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Forthcoming issues feature:

Volume 7 Issue 75 Modern 2 to 5 Tonne Trucks

Allied Destroyers of World Wu II
Published by
Orbis Publishino Ltd Modern Machine Pistols and SMGs
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Colour profiles, diagrams and cutaway World lTu II Land-Bued Rockets
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Attacks against shipping arowrd the war-zone coasts, and the
incessant vigil against submarines, kept many aircraft busy Japanese cargo ships plying the islands of the
Dutch East Indies were facedwith the constant
tlvoughout the waL These ranged from fighters to heavy threat of attackfrom Consolidated Liberators of
the USAAF 13th Air Force, here seen strating two
bombets, all playing thefu part in denying the enemy freed,om ships caughtin the open.
Of all the nations drawn into World War II during 1939 and 1940 none had Ignoring the relatively fruitless efforts by Bristol Blenheims ar-j
more pressing needs of anti-shipplng aircraft than the UK ior, as a Ansons ln the early months, the RAF began to achieve worthv,.hi=
sea-grri power, her lifelines were crltically vulnerable to attack from successes when such aircraft as the Vickers Welhngton, Bristol Beal:-lcl -
surface raider, submarine and aircraft alike, Yet responsibrlity for de- and Bristol Beaufighter arrived in Coastai Command, while in the F;-
ience against this threat was, as had been for centuries, vested almost air forces the Dornier Do 217 and Junkers Ju 88 proved fairly effec:;:
exclusively in the Royal Navy, Lip service had been paid to the RAF with particularly in operations against the Allied North Cape convoys -::
'Jre provision of such aircraft as the Avro Anson, while the Lockheed which the Heinkel He 111 also participated. In the Savoia-Marche::
lludson began arriving from America in 1939 to provide relatively S,M,79 the ltallans also possessed an excellent torpedo bomber -r';il::
iong-range reconnaissance/attack muscle for Coastal Command, was flown to good effect against Brrtrsh shipping in the Mediterra_nea:-
As in so many of the wartime air forces, the emergence of the maritime The Americans, however, were caught largely unprepared for a:::-
s?ike role after the outbreak of hostilities brought about the demand for shipprng tasks andso reliedheavily on adaptation of the Boeing B-1T a:_J
adaptation of obsolescent aircra-ft (flghters, bombers and even trans- Consolidated B-24, the latter's very long range suiting it admuabl_; :::
ports) to meet the operational requirements, The parameters of the ocean patrol and long-distance attack, Likewise the Japanese, desg-::
lequirements.themselves were so broad (the equation of iong-range embarking on their far-flung Pacific campaign, had assumed tha: ca:-
:avigation accuracy over featureless oceans, precision of attack equip- rterborne attack bombers would embrace the majority of mar:::=
nent and a wlde assortment oiweapons whlch included cannon, depth strike operations. Such was the nature of the organization of the knper_.-
:harges, bombs, rockets and torpedoes) that no single aircraft could be Japanese Navy, however, that from the first days of the Paciic -r-
:cnsidered ideal. Moreover, beyond the scope of this study were the conslderable dependence was placed on land-based antr-shicc:_g
:trer important anti-shipping aircraft, the minelayers. bombers, and it was the Mitsubishi G3M that participated in the succes-=-
It may be said that premeditated anti-shipprng operations, as distinct frrl attack on the British capital shrps HMS Pince of VZales ani E..S
rcm long-range anti-submarine attacks which were usually the result of Repulse, one of the war's most successful air strikes agairst
:rance sightings during tedious ocean patrols, were largely confined to warships at sea,
re 'narrow seas' around Europe, from the North Cape of Norway to the
Manning a German minesweeper in the North Sea during )944-5 was not the
l'lediterranean, although the US and Japanese air forces also engaged in best of postings. Here an 'M' class boat receives the attention of Coastal
=r:-shrpprng operations in the Pacific, particularly during the latter part Command Beaufighters armedwith rockets and cannon. This actionocstrd
:: jre war, as did the RAF in the Bay of Bengal, northwest of Borkum on 25 August 1944.
ffi nuro Anson
Anachromstic relic of pre-war RAF ex-
pansion, the Avro Anson was originally
the result of a coastal reconnaissance
aircraft requrrement, and was de-
veloped from a six-seat commercial
aircraft, It fust flew on 24 March 1935 K8?'55.,
and. powered by Cheelah engnnes.
the Anson Mk I entered sewice with
No, 48 Squadron in March i936, and
was the first RAF aircraft with a retract-
able landing gear, albeit manually
operated, The Anson subsequently
served with 12 squadrons of Coastal AvroAnsonGR.Mkl oINo.220 Sqn, CoastalCommand, in the overallsilver pre-war paint scheme
Command up to the beginning of the
war, when the first Lockheed Hudsons
were just beginning to arrive from
America. Nevertheless Ansons were
retained on short-ranqe coastal recon-
naissance dutres in dimimshing num-
bers until 1942, occasionally havrng
brushes with the enemy. By the begrn-
ning of the war, however, the Anson
was already in use as an aircrew train-
er for navigators, wrreless operators
and air gmnners, and it was for this long
and priceless sewice that the 'faithful
Annie' is best remembered, Jacobs-
and Wright-powered Anson Mk III
and Anson Mk [V arrcraft were ship-
ped to Canada to equip the grrowrng
numbers of flying schools under the
Commonwealth Air Training Scheme.
Canadian manu-facturers also produc- Mks 19, 20, 2 I and 22, reached a total of Performance: maximum speed Ever on the alert, an Anson ofNo.48
ing the Anson Mks II, V and VL Liqht 1 1,020 aircraft, includinq 2 822 btrll tn 303 krn/h (1BB mph) at 2134 m (7,000 ft); Sqn keeps watch on a convoy out of
transport conversions from the Anson Canada. initial climb rate 219 m (720 ft) per Liverpool. At the outbreak ofwar, the
Mk I resulted in the Anson Mks X, XI minute; service ceillnq 5791 m Anson formed the bulk of Coastal
and XII, some of which were em- ( 19,000 ft); ranse 127 I km (790 miles) Command's fleet. No. 48 Sqn was
ployed as air ambulances; the Anson Specification Weights:empty 2438 kq (5,375 lb); based atHooton Park to protect the
Mk XI was powered by Cheetah XIX AvroAnsonMkI maximum take-off3629 kq (8,000 lb) Western Approaches.
engines driving Fairey-Reed metal Type: three-seat general- Dimensions:span17.22 m) (56 ft 6 in);
propellers, and the Anson Mk XII had reconnaissance aircraft lenqth 12 BB m 142 ft 3 in) height 3 99 m 7.7-mm (0 303-rn) machtne-qun in nos:
Cheetah XVs drrving constant-speed Powerplant:two 350-hp (261- kW) (13 ft lin); winqarea43.0l m and one 7,7-mm machine-gnrn in dorsa
Rotol propellers. Production, which Armstrong Siddeley Cheetah IX radial (463,0 sq ft) tullet, plus provisron to carry up to
continued after the war with the Anson piston engines Armament: one fixed forward-firing 163 ks (360 lb) of bombs

ffi tristol Beaufighter

To a large extent responsible for the
defence aqrainst the German Blitz of
1940-1 as the RAF's first purpose-burlt
night fighter the Bristol Beaufighter
remained in service as such almost to
the end of the war. Such was its per-
icrmance, however, that in 1941 it also
--ajne lo be developed lirsr os an rn-
iruder and, as a natural follow-on,
specrahst anti shipprng strike aircraft.
a {
ft was moreover no stranqer to RAF
Coastal Command the BeaufighterMk
IC having been specially prepared as BristolBeaufighterTF.MkX of No.455 Sqnarmedwitheightunderwing,ungaided rcckets.
a long-range maritime frghter with
aidrtronal navigration and radio equip-
::lent. The Beaufighter Mk VIC wlth
- 6d0-hp (1230,4-kW) Hercules VI or
.'-\'1 raoials ieat .l red tor t ho first nme an
aCdrtronal dorsal machine-Qun to pro-
','-de token defence against enemy
'ghters which Coastal Command
squadrons frequently encountered
:;er the Bay of Biscay.
As early as March 1941 a Beauflght
:r Mk I underwent trials with a torpe
::. and rn September the followinqi
r'*-ar another arrcraft was fltted with
- i 2-mm (3-in) rocket projectiles. Two
:.. :'hs larer lhe hrsl
BedLfi ghter Slrtke
was formed at North Coates, Lin-
::.:lshre, comprisinq No 143 Squad-
::: (Beaufighter flghters), No 236

Towards the end of thewar, the

ungaided rocket became the major
ant- sh i p p in g w e apon, e spec ially
against the small targets often
encountered in the Channel. These
iv e r e u s u a lly ripp I e - fir e d.
Bristol Beaufi ghter (continued) Anti-Shipping Aircraft of World War II

Be au fi ghters we r e p ar ticu lar Iy being to attack escortinq Fiak ships squadrons (Nos 22, 27, I77,211 and Beautighter attack ! Trailing vordces
accurate against shipping, proving while the torpedo aircraft and bom- 217), proving deadly when flown from its wingtips, tftrs Seau'rs
to be a steady platform during the bers went for the enemy merchant- against Japanese shipping being pulling out from its strike against a
diving attack. Aswell as sewingin men, sarled along the Burma coast. German ship. Further aircralt
home waters, the Beaufighter had As the Beaufighter was grradually re- behind it succeed in turning the
gre at success ag ainst J apanese placed in service as a night-fighter its Specification waterwhite.
shipping. rmportance as a maritime strike air- Bristol Beaufighter TF.Mk X
craft grrew, The Beaufighter TF.Mk X Tlpe: two-seat torpedo-strike fighter Dimensions:span 17,63 m (57 ft 1l -r-'
Squadron (Beaufigrhter bombers with a was introduced with ASV (air-to- Powerplant: two 1,770-hp (1319.9-kW) length 12,70 m(41 ftB in); herqhtt t2:
pair of 113- or 227-kg/250- or 500{b surface vessel) radar and carried uni- Bristol Hercules XVII 14-cylinder air- 1t51 tO rn;; wlngarea+O,ZS #
bombs) and No, 254 Squadron ('Tor- versal racks which enabled combina- cooled radial piston engines (503 sq ft)
beau' torpedo-carrying Beaufighters). tions of bombs, rockets and torpedo to Performance: maximum speed Armament: four 20-mm Hrspano
By the sprrng of 1943 the wing was in be carned, Strike Beaufighters served 4BB kni/h (303 mph) at 396 m ( 1,300 ft); cannon in nose and one 7 7-m t0.3. : -
frequent action against German supply wrth a total of I t home-based Coastal climb to 1524 m (5,000 ft) in 3,5 minutes; in) machrne-qnrn rn dorsal posrtc:.
ships sailing between enemy-held Command squadrons, and seven in the sewice ceilinq4572 m (15,000 ft); plus either eight 76,2 mm (3-Ln) r:c<::
ports in the North Sea, In May that year Middle East. The aircra-ft reached the normalrange 2366 km (1,470 miles) projectiles and two 227-kq (500 lbl
rocket-firing Beaufighter Mk VICs en- Far East in January 1943 and soon after- Weights: empty 7076 kg (15,600 1b); bombsor asingle 748-kg 11.65C-t ::
tered service, their principal task wards begran to re-equrp five strike maximum take-off 1 1431 kg (25,200 lb) 965-kq (2, 127-]b) torpedo

>K tristol Beaufort

Until superseded by the torpedo-
carrying Beaufighter, the Bristol
Beaufort was the RAF's standard torpe
do-bomber from 1940 to 1943, replac-
rng the aged Vickers Vildebeest bi-
plane. First flown on 15 October 1938,
the Beaufort Mk I, of which early ver-
sions were powered by 1,010-hp
(753.2'kW) Bristol Taurus 1l radials (la- *m
ter replaced by Taurus VIs), joined No. E
22 Squadron in December 1939 and J Bristol Beaufort Mk I of No. 22 Sqn, Coastal Command. No. 22 Sqnwas the fust
carried out their first mrnelaying sortie inservicewith this torpedo-bomber. Despiteearly problems, itwent on to
on 15-16 August 1940, Beauforts also Scharnhorst and Gnersenau on 6 April provide useful service.
dropped the RAF's first 907-kq (2,000- l94i in Brest harbour (which earned a
lb) bomb on 7 May Total production of posthumous VC for Flying Offlcer K. Powerplant: two 1, 130-hp (842.6-kW) (some aircraft had a rear-finng
the Beau-fort Mk I was 965, and this Campbell of No, 22 Squadron), and Brtstol Taurus VI radtol prsron engtnes machine-gun under the nose a:. j -,'. :
version was followed by the Beaufort during the warships' escape up the Performance: maximum speed in beam-flring positions), plus a
Mk II with American Pratt & Whitney English Channel early in 1942 426 km/h (265 mph) at 1829 m (6,000 ft); bombloadupto 907 kq (2,000 lbl ::
T\ruin Wasp radials, production con- Beauforts were also very actrve while servLce cerling 5C29 m 1 I 6,500 ft). one 728-ks (1,605'lb) 457-mm (-3-:.
trnuingr untrl 1943, by which time 4]5 based on Malta, attacking Axrs ship- range 2575 km (1,600 miles) torpedo
had been produced The flnal Beaufort ping being sailed to North Africa The Weights: empty 5942 kq (13, 100 lb);
Mk IIs were completed as trainers Beaufort Mks VIX were built rn Au- maximum take-off 9629 kq (2 1, 228 lb) No.2l7 Sqn flew its Beauforts from
with the two-gun dorsal turret deleted. straha for the RAAF in the Far East Dimensions:spanI7.62 m (57 ft l0 in); Malta, and these were responsi.ble
Beauforts equipped srx Coastal Com- production totalling 700.
lgls-tl J3:49 m
(44 ft 3 in) height 4,34 m for many of the problems faced by
mand squadrons in the United Krng- ( l4 ft 3 in); wing area 46,73 m Axis shipping in the Mediterranean.
dom and four in the Middle East, their Specification (503.0 sq ft) Only one torpedocould be carried.
most famous operations beinq carried Bristol Beaufort Mk I Armament: rwo 7 7-mm 10 303-rn) but the aircraftpossessed,bombrngr
out aqrainst the German warships Type: four-seat torpedo-bomber machine-guns in nose and dorsal turret and mine laying capabili ty.
ffi f,e navilland Mosquito
In much the same manner that the tively, later aircraft were strengthened 25 August 1943, after which 27
flight on Performance: maximum speed
Beaufighter came to be introduced to carry a further pair of227-kq (5001b) production aircraft were built and en- 612 km/h (380 mph) at 3962 m
into RAF Coastal Command as an anti- weapons under the wings in place of tered sewice with No. 248 Squadron at (13,000 ft); climb to 4572 m (15,000 ft) r:-
shipping strike flghter, so the classic the rockets. Banff in January 1944, Detachments 7,0 minutes; servrce ceiling 10972 m
de Havilland Mosquito achieved con- Following the success of the were sent south for patrols over the (36,000 ft); normal ranqe 2092 km
siderable success in this role, beinQt Beauhghter anti-shipping stnke wings English Channel and on 25 March a (1,300 miles)
used princrpally with rocket projec- in 1943, a Mosquito Strike Wing was Mosquito FB.Mk XViil pilot attacked Weights: empty 64BG kq (14,300 lb);
trles and bombs. A torpedo-carrying formed at Banff in Scotland before the and claimed to have sunk an enemy maximum take-off 101 i5 kg (22,300 lb)
version was under development at the end ofthat year, No, 333 (Norweqian) submarine off the French coast, Dimensions: span 16.51 m (54 ft 2 in);
end of the war. Squadron being lhe flrst to receive Weiqhingr over 907 kg (2,000 lb), the lenqth 12 34 m (40 ft 6 in); heght 4 63 m
It was not until the Mosquito had Mosquito FB, Mk VIs in November. No, Molins gmn was not considered a suc- (1 5 ft 3 in): wrng area 40 4l m
been successfully developed as a 248 Squadron followed in the next cess as its recoil constantly caused loc- (435 sq ft)
fl ghter-bomber (effectively combining month, and No. 235 in June i944. Em- al structural damage in the Mosquito's Armament: four 20-mm and four 7.7-
rts night-fighter cannon armament wtth ployed almost exclusively against nose. No. 248 Squadron retained its mm (0,303-in) gmns in the nose, plus
its ability to carry bombs internally) enemy shipping off the Norwegtan aircraft untrl February 1945, after either two 227-kg (500-lb) bombs and
that the Mosquito FB.Mk VI was coast, the Norweqian pilots of No. 333 whrch the suwivors were handed over eight 76.2-mm (3-inch) rocket
selected for sewice wrth Coastal Com- Squadron usually flew as pathflnders to No. 254 Squadron at North Coates for projectiles or up to four 227-kq (5O0lb)
mand, trials being undertaken at Bos- for the wing, leading Mosquito forma- the remainder of the war bombs
combe Down with an arrcraft fltted tions along the winding fjords in search
with eight 76,2-mm (3-in) rocket pro- of German vessels. Specification
jectiles under the wings, In addition to Of greater lnterest than true oper- de Havilland Mosguito FB.Mk VI As effective as the BeaufighteL the de
a nose armament of fow 20-mm and ational value was the Mosguito fB.Mk Type: two-seat antr-shipping strike H avill and M os quito was als o us ed in
four 7,7-mm (0,303-in) gnns, the Mos- XVIII anti-shipping strike aircraft, fighter lowJevel rocket and strafing attacks
quito FB,Mk VI could also carry a pair armed with a single 57-mm Molins gnrn Powerplant: two 1, 230-hp 2-kW)
(9 I 7. against shipping. No. 143 Sqn flew its
of short-finned 227-kg (50Olb) bombs in the nose, A converted Mosquito Rolls-Royce Merlin XXI 12-cylinder F B.M k VI s from B anff in Scotland
in the rear of the bomb bay; alterna- FB.Mk VI thus armed made its first lrquid-cooled inhne prslon engines agains t s hipping off N orw ay.

# +***F

>K Vi"t"r, Wellington and Warwick

The famous Vickers Wellington bom- veloped in l94i for use with the Leigh wide range of anti-submarine GR.Mk XIV could carry depth charges
ber enjoyed a long and valuable Liqht for illuminating surfaced U-boats, weapons including two 190,S-kg (420- or bombs, and feah:red Leigh Light
career with RAF Coastal Command in particularly in the Bay of Biscay; the ]b) depth charges or a srngle 457-mm and ASV Mk III for night operatiors.
a number of roles, not least in the mari- first such aircraft were delivered to No, (18-in) torpedo, The Wellington Antr-shipping Wellingtons remained
time general reconnaissance role, a 221 Squadron in the Mediterranean in GR.Mk XII was also equipped wrth a rn sewice for the remainder of the war,
term that euphemistically embraced January 1942, however. ASV radar Leigh Light, which retracted into an sewing on a total of 21 squadrons at
anti-shipping duties, Apart from a came to be fitted in some Mk VIIIs aperture in the midships fuselage home, in the Mediterranean and Mid-
small number of Wellingtons equip- (which were in effect conversions of structure. The Wellingrton GR.Mk XIII, dle and Far East,
ped for mine-exploding in 1940, Coas- the Wellinqton Mk iC bomber), but the intended for daylight use only, omitted A bomber development was the
tal Command's first aircraft specifically Wellington GR.Mk XI empioyed the the Leigh light but carried huo 457-mm Vickers Wa::vrrick whrch, overtaken by
prepared for maritime work were rmproved airframe of the Wellington (18-in) torpedoes in addition to ASV technological progress, never sur-
Wellington Mk VIII machtnes de- Mk X and was capable of carrying a Mk III radar, while the Wellingrton vived to sewe as suchi instead it, hke

Vickers Wellingrton and Warwick (continued)

T he V ickers W ellington GR.M k X IV

was the final version of this able
aircr af t used by C oas tal C omm and.
This exampleis aMkXIVissued to
S quadron in I 944.
N o. 304 (Polish)

the Wellingrton, came to be developed

for marrtime duties. However,
atthough it gave considerable sewice
with Coastal Command in the air-sea
rescue role from 1943 onwards, leng-
thy delays in development (and shor-
tage of Centaurus engnnes) prevented
the Warwick GR.Mk V, with Leigh
Light and ASV, from entenng service
withNo, 179 Squadron until November
1944; this squadron flew anti-
submarine patrols over the Bay of Bis-
cay and the Western Approaches dur-
ing the last three months of the war.

Vickers Wellington GR.Mk lflII
Type: srx/seven-seat antrshipping/
submarine aircraft
Powerplant: two 1,735-hp (1293.8-kW)
Bristol Hercules XVII air-cooled radial
pistonengines TheWarwickGR.MkV didnotenter serviceuntillate l944.ltcarriedASV radar and aLeighWht andwas used over
Performance: maxlmum speed the Bay of Biscay on anti-submarine patrols. This aircraft sewed withNo. 179 Sqn.
406 krri/h (252 mph) at I2t9 m (4,000 ft);
climb to 1219 m (4,000 ft) in6.9 minutes;
semce ceiling4BTT m(16,000 ft);
normal ranqe 2816 kg ( I,750 miles)
Weishts: empty 9974 ks (2I,9BB 1b);
maximumtake-of 14107 kg (31,100 ]b)
Dimensions:span26.26 m(86 ft2 in);
Iengrth 19,68 m(64 ft7 in); height5,38 m
(17 ft B in); wingarea 78.04 m'
(840 sq ft)
Armament: trvo 7.7-mm (0.303-in)
machine-gnrns innose turret and fow in
tail twret, and some aircraft mounted
tvrro machine-gnrns in fuselage beam
posltions, plus an ollensive load of
either bombs and depth charges up to
204 I kq (4,500 ]b) or two 457-mm ( 18-
in) torpedoes

Transmitting and receiving aerials

for the ASV Mk II radar adorn this
Wellington on routine patrol over the
Mediterranean. This radar enabled
the aircraft to detect small objects
projecting above the surface, such as
s ubmarine conning tower s.

€ ffoeins B-17 Fortress
contnbuted considerably to the patrol
efforts demanded by the frequent sail-
ing of wartime convoys, particulariy at
the height of the grreat U-boat cam-
T,Sminutes; service ceiling 10363
(34,000 ft); normalrange ]835
(1,140 mlles)
Weights: empty 12542 kg (27,650 lbl
America's enforced entry into World and after a pertod of inauspicious ser-
War II undoubtedly caught her air vice as bombers the survivors of a paigm ln the Atlantic, RAF Fortresses maximumtake-off24o4] kg (53 00i ]b"
forces unprepared for maritime opera- batch of 20 B-I7C (Fortress Mk I) air- were employed on anti-shipping Dimensions: span3I.62 m (103 ft 3--.
tions, and the sudden appearance of craft were pressed into service with strike missions, their weapons being lengrth 22.50 m (73 ft 10 ia); hetgh: -
lonq-range U-boats off her eastern Nos 206 and220 Squadrons ofCoastal aimost entirely confined to depth 5,84 m (19 ft2 in); wingacea 131.92
seaboard and in the Caribbean Command for maritime reconnaiss- charges, (I,420 sq ft)
caused some i22 aged Douglas B-lBBs ance duties over the Western Annament: total of 10 12,7-mrn (l n'-
to be deployed on antisubmarine pat- Approaches. Starting in mid-1942 ab- Specification machine-gnrns in nose, dorsal ;e-:=
rols along the coasts of the USA. Mean- out 150 of the improved B-I7E were Boeing Fortress Mk II tail and beam positions, plus a ::::=;-
while, however, the Boeing B- I?D For- delivered to Coastal Command as the Tlpe: erght-seat maritime bombload of up to 2722 kg (6 CC': .b. ::
tress, which had supplanted the B- 18 in Fortress Mk II and Fortress Mk IIA, reconnaissance aircraft bombs and/or depth charges
servrce with the USAAC's heauy bom- sewing wrth Nos 59, 86, 206 and 220 Powerplant: four 894,8-kW ( l, 200-hp) 4
bardment groups in 194I, had already Squadrons, operattng from Benbecula, Wright Cyclone GR- 1820-65 air- ...? f
proneered anti-shipping operations by. Chivenor, Thorney Island, the Azores cooled radial piston engines t
this aircraft with an attack against and lceland, Performance: maximum speed t
480 km/h (298 mph) at 6096 m
Japanese vessels on l0 December Although possessing shorter range
(20,000 ft); climb to 1524 m (5,000 ft) in
than the B-24 Liberator, the Fortress
1941, This was the first occasion on
which American aircrews flew an gg;=f
offensive mission. No specialist B-17 BoeingFortressMkIIA(B-I7E) of No.220 Sqnflyingfrom the Azores on pi-
version was produced for the anti-
shipping role with the American air
forces, the machines that were later
long-range anti-submarine patrols over the Atlantic"
7lr :

employed in maritime operations

being standard B-I7E and B-l7F air-
Fortresses were suPPlied to the
RAF in fairly larqe numbers, however,
* o 14ni;i!-1
e"d .\
Bmtrw&ffi wff trkffiffimw
Nowhere was tha maritime air war fauEht rnare fiercely than
aver the cold, grey seas of the B ay of B ii c ay. I t became the mosf
valuable area cfsea araund Europe, as Daenitz's drqq{ed
lJ - b o a t s w e re ft arboured aroun d jls rn arglns. fft e RA F f lew as
rnanymissions aspossi.b le ta deny thern access to theAtlantic.
For reasons that wiil quickly become apparent, the most vicious fight ng of the
Battle of the Atlantic iinsofar"as alr fighttng was concei-ned) occurred over the
Bay of Biscay,that exparrse of watei oif France's western seaboard so well
knorvn lor its frequent, treacherous storms arrd heavy seas. lt was the possq:- -,!'-....-,,,.i,ii,*t1t,tl
s on c tnal we.'-iacirq coasr, w tn iLs drQe po'1s rBrerl, St Nazo'e . a Rocnelre
rnd Bo'oea.> qa ned"oy Ge"'^ony'n l9ab. tirat enaoied lAe L-ooaLs lo opc"dte t....::..,-::k, rj.- ., .
far out in the Atlantic wlthout tne danqerous and fuel-consuming voyage --,,..

Ln'o,,qn lra Nc"r^ Soa to a'd lron^ l'td ee-ra. n66a po"ls. O'course lne
Frenc"h bases attracted the qrowing attefitlon of RAF Bomber Comnrartd, and
enornnous damage was done to the f ort facil ttes. bui the Gernran Todt organiza-
tion was qurck to constrLrct vast covered concrete submarine pens that wele
imoerv i.]-t to anvt^ no b-, o o -eL1 n I Dv lhe neav est bon b
in-, r .erl lc aAr Coas a Co * -ancj d -3ews :o one'are Consrd^t Dalrols
ouerlhe SaV of A,scav, malrtainrnlt day and night viliiance for enemy sub
-ar.r4s )FLr ^q oJt o a (r 'c:-'n rg ''or 1'c r ocea^ 'ordvs oll'c' las(s
includ-.d keepiig watch for Ge'man blocrade runners, sneaking horne trom
drstant porls wrth vrtat raw n-at€r als, as wcll as surface raiders which ranged
f rom battle-crursers such aslrte Scharnhorsland Gneisenauto armeri merchant- Hit!Adepth chargefrom aCoastalCommand aircraftfinds its markin the Ba'.
ann" of Eiscay. Tha U-boat was lounging on the surface when the pilot spotted it ar, :
Durrnq the earlv months of tne rvar the RAF was hard pressed to find alrcraft dropped serzera I c h arg e s.
or sutfrc]ent range to perfoi-m v,rcrthwhile patrols over the Ba1i, and st ll carry '.
adequate armanient to attack a ship and to defend themselves lf attacked by Lrndholme gear and signalling that a destroyer was coming. At this poini
cnemV aircratt. These d fftcuitles were emphasrzed by the escape of the Ger- \AJellinqton drew discov"ered rFat one of Ihe SL,nder and's me"n had survivec - '
man warsh ps, Scharnhorst, Gneisenauancl Prtrtz Eugen, f rom Brest ln February dinghlinearby, and lashed it to the r own. As the destroyer approachec ',
1942.I,c cover such an everrru6 ity Coasta Command was able to operate esc-orting Beaufighters shot down a Ju BB, only to be set on by Focke-W- - :
oaLruls Dv no mor( LnJ L- etr -o. n-'J r-Lrsuns v/rro:e ''ew.. 'or o var:e y o{ 190s Ea-rly on 1/August a German launch, escorted by Arado Ar 196 seap .'-
i.u.o.t. "o ian .o spot tn. s o .- , >n:p- c"u t-w I 90s. apper,-eo b*t. occupied ov dltacKs by tne Beaul gnlers, lLe, .. .

The vear 1942 nevertl- e ess brought about profound tmprovements in Coastal unable to prevent the destroyer from recovenng the ditched atrrnen. Des:-.-
Cornmand's ab lt! Lo tac. e the Bay of Biscay nrore effectively. The Leigh Light constant attacIs bv Lu{twaife arrcra{t, the Brtish ship and its escort ret'rr-:
was introduced, first n the Vickers Vvellinqtbn and later in all mannei'of other .--ii;;;
sa'ely to tne - Co'nib^ oases.
aircraft, enabling iratrolljng crews to spot U-boats as they recharged their irin""i
u.ti"ttv as this that markecl the deployment of adciit:: .
batteres on the'surface at nrqht Thls, Lsed in corriunction wth early search German forces in France not only to protect the U-boat bases but to dis:-'-
radar {ASV), though slo\/ to bring about the destruction of enemy submarines, Coastal Command's increasrng anti-submar ne operat ons in the Bay. Hov',e -
nevertheless made U-boat cap La n s m uch less willing to risk sudden attack trom the early metric ASV radar was not provrng equal to the task of tdeniifr
tne a., .t^d, oy orC r! .i-Cn- l, -pond n or, :r g submerged 'n le n l'dns l lo surfacecl t-J-boats as thspresence of F'renchiishi'ng vessels in the Bay shc.'.-
ard ltOr rncir o
<: I nq qro--ds. d 'ucn lo re o-.-e ,1e odl,r' -artge. And up on the screens with much the same elfect as a conning tower. ln Jar-,.
although such aircraf"l Js old Armstrong Whitworth Whitie-y bombers still flew 1943, thereiore, Consolidated Lrberators began operatrng ASV Mk lll r,i'' -
patrols.over tl-re Bay, new aircrari like the Bristol Beauflghter were joining originating from an American centlmetric Al radar, was able to prov de l:
Ccastal Command to afiord proteciton for the lumber ng t 1'rng boats definilion of surface oblects.
An isoiated ncicient serves Io iilustrate ihe hazar-ds and d ff icu t es of opera The rncreasinq success in attacking surfaced U-boats, scarce though i--,-.
tions in the Bay On tile night of 1 1 August 1942 a Leigh Lighr Weil ng-ton cf No attacks were, ied to a new phase in the submarine war by the beginning of 1 : - -
i 72 Squadron, f own bV F[yrng Off icer h W R. Trigg, suff ered engine fallure and when enemy captains chose to remarn surf aced and f ight rt out with the aii-c'.
had to dirch n hLoh se:s All srx crew members manaced io clamber into their unO onie *ir"
iirraitG. urnong-CoastalCommand alicraft(whlch were fc---
d ngny. a^d. e'o lout r.g d Lr' oon l1e'/were iiErrecbv ^tr ['rwoJaW-rlr'v to attack from low level) began to climb stead ly. Thrs was a dtsturbing tr,':
wnic" oronpec o :po,i o 'grv and a 'o'-dD\ Baq surr'va it So-n o-ier\,\ardS events, for statistics prepared at the ti!-ne suggesled that of every hundrec . ,
a Strori iliaerlorj.r arrivei io plck up the bitciied crew, escorled by three sightings of enemy submarines fewef than half were attacked, and no - -
Beaufighters. Surviving a run ln with a Focke-Wulf Frnr 200, the Sunderiand than one or iwo boats were conlirmed as sunk. And wh le 1942 had brc .
crashei on alightrng aid mcst ol the crew were enEulfed by the rough sea A transformation to ihe equipment available to fight the U-boat, the Battle o: . .
day passed ai the"Luft,ryaffe prevenied further Vllritleys frorn 'eaching the Atlantic would have to be wcn n 1943 if the build-up of forces rn the UK - ior
Wellington's crew; then a storm blew up, preventng any a r actvrt'v over.the invasion Europe was to be sustained, a view forctbly erpresseci at -.
d nenv"to" tn'ee od,s o .' ^q wrich Ine a'ren h ]o .o ccnle^o w ln a- nq- 5 1:ve Casablanca conference earlv that year. Agreement \ rith the Amertcans L-
s".-t-r|.. At mo-ody 6l-g,>l a Boarrtg*terand H.,ld.on arrre'1. Oropoi^g a operational priorities proved diff icult, and altholrgh they promrsed to provrde .
anti-shrppingisubmarine Lrberator squadrons, only three arrved and then - -
late to make any srgnrficant contributton to the Battle of the Bay Yet, para::
rcally it fell largely 1o the Lrberator {,'vith RAF Ccastal Command) to w - n
bd trle
rn mid 1943 U boats began operating rn pac<s anC were escorted througl^ :-.
Bay by re ays of Ju BBC night-fighleG. in June no more than 57 subma: -.
i,ghtirig. ;6r" i"port"o, aniionlyiwo were sun k by aircraft. The German br. -
then started hugging the Spanish coast to leave the Bay, a course that pla:.
them out of rang5 oiall but the Liberator, and when the Royal Navy steppec -:
its surface patrols the Luftrr,,affe countered by rnti'oducing the Henschel -.
293A roc.el-propel'no g-rooo rr >s re . loJncned b\ tne Do 217s oi (C 'C0 :
Auqust, howbve'r, the ti"de haC turned. Grow ng expenence with ASV lt4k lll v'..
producinc qood results and night attacks on U-boats were shreddtng the nerr': -
of their cieCs. 1n three summer months of 'l 943 56 U-boats were sunk n r:-
Atriniic,-ZS oJ ilrem ln-the gay. t *ut at this t me that the Azores rnrere n:a:-
available by the Portuguese as a base for Coastal Command atrcratt, the f irst:'
two U-boais berng sunk by Azores-based Liberators ln October.
'the yeai the U-boat menace was being mastered.
Bv the end of All,e::
shipping losses, whrch had stood at a monthly total of more than half a mi lrc-
tons rn ilid-t 9+2, iell to un average of about 1 3b,000 tons per rnon th rn Ihe latte
half of 1943. As the invas on of France approached, so the patrols over the Ba
by Coastal Command tightened the blockade agalnst the U-boat By the date o'
the Normandy landlnqs no enenny submarjne could possibiy approach tre
invasion area irom th; Biscav bases without almost certarn destructlon, anc
AJfhouglr notserving in lhesame numbers as fJleBeauflghter, the Mosquita scarcely any did. Within ihree'months western France had been cleared oi the
u,tas every bit as effeCfire agatnsr sftrpping. PJere a U-hoat in the Bay receives enemy bnd Admlral Doenitz's much depleted U-boat fleet was once more forcec
tft e rreafxnen f frorn a fl4o-cguif o F E.futk Vl. back into the confines of the North Sea. The Battie of the Bay had been won.

r 486
Eonsotidated B-zlliberator L
I tr?
With its long-range pedormance the I
Consolidated B-24 Liberator, when rn-
troduced into sewice in the maritime
teconnaissance role, did more than
any other aircraft to turn the tide rn the
Alhes' favour in the longr Battle of the

Atlantic, effectively 'closinq the gap' J

between the patrol areas of east- and

west-based aircraft and thereby de-
nying German U-boats (and surface
vessels) a vast tract of ocean in which
they had been wholly safe foom arr
attack, C onsolid ated Liber ator M k I of N o. I 2 0 S qn flying from N u tt's C or ner in I g4 l. I t carries a
Frst to use the B-24 in the maritime four-cannon packunder the fuselage for strafing.
role, was the RAF whose first lJiberator
Mk I aircraJt reached the UK durrng
March l94I andjoined No, i20 Squad-
ron at Nutts Corner, Northern lreland,

flB WE
liveries to Coastal Command included
the Liberator Mk IV (B-24E), Liberator
GR.Mk V (B-24G), Liberator GR.Mk VI
(B-24G and B-24H) and Liberator LiberatorGR.MkV of No.224 SqninNovember l942.Thiswas theRAF versionof theB-24G,
GR.Mk VIIL With well over 1,000 and introduced gireater range and armamentover its predecessor.
Liberatois flying with RAF maritrme
reconnaissance squadron in almost ev-
ery war theatre, it was to be expected
that their achievements should be un-
surpassed in the war's ocean strugglel
For example, in November 1942 thd
Liberators of No. 224 Squadron in the
Bay of Biscay sank two U-boats which
were manoeuvring to attack the troop
convoys sailinq for the 'Torch' Iand-
ings, attacks that would otherwise
have caused .enormous casualties
among the troops. 1n March 1945 an ASM-N-2 Bat antr-shrpping glide Libera tor of VPB - I I 0, US N avy based in D evon, during the winter
PB4Y- 1 ot
Liberators of five RAF squadrons sank bomb under each wing. Total Prt- units provided a much-needed back-up to the Coastaj
I 944. Such US
seven U-boats in sx days. Lrke other vateer production amounted to 736 air- Command squadrons.
RAF maritime patrol aircraft Liber- craft.
ators were widely equipped with the 7,8 minutes; service ceihng 9693 m turrets and waist hatches amidships.
Leigh Light, and other aircraft were (3l,B0O ft); normal patrol range plus upto 5806 kq (12,800 Ib) ofbombs
armed wrth rocket projectiles and bat- Specification 4764 kn (2,960 mrles) mines or depth charges
teries of cannon for use against sub- Consolidated PBY- I Liberator Weights: empty 16761 ks (36,950 1b);
mannes, Type: lO-seat maritime patrol bomber maximum take-off272l6 kq (60,000 lb) Aniuing in sewice late in thewar, the
In US Navy semce the Liberator Powerplant: four 1,200-hp (894,8-kW) Dimensions: span 33.53 m (1 10 ft 0 in); C onsolid ated PB4Y-2 P rivater was
served as the PB4Y-1, 977 such aircraft Pratt &Whitney R-1830-43 or -65 air- lenglh 20.50 m (67 ft 3 in); height 5.46 m developed from the Liberator, the
being delivered, A developed ver- cooled radial prston engines (17 ft 11 in); unngareag7.36 mz main difference being the single frn-
sion, the PB4Y-2 Privateer, entered Performance: maximum speed (1,048 sq ft) These mainly saw action in the Far
service with at least one squadron, VP- 449 Wn/h (279 mph) at 8077 m Armament: eight i2. 7-mm (0, S-in) East and continued in use for many
24, some PB4Y-2Bs being armed with (26,500 ft); climb to 1219 m (4,000 ft) in machine-guns in nose, dorsal and tail years after thewar's end.
lockheed PV- l / PV -2 in Action
Derived from the civil Model I B, and leading on naturally from the Hudson, and the USS Moffett to sink U-604 rn the South
Lockheed's Ventura and H arpoon performed sterling work for the US Navy and Atlantic. The next victim of the ASW forces was
RoyalAirForceon coastalpatrols, with the aircraft's strength andperformance U-615, sunk in the Caribbean on 6 August by
often overcoming stiff opposition. VB-130 Venturas and PBM Mariners from VP-
204 and 205,
The performance and offensive capabrlities of from British production in September 1942.
the US Navy's Ventura and Harpoon belie their These aircraft, with RAF equipment installed, Operations in the Pacific
designation as patrol alrcraft, a term usually were designated PV-3 and were assigned to Venturas jolned the battle with the Japanese
associated wlth the long-range Consolidated Patrol Squadron 82, With thetr Hudson experi- when VB-137 was deployed in May 1943 to
Catalina and Martin Mariner flying-boats, The ence behind lt, the US Navy's first landplane Samoa and the Ellice islands, where the squad-
PVs were fast, heavlly armed, and carried im- patrol squadron quickly completed the transi- ron flew typical patrol squadron missions. In
presslve bomb loads. For defence, their speed tion to the Hudsods successor, Later squad- August, VB-140 pushed PV operations west-
and manoeuvrabiiity, backed by the Martin rons, with no landplane experience, were not ward, to the Solomons, and began flying from
twin 12.7-mm (0.5-1n) top deck turret plus a pair so fortunate and experienced considerable fabled Henderson Field, As the war moved to
of 7.62-mm (0.3-in) weapons in the belly, difficulty in adapting to the Ventura. the west, the squadron moved to the Russells
proved to be a combrnation enemy pilots where it was joined by VB-138 in October, The
quickly learned to respect, Ventura pilots fired Atlantic operations against the sub two squadrons pioneered strike tactics there
the bow gnrns, a pair of 12.7-mm guns sup- On completing PV training, VP-82 crews that would be employed by Ventura squadrons
plemented iater by a 'chin gmn' kit with three were deployed to Argentia, Newfoundland, to for the remainder of the war.
addrtional 12.7-mm weapons for AA fire sup- continue the battle against the German U- In late 1943 combat actlvity shifted to the
pression during glide and low-level bombing boats, but not until Aprtl I943 r4rere their efforts Central Paciflc with the landings on Tarawa,
attacks and for attacks on enemy aircraft. In rewarded On 27 Aprll VB-125 (ex-VP-8Z) The PVs followed, with VB-142 arriving on
addition to normal patrol squadron operations scored the Ventura's first victory when Lieute- Tarawa on 2l December, just one month after
(maritime surveillance, anti-submarine patrols nant Thomas Kinaszczuk sank U-174 off New- the landings by the US Marines, .The squadron
and convoy escort), the PVs were regmlarly foundland. The crew, escorting a convoy, was flew patrols and strikes on enemy bases in the
called on to exploit their attack capabllities rn circling ahead of the ships when the pilot srght- Marshalls. Attacks against convoys attempting
bomblng, rocket and strafing runs on shlps and ed a wake about l9.3km (12 mtles) away. to supply the bases resulted in 1l ships and a
ground installations, Klnaszczuk headed for what he identified as a number of small craft sunk or heavily damaged
While the PVs were the US Narry's primary submarine on the surface and alerted the crew durinqr the first months of the new year. On 12
land-based patrol aircraft during World War II, for an attack, At a range of about 2 4 km (1 5 January 1944 VB-144 arrived on Tarawa to
the path to thelr successful operation was a miles) the submarine opened fire, hitting the share the responsibilities for maintaining
drlficult one, especially for the Ventura, Intro- PV on the starboard wing with what was prob- pressure on the enemy, Following the US land-
duced to the fleet in late 1942 and early 1943, ably 20-mm explosive shells, Disregarding the lngs on Kwajalein and Majuro, the two PV
the early PV-l squadrons had little transition damage and the AA flre, the pilot pressed his squadrons concentrated on neutralizing the
training and lost a number of crews and aircraft attack on the crash-diving U-boat and dropped bypassed enemy bases in the Marshalls, The
as a result of this inadequate preparation to all four 147.4-kg (325-1b) depth bombs close- threat of raids by enemy bombers staging
cope with the demands of this high- aboard the submarine's hull, Three of the through the islands was signiflcant, and fre-
performance aircraft. A 322.3-kg/m' (66-lb/ bombs exploded alongside the boat and the quent attacks on the runways and facilities
sq in)) wing loading, 2 000-hp (1491 4-kW) en- lourth just forward of the bow, As the plane were made to assure their continued neutra-
gines and a minimum single-engine control clrcled, the crew saw the submarlne settling. lization,
speed of some 222 km/h (138 mph) were a far After about two minutes, the bow of the sub Tactics employed by the Venturas usually
cry from the forgiving, 167-km,h (104-mph) surfaced at a steep angle, settllng as the boat were glide bombing runs by formations of
PBYs from which most of the crews came. in continued forward at very slow speed, The three or six aircraft in line abreast, all releasing
addltion to their lnexperience, early Ventura sub's bow abruptly rose until it was almost ver- bombs rn trarn, The formation approached the
crews were well aware of the poor reputation tical, then the U-boat slipped beneath the sur- target at 1829 to 2438 m (6,000 to 8,000 ft) alti-
their aeroplane had acquired earlier during its face, About two minutes later, there was a vio- tude, pushing over into a 30" to 45'dlve with
limited service in the RAF and in the USAF, lent eruption of air and oil in a huge mushroom speeds reaching as much as 556 km/h
On the basis of a successful evaluation of the on the surface, followed by continuous bub- (345 mph) indicated, The pilot released the
PBO-I Hudson by Patrol Squadron 82 (VP-82) bling until the plane left the area. bombs, usually stx 227 kg (500 lb) sightinq
during 1941, the US Navy was committed to US Navy Venturas operating from Carib- through the ring and bead sight mounted in
land-based patrol planes, The Ventura was in bean and Brazilian bases fought the Battle of front of the windshield, Pullout was completed
production and available, and was a loglcal the South Atlantic agarnst the U-boais during at 914 to 1524 m (3 000 to 5,000 ft) to avoid expo-
chorce to fill the requirement. In the event, the 1943 and 1944, when the submarines were at sure to automatic weapons fire,
US Navy accepted the type for fleet service the peak of their capability. VB-127 was cre- Lowlevel bombing or photo flrghts required
and also assumed the administratron of the con- dited with the sinkrng of U-591 on 30 July 1943 a high speed pass over the target at 30.5 m
tracts wrth Lockheed, First deliveries to the US off the. coast of Braztl, On I I August, PV-ls of (100 ft) or less and planes were hit frequently
Navy were 27 Ventura Mk IIs, requisitioned VB-129 teamed with Liberators from VB-107 by automatic weapon fire. A VB-144 Ventrira
was hit during such a run over Wotje, A single
projectile came through the nose of the plane
and exploded in the cockpit, killing the prlot
instantly and demolishing his controls. The
copilot took over and completed the run, then
flew the PV back to Tarawa for a safe landing.
His feat was remarkable ln that he was a re-
placement pilot who had lust joined the squad-
ron and this was his first landrng in a Venhrra
In the South Pacrfic, the lsland-hopping cam-
pargn continued to move the war to the wesl
VB-148 was at Munda in New Georgia in Apnl"
then moved forward to Emrrau late in May, On 1
June 1944, Lieutenant Metke was assigned a
search sector near the Western Carolines.

Ready to go; a US Navy PV- I Ventura waits for its

crew at Bougainville in the Solomons. When they
wereon board, theycouldlooklorward to a long,
arduous patrol ofmany hours.

VenturaMkII of No.2I Sqn,RAF,
operating trom Methwold in Norfolk.
Venturas entered sewice with the
RAF in November I 942, and one ot
their first large missions ryas agrainst
the Philips concern at Eindhoven on 6
December. Venturas suffe red high
losseswhile used as bombers.

Lockheed PV- I of VB - I 35, US N avy,

o per ational over the P acific in I 9 44
Approximately 1,600 PV- I s were
procured by the Navy during the
waf .

"@*d!f'..,-.,-, . -...,:

The end of hostilities was not the end

of theVentura, and some continued
in sewice for many years. This
example was flown as a target tug by
the Royal Canadian Air Force in the
1 9 50s. Others were converted into
executive bu siness lransporls.

South of the major enemy base at Truk, the cover for the ships. mm (S-in) rockets dpring a sweep over Honshu,
crew sighted and engaged a Mitsublshi G4M Reoccupation of the Marianas later in 1944 On 28 May Coley found and attacked an eight-
'Betty' bomber, shooting ii down, A week later, provided new bases and marked the hrgh polnt ship convoy but was hit by AA fire and was
Lieutenant Harry Stanford scored, shootlng of Pacific theatre PV operations. Routine forced to shut down one engdne, Damage to
another 'Betty' down wrth the PV's bow guns. search flights were supplemented by frequent fuel tanks eventually forced him to drtch the PV
For variety, on 26 July Lieutenant Metke spot- strikes on enemy island bases, In early 1945, alongside a 'Lifeguard' submarine on station
ted a five-ship convoy south west of Truk and the PVs began strikes against Japanese picket north of Iwo, Coley and all of hts crew were
attacked it with the only weapons he had, boats stationed south of the home islands to rescued, uninjured,
namely depth bombs. His contact report provide earlywarning of incoming Boeing B-29 The PV-Z Harpoons first appeared in the
alerted the squadron and a six-plane strike was raids, Durlng one such attack by a VPB-133 Western Pacific when VPB-142 arrived on Ti-
launched which destroyed three of the ships Ventura, both pilots were seriously injured by nian in May 1945. On 27 June, on a typical
and damaged a fourth. Next day, another strike AA fire from the target boat, The aircraft crew search flrght, Lieutenant Janes and his crew
sank a fourth ship and turret gunner Leonard provided flrst aid to the pilots, then succeeded had completed the outbound leg of their
Wheatley, in one of the attacking Venturas, in flying the PV back to Iwo Jrma where the assigned sector and were turninq for home
shot down a Kawasaki Ki-61 'Tony' flghter flying crew chief landed the plane safelyl when they passed from a cloud into a clear area
VPB-133 search flights from Iwo Jima in-
cluded tracks over the home islands, with the Although used primarily by the RAF as a bomber,
Venturas were active over most of the Pacific the Ventura was used on occa sion for maritime
theatre on both anti-submarine and anti-shipping opportunity for attacks on coastal shipping, du&'es, especia lly later on in the wal This example
duties. At the northernmost range of their activities trains, bridges and tunnels, On 13 May, Lieute- carries ungaided rocket projectiles under the
were the Aleutian Islands, wherc these aircraft are nani-Commander Jack Coley attacked two wings. The fuselage legend reads 'Got'em on the
seen along with a PBY Catalina. ships and destroyed two locomotives with 127- run'.

Lockheed PV- YPV-2 in Action

and spotted a surfaced Japanese submarlne. Althougharriving late in thewar, the PV-Z
Janes pushed over in a diving turn and as the Harpoon was a much improved aircraft over the
PV approached, the submarine crew finally PV-L, featuring increased range, withering
firepower, manoeuvrability and high speed for a
became aware of the imminent attack and low-level bomber.
started a crash dive, As the Harpoon crossed
the tarQret, its deck still awash, Janes dropped gmnner could fire. As Marlin pulled ahead of
three depth bombs for a perfect straddle, As the fighter, the stinger gunner opened up on it
the Harpoon clrcled, the crew watched the lirr the coup de grace!
submarine sink in a circle of debris and oil. The contribution of the PVs to the flnal Allied
Post-war analysls of Japanese records con- victory ln World War II has gone largely un-
firmed the sinking and identified the boat as noticed by historians and the public, and rec-
the 1-165. oqnition, however belated, is long overdue.
VPB-144, VPB-148 and VPB-i53 also re- The rugeted, hard-hitting PVs earned the re-
hrrned to the Western Pacific with PV-2s for spect and toyalty of their crews, who knew that
second combat deployments. At war's end, the performance and reliability of the plane
more than half the US Navy land-based patrol they flew was their gtarantee of a safe return to
squadrons were equipped with Harpoons. base.


.! r.i
TheAleutians =:i:
The PVs fought the war in the Aieutians from
early 1943 to the end of hostilities, soon learning
that the fabled Aleutian weather was as fear-
some as reported, and was by far their worst
enemy, The PV missions flown were primariiy
strikes against enemy bases in the Kwiles.
In April 1943 VB- 135 arrived at Adak with the This LockheedPV-2 Harpoon served at the end of
first ol the Aieutian PV-ls, followed 18 days WorldWar II with USNavy in the Marianas Islands.
I t w as one of the origin al and mos t common v ariant
later by VB- 136. Both squadrons flew strikes on with a forward-firing armament of five guns , two
the Japanese invaders of Kiska and supported high in the nose and three below; Iater the number
the US landings in May on Attu, The squadrons was increased to eight. There was very little in
perfected radar bombing techniques whictt common with the PV- I despite the outward
proved so effective that the Venhrras were uttl- appeafance,
ized as pathfinders by US Army Air Force B-24s
bombing Kiska througth the persistent clouds
and fog. The two squadrons were relieved by
VB-139 and early in 1944, that squadron
pioneered nlght photo and bombing missions
against the Kuriles. By May, VB-139 had com-
pleted 78 of these hazardous flights and was
relieved by VB-135. In June, a VB-135 crew
flew a daylight strike on Shtmushu, demonstrat-
ing that the mrssions could be flown more effec-
tively by day,
Harpoons were first deployed to the Aleu-
tians in March 1945 when VPB-139 relieved
VPB-136 PV-2s continued rocket and bomb
attacks on the Kuriles until war's end in August.
One of VB-139's crews scored what must have
been one of the most unusual kllls of the war
when Lieutenant Marlinwas attacked by a Mit-
subishi A6M3 'Hamp' flghter near Paramushiro
Marlin scored hits on the 'Hamp', then forced it
down close to the sea and flew directly over it,
rolling the PV from side to side so that hts turret

i,fctneed PV- L/PF-ZVentura/Harpoon
=- :e success of the Hudson in RAF ser-
'.--:e led Lockheed to propose a milit-
unsuited to daylight operations and
was transferred to Coastal Command,
Nevertheless, the Ventura was pro-
Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Peru and
15 77 m (51 ft 9 in); heis-ht3.63 m
l ft I I in).
(551.0 sq ft)
wrng area 51 l9 m'
:1r version of the larger lrockheed lB
- cured in larqe numbers under Irend- Specification Arrnament: two i2, 7-mm (0, 5-in)
3destar and resulting British interest
-:C to development of the Lockheed Lease, and was built for the US Army Lockheed PV- I Ventura forward-fi rrng machine- guns, two
37 Dulng 1940 a total of 675 of these Air Force and US Naqr, this last ser- Type: maritime patrol atrcraft similar gmns in dorsal turret and two
:rrcraft was contracted for the RAF, vice designating it the PV-I Ventura, Powerplant: two 2, 000-hp ( 149 -kW) 1 7.72-mm (0 3-in) machine-gmns in
-,';hich named the type Ventura, and Venturas sewed with ail the Common- Pratt & Whitney R-2800-31 radial piston ventralposition, plusupto 1361 kg
-:le company lost little time initiating wealth nations, the Free French and engrnes (3,000 lb) ofbombs, or sx 147-kq (325-
production in the Vegra factory. By with the Brazilian air force, A lonq- Performance: maxirnum speed lb) depth charges, or one torpedo
:omparison wrth the Hudson, the Ven- range version, the PV-2, had been 518 lar/h (322 mph) at 4205 m
:ura had far more effecttve armament, ordered by the US Navy in June 1943 (13,800 ft); servicecerlingBOlS m
a heavier bombioad and more power- and differing in several respects from (26,300 ft); normalrange2lB9 km
irl engines, and appearedto have con- the Ventura, was narned Harpoon; ( miles)
siderable potential, Frrst used oper- Ventura and Harpoon producticn total- Weights: empty 916 t kg (20, 197 lb);
ationaliy by the RAF on 3 November Ied 3,028 in September 1945. Post'war maximum take-off 14096 kg (31,077 lb)
1942, the type was soon found to be surplus PV-2 aircraft were supplied to Dimensions: span 19,96 m (65 ft 6 in);
toekheed Hudson Mk I cutaway drawing key
l i,fcr.n*ed Hudson (A-2 8l-zg) 'i Starboardnevigation/
identification lights
'12 Leading-edgede-icing boot
'13 Main wing rib stations
27 Jettisonablecanopyhatch
2B Console llght
Originating in 1938, when the UK was participated rn the Battle of the Atlan- 2 Sterboard wingtip 14 Wing skinnlng 29 Windscreen wlpers
spending considerably more money tic. It was rhe crew of a No. 269 Squad- 3 De-icingsots 15 Flapcontro cbles 30 Second-pllot's jump seat
4 lnternalvanes 16 Flaptracks 31 Adjustablequafierlight
on contracts with the American aircraft ron Hudson to whom the U-boat U-570 5 Aileron internalmass 17 Flapcables/pulleys 32 Windscreen frame suppofi
'18 Trackfairings
industry than the US air forces them- surrendered after a determined attack balance member
selves, the Lockheed Hudson was the on 27 Augnrst 194 L A total of 2,487 Hud- 6 Starboardaileron 19 Portflap(extended) 33 Externalgunsight
7 Aiieron tab 20 Aerialmast 34 Second-pilot's iback-up)
outcome of a request that the Lock- sons was purchased on British con- 8 Tabmechanism 21 DiFloopfairlng control column
heed 14 transport be developed as a tracts, of which 423 were supplieC to I Controlcables 22 Supportedstructure (cantilevered)
maritime reconnaissance arrcraft. The Canada, South Africa, China, New 7ea-- 1 0 \lJing main sparstructure 23 Aeriallead in 35 Central instrumentconsole
1 1 De-icingtubes 24 Cockpitcoldair 36 Starboardnose
first such aircraft was flown on 10 De- land, Australia and Portugal. Final ver- 25 Flightdecksun-blind compartmenl entrytunnel
cember 1938, and the first to arnve in sions were the Hudson Mks IV, V and f rames 37 Bulkhead
the UK was disembarked at Liverpool VI with Pratt & Whrtney radials. Hud- 26 Windscreen wiper motor 38 Starboard engine oil tank
39 Fixed foMard-firing 0.303-
on 15 February 1939. AJter the initiation sons equipped 3l RAF squadrons, in (7.7 mm) Browning
of the Lend-Lease programme the air- sewing as transpods rn the final years machine-guns (two)
craft was given the US desiqtnatron A- of the war. 40 Carburettorintake
4T WrlghtR-1820-G102A
28 and A-28A, some of the British air- radial engine
craft being repossessed as A-29 and 42 Starboardnacelle
A-294 arrcraft by the USAAF after Specification
Pearl Harbor. The first U-boat to be LockheedA-29 (Hudson Mk IIIA)
sunk by American forces was attacked Type: four-seat lrghl bomber
by an A-29 of the l3th Bomb Group. An Powerplant: two 1,200 hp (894.8-kW)
attack trainer version was produced as Wrrghr R- t820-87 rad ral prsron enotnes
the AT-18 (or, with dorsal turret re- Performance: maximum speed
moved. the AT-I8B), lt was however in 407 km/h (253 mph) at 4572 m
the RAF that the aircraft, as the Hud- (15,000 ft); climbto3048 m(10,000 ft)in
son, saw most service. The original 6,3 minutes; service ceiling 8077 m
order for 200 (soon increased to 350) (25,500 ft); range 2494 km (1,550 miles)
aircraft were designated Hudson Mk I; Weights: empty 5817 kq (i2,825 Ib);
Hydromatic propellers identifled the maximum take-off9299 kg (20 500 lb)
Hudson Mk II, and the Hudson Mk III Dimensions: span 19.96 m (65 ft 6 in);
was powered by 1,200-hp (984,8-kW) length 13,51 m (44 lt 4 in); height 3.63 m
Wriqht GR-1820 G205A radials, Hud- (11 ft 11 in); winqarea 51.19 mZ
sons entered service with the RAF's (551 0 sq ft)
No, 224 Squadron in mid-1939, replac- Armament: two 7 62-mm (0.3-1n)
rng Awo Ansons, and thereafter flew machine-guns each in nose and dorsal
constant patrols over the North Sea; turrets, and one 7 62-mm (0.3-tn)
later, with the arrival of the Hudson Mk machine-Enrn in vertrcal posrtion, plus a
III wrth extra fuel tanks, the aircraft bombload of 1,600 lb (726 kq)

performed s ter ling wor k

H u ds o n s useful in the battle against the
for Coastal Command during the U-boat. This pair are picturedwhilst
war, usually in homewaters.Their on an anti-shipping patrol in the
good endurance and adequate Heligoland Bight.
weapon load made them especially

t 492,
Lockheed Hudson (continued)

Another useful rale filled by the

H udson w as air-sea rescue. ?ft is
Hudson Mk II I of N o. 27 I S qn flew
from Sturgate during I 942 , equipped
with a ventral kfeboat which cauld be
dropped to airmen downed in the
North Sea. The aircraft would then
signal a ship or flying-boat to come

43 Cowling nose ring 63 Nose compartmentwarm 78 Spar/f rameattachment 87 Starboard cabinwindows 106 De-icingtube 15'1 Poftflapsection
44 Three-blade propeller al 79 Wireless bav racks 88 Astfodrome (Mk llland 107 Starboard end plane 152 Flaptrackfairings
108 Tailfin de-icing boot '153 Ailerontab
45 Spinner 64 Windscreen de-icing tank 80 Cabincoldair retrofit)
109 Tallfinskinning 1 54 Portaileron
46 Nose compartment cold air 65 lvlachine gun ammunition B1 Astrographtable/suPPlY
47 Machinegun muzzles magaz!ne locker 110 Ruddertabactuator 155 Aileron internal mass
1 1 Aerlalattachment balance
48 Nose structure 66 Rudderpedalassembly B2 Wing Jlaps actuating
49 Roofglazing 67 Pilot'scontrol column cviinder 1 12 Rudderupperbalance 156 Portwingtipstructure
50 Windowframes 68 Pilot'sseat 83 Smoke-f oatstowaqe rack T 13 Ruddertab 157 Portnaviqation/
51 Nosecone 69 Pi ot's radiocontrolboxes 84 Port cabin windows identification lights
52 Navigator'ssidewindows 70 FoMard (canted)fuse age 85 Beammachine-gun 158 lnternalvanes
posltions (fie d 1 59 Wing slots
53 Compass f rame 'i60 Wing structure
54 Navioator'stable 71 Frame/wing plck-up modificalion)
55 Navidator's (slidinq)seat 72 Hydraullcsreservolr 86 Gunsupportframe 161 Main spar
56 Bomb:aimer's f lat panels 73 Wlreless-operatorstable
/ 162 Noseribs
163 Portwing leading-edgede-
57 Bomb-aimer's prone
Bomb selector/switch
74 Wlreless-operatoLs seat
75 Transmltter
76 Receiver
/'-/ icing boot
'164 Rib assembly
panel 77 N,4ain sparcentre-section 165 Mainwheelrecess
1 66 Portnacellefairing
59 Navigator'sinstrument carry-through
panel 167 Rearsparwingjoin
60 Foeard flare chute
61 Bombsightsupport / --'' 168 Mainsparwinqioin

62 Noseframes


1 14. Starboard rudder
115 Elevatortab
16 Starboardelevator
t-' '1
17 Tabactuating inkage
1B Elevatorcontrol
mechanism 169 Port wing aft luel tank
}. 89 Fuselage frames
19 Flxedcentre-section t70 Fuselage bomb bay
L 90 Stringers
91 Flare stowage racks
1 20 Tail navigation light
'121 Portelevator
'122 Elevatortab
11 1,
actuatlng cyllnder
Portwlng foMard f ue tank
112 Control seryos
92 Parachute stowage '123 Porttailfin de-iclng boot
Aftfuselage bulkhead 113 Undercarnage retraction
94 Aerials 124 Tailfinstructure cVll nder
'125 Rudderupperba ance I 74 Undercatrrage support/
95 Boulton Pau dorsal turret '126 Rudderupperhinge
96 Turret support canted attachment strut
frame 127 Ruddertab 175 Poarengineolltankbay
'128 Portrudderstructure 1 76 Engine support f rame
91 Turret ring
129 Portendplane 77 Carburettoranttslcing tank
98 Dorsal cut-outformer

e\ 99 Bulkhead
r00 Rear bulkhead/tailplane
:130 Rudder lower balance
'131 Fixed tallwheel
132 Porttailplane Structure
133 Tai wheel shock-absorber

Engine bearerassembly
Bomb-bav fomard wall
180 Carburettor ntake
18T Battery
101 Tall surface control linkage
Fn 102 Starboard tailplane
103 Twin 0.303-in (7.7 mm) 1
34 Tailplane Support bulkhead
135 Warmairconduit
182 Smoke f loats
183 Propelleranti-icing tank
machlne€uns '184 Enginebearerring
104 Ruddercontro quadrant 136 Bulkhead coverplate
105 Cable linkage 137 Control pulleyquadrant 185 Cowllng nose ring
38 Tutret mechanism/support
T86 Spinner
139 Aftflaretube T87 Three blade propel er
140 Tolletlocatlon 188 Starboard malnwheel
141 Step 189 Pitothead
'142 Entrydoor(jettisonable 190 Oilcoolerlntake
dinghy housing) '191 Exhaustlouvres
143 Ammunltior feed/ 192 Landing gearfulcrum
magazine T 93 Drag strut

144 Dinghy re ease cylinder/ T94 Exhauststub

O Pilot Press Limited hand lever 195 Sldestrut
1 45 Tunnel lventral) gun station 196 Mainwheel oleo Leg
(optiona ) 197 Torquellnks
146 entrywalkway(port)
Cabin 198 Port mainwheel
147 Ventralcameraport 199 Axlehub
148 Ventralgunwell 200 Towing ug
149 Bomb-doorsoperating 201 Undercarriagedoor

k 1 50
Bomb-bay rearwell
F oatmarker
250-lb (1 13.s-kq) ,A S bcr:


Dornier Do 217
After the departure eastwards of the
bulk of Germany's light bombing force
foom western Europe in May 1941, the
pnncipal bomber unit remaining in the
Netherlands was Kampfgeschwader 2r
Thrs unit by itself was rnadequate to
sustain a prolonged bombing cam-
paign aqainst the UK, but was never-
theless re-equipped with a new ver- DornierDo2ITE-Z of g.staffel,Kampfgeschwader 40 based atBordeaux-M6rigmacin 1942.
sionof theDo 17, theDornierDo2IT. At The badge on the nose sfiows a winged bomb over Britain-
about the same time the specialist anti-
shipping unit in the West, KG 40, re-
ceived its flrst Do 217s, IVKG 2 receiv-
ing Do 2l7E-I arrcraft in August 1941,
Although these aircraft were fun-
damentally standard bombers, con-
cessrons were soon forthcominq to suit
the aircra-ft to the anti-shippinQr role
wrth the issue of RLists3jlze (conversion
kits); amonq these were the R-10 and
R-15 kits to enable the Do 217E to
mount anti-shipping weapons, later to
include the Henschel Hs 293A qnrided DornierDo2lTE-5 of KG 40.Thisaircraftiscarryingtwoof theHenschelHs 293Astand-off guided anfi-sfiipmr'sst7es,
missiles; the Do 2I7E-5 was desigmed which were used with some degree ofsuccess in the Mediterranean.
from the outset to accommodate these
weapons. Other anti-shipptng variants action, In termsof Allied shippinq sunk Dimensions: span 19,00 m (62 ft 4 in); trarnable 7.92-mm (0.31-in) snrns ln
were the Do 2l?K-2 equipped to deliv- or severely crippled, the Do 217 was Ienslh 18.20 m (59 ft 8.5 in); heisht nose and beam posrtions (the Do 2 17E-
er two Fritz X rocket-propelled mis- unquestionably the most effective of all 5,02 m ( 16 It 6 in); winq area 57.00 m' 5/R 19 also carried four 7, 92-mm/0, 3 I -
siles, and the Do 217K-3 capable of German anti-shipptng aircraft when (613,54 sq ft) in) guns in the extreme tail), plus an
carrying elther Hs 293As or Frltz Xs. armed with these gutded weapons, Armament: one fixed 15-mm (0, 59-in) oflensive load of two 1045-kq (2,3041b)
Sub-variants of the Do 2I7M were also gmninthe nose, one 13-mm (0.5l-in) Hs 293A remotely-controlled
produced for the antr-shippinq role. Specification gnrn in a dorsal turret, one l3-mm (0, 5 1- weapons, with 295-kg (650{b)
In mid-1943 II and iIVKG i00 were DornierDo 2I7E-5 in) gmn in ventral positron, and three warheads, carried under the wings
withdrawn from the Eastern Front and Type: four-seat anti-shipping bombe:
re-equipped with Do 2l7E-5s and Do Powerplant: hvo 1,580-hp (1 178,2-kW)
2\7K-2s respectively, the former unit BMW B0 I C 14-cylinder arr-cooled
movinq to Cognac with Hs 2934s and radial piston engdnes
the latter to Marseilles with the Fritz X, Performance: maximum sPeed
The first success in action was gained 515 knr/h (320 mph) at 5200 m
on 27 Augnrst when Hs 293As sank the (17,060 ft); climbto925 m(3,035 ft)in
Canadian destroyer HMCS Affiabas- 4.45 minutes; service ceiling 9000 m
kan and the corvette HMS Egret in the (29,528 ft); normalrange 2300 km
Bay of Biscay. In the Mediterranean (1,429 miles)
IIVKG 100 sank the ltalian battleship Weights: empty BB55 kq ( 19,522 lb);
Roma and damaged the llala with Fritz maximumtake-off 16465 kq (36,299 lb)
Xs on 9 September; shortly afterwards
Major Bernhard Jope (the pilot who, in Another KG 40 Do 2 I 7 is loaded with
a Fw 200, had fatally damaged the bombs. The camouflage is tYPical of
Empress of Bitain back in October German maritime paint schemes ,
1940) discharged a Fritz X against HMS with disruptive wave Patterns
Warspite, putting the battleship out of applied over the standard Paint.

Heinkel He ItI
fronted by fighters over the convoy normalrange
(27,887 ft); 1900 km (some aircraft) a remotely-fired 7.92-
Combat experience gained bY the
Luftwaffe durrng the first lB months of PQ, 18, the He ]]ls of KG 26, Ied bY (l,1Bl miles) mm (0.31-in) gun in the extreme tail,
Major Werner Kliimper, sank eight Weights: empty 8690 kq ( 19, iSB Ib); plus an offensrve load of either two
the war suqgested that in anti-shipping
Al[ed ships. maximumtake-off 14000 kq (30,864 ]b) 1000-kg (2,205{b) bombs or two 765-
attacks the bomb was a relativelY
wasteful and inaccurate weapon, ex- Increastnqly bad weather and Dimensions: span 22 60 m (74 ft kg ( 1,687ib) LT F5b torpedoes carrted
fighter opposition led to diminishing 1,75 in); lensth 16,45 m(53 ft 11,5 in); on external PVC racks
cept when delivered by fighter-
bombers and dive-bombers, a conclu- success in the Arctic, and in Novem- heishr 4.00 m (13 ft 1.75 jh): wrng area
sion amply borne out as the defensive ber 1942 KG 26 was redeploYed to the 86 50 m'z (931.07 sq fr) Apair otLTFSb practice torgedoes
Mediterranean, New torpedo variants Armament: sx 7 92-mm (0,3 I -in) are loaded on to the underfuselage
armament on Britlsh ships was Pro-
gressively increased, Thus it was that were introduced, includinq the He machine-gn-ins in nose, dorsal, beam racks of a Heinkel He I I I H -6. The H-6
early in 1941 the LuJturaffe chose to lllH-15 which featured FuG 200 anti- and ventral positions, one 20-mm was also used for trials with guided
place greater emphasis on the torpedo shipping search radar and increased cannon in the extreme nose, and mrssr?es and Erli de- bombs.
(notwrthstanding consrderable dif- gun armament. Rrislsiitz conversion
ficulties then being experienced in the kits were also introduced to modify
German navy with their armtng pistols) bomber vartants to the torpedo role,
and, following trials and aircrew train- but the He ltlH-I2 variant, which
ing at Grossenbrode in the Baltic and underwent trials with two underwingt
Grosseto in Italy, the Heinkel He I I IH- Henschel Hs 293A anti-shipping
6, carrying two 765-kg (1,687-lb) LT weapons in conjunction with FuG 203b
FSb torpedoes under the wingt roots, Kehl III guidance system, failed to
was first delivered to VKG 26 at Gros- achieve operational status.
seto early in 1942. By June that year the
whole Geschr,lzader had been re- Specification
equipped and had moved to Banak HeinkelHe IIIH-6
and Bardufoss in northern Norway for Type: sx-seat torpedo bomber
operations against the Allied North Powemlant: two 1, 400-hP ( 1044-kW)
Cape convoys, Until the inclusion of Junkers Jumo 21 lF-1 l2-cYlinder
British escort carriers in these con- liqurd-cooled Vee ptston englnes
voys, the German torpedo bombers Performance: maximum sPeed
(which also numbered some He ll5 435 l<nrlh(270 mph) at6000 m
floatplanes) achieved outstanding suc- (19,685 ft); climbto2000 m(6,562 ft)in
cess, Nevertheless, even when con- 8,5 minutesr service ceiling B50O m

t 494
El FJlll"-wulf Fw 2oo cond
: arnous as a pre-war airliner wtth a
:':mber of formidable long-distance
'-Ehts and records to its credit, the
::u-engine Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Con-
dor was dsigned by Kurt Tank in 1936,
ard underwent military adaptation into
I fairly potent antt-shippinq aircraft
Luftwaffe. Ten pre-production
',',-lth the
Fw-200C-0 maritime reconnaissance
rrcraft were delivered to the Luftwaf- Based at Bordeaux-M6rignac in late I 940, this Fw 200C of
in September 1939, some of them 1./KG 40 carries tfte badge associated with many pre-war
serving wrth VKG 40 rn 1940, The five- record-breaking flights by civil Condors.
:rew productton Fw 200C-l was Po-
,vered by four 830-hp (618.g-kw)
BMW 132H engines, was armed with a
20-mm Qnrn in the nose and three 7,92-
mm (0.31-in) gmns in other positions
and could carry four 250-kg (55ilb)
bombs. Apart from long-range marl-
trme patrols over the Atlantic, the Fw
200C-ls also undertook extensive
minelayrnq in British waters during
1940, each carryingl two 1000-kg
(2,205-lb) mrnes. Numerous sub- TheFw 200C-6 featuredFuG 200 Hohentwielra dar and the ability to carry theHs 293Aguided missile.Two missiles
variants of the C-series appeared, of could be carriedunder the outboard engine nace//es.
whrch the Fw 200C-3 with 1,000-hP
(745.7-kW) Bramo 323R-2 radials was ports iB aircraft being flown bY Powerplant: four 1,000-hp (745.7-kW) in forward dorsal turret, one i,i-r:r:-
Kampfgruppe zur besonderen Ver- BMW-Bramo 323R-2 radial piston (0 5 I-in) gun in rear dorsal postr::-
the most important. Later in the war the
Fw 200C-6 and Fw 200C-8 were Pro- wendunq 200 in suPPort of the be- englnes hvo 13-mm (0, 5 1-in) gnrs rn bean
leagnrered German forces at Staling- Performance: maximum speed positions, one 2O-mm gnrri Ln iorr";ari
duced rn an effort to enhance the Con-
rad. Other Condors were Lrsed by Hit- 360 Wn/h (224 mph) at 4700 m position ofventral gTondola and one
dor's operatronal potential by adapta-
tion to carry two Henschel Hs 293 mis- ler and Hrmmler as Personal trans- ( 15,420 ft); sewice ceiling 6000 m 7,92-mm (0.3 I-in) qun rn aft ventral
siles in conjunction with FUG 203b mis- pors, Focke-Wulf Fw 200 production (19,685 ft); ranse3560 km(2,211 miles) position, plus a maxtmum bomb loai :-
ior the Lufiwaffe amounted to 252 au- Weights:empty 17000 kg (37,478 Ib); 2100 kq(4,630 lb).
sile control radio.
Rugged operating conditions high- craft between 1940 and 1944. maximum take-off 22700 kg (50, 044 lb)
lighted the Fw 200's numerous structu- Dimensions:span32,B4 m (107 ft
ral weaknesses and there were Specification 9,5 in); lenqth 23,85 m (76 ft I1.5 tn);
numerous accidents in service, and for Focke-Wulf Fw200C-3N4 heiqht 6,30 m (20 ft B in); wing area
a short time in the mid-war Years Fw Type: seven-seat long-range maritime 118.00 m'z(1,290.0 sq f0
20s were employed as milltary trans- reconnaissance bomber Armament: one 7,92-mm (0.3I-in) Sun

re! i*i."tt Ju 88 and Ju I88 JunkersJu 188D-2 of L/FAGr 124 based atKirkenes
in Norway. Note the disruptive wave camouflage
for m aritime oper ations.
Just as the Heinkel He lll corres-
ponded roughly to the RAF's Vickers
Wellington in the maritime role, so the
Junkers Ju BB was a contemPorarY of
and superflcially equtvalent to Coastal k"lqi€
Command s Bristol Beaufighter.
However, whereas the latter was con-
ceived from the outset as a fiqhter, the
juBB wai fundamentally a bomber
which came to serue as a night-fighter
and intruder,
Ju BBs flew anlr-shipprng misstons
with specialisl Kampfgeschwader, (602,78 sq ft)
(30,512 ft); normalrange 1950 km
notably KG 30, as earlY as the Norwe-
gian campaiqn of April 1940, although (1,212 miles) Armament: qnrn armament (commonly)
small numbers with the anti-shipping Weights: empty 9860 kg (21,737 1b); of two l3-mm (0.5 r-rn) machine-guns tn
the aircraft themselves were standard
unit IIVKG 26 towards the end of 1944. maximum take-off 14470 kg (31,898 lb) nose and dorsal posttions, Plus an
Ju 88A bombers. And rt was KG 3O's Ju
The Ju IBB was a PoPular aircrafl Dimensions: span22.00 m (72 fl2 in), offensive load ofup to 3000 kq
BBs that were flown with such devas-
with its crew but, following the switch lengrth 14.90 m (48 ft 0,5 in): height (6,614 ]b) ortwo 800-kg (1,7641b) LTIb
talrng success agaLnst ship-
prnq'durtng lhe Greek camPatgn oi of priorities by the Germans in favour 444m(14 ft6.8 rn); wLnsarea56.00 m' lorpedoes carrled u nder the wings
1941. In an attack by 7,/KG 30 on the offlghters in the latter halfof 1944, pro-
approaches to Piraeus harbour Haupt- duction of the bomber and torPedo
mann Hajo Herrmann's bombs struck bomber versions was halted, although
the freighter Clan Frazer which was they remained in fast-diminishinq ser-
loaded with explosles and blew uP, vice until the end of the war.
destroyrng l0 other ships, Soon after-
wards KG 30 was assembled in north- Specification
ern Norway for attacks against the JunkersJu I88E-2
North Cape (PQ) convoys berng sailed Type: four-seat torpedo bomber
between Iceland and Soviet Ports, Powerplant: two 1,700-hp (1267.7-kW)
Atthough no versron of the Ju BB was BMW B01D air-cooled radial Piston
developed specifically for the anti- engdnes
shipping strike role, the extensively Performance: maximum sPeed
redesigned Junkers Ju I88 which be- 500 lar/h (31 I mph) at 6000 m
qan makinq real progress before the (19,685 ft); climb to 6000 m (19,685 ft) in
end of 1942, appeared in several ver- 17.6 minutes;sewice ceiling 9300 m
sions as a torpedo bomber. The first,
the Ju I88E-2, could carry two BOO-kg The superlative Ju 88 was effective in
(1,764-1b) torpedoes under the wings manv r o[es, and anti'shiPPing w as
and some aircraft also carried FUG 200 no exception. This aircraft bears I 0
sea-search radar. This version and ship kills from the Mediterranean'
another, the Ju l88A-3 with water denoted by the fuselage theatre
methanol boosted enqines, served in band.

I 10:

Attacking fhe North Cclpe Convogs
The British convoys bound for committed to Operation 'Barbarossa' on the an Fw 200, about 20 Ju 88s of IIVKG 30 1ed by
Murmansk and Archangel'sk loaded Eastern Front, these eariy essays encountered the legendary Hauptmann Hajo Herrmann,
withBritish aid tohelp the Sovietwar little in the way of enemy interference, came in to attack. Hampered by patchy tow
By March 1942, however, assigniflcant quan- cloud, the German aircrews were unable to set
effort were a natural and inviting target
trties of US war supplies became available lor up co-ordinated bombing runs and only man-
for the Luftwaffe's bombers in Norway. the Soviet Union, the German air force (Luftflot- aged to hrt and srnk two shrps wtth the loss ol55
The attackswere en masse andvicious. te V) in northern Norway had undergone con- lives,
siderable strengthening, the whole of Kampf- A fortnight later PQ. 14 set sail from lceland,
The entire saga of the serres of convoys which geschwader 30 by then being based under but, encountering dense fog and dnftrng ice
was sailed from Scotland and lceland to Soviet Major Erich Blodorn with about 80 Junkers Ju floes which would have caused the convoy to
northern ports from late 1941 onwards was an 88As at Banak, the forward headquarters of the reduce speed to no more than about 4 kts, the
enterprise of incredrble hardshrp and hazard, Luftwaffe, Located at Bardufoss were some 30 naval commander judged it prudent to turn
not only for the crews of the naval and mer- of the newly-developed torpedo carrying back. PQ, 15, which sailed hve days later, was
chant ships that consiituted the convoys but Heinkel He l11H-6s of VKG 26 under Haupt- reported and shadowed by KilFlGr 406, and
also for the Luftwaife arrcrews sent out to mann Garnot Ercke, Providing long-range re- came under torpedo attack from the He I I ls of
searchior, shadowand attackthem Apartfrom connaissance and search were a dozen Focke- KG 26, which sank three ships wrth the loss of
appalling weather and long hours ol darkness, Wulf Fw 200 Condors of VKG 40, and half that nearly BO lives,
a ship sunk or an aircraft shot down almost number of Blohm und Voss Bv 138 flyinq-boats The full mtght of Luftflotte V was unleashed
rnvariably commrtted men to a rapid death in of 2,Staffel, Kustenfliegergruppe 406, There against the next three convoys, The 34 shlps
the freezing Arctic wastes, such were the long were also about 30 short-range Junkers Ju which made up PQ, 16 and which had sailed
odds against rescue, 87BlR dlve-bombers of TSIG 5, KiiFlGr 406's shortly behind PQ, 15 were spotted and sha-
Early convoys (numbered PQ, I onwards for l,Staffel, commanded by Hauptmann dowed at long range by the Fw 200s and Bv
those bound for Murmansk and Archangel'sk, Eberhard Peukert, was based at Sorreisa, near 138s, On 25 April, and for five days after, the
and QP, I onwards for those returning west- Tromso, with 1l torpedo-carrying Heinkel He convoy came under repeated attack by the
wards) sarled from late in the summer of 1941 115C-4s whole of KG30 and VKG26, Realizingthat in the
with supplies lor the Soviet Union lollowrng Towards the end of March 1942 the convoy iace of such severe attacks the escort was un-
Churchill's pledge of assistance to Stalin and PQ-13 was the first to meet with significant air able to put up adequate gunfire to protect hts
lvith much of the Luftwaffe's available strength attack when, after some hours of shadowing by ships, the convoy commodore ordered the

The attacks on the North Cape convoys sometimes

involved aircraft flying in a line and releasing their
torpedoes m a string across the path of the convoy.
These Ju 88As have just released their 'fish' and
willsoon be looking to race through theflakto
safety. It took carrierborne air power to stop these
devastating attacks on the ^Sovjet supply lines.

,:g :'::',
,: aE!eE6

Anti-Shipping Aircraft of World War II

nerchantmen to scatter and, although the Ju IlSs and U-boats developed. In attacks by attacks by KG 30 on lO Ju1y.
37s joined in the attacks on 30 April, only seven erqht He llSs on 2 July the leading aircraft, By 12 July Luftwaffe patrols havrng ia:iec ::
ships were hit and sunk for the loss of 90 llves, flown by Hauptmann Herbert Vater, was locate any of the ships of PQ 17 the Gen::a::
Ten German aircraft were claimed destroyed, forced down by AA fire, but the crew was were convinced that the entire convoy hai
but these losses were not reflected in Luftwaffe instantly rescued when Oberieutnant Burmes- beenwiped out, and made claims accordingi;,-
records, ter landed alongside in the treacherous seas, In fact I I surviving vessels had managed :c
There followed a six-week lull in eastbound At dawn two days later the He 1l5s returned reach the relative safety of the coast of Novaya
sailings, as much to allow merchantmen to re- and, following a srghting by Hauptmann Zemlya and in due course struggled into Sovie:
turn from Soviet ports as to study the best tac- Eberhard Peukert, a torpedo attack severely ports,
tics in the fac.e of the heavy German air attacks, damaged the American freighter Chnstopher The loss of more than 250 merchant seamen
The order to scaiter had obviously saved PQ, i6 Newport. the shrps and a considerable quantity of war
from greater slaughter, but it had been mat6riel was an enormous setback for the
Mass attack Allies and one that demanded a serious re
acknowledged that weather conditions had
been too bad to allow enemy surface shrps and On 5 July the flrst major attack by the Ju 88s of apprarsal of the efforts being made to get these
submarines to operate. There was now grow- KG 30 was launched, each coiumn of ships polrtrcally sensttive convoys through to the
ing evidence that at least four U-boats were on being assigned to a speciflc Gruppe which USSR Desprte the heavy losses thus far suf
patrol to the north of North Cape, while a then attacked in line astern of vics, In quick fered, Stalin persisted rn his complaints that his
powerful flotrlla of Germany's potent des- succession Ihe Peter Kerr, Washington, Bolton Western Allies were simply not trying their
troyers were known to be based in Norway, A Ctty, Fairfield City and Zaafaran were hit by hardest to relieve the sufferrngs and sacnfices
scattered convoy was almost defenceless bombs and sunk. Partly as a result of thts sav- of the Soviet people and the sorely-pressed
agarnst such a threat, age attack and partly owing to a series of con- Red Army.
PQ. 17 sailed from Icelandic waters on 27 fused signals relating to the possible approach So it was that when PQ, 18 salled from Loch
June 1942, in dense fog and covered by a strongl of German surface vessels, the convoy was Ewe in Scotland on 2 September 1942 Ihe 42
naval force which patrolled some four hours' ordered to scatter. This time, however, the merchantmenwere accompanied by an escort
steaming to the west, Ony three days out, the scale of German alr surveillance was such that carrier, HMS Arzenger with three Fairey
convoy was spotted by the crew of a Vaernes- the massacre contrnued, five further ships Swordfish and 12 Hawker Sea Hurricanes of
based Fw 200 of Z.IKG 40 and lollowing trans- being torpedoed by U boats, while the El Capt- Nos 802 and 883 Squadrons embarked, six
mission of its course and speed attacks by He lan and Hooster were badiy damaged tn atr cruisers, 24 destroyers, two submarrnes and 13

Attacking the North Cape Convoys
The mainworry o{the attacking
aircraftwas the Sea Hurricane, which
could be launched from merchant
carriers (CAM-ships). As the
situation in the North worsened for .

the Allies, an aircraft-carrier with '.:t

Sea Hurricanes aboard was sent to
protect the convoys. ManyGerman
aircraft suffered from the guns of
these fighters.

smaller naval vessels. quickly and provrded a measure of protection 18.2 litres (4 Imp qal) of fuel remaining.
After rnitral srghtings and shadowing by Ger- for the ships; nine more German aircraft were PQ, 18 was the last North Cape convoy to run
man forces, submarine and air attacks on the destroyed for the loss of three Britrsh fighters the gauntlet oi all-out attack by the Luftwaffe;
convoy started on 12 September when a des- (their pilots being miraculously rescued), and a the presence and survrval of the Arzenger dis-
troyer sank a U-boat, German submarines then single merchantman was hit and blew up. couraged the German high command to the
sank two merchantmen early in the followtng By 15 September PQ, 18 had drawn out of extent oi withdrawing most of the bombers to
day, but fog, rain and snow prevented attacks range of German aircraft and as the convoy other war theatres, (The Avenger was to be
by the Luftwaffe until the afternoonj then, as the sailed on, having lost 13 ships ( 10 to aircraft and torpedoed later in 1942 durrnq the 'Torch' land-
Sea Hurricanes were engaged in trylng to des- three to U-boats), Ihe Avengerwas ordered to ings, when she blew up with the loss of most of
troy the shadowing Fw 200s, about 100 aircraft meet and escort a homecoming convoy, which her crew.) The North Cape convoys neverthe-
(including the entire available force of He I I ls, was to lose four shrps before it reached home less continued to sall until Aprrl 1945 and losses
each carrying a pair of torpedoes) attacked at waters, were suffered from time to time, mostly from
very low level. Eight merchantmen were hit by The losses sustarned during the battles of attacks by U-boats, Never agatn, though, did
torpedoes, and all sank. these two convoys cost the Luftwaffe a total of the Luftwaffe attempt to mount large-scale air
The carrier commander then changed his 38 aircraft, including an Fw 200 and a Bv 138; attacks when the ralders rlsked interception
orders, sendrng hrs fighters against the raiders, three U-boats were also sunk. On the Alhed by carrierborne fighters.
During 14 September Ihe Avengerherself be- side 17 merchant ships, with 178 lives, were
came the enemy air force's main target but, as Iost, as were a destroyer, a minesweeper and
her Sea Hurricanes shot down 12 German air- an oiler, British arrcraft losses amounted to four
fighters and a flying-boat. A Sea Hurricane, Throughout thewar at sea the Condors were
craft (conflrmed in Luftwaffe records), the car- active, wreaking havoc amongst Allied shipping
rier escaped damage from several torpedo catapulted from the CAM-ship Empire Mom, and directing U-boats to suitable targets. At the
and dive-bombing attacks, Later that day furth- was not, however, lost; having destroyed an heart of this was the Condor's excellent
er attacks by ju 87s, Ju 88s and He IIIs de- enemy flyinqr-boat, the pilot managed to reach endurance, which had been established before
veloped, but the cloudbase was dropping a Soviet airfield where he landed safelv with the war by the German airline Lufthansa.
EI iuni."rr
Developed directly from the Ju
Ju 2eo
commercial and military transport, the
four-enqine Junkers Ju 290 was rn-
tended to replace the Focke-Wulf Fw
200 Condor which by I942 was
slow and lrrlnerable when confronted
by RAF aircraft over the 'narrow seas'
around Ewope, Developments of the l
Fernaufkldrungsgruppe (FAGr) 5 was the only operator of theJunkers Ju 290
Ju 290 nevertheless embraced con- vated and, with a ranqe of over maritime versions and used these from Mont de Marsan in Frince. Th6 A-Z
siderable work to suit rt for the trans- 6100km (3,790 miles) the Ju 290s variantcould carryup to three of theHs 293Amissiles.
port role, and it was not until early 1943 ranged far out over the Atlantrc, re-
that theJu 290A- I underwent extensive laying convoy sightings to U-boats, As the Battle of the Atlantic swung 440krn/h(273 mph) at 6000 m
modification as a manllme reconnaiss- Eleven lu 290A-5 aircraft with rn- irrevocably in favour of the Allies with (19,685 ft); climb to 1000 m (3,28I ft) in
ance aircraft, includlng the installation creased armour protection and 2O-mm the Ioss by the Germans of French 4,2 minutes; service ceiilng 6000 m
of marine radro, FuG 200 Hohentwiel cannon in place of the earlier beam bases in Augiust 1944, FAGr 5 was with- (19,685 ft); maxrmumrange6lSO km
sea search radar and a second dorsal machine-guns were delivered to drawn eastwards and began operating (3,822 miles)
HDL 151 qun turret mountingr an MG FAGr 5 early in 1944, as were about a as a transpofi unit, some ofthe Ju 290s Weights: empty about 27700 kg
l5l/20 cannon. dozen of the Ju 2904-7 variant; the lat- even being flown nonstop to Manchur- (61,067 Ib); maximumtake-of 45000 kg
At the same time a long-range re- ter was a true anti-shippingr strike air- ra carrying special supplies to the (99,206 rb)
connaissance group, Fernaulkldrungs- craft capable of carrying either three Japanese and returning with raw Dimensions:span 42,00 m (137 ft
gruppe 5, was formed and dunng the Henschel Hs 293 or Fritz X weapons materials vital to Germany. 9.5 in): lenqth 28.64 m (93 fr I 1.5 in)
late summer of 1943 three of the newJu under fuselage and wings, It also fea- height 6.Q3 m(22114.75 in): wrng area
290A-2s were delivered to its LStaffel, tured a new nose section combininq a Specification 204.A0 mz (2,195.I sq fr)
which became operational at Mont de nose qlrn position with 20-mm cannon JunkersJu 290A-5 Armament: sxMG 151/20 20-mm
Marsan in France on 15 October of that \ dth the FuG 200 aerial array, Only Type: nine-seat maritime cannon in ventral gondola, two dorsal
year. Five Ju 2904-3 arrcraft with more three Ju 290A-9 aircraft were com- reconnaissance arrcraft turrets, a tail position and lwo beam
powerful BMW B01D engrnes fol- pleted with reduced armament and in- Powerplant: four 1,700-hp (1267.7-kW) hatches, andone i3-mm (0.51-in)
lowed, as did five Ju 290A-4 aircraft creased fuel capacity which bestowed BMW B01D air-cooled radial prston machine-gnrn in the ventral gondola;
wrth lmproved dorsal turrets, In a maximum range of B000km (4,971 engines bombs were not normally carried
November a second Slaffe/ was acti- miles). Performance: maximum speed

Savoia-Marchetti S.M.79
Developed from an eight-seat com-
mercial airliner of 1934, the three-
engine Savoia-Marchetti S.M.79 Spar-
viero entered service as a convenrion-
al medium bomber with the Regia
Aeronautica in 1937, and served oper
ationally with the Aviacion del Tercio
alongsrde the Nationalist forces durrng
the Spanish Crvil War. Also in 1937 the
S.M,79 embarked on tnals at Gorizia as
a torpedo bomber, being equrpped to
launch a sinqle 450-mm (17.7 in) naval Operating in the Mediterranean in I 942, this Savoia-Marchetti S.M.Z9 served
torpedo from an offset rack under the with the 2BC Squadriglia, 130" Gruppo Autonoma. One torpedo is carried
fuselage, The following year trials with heavy escort for the relief of Malta, beneath the fuselage.
paired torpedoes led to the adoptron of Among the famous ltalian pilots of the
the S.M.79-II aircraft as standard torpe- Spawiero were men such as Capitam as being among the best torpedo air- Weights: empty 7600 kg ( 16,755 lb);
do bomber equrpment, Following lta- Buscaglia, Cimicchi, di Bella and Mel- crafr to serve in ll-e Medrrerrarean maximum take-off I 1300 kq (24,9 12 lb)
Iy's entry into the war in June 1940 ley. An improved version was the theatre durrnq World War IL Dimensions: span 21.20 m (69 ft
when Sparvieri (sparrowhawks) S.M.79-III without the ventral gondola 6.66 in); lensth 16.20 m (53 ft 1,75 in);
equipped 14 slorm.r based in itaiy, Sici- but with a forward-firing 20-mm can- Specification height 4.lO m ( 13 ft 1.5 in,t: wing area
ly, Sardinia and Libya, the aircraft was non Savoia-Marchetti S.M. 79-lI 61.7 mz (664. 14 sq ft)
constantly in action in the anti-shipping Despite the obvious value of the Tlpe: f,ve-seat torpedo bomber Armament: three I 2, 7-mm (0. 5-in)
role, its first action being an attack by S,M,79 to the Axis forces in the Powerplant: three 1,000-hp (745.7-kW) Breda-SAFAT machine-guns in two
19 S.M.79s of the 9" and 46" Stormi on Mediterranean the aircraft (like so Piaggio P.XI RC 40 arr-cooled radial dorsal positions and one ventral
French shipping off the Riviera coast many ltalian aircraft) suffered from piston engines position, and one 7,7-mm (0,303-in)
on 13/14 June, poor sewicing facilitres, and it was un- Performance: maximum speed Lewrs gmn on a sliding mount in the
During the invasion of Crete S.M.79s usual for even as much as halfthe avail- 435 lcr/h (270 mph) at 3650 m rear fuselage to provide beam
of the 92" Gruppo and the 28 1' Squad- able strengrth of Spawieri to be flt for (1i,975 ft); serviceceilingT000 m defence plus two 450-mm ( 17,7-in)
riglia were actlve aqalnst Allied ship- operations at any given time Never- (22,966 ft); normal range 2000 krn torpedoes or 1250 kg (2,756 Ib) of
ping in the Aegean after which most theless the S,M.79 was acknowledqed (1,243 mrles) bombs
aircraft were redeployed to Ltbya for
operations against Britrsh naval forces
and convoys in the Central Mediterra-
nean as well as the naval base at Malta.
Among the ships of the Royal Nalry
sunk by S.M,79s in the Mediterranean
were the destroyers HMSHusky HMS
/aguar, HMS Legion, and HMS South
wa1}, while the battleship HMS Malaya
and the carriers HMSlndomilable and
HMS Eclorrous were all struck by tor-
pedoes launched by the ltalian torpe-
do bombers; the majority of these
ships were hit during the attacks on the
Operatron 'Pedestal' convoy which
sailed with 14 merchant ships and
The 5.M.79 was a fine torpedo-
bomber which scored many hits
againstAllied shipping in the
Mediterranean. It was fast for its size,
and this enabled it to become one of
the best Italian aircratt.

I 499

Mitsubishi G3M'Nell'
As far back as 1935, in response to
Japanese naval requirement for a land-
based twin-engine reconnaissance
afcraft, Mitsubishi flew the flrst Ka-15
prototype, an aircraft which possessed
a design potential that allowed de-
velopment as a lonq-range medium
bomber, Accordrngly. following suc-
cessful flight trials, the aircraft entered
production in June 1936 as the Navy
Type 96 Attack Bomber Model I I (Mit-
subishi G3Ml), The rnitial version, of
which 34 were produced, was pow- MitsubishiG3M2 of theGenzanKokutaiflyingfromSaigon,lndo-China, inDecember 1941.This aircraft
ered by 910-hp (678.6-kW) Kinsei 3 participated in the sinking of HMS Prince of Wales and Repulse.
radials and possessed a maximum
speed of 360 krn/h (224 mph) at 1975 m Specification
(6,480ft). As the improved Kinset 4l Mitsubishi G3M2 Model 22
and 42 engine became available in Type: five/seven-seat medium/
i937 a new version, the G3M2, started torpedo bomber
production and, with a total of 58 I built Powerplant: two 1, 075-hp (80 1. 6-kW)
by mrd-i94i, was the principal variant, Mitsubishi Kinsei 45 14-cylinder air-
With a top speed now increased to cooled radial prston engrnes
374 kr/h (232.mph), a bombload of up Performance: maxrmum speed
to B0O kg (1,764 lb) carried externally 37 4 krn/h (232 mph) at 4200 m
and a defensive armament of three 7.7- (13780 ft); climb to 3000 m (9,843 ft) in
mm (0.303-in) machine-etuns, the 8,34 minutes; sewice ceiling 9130 m
G3M2 possessed a maximum range of (29,954 ft); maximumrange 4380 km
4380 km (2,722 miles). A yet turther rm- (2,722m1\es)
proved version, of which production Weights: empty 4965 kq ( 10,946 1b);
was uRdertaken by Nakajima during maxmum take-off B0 l0 kg (U,659 lb)
l94l-3, was the G3M3 with 1,300-hp Dimensions:span 25,00 m (82 ft
(969.4-kW) Kinsei 5l radials and a top 0.25 in); lensth 16.45 m (53 ft I 1,66 in);
speed of415 km/h (258 mph) at 6000 m height3.685 m (12 ft L l in) wrngarea
(19,685 ft) 75,0 m'z (807.32 sq ft)
Mitsubrshi G3M2s were flrst flourn in Armament: three 7, 7-mm (0. 303-in)
action by the Japanese navy's Kanoya Tlpe 92 machine-gmns in a retractable
Kokutar in August 1937 in raids on dorsal tuffet and two lateral blisters,
Hangrchow and Kwangrteh in China. By and one 2O-mm Type 99 cannon in a
1940 four kokutais in China were second dorsal turret, plus one 800-kg
equipped with a total of about 130 ( 1,7641b) torpedo or equivalent bomb
G3M2s, a number that grew to 204 by load carried externally
the date of Pearl Harbor with the de-
ployment of forces against Wake is-
land, the Philippines and the Marianas, A form ation of M itsubishi G 3M s
And it was a force of 60 G3M2s of the cross the J apanese coast durng a
Genzan and Mihoro Kokutais (with 26 training exercise. This aircraft was
Mitsubishl G4Mls of the Kanoya Koku- widely used, especially in the early
tai) which, flying from bases in Indo- days of the war, on all kinds of
Chrna, found and sank the British m aritime oper ations, inclu ding
warshrps HMS Prrnce of Wales and torpedo dropping, bombing and
HMS /?epulse as they steamed withoul pafol. /ts successor, the same
fighter protection offthe Malayan coast company's G4M , was employed
on l0 Decehber 1941. The type was alongside theGSM on similar
l:rown to the Allies as the 'Nell', mr'ssions.


_q l Mitsubishi Ki-67 'Peggry'

Lrke.the Ki-21 and G4M, the Mitsubishi
Ki-67was classlfied by the Japanese as
a heavy bomber, yet by Western stan-
dards would have scarcely rated the
medium bomber cateqory, It was
nevertheless the best bomber to sewe
Japan in the war, albeit too late to influ-
ence the tide of events of the last year.
By then the American air raids on the
Japanese homeland were devastatingl
aircraft plants and productton was
seriously affected, The Ki-67 Hiryu
(flyrng dragon) was designed to a 1940 host of suggestions for additional Specification Proving highly manoeuwable and
speciflcation, issued in i941, for a equipment that production suffered MitsubishiKi-67 fast, the MitsubishiKi-67 Hiryuwas
stategic bomber intended for use in long delays, and it was not until Octo- Type: six/eighlseat hea!ry bomber used in the torpedo role (especially
an anticipated war with the Soviet Un- ber 1944 that the Ki67 (codenamed Powerplant: two 1,900-hp (1416.8-kW) during the Battle of Formosa).
ion on the Siberia-Manchukuo border, 'Peggry'by the Allies) was first flown in Mitsubishi Ha- i04 radial piston Production of this effective aircraft
By departing from established combat by the 7th and 98th Sentais, engmes was severely restricted following
Japanese practice and includingt and by the navy's 762nd Kokutai in the Performance: maxrmum speed American bombing raids and an
armour protection and self-seallng fuel torpedo role during the battle off For- 537 km/h (334 mph) at 6090 m earthquake.
tanks, design of the prototype Kr-67 mosa, Thereafter modifications were (19,980 ft); climb to 6000 m (19,685 ft) in
was protracted, and it was not until 27 held to a minimum as productton was 14,5 minutes; service ceilinq9470 m Armament: srngle trainable 12.7-mm
December 1942 that the first arrcraft afforded the highest priority; but by (31,070 ft); range 2800 km (1,740 miles) (0.S-in) TYpe 1 machine-guns in nose,
fiew; it proved to be highly manoeuv- then American raids (and a devastat- Weights: empty 8649 ks (19,068 1b); two beam positions and tail, and one
rable and pleasant to fly, and posses- ing earthquake in December 1944) normalloaded 13765 kg (30,347 lb) 20-mm Ho-5 cannon in dorsal turret,
sed a top speed of538 kr/h (334 mph), severely disrupted production, and no Dimensions:span 22,50 m (73 ft plus a bombload of800 kg ( 1,764 lb) or
h the same month it was decided to more than 698 Ki-67s were produced, 9.75 in); Iength 18,70 m (61 ft 4,25 in); one 1070-kg (2,359 lb) torpedo, or
adapt some Ki-67s as torpedo- some of them belng flovm in kamtkaze height 7,70 m (25 ft 3.2 in); wing area 2900.ks (6,393jb) ofbombs for
b.cmbers. The army put forward such a strikes in the last months of the war. 65.85 m'z(708,8 sq fD kamikazemission

Armed Forces of the World

The equipment used by the British army is provided wires. These tracked carriers will soon be sup-
largely by a home-based armaments industry com- plemented by three battalions of FV103 Spartans,
prising both public and private concerns. Largest of each mounting two roof-mounted Milan missiles;
the public-owned suppliers are the Royal Ordnance Milan is currently fired from a small portable laun-
Factories, who produce a variety of weapons rang- cher that is widely issued among infantry units in
ing from artillery to ammUnition. Plans are currently BAOR. lt has a range of up to 2000 m (2,185 yards)
under way to denationalize the Royal Ordnance Fac- and each missile weighs 6.65 kg (14.66 lb); wire
tories by a public sale of shares. Some weapons. guidance is used.
such as the 155-mm (6.1-in) FH-70, have come to Forward area air defence is carried out by the
the army via international development program- Blowpipe, soon to be replaced by an updated ver-
mes. but these projects are few, and much of the sion known as Javelin. This shoulder-launched sys-
equipment not produced within the United Kingdom tem has a range of 3000 m (3,280 yards) but it is
is purchased from the United States. normally used at shorter ranges. The Javelin uses a
revised guidance system. Air defence of the rear
lnfantry weapons areas is provided by the Rapier, a complex air de-
The standard service rifle is the 7.62-mm (0.3-in) fence system that uses both visual and radar-based
Rifle L1A1 , an anglicized version of the Belgian FN detection and guidance. The maximum operational
FAL. This has been in service for nearly 30 years and heightof Rapieris3000 m (3,2B0yards) and itisvery The Enfield IndividualWeapon is scheduled to
is due to be replaced by a new 5.56-mm (0.219-in) accurate, Until recently most Rapiers were towed replace both the Self-Loading Rifle and the Sterling
behind Land Rovers. but these are now being sup- SMG inBritish sewice. Short and handy andfitted
lndividual Weapon (lW), a bullpup design produced
plemented by Tracked Rapier which is based on a with an optical sight as standard, itfires the
by the Royal Small Arms Factory at Enf ield Lock. The excellent Belgian SSJ09 5.56-m m round at a cyclic
lW will replace not only the L1A1 but the L2A3 tracked chassis derived from that of the M113 rateof 650-800 rpm.
Sterling sub-machine gun which is cunently used by armoured personnel carrier used by the US Army.
many second-line units and support troops such as Each Tracked Rapier unit is f ully self-contained and
artillery, signals and the Royal Engineers. uses American M54B tracked cargo carriers for re- performance; this gun will also be fitted to the Chal-
The standard machine-gun is the 7.62-mm (0.3-in) plenishment. lenger. Compared with the Challenger, the Chieftain
General-Purpose Machine-Gun, or GPMG, which is ponderous and slow but has excellent armourand
may be used either on a heavy tripod or on a bipod- Armour a good fire-control system, and updates of all
ln both forms it uses belt-fed ammunition and fires The main striking force of the Royal Armoured aspects will continue as the Chieftain will continue
at a cyclic rate of up to 750 rpm. Several versions Corps is now provided by the FV4O30/4 Challenger, to provide the bulk of the armour in BAOR for years
exist, including some for use on armoured vehicles. now in service in BAOR and scheduled to equip five to come.
The GPMG is primarilyan infantryweapon and many armoured regiments. This powerful tank ls armed Reconnaissance vehicles are provided by a famlly
back-up units continue to use the 7.62-mm (0,3-in) with a 120-mm 14.72-in) main gun and by the end of of vehicles based on the FV101 Scorpion. Thts is a
L4A4 light machine-gun, an updated version of the this decade there will be 307 in service. The Challen- small vehicle with a three-man crew and weighing
World War ll Bren Gun. This is also scheduled for ger ls a heavy tank weighing 62 tonnes (136,68G lb) 7938 kg (i7,500 lb). lt mounts a 76-mm (3-in) gun in
replacement by the new 5.56-mm (0.219-in) Light and requires some equally heavy and powerf ul back- a turret while its close counterpart, the FV107 Scimi-
Support Weapon (LSW) that shares many compo- up equipment such as bridging, but it is well- tar, has a 30-mm (1 18-ln) RARDEN cannon. Other
nents with the lW. armoured with composite armour and uses a vehicles in this range have box-bodied superstruc-
Mortars in use include the 51-mm (2.0-in) Mortar powerful engine providing '1 ,200 bhp (895 kW). tures for a variety of roles, and include the FV102
L9A1 with a maximum range of 750 m (820 yards). As the Challenger enters service. BAOR
This is a section or platoon weapon firing HE bombs armoured regiments contlnue to rely on the FV42O1
Carrying five British Aerospace Swingtire Anti-
weighing just over 1 kg \2.2|b). The main infantry Chieftain which has been in service since 1967 but Tank Guided Missiles, the W I 02 Striker is a
support mortar is the 81-mm (3.1 9-in) L1 641 . a very is still one of the most powerfultanks in the world. lt formidable anti-tank system. The missile
effective weapon with a maximum range of over uses the same 120-mm (4.7Z-in) gun now carried by controller can operate the missiles by remote
5650 m (6,180 yards) and firing a wide range of Challenger but this will eventully be replaced by a controlfrom outside thevehicle, enabling them to
ammunition. new 1 20-mm \ gun with an improved overall be launched over hil| crests or from behind cover.
lnfantry anti-tank defence is currently provided by
the 84-mm (3.3-in) 114A1 'Carl Gustav' recoilless
gun. This gun is now generally regarded as obsoles-
cent and is due for replacement by the LAW B0
rocket launcher. This is understood to be capable of
defeating any known tank using a 94-mm (3.7-in)
rocket. The 66-mm (2.6-in) L'l41 HEAT rocket laun-
cher is also in service but is now regarded as obso-
Other infantry weapons include the L2 series of
hand grenades and a wide range of smoke and
irritant smoke grenades. Some units carry the 9-mm
(0.354-in) L9A'1 Browning automatic pistol, and the
American M16 5.56-mm (0.219-in) rifle is used by
some specialist units. These specialist units might
also make use of the L34A1 silenced version of the
Sterling sub-machine gun. Snipers use the 7.62-mm
(0.3-in) L42A1 rifle, a modernized version of the
Lee-Enfield rifle of World War ll.

Anti-tank and anti-aircraft missiles

The main long-range guided anti-tank weapon in
use is the Swingfire. a powerful missile with a
weight of 37 kg (81 .57 lb) and a range of up to
4000 m (4,375 yards). lt is carried on and fired form
the FV1 02 Striker and the FV43B and can knock out
anv known tank at very long range; guidance is by
Armed Forces of the World (Z Q^ss BritishArmy ffi
Striker mentioned above in the Swingfire role, the Chleftain AVLB that is capable of laying assault
FV103 Spartan armoured personnel carrier (soon to bridges up to 24.38 m (80 ft) long. The Chieftain and
carry Milan antl-tank guided missiles), the FV1 04 Centurion chassis are also used in the armoured
Samaritan armoured ambulance, the FV105 Sultan recovery vehicle role, but the introduction of the
command post and the FV106 Samson armoured Challenger has required the provision of a new
recovery vehicle. lt is possible that these vehicles Chieftain variant equipped with a crane and more
will be joined by an open-decked load and equip- powerful winches known as the Chieftain ARRV
ment carrier known as Streaker. (armoured repair and recovery vehicle).
f he FY721 Fox is a wheeled reconnaissance vehi- Ferret Scout cars are still used by a number of
cle mounting a 30-mm (1.18-in) RARDEN cannon, support units for liaison and general reconnaissance
and is used by TA yeomanry units. dutles. Some of them continue to carry a single
The basic armoured personnel carrier is the 0.3-in (7.62-mm) L3A3 Browning machine-gun.
FV432 which is little more than an armoured box on Other older vehicles still in use lnclude the FV161 1
tracks. lt normally carries up to.1 2 men including the Humber'Pig' armoured personnel carrier still in use
crew, but is used in a wide variety of roles ranging in Northern lreland, and the FV603 Saracen, still in
from command post to ambulance and 81-mm use for a number of specialized roles and as a com-
(3.19-in) mortar carrier. Some versions use a roof- mand vehicle with some yeomanry units. The Shor-
mounted turret with a 7.62-mm (0,3-ln) GPMG land personnel carrier based on the Land Rover is
machine-gun. The British army has a large number used in Northern lreland,'while in Cyprus a small
of these FV432s, and every unit seems to have its number of Saladin armoured cars are still used for
own particular 'fit' of equipment. Current plans are patrolling.
for the FV432s to be supplemented in BAOR by a One very specialized armoured vehicle not yet
new armoured personnel carrier known as MCV-80, mentioned is the Combat Engineering Tractor used
a faster vehiclewith a crew of two and up to eight by the Royal Engineers. This unarmed two-man
soldiers. Production has yet to start, but a range of vehicle is amphibious and can be used for a range of
vehicles with machine-gun and cannon-armed tur- combat engineering tasks from digging to obstacle
rets is proposed. clearance.
Another personnel carrier is the new Saxon, a Although it is not armoured, mention must be
wheeled armoured vehicle carrying up to 10 passen- made of the tracked Bx202E over-snow vehicles.
gers and mainly intended for use by the 1gth lnfan- These Swedish vehicles are used by units operating
try Brigade (a BAOR formation based in the United in Norway in a range of roles f rom personnel carrier
Produced as a combined project between Britain, Kingdom). lt is now entering service and several to command post. They are also used to tow artil-
Germany and ltaly, the FH70 155-mm gun has now versions, including command and recovery ver- lery.
replaced the old 5.5-in howitzer in British sewice. sions, are planned. Some versions will have
Anew rangeof 155-mm ammunitionhas been machine€un turrets. Artillery
d eveloped for the FH 7 0. I ts basic 43. 5 - kg ( 9 6 - lb)
shell is thin-walled and has high fragmentation
Other armour includes a varlety of support vehi- As a general rule artillery in BAOR is self-
effect. cles including the Centurion AVRE armed with propelled, and towed artillery is used elsewhere.
either a 165-mm (6.5-in) demolition gun or a 105- The most powerful artillery weapon is the nuclear
InJune 1980 itwas announced thatGKN Sankey's mm (4.13-in) tank gun firing High Explosive Squash Lance missile with a range of up to 121000 m
MCY S0wonthe competition toptoduce thenew (132,325 yards). lt is carried on a tracked chassis
armoured personnel carrier for the British army. Head (HESH) projectiles. These vehicles are used
Armed with a 30-mm RARDEN cannon and a for combat engineering and also have dozer blades derived from the American M1 l3 armoured person-
Hughes 7.62-mm chain gan, the MCY80 has good or mine ploughs plus a variety of other equipment. nel carrier, and it is the most powerful weapon the
mobility and carries eight fully equipped infantry. Also used in the combat engineering role is the army uses. Also in the nuclear bracket is the Amer-
ican 203-mm (B-in) M 1 1 0A1 self-propelled howitzer
that can fire a 92.53-kg (204-lb) shell to a range of
21300 m (23,294 yards).
Next in calibre downwards is the 175-mm (6.89-
in) M107, anotherAmericangun that uses the same
chassis as the M 1 1 0A1 . This is a long-range gun that
fires a 66.67-kg (147-lb) shell to a range of 32700 m
(35,760 yards), and is used mainly ln the counter-
battery role. lt was intended to replace this gun by
the American Multiple Launch Rocket System
(MLRS), but the procurement of this long-range
rocket system has now been delayed until 1988 at
the earliest.
Mainstay of the BAOR artillery regiments is the
155-mm (6.1-in) M10942, an American equipment
that fires a 43-kg (94.8-lb) shell to a range of
18100 m (19,795 yards). Also in use in BAOR is the
1 05-mm (4.1 3-in) Abbot, a British gun now regarded

as obsolescent as its '1 5.1-kg (33.29-lb) shell is now

regarded as too light to break up armoured attacks.
It was hoped at one time that both the Abbot and the
M 1 0942 would be replaced by the 1 55-mm (6.1-in)
SP-70, an international programme, but hardware
for this project is still a long way in the future.
Towed artillery includes the 155-mm (6.1-in) FH-
70 and the 105-mm (4.13-in) Light Gun. The FH-70
fires a 43.5-kg (95.9-lb) shell to a range of 24000 m
(26,246 yards) and has its own auxiliary power unit
to make short moves and to power some of the
howitzers in and out of action operations. The Light
Gun has proved itself to be the best in the world for
rapidly-deployed forces, and was used during the
Falkland lslands campaign. lt fires a 15.1-kg (33.29-
lb) HE shell to a range of 11200 m (18,810 yards) but
weighs only 1B5B kg (4,096 lb) in action.