The governor connived the prisoner's escape.
They protested — all interference. The following
agreement was made — the two parties. His fond
ness — his children was remarkable . Let nothing
prevail — you to make you swerve your duty.
He persevered his attempts. He penetrated
the heart of the forest. I am convinced his guilt.
His apparent innocence imposed — everybody. The
poor man was robbed — his watch. This plan is far
preferable — the former. I shall adhere - - the
principles already declared. I beg you not to
consent — this arrangement. He has relieved them
- the pressure of poverty . This will greatly con
duce — their comfort. I could not prevent him
- doing it. Hewas invited — spend a day with
us. This clause was afterwards inserted — the will.
They were inured - hardships. He is deserving
- all the praise he receives. We were deeply inte
rested — the story. They were deprived — the
common necessaries of life. A certain observance –
fashion is proper. He found the greatest difficulty -
114 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

writing. The discovery was communicated — his


friends. He was perplexed - a long compliance
foreign manners. ' I was much surprised
what he said . The vessel was dashed the rocks.
No one should murmur - the decrees of Providence .
The queen was arrayed - royal robes. He was
entreated to desist the undertaking. Shylock was
void — mercy . He endeavoured to atone — his
offences.
There is occasionally a difficulty in determining
the part of speech of certain words, which are
sometimes conjunctions, sometimes prepositions,
adverbs, & c.

Let the learner determine thepart of speech of the words


in italics in the following

EXERCISE.
Both the houses are on fire. Both you and I will go.
Neither he nor his master knew of this. Neither of
these boxes will suit me. You may plant the trees on
either side of the canal. Either he or his friend is
wrong. I procured this for my sister. I shall not go
out ; for the weather is too severe. No one was present
but him . I was there ; but he was absent. Here is the
book that I recommended . We saw that escape was
impossible. He was not then old enough to understand
the question . Here, then , we draw to a close. This
happened long after. We took a walk after we had
finished our lessons. After breakfast my uncle called
on us. He came to see me before I was up. The pri
ETYMOLOGY - PREPOSITIONS 115

soner was brought before the magistrate. I never heard


that before. The traveller was left behind by his com
panions. The train will be behind time. The water
fell below the level. The princes were in the room
below . This is beyond my comprehension . The nian
is in the field beyond . He stood by while I wrote the
letter. This sonata was played by my sister. They
walked down the lane. Lay that book down. Come
in , and sit in that arm -chair. Mr. A . lives near us. He
is a near relation . The loft is over the stable. Hewent
over to the Church of Rome. Is Mr. B . within ? I
shall know within three hours. I can do nothing with
out your assistance. My friend remained without, while
I had an audience of the minister,

I 2
116 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

SYNTAX.
Syntax is that division of grammar which treats
of the relation of words to each other.
There are two great principles of syntax ; viz .
1, concord ; and 2, government.
Concord means the agreement of words to
gether. When we say, “the sun shines,' there is
a concord or agreement between the verb shines,'
and its subject sun.' In the expression , ' a
good man ,' there is an agreement between the
adjective “ good, and the noun ‘man.'
There are two concords, or forms ofagreement,
in grammar.
1. Between the subject and the verb .
2 . Between the adjective and noun .

FIRST CONCORD.
SUBJECT AND VERB.
A verb must agree with its subject in number
and person , that is, it must be of the singular or
plural number ; and of the first, second, or third
person, according to its subject.
To find the subject to the verb, put the ques
tion who or what before the verb, and the answer
will be the subject ; as, “ The boy reads.' Who
reads ? Answer : theboy. The house was built.'
What was built ? Answer : the house.
SYNTAX - SUBJECT AND VERB 117
117

The first person is the one who speaks; as,


( sing.) “ I am coming. (plur.) • We are coming.'
The second person is the one spoken to ; as,
( sing.) . Thou art wrong ;'(plur.) • You ’are wrong.
The third person is the person or thing spoken
of; as, (sing.) · He is strong ;' She is good ;'
It is right.' (plur.) · They are good (strong, or
right).'
EXERCISE .

Supply the proper formsof verbs in the blank spaces.


Thou - done wrong. He fourteen years
old next spring. They — expelled him from school.
What you done with your book ? My brother
- at the head of his class. They won
the prize. " Thou - the man . The mountains
- covered with snow . You good reason to
be satisfied. “ Plato thou well.'. The passage
been made in ten days. We — of opinion
that this advice should be followed . He — fluently
and correctly . What you — doing ? The
Jaws — made by the queen and parliament.
The subject of a verb may be either simple
(that is, consisting of one word ), or complex (con
sisting of several taken together) ; as, 1, “ The
people flew to arms' (here the subject is simple ) ;
2 , · Not to know me argues yourselves unknown,'
(here the subject is complex ; it consists of several
words : ~ Not to know me.')
I 3
118 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

EXERCISE.
Copy out the following sentences, marking the simple
subjects with an S, and the complex with a C .
To be ignorant of these things reflects the greatest
discredit on him . The general brought the campaign
to a successful close. The coasts were bristling with
cannon. To settle this question permanently is no
easy matter. Your having chosen me to be the leader
of this colony, is an honour sufficient to content me.
The difference is easily perceived . To ask impossi
bilities is ridiculous. The nightingales were singing
sweetly. The immense popularity of Chaucer's “ Can
terbury Tales ' is proved by the number of manuscript
copies still remaining. Experience is the best master.
" The iron tongue of midnight has tolled twelve.' The
princess cast her eyes upon the river . A knowledge
of dates is indispensable to a proper understanding of
history .
1. When the sentence begins with the pronoun
' it, the subject is inverted , that is, put after
instead of before the verb ; as, “ It would be
madness to adopt this plan . (Here, it ’ stands
for 'to adopt this plan.')
2. The subject to a verb is frequently ex
pressed by a proposition ; as, “ That the Norman
Conquest took place in 1066 , is known to every
reader of English history.'
N .B . Both these forms may be inverted ; we
may say with equal propriety, " To adopt this
plan would be madness ;' and ' It is known to
SYNTAX - SUBJECT AND VERB 119

every reader of English history that the Norman


Conquest took place in 1066.'

EXERCISE .

Write out the following sentences, inverting the


forms :
It is dangerous to bathe in deep water. It is not
very probable that he will soon recover. That the
Supreme Being may be more easily propitiated in one
place than in another is the dream of idle superstition.
How he was engaged during that period does not ap
pear. It is evident, even to the most casual observer,
that hemust have studied the subject deeply . It was
never expected that he would be successful. How the
party survived such fearful hardships is incredible. It
never was supposed that the power of thinking is
inherent in matter . That the early period of Roman
history is mixed up with fable is now the opinion of
the great majority of scholars.
Two or more subjects of the singular number
connected by the conjunction and require verbs
and pronouns belonging to them to be of the
plural number ; as, “My brother and sister are
coming to us, and will bring their children with
them .'
But two or more subjects very closely con
nected , or co -existent, must have a verb of the
singular number ; as,“ Bread and butter is good.'
I 4
120 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

EXERCISE .

Supply the proper verbs and pronouns in the blank


spaces.
Epaminondas and Pelopidas illustrious Theban
generals. Wine and water — refreshing in hot
weather. History and geography - necessary
branches of education. Two and three five. My
uncle and aunt - walking in the park . The chaise
and pair — at the door when I arrived . Miss B .
and her servant - expected to-morrow . Livy and
Tacitus — the most eminent Roman historians, and
- works are still read with delight. “ Early to bed
and early to rise à man healthy, wealthy, and
wise.' Demosthenes and Cicero — the greatest ora
tors of antiquity ; and left behind them many proofs of
- genius. The Coach and Horses ' — an excellent
inn . The richness, grandeur, and loveliness of the
scenery — indescribable. Bread and cheese and
beer - - our usual supper. Chaucer's wit and hu
mour — remarkable. Soda-water and brandy —
prescribed by the doctor. Thomas and Henry —
coming to dinner. Bread and butter — handed to
the guests. Both the bread and the butter — good.
Slow and steady the race.'
1. Two ormore subjects of thesingularnumber,
coupled by the conjunction " or,' or “nor, must
have verbs and pronouns referring to them in
the singular ; as, Neither he nor his brother is
able to do it.'
2. When subjects of different numbers are
SYNTAX – SUBJECT AND VERB 121

coupled by or,' or nor,' the verb and pro


noun must be plural; as, Either he or his as
sistants are able to do it.'
N .B. Put the plural noun immediately before
the verb .

EXERCISE .

Copy out the following sentences, choosing the correct


form from the two given in the parentheses.
My friend or his foreman ( pay or pays?) the men
every Saturday. My brother or his companions (is or
are ?) to blame. Neither America nor the West Indies
(were or was ?) known to the ancients. The prince
or his courtiers (is or are ?) arrived. Neither he nor
they (have or has ?) been idle. He or Eliza ( is or
are ?) in the garden. Neither tea nor coffee (are or is )
produced in England . There is or are ?) one or two
left. Either he or some of his clerks (have or has?)
made thismistake. No trouble nor expense (have or
has ?) been spared . James or John (have or has ?) my
book . Man is not such a machine as a clock or a
watch, which (move or moves ?) merely as (they or it ?)
(is or are ?) moved . There (is or are ?) neither honour,
nor virtue, nor utility in resisting the return of kind
ness. Either his gratitude or his compassion (were or
was ?) excited . When sickness, infirmity , or misfor
tune (affect or affects ?) us, the sincerity of friendship
is proved. Neither impudence nor cowardice (stains
or stain ? ) his character. An ostentatious, a feeble, a
harsh, or an obscure style (are or is ?) always faulty.
Either avarice or domestic cares (has or have?) misled
122 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

him . Neither the captain , nor the passengers, nor any


of the crew (were or was ?) saved . A man may see a
metaphor or an allegory in a picture, as well as read
( it or them ? ) in a description. Death , or some worse
misfortune, soon (divide or divides ?) them . Ignorance
or negligence (has or have ?) caused this mistake.
1. Collective nouns which have no plural form ,
generally have verbs and pronouns referring to
them in the plural ; as, “ The cattle are grazing
in the meadow .?
2. But those collective nouns which have both a
singular and a plural form , must have verbs and
pronouns to agree with them , accordingly as
they may be used in a singular or plural sense ;
as, · The nation is powerful.' " The parties are
opposed .'
EXERCISE .
To be done as the last.
The public (is or are ?) most respectfully informed,
& c. The committee (have or has ?) issued the fol
lowing notice . The crew (is or are ?) nearly completed .
The rest (are or is?) now on board . The party (are
or is ?)much divided . What (does or do?) the people
want ? The crowd (were or was ?) so great, that we
made our way with difficulty through it or them ?).
The parliament ( is or are ?) composed of queen , lords,
and commons. The church (have or has ?) no power
to interfere in this case. The fleet (have or has ?) just
sailed up the Channel. The fish (was or were ?) caught
in great numbers. Never (were or was ?) people so
infatuated ? Ten sail of the line (are or is ?) to join
SYNTAX – SUBJECT AND VERB 123

the fleet. One hundred horse (marches or march ?)


this morning to the camp. The company (was or
were ?) informed of this misfortune. The peasantry
(goes or go ?) barefoot, and the middle class (makes or
make ?) use of wooden shoes. The court of Rome
(were or was?) not without solicitude. The House of
Commons (was or were ?) of small weight. An army
of 20,000 men (was or were ?) assembled . The council
(is or are ?) not agreed upon the report.
1. Collective nouns which have no singular
form require verbs and pronouns of the plural
number.
2. Two or more subjects of different persons,
coupled by the conjunction and,' require verbs
and pronouns of the plural number .
N .B . — The verb must here agree in person
with the first rather than the second , and the
second rather than the third ; for example :
He and I ( = we) are (1st. pl.) of the same opinion .
Thou and he ( = you ) are (2nd . pl.) of the same
opinion .
EXERCISE .
To be done as the last.
The classics (are or is ?) much studied. What is or
or are ?) you and he doing. I and my sister (do or
does ?) not expect to see him . He and his friends ( is
or are ?) expected this evening. The mathematics
(are or is ?) his favourite study. The bellows ( is or
are ?) broken, and (they or it ?) are now useless. You
and I am or are ?) to remain here. He and they
124 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

( finds or find ?) no difficulty in learning (their or his ?)


lessons. The alms (have or has ?) been equally dis
tributed. My brother and his dogs (are or is ?) gone
for a walk . Politics (is or are ? ) not to his taste ; he
never meddles with it or them ?). The ashes (was or
were ?) preserved in an urn . Great pains have or
has ? ) been taken with this subject. (Has or have ?)
he and his schoolfellows written (his or their ) exer
cises ? “ And so (was or were ?) James and John .'
The thanks of the committee (were or was ?) voted to
him . His wages (have or has ?) been diminished .
James , and thou , and I am , art, is, or are ?) much
altered. ( This is, or these are ?) excellent news.
Means (have or has ?) been taken to prevent the recur
rence of such an accident. By (this or these ?) means he
accomplished his purpose . No tidings (has or have ?)
been heard of him since his departure. The Roman
kalends (were or was ?) the first day of the month .
1. CAUTION. — When a singular subject is fol
lowed by the preposition with,' and its governed
words, the verb and pronoun must be of the
singular number ; as, ' My brother, with some of
his schoolfellows, is to spend his holidayswith us.'
2. The pronouns each , every, either, and one,
when used as subjects, always require verbs and
pronouns in the singular ; as, “ Every man is
responsible for his actions,' ' to each his suffer
ings. One hardly knowswhat to do.'
3 . Both , used as a subject,must be followed by
a plural verb ; as, Both are useful.' All requires
a plural verb when qualifying individual objects ;
SYNTAX – SUBJECT AND VERB 125

as, " All the boys are diligent ;' but it requires a
verb of the singular number when used in a col
lective sense ; as, 'All the meat is eaten up.'
EXERCISE .
Choose the right form in the parentheses.
Each of the boys (were or was ?) admonished. The
bed , with the furniture, and a valuable library (was or
were ?) entirely destroyed . One of the men (are or
is ?) ill. The ship , with all her crew , (was or were ?)
lost. The general, as well as all the other conspirators
(were or was?) arrested , and thrown into prison . All
of them ( is or are ?) asleep. Prosperity, with humility
(render or renders ?) (its or their ?) possessor truly
amiable. They sat, each on (their or his ?) throne.
Let each esteem others better than (himself or them
selves ?) My uncle, together with all those concerned
in this transaction, (were or was ?) utterly ruined.
" The language should be both perspicuous and correct ;
in proportion as either of these two qualities (is or are ?)
wanting, it is imperfect. Every one of his letters (bear
or bears ?) (regular dates, or a regular date ?) and ( con
tain or contains ?) proofs of attachment. James, as
well as John , (were or was ?) present on that occasion .
The poor man, with all his family (was or were ?)
burnt to death . Every town (was or were ?) burnt;
every grove and every tree (were or was ?) cut down.
Mr. H ., with some of his friends (was or were ?) with
with me this morning. Each beast, each insect (is or
are ?) happy in (their or its ?) own sphere. The philo
sophy as well as the religion of the Chinese (concur or
concurs ?) to support a patriarchal despotism . The
ship , with all its appurtenances (were or was ?) ready
126 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

to sail. Each of these packets (contain or contains ?)


something for you.
1. The verbs “to be,' ' to become, to seem ,'
& c., and passive forms of verbs signifying to
name,' require the same form of the noun and
pronoun (i. e. subjective or objective) after as
before them ; as, ' It was not I who said so ;' I
knew it to be him .
2 . When the relative is used as a subject, the
verb must be of the same person as the ante
cedent to that relative ; as, ' I who have, thou
who hast, he who has seen,' & c.
EXERCISE .
To be done as the last.
It was (him or he ?) who wrote that letter . If I
were (he or him ?) I would follow that advice. I
always imagined it to be (him or he ?) who made
that journey. Do you believe it was ( she or her ? )
whom we saw ? "Othou that look or lookest ? )
from thy sole dominion.' I supposed it to be (her
or she ?) Do not be alarmed ; it is only (I or me?)
I, who now (speaks or speak ?) to you , forewarn you
of the danger. Art thou the wretch who (hast or
has ?) committed such atrocious crimes ? I imme
diately knew it to be (him or he ?) Had I known it
was (he or him ?) and not (them or they ?) I would
certainly not have admitted him . My friends and
myself, who (was or were ?) not so fatigued as the
others, walked on to the next village. I am the
general who ( command or commands ?) in this district.
SYNTAX — ADJECTIVE AND NOUN 127

I believe it to have been (they or them ?) Thou art the


man who (has or hast ?) been so kind to me. At first
I thought it was (her or she ? ) ; but I soon found it
was her sister . Who is there ? (I or me ?) It is only
(me or I?) who (thinks or think ?) you should be
blamed. (Whom or who ?) are you ? It seems to
have been (him or he ?) who conducted himself so
well. Was it she or they who (was or were ?) late ?
• (Whom or who ?) do men say that I am . He (whom
or who) ye pretend reigns in heaven. (Who or whom ?)
do you think I met the other day ? I know not (who
or whom ?) .

SECOND CONCORD.
ADJECTIVE AND NOUN.
The articles a (or an ) and the are always used
with nouns.
ON THE USE OF THE ARTICLES.
I. The numeral article.
The numeral article is used :
1. Only before nouns of the singular number.
2. To point out any or some one person or
thing ; as, "Give me a pen ,' ' A man wishes to
speak with you.'
3. Before the comparative degree of adjectives
when followed by the conjunction than ;' as, ' He
is a stronger boy than his cousin .'
4 . After the pronouns such , many, and what
128 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

(exclamatory), followed by nouns in the singular


number ; also , after adjectives preceded by the
adverbs too, 80, and how ; as,' Do not make such
a noise ;' « Many a man has suffered from his
own imprudence ;' • What a fine day ! This is
too bad an excuse ;' " I never heard so weak an
argument;' •How large a portion will they re
ceive ?'

II. The demonstrative article.


The demonstrative article is used —
1. With a noun of either number ; as, “ The
boy is diligent ;' • The boys are diligent.'
2. To point out some particular person or
thing ; as, ' Shut the door ;' Call the servant.'
3. Before a noun representing a whole species ;
as, * The dog is a faithful animal.”
4 . Before comparatives and superlatives fol
lowed by ' of' ; as, ' He is the stronger of the two
boys. She is the most industrious of the girls.'
5 . After the pronoun all’; as, ' All the scholars
are assembled. “ They have eaten all the bread .'
III. Cases where no article is required .
. 1. When a noun expresses a species not made
up of individuals ; as, Gold is precious; but iron
is more useful.
2 . Before abstract nouns used in a general
sense ; as, “ Temperance is commendable ;'* Pride
is odious.'
SYNTAX - ADJECTIVE AND NOUN 129

3. But when an abstract noun is qualified or


limited, the demonstrative article must be used
with it ; as • The ambition of reigning ;' • The
self-approving consciousness of virtue.'

EXERCISE .

Copy out the following sentences, choosing the correct


form from the two given in the parentheses.
(A man, or man ?) is the noblest work of God.
(Man, or the man ?) was six days at his work . I
detest (the duplicity , or duplicity ?) Nothing can be
more detestable than (duplicity, or the duplicity ?) of
that man. How much did you give for (a, or the ?)
book on that table ? I have just received (the, or a ?)
present of (a, or the ?) very beautiful work -box. ( The
ambition, or ambition ?) is a noble passion ; but it often
lures (men , or the men ?) to their destruction . (Rice,
or the rice ?) is excellent food. (Rice, or the rice ?)
which grows in America is superior to that of India .
Weshould avoid (anger, or the anger ?) Neither (the
cotton or cotton ?), nor (tea , or the tea ) grows in Eng
land ? Is this some of (cotton , or the cotton ? ) I gave
you yesterday ? He was commended for (exactitude,
or the exactitude ?) with which he obeyed (orders, or
the orders ?) of his superiors. ( The diligence, or dili
gence ?) of (scholars, or the scholars ?) in our school is
worthy of the commendation, or commendation ?)
( The eagle, or eagle ?) builds its nest in (highest, or the
highest ?) trees, or in (the clefts, or clefts ?) of rocks.
Which is the or a ) more advanced of those two boys ?
Wehave (a , or the ?) larger garden than you. What
130 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

(the, or a ? ) beautiful day ! All (books, or the books ?)


in the school are locked up. ( A , or the ?) best part of
the estate fell to my lot. But (a , or the ?) most dreadful
of our woes was yet to come. How could so excellent
(man or a man ?) have acted in this way ! What (an
error, or error ?) it is to think this (a , or the ?) more
desirable of the two houses ! We had now surmounted
( a, or the ?) greatest of all our difficulties. Do you
know such (book, or a book ?) All ( the members, or
members ?) who did not appear were fined. He is
(better, or a better ?) soldier than his cousin . I cannot
understand how (so obvious a, or such an obvious ?)
truth could have escaped your observation.
1. Adjectives ,whether noun or pronoun, always
belong to nouns, expressed or understood, and
must agree in number with the words they
qualify ; as, This pen , these pens (and not these
pen, or this pens).
2. The word “means,' being either singular or
plural, we may say with equal propriety, this
means or these means, accordingly as we refer to
one, or more than one.
3. * Each ,' every,' and either,' are generally
used with nouns of the singular number ; but
* every,' when referring to a collective number,
may be used with a plural noun ; as, “ Every ten
days;' i. l., ' every period of ten days.'
CAUTION.— Do not use “either' for both,' or
• each
4 . “ None may be used with a singular or a
plural verb, but is more frequently found with a
SYNTAX — ADJECTIVE AND NOUN 131
plural; as, “ None are completely happy. It is
better to use no one with a singular verb, and
'none' with a plural.
5 . " Such ' refers to a class, or kind of beings
or things; " so ' expresses degree. Such ' qualifies
nouns, so ' qualifies adjectives : — such men , i.e.,
men of a certain sort ; so good a man , i. e., a man
of a certain degree of goodness.
EXERCISE .
Write out the following sentences, selecting the correct
expression in the parentheses.
( This is, or these are ?) the only means to save him
from ruin . I have not seen my friend (this, or these ?)
five months. The medicine is to be taken every two
(hour, or hours ?) Trees are planted on (either, or
both ?) (side, or sides ?) of the river . I am not much
interested in (this, or these ?) kind of books. He was
a man of great industry , frugality , and discretion ; and
by (this, or these ?) means became wealthy. (No one,
or none ?) (knows, or know ?) how long ( he, or they ?)
may live. Did you ever hear (so beautiful a , or such
a beautiful?) song ? Hewore wings on (either shoulder,
or both shoulders ?). (These, or this ?) set of tea
things (are, or is ?) quite new . Every means (was, or
were ?) taken to prevent this step. I never met with
(such a stupid , or so stupid a ?) remark. The bird was
beautifully marked on ( either wing, or both wings ?)
( These, or this ?) kind of birds (are, or is ?) not known
in this country. He lived temperately ; and by (this,
or these ?) means preserved his health . ' Nadab and
Abihu, the sons of Aaron , took (each, or either ?) of
K 2
132 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

them (his, or their ?) censer. I have been waiting


(this or these ?) two hours. Leap -year returns every
four (year, or years ?). (Such a good, or so good an ?)
opportunity does not often occur.
1. Adjectives must not be used for adverbs, nor
adverbs for adjectives.
To this rule there are some exceptions: -
1. The words “ ill,' worse,' better, " loud,'
long,' fast,' and some others, may be used
either as adjectives or adverbs ; as, 'An ill wind,
He fared worse,' • They did no better,' • He
speaks loud ,' ' It is long since I saw him , “ The
horse runs fast,' & c.
2. The adverb very ' is sometimes used as an
adjective ; as, “ The very instant it happened,'
• The veriest nonsense. We also speak of an up
or down train . The above remark , an after
thought, the then prince, & c., are all allowable
expressions.
EXERCISE .
Choose the correct word from those in the parentheses.
I shall endeavour to act (conformable, or conform
ably ?) to your instructions. This happened (previously,
or previous ?) to my arrival. He looked (uncommon ,
or uncommonly ?) well. It was done (agreeably , or
agreeable ?) to your wishes. The letter is written
(beautiful, or beautifully ?) He acted (more boldly, or
bolder ?) than on the last occasion . Drink (deep, or
deeply ?) of this spring. She is (prettily, or pretty ?)
well. The man is (indifferent, or indifferently ?)
SYNTAX — ADJECTIVE AND NOUN . 133

honest. He spoke ( softly , or soft ?) to his sister . They


acted (contrary , or contrarily ?) to his wishes. This
gentleman dresses very (neatly , or neat ? ). (Indepen
dent,or independently ?) of these considerations, he has
many requisites for this office . Three months' notice
is required (previously , or previous ?) to the removal
of a pupil. Do not talk so (loud, or loudly ?). The
lady was dressed very (elegant, or elegantly ?), and
looked very (prettily, or pretty ?). He was rambling in
a forest (solitary , or solitarily ?) and forsaken . They
spoke very (freely, or free ?) of these things. These
words are sometimes used (indiscriminate , or indis
criminately ?). They have purchased an (entirely, or
entire ?) new stock. They behaved the (noblest, or
most nobly ?) because they were disinterested. Come
and tell me (true, or truly ?) what you think of this
matter. She looks (amiable, or amiably ? ) and (dances
gracefully, or graceful?). The more (mild and gentle,
or mildly and gently ?) they are treated , the greater is
their chance of recovery .
1. Double comparatives and superlatives are
incorrect. Wemust not say, “ A worser march,'
or " The most likeliest event.'
2. Some adjectives, from their nature, cannot
be compared. We can neither say correctly,
more preferable, more superior,' & c., nor 'chief
est,' “ extremest,''most principal,' & c.
3. In comparing two classes of things, the con
junction than ' must be used after the compara
tive adjective; as, “Wine is stronger than water.'
4. In comparing two objects of the sameclass,
K 3
134 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

the preposition of 'must follow the comparative


adjective ; as, “ This is the stronger of the two
wines.
5 . In comparing any two, either classes or in
dividuals, the comparative, and not the superla
tive, form of the adjective should be used.
EXERCISE .

Let the learner choose the correct form from those in


the parentheses, and insertthe conjunction than, or the
preposition of, in the blank spaces.
.Which is the (more,ormost?) desirable plan to adopt
of these two ? This is a (more superior, or superior ?)
cloth . It cannot be doubted that this is (preferable , or
more preferable ?) John is further advanced in his
studies — James. This is the (more, or most ?)
likely of the two to succeed . Which is the (more, or
most ?) difficult language ; French, German, or Italian ?
I have some knowledge of astronomy, navigation,
and astrology ; the (former, or first ?) I have studied
for some years ; but the (last, or latter ?) I have only
just taken up. The most principal, or principal ?)
faults in that work are its lengthiness, and its obscurity
of style. The (five first, or first five ?) chapters of that
book are the most interesting. Johnson is the (most
cleverest, or cleverest ? ) boy in the school. Which is
the (more, or most ?) desirable - great talents without
industry, or industry without great talents? The cli
mate of the West Indies is hotter - that of the
United States. It stood on the (extreme, or extremest ?)
border of the sea. Diocletian passed the (last nine, or
SYNTAX — ADJECTIVE AND NOUN 135

nine last ?) years of his life in retirement. Which is


the (eldest, or elder ?) of your brothers, John or Henry ?
The tongue is like a race-horse , which runs the faster
the (lesser , or less ?) weight it carries. Virtue confers
(the supremest, or supreme?) dignity on man. He is
( the stronger, or strongest ? ) of the two, but not the
(wisest, or wiser ?)

On the place of the adjective.


1. When used as an attribute, the adjective is
placed before the noun which it qualifies ; as,
“ A good man ,' • A beautiful rose .'
2 . But, in the following cases, it comes after
instead of before its noun :
a . When themeaning oftheadjective is limited ;
as, ' A man merciful to his beast,' A lady kind
to her servants.
b . When the adjective is used emphatically , or
as an epithet ; as, “ Wisdom inscrutable;' Charles
the Bald .
c. When used as a predicate ; as, ' The day was
fine.
d . When it qualifies a noun governed by a
transitive verb ; as, ' He made his friend miser
able.'
N .B . The adjective should be always so placed
as to show clearly which term it is intended to
qualify ; as, (A good cup of tea , or a cup of good
tea ? ). ( A new suit of clothes, or a suit of new
clothes?).
K 4
136 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

EXERCISE .

Copy out the following sentences, putting the adjectives


in their proper places.
The (two first, or first two ?) houses in the row are
larger than the others. His cloak is of a (dark brown,
or brown dark ?) colour. She is a very (young pretty, or
pretty young ?) woman. (Alexander the Great, or the
great Alexander ?) died at Babylon. He spoke in a
(loud enough tone, or tone loud enough ?) to be heard
by the whole congregation. He was a (dear man , or
man dear ? ) to all the country. I found my ( friend
melancholy , or melancholy friend ?). John and Robert
are at home ; but my (other two, or two other ?) bro
thers are gone for a walk . The good old, or old
good ?) man greeted me cordially. It is quite pleasant
to look at that (child 's chubby, or chubby child 's face ?)
He had on a ( pair of new , or new pair ?) of gloves.
Grammar is a (necessary study; or a study necessary ?)
for youth . Within the (thirty or forty last, or last
thirty or forty ?) years, a great change has taken place.
In a good epitaph (every fulsome, light,or trifling thing,
or everything fulsome, light, or trifling ?) should be
avoided . He is a (good-for-nothing fellow , or fellow
good for nothing ?). The landlord placed before the
travellers (a capital bottle of, or bottle of capital?) wine.
It was a (spectacle wonderful, or wonderful spectacle ?)
to behold . He gained his ends by (means most unfair,
or most unfair means ?) (The fourteenth Louis, or
Louis the Fourteenth ?) of France was a despot.
SYNTAX - PRONOUNS 137

PRONOUNS.
1. Adjective pronouns must be of the same
number, gender, and person as the nouns to which
they refer ; as, “ My father and his friends,” “ The
queen and her suite ,' “ The men lost their tools in
the fire.'
CAUTION. — Personal must not be used for
demonstrative pronouns. We must not say,
' Look at them things ' (for those things).
2 . In reference to generals, they ' rather than
· those ' must begin a sentence ; as, “ They ' (not
those who work hard naturally expect to be
remunerated .
3. “ It is,' "it was, & c., may be used imper
sonally when referring to plural persons or things
as a cause ; as, “ It was the Huguenots who were
the most formidable to the government.'
4. Who' is used in reference to persons, and
which ' to things or animals ; as, “ The boy who
was here,' The tree which was blown down,'
• The dog which wasbeaten ,' & c. When the ante
cedent is a sentence, it must be always referred
to by which ;' as, ' He was angry with me, which
was very disagreeable.'
5 . But in referring to a noun denoting a col
lective number of persons, which , and not who,
must be used ; as, ' The crew which was now com
plete.' The cavalry which were drawn up in
reserve,' & c.
138 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

6 . Also, to distinguish one person among a


number, which is correctly used ; as, “ Which of
the candidates do you prefer ?' Which is the
steadiest of all the boys?
7. · Whose’ is generally restricted to persons ;
as, " The man , whose countenance was stern,' & c.
But it is sometimes used in reference to abstract
qualities ; as, Pleasure, whose very nature is
weakening,' & c. ( This, though admissible, is a
form of writing hardly to be recommended ).
EXERCISE .
Select the proper forms in the parentheses, and insert
the proper pronouns in the blank spaces.
The cavalry (is, or are ?) arrived with all (its,or their ?)
baggage. ( Those, or they ?) who are of a differentopinion
will hold up — hands. (It was, or they were ?) the
youngest boys (who, or which ?) were themost trouble
some. This is the horse (who, or which ?) has carried
meso many miles . It was the third parliament (whom ,
or which ?) Charles had convoked. (Who, or which ? )
of all these candidates was chosen ? (It is, or they
are?) the rules in page 14 which give me most trouble.
The boy has brought — books. Solitude (whose
charms, or the charms of which ?) have been so often
sung, has no attractions for me. (They were, or it
was?) the Tories (who, or which ?) triumphed on that
occasion . It was this court (which , or who ?) first
adopted the practice. No one thinks of learning the
grammar of (their, or his ?) own language. The lady
and gentleman had dismissed (his, her, or their ?) ser
SYNTAX — VERB AND OBJECT 139

vants. The council (who, or which ?) had been called


together, took ( their , or its ? ) seats at the board at two
o 'clock. This is a religion (whose, or of which the ?)
origin is divine. No one may do as (they choose, or
he chooses?). The orator addressed the crowd (which,
or who ?) was now beginning to disperse. The young
ladies have brought — work with them . Philosophy
(whose end , or the end of which ?) is to instruct us in
the knowledge of nature. A word is once spoken
can never be recalled . Every man may do as (he
chooses, or they choose ? ). The woman put on
cloak . Is this the book you mentioned ?

GOVERNMENT.
Government is that principle of grammar by
which one word ( or phrase ) is controlled or ruled
by another.
The only parts of speech that govern are verbs,
participles, and prepositions ; as, 1. ' I see the
man .' 2. “ Drawing water is laborious.' 3. “ He
rode to town .
N . B. The governed word is called an object.”
In the above examples, man ,''water,'and “ town ,
are objects governed respectively by the verb • I
see,' the participle ‘drawing,' and the preposition
• to .

VERB AND OBJECT.


1. The noun or pronoun which follows and
depends on a transitive verb is called its object;
140 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

as,“ The boy learns . . . (learnswhat ?) hislesson .'


(Here •lesson ' is the object of the verb “ learns.”)
EXERCISE .

Underline all the objects in the following sentences, and


mark them with an O .
The child struck his head. The boy is spilling the
ink . My father built that house. The traveller ex
cused himself. When will you come to see me ? My
brother wore a new coat. He will relate the story.
' I see thee still.' She followed her friend . God created
the world . The patient gains strength . They over
came every difficulty. I believe his statement. The
student overlooked this fact. He neglects his studies.
Several people had followed his example. The orator
displayed great eloquence.
1. The object of a transitive verb may be either
simple (i. e., consisting of a single term ) or com
plex (i.l., made up of several words) ; as, ' They
found the book ' (simple object). “ We adopted
this means of gratifying him ’ ( complex object ).
EXERCISE.
Mark the simple objects in the following sentences with
an S, and the complex with a C .
Wenever could understand the right way to manage
this matter. He broke the bottle. They ridiculed
such an absurd view of the question . Ring the bell.
His cousin will lend the money . Switzerland presents
many picturesque and beautiful scenes. My uncle has
bought that horse . The fool desires the applause of
SYNTAX — VERB AND OBJECT 141

those about him . We cannot alter the signification of


words. The servants brought in the dinner . I know
the cause of that difference. The speaker then pro
ceeded to discuss the general condition of the country .
The men witnessed the accident. I resolved to have
nothing more to do with the matter. The general
altered his tactics. The downfall of Bonaparte affords
a striking illustration of the inevitable tendency of
ambition to bring to ruin the power and greatness of
its victim .

1. Both the subject and the object of a verb


may be inverted ; i. l., the subject may be put
after, and the object before the verb ; as, ' Believe
me, sir, had I such venture forth. This rule I
understand perfectly.'
EXERCISE .

Mark the inverted subjects and objects in the subjoined


sentences.
Your kindness and attention I can never forget. He
was carrying a parcel. What think you of this affair ?
These things.we must discuss on some future occasion.
It is not yet settled where we shall go this summer.
“What went ye out for to see ?' The cause of so many
failures it is not easy to discover. I do not know how
to set about this business . “ Silver and gold have I
none. I would do so , were I in your place. “Know
ye the land where the cypress and myrtle ? & c.' How
he came ashore I really do not know . It remains to
be shown what was the cause of such extraordinary
proceedings.
ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE
142

1. Some verbs seem to govern two objects, one


of the thing, and another of theperson ; as,' Ellen
is knitting her brother a purse.'
N. B . In this case the preposition to ’ or for '
is understood before the person ; as, Ellen is
knitting (for) her brother a purse.'
EXERCISE .
Underline the direct object (of the thing), and doubly
underline the indirect object (of the person ) in the
following sentences.
Show me that letter . The father bought his son a
desk . I told my friend the whole story. She left her
brother a thousand pounds. Promise me to do better.
Themother sent her son some books. . The gardener
paid the men their wages. We should forgive our
enemies their injuries. This messenger brings the
citizens good news. The master gave the boys a shilling
a-piece. The captain has ordered his men to advance .
The lady got the poor boy a place. Write me word
about it. They wished their friends good night. The
travellers bade their kind host and hostess farewell.

. 1. Both the incomplete and the complete par


ticiples of transitive verbs may be followed by an
object; as, “ Fixing our eyes on the prisoner,' & c.
• Having followed this advice,' & c.
2. But the participles of intransitive verbs
never govern an object. We cannot say, ' Going
the house,’‘ Running the boy,' & c.
SYNTAX — VERB AND OBJECT 143

EXERCISE .

Mark the objects governed by participles in the following


sentences.

Rejecting this theory, we shall proceed to examine


another. You may understand the whole matter by
keeping this point in view . Having neglected his
duties, he was not allowed to join the party. Giving
the man some money, my sister desired him to call
again in a week . By observing this rule, you may
easily solve the problem . The poor boy, having lost
his way in the wood, sat down and wept. " Angels
appeared crowning the glorious hills of Paradise .' Con
sidering everything, we have done as much as can be
fairly expected of us. Having abandoned this resolu
tion, he determined to await the approach of the
enemy. He lost his health from having exposed him
self to the damp. Suspecting not only him , but them
also , I studiously avoided all intercourse.

A difference must be observed between the use


of the verbal noun in “ ing,' and the incomplete
participle in “ing . The first is preceded by the
demonstrative article, and is generally followed
by the preposition of ;' for example :
1. The altering of the law engaged the atten
tion of parliament ( v.n.).
2. This effect was produced by altering the
law (INC. PART.).
144 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

EXERCISE . "

Mark the verbal nouns in “ ing' (V. N.) and the in


complete participles (I. C.).
The river rises six feet at the flowing of the tide.
By observing this rule, you cannot fail to do right.
The changing oftimesand seasons belongs to Providence.
The reading of the will occupied about half an hour.
You will find great difficulty in tracing these events to
their causes. A man cannot be wise or good without
taking pains. ' The Meeting of the Waters' is a beau
tiful poem . Meeting his friend in the street, he stopped
and spoke to him . The gardener must attend to the
watering of the plants. “ Whence this longing after
immortality ?' While they were ascending the moun
tain , they heard the firing of guns. Turning away, he
left me. Tell him to take the next turning. I cannot
understand his reasoning. Rising very early, we took
a long walk , and saw the sun rising above the horizon .
I was deafened by the roaring of the waters. Wewere
present at the drawing of the lottery . They saw her
drawing water.
THE RELATIVE AND VERB.
1. The relative pronoun is the subject to the
verb when no other subject comes between them ;
rel. sub. verb rel. sub. verb
as, “ The wind which blew ;' The man who was
angry.
2. The relative pronoun is the object to the
verb when a subject does come between them ; as,
SYNTAX — RELATIVE AND VERB 145

rel. obj. s. verb. rel.obj. 8.


The letter which I sent;' My friend whom you
verb rel.obj. s. verb
met ;' • Tell me what you want.'
3. The relative,when used objectively , is some
times omitted ; as, “ The faith he professed , for
“ The faith which he professed.'
4 . Sometimes the antecedent is included in the
relative ; as, ' Who steals my purse steals trash,'
for · He who steals,' & c.
5. After the pronouns such and same, asmust
be used for the relative ; as, “ I am such as I
have described .

EXERCISE .

Let the learner copy out the following sentences, mark


ing them 1, 2, 3, & c., accordingly as they may exem
plify the above rules ; and supplying the proper
pronouns in the blank spaces.
Where is the book you promised to show me ? This
is the man to I spoke. have I attacked ?
- do you suppose did this ? ' - do men say that
I am ? ' The robber — they believed was caught,
had made his escape. This is the account - we are
required to believe. is, is right. Give me the
book — you see on that table . - runs may
read. He made such remarks — were adapted to
the subject. — is done, cannot be undone. Con
sider — should be chosen. Tell me — is to be
done. - knows not me, argues himself unknown.'
He proved to be just such a man — I had expected .
146 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

The argument you adopt has no force . Have you


heard — has happened ? I do not yet know .
has won the prize. These are not the same
those I saw before. - you have done cannot be
defended. Use such words — are best suited to
convey your meaning. Those — had been sum
moned, met in the hall. Here is the poem my friend
published last year. This involves such a risk
would cause serious apprehension to most men . He
was not always the same he is now . The woman
- the man accused of stealing proved her inno
cence. They are supported by conscience and
virtuemay smile at the caprices of fortune.

1. The verbs “to be," "to become,' ' to grow ,'


& c., and the passive forms of verbs signifying to
name (as, “ to be called,' to be styled,' ' to be
created,' & c.), take the same form of the noun or
pronoun (subjective or objective) after as before
them ; as, “ I am he ;' “ This circumstance caused
him to be elected secretary.'.
2. Passive forms of verbs signifying to give,
such as' teach ,'' grant,” show ,' & c., are sometimes
followed by an objective noun or pronoun ; as,
• He was told themessage.
EXERCISE .
Let the learner copy out the following sentences ; select
ing the correct form in the parentheses, and marking
the nouns and pronounsas subjects or objects.
He is a friend of mine. The patient was ordered
wine. James has become a learned man. Cæsar was
SYNTAX - RELATIVE AND VERB 147

called the ' Father of his country .' The poor man was
offered a large reward. The poet came to town, a
needy adventurer. Cincinnatus was appointed Dic
tator. Mr. A . has been elected member for South
ampton . John grows a fine boy. I was paid the
money. He was the man who had been appointed
secretary. I knew it to be (she, or her ?). I saw it was
(her, or she ?). It might have been my brother. His
cousin was created a duke. I have been offered a large
sum for this horse. My sister was promised a gold
watch. This gentleman is left sole heir to the estate .
I know it is (her, or she ?). The poor fellow was re
fused his petition. Leonidas was a hero. The general
was saluted emperor. Justice has been often called the
queen of virtues. I knew the fellow to be the man
whom I had seen the day before. The little girl was
named Eliza . It may have been (him , or he ?) ; but it
certainly cannot have been (I, or me ?). Henry VII.
was the first monarch of the Tudor line. He was made
a colonel. The boy was taught his letters by his sister.
The successful candidate was installed vice -chancellor
of the university . The minister was told everything.
Ile was granted his request by the king.
1. The infinitive mood ( either active or passive )
is often used as the object of a verb ; as, ' I wish
to see you.'
(a ) After the verbs .bid ," "hear,' • let,' make,'
see,'and 'dare ,' the infinitive sign “ to ’ is generally
understood ; as, “ You dare not do it ;' ' I bade
him leave off.'
2. • Let,' when used as a sign, is followed by
L 2
148 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

an object ; as, “ Let me see ;' •Let the boy study


his lesson.
3. The infinitive is sometimes the object of a
noun or adjective ; as, ' I have a desire to learn ;'
' I am anxious to do well.
4. A sentence is sometimes the object of a
verb ; as , ''I thought you had finished .
5. A participial phrase is often the object either
of a verb or a preposition ; as, “ The defendant
denied having used that expression ;' " Heretired
without gaining any information .'
EXERCISE .
Let the learner copy out the following sentences, marking
them 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, accordingly as they exemplify the
above rules.
Let them say what they will. I hope to pay you a
visit. My schoolfellow promised she would write to
me. You dare not do so . The governor intends
starting to -morrow . The captain resolved that nothing
should hinder him . You need not answer that ques
tion. I am ready to meet him . They refused to give
us any information. Let you and (I, or me ?) with
draw . I expected to find you here. The family found
the deceased had made no will. Desire the witness to
attend in court to -morrow . The King declared he
would never forgive his son. He had a strong desire to
go to sea. Cease to lament. I could not help thinking
well of him . The boy pretended he knew nothing
about thematter . The pupil was unable to explain
the sentence. The ladies expressed a wish to see the
SYNTAX — PREPOSITION AND OBJECT 149

convent. The people have a right to expect better


treatment. This made me think of former times. Ask
your friends to come early. No one will surely venture
to deny this truth. You are expected to be there at
six o'clock . The boy expressed his sorrow for having
told a falsehood . Let go the rope. The commander
was anxious to alleviate the men 's hardships. The
patient is now able to take a short walk . The doctor
said he would call again soon. The disbanded soldiers
are known to be stirring up sedition. Make her sit
down by you . You are free to do as you choose. The
magistrate saw the man was much agitated. He bade
them be of good cheer. Do not let slip this oppor
tunity. My father wishes to see you in the study. I
purpose finishing this work next month .
1. A noun or pronoun following and depending
on a preposition , is the object of that preposition ;
as, “ Come to me;' My sister is in the garden .'
2. Two nouns or pronouns having the same
meaning must have the same construction ; as,
“ Alexander tamed the horse Bucephalus.' (Here
the horse and Bucephalus mean the same thing ;
and “ horse' being the object of the verb “ tamed,'
Bucephalus is also an object '.)
3. Many English verbs are used in a transitive
sense when compounded with prepositions; such
as, “ To look at,' • To talk over,' & c. The noun or
pronoun following such a verb is the object of the
whole compound verb , and not of the preposition ;
as, “ I shall talk over that affair to -morrow .'
This is called Apposition.
L 3
150 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE ,

(Here, that affair ' is the object of the verb


" talk -over,' and not of the preposition over.')
4. Prepositions are often understood ; as, ' This
happened last night ' (that is, during last night).

EXERCISE .
Let the pupil underline all the objects in the following
sentences, and mark them 1, 2 , 3, or 4, accordingly as
they exemplify the above rules.
How did he come by that large sum of money ?
They are in the house . My father has discharged
John, the gardener. Listen to these remarks. We
cannot dispense with his services. George has sent his
inauntry. Withomonth weshallaking? WhatYou to
brother Edward to town. I shall call on you to
morrow . To whom are you speaking ? What do you
refer to ? Next month we shall pay you a visit in the
country. Without his assistance we should have been
in a serious difficulty. These people look on us as
friends. Last night some robbers broke into the
house . We never dreamt of that obstacle. William
had six children - four sons and two daughters. The
Emperor created him Duke of Friedland. The general
arrived here last Wednesday. Fortune smiled on him .
I am going to town. Hequite agrees with me. Bring
your cousin Eliza with you . On Monday next we
shall be in Paris. I shall look over your exercise this
afternoon . The subject is divided into two parts.
Richard I. was succeeded by his brother John. The
law will come into operation next October. The
meeting took place some weeks ago. When the old
man died , he was surrounded by his children , grand
SYNTAX - ADVERBS 151

children , and great-grandchildren. In three days he


rode from London to York . The water fell three feet.
Wetravelled twenty miles.

ADVERBS.

1. Adverbs are all contracted forms to express


time, place, manner, degree, & c. ; as, there = in
that place ; now = at this time; gently = in a
gentle manner, & c.
2 . Many phrases are used adverbially ; such
as, at least, in vain ,' at present,' & c.
3. Adverbs are occasionally used as nouns ; as,
' It is worth your while, “ Since when ,' & c.
4 . In some few cases , adverbs qualify nouns ;
as, · It is almost time;' « Nearly six o'clock .'
5. In English , two negatives make an affirma
tive, and therefore only one negative must be
used when we wish to deny. “ He never said
nothing, should be He never said anything.'
6 . As a general rule, the adverb must be placed,
1. Before an adjective ; as, too long,' very
pretty :' 2. After a simple form of the verb ; as,
• He behaves well :' and, 3. Between the parts of
a compound form of the verb ; as, ' I have often
seen him ;' ' He was kindly received.'
7. • There,' used impersonally, must precede
the verb ; as, “ There was a man . Otherwise, it
must follow the verb ; as, “ A man was there.'
L 4
152 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

EXERCISE .
The pupil is to copy out the following sentences,marking
each with the number, 1, 2, 3, &c., according to the
rule it exemplifies.
At first he thought differently about the matter.
This is everywhere the case . It is quite the fashion .
Our friends were much amused. His son writes beau
tifully. This view is somewhat different from the
other. I cannot by (no, or any ?) means admit him .
His manners are not uncourteous, and his observations
are very sensible. He now comes (seldom or never,
or seldom if ever ?). It is at least three years since
she died. His friends remonstrated with him in vain . -
I have been , till now , ignorant of this fact. There is
no more to be said on the subject. Speak discreetly .
The news reached us soon after. The lady is just ar
rived. The child was found where the nurse had left
him , fast asleep. The book is nowhere to be seen .
Yes, there it is ! Heaven points out an hereafter.
Do not ask me why I think so . In short, he was
ruined. Whence can he have drawn all his knowledge ?
The exercise was very badly written. This happened
long ago. He will soon be here. The traveller did
not make (any, or no ?) answer to this question . It is
well worth your while to visit this place. I know no
thing of this man (no, or any ?) more than yourself.
Now - a -days people know better. The style of that
composition is not ungraceful.
CONJUNCTIONS.
1. Conjunctions couple the sameforms of verbs,
nouns, and pronouns together; as, “ I saw and
SYNTAX – CONJUNCTIONS 153

admired that view ;' • If he listen to your advice,


and profit by it, he will succeed ;' The same
master taught him and me.
2. Conjunctions, used positively, and without
implying doubt,must be followed by the indica
tive mood ; as, ' If he says so, I am satisfied.'
3. But when something doubtful, or not yet
determined, is implied, the conjunction must be
followed by the subjunctive mood ; as, “ If I were
in your place, I would adopt this plan.
4. “ Except, without,' and notwithstanding,'
are prepositions, and must not be used as con
junctions. Wemust not say,' Except you do that;'
or,' Without I go to town ; ' or, ‘ Notwithstanding
he thought so.
5 . The objective form of the relative pronoun
must follow the conjunction than ;' as , “ James,
than whom a better man does not exist.'
6 . “ Lest' and 'but’ are sometimes incorrectly
used for that;' as, “ I fear lest the house may
fall ;' ' I have no doubt but he will be here.'
(We should here say, ' I fear that the house may
fall ;' ' I have no doubt that he will be here. )
EXERCISE .
Let the pupil write out the following sentences, marking
them accordingly as they refer to the rules above, and
selecting the proper form in the parentheses.
I wish I (was, or were?) able to go with you. I can
neither approve of, nor imitate , this example . I have
· 154 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

no doubt (but, or that ?) he ( is, or be ?) as clever as his


brother. You must not go ( except, or unless ?) you pay
your debt. If I (am , or be ?) wrong, show me how .
Love not sleep , lest thou ( come, or comest ?) to poverty .
If his opinions (be, or are ?) well founded , it is wise to
adopt them . I am sorry to hear that your friend (be,
or is ?) ill. If your friend (be, or is ?) ill, he will not be
able to join us. If he (live, or lives ?) virtuously , he is
happy. If he (means, or mean ?) what he says, his
opinion is much altered. If the general ( is, or be ?) as
severe as you say, I am not surprised that his soldiers
(are, or be ?) mutinous. Though he (be, or is ?) poor,
yet he is honest. You must not go out (unless , or
without ?) I permit you. If the donor (was, or were ?)
rich , the present was too little ; if he (were, or was ?)
poor, it was too much. Though he (is, or be ?) not
rich , he is remarkably useful.

INTERJECTIONS.
. Some grammarians reject the interjection as a
distinct part of speech, on the ground that it is
nothing else than the abrupt expression of feeling,
and, as such , is on a par with the barking of a
dog or the neighing of a horse. Since , however,
usage has assigned them various constructions and
different meanings, it seems proper to explain
the way in which such words are generally used .
The following are the principal interjections:
Ah ! Alas! Eh ! Ha! Heigh-ho ! Hark ! Lo ! O !
Oh ! Pshaw !
Ah ! or Ha ! is used in various ways ; it may
SYNTAX – INTERJECTIONS 155

express a feeling of surprise, or pain , or admira


tion , or pleasure.
Alas ! is always used to express concern for
misfortunes.
Heigh -ho ! expresses lassitude, or anxiety , or
doubt.
Hark ! is simply a call to attention.
Lo ! is a contraction for look . It is now sel
dom used .
O is spelled thus when used vocatively ; as, O
thou that,' & c. ; but it must be spelled Oh ! when
used as an expression of joy, astonishment, or
pain ; as, ' Oh ! how beautiful !'
The interjections Oh ! and Ah ! are followed by
the objective form of the first person ; as, “ Ah !
me ; and by the subjective of the second ; as,
• Ah ! thou traitor ! !
We also say, ' Hark ye !' and ' Woe isme! '
EXERCISE .
Let the pupil insertappropriate interjections in the blank
spaces.
- y
what a calamit . ! how glad I am to
see you . ! how awful. - are you not afraid ?
- ! there is no danger. - ! is it you ? -
what is to be done ? — ye fellows! let us have no
more of this. - ! thou recreantknave. - ! where
she comes. when will my misfortunes end ?
— ! I am tired to death . - thou that sittest
above the heavens, & c. - ! what nonsense. !
the lark at heaven's gate sings. — is me, how shall
156. ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

I escape ? - ! what pleasure to meet again ! ' And


hemourned over him , saying : “ — ! my brother !”
What could have induced you to do that, — ?
my father ! my friend ! how great has been my ingra
titude ! — Piety ! - Virtue ! how insensible
have I been to your charms! - scoundrel, have I
caught you ? What do you want, — ? — what
pain I suffer ! - he is beneath my consideration .
- is me! what will become of me ?

ELLIPSIS.
Ellipsis, or the omission of certain words, occurs
in all languages, and is used to avoid disagreeable
repetitions. When , however, the omission of
words gives rise to obscurity , the ellipsis is not
allowable.
This figure occurs in all parts of speech.
1. Ellipsis of the article ; as, ' The bread and
cheese ;' The sun, moon , and stars,' & c. But
when the writer wishes to be emphatic, the article
must be repeated ; as, “ The squares, the streets,
the house -tops, the very clothes of the passengers
were covered with dust.
2. Of the noun ; as, “ The rules of grammar
and of common sense agree in this case ;' The
affected are always disagreeable.'
3. Of the adjective; as, “ A pretty cottage and
garden '',
* But the qualified nounsmust be of the samenumber, other
wise the adjective must be repeated. We must not say ' A
handsome table and chairs.'
SYNTAX — ELLIPSIS 157

4 . Of the pronoun ; as, ' My brother and sister


are coming ;' ' I admire and respect him .'

EXERCISE 1.
Let the pupil mark the following elliptical sentences 1,
2, 3, or 4, accordingly as they may be referred to the
above explained cases.
The French occupied the rising ground on the right
of the Austrians. He spoke with the utmost sincerity
and honesty . His brothers, sisters, and cousins will
spend the evening with us. The folly and absurdity of
this step are evident. The wisest and best men some
times go wrong. He is not only well informed, but
sensible and experienced. An elegant house (and
grounds ?) were sold by auction. It is a long, dark ,
and dangerous road. Many boysand girls were assem
bled. The servant put some apples and pears on the
table . We found him in the deepest distress and afflic
tion . There is nothing I like better. Here is the
watch I bought at Geneva. Those entrusted with high
offices are especially responsible. I have just met your
uncle and aunt in the park . The pen and ink are on
the table. This is my book ; where is Henry's ? The
country consists of extensive forests and meadows. I
found him a lively , agreeable companion. My books
and papers were disturbed. A cat and kittens were dis
covered in the hay -loft. His nose, mouth, and chin
were beautifully chiselled . The harp and piano are in
the drawing-room .
1. Ellipsis of a verb ; as, “ The boy was clever,
industrious, and successful.'
158 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

(a ) of the sign of a tense ; as, ' I must see


and speak to him .'
(6 ) Of a verb and preposition ; as, “ We
walked through the streets, lanes, and squares of
the city
2. Of a preposition ; as, “ This morning my
uncle arrived in town.'
3. Of a conjunction ; as, ' I was sure it would
happen.?
4 . No ellipsis is allowed of a part of a com
pound tense ; as, ' I always have, and always will
say the same thing.' ( It must be, ' I always have
said , and always will say,' & c.)
5 . No ellipsis is allowed of the objective infini
tive ; as, “ Will you sing ? Yes, I will try to ' (to
do so ).
EXERCISE 2.
To be done as the last exercise.
My cousin is studying Greek , Latin , and mathe
matics. Reading makes a knowing man ; study, a ju
dicious man ; and conversation, a polished man. I
have seen and conversed with him frequently . They
have (?) and will be punished. This occurred last
week . All must confess the power, wisdom , and good
ness of the Creator. The orator said he spoke to every
man , woman, and child present. I always have (?)
and always will take the same pains. By presumption
and vanity we provoke enmity. He is temperate, dis
interested, and benevolent. It is well for uswhen we
can calmly look back on the past, and quietly anticipate
SYNTAX — INCORRECT PHRASEOLOGY 159
the future. I am equally opposed to excessive indul
gence and excessive severity . Virtue will be rewarded ,
not only hereafter, but even in this life. This dedica
tion may serve for almost any book that has (?), is,
or shall be published. Have you written your letter ?
No, but I am going to (?). We often praise as well as
blame inconsiderately . I was reflecting on the state of
human life and society. He both speaks and acts with
great discretion . My friend is a man of learning,
knowledge, and benevolence. My daughter has visited
and comforted the poor invalid . I see both your and
your cousin 's name on the list. I admire his temper
and disposition.
EXERCISES IN INCORRECT PHRASEOLOGY.
The pupil is to correct the diction in the following sen
tences, and explain on what principle he makes the
correction .
EXERCISE 1 .

Many changes and improvements have been made to


the work . The first sketch was very different, and far
worse than the second. There remains but one or two
remarks to bemade. He is stronger, but not so active
as his schoolfellow . Each pupil and each monitor
have their own books. At the end of the work are
placed a large number of notes. Neither has John nor
any of his brothers obtained leave to go away. What
avails my remonstrances, if you will not listen to them ?
No one knows whence the wind cometh , and whither it
goeth . To be honest, sober, and pious, are required of
all men. I always have and always will do my best.
160 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

Common sense, as well as reason , tell us that this is


wrong. Equally rapid was his rise and fall. All your
success or failure depend on your own exertions. A
shower of stones and cudgels were thrown at his head.
Any one may think what they choose about this mat
ter.

EXERCISE 2 .
This writer tells usthat Rome has been taken by the
Goths. Few have undergone half the trials as I have
in the course of my life. By these means are the com
mander respected , and the men encouraged. Every
party has its prejudices, which affect others as well as
themselves. He only wanted a month of coming of
age. The orator and poet left the room arm in arm .
I have still three chapters to write ,which I shall be de
lighted when I have finished them . Not one in a
thousand understand what they mean. I have just seen
theman ; he who was here this morning. He is be
come more than ever useful to me. Is she really in
the condition that you represent her ? Those who they
most fear are in truth their best friends. James is
more amiable than John ; and he is certainly the best
informed. This is of all other things what I would
most carefully avoid. This was, in reality, the easiest
manner of the two. Neither Charles nor his brother
were qualified to support such a system .
EXERCISE 3 .
I will not consent to this act; neither now , or at
any future time. He so increased his influence, that he
might be said to acquire a despotic power. This is
INCORRECT PHRASEOLOGY 161
one of those things which requires peculiar care. Wealth
might raise us in the eyes of the vulgar, but cannot
recommend us to the wise and good . He is of the
same opinion as me. After we left Paris, we visited
many parts of Switzerland . When he finished writing,
he put by his manuscript. I have not the least doubt
but that he will pass in his examination. They no
sooner adopt a new fashion but the world discontinues
it. A man may see a metaphor or an allegory in a
picture, as well as read them in a description. The
man, with his horse and cart, were in the street just
now . They intended yesterday to have paid you a
visit. This is one of those cases which is so likely to
mislead. I always have, and always will follow this
rule. Every province and department have a set of
laws by which they are governed .
EXERCISE 4 .

Envy or malice deserve blame wherever they are


found to exist. This is one of the greatest mistakes
which ever was made. The work was published nearly
eight years before its merit had been acknowledged .
Neither the year nor the place of his birth are known.
He promoted interests different, and sometimes con
trary to those of society. A violent flood carried away
many houses, and leaving the inhabitants utterly desti
tute. He was the cleverest of all his rivals. The court
was no sooner opened but the crowd rushed in . If he
does but encourage my attempt, I shall be quite satis
fied . I made up my mind to have written the letter .
Weshould give aid to such deserving persons who ap
pear to require it. He has no more to live on besides
M
162 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

his salary . You will not succeed except you follow my


advice . That portrait of my friend's is an excellent
likeness of him . Here is the man whom you thought
had committed the crime. The number of the audience
were between seventy and eighty. He had no sooner
begun reading, but a noise and clamour was raised
throughout the church .

EXERCISES IN ORTHOGRAPHY.
RULES FOR SPELLING .
ON DERIVATIVES.
Words which represent a simple primary idea ,
as man,' red ,' ' fill,' “ drop,' are called roots.
Words which are formed from these roots are
called derivatives ; as, from man,' manly ; '
red,' ruddy ; ' fill,' full ;' . drop ,' droop.'
This formation may be effected in three ways —
First : By adding something to the beginning
or to the end of a root ; as, disjoin ,' from ' join ;'
manly,' from man.'
Secondly : By changing or modifying the sound
of the internal vowel; as, ' raise,' from ‘ rise ;'
óset,' from ' sit.'
Thirdly : By both these processes applied to
the same root; as, “ ruddy,' from ' red ;' finger,
from ' fang ;' “rafter,' from ' roof.' Here not only
is the sound of the root-vowel altered , but a suffix
is added .
ORTHOGRAPHY — RULES FOR SPELLING 163

Rule 1.- Roots ending in y preceded by a con


sonant, change the y into į in their derivatives ;
as, cry, crier; easy, easily ; dainty , daintiness.
la . But when a vowel precedes the y final, or
when ing is added , the y is retained ; as, buy,
buyer ; play, playing .
Rule 2. — Monosyllables,and roots ending in an
accented consonant preceded by a single vowel,
double the last consonant in their derivatives ; as,
rag, ragged ; drum , drummer, & c.
2a. But if a diphthong precede, or the last
syllable be not accented, the consonant remains
single in the derivative; as, join , joiner; cheat,
cheating ; profit, profited .
DICTATION EXERCISE .
Their merriment was interrupted . We were ad
miring her playing. They profited by experience .
Are you coming ? The paper is blotted . His means
are limited. They are compelled to gain their living.
He was busily occupied in writing. The beggar asked
alms. No one is admitted, except on business. He
obeyed. Though only a beginner, he will soon be a
good swimmer. The trial ended in the prisoner's ac
quittal. We delayed our visit, fancying he was enjoy +
ing himself with some friends. He was cheated of his
Day, daily ; gay , gaily, gaiety ; pay, paid ; lay , laid ; and
say, said , are exceptions.
2 Die makes dying and died ; dye makes dyeing and dyed ;
singe makes singeing ; and swinge, swingeing ; as distinguisned
from singing and swinging.
M 2
164 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

inheritance . The men are dyeing the cloth . The


money is paid daily. We benefited greatly by the
change. She speaks giddily , and shews no readiness
to study.
Rule 3. - Words of two, or of three syllables,
ending in l, though not accented on the last
syllable, double the final l in their derivatives ;
as, équal, equalled ; dúel, duellist.
Rule 4. — Words ending in ll lose one I when
compounded , as well as in their derivatives formed
by adding ness, less, ful, or ly ; as, all, also ; bell,
belman ; hand, handful.
DICTATION EXERCISE .
The country is hilly. Fulfil your duties until I
return . The travellers arrived last night. Here, it is
always chilly . I am fully convinced of his innocence.
He shewed unrivalled courage. The commander
marshalled his troops. They parcelled out the country.
The revellers sat up all night. Here is a bookful of
prints done by a skilful artist. This wilful child is al
together unmanageable. The sculptor is modelling a
figure representing a nymph with dishevelled hair. He
is almost always wrong. It is dreadful to be kept in
thraldom . The Gospel is preached for the welfare of
mankind . God is Almighty .
Rule 5 . — Roots ending in silent e omit this e
in their derivatives formed by adding able ', ible ,

· Except
moveable .
peaceable, serviceable, changeable, chargeable, and
ORTHOGRAPHY - RULES FOR SPELLING 165

ing ', ish , y, ance, and al; as, cure, curable;


force, forcible ; pale, palish ; juice, juicy ; guide,
guidance ; bride, bridal.
Rule 6 . - Roots ending in silent e retain the e
in their derivatives formed by adding less, ness ,
lys, fuls, and ment* ; as, life, lifeless ; like, like
ness ; tame, tamely ; care, careful ; pave, pavement.

DICTATION EXERCISE .

His rudeness is inexcusable. They nobly refused


to give encouragement to this spiteful feeling. Not
liking the first, and admiring the second contrivance,
she wisely decided to adopt the latter. Their habits
were shamefully wasteful. He lately resolved to give
no further encouragement to such baseness. The
homely people of this peaceful village submitted
tamely . The revival of the grievance caused universal
discouragement. The observance of the bridal festival
is a universal practice. This careless and wastefulma
nagement rendered the enterprise doubly dangerous.
In pursuance of this resolution they persevered in their
refusal. In my judgment, an abridgment of the work
would be more useful. It was natural that he should
expect an acknowledgment of his services. Since my
arrival, the weather has been very changeable.
Except singeing and swingeing, as distinguished from sing
ing and swinging.
?* Except due,duly ; true, truly ; and whole, wholly.
Except awe, awful.
* Except judge, judgment;' abridge, abridgment; and ac
knowledge, acknowledgment.
M 3
166 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

ON INITIAL SYLLABLES.
The prefixes de, di, and dis, are frequently
confounded '.
The following are those words chiefly in use
which have de prefixed :
de-bar de-fame de-liver de-prive ide-tach
de-base de-feat Jde-lude de-pute de-tain
de-bate de -fect de-mand de-ride de-tect
de -cay de-fend de-molish de-rive de-ter
de-cease de-fer de-note de-scend de-termine
de-ceive de-fine de-nounce de-scribe de-test
de-cide de-form de-ny de-serve de-tract
de-clare de-fraud de-part de-sign de-volve
de-cline de-fy. de-pend de-sist de-vote
de-coy de-grade de-pict de-spair de- vour
de- crease de-gree de-plore de-spatch de-vout
de-cree de-jected de-pose de-spise
de-duce de-lay de-prave de-spoil
de-face Jde-light de-press de-spond !
The following are written with the prefix di : —
di-gest di-lute I di-vert
di-gress dimension di-vest
di- lacerate di-minish di-vide
di-lapidate di-rect di-vorce
di-late di-verge di- vulge
The following have dis prefixed : -
dis -arm dis -like dis-play dis-quiet dis -tort
dis -card dis-mast dis-please dis -regard dis-tract
dis-dain dis-obey dis-pose dis-repute dis-tribute
dis-ease dis-pel dis-possess dis-respec
aste
t dis-trust
dis.grace dis-pense dis praise dis-turb
dis-gust dis-perse dis-prove dis -tinct dis-unite
dis-honest |dis-place dis-pute dis -tinguish
I The prefix de has the general signification of from or down ,
as de-fend, to ward from ; de-press, to press down. Di and dis
convey the idea of separation ; as dilacerate, to tear asunder ;
dispel, to drive away, or apart.
ORTHOGRAPHY — INITIAL SYLLABLES 167
The following are written with double 8 :
dis-satisfy dis-sent dis-solve
dis-sect dis-sertation dis-solute
dis -semble dis-similar dis-sonant
dis-seminate dis -simulation dis-suade
dis-sension dis-sipate dis -syllable

DICTATION EXERCISE .

The question was decided in the debate ; but some


declared against the decision . Henry determined to
divorce Katharine. His dishonesty and disobedience
disgusted me. The dissolute youth dissipated his for
tune. Dissimulation is detestable. This digression will
divert your mind. His strength was decreased by the
disease. Depend upon it, you will deplore your de
pravity. I was displeased to hear him dispute with his
superior so disrespectfully . The house is dilapidated,
and the ship dismasted . I was dissatisfied with these
dissensions, which could not but disseminate evil.
Desist from detraction and defamation. Defraud no
one. Divested of his honours, degraded , and despoiled ,
he was driven to despair. Deride not the deformed .
Divide the cake among those who deserve it. He di
rectly divulged the secret, and denounced the guilty
man . The police dispersed the mob, and defended
themselves desperately . I am delighted to be deli
vered . His devotion is undiminished . I dissent from
your opinion , for the two cases are dissimilar.

M 4
163 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

Similar mistakes are made by confounding the


prefixes pre', pro ?, pers, and pur4.

DICTATION EXERCISE .

The president promoted many persons. It is the


purveyor's province to purchase provisions. In pur
suance of this purpose , he prosecuted the perjurer.
Permit me to say, that the performance was perfect .
I predicted that the purchaser would prevent him from
prefixing his initials. The herald proceeded to proclaim
the edict. Perhaps you prefer this perfume. Pursue
your studies with perseverance. He was persuaded to
purloin these articles. He was so perplexed , that he
could not pronounce the words properly . I presume
that you do not pretend to precede the queen . This is
precisely what precludesme from proposing to prescribe
for him . Do not provoke him to prolong the quarrel.
for and fore.
Do not confound with each other the prefixes
fors and fore6.
? Pre, in composition ,means before; as precede, to go before;
prefer, to put before.
? Pro means forth, or for ; as proceed, to go forth ; pronoun,
for a noun.
3 Per, as a prefix, signifies through, or thoroughly ; as,perfect,
thoroughly made.
• Pur is found chiefly in words of French origin, and cor
responds with the French pour ; as pursue, from poursuivre ;
purvey, from pourvoir.
• For, in composition , implies negation ; as to forbid , that
is, to bid not to do ; to forsake, to refrain from seeking.
• Fore, in composition , is for before.
ORTHOGRAPHY - INITIAL SYLLABLES 169
The following words are spelled with the
prefix for :
for-get for-lorn for-swear
for-givel for-sake for-ward
The following have fore prefixed :
fore-bode fore-lock fore-sight
fore-cast fore -man fore-taste
fore-doom fore-mast fore -tel
fore-knowledge | fore-see fore - warn

DICTATION EXERCISE.
The foreman forsook his bad companions, and thence
forward became a new man. I forewarned you that
the foremast would fall. Forget and forgive all old
offences. Every one might have foreseen her forlorn
condition . He is always foreboding evil. They
foretold that some of the witnesses would forswear
themselves.
en and in .
En initial has the sense of -
First, to make ; as, enrich, to make rich ; en
able, to make able.
Secondly, it is often used for the preposition in ;
as, to encage, to put in a cage ; to endanger, to
put in danger.
In ( in composition ) has the force -
. First, of the preposition in ; as, to instil, to
drop in ; to inhabit, to dwell in .
Secondly , of on or towards ; as, insult, to leap
on ; incline, to lean towards.
' In the word forward, for is a contraction of fore.
170 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE
Thirdly, of a negative ; as, inactive,not active;
inhuman, not human .
Fourthly,an intensivemeaning; as, invaluable,
very valuable; inveterate, very old and strong.
These initial syllables have been much con
founded. The subjoined lists give the spelling
generally adopted by the best modern writers:
En.
enable lencumber / engender enquire? enthral
enact endanger engross enrage enthrone
encage endear engulf enrich entice
encamp endeavour enhance enshrine entire
enchant endorse enjoin enslave entitle
encircle endow enjoy ensnare entreat
enclose endure enkindle ensue entrench
encompass enfeeble enlarge ensure entwine
encounter enfold enlist entail envenom
encourage enforce ennoble entangle envelop
encroach engage
In .
inane induce inhale inspire intrude
inanimate indulge inherent instal invade
incite infect inherit instil inveigh
incline infer inject instruct inveigle
invent
include infest inlaid insult
increase inflame innate insures invert
inculcate inflict inquirea intend invest
incumbent inform inscribe inter invite
incur infringe insert intimidate invoke
indebted infuse insinuate intone involve
indict inhabit inspect
I This word is spelled differently, according to its application.
We enclose an open space, as a garden or field. We inclose
when we wrap up, as in a parcel or letter.
2 We inquire into something deep or abstruso ; we enquire for
general information. We inquire into the circumstances of a
robbery ; we enquire about the rent of a house.
3 In ordinary cases we ensure, as in success in an undertak
ing ; but, in the case of life or property, we insure.
ORTHOGRAPHY FINAL SYLLABLES 171

DICTATION EXERCISE .

The inhabitants were forced to encamp in the fields.


During the encounter, the forces were considerably in
creased. I am inclined to think their endeavours will
be vain . They enforced the rule by inflicting heavy
punishments on the offenders. We all enjoyed our
selves, and were enchanted with the music. From this
we may infer , that it is an inherent defect. He was
induced to incur heavy debts. The culprit entreated
for pardon . They were enabled to enrich themselves
by this information . Being inflamed with rage, he in
veighed strongly against this encroachment. They
intend to inter the body. The master instilled rather
than inculcated his instruction. The fresh air he in
haled infused new vigour into his endeavours. Endowed
with an indomitable will, nothing could intimidate
him . It is incumbent on you to inquire into this
matter . For further information , enquire within .
These enactments prevented the infection from spread
ing. The prince was enfeebled by indulgence. The
brigands who infested the country were enticed into an
ambush , and enclosed by the king's soldiers. The
band endured many hardships, and their lives were
even endangered. He insured his life. This step
ensured his success.

ON FINAL SYLLABLES.

Many final syllables, pronounced alike, are


172 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

likely to be mistaken for each other. Such are


sion and tion ; as in action and vision .
cian and tian ; as in Grecian and Christian .
ance and ence; as in vigilance and silence.?
ant and ent; as in vacant and present.
DICTATION EXERCISE.
His relations approved of the decision he shewed on
that occasion . The physician cured the tertian ague.
The magistrate acted with prudence in quelling the
disturbance. The patient was in a recumbent posture.
I am confident that his success will be triumphant.
During his occupation of the mansion, he gave every
one a warm reception . The patrician argued like a
sound logician . During the performance there was a
deep silence. There is an abundant crop on the ad
jacent farm . The cession of the province was consi
dered a wise action . Magicians are not Christians.
The boys' negligence was caused by the frequent ab
sence of the master. The fragrant odour of the flowers
made me reluctant to leave the garden . The incursions
1 The adoption of s or of t before ion depends on the deriva
tion of the word. Vision, version , passion, & c., are spelled with
an s, because they are derived from the Latin participles visus,
versus, passus ; but nation, fiction ,motion, & c., with a t, because
they come from the Latin natus, fictus, and motus.
2 The spelling of words in ance or in ence also depends
mainly on their etymology. They are chiefly of Latin deriva
tion . Those derived from Latin verbs of the 1st conjugation
require a ; as in vigilance, from vigilare ; substance, from stare.
But those derived from verbs of the 2nd, 3rd, or 4th conjuga
tion are spelled with an e, as silence, from silēre ; cadence, from
caděre; sentence, from sentire. The same general rule holds
good for the spelling of words ending in ant, or ent. But the
rule hasmany exceptions.
ORTHOGRAPHY — FINAL SYLLABLES 173

of the barbarians led to the destruction of the Roman


empire. An optician should be something of a ma
thematician . Innocence is no protection against
vengeance. It is sufficiently apparent that his answer
was flippant.
The following endings present similar difficul
ties : -
er and re ; as, writer, spectre."
el and le ; as hovel, uncle.
or and our ; as, error, vapour.2
able and ible ; as, probable, possible.3
DICTATION EXERCISE .
The rider escaped the massacre. The bundle was
carried with some trouble. He left the towel on the
gravel. Having drunk the liquor, he fell into a stupor.
The colour of this flower does not equal its odour. He
is a very sociable and sensible man . The subscribers
met in the centre of the theatre. They put a barrel of
oysters and a bushel of oats in the hovel. The doctor
is in a bad humour. The pastor preaches with fervour.
The object is not only discernible, but clearly visible.
This venerable man is incapable of such baseness . The
boys read a chapter in the Bible. He tarnished the
1 Er is generally the ending of words signifying an agent, as
rider, walker, & c. ; one who rides, walks, & c.
: Most of these words are derived from Latin through French.
The Latin form ended in or, the French ends in eur. From the
latter comes the English ending our. The present tendency is to
omit the u. Many of these words were formerly spelled in our,
which now reject the u ; as authour, errour, creatour, & c.
3 The same rule that applies to words ending in ance and
ence will also apply to the endings able and ible.
174 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

lustre of his character . An eagle flew through the


tunnel. This is but a minor error. Endeavour to act
with vigour. His forcible arguments made an indeli
ble impression on the audience. You must filter the
water. My uncle opened the bottle with a chisel. The
tutor begged the sculptor to do him a favor. They la
boured to appease his rigour. The information was in
valuable to me.
ice, eive, and ieve.
1. When the termination ice is accented, it has
the i sounded long ; as, nīce, advice.
2. But, when unaccented, this termination is
sounded as if written iss ; as, jústice, nótịce.
3. The endings eive and ieve have both the
same sound ; but when the letter c precedes, the
termination is spelled eive (the e before the i) ;
as in deceive, receive, conceive, perceive'.
4. If any other consonant precede, the ending
is spelled ieve ; as,thieve, believe, relieve.
DICTATION EXERCISE.
The malice of his accomplice ruined him . Entice
not others to vice. I cannot conceive why the thief
has been reprieved. This practice shews the avarice of
the age. The chief retrieved this misfortune. He was
so conceited as to believe that he required no advice .
I have a prejudice against the novice. Suffice it to say
These words are all derived from the Latin compounds of
capěre, to take; percipěre, recipěre, decipere, & c., and come to
us through the French apercevoir, recevoir, & c.
ORTHOGRAPHY - FINAL SYLLABLES 175
that the thiefwas caught. The besieged were relieved.
I believe he was caught thieving. Give notice that you
will quit the service. I soon perceived his cowardice.
I grieve to hear of his base artifice. His conceit was
excessive. The apprentice is ill of the jaundice. I be
lieve he gave no receipt for themoney . The pumice
stones were found near the precipice. Seized 1 with
remorse, he died of grief. The office is at the other
end of the edifice. The ice broke twice. The chief
anxiously waited to be relieved from his critical
position .
ious and uous.
Take care not to confound the spelling of these
endings.
The following words have the termination
UOUS: —
conspicuous ingenuous impetuous ? virtuous
assiduous spirituous | presumptuous? | tempestuous
ambiguous tumultuous 2 sumptuous ?
superfluous contemptuous * voluptuous
Endings in iousaremuch more numerous. The
following are some of those which are in common
use : -
dubious 8 gracious | auspicious ingenious
sagacious judicious vicious serious
fallacious officious tedious glorious
tenacious malicious odious sententious
capacious delicious melodious invidious
spacious pernicious studious
1 . Seize,' derived from the French saisir, has e before i.
2 These words are derived from Latin nouns of the 4th de
clension, where u is the characteristic vowel.
3 The words in this list are derived from Latin roots which
have an į at the end ; as dubious,' from 'dubi-um ;' judi
cious,' from `judici-um ,' sententious,' from 'sententi-a,' & c.
176 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

DICTATION EXERCISE .
An assiduous scholar does not indulge in vicious
practices. It was a sumptuous palace, built in a deli
cious spot. He was malicious in purpose, impetuous
in action . This gracious offer was accepted with tu
multuous applause. It is superfluous to observe, that
this pernicious habit should be avoided. His judicious
remarks rendered him conspicuous. The answer of the
oracle was ambiguous. The boy's ingenuous face and
studious expression pleased us. It is an odious vice to
indulge in spirituous liquors. “ So answered Satan,
with contemptuous brow .' Virtuous or vicious every
man must be. The night was so tempestuous, I had
serious misgivings for my friend's safety. We had a
glorious view from the spacious lawn in front of the
house . The music was melodious, and very ingeniously
constructed . He was officious in his offers of assist
ance. Such reasoning is fallacious. The day was
auspicious, but the journey extremely tedious. I am
dubious of the event. He possessed a remarkably
sagacious mind, and tenacious memory. The queen
received us with a gracious smile . His garden is
contiguous to ours. The writer has a perspicuous style.
ise and ize.
The termination ize is often confounded with
ise. The first is properly limited to verbs of
Greek origin. Such are —
apologize economize catechize anatomize
sympathize monopolize lepitomize baptize
symbolize agonize anathematize prize
idolize harmonize apostatize apprize '
1 These two are of a different origin , but must be always
spelled with a z.
ORTHOGRAPHY — FINAL SYLLABLES 177
The ending ise is found in many verbs which
are derived from Latin , but come into English
through French ; as the following : -
civilise chastise : criticise naturalise
surprise authorise recognise lequalise
advise temporise tyrannise patronise
despise extemporise modernise enterprise
exercise comprise colonise advertise

DICTATION EXERCISE .
The father idolizes his little daughter. I recognise
the necessity of economizing. As he has not apolo
gized, he must be chastised . He patronises what
ever tends to civilise the people. Themaster catechized
the pupils, and my brother won the prize. I advise
you to write your exercise carefully. The trade is
monopolized by three or four houses. We sympathize
with those who are tyrannised over. The pope tem
porised, and thus compromised himself. He apprized
the public of his intention by advertising. They were
surprised at his not joining in the enterprise. The
ministers were authorised to equalise the duties on
spirits. The air was harmonized for four voices.
Alison's History is epitomized, and comprised in one
volume. He despises a temporising policy. As the
preacher extemporised a sermon, it is not fair to criti
cise him severely. The Pope anathematized all those
who apostatized from the Church of Rome. Dryden
modernised some of Chaucer's poems. The southern
part of Italy was colonised by Greeks. Being natural
ised, he became a British subject. The children were
baptized on Sunday. This poem will immortalise his
· name. The poet apostrophizes the heroes of antiquity.
178 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE
This is a tantalising offer . The Roman people were
brutalised by shows of gladiators. " Thou shalt not
gormandise.' A conspiracy was organised during the
solemnisation of the marriage.
On the ending ugh.'
This termination has as many as ten different
pronunciations: -
1. laugh, rhymes with staff ? | 6. dough ?
2. usquebaugh . . . . . ' saw ' though rhymewith so'
3. trough 1 . . . . . off" | although
clough ] furlough
4 . chough 7. bough
slough plough ? . . . . how '
enough } . . . . .' stuff slough
rough 8. lough . . . . . . . . ' lock '
tough 9. hiccough . . . . . . 'cup ?
5. thorough pronounced 10. through . . . . . . ' true'
· borough ſ as the u in bud '

DICTATION EXERCISE .
A loud laugh will sometimes bring on a cough. Of
honours I have enough . Wewalked through the field .
The horses drink from the trough. " The chough and
crow to roost are gone.' He was a man of rough man
ners. This borough sent two members to Parliament.
The serpent has cast his slough. Usquebaugh ' is the
Irish for whiskey. He began to hiccough . The soldier
was granted a furlough for three weeks. The cook
kneaded the dough. He was saved , though almost
drowned.
In many English words the form of spelling
resembles, with a slight difference , that of the
ORTHOGRAPHY - ENGLISH AND FRENCH WORDS 179
French from which they are derived . Take care
not to adopt the French form in thewords of the
following lists : -
English, I French. l English. I French.
address adresse defence défense
advantage avantage disaster désastre
advance avancer desire désir
affair affaire (to ) divine déviner
aggrandise agrandir dictionary dictionnaire
agreeable agréable discreet discret
amiable aimable damage dommage
apartment appartement enemy ennemi
battle battaille enthusiasm enthousiasme
brilliant brillant envelop envelopper
campaign campagne essay essai
character caractère esteem estime
compartment compartiment exaggerate exagérer
cotton coton excess excès
dance danse example exemple

DICTATION EXERCISE (1).


It is of great advantage to have a good address. The
affair is not much advanced . He is a most amiable
and agreeable companion . The general slept in this
apartment on the night of the battle. A brilliant cam
paign ensued. He never sought his own aggrandise
ment. I have no desire to divine your thoughts. The
cotton stored in this compartment of the warehouse was
much damaged . After this disaster, the enemy re
treated. He was of a discreet character. Their en
thusiasm led them to exaggerate. This essay is a
good example of his style. We cannot esteem those
who indulge in excess. The frigate was manned with
a gallant crew . He took exercise up and down the
gallery.
N 2
180 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE
English. I French . 11 English. I French.
exercise exercice prisoner prisonnier
express exprès ransom rançon
recompense
frigate frégate (a )recompence
gallant galant reproach reproche
gallery galerie republic république
gallop galoper resemble ressembler
haggard hagard resent ressentir
hazard hasard resource ressource
homage hommage risk risque
honest honnête sack sac
literature littérature success succès
lodge loger traffic trafic
measure mesure troop troupe
officer officier villain vilain
overture ouverture

DICTATION EXERCISE (2).


The officers galloped up the street. The gambler
had a haggard look . They risked all their fortune at
games of hazard. The royal prisoner paid a heavy
ransom to regain his liberty. Homage was offered to
the King. He studied German literature with great
success. The villains sacked the house. The honest
man resented this imputation on his character. They
were lodged in various parts of the town. We took
measures to secure success. The overture resembled
one I had heard the day before. A troop of horse rode
through the town. He has no resources. They do not
deserve your reproaches. A republic was established.
He looks for no recompence. They danced all the
evening.
Hard words.
In many English words the spelling differs
ORTHOGRAPHY — HARD WORDS 181
from the pronunciation . With these, particular
care must be taken . Such are —
Spelled. Pronounced . Spelled . Pronounced
balusters . . . . . banisters jeopardy . . . . . . jeppardy
bury . . . . . . . . berry laundry . . . . . . landry
business . . . . . . bizziness lieutenant . . . . . leftenant
busy . . . . . . . . bizzy leisure . . . . . . . .
cocoa . . . . . . . . Coco leopard . . . . . . . leppard
colonel . . . . . . . kernel nephew . . . . . . nevew
colander . . . . . . cullender | nuisance . . . . . . newsance
corps . . . . . . . . core palanquin . . . . . palankeen
cognisance . . . . . connisance parallel . . . . . . . parralel
exaggerate . . . . . exadgerate people . . . . . . . peeple
gaol . . . . . . . . jail picturesque . . . . picturesk
goal . . . . . . . . gole quay . . . . . . . . key
grotesque . . . . . grotesk raillery . . . . . . . rallery
guinea . . . . . . . guinny sugar . . . . . . . . shugar
heinous . . . . . . haynous suggest . . . . . . . sudgest
halfpenny . . . . . haypenny sure . . . . . . . . shure
jaundice . . . . . . djandiss women . . . . . . . wimmen

DICTATION EXERCISE .
I am too busy to attend to you. The casks of sugar
are on the quay. Are you sure his nephew is ar
rived ? Bury all hatred. The people exaggerate.
The boy fell over the balusters. The colonel ordered
the sergeant to be put in gaol. The lieutenant was
carried in a palanquin . A leopard attacked the wo
men . Attend to your business. He was separated
from his friends. The judge took no cognisance of this
unparalleled audacity. Hepaid a guinea for this packet
of cocoa. Are you at leisure to make any suggestions ?
It is a heinous crime. ' Hudibras ' is a burlesque
poem . The nuisance must be abated. The cook left
the colander in the laundry. This is a picturesque
passage. His property is in jeopardy. The family of
Joan of Arc was ennobled on account of her prowess.
N 3
182 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

Give the beggar a halfpenny. Mr. A 's. horse first


reached the goal. The boy caught the jaundice . I
cannot bear his raillery . It is a grotesque-looking
costume. He is the best man in the corps.

ON PUNCTUATION .
Punctuation is the art of marking the various
pauses that should be made in reading. Its use
is to assist in rendering the sense of a sentence
perspicuous, which , without stops, would be often
obscure, and sometimes unintelligible .
The following are the points, or stops, in
general use :
1. The Period (or Full Stop ). . . ( : )
2. The Comma . . . . . . . (,)
3 . The Semicolon . . . . . . (; )
4 . The Colon . . . . . . . . (: )
5. The Note of Interrogation . . . ( ? )
6 . The Note of Exclamation . . . ( ! )

OF THE PERIOD .
Rule 1. - The period, or full stop, must be
placed at the end of a sentence, to show that the
words form complete and independent sense ; as,
“ The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom .'
Sight is the most perfect and delightful of all
our senses.
PUNCTUATION — OF THE COMMA 183

Rule 2 . — It is also used after abbreviations


and contractions ; as, “ Dr. Gurney and the Rev.
R . Cornwell called on us yesterday.'

DICTATION EXERCISE.
Temperature depends on the proportion all bodies
possess of perpetually absorbing or emitting heat.
Lieut. Jameson and Mr. Gibson were seriously hurt.
In every case of correction, an appealmust be made to
the understanding. Dr. Johnson was rough in man
ners. We one day descried some shapeless object
drifting at a distance. The patient was attended by
Dr. Baillie. " The fashion of this world passeth away.'
The company was commanded by Capt. Dickens.

OF THE COMMA.
Rule 1 . - When a sentence begins with a sub
ordinate proposition, or introduction of time,
place, or circumstance, the introduction must be
followed by a comma ; as, ' When peace reigns,
the arts flourish.' ' In many parts of Europe,
these customs prevail.'
Rule 2. - An explanatory circumstance, or a
relative explaining clause, inserted in a sentence,
must have commas on both sides ; as, 'Homer,
the great poet of antiquity , is said to have been
blind. “ The boy, who had been fast asleep ,
suddenly started up .'
EXCEPTION TO RULE 2. - When circumstances,
or relative clauses, determine or limit the mean
N 4
184 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

ing, no comma is required ; as, “He insisted on a


condition which ultimately proved fatal to the
arrangement.' ' No words can describe their
suffering during that afflicting period .'
Rule 3. — When the subject and its verb, or
the verb and its object, come immediately toge
ther, no comma must be used between them ; as,
• The man felled the tree. But when the subject
consists of a number of words, a comma may be
used before the verb ; as, “ The impossibility of
extricating himself and his comrades from their
dangerous position , drove the commander to
desperation.'
DICTATION EXERCISE
On Rules 1, 2, and 3.
Notwithstanding all his diligence, the general could
not reach the city before the enemy. Having received
these instructions, he prepared to obey his commands.
God, who made the world , dwelleth not in temples
made with hands. Charity , like the sun, brightens
every object it shines upon . He understood this prin
ciple. The sacred flame which was destined to set free
mankind, was beginning to spread. During the inter
val of hostilities, both sides made incredible efforts to
put their armies on a respectable footing. Napoleon,
whose impatient spirit could brook no opposition , was
highly indignant at this concession. During these two
eventful days, the people of Paris, though deeply in
terested in the issue, remained perfectly tranquil. The
circumstances in which you are placed, render such a
PUNCTUATION OF THE COMMA 185

course advisable . He has filled his history with many


surprising incidents. This successful resistance excited
a great sensation . They prepared for the further strug
gles which awaited the monarchy . At this critical
moment, a happy inspiration saved the government.
Their numbers, two years before, had been sixty thou
sand. I met the person whom you introduced . The
article which compelled the Emperor to subscribe this
treaty , gave rise to the most painful internal divisions
in the country. The pirates seized upon all the vessels
they met with in those seas.
OF THE COMMA (continued.)
Rule 4. — When three or more words of the
same part of speech succeed each other , they
must each be followed by a comma, except the
last; as, “ Wisdom , power, and goodness are
attributes of the Deity. But when only two
words of the same part of speech are connected
by a conjunction, no comma is required ; as,
“ He is virtuous and wise.
Rule 5 . — When words of the same part of
speech succeed each other in pairs, even when
there are only two pairs of each, commas must be
used between them ; as, “ Young and old , rich
and poor, will appear before the judgment- seat
of God .'
Rule 6. — Complex sentences must have their
members distinguished by commas ; as, ' I looked
for the book myself, enquired about it of the ser
vants, but did not succeed in finding it.'
186 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

DICTATION EXERCISE

On Rules, 4, 5, and 6.
He is a worthy, liberal, benevolent man. They were
admiring and enjoying the prospect. Faith , hope, and
charity are theological virtues. I was received civilly
and hospitably. Master and servant, father and son,
brother and sister, husband and wife, have, each and
all, their respective duties. The captain drew his
sword , encouraged his men , and led them on to the
conflict. They passed their time in drawing, working,
reading, and playing. Cologne and Coblentz are both
on the Rhine. My father saw , examined , approved of,
and bought the estate. There is a natural difference
between virtue and vice, wisdom and folly , merit and
demerit. The father had been abroad, and had not
seen his son for six months. The man was vexed , and
refused his assistance. “ I came, I saw , I conquered.'
He behaved stupidly, absurdly , and ridiculously. They
conversed calmly and cheerfully . Well done ! thou
good and faithful servant.' Two, four, six , eight, and
ten are even numbers. It was not without incredible
exertion that he procured provisions and carriages,
formed new roads, extended scouting parties, secured
camps, and surmounted many other difficulties in the
course of his tedious march . The sight fills the mind
with the greatest variety of ideas, converses with ob
jects at the greatest distance, and continues the longest
in action without being satiated with its proper enjoy
ments. While the earth remaineth , seed -time and
harvest, cold and heat, summer and winter, and day
and night shall not cease.'
PUNCTUATION — OF THE SEMICOLON 187

OF THE SEMICOLON .
Rule 1 .— The semicolon is used to mark off
the longer clauses of a sentence , which require to
be more distinctly divided than by commas; as,
• We should acknowledge God in all his ways ;
mark the operations of his hand ; cheerfully sub
mit to his severest dispensations ; strictly observe
his laws ; and rejoice to fulfil his gracious purpose .'
Rule 2.— When the second clause of a sentence
supports or explainsmore fully what is expressed
in the first, a semicolon must be placed between
them ; as, “Every station has its duties; from the
prince to the peasant, all are responsible for their
actions ; and though duties differ in the different
relations of life, there is no condition exempt from
them .'
Rule 3. - When the clauses of a sentence are
opposed to, or contrasted with , each other, they
must be divided by a semicolon ; as, “ To err is
human ; to forgive, divine.'
DICTATION EXERCISE.
The slaughter was dreadful; a few escaped by sub
terraneous passages, and made good their flight into
the country ; others retired into the citadel, which
was soon obliged to surrender at discretion, and was
razed to the ground ; but by far the greater number
perished in the town , under the sword of an irritated
and relentless victor. A friend cannot be known in
prosperity ; and an enemy cannot be hidden in adver
188 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

sity . Nature does nothing in vain ; the Creator has


appointed everything to a settled use and sphere of
action, from which if it in the least deviates, it becomes
unfit to answer those ends for which it was designed.
Lucius Catiline was expert in all the arts of simulation
and dissimulation ; covetousof what belonged to others,
lavish of his own . Religion raises men above them
selves; irreligion sinks them beneath the brutes. After
we have practised good actions awhile, they become
easy ; and when they are easy, we begin to take plea
sure in them ; and when they please us, we do them
frequently ; and by frequency of acts, a thing grows
into a habit ; and a confirmed habit is a second kind of
nature ; and so far as anything is natural, so far it is
necessary, and we can hardly do otherwise ; nay, we do
it many times when we do not think of it. Nothing
could resist the impetuosity of the French columns ;
the grenadiers mounted the scaling -ladders amidst a
shower of balls ; quickly they made themselvesmasters
of the ramparts ; and chasing the unhappy peasants
from house to house, and from street to street, soon
filled the town with conflagration and carnage.
OF THE COLON .
The colon is used in three cases :
I. When the sentence seems complete, but is
followed by an additional observation ; as, “ No
thing is in vain that rouses the soul: nothing in
vain that keeps the ethereal fire alive and glowing.'
.-. II. When several semicolons have preceded ,
and the sentence requires a longer pause before
the close ; as, “ Whether we regard the fruitful
PUNCTUATION OF THE COLON 189

field or the barren rock ; whether we ascend into


the regions of the air , or dive into the secret
recesses of the earth ; whether we travel over the
howling wilderness, or walk at our ease in our
cultivated garden : in any of these we find sources
of knowledge, and stores of mental enjoyment.'
III. Before a quotation ; as, ‘ Brutus's speech
over the corpse of Julius Cæsar begins thus : –
“ Friends, Romans, Countrymen , - lend me your
ears . . ." !
DICTATION EXERCISE.
All political parties esteemed and caressed him : but
politics were not much to his taste. Cæsar was cele
brated for his great bounty and generosity ; Cato, for
his unsullied integrity : the former became renowned
by his humanity and compassion ; an austere severity
heightened the dignity of the latter. Nothing has been
created in vain : everything has its use. I refer to the
following passage : - What's he that wishes for more
men from England ! ! No performance of the kind can
be compared to this : not a line flows negligently , not
an epithet is applied at random . They came on the
third day, by the direction of the peasants, to the
hermit’s cell : it was a cavern in the side of a mountain ,
overshadowed with palm trees. Seek employment ;
languor and ennui shall be unknown : avoid idleness,
banish sloth ; vigour and cheerfulness will be your en
livening companions : admit not guilt to your hearts,
and terror shall not interrupt your slumbers. I would
not wish to deprive you of the pleasures of society , or
of rational amusement ; but let your companions be
190 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

select; let them be such as you can love for their good
qualities, and whose virtues you desire to emulate : let
your amusement be such as will tend not to corrupte.
and vitiate, but to correct and amend the heart.

NOTES OF INTERROGATION AND EXCLAMATION.


The note of interrogation is used after a ques
tion ; as, “What do you want ? ' ' Are you quite
well ? '
The note of exclamation must follow expres
sions of strong feeling, such as joy, grief, wonder ,
& c.; as,'Woe is me! ' “What a beautiful scene ! '
. DICTATION EXERCISE.
Where is your brother ? Ah ! here he is. Hurrah !
we have won the game.
land ? Willyou hew !
What a splendid view !
Hush ! do not speak so loud. Which will you have ?
Have you ever been in Switzerland ? Bravo ! well
done ! Do you think so ? Dear me ! I am quite sur
prised. How glad I am to see you ! How much did
that cost ?

ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF SENTENCES.


A sentence is the expression of a thought.
The shortest sentence that can be written or
spoken consists of two parts : 1. The Subject ;
that is, the person or thing written or spoken
. . ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF SENTENCES 191

of : 2. The Predicate ; that is, what is declared


of that person or thing ; as,
- Subj. cop . pr.
Gold . . . . is . . . . yellow .
. Here the word is ' joins the subject (gold ) to
the predicate (yellow ), and makes the latter to be
asserted of the former. Hence it is called the
copula , or link.
In most cases, however, the copula is included
in the verb ; as,
Sub. c. pr.
Fire burns.

OF THE SUBJECT.
Subjects are either simple or extended .
A simple subject may be a word or a phrase.
If a word, it may be a noun ; as,
„ Napoleon fought . . . Children play.
or a pronoun ; as,
Hedied . . . Many perished.
If the subject be a phrase , it may be an infini
tive mood ; as,
To eat is necessary.
or a participle ; as,
Digging is healthy.
N .B. The infinitive and participle may be fok
lowed by an object or an adverb ; as,
To do wrong is unjust.
Giving assistance is charitable.
192 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

EXERCISE 1 .
Let the learner copy out the following sentences,marking
the subjects n , pr, inf. ph ., or part. ph., accordingly as
they may be nouns, pronouns, infinitive phrases, or
participial phrases.
The day is wet. They were tired. To live vir
tuously is happiness. “Many are called.' Leonidas
fell. The young must study. “ Few are chosen.' Dig
ging is 'healthy. To walk far is fatiguing. I am
coming. The sun shines. To rise early is wise. They
work . The horse runs. You are reading. Who
speaks ? Some think so . To write well is desirable .
Painting is an accomplishment. He is thirsty .
EXERCISE 2 .
Let the pupil construct sentences, having for their sub
jects the following words :
Nouns.
· 1. The tree. 2. A knife. 3. The child . 4. Water.
Pronouns.
1. I. 2. Both . 3. Who ? 4. None.
Infinitive phrases.
1. To speak the truth . 2. To love each other . 3.
To compose elegantly. 4. To laugh loud.
Participial phrases.
1. Skating. 2. Running fast. 3 . Fighting. 4.
Talking nonsense.
THE EXTENDED SUBJECT.
A subject may be extended in various ways ::
THE EXTENDED SUBJECT 193

1. By an adjective ; as, Green fields are plea


sant.' “ Cunning people are shunned.'
2 . By a noun in apposition ; as, My brother
John is at home.'
NOTE. — In impersonal forms the pronoun “ it '
stands in apposition to the infinitive phrase which
follows; as, “ It is healthy to rise early .' Here
" to rise early ' is in apposition with it:' . It
(i. e. to rise early) is healthy.'
3. By a participle ; as, “ Theman,being fatigued ,
sat down.'
4 . By a noun in the possessive form ; as, ' My
sister's book is lost.'
5 . By a preposition , with its object ; as, “ The
fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom .'
“ The possessor of riches has influence. “ A man
of amiable disposition is beloved .'
6. Several adjectives may be applied to the
same noun when used as a subject ; as, ' A stupid ,
silly, old man met me. A young, strong, active
servant is wanted.'
7 . The subject may be extended by having
several nouns used in apposition with it ; as,
Cæsar, the conqueror of Gaul and master of
Rome, was assassinated.
8. A participle, or adjective, used to extend a
subject, may be followed by its object, or by a
preposition with its object ; as, “ The boy, having
finished his work , went home. • Unconscious
of the danger , he marched boldly forward.'
19 + ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

9 . Several of these formsmay be employed to


extend the subject at the same time; as, Charles
XII. of Sweden , a prince of unbounded am
bition , and singular military abilities, having
lost the battle of Pultowa, and escaped to Turkey,
fell by a cannon-ball at Fredericshall.'
EXERCISE 1,
Let the pupil copy out the following sentences, under
lining the words which extend the subject ; and
marking them 1, 2 , 3, & c ., accordingly as they may
be referred to the above explained cases.
Charles the Bald was an imbecile monarch . The
purest treasure is a spotless reputation . It will be
better to adopt this plan. A portion of the fleet sailed
far above the town. An easy , unforced strain of senti
ment runs through their compositions. ' Highest queen
of state, great Juno comes. The opportunity presented
to you was let slip . The first great obstacle to know
ledge is the pursuit ofmany objects at once. The most
ignorant, vain , and conceited men are generally the
most pretentious. Napoleon ,being defeated atWaterloo,
and despairing of regaining his lost power, surrendered
to the English . My uncle's house is now rebuilt.
Alexander, son of Philip of Macedon , and conqueror of
the Persians, died at Babylon . My companion's horse
was lame. The men, having eaten their dinner, re
turned to their work.
EXERCISE 2 .
Let the pupil construct sentences , having the subjects
extended , according to the ways explained in Nos.
1, 2, 3, & c.
THE SIMPLE PREDICATE
195
195

OF THE PREDICATE.
The predicate declares something of the sub
ject : - 1. What it is; 2. What it does ; 3. What
is done to it : as, 1. “ The day is fine ;' 2. “ Fire
burns;' 3. “ The dog was hurt.'
EXERCISE 1 .
The pupil is to point out, in the following sentences, to
which of these three meanings the predicate points.
Leonidas was brave. The woman cried. I shall be
assisted. The king gave an audience . A courier had
been riding. The danger was great. A garrison had
been posted. All was over . The earth was soaked
with rain . The population is large. A harbour was
formed. We passed the church . The conversation was
agreeable . The men were silenced. You will not
help me. The town was agitated. The streets are
broad.
EXERCISE 2 .
Let the pupil construct sentences having predicates of the
three sorts above explained.
The predicate, like the subject,may be simple
or extended .
THE SIMPLE PREDICATE.
The simple predicate is expressed either ( 1) by
a single verb , or (2) by a part of the verb “ to be,'
followed by a noun, an adjective, or a phrase ; as,
1. The dog barks. 2 . Great Britain is an island.
1. The wind blows. 2. The boy is diligent.
1. She sang. 2. The affair is of no importance.
02
196 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

EXERCISE 1.
Underline the predicates in the following sentences, and
show to which form (1 or 2) they belong.
The children are playing. Every thing is useful.
The moon shines. He is kind to his companions. This
is a puzzle. I am of the same opinion. My time. is
occupied . Do you remember ? You are welcome.
These questions should be asked. The master will be
angry . Many have been surprised . Those were happy
days. The bell rings. ' How beautiful is Nature ! The
period has elapsed. Bruce was a traveller. Are you
satisfied ? The rest were sent away. He was not to
blame.
EXERCISE 2 .
Let the pupil construct sentences having simple predicates
of the two forms above explained .
THE EXTENDED PREDICATE.
The simple predicate may be extended - 1st.
By completion ; 2nd. By qualification : as, “ The
gardener sweeps the paths neatly.'
Subject. Predicate. Completion of Qualification
predicate. of predicate.
The gardener sweeps the paths neatly.

. THE COMPLETED PREDICATE.


The predicate requires completion whenever
the verb leaves the sense vague concerning the
action affirmed ; as, “ Themaster rewarded ' (here
THE DIRECT OBJECT 197

wenaturally ask whom he rewarded) the scholar.'


• The scholar ' completes the predicate, and conveys
perfect sense. (Whenever a transitive verb is
used , the completion of the predicate is termed
the object).
EXERCISE 1.
Underline all the words which complete the predicate.
Cæsar crossed the Rubicon. The man was reading
a book intently . He gained immense wealth by atten
tion to business. They endured many hardships.
Never shall I forget his look. I easily perceived her
eagerness. This writer drew character to perfection .
My uncle made no remark on that subject. The
general gained several victories over the Austrians.
The children teased their father and mother incessantly.
They were admiring the structure of a spider's web.
How eagerly do we adopt such designs !
EXERCISE 2 .
Let the pupil form similar sentences, underlining those
words which complete the predicate.
THE DIRECT OBJECT.
The direct object is a word or phrase following
and depending on the transitive verb , and may be
expressed by the same formsas the subject ; as,
1. By a noun . . . . . . The boy cuts the meat.
2. By a pronoun . . . . . I see it distincly.
3. By an adjective used as a ? We condemn the idle.
noun . . .
4. By an infinitive phrase . . I wish to see you .
5. By a participial phrase . - John prefers staying at home.
03
198 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

EXERCISE .
Mark the direct object in the following sentences, 1, 2,
. 3, &-c., as they may exemplify these different forms.
The gentleman bought the house. The farmer sold
it. No one likes the affected . “ I did not think to shed
a tear.' The boy continued reading. Wehope to visit
you soon . Shun the wicked. Avoid making extra
vagant promises. The scholar learnt the lesson. He
learnt it soon. I shall finish writing. Do you see
them ? My brother bought a whip . The minister
exiled the discontented and the turbulent.

THE INDIRECT OBJECT.


The indirect object is an additional completion
necessary, with certain verbs, to express fully the
whole sense of the predicate.
1. After verbs signifying to make ;' as,
They appointed my brother secretary.'
(a) Sometimes an adjective is added instead of
the second noun ; as,
“ This made me happy.'
2 . After verbs of giving ' and accusing ;' as,
The father purchased an estate for his son .'
• They accused the member of bribery.'
3. The indirect object is also often expressed
by an infinitive, or a participial phrase ; as,
• The council forced the garrison to surrender .'
• We found him digging in his garden .'
QUALIFICATION OF THE PREDICATE 199
4. Certain adjectives and verbs take only an
indirect object ; as,
• Hewas ambitious of power.'
“ I approve of that plan.'
• They are greedy of praise.'
• The house consists of thirteen rooms.'

. EXERCISE 1.
Let the learner write out the following sentences, and
show which form of the indirect object they respectively
exemplify.
He is fond of money . I quite despair of reforming
him . Napoleon was elected emperor. This clause ren
dered the act useless. My friend gaveme good advice.
We were convinced of his innocence. The banditti
robbed the travellers of a large sum of money. They
accused the prisoner of bribing the witnesses. This
circumstance caused him to retire. The ticket secured
admission to the holder. Their conduct drove me mad.
My friend left him heir to all his property .
EXERCISE 2 .
Let the pupil be required to construct sentences, exem
plifying all the above forms of the indirect object.
ON THE QUALIFICATION OF THE PREDICATE.
The predicate may be still further extended by
the addition of circumstances which more strictly
limit or qualify its signification ; as,
“ The ship sails gently.'
'I took the boy to school,' & c.
This may be done in various ways :
04
200 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

1. By an adverb ; as,
The prisoner wept bitterly.'
2 . By a preposition,with its dependentwords; as,
The ship sailed from London to New York.'
“ The chief arrived with all his followers.'
3. By a noun governed by a preposition under
stood ; as,
It happened last week.'
4 . By a participle used as an adverb ; as,
“ They go smiling to themselves.”
5 . By several of the ways at once ; as,
. ' He departed yesterday with a numerous suite.'
EXERCISE 1.
Let the pupil write out the following sentences, under
lining the words which extend the predicate.
The wind howled mournfully. The mountain was
covered with snow . Addison wrote many papers in
the Spectator. I will gladly go with you. They
came to town last Tuesday. The experiment was per
fectly successful. The duke was blamed with good
cause. The castle appeared in the distance shining in
the sun . The children run shouting about the house.
I shall have finished before your arrival. Lisbon was
partly destroyed by an earthquake.
EXERCISE 2 .
Let the learner construct sentences with the predicate
extended , imitating the five forms in Exercise 1.
Expressions which qualify the predicate may
be arranged under the heads of -- 1. Time; 2.
Place ; 3. Manner; and, 4. Cause and Effect.
QUALIFICATION OF THE PREDICATE 201

TIME.

Those signifying timemay be subdivided into :


1. Point of time; as, ' I awoke at six o'clock .'
2 . Duration of time; as, “ He studied four
months :' and,
3 . Repetition of time; as, “We read French
every day.'
EXERCISE 1.
Copy out the following sentences"; mark the extension of
the predicate, and show to which form (1, 2, or 3)
each sentence belongs.
All last year I was on the continent. The family
arrived yesterday . It happened at breakfast. The
men work ten hours a day. On that occasion he made
a long speech . The orator spoke for four hours. He
is perpetually teasing me. I have always been of this
opinion. The fête will take place on Tuesday next.
Our holidays last six weeks. We shall go homeon the
15th of December. It was finished a month ago. We
shall start to -morrow .
EXERCISE 2.
Let the pupil compose sentences having qualifying ex
pressions of time; classifying them according to the
above forms.
PLACE.
Expressions signifying place, applied to the
predicate,may also be ranged under three heads :
1. Rest ; as, “ He is living in London .'
2. Motion to ; as, ' I am going to Paris.'
202 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

3. Motion from ; as, “ Corn is imported from


Egypt.
EXERCISE 1.
Write out the following sentences ; underline the exten
sion of the predicate ; and show to which class (1, 2,
or 3) each belongs.
Where do you live ? Straws swim on the surface.
• The quality of mercy . . . droppeth from heaven .'
The sailor leaped into the water. Tobacco was brought
from America . We then passed into the meadow . I
left off at the end of the fourth chapter. The vessel
set sail for New York . Wine is cheaper outside the
barrier. They advanced towards the chief. My friend
is staying in the country . Whither shall I fee ! To
what place can I turn ! The loaf was put on the shelf.

EXERCISE 2.
Let the pupil construct sentences having the predicate
extended by an adjunct of place; and mark them
1 , 2 , 3, accordingly as they may belong to one or other
of the above explained forms.

MANNER.
The predicate may be extended by adjuncts of
manner, in various ways.
1. Mode of action ; as, ' He writes beautifully.'
2. Degree ; as, ' I am very glad.'
3 . Instrument; as, The letter was written
with a bad pen .'
QUALIFICATION OF THE PREDICATE 203

4. Circumstance ; as, The general drew up


his men in two lines.'
EXERCISE 1.

Write out the following sentences, marking them 1, 2, 3,


or 4, accordingly as the extension of the predicate
may exemplify these heads.
They were very grateful. My friend understands
his business perfectly . He met us with a cheerful
countenance. Our questions were satisfactorily an
swered. The view is exceedingly beautiful. The woman
walked in great pain . The meat was carved with a
blunt knife. My cousin came down in his travelling
dress. We were excessively fatigued. He looked at
us with a stern expression . The plan was arranged
without the least difficulty . The concession wasmade
with reluctance.
EXERCISE 2 .
The pupil is to construct sentences similar to those
above ; classifying them accordingly as the extension
of the predicate may exemplify the forms 1, 2 , 3, or 4 .

CAUSE AND EFFECT.


Adjuncts of cause and effect serve to extend
the predicate in the following ways:
1. The cause, properly so called ; as, · He died
of the small pox.'
2. The condition ; as, With this assistance,
he effected his purpose.'
3. The purpose; as, “He travelled to gain
information .'
204 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

4. The motive ; as, “ They were prompted by


revenge.
5 . The material ; as, The palace was made
of glass.'
EXERCISE 1.
Copy out the following sentences, classifying them ac
cordingly as the extensions of the predicate may ex
emplify No. 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5.
Under these circumstances he declined entering into
the negotiation. By adopting this plan you will be
sure to do well. The merchant was ruined by the
failure of this house. My brother went out to buy
some books. The boy refused to join the party for fear
of the consequences. The patient went abroad to re
cover his health . The new fortifications were con
structed chiefly of earth . This asylum was built for
the reception of idiots. With your permission I shall
continue my remarks. The vessel was built partly of
wood and partly of iron .
EXERCISE 2 .
The pupil may be required to construct sentences with
the predicate extended in any of the above five ways,
and to classify them accordingly .

ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE SENTENCES.


To analyse simple sentences, attend to the fol
lowing rules:
1. Look for the verb, and mark it as the pre
dicate.
ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE SENTENCES 205

2. Then find out and mark the subject to that


verb .
3. See what extensions the subject may have,
and mark them accordingly.
4. If the sentence is active, look for the com
pletion of the predicate.
5. See what circumstances of time, place, man
ner, & c., qualify the predicate, and mark them ,
under their proper heads, as extensions of the
predicate.
The following method of analysis may be
adopted.
SENTENCES TO BE ANALYSED.
1. Last night, the old tree at the bottom of
of our garden was blown down by the violence of
the wind.'
Last night . . . . . extension of the predicate (time)
the old tree . . . . subject extended (by an adjective )
at the bottom . .
extension
of our garden •. . jeste of subject (place)
was blown down . . predicate
by the violence , } extension of predicate (cause).
of the wind. . . ]

2. “ The governor of the colony read the pro


clamation to the people in a calm and steady voice.'
The governor. . . . . subject
of the colony. . . . . extension of subject (prepositionalphrase )
read . . . . . . . . . . predicate
the proclamation . . . completion of predicate (direct object)
to the people . . . . . extension of predicate (indirect object )
in a calm and . . ?
steady voice. { extension of predicate (manner).
206 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

EXERCISE .

Let the learner analyse the following sentences according


to the abovemethod .
1. He desired them to disclose the plans to him .
2 . His uneasiness was shared by all his followers.
3 . The odium of Cicero 's death fell chiefly on Antony .
4 . Oxford was a school of great resort in the reign of
Henry II.
5. Of the prevalence ofmonosyllables in our language
we have already taken notice.
6. The beaver shows great sagacity in the formation
of its dwelling .
7. Wedo not find anything described falsely or ima
ginatively in that performance.
8 . Virtue alone is happiness below .
9. To enjoy present pleasures, he sacrificed future
ease and reputation .
10. He drew shape after shape, scene after scene,
castles and lakes, woods and caverns, from the un
fathomable depths of his mind.
11. Shakspere is, above all writers, the poet of
nature .
12. He shot his sharp arrows at the heart of the
proud man and the knave, the time-server and the
hypocrite .

ON DIFFERENT FORMS OF SENTENCES.


There are three kinds of sentences; simple,
complex, and compound.
THE COMPLEX SENTENCE 207

THE SIMPLE SENTENCE.


A simple sentence has but one proposition or
assertion ; and though , as we have seen , its sub
ject and predicate may be extended in various
ways, it has but one finite verb.
THE COMPLEX SENTENCE .
A sentence which , having but one principal
subject and predicate , contains more than one
finite verb, is called complex. Here, the principal
proposition contains the leading assertion , and the
other propositions are called subordinate.
(PRINCIPAL.) (SUBORDINATE.)
He is reading the book . which I recommended him
(SUBORDINATE.) (PRINCIPAL.)
If you will allow me, I will call to-morrow .

EXERCISE .
Underline the subordinate propositions in the following
sentences .

I am informed that the emperor is expected to


morrow .
Those who disapprove of this plan will signify their
intention to oppose it to the secretary.
John was the worst king that ever sat on the throne
of England .
Such were the difficulties to be encountered in this
undertaking, that it was ultimately abandoned.
208 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE
Exceptional grievances are ever those which most
readily attract the attention of the public .
The natural tendency to extremes, from which few
minds are altogether free , has led many people to
imagine that some conditions in life are wholly and
unqualifiedly evil.
From those to whom much has been given much will
be expected.
We must not forget that the whole object of the
composition is to prove the truth of these opinions.
The passion of avarice frequently attacks those who
have outlived all their other affections.
It might be a question whether the object of the
penal law should be to reform the criminal, or to
secure the lives and property of the community.
Subordinate propositions are of three classes :
I. The noun proposition ; II. The adjective
proposition ; III. The adverbial proposition.

THE NOUN PROPOSITION.


The noun proposition is one which , in relation
to the principal, has the same construction as a
noun ; as,
• What man has done man may do.'
• That we are ignorant is often our own fault.'
The noun proposition may occupy the same
place in the construction of a sentence as the
noun itself :
1. It may be used as a subject; as,. What then
took place will never be known.'
THE NOUN PROPOSITION 209

2. As a predicate after the verb “ to be ;' as,


My advice is that you should start immediately .'
3. As an object ; as, ' I hear that he is much
improved .
EXERCISE 1 .

Underline all the noun propositions in the following


extracts, and explain their construction.
What is done cannot be undone.
It is scarcely possible to believe that he could act so
unreasonably .
How he should escape from his critical position was
now his chief thought.
They know perfectly,well what they are doing.
" It is due to the memory of Frederic to say that he
earnestly laboured to secure to his people the great
blessings of cheap and speedy justice.'
Why he took this step has never been satisfactorily
explained.
Who perpetrated this foul deed does not appear.
•How I have sped among the clergymen ,
The sums I have collected shall express.'
• It is impossible to explain how one spirit may
operate upon and afflict another . .
I knew to what issue things would come.
I have reason to believe that these writings gave him
great pain .
" You have done that you should be sorry for.'
What credit James gave to this representation does
notappear.'
Have you heard what has happened to him ?
210 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

His answer was that he would comply with their


wishes.
EXERCISE 2.
Let the learner construct a certain number of sentences
similar to those given in Exercise 1 .

ON THE ADJECTIVE PROPOSITION .


The adjective proposition is constructed as an
adjective, and occupies the same place with re
spect to the principal proposition in the sentence.
The knife that I gave my brother is very sharp.
Hence arise the perils to which they are exposed .
The adjective proposition may be used to
qualify :
1. The subject of the principal proposition ; as,
The boy who won the first prize is the captain of the school.
2. The object of the principal proposition ; as,
Show me the book thatyou are reading.
3 . The predicate ofthe principalproposition ; as,
Julius Cæsar was the most illustrious generalthat we read of
in ancient history.
EXERCISE 1.
Let the learner copy out the following sentences, under
lining the adjective proposition, and showing to which
of the above three cases it applies.
This was not the only danger which the empire had
now to fear.
THE ADVERBIAL PROPOSITION 211
The duke, who had distinguished himself in the
cause, now received a new appointment.
This writer states opinions which he cannotmaintain .
I hardly know what opinion he holds on this subject.
Here we find comparisons which have every mark of
originality .
Nothing can be said in defence of a ruler who is at
once indifferent and intolerant.
Theman, who had been all this time asleep, suddenly
started up.
You have bestowed that favour on a man who grate
fully remembers your goodness .
I shall certainly adopt the plan you recommended .
Some of his adherents, who had settled in the
country , were known to be stirring up rebellion .
The Magi were wise men who applied themselves to
the study of nature and religion.
EXERCISE 2.
The learner is to construct a given number of sentences,
similar to those in the last Exercise, and illustrating
the three ways ofusing the adjective proposition.
THE ADVERBIAL PROPOSITION.
The adverbial proposition is constructed as an
adverb, and occupies the same place with regard
to the principal proposition in the sentence ; as,
When the orator had finished his speech , the people dispersed .
While one was reading, the others worked.
The adverbial proposition is chiefly used to
extend the predicate by qualifying it as to time,
place,manner , & c. :--
P 2
212 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

1. Time; as,
I arrived before they had done breakfast.
When peace reigns, the arts and sciences flourish.
I will send you the book after I haveread it.
2. Place ; as,
They pitched their tent where there was a good supply of
water .
We caught sight of the village whither we were bending our
steps.
They could still see the pointwhence they had started.
3. Manner ; as,
As thou gottest Milan,
I'll come by Naples.
The older we grow , the more we should improve.
The speaker's voice was so weak, that no one could hear him .
4. Cause and Effect ; as,
He failed , because hewould not listen to his friend's advice.
If he had listened to his friend's advice, he would have suc
ceeded .
Whatever you may think, you will never persuade him .
He took this step, that he might ingratiate himself with the
people.
EXERCISE 1.
Let the learner copy out the following sentences, marking
in each the adverbial proposition, and referring it to
No. 1, 2, 3, or 4 , accordingly as it may illustrate
time, place,manner, or cause and effect.
As soon as Charles had dismissed the Parliament, he
threw several members of the House of Commons into
prison .
The secretary read the newspaper to the gentleman
while he was breakfasting.
ANALYSIS OF COMPLEX SENTENCES 213
He retired to his own room , that he might think
over this matter.
The citizens acted as the general had advised them .
Whenever he is present, some difficulty is sure to
appear.
When any enterprise required vigour, he was always
chosen to direct it .
Julius Cæsar was a most liberal patron of wit and
learning, wheresover they were to be found.
Persons of good taste expect to be pleased at the
same time that they are informed . .
While hoperemains, there can be no full and positive
misery.
Whichever way we turn, we may find proofs of
Divine wisdom and benevolence.
He performed his part exactly as his instructor had
directed him .
" Wherever I went, I found that poetry was con
sidered as the highest learning.'

EXERCISE 2.

The learner is to construct any determined number of


sentences like those in the last Exercise ; pointing out,
in each, the adverbial proposition , and showing how it
refers to time, place, manner, or cause and effect.

ANALYSIS OF COMPLEX SENTENCES.


1. Set down the principal proposition with its
extensions.
2. Arrange all the subordinate propositions
P 3
214 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

under their headsof noun ,adjective, and adverbial


proposition.
3. Shew what relation the subordinates have to
the principal proposition, or to each other.
EXAMPLES
I. Riches, pleasure, and health become evils to those
who do not know how to use them .
II. The natural advantages which arise from the
position of the earth we inhabit with respect to the
other planets, afford much employment to mathematical
speculation .
III. It is usually thought that a preacher who feels
what he is saying himself will naturally speak with that
tone of voice and expression in his countenance that
best suit the subject, and which cannot fail to move his
audience.
IV . When we have diligently laboured for any pur
pose, we are willing to believe that we have attained it.
V. From themoment you lose sight of the land you
have left, all is vacancy till you step on the opposite
shore, and are launched at once into the bustle and
novelties of another world .
VI. Though it would be folly to deny the great
talent which the writer has displayed in this work , I
am still of opinion that he has utterly failed to establish
his theory.
ANALYSIS.
EXAMPLE 1.
1. Riches, pleasure, andL iminel
health become evils . . d. ]} principal proposition to 2.
2. to those who do not know ?
how to use them . { adjective proposition to 1.
ANALYSIS OF COMPLEX SENTENCES 215

EXAMPLE II.
1. The natural advantages .
afford much employment mas- }1 principal proposition to 2.
to mathematical specula
tion . . . . . . . . . . . .
2, which arise from the po- ? adjective proposition to 1.
sition of the earth . ." {j sujective pro
3. we inhabit with respect } adjective proposition to 2.
to the other planets.
EXAMPLE III.
1.2. that
It is ausually thought". . . . adjective proposition to 2.
preacher will natu
rally speak with that og }| principal proposition to 1.
tone of voice and expres-
sion in his countenance .
3. who feels . . . . . . . . . . adjective proposition to 2.
4. whathe is saying himself . noun proposition to 3.
5. that best suit the subject . . adjective proposition to 2.
6 . and which cannot fail to los
move his audience. ' } adjective proposition to 2.
]
EXAMPLE IV .
1. When we have diligently( }L .adverbialproposition(time)to 2.
laboured for any purposeſ a
2. we are willing to believe . . principal proposition to 1.
3. that we have attained it. noun proposition to 2.
EXAMPLE V .
1. From the moment you ) adverbial proposition (time) to
lose sight of the land . . 3.
2. you have left . . . . . . . . adjective proposition to 1.
3 . all is vacancy . . . . . . . . principal proposition to l.
4. till you step on the oppo- adverbial proposition (time)
site shore . . . . . . . . ) ? to 3.
5. and are launched at once )| adverbial proposition (time)
into the bustle and novel- } l
}
ties of another world . J to 3.
P4
216 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

EXAMPLE VI.
1. Though it would be folly S adverbial proposition (a con
to deny the great talent s į cession ) to 3.
2 . which the writer has dis - adjective proposition to 1.
played in this work . . . adjective proposition to 1.
3. I am still of opinion . . . . principal proposition to 1 and 2.
4 . that he has
to establ ish utterly failed noun proposition to 3.
his theory.

EXERCISE 1.
Let the learner analyse the following sentences in the
way above explained .
1. Demetrius Phalerius was a peripatetic philosopher
of Athens, who lived in the time of Alexander the
Great.
2. Before I left, I had an opportunity of making an
excursion down the river Tigris and back again , the
details of which wemust at present pass over.
3. The beautiful slopes which descend from the
Alps, clothed with all that is lovely and luxuriant in
nature, are inhabited, for the most part, by an indigent
and squalid population, among whom you seek in vain
for any share of that bounty with which providence has
blessed their country .
4. “ He will remove most certainly from evil,' said
the prince, 'who shall devote himself to that solitude
which you have recommended by your example .'
5 . A man can never be obliged to submit to any
power, unless he can be satisfied who is the person that
has a right to exercise it.
6 . All Europe had shuddered at the atrocious and
prolonged cruelty with which Damiens, who had at
tempted the life of Louis in 1757, was executed .
ANALYSIS OF COMPLEX SENTENCES 217
7. The ambitious spirit of Galerius was scarcely
reconciled to the disappointment of his views upon the
Gallic provinces, before the unexpected loss of Italy
wounded his pride, as well as power, in a still more
sensitive part.
8. The Duke of Berwick , who was colonel of the
Eighth regiment of the line, then quartered at Ports
mouth , gave orders that thirty men just arrived from
Ireland should be enlisted.
9. The king had made all his preparations for flight,
when an unexpected impediment compelled him to
postpone the execution of his design .
10. The admiral learned with bitter grief and re
sentment, that the free parliament, the general amnesty,
and thenegotiation, were all parts of a great fraud on the
nation , and that in this fraud he was expected to be an
accomplice.
11. No person can imagine that to be a frivolous and
contemptible art,which has been employed by writers
under divine inspiration , and has been chosen as a
proper channel for conveying to the world the know
ledge of divine truth .
12. Cæsar, who would not wait the conclusion of
the consul's speech , generously replied, that he came
into Italy not to injure the liberties of Rome and its
citizens, but to restore them .

EXERCISE 2 .

The learnermay be required to construct any given number


of complex sentences, and explain the relation of their
propositions to each other .
218 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

THE COMPOUND SENTENCE,


Sentences are called compound when they con
sist of two or more coördinate', principal proposi
tions joined together. The relation in which the
propositions of a compound sentence may stand
to each other are threefold : - 1. The Copulative ;
2. The Adversative ; 3. The Causative : as,
1. “ The Diet was convened, and a new treaty
was agreed to ' (COPUL.)
2. “He requested his trial might be postponed ;
but his petition was refused '(Adv.)
3. ' I cannot go with you,for I have an appoint
ment ' (Caus.)
THE COPULATIVE RELATION.
In the copulative relation, the second is merely
joined to the first proposition by the conjunctions
6 and, not only — but,' neither — nor,' either
- or.'
EXERCISE 1 .
Let the learner point out the coördinate propositions
in the following sentences, and show how they are
joined together.
The government had a new motive for buying the
members ; and the members had no new motive for
refusing to sell themselves.
The word coördinate means of the same rank or order;'
subordinate, in a lower rank , or under the orders of another.
THE ADVERSATIVE RELATION 219
This corruptible must putliton incorruption, and this
mortalmust put on immortalityy .'
Let but one brave, great, active, disinterested man
arise , and he will be received, followed, venerated.
They were not only kindly received by the queen in
her own tent, but were sent back loaded with presents.
Prosperity gains friends, and adversity tries them .
The Assyrian came down like the wolf on the fold ,
And his cohorts were gleaming in purple and gold ;
And the sheen of his spears was like stars in the sea,
When the blue wave rolls nightly on deep Galilee.'
The chill dews were falling aroundme, and the shades
of evening stretched over the landscape.
EXERCISE 2.
Let the learner be required to construct any given number
of sentences like the above, and point out their co
ördinate propositions.
THE ADVERSATIVE RELATION .
In the adversative relation, the coördinate pro
positions in a sentence are opposed to each other .
The conjunctions here employed are, “ either
or,'“ yet, but,” still,' & c.
EXERCISE 1.
Point out the coördinate propositions in the following
sentences, and show how they are connected to each
other.
Science may raise you to eminence, but virtue alone
can guide you to felicity.
220 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE
Though rules and instructions cannot do all that is
requisite, they may do much that is of real use .
Though all differ , yet all pitch upon some one beauty
which peculiarly suits their turn of mind.
Either this man must be removed from his office, or
the whole plan must be reconsidered . "
Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer
The stings and arrows of outrageous fortune;
Or to take arms against a sea of troubles,
And, by opposing, end them .'
Must we, in your person, crown the author of the
public calamities, or must we destroy him ?

EXERCISE 2 .

Let the learner construct any given number of compound


sentences having coördinate propositions joined by the
adversative relation .

THE CAUSATIVE RELATION.

In the causative relation, one coördinate pro


position of the sentence has a logical dependence
on the other. This dependence may express:
1. An effect ; as, “ The clouds threaten rain ,
and therefore I will defer my journey.'
2. A reason ; as, “ Hewho has a knowledge of
the works of God can never be solitary ; for, in
the most lonely solitude, he is not destitute of
company and conversation.'
THE CAUSATIVE RELATION 221

EXERCISE 1.

Let the learner point out the causative relation in the


following sentences, and show by what conjunctions
the coördinate propositions are joined together.
Every man under his command became familiar
with his looks and with his voice ; for there was not a
regiment which he did not inspect with minute at
tention .
One should take more than ordinary care to guard
against inconsistency, because it is that which our na
ture very strongly inclines us to .
Weproceed because we have begun ; and we com
plete our design that the labour already spentmay not
be vain .
I have the greatest confidence in his judgment ; and,
therefore, shall certainly follow his advice in this
matter.
•My arm shall give thee help to bear thee hence ;
For I do see the cruel pangs of death
Right in thine eye.'
The Scythians think an appeal to the gods super
fluous ; for those who have no regard for the esteem
of men, will not hesitate to offend the gods by perjury.
The weakest reasoners are always the most positive
in debate ; and the cause is obvious; for they are
unavoidably driven to maintain their pretensions by
violence who want arguments and reasons to prove that
they are in the right.
"' Tis but by parts we follow good or ill;
For, vice or virtue, self directs us still.'
222 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

EXERCISE 2.
The learner is to construct any given number of com
pound sentences having the coördinate propositions
joined together by the causative relation.
EXAMINATION QUESTIONSON THE CONSTRUCTION OF SENTENCES.
1. What is a sentence ?
2. Of how many parts does the simplest sentence necessarily
consist?
3. Mention their names.
4. What is a subject ?
5 . Explain themeaning ofthe term “ predicate.'
6 . In what formsmay a subject be expressed ?
7. Show the difference between a simple and an extended
subject.
8. Show some of the ways in which a subject may be ex
tended.
9. What is a predicate ?
10. In how many forms may a simple sentence be expressed ?
(explain them ).
11. How may the simple predicate be expressed ?
12. Show how the simple predicate may be extended.
13. What is meant by the direct object ?' .
14. Explain the meaning of the “ indirect object.'
15. Mention some of the various ways in which a predicate
may be extended.
16 . Give some examples of the extension of the predicate
under the heads of time, place, and manner.
17. Write a sentence which will illustrate the extension of
the predicate by cause and effect.
18. Explain the difference between simple, complex, and com
pound sentences.
19. What is meant by a subordinate proposition ?
20. Into how many, and what classes are subordinate proposi
tions divided ?
21. Write some sentences exemplifying the different forms of
subordinate propositions.
EXAMINATION QUESTIONS 223

22. Explain the difference between (subordinate and coördi


nate propositions.
23. What ismeant by a compound sentence ?
24. State the relations in which the propositions of a com
pound sentence stand to each other.
25. By what conjunctions are these relations connected in
each case ?
26 . Point out, or write, compound sentences containing ex
amples of each relation.
224 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

PROSODY.

Prosody is that part of grammar which treats


of the pronunciation of words. It includes tone,
accent, and metre, with the study of the laws of
versification.
Tone is the sound of the vowel which distin
guishes every syllable in a word .
A tone may be long, as in “beíutý ;' or short,
as in “ própěr.'
Accent is the stress laid on some syllable or
syllables of a word . The above examples, "beáutý '
and “ própěr,'are both accented on the first sylla
ble ; they agree in the accent, but differ in the
tone of the accented syllable. Again , the words
“ běfóre’ and • dětěct 'agree in both being accented
on the second syllable, but differ in the tone of
that syllable ; it being long in the former (běfóre),
and short in the latter (dětěct).
Monosyllables may be either accented or un
accented ; as,
" To thee I call, and add thy name, O Sun !
This line of Milton 's ismade up ofmonosyllables;
but the words ' to ,' 1,' and ,' “ thy,' and O ,' are
unaccented ; whilst thee,' "call, add,' name,'
and “ sun ,' are accented .
PROSODY — ACCENT 225

EXERCISE .
Underline all the accented , and doubly underline all the
unaccented monosyllables in the following lines and
sentences.
• The way was long, the wind was cold.'
• My ships come home a month before the day.'
• Do all men kill the things they do not love ? '
• Blow , blow , thou winter wind ;
Thou art not so unkind
As man's ingratitude :
Thy tooth is not so keen ,
Because thou art not seen ,
Although thy breath be rude.'.
I shall come to see you. What will you do ? Do
you wish me to sing ? They gave him some bread.
Tell the man to come at once. See what I have bought
you ! He sent this work to his friend . They were
the first who sailed in those seas.
In many cases, the difference of the part of
speech between two words is marked by the accent
alone ; both being spelled in the same way, but
the one being accented differently from the other.
This occurs most frequently in words of two
syllables. The noun or adjective is accented on
the first, and the verb on the second, syllable.
Such are, “ ábsent' (ADJ.), absent ’ (VERB), col .
lect ' (NOUN), “ colléct ' (VERB).
EXERCISE .
Let the learner accent all the words in italics in the
following sentences :
Mercy is an attribute of God himself.' History
records many of his great actions. The convicts were
226 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE .

transported . He effected a transfer of his property.


William 's sons rebelled against him . The recordswere
lost in the fire. They continually insult us. He
frequents low company. The vessel is now used as
a transport. This poem is attributed to Homer. They
torment every one on this subject. A survey was made of
the house and grounds. The convicts were condemned to
transportation. His friends desert him . Make some
extracts from that work . We shall resent these insults.
The men surveyed the estate . I shall transfer my
right to mybrother . The rebels gained many advan
tages. They refuse to help us. The room was filled
with perfume. The English export iron . Extract the
root of that number. This is a frequent occurrence.
I do not object. He fell in the conflict. His conduct is
praiseworthy. He was subjected to the most fearful
torments. The contest will be soon decided. They
concert together. They conduct themselves well.
* Let's not consort with them . A concert will be
given to -morrow . He spoke with a foreign accent.
There is a strong contrast between them . The exports
are greatly increased . The nation was in a ferment.
They offer incense to their gods. The Prince Consort
received the deputation. He will contest the election.
Accent the word on the first syllable. Contrast your
present with your former life. The air was perfumed
with the linden blossom . He made me a present. The
refuse of the kitchen was thrown to the dogs.

ON METRICAL FEET.
The divisions or feet (as they are called ) of an
English verse, are either dissyllabic or trisyllabic.
PROSODY - ON METRICAL FEET 227

Dissyllables must be accented on the first sylla


ble, as in “beauty ;' or on the second, as in “amóng.'
DISSYLLABIC FEET.
1. A foot of two syllables, accented on the first,
is called a trochee ; as, “ labour,' ' coínage,' & c.?
2. A foot of two syllables, accented on the
second , is called an iambus ; as, 'because,'' secúre,'
& c. 2
EXERCISE .
Underline all the trochees, and doubly underline all the
iambuses in the following lines and sentences.
• It was a common practice among the ancient Romans.
On the junction of the armies, they prepared for battle.
He briefly explained the matter. By patience and
attention, he acquired much knowledge. The affair
was managed with great prudence. During his absence,
they preserved silence. The river, gently stealing
through the meadows, fertilized the whole country.
He is always busy. He has a complete set of fossils.
I have no further remarks to make on the subject.

TRISYLLABIC FEET.
'1. A foot of three syllables, accented on the
first, is called a dactyl; as, mérržlý,' pós
sīblē ,' & c.3
| Trochee, from the Greek Tpoxalos (trochaios), running ,
moving rapidly .
2 Iambus, from theGreek Yaußos (iambus).
3 Dactyl, from theGreek dártudos (dactylus), a finger.
Q ?
228 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE :

2. A foot of three syllables, accented on the


second, is called an amphibrach ; as, 'contrívănce,'
‘ promóting.' '
3. A foot of three syllables, accented on the
third, is called an anapæst ; as,“ačquiésce," "con
trăvéne. 2
EXERCISE .
Mark all the trisyllables in the following sentences, 1, 2,
or 3 , accordingly as they maybe dactyls, amphibrachs,
or anaposts.
He was returning home, when he had a perilous en
counter with an elephant. I was prevented, by a
dangerous malady, from joining in these national
sports. Large quantities of this article are exported.
Introduce me to the attorney . The barrister laid an
emphasis on these words. The cavalcade was over
taken by a government officer. To-morrow , the assig
nee will give a decisive answer. Their resistance
continued . I disbelieve the prisoner. Yesterday, the
villager was arrested . The refugee endeavoured to
recover his property .
The English language abounds in words afford
ing examples of all these forms of feet.
THE TROCHEE.
Nouns; as, fármer, nátive, púrpose, willow,
beauty .
I Amphibrach, from the Greek kupißpaxus (amphibrachys),
short at both ends.
2 Anapæst, from the Greek åvánaloTOS (anapæstus), struck
back. A dactyl reversed ; two short syllables followed by one
long .
PROSODY — THE DACTYL 229

Adjectives ; as, mórtal, rúddy, pátient, lovely ,


feéble.
Verbs ; as, govern, válue, rével, covet , hárbour.
Participles ; as, feeling, stolen , coining, rów
ing, blended .
Adverbs;as, brightly,álways,néarly,báckwards,
yónder.
Conjunctions; as, neíther, eíther , whéther,
thérefore.
Prepositions ; as, dúring, ínto, óver, únder .

THE IAMBUS.

Nouns ; as, beliéf, concéit, excéss , disgráce,


desíre.
Adjectives ; as, avérse, concíse, seréne, humáne,
contént.
Verbs ; as, belóng, refúse , dený, surmíse, atóne.
Participles; as, behéld , surveyed.
Conjunctions ; as, because, unless.
Prepositions ; as, about, above, behínd , belów ,
towards.
Interjections ; as, Alás ! Ahá !

THE DACTYL.
Nouns; as, quantity, stímulus, círcumstance,
pólitics, interest.
Adjectives ; as, beautiful, capable, excellent,
féminine, positive.
Q 3
230 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

Verbs ; as, décorate, símplify, analyze, éducate,


scrútinise.
Participles ; as, coveting, dignified, copying,
súffering , sátirised .
Adverbs ; as,mérrily, yesterday, súddenly, cón
sciously , properly.
THE AMPHIBRACH .

Nouns; as, resístance, creátor, discrétion, ar


rangement, obsérver.
Adjectives ; as, unsháken, decísive, apparent,
majéstic, porténtous.
Verbs ; as, endeavour, contínue, entitle, il
lúmine, recover.
Participles ; as, decláring, presénted , repeát
ing, recorded, resúming.
Adverbs; as, obscurely, to-mórrow , humánely,
entirely.
THE ANAPÆST.
Nouns ; as, assignée, cavalcáde, unbelief, dis
habílle, guarantée.
Verbs ; as, introdúce, disintér, overtake, in
dispóse , disbelieve.
Participles ; as, overgrown. .
These feet are frequently composed of several
words. For example, a trochee may be formed
by the words giveme;' an iambus, by “ it fell ;'
a dactyl, by come to me;' an amphibrach, by
the curfew ;' and an anapæst, by ‘now he róde,' & c.
PROSODY - COMPOUND FEET 231
231

EXERCISE .

Point out the names of the feet formed by the following


combinations.
I cannot -- my ears — a million. The voice — o'er
the fields. It sings — when Ihear — come then . Why
should we — God - fearing. The feelings -- of child
hood . Bright be the — in the days — of my youth .
War against - Babylon — breathes like a — thunder
cloud. Forth from thus the — Heed notthe though
a king — the glories - proper one. The witch — but
vainly — for ever — to blush — of the day.
In the construction of a verse, the feet fre
quently divide the syllables of a word ; as,
. In paín |ted plúmes | supérb|ly dres'sed.' (Iambic.)
· Whéreso éer be thy' aſbode. ( Trochaic.)
. May I gov'lern my pássions with absolute sway.'
(Anapæstic.)
EXERCISE .
Divide the following verses into their proper feet.
• Of leaves of roses,white and red,
Shall be the cov'ring of the bed ;
The curtains, valance, tester, all
Shall be the flow 'r imperial ;
And, for the fringe, it all along
With azure hare-bells shall be hung :
Of lilies shall the pillows be,
With down stuffed of the butterfly.'
· Queen of hunters, chaste and fair,
Now the sun is laid asleep,
Seated in thy silver chair,
State in wonted manner keep ;
Hesperus entreats thy light,
Goddess, excellently bright!
Q4
232 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE
· I am monarch of all I survey,
My right there is none to dispute ;
From the centre all round to the sea
I am lord of the fowland the brute.'
· Warriors or chiefs, should the shaft or the sword
Pierce me in leading the host of the Lord,
Heed not the corpse, though a king 's, in your path,
Bury your steel in the bosom of Gath .'
English words of four or five syllables are made
up of the above-explained feet, or of parts of
them :
One class is formed of a trochee followed by a
dactyl; as, ' in 'exhaustible,' ' in 'significant,' im '
propríety,’ ‘mon 'osy'llable,' & c.
Someare formed of two trochees ; as, ' A 'lexán
drine,' con 'stitution, sentimental,' & c.
Some are made up of an unaccented syllable
followed by a dactyl ; as, ' surprísingly ,' estáb
lishment,' ' peculiar, inhábitant,' & c.
EXERCISE .
Explain themetrical forms of the words in italics in the
following sentences.
The army was demoralised. The mystery was in
penetrable. This misunderstanding created great diffi
culties. The etymology of this word explains its
signification. These are merely complimentary ex
pressions. Their tempers were incompatible ; so great
was their dissimilarity . It was to me a new classifi
cation . The king was received with acclamation .
Pray forgive my forgetfulness. He took great interest
in Scandinavian mythology. This is not an unusual
appellation . It is a distinguishing characteristic. Their
PROSODY — METRE 233

learning began with the introduction of Christianity ,


and continued to improve even during many wars and
devastations ; the nation having preserved its integrity,
notwithstanding all its misfortunes and revolutions.
We have recorded these vicissitudes. It is astonishing
that he should have compiled such an indifferent dic
tionary .
ON METRE ".
The word 'metre ' (or measure), as applied to
a verse, signifies the way in which it is divided or
measured .
IAMBIC METRE .
When the iambus prevails in the verse, the
metre is called iambic.
The iambic metre is sometimes found in verses
of four or six , but is chiefly used in those of eight
or ten , syllables. The following iambic lines are
made up of eight syllables (or four feet) : –
•Why hast | thou thus from child hood 's hour
Fixed hope on things which soon decay ?
Why hast | thou loved a tree or flower,
Untaught | that such |must fade |away ?
This form is most frequently used in shorter
pieces, such as ballads, songs, & c.
When the iambic line consists of ten syllables,
the verse is called heroic. This form is used in
the dialogue of tragedy and comedy, and in epic
poems. It is seldom , however, found pure ; but
? From the Greek uétpov (metron ), a measure.
234 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

frequently admits trochees, and sometimes even


dactyls and anapæsts, particularly in the uneven
places, viz., the first, third , & c., feet of the line.
The following are examples : 5
? th sh
1. Cromwell, | I did, not
not ink | to ed
think to shed | a tear
2. In all my misſeries ; | but thou hast forced | me ?
3. Out of thine honest truth, to play | the wo man .
4 . Let's dry our eyes; and thus far hear me, Cromwell ;
5 . And, when I am forgotten, as I shall be,
6. And sleep | in dull | cold mar|ble, where no mention
7. Of me more must be heard of, say I taught thee, & c.
1.2. Had
Now incame| stii Ev ning on, and Twillight gray
her so ber liv (ry all things clad.
3. Silence | accompanied ; i for beastſ and bird,
4 . They to their grassy couch, | these to their nests,
5 . Were slunk ; 1 all but the wake ful night ingale ;
6. She all / night long | her amorous des cant sung :
7. Silence was pleased. Now glowed the firmament
8. With living sap phires. Hesperus, 1 that led
9. The starſry host, 7 rode brightſest, till the moon,
10. Rising | in cloud/ed maj esty, at length,
11. Apparent queen | unveiled | her peerless light,
12. And o’er | the dark | her silſver man |tle threw .
Occasionally , an iambic line of six feet (or
twelve syllables ), called an Alexandrine, is in
troduced in heroic verse . This is done to produce
a particular effect, or to give an imposing cadence
to a stanza :
1 2 3 4 5 6
• Thy realms | for evler last, I thy own | Messi|ah reigns.'
• A needless Alexandrine ends the song,
That like Ia wounded snake | drags its |slow length |along.'

1 The words in italic are trochees.


2 At the end of the line a redundant unaccented syllable is
frequently found.
PROSODY — METRE 235

Another form of iambic verse consists of seven


feet (or fourteen syllables). This was employed
with greateffect by Chapman in his translation of
Homer's “ Iliad.' The following is a specimen :
From his |bright helm |and "shield | did burn | a most |
• From

unwea /ried fire,


rich Autumnus' golden lamp, whose brightness men
Likeadmire.
Past all the other host of stars, when with his cheerful face,
Fresh washed in lofty ocean waves, hedoth the sky enchase.'
This form is now more commonly restricted to
psalms and hymns. The line is also now generally
divided into two parts, the first containing eight,
and the second six, syllables ; thus
FromA most
his | bright helm | and shield |did burn
unwea |ried fire,
Like rich Autumnus' golden lamp,
Whose brightness men admire, & c.

TROCHAIC METRE.
Trochaic verse is better adapted to lighter and
more lively subjects. The line appears in various
lengths :
1. Of three trochees, with or without a redun
dant final syllable ; as,
1 2 3 4
"Every one that flatters | thee
Is no friend in misery.
Words are easy ; like the wind,
Faithful friends’tis hard to find.'
23
•Go where | glory | waits thee ;
But, while fame elates thee,
Oh ! still rememberme.
236 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE
When the praise thou meetest
To thine ear is sweetest,
Oh ! then rememberme.'
2. Of four trochees ; as,
12
• Faintly flow thou | falling river,
Like a dream that dies away,
Down to ocean gliding ever,
Keep thy calm , unruffled way.'
3. Of six trochees ; as,
6
On a | mountain , / stretched beneath a hoary | willow ,
Lay a shepherd swain, and viewed the rolling billow .'
EXERCISE .
Let the learner explain, and divide the lines in the
following specimens of dissyllabic metre.
1. Almighty,
These are thy gloriousworks, Parent of good,
thine this universal frame,
Thuswondrous fair ; thyself how wondrous then !
Unspeakable, who sitt'st above these heavens
To us invisible, or dimly seen
ais

In these thy lowest works ; yet these declare


Thy goodness beyond thought, and pow 'r divine.'
By the moon we sport and play,
With the night begins our day ;
As we dance, the dew does fall,
Trip it, little urchins all.'
• The wanton troopers, riding by,
Have shot my fawn, and itwill die.
Ungentle men ! They cannot thrive
Who killed thee. Thou ne'er did'st alive
Them any harm : alas ! nor could
Thy death to them do any good.'
4. " O that estates, degrees, and offices,
Were not derived corruptly ! and that clear honour
Were purchased by themerit of the wearer !
How many then should cover that stand bare !
How many be commanded that command !
PROSODY - METRE 237

How much low peasantry would then be gleaned


From the true seed of honour ! and how much honour
Picked from the chaff and ruin of the times,
To be new varnished !' . . . . .
5. When Ajax strives some rock's vast weight to throw
The line too labours, and the words move slow :
Not so when swift Camilla scours the plain ;
Flies o'er the unbending corn, and skims along themain .'

ANAPÆSTIC METRE.
The shortest form of this metre consists of two
anapæsts ; as,
• In a dai ry a crow
Having ventured to go
Some food for her young ones to seek,
Flew up in the trees
With a fine piece of cheese,
Which she joyfully held in her beak.'
The second form consists of three anapæsts ; as,
1 2
" I am mon arch of all | I survey,
My right there is none to dispute ;
From the centre all round to the sea,
I am lord of the fowl and the brute.'
The third form of anapæstic verse consists of
four anapæsts ; as,
• As a beam o'er the face of the waters may glow ,
While the tide runs in darkness and coldnessbelow ;
So the cheek may be tinged with a warm sunny smile,
Though the cold heart to ruin runs darkly the while.

DACTYLIC METRE
This form is not often used, and is generally
mixed with other metres.
238 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

One form of dactylic verse consists of two


dactyls and a redundant accented syllable ; as,
" Where shall we | bury our shame ?
Where, in what desolate place,
Hide the last wreck of a name
Broken and stained by disgrace ?'
Another consists of three dactyls ; as,
• Oh ! in thy / absence what | hours did I number !
Saying oft, “ Idle bird, how could he rest? "
But thou art comeat last, take now thy slumber,
And lull thee in dreams of all thou lov'st best.'

EXERCISE .
Let the learner explain and divide the lines in the
following specimens of trisyllabic metre.
1. •From life without freedom , say, who would not fly ?
For one day of freedom , oh ! who would not die ?
Hark, hark, 'tis the trumpet ! the call of the brave,
The death -song of tyrants, the dirge of the slave.
Our country lies bleeding — haste,haste to her aid ;
One arm that defends is worth hosts that invade.'
2

• I've been, O sweet daughter,


To fountain and sea,
To seek in their water
Some bright gem for thee ;
Where diamonds were sleeping
Their sparkle I sought,
Where crystal was weeping
Its tears I have caught.'
· Pibroch of Donuil Dhu,
os

Pibroch of Donuil,
Wake thy wild voice anew ,
Summon clan Conuil.
Come away, come away,
Hark to the summons !
Come in your war array,
Gentles and Commons !'
PROSODY — FORMS OF VERSE 239

4. Not a drum was heard, not a funeral note,


As his corpse to the rampart we hurried ;
Not a soldier discharged his farewell shot
O 'er the grave where our hero we buried .'
Of Nelson and the North
Sing the glorious day' s renown,
When to battle fierce came forth
All themight of Denmark's crown,
And her arms along the deep proudly shone ;
By each gun the lighted brand,
In a bold determined hand,
And the prince of all the land
Led them on.

FORMS OF VERSE .
When two lines of equal length rhyme, the
form is called a couplet;' as,
1. "My mother ! when I learned that thou wast dead,
Say, wast thou conscious of the tears I shed ?'
In rhyming couplets the sense should bealways
brought to a close at the end of the second line.
When four lines rhyme alternately, the form is
called a " quatrain ; as,
They grew in beauty, side by side,
They filled one home with glee ;
Their graves are severed far and wide,
By mount, and stream , and sea.'
Any set number of lines (more than four) at
the end of which the metrical versification stays,
or stops, is called a stanza ; as,
Of six lines : -
1. What is our duty here ? — to tend
2. From good to better — thence to best ;
3. Grateful to drink life's cup – then bend
Unmurmuring to our bed of rest ; .
To pluck the flowers that round us blow ,
Scattering their fragrance as we go.'
240 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

Of eight lines :
1. One summer eve, with pensive thought,
2. I wandered on the sea-beat shore,
3. Where oft in heedless infant sport
4. I gathered shells in days before.
5. The splashing waves like music fell
6. Responsive to my fancy wild ,
7. A dream came o'erme like a spell,
8. I thought I was again a child .'
Of nine lines :
1. " Roll on thou deep and dark blue ocean, roll;
2. Ten thousand fleets sweep over thee in vain :
3. Man marks the earth with ruin - his control
Stops with the shore ; — upon the watery plain
The wrecksare all thy deed , nor doth remain
A shadow of man 's ravage save his own,
When, for a moment, like a drop of rain,
8. He sinks into thy depths with bubbling groan ,
Without a grave, unknelled, uncoffined , and unknown.'
This form is called the Spenserian stanza from
the poet Spenser, who first adopted it. It is
constructed as follows:— The first eight lines are
ten -syllable iambics ; and the ninth is an Alex
andrine. The first and third lines of the stanza
rhyme together ; as do the second , fourth, fifth,
and seventh ; also the sixth, eighth , and ninth .
The form called a sonnet consists of fourteen
long iambic lines (ten syllables). The whole may
be divided into two series ; the first containing
eight, and the second six, lines. In the first
division the first, fourth, fifth , and eight lines
rhyme together ; as do the second, third , sixth,
and seventh . In the second division, the ninth,
eleventh, and thirteenth, and the tenth, twelfth,
and fourteenth end in the same rhyme; thus: -
PROSODY - FORMS OF VERSE 241
1. “ If it be true that guardian spirits tend
2. The steps of mortals through this world below ,
3 . Who aid and comfort, though unseen , bestow
4. In ways that far our loftiest thought transcend,
5. Would I were thine ! my wings of light I'd bend
6 . To shelter thee from every blast of woe,
7. From all the onsets of each raging foe,
8. And lead thee to man's best and surest Friend.
9. I'd bring thee gifts from heaven's immortal bowers,
10. Bright gems of glory, living streamsof grace,
11. And fruits that angels pluck, and fadeless flowers ;
12. And, when prepared for yonder holy place,
13. I'd swiftly bear thee to its diamond towers,
14. Where thou should'st see thy Maker face to face.'

EXERCISE .
Let the learner explain the forms of verse used in the
following extracts.
1. • But now secure the painted vessel glides,
Thesunbeams trembling on the floating tides ;
While melting music steals upon the sky,
And softened sounds along thewater die :
Smooth flow the waves, the zephyrs gently play,
Belinda smiled, and all the world was gay, —
All but the sylph : with careful thoughts oppressed,
The impending woe sat heavy on his breast.
He summons straight his denizens of air ;
The lucid squadrons round the sail repair ;
Soft o'er the shrouds aërial whispers breathe
That seemed but zephyrs to the train beneath,' & c.
• Where art thou, my beloved son !
Where art thou - worse to me than dead ?
Oh, find me, prosperous or undone.!
Or, if the grave be now thy bed ,
Why am I ignorant of the same,
That I may rest, and neither blame
Nor sorrow may attend myname ?
• Seven years, alas ! to have received
No tidings of an only child ;
To have despaired , have hoped , believed,
And been for evermore beguiled ;
242 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE
Sometimes with thoughts of very bliss,
I catch at them , and then I miss :
Was ever darkness like to this ?'
"Beyond participation lie
My troubles, and beyond relief :
If any chance to heave a sigh ,
They pity me, and not my grief.
Then come to me, my son, or send
Some tidings, that my woesmay end : '
I have no other earthly friend !'
3. All suddenly a stormy whirlwind blew
• Throughout the house, that clapped every door,
With which that iron wicket open flew ,
As it with mighty levers had been tore ;
And forth issued , as on the ready floor
Of some theātre, a grave personage,
That in his hand a bunch of laurel bore,
With comely 'haviour, and countenance sage,
Yclad in costly garments, fit for tragic stage.
* Proceeding to the midst he still did stand,
As if in mind he somewhat had to say,
And to the vulgar beckoning with his hand ,
In sign of silence, as to hear a play,
By lively actions he 'gan bewray
Some argument of matter passioned ;
Which done, he back retired soft away,
And, passing by, his name discovered, -
Ease, on his robe in golden letters cypherèd.'
•Much have I travelled in the realms of gold,
And many goodly states and kingdoms seen ;
Round many western islands have I been ,
Which bards in fealty to Apollo hold ;
Oft of one wide expanse had I been told ,
That deep-brow 'd Homer ruled as his deniesne ;
Yet did I never breathe its pure serené,
Till I heard Chapman speak out loud and bold ;
Then felt I like somewatcher of the skies,
When a new planet swims into his ken ;
Or like stout Cortez, when, with eagle eyes,
Hestared at the Pacific -- and all his men
Looked at each other with a wild surmise -
Silent, upon a peak in Darien.'
PROSODY - POETICAL LICENSES 243

"We walked with open heart, and tongue


Affectionate and true,
A pair of friends, though I was young,
And Matthew seventy -two."
We lay beneath a spreading oak
Beside a mossy seat ;
And from the turf a fountain broke
And gurgled at our feet.'
The curfew tolls the knell of parting day,
The lowing herd winds slowly o'er the lea ;
The ploughman homeward plods his weary way,
And leaves the world to solitude and me.'

POETICAL LICENSES.
In verse many forms of speech are allowed
which are inadmissible in prose composition ; such
are -
1. The use of antiquated words and forms of
construction ; as -
• But come, thou goddess, fair and free,
In heaven yclept Euphrosyné.
. . upborne on indefatigable wings
Over the vast abrupt. · · · ·
2. An inversion oftheusual order of words; as
(a) The adjective after the noun ; as—
• And “ Ah, forgive a stranger rude,
A wretch forlorn,” she cried .. . '
(6) The subject after the verb ; as —
Thethunder rolls ; be hushed the prostrate world !
(c) The object before the verb ; as
The tender lambs he raises in his arms.'
R 2
244 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

3. The adjective is often used for the adverb;


as
. . and Nature's face
Now sweetly smiles, now frowns severe.'
4. A repetition of the subject; as
*Its colours were simple, its charmsthey werefew .?
5 . Ellipsis, or the leaving out of words; as -
To whom thus Adam ' (spoke, understood).

EXERCISE .
Let the learner point out the above forms of speech in
the following extracts, marking them 1, 2, 3, &c.
according to their class.
1. “ The Lord my pasture shall prepare.'
2. His presence shall my wants supply.'
3. There are that love the shades of life.'
4. A wealthy lord was he.'
5. Lives there who loves his pain ? '
6. “My banks they are furnished with bees.'
7. “ But let a maid thy pity share.'
8. Him who disobeys, me disobeys.'
9. “Now , tread we a measure, said young Lochinvar.'
10. “ From out the trees the Sabbath bell
Rings cheerful far and wide.
11. " Cease then , nor order imperfection name.'
" A train -band captain eke was he
Of famous London town.
13. When Adam thus to Eve :- Fair consort, the hour,' & c.
14. “ And powers that erst in heaven sat on thrones.'
15. In few , they hurried us aboard a bark.'

POETICAL FIGURES OF ORTHOGRAPHY .


In verse ,manywordsare altered in the spelling,
to adapt them the better to the metre of the line.
PROSODY - POETICAL FIGURES 245

Ofthese figures, or forms of spelling, the most


frequent is —
1. ELISION ", i.e., the cutting off or taking
away of a letter or syllable from a word.
(a ) When this happens at the beginning of the
word, it is called aphoresis ?; as, 'gan ' for
began,' & c. For example —
“ Though something I might 'plain," he said,
“ Of cold respect to stranger guest.'
(6 ) When the letter or syllable is rejected from
the middle of the word, the figure is called
syncope8; as in
"Oh,hear a pensive pris'ner'sprayer!'
(c ) The figure apocope4 cuts off a letter or
syllable from the end of the word ; as in morn ''
for morning,' & c. For example -
• Thou gloriousmirror, where th' Almighty form
Glasses itself in tempests ; . . . . . :
2. SYNÆRESIS5 is the contraction of two vowels,
or of two syllables, into one ; as, ' pond'rous' for
ponderous. For example
• The mustering squadron, and the clattering car,
Went pouring forward with impetuous speed .'
| From the Latin elisio, and this from elidère, ' to strike out.'
? From the Greek åpalpeois (aphæresis ), which is from åpaipéw
(aphaireo ), ' I abstract or take away.'
3. From the Greek OuYKOT ) (syncope) ; which is from
OUTKÓTTW ( synkopto ), ' I cut out.'
From the Greek åtokot (apocope),which is derived from
åTOKÓTTW (apocopto ), ' I cut off.
5 From ouvalpeous ( synæresis ), which is from ouvalpéw (syn
aireo ), ' I take together.'
R 3
246 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

. (a ) By this figure, two words are frequently


contracted into one; as,''Tis ' for ' It is ;' " I've'
for “ I have,' & c.: as —
• The reader 's threatened (not in vain ) with sleep.'

· EXERCISE .

Let the learner determine how these figures are applied


in the following extracts.
1. “Sweet soul,let's in , and there expect their coming.'
2. " True ease in writing comes from art, not chance,
As those move easiest who have learned to dance.'
3. “ So, pleased at first, the towering Alps we try,
Mount o'er the vales, and seem to tread the sky.'
4. She let concealment, like a worm i' th' bud,
Feed on her damask cheek ' . .
.. . . . . . . . to endure
Exile, or ignominy, or bonds, or pain.'
6. For this infernal pit shall never hold
· Celestial spirits in bondage ' . .
7. . . . . . lifted up so high,
I’sdained subjection . . . . .
8 . "Sweet is thebreath of morn, her rising sweet,' & c.
9. . . . . . . his bold head
'Bove the contentious waves he kept,' & c.
10. Of my instruction hast thou nothing 'bated
In what thou hadst to say.' . . .
11. 'And so 'twill be when I am gone.'
12. " To-morrow 'll be the happiest time of all the glad new
year.' .
13. All that's brightmust fade.'
14. ". . . . i use all your power
To stop their marches,'fore we are inflamed .'
15. "Hark ! 'tis the twanging horn o'er yonder bridge'
: PROSODY - POETICAL PAUSES 247

16 . " No spectre forms of pleasure fled


Thy soft'ning, sweetning tints restore ;
For thou canst give us back the dead,
E 'en in the loveliest looks they wore.'
So modern 'pothecaries, taught the art
By doctors' bills, to play the doctor's part,' & c.
. . . . . •Let us go in ;
And charge us there upon inter’gatories,' & c.
19. Or in some hollowed seat
'Gainst which the big waves beat.'
20. “ If aught of oaten stop, or pastoral song,
May hope, O pensive Eve, to soothe thine ear,' & c.
21. “An honest man 's the noblest work of God.'

ON POETICAL PAUSES.
In the metrical construction of a verse there
are two sorts of pauses, viz . the final and the
cæsural. These, though they sometimes coincide
with the punctuation, are wholly independent
of it ; i. l., they are often found in those places
where there is no stop in the sense.
The final pause, which closes the line, and dis
tinguishes the measure, takes place at the end
of every verse. It is marked in reading by a
suspension of the voice, and is used chiefly to
distinguish verse from prose.
EXERCISE .
Let the learner divide the following extracts into lines,
and explain the metre in which they are constructed .
Thus in some deep retirement would I pass the
winter gloomswith friends of pliant soul, or blithe, or
R 4
218 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

solemn, as the theme inspired : with them would search


if Nature's boundless frame was called late rising from
the void of night, or sprung eternal from the Eternal
Mind ; its life, its laws, its progress, and its end.
Hence, larger prospects of the beauteous whole would
gradual open on our opening minds; and each diffus
ive harmony unite in full perfection to the astonished
eye.'
“ Signor Antonio, many a time and oft, in the Rialto ,
you have rated me, about my moneys and myusances;
still have I borne it with a patient shrug ; for suffer
ance is the badge of all our tribe. You call me mis
believer, cut-throat dog, and spit upon my Jewish
gaberdine, and all for use of that which is mine own.
Go to then : you come to me, and you say : “ Shylock,
we would have moneys : " you say so ; you , that did
void your rheum upon my beard , and foot me, as you
spurn a stranger cur over your threshold : moneys is
your suit.'
Methinks, nobody should be sad but I: yet, I
remember, when I was in France , young gentlemen
would be as sad as night, only for wantonness. By
my christendom , so I were out of prison, and kept
sheep, I should be merry as the day is long ; and so I
would be here, but that I doubt my uncle practises
more harm to me. He is afraid of me, and I of him ;
is it my fault that I was Geoffrey's son ? No, indeed,
is 't not ; and I would to heaven I were your son , so
you would loveme, Hubert.'
" Say, Father Thames (for thou hast seen full many a
sprightly race, disporting on thy margent green, the
PROSODY — POETICAL PAUSES 249

paths of pleasure trace ), who foremost now delight to


cleave with pliant arm the glassy wave ? The captive
linnet which enthral ? What idle progeny succeed to
chase the rolling circle's speed, or urge the flying
ball ? ?

The cosurall pause is found in different parts


of the line.
On the first syllable ; as —
Where -- in a plain defended by a wood,' & c.
On the second syllable ; as —
But now – with sudden qualms possessed,' & c.
On the third syllable ; as —
. “ Ithappened - on a summer's holiday,' & c.
On the fourth syllable ; as —
" Of stature tall — and straightly fashionėd,' & c.
On the fifth syllable ; as —
“No creature owns it -- in the first degree,' & c.
On the sixth syllable ; as —
“ And whistled as he went -- for want of thought.'
On the seventh syllable ; as
" Where honour due and reverence - none neglects.
On the eighth syllable ; as —
He gave to misery all he had — a tear.'
In some few cases no cæsural pause is required ;
and in others the line may be divided by three

· Cæsural, from the Latin cæsura , a cutting,which is again


from ' cædo,' I cut, or divide.
250 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE
cæsuras. As an example of the first may be
cited
A little lowly hermitage itwas.'
And of the second
• Breathes — in our soul; – informs — our mortal part.'
EXERCISE .
Let the learner copy out the following extracts, marking
the cæsuras as above, wherever they may happen to
fall.
1. "But most by numbers judge a poet's song,
And smooth or rough, with them , is right or wrong ;
In the bright Muse though thousand charms conspire,
Her voice is all these tuneful fools admire.'
•A youngster at school, more sedate than the rest,
Had once his integrity put to thetest;
His comrades had plotted an orchard to rob,
And asked him to go and assist in the job.'
• He was very much shocked, and answered , “ Oh ,no
What, rob our poor neighbour ! I pray you don't go ;
Besides, theman 's poor, his orchard 's his bread ;
Then think of his children, for they must be fed ." ;
3. If it were done, when 'tis done, then 'twere well
It were done quickly . If the assassination
Could trammel up the consequence, and catch ,
With his surcease, success ; that but this blow
Might be thebe-all and the end-all here,
But here, upon this bank and shoal of time,
We'd jump the life to come. But in these cases,
Westill have judgment here ; that we but teach
Bloody instructions, which , being taught, return
To plague the inventor : This even -handed justice
Commends the ingredients of our poisoned chalice
To our own lips. He's here in double trust :
First, as I am his kinsman and his subject -
Strong both against the deed ; then , as his host,
Who should against his murderer shut the door,
Not bear the knife myself,' & c.
PROSODY -- ON RHYME 251
4. But thou, O Hope, with eyes so fair,
What was thy delighted measure ?
Still it whispered promised pleasure,
And hade the lovely scenes at distance hail;
Still would her touch the strain prolong ;
And from the rocks, the woods, the vale ,
She called on Echo still through all the song ;
And when her sweetest theme she chose,
A soft responsive voice was heard at every close,
And Hope, enchanted, smiled, andwaved her golden hair.
5. ' Far from the sun and summer gale,
In thy green lap was Nature's darling laid,
What time where lucid Avon strayed ;
To him the mighty Mother did unveil
Her awful face : the dauntless child
Stretched forth his little arms, and smiled.
“ This pencil take,” she said , “ whose colours clear
Richly paint the vernal year:
Thine, too, these golden keys, immortal Boy !
This can unlock the gates of Joy ;
Of Horror that, and thrilling fears,
Or ope the sacred source of sympathetic tears."''
6. “ O thou, that, with surpassing glory crowned,
Look'st from thy sole dominion, like the god
Of this new world ; at whose sight all the stars
Hide their diminished heads; to thee I call,
But with no friendly voice, and add thy name,
O Sun, to tell thee how I hate thy beams,
That bring to my remembrance from what height
I fell; how glorious once above thy sphere ;
Till pride, and worse ambition , threw me down,
Warring in heaven against heaven's matchless King.'

ON RHYME.
Rhyme signifies a similarity of sound in the
endings, or last syllables, of two or more lines.
Rhymes may be successive, alternate, or mixed.
For example
252 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

Successive rhymes —
• The ivy in a dungeon grew ,
Unfed by rain , uncheered by dew ;
Its pallid leaflets only drank
Cave-moistures foul, and odours dank.'
Alternate rhymes.
* Rome, Rome! thou art no more
As thou hast been !
On thy seven hills of yore
Thou sat'st — a queen .'
Mixed rhymes —
1. Night is the time for rest :
2. How sweet , when labours close,
3. To gather round an aching breast
4. The curtains of repose :
5. Stretch the tired limbs, and lay the head
6. Upon our own delightful bed !
Here, lines one and three, two and four, rhyme
alternately ; while five and six are successive
rhymes.
But the endings of lines may be similar in
sound, and yet not perfect rhymes. For example ,
wood ’ is not a perfect rhyme to " flood ;' for,
though the form of the two words is similar, the
sound is somewhat different. The samemay be
said of 'worse ’ and horse, and many others.
But such rhymes, though not perfect, are ad
missible.
Others, again, still less resembling each other
in sound, are now considered as wholly inad
missible ; such as “ rise ' and precipice ,' ' great '
and debt,' & c.
PROSODY - - ON RHYME 253

EXERCISE .
Let the learner point out, in the following lines,the cases
of successive, alternate, and mixed rhymes. Also , let
him show where the rhymes are perfect, imperfect, or
inadmissible.
1. Thou art, O God, the life and light
Of all this wondrous world we see ; .
Its glow by day, its smile by night,
Are but reflections caught from Thee.'
Where'er we turn , thy glories shine,
And all things fair and bright are thine.'
2. Wit, kindled by the sulphurous breath of vice, •
Like the blue lightning, while it shines, destroys.'
3. "She 's deaf to beauty's soft persuasive power,
Nor can bright Hebe's charms her bloom secure.'
4. • Toll for the brave !
The brave that are no more,
All sunk beneath the wave
Fast by their native shore.'
6 . •And authors think their reputation safe
Which lives as long as fools are pleased to laugh.'
6. Some ne'er advance a judgment of their own,
But catch the spreading notion of the town.'
7. Dear native regions, I foretell,
From what I feel at this farewell,
That wheresoe' er my steps shall tend ,
And wheresoe'er my course shall end,
If in that hour a single tie
Survive of local sympathy,
My soul will cast the backward view ,
The longing look, alone on you.'
8. If yet this honoured corse, in triumph borne,
May glad the fleets that hope not our return.'
The above examples are single rhymes ; that
is, they consist of a single accented syllable. A
254 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE
double rhyme is formed by an accented , followed
by an unaccented , syllable, with the same con
ditions as the single; as, “ búrneth ' and ' re
túrneth,' • detected ’ and suspected ,' & c.
Double rhymes are of less frequent occurrence;
and though occasionally found in other forms
of poetry, they are confined chiefly to the bur
lesque. For example
· He was in logic a great critic,
Profoundly skilled in analytic.'
•As if religion were intended
For nothing else but to be mended.'
EXERCISE .
Let the learner supply the double rhymes in the blank
spaces.
1. This little gift we send thee, boy,
May sometimes teach thy soul to ponder,
If indolence or syren joy
Should ever tempt thy soul to
6 'Twill tell thee that the winged day
Can ne'er be chained by man' s ;
That life and time shall fade away,
While heaven and virtue bloom for ever !'
• When, laying by their swords and truncheons,
ci

They took their breakfasts or their -


• An ignis fatuus that bewitches,
And leads men into pools and — '
i

•As, the sole sign of man's being in his senses


Is learning to reduce his past !
But when one of the rhymes is formed by two
words,the ludicrouseffect ismuch heightened ; as,
•He loved his child, and would have wept the loss of her,
Butknew the cause no more than a philosopher.'
PROSODY - ON RHYME 255

EXERCISE ON RHYMES.
Let the learner supply the rhymes (double or single, as
may be required) in the blank spaces in the following
extracts.
See the leaves around us falling
Dry and withered to the ground ;
Thus to thoughtlessmortals ,
With a sad and solemn
•Sport, that wrinkled care derides,
ci

And laughter, holding both his ;


Come, and trip it as you ,
On the light fantastic toe.'
• From false caresses, causeless ,
Wild hope, vain fear, alike - -
i

Here let me learn the use of life,


Then best enjoyed when most improved .'
•With more than mortal powers endowed ,
How high they soar above the — !
Theirs was no common party race,
Jostling by dark intrigue for ;
Like fabled gods, their mighty -
Shook realmsand nations in its jar ;
Beneath each banner proud to stand,
Looked up the noblest of the —
Till through the British world were
The names of Pitt and Fox alone.'
All that glitters is not gold :
Often have you heard that
Many a man his life hath ,
But my inside to - - :
Gilded tombs do worms - -
Had you been as wise as ,
Young in limbs, in judgment
Your answer had not been --
Fare you well; your suit is -
In this extract, all the endings must rhyme to gold.'
256 ENGL G P
ISH RAMMAR RACTICE
• You that choose not by the view !,
Chance as fair, and choose as !
Since this fortune falls to -
Be content, and seek no
• The castled crag of Drachenfels
Frowns o'er the wide and winding Rhine,
Whose breast of waters broadly -
Between the lands which bear the
And hills all rich with blossomed trees,
And fields which promise corn and wine ;
And scattered cities crowning –
Whose far white walls along them -
Have strewed a scene, which I should see
With double joy, wert thou with
• How sleep the brave, who sink to rest,
By all their country 's wishes !
When spring with dewy fingers cold ,
Returns to deck their hallowed —
She there shall dress a sweeter sod
Than Fancy's feet have ever —
* By fairy hands theirknell is rung ;
By forms unseen their dirge is ;
There honour comes, a pilgrim grey ,
To bless the turf that wraps their ;
And Freedom shall awhile repair,
To dwell a weeping hermit - !'
Blank verse, where there is no rhyme, is prin
cipally used in epic poems, and the dialogue of the
drama. It is most frequently found in the long
iambic, or heroic line. This sort of verse was
introduced into English poetry about the year
1544 by Lord Surrey, who is said to have bor
rowed it from the Italian poets. Milton 's ' Para
dise Lost,' Thomson's “ Seasons,' and Shakspere's
Plays may furnish us with specimens :
? Here, all the linesmust rhymeto 'view .'
PROSODY — EXERCISES IN VERSIFICATION 257
• The Stygian council thus dissolved ; and forth
In order came the grand infernal peers :
'Midst cametheir mighty Paramount, and seemed
Alone the antagonist of heaven , nor less
Than hell's dread emperor, with pomp supreme,
And god -like imitated state ; him round
A globe of fiery seraphim inclosed
With bright emblazonry and horrentarms.'
* Father of Light and Life ! Thou Good Supreme!
O teach mewhat is good ! teach me Thyself !
Save me from folly , vanity, and vice
From every low pursuit ; and feed my soul
With knowledge, conscious peace, and virtue pure
Sacred, substantial,never-fading bliss !'
• The quality of mercy is not strained :
It droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven
Upon the place beneath : it is twice blessed :
It blesseth him that gives, and him that takes :
' Tis mightiest in the mightiest ; it becomes
The throned monarch better than his crown :
His sceptre shows the force of temporal power ,
The attribute to awe and majesty,
Wherein doth sit the dread and fear of kings.
But mercy is above this sceptred sway :
It is enthroned in the hearts of kings ;
It is an attribute to God himself ;
And earthly power doth then show likest God's,
When mercy seasons justice.' . . .

EXERCISES IN VERSIFICATION.
EXERCISE 1.
The learner is required to insert epithets in the blank
spaces.
Form : - Trochaic metre : three feet, with a redun
dant syllable -
- Ul - Ul - Ul
1. Tell me, on what - v | ground,
Mayu - u peace be found,
- v daughter of the skies
Far on - u wing she flies,
253 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

From the pomp of – u state,


From the rebel's - u hate.
In a - u vale she dwells,
Listening to the - u bells :
Still around her steps are seen
-- u Honour's - umien,
Love, the sire of - u fears,
Sorrow , - u through her tears,
And , conscious of the - employ,
Memory,bosom -spring of joy.'
Form : Iambic metre : four feet -
U - lv - lv - lv - 1
2. The sky is – the sward is -
The leaf upon the bough is seen ,
The wind comes from the - u west,
The - u songster builds his nest ;
The bees hum on from flower to flower,
Till twilight's – and - u hour,
The - u year arrives ; but when
Shall – u times come back again ?
' I think on childhood's - u years ,
How , how – the scene appears !
How -, how - u passed away
The long, long, - u holiday !
I may not muse ; -- I must not dream
Too — u - these visions seem ,
For earth and - uman ; but when
Shall – u times come back again ?'
Form : — Iambic metre : five feet (rhyming cou
plets) —
U - TU - TU - TU - TU - 1
•Oh - u picture in the Book of Time,
Sarmatia fell U -, without a crime,
Found not a - u friend , a - v foe,
Strength in her arms, nor mercy in her woe,
Dropped from her – u arm the - u spear,
Closed her weye, and curbed her – career.
Hope for a season bade the world farewell,
And Freedom shrieked as Koscuisko fell.
• The sun went down, nor ceased the carnage there,
v - u murder shook the – vair ;
PROSODY — EXERCISES IN VERSIFICATION 259
On Prague's v arch the fires of ruin glow ,
His – u watersmurmuring far below ;
The storm prevails ; the rampart yields a way,
Burststhe u cry of horror and dismay.
Hark ! as the - piles with thunder fall,
A - u shrieks for - u mercy call.
Earth shook ; u meteors flashed along the sky,
And – Nature shuddered at the cry.

EXERCISE 2 .
The learner is to insert epithets, nouns, or verbs, in the
blank spaces.
Form : - Dactylic metre : three feet, with a redun
dant syllable —
- Uul - uulmuul -
•Morn on the waters ! and - u and -
Bursts on the - u the flashing of light
O’er the w waves, like a – of the sun,
See the u vestalu gallantly on ;
– to the breeze she u - uher sail
And her pennon v onward like hope in the –
The – comearound her in - u and song,
And the surges v - as they bear her along ;
See ! she u up to the cuu clouds,
And the sailor u gaily aloft in the shrouds.
Onward she – amid - u and spray,
Over the – u away and away!
- as the visions of youth ere they -
- away, like a - of the heart,
Who (as the cuu pageant u by
Music around her, and - u on high )
- u to think , amid - u and glow.
Oh ! there are – that are beating below !'
Form : - Anapæstic metre : four feet -
vy - luu - luu - l vuel
2. • Wemay – through this - like a child at a feast,
Who but – of a sweet, and then – to the rest;
And when - u begins to u dull in the east,
Wemay - u our wings, and be off to the west.'
82
260 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE
There is not in the – world a - u so sweet
As that vale in whose – u the – waters meet ;
Oh ! the last rays of - u and – must depart,
Ere the bloom of that – u shall – from my heart.'
• Sweet vale of Avoca ! how - could I rest
In thy - u of shade with the - I u best ;
Where the - that we – in this cold should cease,
And our hearts, like thy - u be - u in peace !'

EXERCISE 3.
The learner is here to supply epithets in the blank spaces, .
, and change the order of the words, so as to adapt
them to the given form ofmetre.
Form : - lambic (heroic) metre : rhyming cou
plets.
U - TU - TU - TU - TU - 1
1 . Now - gales swelled the canvas.
Weheld our – course from these – shores
Beneath the wave the – god of day
Had now withdrawn his – ray five times,
When a - darkness spread over the ship
And a - cloud hovered, slowly floating
Over the – head of themast ; nor appeared from far,
The - glimpse of themoon, nor star faintly twinkling,
The – vapour cast so – a gloom
( That) the bravest stood aghast, - with awe.
Meanwhile a - - roar resounds
As when – waves ? lash their – mounds.
Nor had the – wave, nor – heaven,
Given the usual signs of a - tempest.
We stood amazed ; — “ O thou, guide of our fortune,
- God," I cried, “ avert this omen !
Or, having strayed adventurous through – climes,
Have we surveyed the secrets of the ocean ?
Which these - solitudes of sky and sea
? Change the words in italies into others more appropriate
to the verse.
PROSODY — EXERCISES IN VERSIFICATION 261
Were ordained to hide from the eye of man ?
Whatever (be) this prodigy, it menaces more
Than the tempest of midnight, and the – roar,
When sky and sea join to rock the – shore." "I
Form : – Long Iambic nietre : blank verse —
valu - lu - lu - lu - l
How calmly, gliding through the - - sky,
The moon rises ! 2 Her beams
Through (the) - – leaves and - boughs,
Mottle the slope of the orchard with – shades :
Here they spread motionless o'er the - foliage of the
chestnut.
Mossy and gray ; here they shine
Upon the crags, deepening their chasms
With – night ; and there the – argentry
Ripples and glances on the - streams.
A brighter (and)more lovely light than that of day
Reposes on the hills ; and oh ! how awful
Rise – the tops of Auseva !
Form : - Heroic verse : rhyming couplets -
U - TU - Tu ju - nu - l
3. (0 ) divine 3 goddess4 sing the angers of Achilles, the
dreadfulo cause ’ to Greece of innumerables woes. That anger
which sentº to the gloomy regions of Pluto the shades 10 of
powerful warriors 11 slain untimely. Whose limbs unburied on
the bare 12 strand 13 ravenous dogs and hungry 14 vultures tore.
Since great Pelides 15 and Agamemnon 16 contended.17 Such
was the judgments, and such the determination 19 of Jupiter.
| This linemust be an Alexandrine.
? The words in italics are to be changed for others better
adapted to the verse.
3 Heavenly, celestial. 4 Spirit, muse, & c. 5 Wrath, ire,
rage, & c. 6 Terrible, fearful, direful. : Origin, spring, source.
& Countless, unnumbered. 9 Cast, hurled. 10°Manes, souls, & c.
11 Mighty chiefs, potent leaders. 12 Exposed,naked. 13 Beach ,
shore. 14 Voracious, devouring, ravenous. 15 Achilles. 16 Atrei
des. 17 Struggled, strove. 18 The doom , fate. 19 Fiat, will,
purpose, & c.
262 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

EXERCISE 4 .
Form : - Heroic metre : blank verse
U - TU - TU - 15 - 10 - ||
Now succeeded ' the quiet ? evening, and the gray twilight
had clothed ' every thing in a dark dress. Silence came with
(it) 5; for the beasts and birds, the former to their verdant
bed 6, the latter ' to their nests, had crept 8; all except the
watchful Philomel.' She poured forth 10 her loving " strains 12
through the whole night. " Silence was pleased ; now the sky 13
burned 14 with brilliant 15 sapphires. The evening star 16, that
led the army of planets 17, shone most brilliant 18, till Phæbe 19,
rising in obscured grandeur 20, disclosed 21 her unrivalled bright
ness 22, and cast 23 a silver cloak 24 over the dark (landscape).
i Came on, followed, ensued. ? Tranquil, placid, still.
* Dressed , clad . Sober dress, livery. 5 Followed, accompanied .
6 Green bed, grassy couch . The former — the latter — they
those. Slunk. 9Nightingale. 10 Uttered, sung. " Amorous.
12 Descant, song, notes,music. 18 Heavens, firmament. 14 Glowed,
shone. 15 Burning, bright, living. 16 Hesperus. 17 Starry host.
18 Brightest. 19 The moon, Cynthia, Diana. 20 Clouded ma
jesty. 21 Revealed,unveiled. 22 Incomparable, peerless. 23 Threw .
24 Čovering,mantle.
263

QUESTIONS FOR PARSING .

An Article.
Demonstrative or numeral ? What noun does
it qualify ?
A Noun .
Concrete or abstract ? Common or proper ?
Derivative or primitive ? If derivative, give the
root. Of what person, number, and gender ?
How constructed ? as a subject , object, & c.?
An Adjective.
Compare it. Of what degree of comparison ?
Regularly or irregularly compared ? Used as
an attribute, or as a predicate ? What noun does
it qualify ?
A Pronoun .
A noun, or an adjective pronoun ? (If personal)
what person and number ? Used as a subject, or
an object ? ( If possessive ) conjunctive or dis
junctive ? ( If distributive ) used subjectively or
objectively ? ( If indefinite ) what word does it
qualify ? ( If demonstrative ) singular or plural ?
What word does it point out ? ( If relative ) give
the antecedent. What is its construction — sub
jective , possessive, or objective ?
264 ENGLISH GRAMMAR PRACTICE

A Verb.
What person, number, mood, tense, voice , of
the verb ? Go through the tense. What are the
forms of this tense ? Give the corresponding
form in the passive voice. Is it a weak or a
strong verb ? Transitive or intransitive ? ( If
transitive) what noun does it govern ?
An Adverb .
Of what class ? time, place, manner, & c.?
What word does it qualify ?
A Conjunction.
How classed ? What words or propositions does
it connect ?
A Preposition .
Between which words does it show a relation ?
What word does it govern ?
An Interjection .
How used ? What feeling does it express ?

THE END .

LONDON
PRINTED BY SPOTTISWOODE AND CO .
NEW -STREET SQUARE
A CATALOGUE
OF
NEW WORKS IN PUBLISHED
GENERAL BY
LITERATURE
LONGMAN, GREEN, LONGMAN, AND ROBERTS
39 PATERNOSTER Row , LONDON
Agriculture and RuralCLASSIFIED INDEX
Affairs. I Mountain
Maunder's'sBiographical
MemoirsTreasury
Palleske's (Col.) Schiller .
Farm .. Rents,&c. . . 5
Bayldon Valuing
on Talpa Parry's Life of Memoirs ..
(Admiral)
Cecil's Stud
Hoskyns's Peel'sCharacter
Sketch of. Sir .R . Peel's Life and
Loudon 's Agriculture
« (J.on C.)Landed
Morton Estates.of Dairy Hus
Handbook Piozzi's Autobiography
Russell's Memoirs ofMoore and Letter
.
bandry . . . . . . 17 (Dr.) Life'sofMezzofanti
Schimmelpenninck (M rs.) Life ..
Shee's Life of Sir
Southey's Life ofWesley M . A . Shee .
Arts,Manufacture
tecture. s, and Archi. Stephen's
Strickland's Ecclesiastical
Queens Biography
of England
Brande' Sydney Smith 's Memoirs
“ s Organic
Cresy's
DictionaryofScience,
Chemistry . & c. - 6
Engineeringfor Engineers
Waterton's Autobiography and Essays.
FairbairnCivil
on's Information
Mills and Millwork . Books ofGeneral Utility .
Falkener's Dædalus Acton Voor
« Museum
Goodeve's of ClassicalAntiquities
ElementsofMechanism Black 's'sCookery-Book
Treatise on .Brewing
CabinetGazetteer .
Gwilt's
Harford'sEncyclopæd fromia ofArchitectu
. Angelo . re . Lawyer
Humphreys's PlatesParables M Illuminated “
Cust's Invalid's
Hensman's Own. Bookthe Constitution
Handbookof
Jameson 's Sacred and
« Commonplace-Book Art Legendary . 12 Hints on Etiquette . Guide
König's'sPictorial Life ofLuther . • 1014 6 onExecutor's
Hudson's Making Wills
Loudon
Love's RuralDyeing
Artof Architectur
. e .. . Hunter's
Kesteven ArtDomestic
of Writing Précis. .
Lowndes's
MacDougall'sEngineers' Handbook
Campaigns
. 14
of Hannibal. 15 Maunder's
London 's Lady's Lardner's'sCabinet
Country Companion .
Medicine
Cyclopædia
Moseley's Theory ofWar
" Engineering . . 17 Treasury of Knowledge
Piesse's Art of Perfumery Biographical
Geographical Treasury
Treasury
" Laboratory
Richardson ofChemicalWonders 18
'sProjectiles,
Art ofHorsemanship Scientific ofTreasury
History. ..
TreasuryHistory
Scoffern on
Steam Dictionary
Engine,byofArts, & c.
the Artisan . . 20 Natural
Ure's & c.. Club .. Piesse's
Pitt's ArttoofBrew
How
Pocketand the
Perfumery
Stud Good . Beer.
OVORO

Pycroft's English Reading


Biography.
Arago's
Richardson's
Riddle's LatinArtofHorsemanship
Dictionaries
Roget's English Thesaurus
Baillie's Lives
Memoirof Scientific
of Bate . Men Rowton's
Short WhistDebater
. . .
. ... .. .....

Brialmont's Wellington Simpson's Handbook of Dining


Bunsen's Hippolytus Sleigh's Personal
Crosse's
Green
(Dr.) Life
Bunting's(Andrew
's Princesses)Memorials
of England Remedies . Wrongs and
Thomson's Interest Tables
Harford's
Lardner's Life ofMichael Angelo
Cabinet Walford'sHandybook
Webster's Domestic oftheCivil vice
Economy
Marshman's
and Ward Life ofCyclopædia
Carey,Marshman , West's How
Willich's to Nurse Sick Children
Popular Tables
and "Lifeof Havelock : : : 15 Wilmot's Blackstone
2
CLASSIFIED INDEX TO CATALOGUE.
Botany
Hassall'sand Gardening.
British Freshwater Algæ Royal « . s Memoirs
Schimmelpenninck' of Port 20
PrinciplesofBeauty

DHHHHBH4BBAB9 %
Hooker's BritishtoZlora . . ,.
Kew toGardens Schmitz's History ofGreece .
" Guide
Lindley's Introduction Botany Flora
. Sonthey's Doctor
Stephen's .
EcclesiasticalBiography
Synopsis ofthe British
Theory Britannicus
ofHorticulture . SS Lectures on French History .
Works .
mith 'sLectures
Loudon 's Hortus
AmateurGardener Memoirs
Treesand Shrubs ..
Gardening ThirlwallAnglo
Turner's 's HistoryofGre
- Saxons ece .
Pereira's
Plants Medica
< Materia White
Whitesiandde'sRiddle's
Italy Latin. Dict onary
.
.
Rivers's Rose -Amateur'sGuid Wilkins's Politica Ballads
Wilson's British Mosses . . . Wilmot's Broughaml 's Law Reforms
Chron ology
Brewer's . Atlas
Historical Geography and Atlases.
Brewer's Historical Atlas :.. .
Haydn Ancient Egypt
Bunsen's'sBeatson's Butler's Geography and Atlases
Jaqaemet's AbridgedIndex
Chronology . . 12 CabinetGazetteer
Johnston .
's GeneralGazetteer
M ofGeography .
‘Culloch'sGeographicalDictionary
Affairs. and
Commerce Mercantile Maunder's Treasury Murray's Encyclopedia
Sharp's British GazetteerofGeography .
Gilba YoungofMaste
Lorimrt'er'ssLogie BankirngMariner .
CommestrceTables
'Culloch's'sIntere
MThoms
Tooke'sonHistory of Prices
and Navigation
AmyHerbertBooks
Juvenile
Cleve Hall . . . .
Criticism , History, and Memoirs. Earl's Daughte r (T
Brewer's
Bunsen 's Historical
Ancient Atlas.
Egypt Howitt'sBoy'
Experie
Gertrud ence of Life:
s Country Books Year
Hippolytus . ies :
" Vicissitudes of Families
Burke's Ivo rs
Ivors . in (MAshton
ary)Children'
Ash ton : : : :
Chapman's Gustavus
Clough 's Greek HistoryAdolphus . : 8 Laneton Parsonage
from Plutarch
Katharine :
Conolly's SappersHowson's
Miners . Margaret Percival
and ofand
ConybeareHistory St. Paul. Piesse's Chymical,
sicalMagic .
Crowe's
Frazer's
and Waterloo
Gurney's
France
Letters during the Pen
Campaigns
HistoricalSketches .
. . . 11
Pycroft'sCollegian's Guide . . . 18
* LaboratoryofChymicalWonders
Hayward 's Essays .
Hensman 's Handbook oft
Herschel's Essays) Contributi
and Addresses
tut Medicine, Surgery,
Brodie's Psychologic & e.
al Inquiries : 6
Jeffrey's (Lord Bull's Hints to Mothers . .
Kemble's Anglo -Saxons ons 113123 " Management
Copland's Dictionary ofofChildren
Medicine .
Lardner's CabinetCyclopædia .
Latham 'sWorks on the English Language 13
Lowe's Campaigns in Central India .. 1414 Holland'sInvalid
Cust's Mental Book ..
's OwnPhysiology
Macaulay's Critical
History and Hist. Essays •
Kesteven MedicineReflections
MedicalNotesand
DomesticMedica 11
ofEngland : . 14
Miscellaneous. Writings . Pereira's 'sMateria
Spencer's Principles .
Psychology
ofof Anatomy and.
Mackintosh'sSpeeches
MiscellaneousWorks PhysiolCyclopædia
Todd's ogy . 's Diseases
M 'Culloch 's History of England
Geographical . . 15
Dictionary
TreasuryofofRome
Maunder's History History
West on Children
Nursing Sick Children .
Merivale's
< ( Roman
Moore's
Mure's Greek
Republic &.
Thomas)Memoirs,
Literature c Miscellaneous Literature.
Works .
Palleske's Life and Works of Schil Bacon
Boase'son's Philosophy
(Lord) of Nature
Piozzi's Autobiography and Letters
Porter's
Raikes's Knights
Journal ofMalta
. .Antiq.
Bray
Defence
Eclipse
Education
ofFaith
of . FaithFeeling
Eclipse ofofthe
Rich's Roman and Greek
Riddle's Latin Dictionaries Select Correspondence
Greyson 's Evening
Rogers' Gurney's Recreations ,
< s English
Roget's
Essays
(Sam .) from Edinb. nsRevi
Recollectio
Thesaurus .
Hassall's
Haydn's Book Adulterations
of DignitiesDetected
.
Holland's Mental Physiology
CLASSIFIED INDEX TO CATALOGUE.
Hooker's Gymnastic
Kew Guide Exercises
. Bloomfield
Howard's
Howtt's Rural Life of England tions on 'the
s Greek
Supplementary
TestamentAnnota .
Bray on Educatien of the Feelings .
Jameson 'sVisits
Jeffrey's
to Remarkable
Commonplace
Lord Essays Hi. -Book Places Bunyan's Wife
Calvert's Pilgrim's Manual
Cata andHallFarlie's
's Progress. .
Moral Embleans
Macaulay's
" Criticaland
Speeches Cleve . .
Conybeares Instructionsin
and Howson 'sChristianity
St. Paul
Mackintosh's Miscellaneos us Works
Martinean 's Viscellanie . Cotton'
Dale's Domestic Liturgy
Newman University
"“ 'sonLectures
Office & Work Education
ofUniversities Defence of
Earl's DaughterEdipse of
( The) Fast
and Essays . Eclipse of Faith
Pycroft' s English ofAntiquities:.
Reading Experience
Gertrade ( The) of Life
Rich's Dictionary Hoare the. veracity toof Scriptures
Horne'sonAbridgment
Riddle's
Rowton's Latin Dictionaries
Debater . GENESIS
Sir Roger De Coverley Introduction of ditto
Smith 's Rer. Sydney) Humphreys's ParablesMuminated
Amy Herbert
ofMartyrs
Southey's Doctor,
Essays & ..c. Ivors, by the Author
Spencer's
Stephen
Stow 's Essays
's Training System ** Saints
Jameson's Monastic
Legends
andLegends
of the Madonna
.
Thomson's
Trevelyan onLaws Thought
the ofNative Languages Jeremy on FemaleWorks
“ Taylor's Employment
. .
India & Riddle's
. . Latin . Dictionary Katharine Ashton .
White
Witand Wisdom of
Yonge's English -GreekSydney Smith. Laneton ParsonageLife.. ofLuther
König'sPictorial
Lyra Germanica . .
Lexicon
Zumpt's Latin
Latin Gradas
Grammar. . . . Maguire's
Margaret
Marshman's
Rome .
Percival
SeramporeMission .
Natural
Agassiz on History
Classificationin general.
. . . 5
Martineau's
16
« Christian
Christian Life .
Hymns
StudiesofRecords
Christianity
Catlow 's Popular
Ephemera's Book Conchology
of the Salmon Merivale's
Moore on the Use of the Body
Garratt's
Gosse's Natural of Instinct
MarvelsHistory . .
of Jamaica « Souland
<« 's Man Body
and his. Motives
Hartwig's
Kirby and Sea Living
and itsEntomology
Spence's Wonders
. .. 13 Morning Clouds
Moseley's Astro- Theology.
Lee's Elements
Maunder's ofNaturalHistory Neale's'sClosing
Powell Sceneywithout Judaism :
Christianit
Quatrefages'Natural
Stonehenge onRambles
the
History
DogBritish
.
of .a Natural . Order of Nature .
Turton 's Shells of the Island adings for Lent . . .
Confirmation .
« Household
Waterton
Youatt's The Dog on Natural History .
's Essays Riddle's Prayers
Robinson's Lexicon
tament . . to theGreek Tes
*** TheHorse : : : : 24 Schimmelpenninck's Sacred Musings:
Dictionaries.Encyclopædias and Self-Examination
One-Volume
Blaine's
Sewell'
“ s History
for Confirmation
Passing ofthe EarlyonChurch
Thoughts Religion.
.
Smith“ 's (G(Sydney) Philosophy .
MoralMethodism
Brande'sRural
Science,Sports
Literature ,and Art “ ) Shipwreck
J.) Wesleyan
Copland's CivilDictionary
Cresy's Architecture
Gwilt's
ofMedicine
Engineering Southey'Lyra
Spitta's of Wesley St. .Paul
s LifeDomestica of
Johnston 's Geographical Dic Stephen's
Theologia Ecclesiastical Biography
Germanica
Loudon's Agriculture
RuralArchitecture
Gardening . Thumb Bible (The) .. .
(
(6
Plants
Trees and
M 'Culloch'sGeographical Shrubs .
Dictionary ..
Poetry and the Drama,
Aikin 's (Dr.) British Poets
Murray's “ Dictionary
Encyclopædia of Commerce
ofGeography .
Arnold'sMerope
Poems .. . . .
Sharp's British Gazetteer . Calvert's Wife's
Goldsmith's Manual
Poems, .
illustrated
Ure's Dictionary
Webster's Domesticof Arts , & c. . .
Economy L . E . L .'s PoeticalWorks
Linwood's Anthologia Oxoniensis
Religiousand Moral Works. Lyra Germanica
Macaulay's Lays of Ancient Rome
MacDonald
Afternoon of Life .
AnyHerbert ament : :
< 's Within
Poemsand Without
Bloomfield's Greek Testament Montgomer PoeticalWorks
y's . ..
CLASSIFIED INDEX TO CATALOGUE.
Moore's PoeticalWorks .
Selections(illustrated) Practical Cricket-Field
Horsemanship ..
Lalla Rookh . . .. . 16 Pycroft's
Richardson 's Horsemanship
Irish Melodies
« National Melodies. Ronalds's Fly-Fisher's Entomology
Salmon Fishing in Canada
Sacred
“ Virginia's Songs
Songs and Hand (with Mu
Ballads Stable Talk and Table
Stonehenge on the Dog Talk
Power's
Shakspeare,by Bowdler “ Greyhound
Sonthey's Poetical Works.. . • 20 The Stud, forPracticalPurposes
Spitta's Lyra Domestica
Thomsen 's 'sSeasons,
Warburton illustrated
HuntingBallads
Songs ..
Veterinary Medicine, & c.
Cecil's Stable Practice .
Wakins's Political “ Stud
Huntin Farm(The). .
g-Field
TheMathema
Sciencestics.in general and Miles's Horse-
“ onandthe the
Pocket
Shoeing
Horse's
Stud Foot.
ical Essays. . .
MeteorologAstronomy
Arago's Popular PracticalHorsemanship
Richardson 's Horsemanship
Boase's Philosophy of Nature . . Stable Talk and Table Talk .
Stonehenge
Bourne
“ 's on the Steam
Catechism of Engine
Steam -Engine Stad ( The) on .the Dog
. .
Boyd's Naval
Brande's Manual & c.
Cadet'sofScience,
Dictionary Youatt's The Dog . . .
TheHorse
« Lectures on Organic Chemistry Voyag es and Travels.
Conington's
Cresy's
De la Rive's EngineeringAnalysis .
Civil Chemical
Electricity . Baker's Wanderings in Ceylon
Grove's PhysicalFor.
ofof Astronomy Barth 's'sAfrican Travels ..
Herschel'sCorrelation
Holland's OutlinesPhysiology
Mental .
Burton East Africa
“" Medina
Lake Regions of Central A
Humboldt's Aspects ofNature Domenech 's and ofMecca
Deserts North . America
Hunton sLight. Cosmo s . “ SardiniaTexas and
and Mexico
Lardn er' (MCabin Cyclo
rs.) etConve pædia Forester's Corsica .
Harce t's rsati onsa .. . 15 Hill's Peru andMexico . .
Hinchliff's
Morel l's Eleme nts
Mosel« ey's Astro-Theol of Psych
Engineeringogyand Plan
ology
Architectu re 17 Hind's NorthTravels
peditions
in theExploring
American Alps Ex
Ogilvie's Master-Builder's Howitt'sChinese
VictoriaEmpirei
Owen's Lectures on Comp.Anatomy17 Hac's
& 18
Hudson and Aspects
Kennedy'sofNatureMontBlanc
Peschel's Elements of Physics. .
Pereira
Phillips's
on Polarised
Mineralogy
Light
. . Humboldt's
Hutchinson's Western Africa
« Guide to Geology Kane's Wanderings of an Artist
Piesse's
Powell'sLaboratory
Unity ofChymicalWonders 181818 Lady's
ofWorlds Lowe's
M
Tour
'Clure's
roundMonte
Central
North India
-West
Rosaand 1858
inPassage
1857
« Order Christianity
of Naturewithout 19 Minturn's NewJourzey
York totoDelhi
Ramsay's Glaciers
Switzerland of North W Möllhausen's
Peaks, Passes,
19 Ramsay's and Glaciers the Pacific
. .
Smee's
Steam Electro-Metallurgy . Glaciers
Switzerland of. North W
Tate on-Engine,
Strength byofMaterials
the Artisan Club 22 Senior's Journalin Turke
Snow 's Tierra del Fuego
Twisden
Webb's 'sCelestialObjects
Examples in Mechanics Tennent's Ceylon . .. .
Telescopes . . . for . Common . . Weld 's Vacations
TwoMonthsin inIreland the Highlands
Rural Sports. Pyrenees,Westand
<« United East ..
States and Canada
Baker's Rifle and Hound in Ceylon
Blaine'sStable
Dictionary Whiteside's Italy
Cecil's PracticeofSports
. . Wills's “ Eagle's Nest"
Epheme
Stud( The)
16 Shot
Dead ra on
Farm ..
Angling
Works of Fiction.
Cruikshank's Falstaff
« andBookSalvin
Freeman of the's Falconry
Salmon . Howitt's Tallangetta
Moore's Epicurean
Hamilton 's
Sportsman Reminiscences
. . of.. an Old 10
. Sportsman Sewell's Ursula .
Simpkinson'sWashingtons
Hawker's Young Sir Roger De Coverley Tales
Sketches
Southey's(The),Three
Howard's Athletic Exercises . . li
The Hunting-Field
Idle's Hints on Shooting Doctor, & c. .
Pocket and the Stud . . . . 1210 Trollope's
CC Barchester
Warden Towers
. ...
ALPHABETICAL CATALOGUE
NEW WORKS PUBLISHED
and NEW
BY
EDITIONS
LONGMAN, GREEN, LONGMAN, AND ROBERTS,
PATERNOSTER ROW , LONDON .
Miss Acton'sFamilies,
for Private ModernreducedCookery
to a | Arnold. - Merope,
By MATTHEW ARNOLD. a With
Tragedy.
a Pre
System of Easy Receipts,
carefully-tested Practice inin which
a Seriestheof Fcp
face . and
8vo.58.an Historical Introduction . 1
Principles of Baron Liebig and other
eminentwriters have been asmuch as | Arnold . Poems. By Matthew
possible applied and explained
Edition . ; Newly ARNOLD
Edition . . Fcp.FIRST
8vo. 59.SERIES. Third
revised and enlarged with 8 60. SECOND
Plates, comprising
Woodcuts 27 7s.6d
. Fcp .8vo. Figures,
. and 150 | SERIES, price 5s,
The Afternoon of Life. By the Lord EditionBacon's
, .Acullected Works. editedAby, New
andSPEDDING MR .. AL.,.
Author of Morning Clouds. New and ELLIS, and D . M D . ., JAMES
HEATH , Esq ., Barrister-at
cheaper Edition . Fcp . 8vo. 5s. Law . VOLS. I. to V . comprising; with the
Agassiz. – An Essay on Classi aDivision
copious of INDEX.
PhilosophicalWorks
5 vols. 8vo. price
fication Peings).
ganised [the Mutual of Or , 44 . 68. Vols. VI.and VII. comprising
RelationAGASSIZ
By LOUIS the
8vo . 128. sionalDivision
vols. Works,
8vo. price
ofwith
Literary
£1. a fullandINDEX.
16s.
Profes2
Aikin's
British SelectfromWorks
Poets of theto Baker. TheRifle andtheHound
Ben Jonson
Beattie;
cal with Biographical
Prefaces. from Edition,
Newmore and Criti inNewCeylon.
compris Edition By S . W 13. BAKER,
, with Esq.
Illustrations
ing Selections
8vo. 18s.
recent Poets. engraved on Wood. Fcp.8vo. 48,6d.
Alexander.- Salmon -Fishing in Baker.
Canada. By a RESIDENT. Edited by ings
-Ceylon.
EightByYears
Within6 coloured
' Wander
S. W .BAKER,
Plates. 8vo. 158. Esq.
Colonel KSir.C .LJAMES
ANDER, .S . MapEDWARD ALEX | Barth. - Travels and Discoveries
and Woodcuts.
Post 8vo. 10s. 60. in North and CentralAfrica : Being the
Arago Biographies
(F .)—Scientific of Dis Journaltheof auspices
under an Expedition
of Herundertaken
Britannic
tinguished
byF .R .SAdmiral Men . Translated
W . Rev.
H . BADEN
SMYTH ,POWELL,
D .C .L ., Majesty's
1849 Government in the Years
., & c . ; the
M . A . ; and ROBERT GRANT, M .A .,
D .C . -L 1855.
. WithBy HENRY BARTH,
numerous MapsPh.and
D .,
Illustrations. 5 vols. 8vo. £5, 5s. cloth .
F .R .A .S . 8vo. 188.
Arago's Meteorological Essays. Bate.
With an Introduction by BARON HUM
- Memoir
Thornton
BAILLIE . Bate, .ofBytheRev.JOHN
Captain W .
NeroR .NEdition ; with Por
BOLDT. Translated
intendence under E the
of Lieut.-Col. super- | trait and 4 Illustrations. Fop. 8vo.58.
. SABINE,
R .A., Treasurerand V .P.R .S . 8vo. 188. Bayldon 's Art of Valuing Rents
and Tillages, and Claims of Tenants
Arago's
Translated Popular Astronomy. upon Quitting Farms,; asatboth Michael
W . H .SMYTIand
, D .C edited
.L ., F .R_by
.S . Admiral
and Ro mas and Lady-day
DONALDSON. Seventh revised
larged Editionby, Mr.
en
Time. and
By adapted
ROBERT toBAKER,
BERT
PlatesGRANT,
and 358M Woodcuts.
.A ., F .R .A .S2. vols.
With8vo.25 the Present
Land
price £2, 58. Agent and Valuer. 8vo, price 108.6d.
NEW WORKS AND NEW EDITIONS
Black's Practical Treatise on Bourne's
Brewing, based on Chemical and Eco
Catechism of the Steam
Engine in its various Applications to
nomical Principles : With Formulæns Mines, Mills, Steam Navigation , Rail
ways, and Agricultur e : With Practical
for Public Brewers, and Instructio and
Instructions for the Manufactureclass.
for Private Families. 8vo. 10s. 60. Management of Engines of every
Blaine's Encyclopædia of Rural With 89 Woodcuts. Fcp. 8vo.6s.
Sports ; or, a complete Account, Histo Brande' s Dictionary of Science,
and Art ; comprising
Literature,Description, the
rical, Practical,
Hunting, Racing,of; History,
Descriptive,
Shooting,andFishing,
& c. New Edition , revised and corrected and Scientific
with above 600 Woodcut Illustrations, Principles of every Branch of Human
Knowledge ; with the Derivation and
including 20 Subjects from Designs by general
in correct
JOAN LEECH . 8vo . price 42s. use. Third all the, revised
Definition ofEdition Termsand
ed ;with numerousWoodcuts. 8vo. 60s.
Bloomfield.
ment : with copious English Testa
The Greek Notes, Professor Lectures
Brande's applied
Organic Chemistry,as on
to Manu
Critical, Philological, and Explanatory.
Especially adapted to the use ofByTheo factures, including Dyeing, Bleaching,
logical Students and Ministers. S the Calico Printing, Sugar
the Preservation Manufacture,
of Wood, Tanning,
.A ,
Rey . S . T . BLOOMFIELD , D . D ., F . 8vo. & c . Edited by J. SCOFFERN , M . B .
Ninth Edition , revised . 2 vols . Fcp.Woodcuts, 7s.6d.
with Map, £2. 89.
Dr.tionsBloomfield's Critical Annota - | Bray.-
Feelings.TheBy CHARLES the
EducationBRAY.of Third
on the New Testament, being a Edition. 8vo. 5s.
Supplemental Volume to the Ninth Brewer.- An Atlas of History
Edition , 8vo. 146. and Geography, from the commence
ment of the Christian Era to the Pre
Bloomfield's
Dr.Edition College & School sent Time: Comprising a
of theGreek Testament: With Sixteen Coloured Maps, arranged Series ofin
brief English Notes,
and Explanatory SeventhPhilological
. chiefly Edition ; Chronological
Memoirs. By Order,
the Rev.withJ. SIllustrative
. BREWER,
with Map and Index. Fcp.8vo. 79.60. M .A . Second Edition,
rected. Royal8vo. 125.revised and cor
6d, half-bound.
Bloomfield's
Dr.Lexicon to theGreekCollege & School
Testament. New Brialmont and Gleig 's Life of
Wellington. - History of the Life of
Edition, revised. Fcp .8vo.price 79,6d. Wellington : The
Arthur Duke of from
MilitaryMemoirs
Captain BRIALMONT, Additionsof
withthe French
ture : -A The
Boase. Systematic Treatise ofon Na
Philosophy the and Emendations;
M . A . Life
Social the Political and,
PlansG .ofR . GLEIG
the Rev.
WithbyMaps,
Causes and
mena. By HENRY BOASE, Pheno
Laws ofS .Natural M 1. D ., and Portraits. 4 vols.8vo. £2. Battles,
143,
F .R .S ., and G .S . 8vo. 128.
Brodie. - Psychological Inqui
ries, in a series of Essays intended to
Cadets.- Published
Boyd. A Manual with for Naval
the sanction illustrate the Influence
Organisation on the CMental
Physical
of theFaculties,
and approval of the Lords _ Commis
sioners of the Admiralty . By JOHN
, R .N . Second Third Edition , Fcp. 8vo. 58. , Bart.
By Sir BENJAMIN . BRODIE
'NEILL: BOYD,
MEdition Captain
with 253 Hlustrations (13 Dr Bull on the Maternal Ma
coloured). Fop.Svo. 12s.6d . nagement of Children in Health and
Fcp. 8vo. 5s.
Disease. New Edition ,
Bourne. - A inTreatise
Steam Engine, on theto Dr. Bull's Hints to Mothers on
Application
itsNavigation,
Mines, Mills, Steam
JOHN ByBOURNE,
Railways.
by the Artisan
and the
and the
C . E ,Club.NewEdited of Pregnancy
PeriodRoom
Lying-in and during
ManagementoftheirHealth in theof
: With an Exposure
greatly Popular Errors
improved Edition ; with many subjects, in connexion with those
Plates and Wood Engravings. 4to. I New
[Nearly ready. & c. ;and
Edition. 5s. Nursing.
8vo.upon
Fcp.Hints
PUBLISHED BY LONGMAN, GREEN, AND CO.
Bunsen - Christianity
kind, their Beginnings andand Man- Burke.
Prospects. By Sir --BERNARD
VicissitudesofFamilies.
BURKE, Ulster King
By Baron C . C . J . BUNSEN, D . D .,
D .C . L ., D .Ph . Being a New Edition ,
of Arms. FIRST and SEOOND SERIES,
crown 8vo. 128. 6d. each .
ofcorrected,
Hippolytus re-modelled,
and his and
Age.extended,
7 vols . Burton.- The: ALake
Svo, 45 ,5s, - Or,
1. nings
Hippolytus and his Age ; or, the Begin Central Africa PictureRegions
of Exploraof
and Prospects
vols. 8vo. £1. 108. of Christianity. 2 tain H .MBy. RICHARD
tion. F . BURTON
Indian Army ; Fellow, Cap
and
Gold Medallist of the Royal Geogra
2. History of the Philosophy
Outline applied of Universal
toanLanguage phical Society.
merous Illustrations, nu
2 vols.and 8vo.
With Map
gion ; containing Account ofandtheReli
phabetical Conferences. 2 vols. 338. Al 318. 6d .
3.AnalectaAnte-Nicæna. 3vols.Svo.£2.28. Captain Burton's
Africa
in East With ; or, anFirst Footstepsof
Exploration
Bunsen. Lyra Germanica. 8vo.
Translated from theGerman by CATHE Harar. 185, Mapsand coloured Plates.
RINE WINKWORTH . FIRST SERIES,
Hymns for the Year.
oftheChristian Sundays and Festivals
SECOND SERIES, | Captain Burton's Personal Nar
rative of a Pilgrimage to El Medinah
the Christian Life . Fcp. 8vo. 5s, each andMeccah
Series. with coloured. Second
Plates Edition, revised ;
and Woodcuts.
Lyra Edition
An Germanica of the
, withFIRSTIllustrations
SERIES of 2 vols. crown 8vo. 248.
from Original Designs by JOHN
LEIGHTON, F .S.A ., engraved on Wood Bishop Butler's Sketch of Mo
dern and Ancient Geography. New
under
price 21s.his superintendence. Fcp.4to . Edition , thoroughly revised, with such
HYMNS from Lyra Germanica, 18mo. ls. Alterations
progressive introduced
Discoveries as continually
and the latest
* These selections ofGerman Hymns have information have rendered necessary.
Post Svo. 78.6d.
been made
many from BUNSEN
by toBaron collectionspublished in Ger
;and form companion
volumes Bishop Butler's General Atlas
ofModern andAncientGeography; com
Theologia
lated by Germanica. Trans
SUSANNA WINKWORTH. prisingcomplete
with Fifty-four full-coloured
Indices. Maps ;,
New .Edition
With a Preface by the Rev. CHARLES
by the Author's Son . Royal 4to.Edited
enlarged ,and greatly improved
KINGSLEY ; and a Letter by Baron 24s.
BUNSEN. Fcp.8vo.58.
Bunsen.--
versal
Egypt's
History : An Historical
Uni. TheDigestCabinet
Place inInvesti of the Lawyer:
Laws A Popular
ofa England,Civil
gation, in Five Books, By Baron C . C . J . and Criminal; with Dictionary of
Law Terms, Maxims, Statutes, and
BUNSEN , D .C .L ., D .Ph . Translated JudicialAntiquities ; Correct
from
Esq., the
M .A German by C . H Illustrations.
. With many . COTTRELL, Assessed Taxes, Stamp Duties,Tablesof
Post-HorseDuties
Excise
; Post
4 vols.8vo. £5. 88. Licenses,and
Bunting. - The pline. 18th Edition, comprisingDisci
Office Regulations ; and Prison
the
Bunting, D.D
temporary .: WithLife
Persons
of ofJabez
andNotices
Events. conBy ! 8vo.
Public10s.6d.
Acts of the Session 1860. Fcp.
his
VOL.SonI. ,with
THOMAS PERCIVAL
2 Portraits andBUNTING
Vignette.. The Cabinet Gazetteer : A Popu
Third Thousand, post 8vo. 78. 6d .: or lar Exposition of All the Countries of
the World . By the Author of The
(large paper and Proof Engravings) Cabinet Lawyer. Fcp. 8vo. 10s.6d.
square crown 8vo. 10s.6d
Bunyan's
With Pilgrim 's
126 onIlustrations Progress : Calvert. — The Wife'sandManual ;
Steel and Wood from engraved
Original Deon Several
or, Prayers, Thoughts,
Occasions of a MatronSongs on
's Life.
signs bybyCHABLES
Preface the Rev. BENNETT
CHARLES ;KINGS By the Rev
and a mented from. W Designs
. CALVERT,
by theM .AAuthor
. Ornain
LEY, Rector of
price 21s, cloth . Eversley. Fep. 4to . the
Book . Crown 8vo. 10s.6d. Prayer
style of Queen Elizabeth's
NEW WORKS AND NEW EDITIONS
Catlow
or, the
'sShellPopular Conchology
CabinetSystem accorda; Conybeare
arranged: With and andSaintHowson's
EpistlesofBiography
Paul: Life
Comprising
ing to the
detailed Modern
Account of theListAnimals a complete of the Apostle,
complete Descriptive the, Fossil
ofand and a
Fami
inserted and a Translation of his Epistles
inrevised
ChronologicalOrder. Third
lies and Genera
Shells. With of Recent
405 Woodcuts . Post Edition,
s e v
severale r a l 2 Vo
Maps ls .sq
andand
ue di ti corrected
on, w
Woodcuts,
Plates. 2 vols.square erown 8vo. 318.6d.
i t h o. ;icand
pr with4
e
Svo. 148.
.
Catz and Farlie' s Book of Em . merous .. The Original Edition , with more
Illustrations, in 2 vols . 4to . price 488.
nu
blems. - Moral Emblems, with Apho may also be had .
risms, Adages, and of all: | Dr. Copland's Dictionary of
Nations, CATZ Proverbs
from60 J.circular andVignettes,
R . FARLIE Practical Medicine :Nature
Comprising
comprising
Tail-Pieces, and works
a Frontispiece com60 mentof
ral Pathology, the Morbid
Diseases, and Gene
Treat
Structures,
posed from their by J.LEIGH and the Disorders especially
TON , F .S . A ., and engraved on Wood . to Climates, to Sex, and to the different incidental
The Text8vo.
Imperial 31s.60, . &cloth
translated PIGOT.
c., by; orR . 52s. Epochs Formule
60 . proved of Life ; withof thenumerous ap
bound in morocco. Medicines
recommended.
8vo. price £5. lls.Nowcloth
complete
. in 3 vols.
Cecil. The Stud Farm ; _ or, Bishop Cotton's Instructions in
Hints on Breeding
the Chase, and theHorses
Road. forAddressed
the Turf, the Doctrine and Practice of Christi
Breeders
toHunters, Race-Horsesandand
of Proprietors, anity. Intended Edition
Confirmation.4th as an Introduction
. 18mo.2s.6dto.
nant LandedByCECIL,
Farmers. Te
Fcp. 8vo.5s.
Cresy's Encyclopædia
Engineering, Historical,
of Civil
Theoretical,
Cecil's Stable Practice ; or, Hints
on Training for the Turf,theChase,and of 3,000 Woodcuts. Second upwards
and Practical. Illustrated by Edition ,
the Road
and ;with Wasting,
Hunting, Observations on Racing revised and extended. 8vo. 638.
Race-Riding,
and
who Handicapping
are concerned : Addressed to all Crosse. - Memorials, Scientific
in Racing, Steeple
Chasing, and Fox-Hunting. Second and Literary, of Andrew Crosse, the
Edition . Fcp. 8vo. with Plate, 5s. Electrician . Edited by Mrs. CROSSE .
Post 8vo. 98 , 6d .
Chapman.-- History ofGustavus Crowe.- The History of France.
Adolphus, and of the Thirty Years' By EYRE EVANS CROWE. In Five
War up to the King's Death : With
of its Conclusion Volumes. Vol. I.8vo. 14s.; VOL.II. 156.
Peace Account
some of Westphalia, in 1648. by
By theB .
CHAPMAN , M . A . 8vo. Plans, 128. 6d.
Cruikshank, — The Life of Sir
John Falstaff, illustrated in a Series
of Twenty-four original Etchings by
ThemistoclesGreek
Clough.- to Alexander, from
Historyin a Series George Cruikshank.
an imaginary Accompanied
Biography, by ROBERTbyB .
of Lives from Plutarch . Revised and
arranged by A .College,
H . CLOUGH,
BROUGH. Royal 8vo. 128.6d. cloth .
Oxfordsometime Lady Cust'sInvalid's
Fellow of Oriel
8vo.with 44 Woodcuts, 6s.
. Fcp.
A Collection of Recipes Own Book :
from various
Books and various Countries. Fcp .
Conington .— Handbook of Che 8vo. 2s. 6d.
mical
System Analysis,adapted Byto the
. TUnitary
CON The Rev.andCanon
INGTON, ofM . Notation.
A ., F .C . S . Post F 8vo..7s.6d. Liturgy FamilyDale's Domestic
Chaplain , in Two
Also, Tables of Qualitative Analysis, Parts : PART I.Church Services adapted
for Domestic
designed as a Companion. Price 2s.6d. Every Day of theUse,Week,
with selected
Prayersfromfor
Connolly's the Book of Common Prayerfor4to; Every
PART
Sappers andHistory
Miners : ofIncluding
the Royalthe
Services oftheCorps in the Crimea and
II. an appropriate
Sunday in the Year.Sermon
cloth , 31s, 6d . calf ; or 506 , morocco215.
Post . .
at the Siege of Sebastopol. Second THE FAMILY CHAPLAIN , 128.
Edition8vo.; 30s.
vols. with 17 coloured Plates. 2 | Separately { TAE108.DOMESTIC
6d. LITURGY,
PUBLISHED BY LONGMAN, GREEN, AND CO.
The Dead Shot; or, Sportsman 's Falkener. Dædalus; or, the
Complete
the Use of Guide;
the Gun,being a Treatise on ofCauses
with Rudimentary and Principles of the Excellence
Greek Sculpture. By EDWARD
and Finishing
Shooting Game Lessonsall inkinds
of-shooting, the ; ArtDog.of FALKENER, Member of the Archæolo
gical Institutes of Rome and Berlin .
breaking,
MARKSMAN. Pigeon
Pop . 8vo.with 6 & c. By
Illustra With numerous Illustrations and 2
Medallions from the Antique. Royal
tions, 58. 8vo. 428.
Detricityla Rive's Treatise on Trans
in Theory and Practice. Elec- Falkener. Museum ThirtyClassical
Antiquities- : A Series of of -five Es
lated
F . R .S for
. 3thevols.Author by C . V . WALKER,
8vo. Woodcuts, £3. 138. sayson
edited byAncientArt,by variousWriters,
EDWARD FALKENER. With
Domenech. Seven Years' Resi 25 Plates and many Woodcuts.
perial8vo.42s. Im
dence in the Great Deserts of North
America . Byand
theabout
ABBL'SixtyDOMENECH Forester's Rambles in : With
the
With a Map, Illustra . Islands of Corsica and Sardinia
tions. 2 vols. 8vo. £1. 16s, Notices of their History, Antiquities,
Abbe! Domenech's and present Condition.Illustrations
With coloured
Adventures in Texas andMissionary
Mexico : A Map ; and numerous
Drawings . A . from
Personal Narrative of Six Years' So
journ in those Regions. 8vo. 10s.6d.
dulph, R .A .' Imperial8vo.M 288.
by Lieut.-Col. Bid

Theto aEclipse ofSceptic.


Religious Faith '; or,
10th Visit. I Letters
aEdition of Sir A.theS.RoyalFrazer,
K .C . B . Commanding
Artillery under the Duke of Wel
Horse
Fcp. 8vo. 58. lington : Written during the Penin
sularand Waterloo Campaigns. Edited
Defence of The Eclipse byWithMAJOR- GENERAL SABINE, R.A.
by its Author.
Fcp.8vo.3s.6d. 3d Edition,of Faith
revised., Portrait,
8vo. 188. 2 Maps, and 'Plans.
Ephemera'sHandbookofAngling; Freeman andHistory,Salvin .-andFalconry:
teaching Fly-fishing, Trolling, Bottom ByIts theClaims,
Fishing, Salmon -Fishing : With the
Practice.
Rev. G . E . FREEMAN, M .A .
(" Peregrine" of the Field ) ; and
Natural
best History
Modes of River-Fish,
of Catching them . andWith
the Captain
WoodcutF .Illustrations
H . SALVIN . from
Post Drawings
8vo, with
Woodcuts. Fcp. 8vo. 58. by Wolf, price 108. 6d, cloth ,
Ephemera's Book of the Salmon : Garratt. MarvelsandMysteries
The Theory, Principles, and Practice of of Instinct ; or, Curiosities of Animal
Fly Fishing for Salmon ; Lists of good Life. By GEORGE GARRATT. Second
Salmon Flies for every good River in Edition, improved. Fcp. 8vo.45. 6d.
the Empire ; the NaturalHistory ofthe
Salmon
best way, itsof Habits described,
artificially and theilharts
Breeding it. Gilbart's Login
Logic ofof Banting
Banking : A
Fcp . 8vo. with coloured Plates, 148. Familiar Exposition of the Principles
of Reasoning, and their Application to
Fairbairn. - A Treatise on Mills the
12mo.ArtwithandPortrait,
the Science
129. 60.of Banking.
and Millwork . By WILLIAM FAIR
BAIRN , F . R .S ., F .G .S . With numerous
Illustrations. 2 vols.8vo. (In thepress. The Poetical Works of Oliver
Goldsmith . Editedby BOLTON CORNEY ,
Esq. Illustrated
Fairbairn . - Useful Information from Designs bybySquare
Wood Engravings,
Members of the
tures delivered to the Working Engi cloth , 218. ; morocco, £1. 166,crown 8vo.
for Engineers : A First Series of Lec Etching Club.
neers of Yorkshire and Lancashire.
By WILLIAM
F .G .SWoodcuts. FAIRBAIRN,
. Third Edition , with108.F6dPlates
. R .S ., Goodeve. The Elements of
Mechanism , designed Byfor T Students
and Crown 8vo.
SECOND SBRIDSofFAIRBAIRN'SUse
. Applied Mechanics. . M .GOODof
EVE, M . A ., Professor of Natural Philo
fal Information
with for Engineers,
the above, nearly ready. uniform sophy206in Figures,
with King's 6s.College.
60. Post 8vo.
A2
10 NEW WORKS AND NEW EDITIONS
Gosse. A Natural
in Jamaica.
ist's Sojourn | Harry Hieover's Stable Talk
By P. H . GOSSE, Esq. and Table Talk ; or, Spectacles for
With Plates. Post 8vo. 14s. Young Sportsmen. New Edition , 2
vols .8vo.Portrait, 24s.
Green.
of England. Princess
- LivesByofMrs.the MARY es Field . Hieover.
ANNE | Harry The Hunting
ByHARRY -HIEOVER. 20 Edi
EVERETT GREEN, Editor of the Letters tion ; with 2 Plates. Fcp.8vo .58.
numerousandPortraits.
ofRoyal Ladies. With
Illustrious Complete
vols. post 8vo . 108.6d. each .
in 6 Harry Hieover. - Practical
Horsemanship . Second Edition ; with
Greyson .- Selections from the 2 Plates. Fcp .8vo. 58. half-bound.
Correspondence
Edited of R . E of.GREYSON , Esq . Harry Hieover. The Pocketand
Faith . by
NewtheEdition
Author . Crown The8vo.
Eclipse
7s.6d.of Manageme
the Stud ;ntor,ofthe Stable.Hints
Practical on the.
3d Edition
Grove.- The Correlat ion of Phy- F'ep . 8vo. with Portrait, 3s,
| Harry
sical Forces. By W . R . GROVE,
M . A . Third Edition . 8vo. 78.
Q .C ., Hieover. - The Stud, for
PracticalPurposes and PracticalMen :
Being a Guide to the Choice of a Horse .
Gurney.-- St. Lozis and Henri
IV .: Being a Second Series of Histo
2d Edition, with 2 Plates. Fcp. 58.
ricalSketches. By the Rev. JOHN H . Hartwig . - The Sea and its
GURNEY, M .A . Fcp.8vo.6s. Living Wonders. By Dr. GEORGE
. With numerous Wood
EveningRecreations;or,Samples HARTWIG Engravings, and a new series hy
trations in Chromo-xylograp
of Illus
from
Rev. Jthe
from Lecture-RoomCrown
. H .GURNEY. 8vo. 58.by phreys.
. Edited original designs by Henry Noel Hum
Svo. 18s.
Gwilt's Encyclopædia of Archi. | Hassall. - Adulterations Detect
tecture, Historical Theoretical, and ed ; or, Plain Instructions for the Dis
Practical. GWILT.s,With
By JOSEPHEngraving covery in Food
ofFraudsHILL and Medicine.
HASSALL, M .D .
more than 1,000Wood from By ARTHUR
Lond., Analyst of The Lancet Sanitary
Designs by J. S .GWILT. 8vo. 428. Commissio n ,and Author ofthe Reports
Hamilton. - Reminiscences ofan thethat
of title Commissio
n published
of Food and its Adulteratunder
ions
Old Sportsman . By Colonel J. M . (which may also be had, in 8vo. price
the InteriorK . H of., Author
inHAMILTON, Columbiaof. Travels
post 8vo, with 6 Illustrations, 18s.
2 vols. 288.) With 225 Illustrations, engraved
on Wood. Crown8vo. 17s.6d.
Hare (Archdeac Hassall's
Life | Dr.tish
on ). — TheHistorical History :of the Bri
of Luther, in Forty -eight Descriptio ns ofr theAlgueDesmideæ
Freshwate Including
and
Engraving
With
s. Byons GUSTAV
Explanati KÖNIG.n
by Archdeaco Diatomaceæ . 2 vols. 8vo. with 103
HARE and SUSANNAH WINKWORTH . Plates, £1. 155.
Hawker's
Harford.- LifeofMichaelAngelo Col.Guns
Fcp.4to. 28s. Instructions toto
relatesre
Young
Buonarroti : With Translations of vised Shooting.in all11ththatEdition,
andSportsmen
many of his Poems
by the Author's
W . L .HAWKER.
and Letters ; also
Memoirs of Savonarola , Raphael, and
With Portrait, Plates,P .
Son, Major
and Woodcuts. Sq . crown 8vo. 188
Vittoria Colonna. By JoinS.HARFORD ,
Esq., .S . Second
.L ., 20F .RPlates,
revisedD ;.Cwith 2 vols.8vo. 25s. Haydn 's Book of Dignities :
Edition,
of theg Rolls
Containin
ages BritishoftheOfficial Person
Empire, Civil, Ec
Pictorial,tions,
Illustra Genius oftural
of theArchitec and clesiastical, Judicial, Military , Naval,
Michael and Municipal, from the Earliest Pe
byi. the Descriptions with
WithCommenda Presents Time.
riods tothetheSovereign Together
the Buonarrot
ofAngelo
CANINA; Plates,
C . R . COCKEREL L, Esq., Rtore.A . ; the FoundatioPeerage
Europe, from
n of oftheir respectiveof
and J.S . HARFORD ,Esq., D .C .L ., F .R .S . States ; thre and Nobility
Folio,73s. Cd.half-bound. Great Britain , & c . 8vo. 25s.
PUBLISHED BY LONGMAN, GREEN, AND CO . 11
Hayward. - Biographical and Sir H . Holland's Chapters on
Critical Essays, reprinted from Re Mental Physiology, founded chiefly on
views, with Additions and Corrections. I Chapters contained in Medical Notes
By A.249.HAYWARD, Esq., Q.C. 2 vols. and Reflections. Post 8vo.88. 6d.
8vo.
Hensman.
Constitution- : Handbook the Hooker's
Being a short ofaccount Guide (Sir W . J.) Popular
to the RoyalBotanic Gardens of
Kew . With many Woodcuts, 16mo.60.
ofStatetheofRise,
the Progress,
Laws and Present
of ,England. By
ALFRED P . HENSMAN
Law , Fcp. 8vo . 45.
Barrister-at Hooker and Arnott's British
Flora ; comprising the Phænogamous
or Flowering Plants, and the Ferns,
SirAstronomy.
John Herschel's Outlines of Seventh Edition , with numerous Fi
gures
Plants,illustrative
Fifth Edition , revised of the Umbelliferons
and corrected to the existing state of Grasses, the the
and Composite
Ferns. Plants,withthe12
12mo.
astronomical knowledge ; with Plates Plates, 148. ; with the Plates coloured,
and Woodcuts. 8vo. 18s. price 21s.
Sirfrom John Herschel's Essays
Edinburgh and Quarterly Horne's Introduction to the
Reviews,the with Addresses and other Critical Study and Knowledge of the
Holy Scriptures. Tenth Edition , re
Pieces. 8vo. 188. vised,present
corrected , andEdited
brought downRev.to
Hill. - Travels in Peru and the time.
Mexico. By S . S . HILL, Esq., Author T . HARTWELL HORNE, B .D . (the
by the
of8vo.Travels Author); theTREGELLES,
Rev. JOHN ÁYRE ; andWiths .
21s. in Siberia , & c. 2 vols. post 4PRIDEAUX
Maps and 22 VignettesLL.andD . Facsi
Hinchliff. - Summer Months miles. 4 vols.8vo. £3. 13s.6d.
among the Alps : With the Ascent of
Monte Rosa . By Thos. W .HINCHLIFF,
Barrister-at-Law , Post 8vo. 10s. 6d. Horne.-
duction to-A theCompendious
Study of the Bible.Intro
By
the Rev . T HARTWELL HORNE,
Hind. — Narrative of the Cana New Edition,. with Maps, & c, lžmo.B .9sD ..
dian Red River and Assinniboine and
Saskatchewan Exploring Expeditions :
With a Description of the Physical Hoskyns.- Talpa ; or, the Chro
Geography, Geology, and Climate of
the
nicles of a ClayBy_FarmCHANDOS
Fragment. : An Agricultural
WREN
YOULBCountry
fessor HIND,
of
traversed
M . A ., and
Chemistry
By
.G .S HENRY
F . R Geology
., Pro HOSKYNS, Esq . Fourth
24 Woodcuts from Designsby Edition. With
GEORGE
TrinityAssinniboine
ofthe College, Toronto
and ; in Chargein
Saskatchewan
CRUIKSHANK. 16mo.58.6d.
Exploring
and Expedition . With Maps
numerous Illustratio 2 vols ,
ns.
Howard . - Athletic
nastic Exercises.
and Gym
With 64. Illustra
8vo . [Just ready. tions,and a Description of the requisite
Hints on Etiquette and the Apparatus.
16mo. 7s. 6d. By JOHN H . HOWARD.
Usages of Society : With a Glance at
(with Additions)Newby aEdition,
Bad Habits. Lady ofrevisedHowitt. - The Children's Year.
Rank . |
By Many HowITT. With58.Four Illus
Fcp .8vo . 28,6d. trations. Square 16mo.
Hoare.
Book of- Genesis
The Veracity of the
and | Howitt. – Tallangetta, the
Character of the : Inspired
With theHistorian.
Life Squatter's Home: A Story of Austra
lian Life. By WILLIAM HOWITT,
By
M . A .,thelateRev.
FellowWILLIAM H . HOARE,
of St. John's College, 2 vols. post 8vo. 18s.
Cambridge. 8vo. Is.6d. and
Holland. - Medical Notes and Howitt. - Land, inLabour,
Reflections. By Sir HENRYHOLLAND, Gold Visit ; toor,TwoYears
Sydney and Victoria
Van :With's
Diemen
M . D ., F .R .S., & c., Physician in Ordi- 1 Land. By WILLIAM HOWITT, Second
nary the Queen
ThirdtoEdition . 8vo.and18s.Prince -Consort. Edition, Two Volumes in One. Crown
8vo.6s.
12 NEW WORKS AND NEW EDITIONS
W Places
.Howitt'sVisits toRemarkable
: Old Halls, Battle-Fields, and | Hunt's Researches
its Chemical Relations;on embracing
Light ina
inScenes
about
illustrative
English History
80 Wood
ofStriking
and Poetry.
Engravings.
Passages
Nere With
Edi
Consideration8vo.of108,6d.
Processes. all the Photographic
tion . 2 vols,square crown 8vo. 258. Hunter.
Writing -ofto Introduction
Précis toas the
or Digests, apor
William Howitt's Boy's Coun . plicable Narratives of Facts
try Book : Being the Real Life of a Historical Events, Correspondence,
Country Boy, written by himself ; ex Evidence,Composition
General Official :Documents, and
WithBynumerous
hibiting alltheAmusements,
of Children in Pleasures, Examples
JOHN HUNTER, M . A . 12mo. 2s. .
and Pursuits the Coun and Exercises. the Rev
try. With 40 Woodcuts. Fcp . 8vo.68. KEY, 12mo.just ready.
William Howitt's RuralbyLife of Hutchinson 's Impressions
England. With Woodcuts
and Williams. Medium 8vo. 21s. Bewick Western Africaof :With
Peculiarities Trade upa Report on theofin
the Rivers
TheChinese
Abbe'Empire
Hac's Work on the
, founded on Fourteen theBightofBiafra , Post 8vo .8s.6d.
Years' Travel
People's and Residence
Edition, in China.
with 2 Woodcut
Idle's
ing, & c.,Hints
both onon SeaShooting,
and Land,Fish
and
Illustrations. Crown 8vo.58. in the Fresh -Water Lochs of Scotland.
Hudson's Executor's Guide. Fcp.Jameson's
New and improved Edition , with the Mrs.
8vo. 58.
Two Lectures on
Statutes enacted , and the Judicial the Social Employments of Women,
Sisters of Charity and the Communion
Decisions, incorporated,
Edition pronounced since the 68.last
Fcp. 8vo. of Labour. New Edition , Fep . 28.
Hudson's Plain Directions
Making Wills in conformity with the
for Mrs. Jameson's Legends of the
Saints and Martyrs, as represented in
vised by the Author; and practicallyre
Law . New Edition
illustratedmany
, corrected
by Specimensof
and
Wills
Christian Art. Third Edition ; with
con 17cuts.Etchings and upwards of180 Wood
2 vols,square crown 8vo. 318.6d,
taining varieties of Bequests,
also Notes of Cases judicially decided | Mrs. Jameson's Legends of the
since the Wills Act cameinto opera Monastic Orders, 28 represented in
tion . Fop . 8vo. 2s. 60 . Christian Second Edition,
larged : withArt.11 Etchingsby en
the Author
Hudson and Kennedy's Ascent
ofMont Blanc by a New Route and and 88 Woodcuts. Sq. crown 8vo. 288,
WithoutGuides.
Plate and Map. Post Second8vo.58, 6d. | Mrs.
Edition,with Jameson's
Madonna,
Legendsin Christian
as represented
of the
Humboldt's Cosmos. Translated , Art. SecondEdition, corrected
; with 27 Etchings and 165and en
with the Author's
SABINE. VOLs . authority,
, and II. Mrs. larged
by 16mo. Engravings. Square crown 8vo. Wocd
285.
Half-a-Crown each,8vo.
cloth ; or in post sewed128.; 3s.6d. each,. Mrs. Jameson's Commonplace
each , cloth
VOL. III. post 8vo . 128, 6d , cloth : or Book of Thoughts, Memories,and Fan
cloth ; andPart
in 16mo. PartI.II.2s.60 , 6d . cies, Original and Selected . Second
38, . sewed,4s,38cloth
VOL. IV . PART I. postsewed, Svo, 158, cloth ;, Crown8vo.
Edition ; with Etchings and Woodcuts.
price 18s.
16mo. 78. 6d. cloth . Jaquemet's Chronology for
Humboldt's Aspects of Nature.
Translated, with the Author's autho
Schools : Containing the most impor
tant Dates of General History, Politi
rity,
or in by2 vols.
Mrs.3s.6d.
SABINE.each,18mo.
clothprice 6s. :
; 2s.6d. cal, Creation
the Ecclesiastical,
of the and
WorldLiterary,
to the endfromof
each , sewed, the Year 1857. Fcp .8vo.3s,6d.
Humphreys.
Lord,styleilluminated- Parables
and of of Ourin
ornamented Lord Jeffrey's Review
The Edinburgh Contributions
. A New Edito
the
sance oftheMissals
HUMPHREYS. the Renais
Square; tion , complete in One Volume, with
fcp. 8vo.by 218.
H . Nin . massive carved covers Portrait and Vignette. Square crown
8vo. 21s. cloth ; or 30s, calf. Or in
or 30s, bound in morocco ,by Hayday. I 3 vols, 8vo. price 428,
PUBLISHED BY LONGMAN, GREEN, AND CO.
Bishop Jeremy Taylor's Entire | Latham . - The English Lan
Works : With Life by Bishop HEBER . guage. By R . G . LATHAM , M . A ., M . D .,
F . R .S ., late Professor of the English
Rev. 1 Language
CRevisedEDENand
. P .price . Now completeby inthe10 vols.
corrected
8vo.Lon
College,
University2 vols.
don. Fourthin Edition. 288.
Svo. 10s.6d, each .
Kane's Wanderings ofan Artist Dr. Latham 's Handbook of the
among the Indians of North America ; English Language for the Use of Stu
from Oregon
Canada to Vancouver's dents of the Universities and Higher
and , through the Hudson Island
's Bay
Company's Territory, and back again .
Classes
Post 8vo.of78.Schools.
6d . Third Edition .
With Map, Illustrations
and Wood Engravings. 8vo.218.in Colours, Mrs. R . Lee's Elements of Nam
tural History ; or, First Principles of
Kemble. - The ofSaxons in Eng- Zoology : Comprising the Principles
with amusof
land : A History the English Com | Classification , interspersed
ing and instructive Accounts of the
monwealth
KEMBLE, M till.A .theConquest. By J. M . most
2 vols. 8vo. 285. tion ; remarkable
Woodcuts. Animals. New Edi
Fcp. 8vo.78.Gd.
Keith Johnston's Dictionary of L.EtheLetitia
Geography, Descriptive, Physical, Sta
.L. -Elizabeth
The Poetical; Works
Improvisatrice,Landon
of
comprising
the Venetian Brace
tistical,
plete and Historical: FormingWorld
a com let, the Golden Violet, the Troubadour,
ThirdGeneralGazetteer
Edition, revised toof the
April 1860..
In 1 vol. of 1,360 pages, comprising
and Poetical
108. cloth Remains.
; morocco, 21s. 2 vols. 16mo.
about; 50,000
cloth Names ofin Places,
or half-bound russia, 8vo.
358, 308. Dr. John Lindley's Theory and
Practice of Horticulture ; or, an At
Kesteven. - A Manual of the tempt
tions oftoGardening
explain theuponprincipal Opera
Physiological
Domestic Practice of Medicine. Grounds. With 98 Woodcuts. 8vo. 218.
WSquare KESTEVEN,
. B. post 8vo. 7s. 6d F.R
. .C.S.E ., & c. Dr. John Lindley's Introduction
to Botany.
tions New Edition,with
and Plates
copious correc
Kirby and Spence's Introduction Svo.with andAdditions.
Woodcuts, 2248.vols.
toNatural
Entomology ; or,of Insects:
History Elements of the
Compris- Dr.British
Lindley's Synopsis of the
ing an Account of Noxious and Useful NaturalOrders Flora arranged according to the
; containing
Insects , of their Metamorphoses, Food ,
Stratagems, Habitations, Societies, or Flowering Plants. Fcp.Vasculares
8vo. 6s.
Motions,Noises,Hybernation , Instinct,
& c. Seventh Edition, with an Appen - | Linwood's Anthologia Oxoni
dix relative to the Origin and Progress ensis, sive Florilegium e Lusibus poet
ofthe work. Crown 8vo.5s. icis diversorum Oxoniensium Græcis
et Latinis decerptum . 8vo. 148.
A RosaLady's
; with Tourto theround
Visits Italian Monte
Valleys Lorimer's Letters to a Young
of Anzasca, Mastalone, Camasco,Sesia, Master Mariner
Lys, Challant, Aosta, and Co ne . With on some Subjects con
nected with his Calling . Fcp. 8vo .
Map,
Mr. G 4. Barnard,
Illustrations
and 8 from SketchesPost
Woodouts. by price5s, 6d.
8vo. 148. Loudon's Encyclopedia
dening: Comprising of Gar
the Theory, and
Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopædia of
History, Biography, Literature, the
Practice of Horticulture,
Arboriculture, Floriculture,
and Landscape-Garden
Arts and Sciences, A Natural History, ing. With 1,000Woodcuts. 8vo.318.6d.
andManufactures. Series ofOriginal Loudon's
Works
plete by EMINENTWRITERS.
Titles,in price
132 vols.fcp.8vo. Com
with Vignette
£19. 199 . cloth lettered . and Shrubs,Encyclopædia
tum Hardy or Arboretum etofFructice
Britannicum abridged
Trees
: Containing
The Works separately, in single the Treesand
Britain , Native andForeign
Shrubs , ofScienti
Great
fically 2,000
and Popularly
Woodcuts.Described.
8vo.508. With
Volumes or Sets , price 38. 6d , each
Volume, cloth lettered. about
14 NEW WORKS AND NEW EDITIONS
Loudon's Encyclopædia
culture : Comprising ofAgri-
the Theory and | Lord Macaulay's
Writings Miscellaneous
; comprising his Contribu
Practice of the
Laying -out, Valuation , and
Improvement, Transfer,
Ma tions to Knight's
Articles Quarterly
contributed Magacine,
to the Edinburgh
nagement
the of Landed
Cultivation Property , of
and Economy and of ReviewHistorical
and not included
Essays,in his Critical
Biographies
Animal and Vegetable Productionstheof written for the Encyclopaedia
Agriculture. With 1,100 Woodcuts. nica , Miscellaneous Poemsand Inscrip Britan
8vo.31s.6d . tions. 2 vols.8vo. with Portrait, 21s.
Loudon'sEncyclopædia
Comprising, Culture,
the specific ofPlants: Macaulay
character, England from
Historyof Jamesof
. - theTheAccession
Description History,Applica II. By the Right Hon . Lord MA
tion in the
sirable Arts, andrespecting
every otherPlants
de CAULAY. New Edition . Vols, I. and
found
12, inParticular
Great Britain
000 Woodcuts. . With
Svo . 73s. 6d . above
II. 8vo. 32s. ; Vols. III, and IV . 36s.
Loudon's Encyclopædia of Cot Lord
land Macaulay's Historyof James
from the Accession
New Edition of the first Four
of EngII.
Volumes
tage, Farm , and Villa Architectureand ofcorrected.
the Octavo
Furniture.'
Mrs. New
LOUDON8vo.
; withEdition, edited by 7 vols.Edition,
post 8vo.revised
6s, eachand
,
Woodcuts. 638. more than 2,000
Loudon's Hortus Britannicus : Lord Macaulay's Critical and
Historical Essays contributed to The
or, Catalogue of all the Plants found in Edinburgh Review . Four Editions :
Great
by Mrs.Britain . New8vo.
LOUDON. Edition,
31s.6d.corrected 1. A LIBRARY EDITION (the Eighth ), in
3 vols. 8vo. price 36s.
Mrs. Loudon'sor, Lady's
Companion How toFcpCountry
Brother NeinwONEEclothVOLUME,
2. Complete ;or Boawith
trait and Vignette, Square crown
Svo.
ona
re crPor
price 21s.cloth ; or 30s. call.
Country Life; Rationally. Enjoy
.8vo. 5s.a 3 . AnotherNew EDITION , in 3 vols. fcp.
8vo. price 21s.cloth .
Mrs. Loudon's Amateur Gar
dener's Calendar, or Monthly Guide to
4. The PeoPLE'S EDITION, in 2 rols.
crown 8vo. price 8s. cloth .
what shouldCrown
be avoided and done in6d.a Lord Macaulay's Laysof Ancient
Garden. 8vo. Woodcuts,78. Rome, with Ivry and the Armada.
Love's Art
Scouring,
of Cleaning,
and Finishing
Dyeing,
on Methods:
the most
16mo. price 4s. 6d. cloth ; or 108, 6d .
bound in morocco .
approved English
Being Woollens, and French
Practical Instructions Lord
inFeathers,
Dyeing Macaulay's Lays of Ancient
Silks,
Chip, Straw , & c.and Cottons,and
; Scouring Clean Rome.
and from With
the Illustrations,
Antique, drawnon Original
Wood
ing Bed& and
Rügs,
ing
Window
anyc. ;Colour
Curtains,
French orand EnglishCarpets,
Fabric ofClean boards ; or 425. bound in morocco.. 21s.
by
Silk ,
G . Scharf, jun. Fcp . 4to
Satin , or Damask. Post.8vo. 7s. 6d, Macaulay. — Speeches of the
Lowe. - Central India during | RightHon.Lord MACAULAY. Corrected
the Rebellion of 1857 and 1858 : A Nar. by HIMSELF. 8vo. 128.
rative from
Forces of Operations British Mac Donald. - Poems. ByGeorge
of theofMutiny
the Suppression
in Aurungabad to the Capture MAC DONALD, Author78. of Within and
lior
Rose, under G .C . Major-General
B ., & c., and Sir ofHUGH
Brigadier
Gwa
Sir
Without. Fcp. 8vo.
C . STUART, K .C . B . By THOMAS LOWE,
Mprice
. R .9s,C . 6d.
S. E . Post 8vo. with Map , Mac
WithoutDonald. Within
: A Dramatic Poem . and
GEORGEMACDONALD. Fcp.8vo.As.6d.
Lowndes's Engineer'sHandbook; Mac Dougall. - The Theory of
explaining
guide the Principleswhich
the young
struction Engineer in theshould
of Machinery ,with the neces from illustrated
Con War History. byBynumerousExamples
Lieutenant-Colonel
P . the
L . MAC DOUGALL,Second
Commandant
sary
- 8vo, 5s. Proportions, and Tables.
Rules, of Staff College. Edition ,
revised. Post 8vo. with Plans, 108, 61.
for
PUBLISHED BY LONGMAN , GREEN, AND CO. 15
Macofof Hannibal,
HDougall. pers- HiThestoripandCampaigns
anered, esarranged ost Svcritically | Martineau. - Studies
tianity : A Series of Papers,
of Original Chris
considered,expressly for theuseof Stu
dents ofMilitary History. By Lt. Col. now first collected , or New . By JAMES
MARTINBAU . Crown 8vo. 78, 6d .
P . L .MACDOUGALL, Post Svo. 7s. 6d .
Sirlaneous
JamesWorks
Mackintosh's Martineau. - Endeavours afterBy
: Including hisMiscel.
Contri the
butions to the Edinburgh Review .
Christian Life : Discourses.
JAMESMARTINEAU. 2 vols. post 8vo.
Square crown 8vo. 218. cloth ; or 30s. Martineau. price 78. 6d , each ,
bound in calf: or in 3 vols.fcp.8vo.218. | - Hymns for the
Christian Church and Home. Col
Sirof England
James Mackintosh's History
from the Earliest Times to
lected
Eleventhand Edition,
edited byJAMESMARTINBAU.
12mo. , 38.32mo.
6d. ls.
cloth4d ,.
the final Establishment of the Reform orcloth,
58. calf
or ; Fifth
is. 8 . Edition
roan ; an Edition
ation . 2 vols .8vo . 213. 18mo. price 29. 10d , cloth. in
M tical,
‘Culloch's Dictionary,
Theoretical, PracOFof Martinean. -- Miscellanies: Com
and Historical,
Commerce, and Commercial Navi prising Essays chiefly religious and
gation. Illustrated with Maps and controversial.
Crown 8vo. 9s. By JAMESMARTINEAU.
Plans. New Edition . 8vo.. price
cloth ; or 558. half-russia SUPPLE 50s.
MENT to thetheEdition
containing late published
Commercial inTreaty
1859, Maunder's Scientific and Lite
with France, the New Indian Tariti , rary Treasury : A new and
andthepopular
& c. price 2s.6d. EncyclopædiaofScience
Lettres ; including all Belles
Branches
M graphical,
‘Culloch'sStatistical, Science, and every subject connectedof
Dictionary, Geo
and Historical, with Literature and Art. Thoroughly
revised Edition
ofprincipalNatural
thevarious Countries,
Objects inPlaces, and.
theWorld Additions. Fop., with Corrections and
8vo. 10s.
With 6 Maps. 2 vols.8vo. 63s. Maunder's Biographical Trea
Maguire. - Rome;By JOAN sury ; consistingofMemoirs, Sketches,
and its Institutions. its FRANCIS
Ruler nent
and brief Notices of above 12,000 Emi
MAGUIRE, M .P . Second Edition, en from Persons
Forming
of AllPeriod
the aEarliest
complete
Ages and Nations,:
of History
Dictionary of Uni,
larged . Post 8vo. 10s.6d . versal Biography. Eleventh Edition
corrected and extended. Fcp. 8vo. 10s.
Mrs. Marcet's Conversations on
Natural Philosophy, in which the Ele
ments WithScience are familiarly ex
plained.of that 34 Plates. Fcp. 8vo.
Maunder's Treasury
ledge and Library of Know
of Reference : Com
price 108, 6d. Grammar, prising an English Dictionary and
a Universal Gazetteer, aa
Mrs. Marcet's Conversations on Classical
Law Dictionary,
Dictionary, a a Chronology,
Synopsis of the
Chemistry , in which the Elements of Peerage, numerous useful Tables, & c.
that Science are
and illustrated familiarly
. 2 vols. explained
fcp. 8vo. 14s. New Edition, reconstructed
WOODWARD, by byB . BJ ..
B .A . ;andassisted
MORRIS, Solicitor, W . HUGHES,
Marshman's Life of General F . R .G . S . Fcp. 8vo. 108.
Havelock . - Memoirs of Major-General
Sir Henry Havelock, K . C . B . By JOHN
CLARK MARSHMAN . With Portrait,
Maunder's
History; or,Treasury Naturalof
a Popular ofDictionary
Map, and 2 Plans, 8vo . 128. 60 , Animated Nature
Zoological : In which
Characteristics that the
dis
tinguish the different Classes, Genera,
Marshman. - The Life
, and and
WardTimes
and Species, are combined with a
variety
of Carey, Marshman
bracing
Mission.theByHistory
: Em
of theMARSHMAN
JOHN CLARK Serampore. trative ofofEconomyof
General
interesting
the Habits, Information illus
the Instincts, and
Auimal King
2 vols. 8vo. 258. dom , With 900 Woodcuts. Fop. 108.
16 NEW WORKS AND NEW EDITIONS
Maunder's
comprising Historical Treasury ; | Minturn.
a General Introductory - From
Delhiby way of Rio New YorkAusto
de Janeiro,
Outline
and Modernof Universal
,and Historyof ,Separate
a Series tralia , and, Jun.
Ancient MINTURN China.WithBycoloured ROBERT RouteB .
Histories
that exists of every
; their Rise,principal Nation
Progress,Social and Mapof India. Post 8vo.78.6d.
Present Condition, theMoraland
Character
tants,
Customs,
of their
New
respective
their& c . Religion, Manners,
Edition , and Thomas
Inhabi
carefully nal, and
tion for
Moore's
theCorrespondence,
People,
Memoirs,New Jour
with 8Edited Edi
Portraits
revised throughout ; with a new INDEX abridged and 2 Vignettes from. LORD on Steel.
the FirstJOHN Edition by and
the
now first added. Fcp .8vo. 10s. Right Hon RUSSELL
Maander' s Treasury of Geogra Mtion. P ofMoore's
. UniformPoeticalWorks.
with the People'sSquare Edi,
phy,Political;
and Physical, containing
Historical,a Descriptive, crown 8vo . 12s, 6d, cloth, gilt edges.
oount
Precededof Every
by an Country in succinctAc
Introductory the World
Outline : ThomasMoore's PoeticalWorks:
of theInquiry
liar HistoryintooftheGeography;
Varieties ofa Fami Comprising
Race phical the latest Author's Autobiogra
and Language exhibited by different Notes. Prefaces,
Various Corrections,and
Nations
of , and atoViewAstronomy
Geography of the Relations
and, care rate Poems
the Works, and completeof thePoetical
as follows:
Editions sepa
PhysicalSciences.
fully revisedthroughout New Edition
throughout;the withvolume the LALLA ROOKH , fcp. 4to .with Wood
Statistics
brought, in every instance, up to cut Illustrations
the7 LALLA
LALLA ROOKH ,, by 32mo. TENNIBL... type. . ....
.. ..
latest date of information . With ROOKH 16mo. rabyVignette .. ..
Maps and 16 Steel Plates, Fcp. 8vo. | LALLA
price 10s. Plates .ROOKH
. . . . . . . ,. .square crown 8vo.
.. .. .. ... . ... .. ... .
Merivale (Miss). - Christian IRISH MELODIES, 32mo. Vignette
IRISH MELODIES, ruby type .... 21
Records: A Short History ofApostolic IRISH MELODIES, 16mo.
Plates . . . . . . . . . . . ...square
....
crown 8vo.
Age.
8vo. price 7s. 6d . A . MERIVALE . Fcp.
By LOUISA IRISH
SONGS,
MELOD IES ,
LISE, super-royal8vo...... ed
illustrat byMAO
Merivale. — The A Fall of theof SONGS, BALLADS,
32mo. ruby type and....
SACRED
. . ....

Roman Republic: Short History SONGS, 16mo. SONGS, BALLADS, and SACRED
Vignette ... Edition ,
Last
By Rev.Century of the Commonwealth
C .MERIVALE. POETICAL
10 PARTS, WORKS,
12mo.78, 6d. . POETICAL each .. . . . .People's
.
Merivale. — A theHistory 10 VOLs . each . . . . Cabinet Edition. ,
WORKS,
Empire. ofBy the
3
Romans under the POETICAL
tion , crownWORKS, Traveller's Edi
8vo .... Library
Rev. CHARLES
Fellow MERIVALE, B . D ., late POETICAL
ofSt. John'sCollege,Cambridge, WORKS,
medium 8vo . . . . . .
Edition.. ., 12 6
.. ........
8vo, with Maps : TURES SELECTIONS, “ POETRY and PIC
from Engravings
THOMAS MOORE,”
theVOLS.
Fall ofI. JuliusCæsar.
and II. comprising
SecondtheEdition
History, 28s.to fcp. 4to . Wood
MOORE'S EPICUREAN . .. ... Vi
, 16mo.
VOL. III. to the Establishment of the Mon nette . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . ... .. . .... .. . .. .
archy by Augustus. Second Edition ... ...14s.
B.C.Vols.
27 toIV.and from.. ..Augustusto Claudius, IRISHEditionsprinted
A .D . 54V .....
with the Music.
People's
small 4to. . . . .. . . .. .. .. . . .. Edition,
MELODIES, . .. . . ..
theVol. from the Reign
FallVI.of Jerusalem ofNero, A .D.. . .54,. 16s.
, A.D .70..... 16 to. IRISH MELODIES,
size .... . . . . . . . imperial8vo.small
musicLE BLOG ...... .
Miles.-- HARMONISED AIRS 8vo.from.....IRIS
How to -Keep
The it Sound.
Horse'sEighthFootEdition;
and MELODIES, imperial
small 4to. ..... NATIONAL AIRS, People's Edition,
with an Appendixo
and izHunters n Shoeingin1xgeneral,
in particular. Plates NATIONAL AIRS, imperial 8vo. small. . 316
ana Woodcuts. By W . MILKS, Disy. music sizeSONGS
SACRED . . and SONGS from
Imperial8vo. 128. 6d . SCRIPTURE, imperial 8vo. .. .... .. 160
Miles's Plain Treatise onWoodcuts.
Horse- Works of Thomas Moore's Poetical
Shoeing. With Plates
Second Edition. and 28.
Post Svo. || byNoEdition be publishedandcomplete
can LONGYAN
Messrs. Co . except
PUBLISHED BY LONGMAN, GREEN, AND CO. 17
Mollhausen's Diary of a Jour- | Moseley's Mechanical Principles
ney from theMississippi to the Coasts of Engineering and Architecture. Se
of the Pacific , with a United States cond Edition ,enlarged ; with numerous
Government Expedition . With an In
troduction by Baron2 HUMBOLDT; Woodcuts. Svo. 248.
and Illustrations, vols. 8vo, 30s.Map Memoirs and Letters of the late
Colonel ARMINE MOUNTAIN , Ad .
Moore.- The Power of the Soul | jutant-General
India Edited of H . M . MOUNTAIN
Forces in
tooverHealth
the Body, relation
consideredByin GEORGE
and Morals. Second. Edition, Portrait.
by Mrs.
Fcp.8vo. 6s..
MOORE, M . D . Fcp. 8vo. 6s. Mure. - A CriticalHistory ofthe
Moore.-- Language and Literature of Ancient
relation toThe Use .of BytheG .Body
theMind
M . D . Fcp .8vo. 6s. MOORE,in | Greeoe.
Caldwell. ByVOLS.WILLIAM
I. to III.MURE,
8vo. priceof
366.; VOL. IV . 15s.; and VOL. V . 18s.
Moore. - Man and his Motives. Murray's Encyclopædia of Geo
ByGEORGEMOOPE, M .D . Fcp.8vo.6s. graphy, comprising a complete Descrip
tion of the Earth : Exhibiting its Rela
James Montgomery 's Poetical tion to the Heavenly Bodies,History
, the Natural its Phy
Works : Collective Edition ; with the sicalStructure
each Country, and the Industry, Comof
Author's
complete inAutobiographical'
One Volume;with Prefaces,
Portrait. merce,
and Political
Social Institutions,
State82Maps,and
ofAll Nations.andSecond
Civil
and
10s , 6dVignette. Square 21s.
. cloth ; morocco, crown
- Or, 8vo Edition
in 4 1,000 ; with
other Woodcuts. 8vo. upwardsof
6ās.
vols. fcp. 8vo. with Plates, 14s.
Morell. - Element Neale. - TheandClosing Scene ; or,
s of Psycho Christiani ty Infidelity contrasted
logy : PART I., containing the Analysis in the Last Hours of Remarkable Per
Rev.8vo.ERSKINE NEALE,
of the Intellectual Powers. By J . D .
MORELL, M .A ., One of Her Majesty's M . A . By
sons. the fcp.
2 vols. 6s. each .
Inspectors ofSchools. Post 8vo.78.od.
Morning Clouds. By the Author Newman. ture - The Scope
JOHN ofHENRY
University
NEWMAN,
and Na
Education. By
D . D ., of the
oftionThe,revised
Afternoon of Life. Second Edi
throughout. Fcp. 8vo.58. Oratory. Second Edition. Fcp . Svo .6s.
Horton 's Agricult ural Hand Bythe sameAuthor, fop.800.68.each,
books. – Handbook of Dairy Hus LECTURES and ESSAYS on UNI
VERSITY SUBJECTS.
bandry
Food of: Comprising
the Cow ; Dairy
Milk Statistics
; Butter ;; The OFFICE and WORK of UNIVER
Cheese of; Daily
endar General Management; ; Cal
Ap. SITIES.
on Cheese-Dairy
pendix Operations
making ; and Index
By JOIN CHALMERS MORTON, 16mo.
1s.60.
Ogilvie.-
Plan ; or, The Master-Builder's
the Principles of Organic
HANDBOOK Architecture
Forms .Dofas. Animals
indicated, Byin the Typi
Steam , Horse, ofandFARM
Water LABOUR,
Power, cal
OGILVIK,M GEORGE
Post 8vo.with72Wood
nearly ready. cuts, price 6s. 60 .
Morton.
tatos : A -Treatise
The Resources of Es- | Osborn
on the Agricultural
. -- The Discovery of the
North-West Passage by H .M .S. Inves
Improvement tigator, Captain R . M 'CLURE, 1850- 1854 ,
ment of LandedandProperty
General. ByManage
JOHN Edited by Captain
C . B . Third EditionSHERARD
; with OSBORN,
Portrait,
graphic Ilustrations,. Royal8vo
LOCKHART MORTON With 25.818.
Litho
6d. Chart, and Illustrations. 8vo. 15s.
Moseley.-- Astro-Theology. By Professor ditOwen's omy Physioon
eratLectures
io nvAnatomyand
the Rev . HENRY MOSELEY , M . A ., logy ofE the IInvertebratea Animals.
the Comparative
F . R . S ., Chaplain in Ordinary to the
Queen , & c. Fcp . 8vo. 4s. 6d. SSecond
vo. Edition , with 235 Woodcuts.
18 NEW WORKS AND NEW EDITIONS
Professor
the Comparative Lectures
Owen'sAnatomy and Phy. ByF .G .SJOHN
A Guide toM .AGeology.
on Phillips.- PHILLIPS, .,corrected
F.R .S.;,
siology of the Vertebrate Animals, ., & c. Fourth Edition,
VOL. I. 8vo. 14s. with 4 Plates. Fcp.8vo.58.
Palleske's Life of Schiller. Piesse's Laboratory of Chymical
Translated by LADY WALLACE. De Wonders: A Scientific Mélange in
dicated by permission to Her Majesty tended for the Instruction and Enter
the Queen 24s.
. 2 vols. post Svo, with 2 tainment of Young People.[JustFep.
Portraits, with Illustrations. ready8vo. .
Memoirs
Arctic of Admiral
Navigator. son, the
By hisParry, the Piesse's Chymical, Natural, and
the Instruction
Rev. E . PARRY, M . A . Seventh Edition ; Physical Magic, for Juvenilesduring
with a Portrait and coloured Chart of and Entertainment of
the Holiday
the North-West Passage. Fcp.8vo.58. | cuts Vacation : with 30 Wood
and Portrait. Fcp. 8vo. 3s,bd.
Peaks, ofPasses,
SeriesAlpine andbyGlaciers:
Excursions Members a!
the Club. Edited by JOHNof Piesse's
Methods Art of Perfumery,
of Obtaining the Odoursandof
BALL, M . R .I.
Traveller's A ., F (the
Edition . L . S .,Fifth
President, Plants ; withof Perfumes
), com nufacture InstructionsforforthetheHand
Ma
prising
and the all the
Maps, Mountain
printed in Expeditions
a condensed kerchief, Soented Powders, Odorous
form 58,for 6dthe Vinegars, Dentifrices, Pomatums, Cos
16mo. . Pocket or Knapsack . Appendix inétiques, onPerfumed Soap, of& c. Flowers,
the Colours ; and an
The Fourth Edition of Peaks, Passes, Artificial Fruit
and Glaciers, with 8 coloured Illus Edition ; Woodcuts. Crown 8vo. 88. 6d.
Essences, & c . Second
trationsand many Woodcuts,may still
be had,MAPS,price 21s. Also the by aEIGHT Piozzi. - Autobiography,Letters,
the HEIGHTSaccompanied
ofSwiss of MOUNTAINS, 3s.Table
6d . and Literary Remains of Mrs. Piozzi
Johnson., Author
(Thrale) Edited , with Notes andofsome
of Anecdotes Dr.
of Sir ofRobert
CharacterSketch
Peel.- the Peel, and
Life Bart. account
A . HAYWARD , Esq., Q .C . With bya
of her Life and Writings,
By the Right Hon . Sir LAWRENCE ing
Portrait of Mrs. Piozzi, and an engrar.
PEEL. Post 8vo. 88.6d . from a Picture by Hogarth .
Dr.ria Pereira's
Medica andElements of Mate
Therapeutics. Third Pitt.-- How Guide
A complete to Brew
to the Good
Art ofBeer
Brew:
Edition
the , enlarged
Author's and improved
Materials A . S. Mfrom
byREES. ing
Tay. D . whichAle,Porter,
Stout, Bitter Ale, Table
Table Ale,
Beer.BrownTo
LOR, M . D ., and G . 0 . are addedand
PracticalInstructions
Vol. I. 8vo. 288. ; Vol. II. Part I. 215. ; for Making Malt. By JOHN PITT.
Vol. II. Part II. 268. Fcp. 8vo.45.60.
Dr.isedPereira's Lectures
Light, together Polar-on Porter.
a onLecture - History
of Malta,or the Knights
the Orderof ofthe Hospital
the Microscope.
from the Author's2d with
Edition,
Materials enlarged
by Rev. of St. John of Jerusalem . By Major
WHITWORTH PORTER, R . E . With 5
B . POWRLL, M . A . Fcp . 8vo, Woodcuts, Illustrations, 2 vols. 8vo. 24s.
price 78.
Peschel's
Translated Elements of Physics.
from the German, with Powell. EssaysPhilosophy,
the Inductive on the Spirit
the Unityof
Notes, by E . WEST. With Diagrams ofWorlds, and the Philosophy ofCrea
and Woodcuts, 3 vols, fcp. 8vo. 21s. tion
M . A .., &Byc. Crown
the 'Rev8vo.Woodcuts
. BADEN POWELL,
, 12s.6d.
Phillips's Elementary Introduc Powell.
tion to Mineralogy . A New Edition,
with extensive Alterations and Addi Judaism -: AChristianity
onBy the Second Series without
of Essays
tions,
and W by. H H.MILLER,
. J . BROOKE,
M .A .,F . FR .G.S ..,S.F With
numerous Woodcuts. Post 8vo. 18s,
.G .S .; theUnity ofWorlds
Rev . BADEN
Crown 8vo. 78,6d .
and ofM Nature.
POWELL, .A .,& c.
PUBLISHED BY LONGMAN , GREEN, AND CO. 19
Powell.
considered The OrdertooftheClaimsof
in reference Nature Riddle's
Four WeeksHousehold PrayersPrayersfor
: With additional
Revelation
onBy the : AofWorlds
Unity Third Series
and ofof Nature.
Essays for Speciala course
appended Occasions. To which
of Scripture Readis
the Rev . BADEN POWELL, M .A . | ing for Every Day in the Year. Second
Crown 8vo. 12s. Edition . Crown 8vo. s. 60 .
Power. . - By5s.Virginia 's Hand : a Riddle's CompleteDictionary,
Latin-English
Poem 8vo.
Fop. MARGUERITE A . POWER. and ofEnglish
use Colleges-Latin
and Schools. Newfor Edi
the
tion, revised and corrected. 8vo. 218.
Pycroft. The Collegian'sGuide;
or, Recollections of College Days: Set: Riddle's Diamond Latin -English
ting forth the Advantages Dictionary.and A right
and TempBy 1 Quality, Guide to the Meaning,of
theRev. J.PYCROFT, B .AEducation.
tations of a University . Fcp.8vo.6s. Latin ClassicalWords.Accentuation
Royal32mo.As.
Pycroft's' Courseand What
Reading; toor,How of English
Read : Riddle's copious
Lexicon,andfounded
Critical
every taste and tocapacity. Latin-English on the
With Literary Anecdotes. Fcp. 8vo. 58. liam Freund. Post 4to. 31s, 6d.Dr.Wil
Adapted German-Latin Dictionaries of
Pycroft's
Science andCricket-Field
History of the; Game
or, theof Rivers's Rose-Amateur's Guide;
containing ample Descriptions of all
Cricket. Third
Woodcuts. Fcp. Edition
8vo.5s.; Plates and the fine leading variety of Roses, regu
larly; their
classedHistory
in their
lies andrespective Fami
Mode ofCulture.
Sixth Edition , Fep . 8vo. 3s. 6d.
Quatrefages' Rambles of a Na.
turalist on the Coasts of France, Spain ,
and Sicily. Translated by E . c.OTTE'. Dr.English
E . Robinson 's Greek and
Lexicon to the Greek Testa
2 vols, post 8vo. 15s. ment.
Thomas Raikes's Journal from great partA New Edition,Svo.
re-written. revised
183. and in
1831 to 1847 : Comprising Remini
inscences
Londonof and
SocialParisandduring
Political
that Life
peMr.lectedHenry Rogers's Essays se
to the Edin
crown New
riod. price 12s,complete in 2 vols.
8vo. Edition, burgh fromReview Contributions
. Second Edition, with
Additions. 3 vols, fop.8vo.21s.
Ramsay.
North The
Wales and Old Glaciers of Samuel Rogers's Recollections
C . RAMSAY, S . and G .S . By
F . R .Switzerland. WithA . of Personal and Conversational Inter
course with Tooké,
Fox, Burke, Grattan, Por
Nap and 14 Woodcuts, Fcp. 8vo. son,Horne Talleyrand, Erskine,
price 4s, 6d. Scott, Lord Grenville, and the Dukeof
Wellington.
Svo. 58. Second Edition, Fep .
Rich 's Dictionary of Roman and
Greek Antiquities, with nearly 2,000
Woodcuts representing Objects from
the Antique.to theLatin
Forming Dictionary
an Illustrated Dr.lish Roget's
Words andThesaurus of Eng
Phrases classified and
Companion
Greek and arranged so as toandfacilitate the Expres
Edition.Lexicon.
Post 8vo.Second
12s.6d.and cheaper andsion of Ideas
Composition . Ninth assist in Literary
Edition,
improved. Crown 8vo . 10s,6d. revised
Horsemanship
Riding
; or ,a Horse,adapted
and Managing
the Art of Ronalds's Fly-Fisher's Entomo
to the Guidance of Ladies
in and
the Gentle logy : With coloured Representation
men
With onInstructions
the RoadforandBreaking-in Field
Colts: of
and the Natural and Artificial Insects,
aonfewTrout
Observations and Fishing,
Instruc
and Young Horses. By Captain RICH
ARDSON, lateofthe4th Light Dragoons. tions and Grayling
Fifth Edition ; with 20 new -coloured
With 5 Plates, Square crown 8vo. 148. 1 Plates. 8vo. 14s.
20 NEW WORKS AND NEW EDITIONS
Rowton's Debater: A Series of Sewell (Miss). - New Edition of
complete Debates, Outlines of Debates, | the Tales and Stories of the Author of
and Quiestions for Discussion ; with
ample References to the best Sources of
Amy Herbert, in 9 vols. crown 8vo .
price £1. 10s, cloth ; or each work com
Information. Fop .8vo.6s. plete
lows :
in one volume, separately , as fol
Dr.nalMezzofanti:
C . W . Russell's Life of Cardi
With an Introductory AMY HERBERT.. .... ... ... 28. 6d.
Memoir of eminent Linguists, Ancient GERTRUDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28. 60 .
and Modern . With Portrait and Fac TheEARL'S DAUGHTER .. 2s. 6d.
similes. 8vo. 12s. The EXPERIENCE ofLIFE.. 28. 6d.
Schimme lpennin Schimmelp(Mrs.)
Life ofMary Anne ck
– | CLEVE HALL .. ... .... .. ... 35.6d .
enninck , IVORS, or the Two COUSINS 35.6d.
Edited by. herFourth
relation,Edition,
CHRISTIANA C . KATHARINE ASHTON .. .. 38. 6d.
HANKIN
revised throughout; with a carefully
few Addi MARGARET PERCIVAL ..58. Od .
tions and a Portrait of Mrs.Schimmel- | LANETON PARSONAGE . . 4s. 6d .
Penninck . Post 8vo. 10s,6d.
Schimmelpenninck's (Mrs.) Fifth Also by the Author of Amy Herbert.
Se Passing
lect Memoirs of Port Royal. Thoughts on Religion.
Edition , revised, & c.by C . C . HANKIN . Nero Edition. Fcp. 8vo.5s.
3 vols . post 8vo. 218.
Schimmelpenninck's (Mrs.) Prin Ursula
ciples of Beauty ; with an Essay on the
: A Tale of English
Country Life. 2 vols. fcp.8vo. 128.
Temperaments, and
cian Thoughts onEdited
Gre History of the
from the First Earlyof theGospel
Preaching Church :
by C .andC . Gothic
HANKINArchitecture.
. With 12 coloured to the Council of Nicea . 18ino. 4s. 6a .
Illustrations in Facsimile of Original
Designs12s.by6d.Mrs. Schimmelpenninck.
price Self-Examination beforeandConfir
mation : With Devotions Direc
tions for Confirmation-Day. 32mo.ls.6d.
Schimmelpenni nck's (Mrs.)ofGod
Sa for a Month prepara
cred Musingson Manifestations
to theDestiny
the SoulofMan ; with
ofwoman , Thoughts
and other on Readings
sub tory to confirmation : Compiled from
jects. Edited by C . C . HANKIN ; with theWorksof Writers of the Early and
Preface of the English Church . Fop. 8vo. 4s.
8vo. 10s.by6d.the Rev . Dr. BAYLEE. Post
Dr. L . Schmitz's History of | Readings for every
Compiled from Day inof Lent:
theWritings
JEREMY TAYLOR. Fcp. 8vo. 7s. Bishop
Greece,mainly based upon Bishop Thirl
wall'snewHistory.
Nine SupplemenFifth
taryEdition , with
the Civilisatio n, Religion ,Chapters
Literatureon, Bowdler's Family Shakspeare :
In which nothing is added to the Ori
and ArtsbyofC .theH .WATSON
tributed Ancient Greeks, con.
, M . A . Trin ginal Text; but those words and ex
Coll. Camb. ; also a Map of Athens and pressions are omitted which cannot
137 Woodcuts designed by G . Scharf, with
trated propriety36 beWoodcut
read aloud. Illus
jun., F .S .A . 12mo. 78.6d. LibrarywithEdition , in One Vignettes.
Volume,
medium 8vo. price 21s . ; Pocket Eda
Scoffern (Dr.)—Explosive
ponsofWarand Projectile Wea
Compounds. tion
each, inPlay6 vols, for. Svo.price
separately, pricels.58. each ;
By J. .SCOFFERN
Edition , M .B . Lond.9s.6d.4th
Post 8vo.Woodcuts, Sharp's New British Gazetteer,
or Topographical Dictionary of the
Senior. - Journalkept in Turkey
and Greece in the Autumn of 1857 and British
prising Islands
concise and narrow Seas:
Descriptions Com
of about
the beginning
SENIOR, of With
Esq .8vo.1858. 2ByMaps
NASSAU
andW 2. 60,000 Places, Seats, Natural Features,
and Opjects of Note, founded on the
Views. Post 128. best authorities. 2 vols . 8vo . £2, 168.
PUBLISHED BY LONGMAN, GREEN, AND CO. 21
Shee. Life of Sirof theMartin
Shee, President Archer | TheRev.Wit
RoyalAcademy, Sydneyand
SmithWisdom
: a Selectionof ofthe
the
F . R . S ., DSABE
ARCHER .C .L ., ofBythehisMiddle
Son ,MARTIN
Temple , most memorable Passages in his Writ
Esq., Barrister-at-Law . 2 vols. 8vo. A ings and Conversation , 16mo. 78, 6d.
Memoir
21s. of the Rev.LADYSydney
Smith., ByWithhis aDaughter,
ShortWhist;
and Laws: With its Rise, Progress,
Observations to make LANÓ
Letters, edited by Selection
Mrs. from. HOL
AUSTIN his
New
any one a Whist-Player. Containing Edition . 2 vols.8vo. 28s.
also the Laws of Piquet, Cassino,
Ecarté,A .Cribbage,
Major Backgammon
New Edition . By
; with Precepts Thecellaneous
Rev. Works:
SydneyIncluding
Smith 'shisMis
con
for Tyros,by Mrs. B . Fcp. 8vo. 38. tributions to The Edinburgh Review .
Simpkinson. Four Editions:
tons: a Tale of— anTheEnglish
Parish
Washing
Country
in the Seventeenth Century.
1. Avols.
LIBRARY EDITION
8vo. with (the363.Fourth ), in 3
Portrait,
By the Rev. 2. Complete in ONE VOLUME, with Por
8vo. 108, 6d. J. N . SIMPKINSON , Post trait and Vignette.
21s. cloth Squarecrown
; or 30s. bound in calf. 8vo.
Simpson. - Handbook of Dining; 3. Another
8vo . 21s.
New EDITION, in 3 vols. fcp .
or , How to Dine, theoretically , philo 4. Theevo,People's
sophically
Based ,andupon
historically considereddu: price 8s.Edition,
cloth . in 2 vols. crown
Gorit ofchiefly the Physiologie
Brillat-Savarin
FRANCIS SIMPSON, M. . RBy.S .LEONARD
L . Fcp. The Rev.SketchesofMoral
mentary Sydney Smith's Ele
Philosophy.
8vo. 5s. delivered at the Royal Institution in
SirtheRoger De Coverley. From the Years 1804 to 1806 . Fcp. 8vo . 7s.
Spectator. With Notes and Illus Snow
trations,by
Wood W . HENRY
TAYLER.Engravings
WILLS
from10s.6d.
Crown 8vo.
; and 12
Designs
; orby21s.F . Tierra. -delTwo
Fuego,Years' Cruise
the Falkland off
Islands,
Patagonia , and in the River Plate : A
in morocco by Hayday . Narrative of Life in the .Southern
By W . PARKER Seas.
Thethe Sketches : Three Tales. By and Illustrations.SNOW With Charts
2 vols.post 8vo. 24s.
Man's Authors of Amy Herbert, The Old
8vo. priceHome,
4s, 60,and Hawkstone. Fcp. | Robert southey
icalWorks;
last
's Complete
containingall
Introductions
Poet
the Author's
Sleigh. - Personal Wrongs and plete in One Volume, with PortraitCom
and Notes.
Vignette.in morocco. and
Medium 8vo.
Legal Remedies.
SLEIGH By W Temple
, of the Middle . CAMPBELL
, Esq., | 8vo.
bound Or 21s.
with Portrait and19 in 10cloth
vols.; 428,
Vignettes, fcp.
358.
Barrister-at-Law . Fcp. 8vo. 2s. 6d.
Smee's Elements of Electro Southey's
Metallurgy . Third Edition , revised : One
Doctor, complete
J. W . Volume.
WARTER, Edited by the
B . D . With
in
Rev.
Portrait,
with Electrotypes and numerousWood
cuts. Post 8vo. 10s.60 .
Vignette, Bust, and coloured Plate.
Square crown 8vo. 21s.
Smith (G .) - History of Wes-
leyan Methodism . By GEORGE SMITH , Rise Southey's Life
andEdition, of Wesley
Progress ; and.
ofbyMethodism
FVOL.
. A .S.,I.Wesley
Author and
of Sacred Annals, & c. Fourth edited Rev
his Times; VOL. II. SOUTHEY, M . A , 2 vols, crown 8vo. . C 12s.
. C.
The Middle Age ofMethodism , from
1791 to 1816. Crown8vo. 108.6d. each. Spencer. - Essays, Scientific, Po
Smith ( J.)of- St.ThePaul:Voyage and 1 litical,
SPENCER, and Speculative. By HERBERT
Author fromof Social Statics.
Shipwreck With Disser- Reprinted 12s, cloth . Quarterly Re
tations on the Life and Writings of St. l views. 8vo.chiefly
Luke, the Ships
ofF . Rthe.S . andAncients. JAMESNavigation
By and SMITH, Spencer. - The Principles of
With Charts, Views, and Psychology. By HERBERT SPENCER,
Woodcuts. Crown 8vo. 83.6d. Author of Social Statics. 8vo. 16s.
22 NEW WORKS AND NEW EDITIONS
Spitta. for Domesti
- Lyra
tian Songs
ca : Chris-n . Bishop
Domestic Edificatio Greece. Thirlwal l 's History
Library Edition of
; with Maps.
Translated from the Psaltery and Harp 8 vols . 8vo. £3. - An Edition in 8 vols .
of C . J. P . SPITTA, By RICHARD
MASSIE. Fop. Svo. with Portrait,
fcp .8vo. with Vignette Titles, 28s.
price 4s. 6d . Thomson's Seasons. Edited by
BOLTON CORNEY, Esq. Tlustrated
JamesicalStephen's
SirEcclesiast
complete in One Biography
Volume; 4thwithEditionBioin,
. Essays with
Designs 77 fine Wood Engraving
by Members
Club. Square crown 8vo.
s from
of the21s.Etching
cloth ;
graphical Notice of the Author by or 365, bound in morocco .
his Sox . 8vo. 14s. Dr. Thomson's
The theRev.Necessary OatlineA
of Thought:
n ' s Lectures
History of France. on the21 ofTreatise
Third Edition. on Pure Laws
and Applied Logic .
vols. 8vo. 24s. 5th Edition . Post 8vo.59.60.
Stonehe nge. - The Dog in Health | Thomson 's Tables of Interest,
and Disease : Comprising the various at Three , Four, Four-and-a-Half, and
Modes of
Hunting, Breaking Shooting,
Coursing, and using &him Five Thousand,
c.; andfor Ten per cent.,andfromfromOne1 to Pound
365 Daysto
Days,
including the Points or Characteristics
of Toy Dogs. By STONEHENGE. With with in a regular
Interestprogression ofsingle
at all Months,
the aboveandRates, ;
about 70 Illustrations engraved on from One to Twelve
Ten Years.
One toTables Also, numerous from
Wood. Square crown 8vo . 15s. other of Exchange, Time, and
Stonehenge's Work on theGrey Discounts. 17th Edition, revised and
hound : Being a Treatise on the Art of stereotyped . 12mo. 3s.6d.
Breeding, Rearing,
Diseases forandPublic
hounds andRunning
Treatment: ; Grey:
Training theirg
Containin
Thumb
TheSempitern um . Bible : or. Verbum
By J. TAYLOR . Being
also Rules for the Management of an Epitomeof
ments in English and New
the OldVerse. Testa
Reprinted
Coursing Meetings, and for the Deci
sion of Courses. With Frontispiece and from the Edition of 1693. 64mo. Is.60.
Woodcuts. Square crown 8vo. 21s.
Todd (Dr.)— The
PhysioMCyclopædia
my . TODD, logy. of
StowTraini's ngTraining
School, andSystem ROBERT Band
Semi Anato
Norma, lMoral .R . S., &byc.
. D ., F Edited
Governforesses.
nary ing School
preparElevent h Edition s and
master; Plates Now comple
with te in 5ts,vols.8vo.pp.5,850,
2,853Woodcu £6.6s. cloth.
and Woodcuts. Post 8vo. 68. 6d .
Strickla nd. ByLivesof the Queens Tooke.-- History
of the State of Prices,
of the Circulatio and
n , during
England.
ofDedicated, AGNESSTRICKLA ND. theNine Years from 1848 to 1956
by express permission, to sive. Forming Vois. V . and VI. of inclu
Her Majesty. Embellished with Por
traits of every , engraved
Queensources. from
Tooke's History of Prices; with full
Index to the whole work . By THOMAS
the most authentic Complete MARCH . F .R2 vols.
TOOKE, . S . and WILLIAN NEW
8vo.52s.6d.
in 8 vols. post 8vo.7s.6d, each .
Tate on the Strength of Mate- Trevelyan (Sir C.) - Original
rials ; containing various original and Papers illustrating the History of the
Application ges
of the Roman Alphabet to
useful
TubularFormulæ Iron andto
Wroughtapplied
Bridges,, specially the Langua of India . Edited by
Cast Iron Beams, & c . 8vo. 5s ,6d . MONIER WILLIAMS, M .A . 8vo. 12 .
Tennent.-- An Account
, Physical,: Historical,
ofthe IslandCeylon and Trollope. - TheWarden,a
By ANTHONY Novel.
TROLLOPE. New and
cheaper Edition. Crown 8vo.33.60.
ofTopographical: with Copiousties,
lHistory,
tions. HlustraAntiqui
itsNatura Notices
and
The Wardener . Towers,
ted by 9 Maps,
a Sequel to Barchest
Trollope's
Produc Engrav
17ingsPlans By Sirand J.90EMERSON
and Charts,
on Wood. New and
TENNENT, K . č .s ., LL . D ., & c . Fifth cheaper Edition, complete in One
Edition. 2 yols. 8vo. price 50s. Volume. Crown 8vo. 58.
PUBLISHED BY LONGMAN, GREEN, AND CO. 23
ThelectionTraveller's Library : A Col. , Sharon Turner's History of the
of original Works well adapted for Anglo-Saxons, from theEarliest Period
Travellersand Emigrants, for School-room to theNorman Conquest. 3 vols. 86s.
Libraries, sMechanics'
iLibraries,
mited for andInthefor Dr.andTurton'sManual
ng andBlendofsimilar
the Libraries
Fresh-Water ShellsoftheLand
Libraries ofYoung
stitutions, Ships, Men's purposes. Britain :New WithEdition of Great
Figures, withof each of the
The separate
Prizes, Presents volumes
to are suited
Young for andSchoolfor kinds.
People, Additions
general instruction and entertainment. by Dr. J. E .GRAY, F .R .S . Crown 8vo .
The Series comprises fourteen of the most with 12 coloured Plates, 15s.
popularSpeeches
his of Lordon Macaulay' s Essays,Reformand. Twisden.
Parliamentary amples incopious -Practical
ElementaryMechanics, com Ex
The department of Travels contains
accountof eight of theprincipal countriesof tions. some prising
Proofs By of the Explanations
Fundamental and
Proposi
Europe, as well as travels in four districts M . A .,College.the Rev.
ProfessorCrown John
of Mathematics F . TWISDEN ,
of Africa, in four ofAmerica, and in three of Staff
Asia. Madame Pfeiffer's First Journey 8vo. 12s. in the
round the World is included , and a general | Dr. Ure's Dictionary of Arts,
accountof theHistory
Australian
graphy andBiographical
caulay's beColonies.
willSketches
foundofLordIn Ma
Warren
Bio Manufactures, and Mines : Containing
a clearPractice.
ExpositionNewof their Principles
Hastings, Clive, Pitt, Walpole, Bacon , and and rewritten greatly Edition,
andWoodcuts. enlarged chiefly
; withby
others
renne, ; besidesMemoirs
F. Arago, & c. ; anof Wellington,
Essay on the Tre
Life nearly
ROBERT 2,000
HUNT, F .R .S ., F.S Edited
.S., Keeper
and Genius of Thomas Fuller, with Selec ofMining Records. 3 vols. 8vo. £A .
Mr. Henry
byLeipsic
Writings,
Rogers;,frombyandMr.hisa history
tions ofthe Camonly- | Walford. - The Handybook of
separate account of this remarkablethe cam
paign Gleig, which is .AService.
PORD,CivilMOxford.
the By EDWARD
., late Scholar WAL
of Balliol
paign. WorksofFiction did'SnotLIBRARY;
comewithin College, Fcp. 8vo.48. 6d.
the
the plan of the TRAVELLER
Confessions of a Working Man , by Soubut “ UTERE is the very book which aspirants to
vestre,which
fact,has been isincluded,
indeed a and fictionhas founded
been readon It explains thewhole system are
11 Governmentsituations fromin search of.
principles
with
ing unusual, forinterest
classes whose bymany of the work-re 1 tends to open for the candidate a road ratherit
usestoryit isofespecially
to details. One objection to it may be that
commended . Dumas's theofMaitre too royal." ATHEN ÆUM.
dgives
'Armes,
a thoughpicture
striking in formof aanwork episodeinfictionthe, Warburton, Hunting Songs
history ofandRussia
Science Natural . Amongst
Philosophy, the works
a general on and Miscellaneous
EGERTON WARBURTON Verses.
. Second By REdi.E.
view
Naturalof Creation
History is embodied
of Creation in Dr. Kemp's
in hisin
, and facts tion . Fcp . 8vo. 58.
Indications of Instinct remarkable Waterton
natural
has
Electric
history are
contributed
Telegraph.
collectedaccount
a popular
In the
. Dr. Wilson
volumes ofon the
the History, 'schiefly
Autobiography
Essays on Natural
Ornithology
of the Author,: With
THREE
Coal- Fields,
Mining Districtsand on the
of Cornwall, Tin and
is given other
an SERIES ; with Portraitand 2 Vignettes.
3 vols. fcp. 8vo. price 16s.
account
the
the
of
habits
onlyscenery
the
and mineral
manners wealth
of
remainsof totheaddsurrounding
the of England,
miners,
, that amongcountry.
and
the MisIt
Webb. - Celestial Objects for
Common Telescopes. By the Rev.
cellaneousofWorks are aSydney
SelectionSmith
of the; Lord
best T . W .WEBB, M . A ., F . R .A . S. With
Map
Writings
Carlisle's
the
Lectures
count of Mormonism
Rev. and addressess
, by oftheRailwayan
Rev. W ma .acJ . 16mo. of7s. the Moon , and Woodcuts.
Conybeare
nagement ; anmismanagementby
and exposition Mr. Her Webster and Parkes's Encyclo
paedia of Domestic Economy; com
bert Spencer ; an account of the Origin and prising such connected
subjects as withare most im
Practice ofof London
account Printing, by Mr. Stark , and- Toanmediately House
be had , in complete,bysetsMr.onlyM ,'Culloch.
at £5. 58. per
keeping : viz. The Construction
mesticEdifices,with theModesofWarm of Do
Set,bound in cloth and lettered. ing, Ventilating, and Lighting them
behad Theoriginally
Traveller'sissued
Library may also Furniture,
A descriptionwithof thethevarious Articles of
ls, each,asforming 50 vols. 28.in6d,102eachparts,
; or Materials Nature of -their
With nearly 1,000 Woodcuts. 8vo.50s.c.
- Duties of Servants &
any separate parts or volumes.
24 NEW WORKS PUBLISHED BY LONGMAN AND CO.
d. ands
WelHighl - Two Months in the Wills.- “ The Eagle's Nest ” in
, Orcadia , and Skye. By the Valley of Sixt; a Summer Home
CHARLES RICHARD WELD ,ration
Barrisster . amon g the Alps : Together with some
at-Lawmo. Withgraph4y Illust cutsin ExcursionsEDamong StheGreat Glaciers le.
Chro -litho
from Sketc hes by Mr. 4 Wood
andGEOR GE BAR By ALFR
Templ WILLster-, at-of Law
eon, Esq . Barri Middnd
the . Seco
NARD and the Autho r. Post 8vo.12s.6d. Editi , with 2 Maps and 12 Illustra
tions. Post 8vo.125.6d.
Weld 's Pyrenees, West and
East. With 8 Illustrations in Chromo
Wilm ot. or, an Broug
Reforms;- Lord
ham Review
Analytical 'sLaw
xylography. Post 8vo. 128. 6d. of Lord Brougham Present
's Acts and Bills
Time. By
Weld's Vacation Tour in the from
Sir JOHN the
1811E .toEARDLEY-WILMO T, Bart.,
Recorder ofWarwick . Fcp. 8vo.45.6d .
United States and Canada. 10s. 6d. gmenton theof Blac
t's Abridtaries k
Weld's Vacations in Ireland. Wilmo stone's d,Commen Laws of
Englan in a series of Letters from a
Post8vo. 10s.6d. Father to his Daughter. 12mo. 6s, 6d .
Dr.theCharles West's Lectures on Wilson's Bryologia Britannica :
Diseases of Infancy and Childhood. Containing the Mosses ofGreat Britain
ly revised
carefulusadditional and Irelanded accord arrangedd
ticallytheMetho
systemaing
Fourth hout;
throug with, numero
Edition and describ
and Schimp
BruchPlates.
oftrative er ;towith 61 illusn,
Cases, and a copious INDEX, 8vo. 14s. Being a New Editio
Dr.SickCharl esn :West on Nursi ng enlarge d andica altered,
gia Britann or,withHooker
of ;Messrs. ando
of the Muscol
the Plates
Childre Contai ning Directi ons Taylor.d,8vo.428.
which may be found of service to all coloure price £A. 4s.
the .Charge
SecondhaveEdition
who Fcp. 8vo. Is. 6dYoung.
of the . Yonge's New ningEngli shthe-Greek
Whit e and Riddl e. - A Latin- | Lexiconused
Words : Contai
by Writer s allof good Greek
autho
English Dictionary. By the Rev. J . T . rity. Second Edition. Post 4to. 21s.
WHIT E , M .Ad ., of Corpus Rev.
lege, E,OxforM .A ,., and theEdmunChristiJ .ColE . Yonge's New Latin Gradus :
RIDDL
tionary ofFounde
Oxford. Freund,
of St.
d onrevised
the larger
by
d Hall, Contai
himselDicf, Eton ofninggoodEvery
Poets, Westmi authoriWord
nster, ty. For
Winche
usedthebyusetheof
ster, Har.
[Nearly ready. row , and Rugby Schools ; King's Col
lege, London ; and Marlborough Col
Royal 8vo. lege. Sixth Edition . Post 8vo. 9s. ;
White
teenth
side. - y.Italy
Centur By the
the Nine
in Right Hon .
or, with APPENDIX of Epithets , 12s .
JAMES WHITESIDE, M . P . LL. D . Youatt's Worke on the Horse :
Third Edition , abridged and revised : With a revised Draughd tby. ENew
Treatis andon enlarge .N.
with a new Preface . Post 8vo. 128, 6d. GABRI Edition,EL, M . R ut ., C . V .ations,
.C .SIllustr nu
š . Withchiefly
Wilkins. - Political Ballads of merou from
s Woodc
designs by W . Harvey . 8vo.
eenth enth CenR price 108, 6d, cloth .
the Sevent
turies, annotated .andByEighte W . WALKE
WILKINS. 2 vols. post 8vo. Youatt. - The Dog. By William
New Edition; withs nume.
ar Tables rous EngravA ings,
Youatt. by W .
ascertah ining
from Design
Willic 's Popul
the value of Lifeholford, Harvey. Svo. 6s.
Leasehold , and& c. Church
newalFines,
ditiona l Tables - Chemic
Property,
numero us Re
With al,Astronomi ad Zump t's Grammar of the Latin
Language. Translated and adapted for
cal, Trigon ometri cal, Commo
thms; n and
nts, the F .R .S .E .:Studen
useTZ,of English ts by Dr. us
L.
Squareolic
Hyperb s, Cubes, Constacals,
LogariRoots, Recipro SCHMI With numero
Additions and Corrections by the Au
& ē. Fourth Edition. Post 8vo.10s. thor and Translator. Svo. 14s.
(October 1860.
LONDON : PRINTED BY SPOTTISWOODE & CO , NEY - STREET SQUARE.
MISS STRICKLAND'S LIVES OF THE QUEENS OF ENGLAND AND
MRS. GREEN'S LIVES OF THE PRINCESSES OF ENGLAND.
Complete in 8 vols. post 8vo. price £3, cloth lettered,
LIVES OFBy MissTHEAGNES
QUEENS OF ENGLAND.
STRICKLAND.
Dedicated, by express permission , to Her Majesty .
EMBELLISHED WITH PORTRAITS OF EVERY QUEEN,
ENGRAVED FROM THE MOST AUTHENTIC SOURCES.
*** All the volumes may be had separately , price 7s.61. each.
« THESE volumes havethe fascination " THIS remarkable,this truly greathis
tory.ofromance
The work united to the
by integrity
a lady of ofhis
consi- siont . oricalwork,
In this seriesis ofbiographies,
now broughtto ina conclu
iswritten which
derable learning, indefatigable industry,and the severe truth of history takes almost the
careful judgment. All these qualifications wildness of romance, it is the singular merit
for a biographer and an historian she has of Miss STRICKLAND that her research has
brought to bear upon the subject of her enabled her to throw new light on many
volumes, and from them as resulted a doubtful passages, to bring forth fresh facts ,
narrative
shouldinteresting to all. The wholebe and to she
render every portion of our annals
work be read, and no doubtwill which has described an interesting and
read, by all who are anxious for informa- valuable study. She has given a most valu
tion . It is a lucid arrangement of facts, able contribution to the history of England,
derived from authentic sources, exhibiting and we have no hesitation in affirming that
2 combinntion of industry , learning, judg- no one can be said to possess an accurate
ment, and impartiality , not often met with knowledge of the history of the country who
in otographers of crowned heads." has not studied her Lives of the Queens of
THE TIMES. England ." MORNING HERALD

Complete in 6 vols. post 8vo. price £3. 3 . cloth lettered,


LIVES OF THE PRINCESSES OF ENGLAND.
By Mrs. MARY ANNE EVERETT GREEN ,
EDITOR OF THE LETTERS OF ROYAL AND ILLUSTRIOUS LADIES.
WITH NUMEROUS PORTRAITS.
*** Allthe volumes may behad separately , price 10s.6d. each.
" TNweclosing this
finallylastreview ofthework
Mrs.GREEN , " MRS.
1 workGREEN has nowinterest
ofgreat national completed
and ima
without cannot
again bearing our from
part testimony to the portance, which will take rank amongst the
careful research and diligent examination of most
Englishvaluable
history.contributions to the
We close our storesonof
remarks
anthorities which each volume displays. this remarkable series ot biographies by ex
Along the line
incidental lightofhassixbeen
hundred
thrownyears
notmueh
only pressing
sense on behalf of the
oftheobligation reading
which public our
the industrious
on English but on Continental history ; and and talented author has conferred on histo
as a valuable contribution towards both we rical and biographical literature by her ad
recommend these volumes.” ATKEN & UM . mirable Lites of the Princesses of England."
JOHN BULL.
London : LON ernoster Row .
8