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Yolume 7 Issue 77 Modern I.5 to 5 Ton Trucla

Self-Propelled Gus of World Wu II
Published by
Orbis Publishing Ltd Curier Aircraft of World Wu II
Q Aerospace Publishing Ltd 1985 Euly Missiles
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Falklands campaign.

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tlodernMissile The missile control section aboarci
British'Resolution' class submartne

does not look particularly dramatjc,
but in dozens of such places belovt
the sea similar crews stand ready to
unleash their mighty charges,
hoping that they never have to put
their equipment to the ultimate test.

Silently fiuough the depths, the most menacingleuiathans

the world has known make thefu stealthy way, For months at
a time the missile-catrying submarines of five nations patrol
the seas, thefu awesome destntctive powet concealed and
protectedby the vast spaces and depths ofthe ocean.
The nuclear-powered baliistic missile submarine (SSBN) and the sub-
marine-launched ballistic missrie (SLBM) have become the shield of
both the Eastern and Western power blocs. With vast areas of the
world's oceans to roam on long lonely submerged patrols, the boats
provide an almost totally rmmune second-strike capabilrty against the
opposing bloc's population centres and industriai targets and so keeps
ihe possrbility of a first strike weli in check.
The resources required to finance, build, outfit and maintain in service
such a force mean that only a handful of countries can afford to operate
these vessels, The largest operator by far is the Soviet Union whrch, after
20 or so years, has at last outstripped the USA in terms of total force levels
and capabilitres, wrth around 62 SSBNs of six different classes in service,
The Americans by contrast now field only 36 of three diflerent classes,
The Soviets also have five different missile types to the Americans' two,
although the latter stlll lead in overall numbers of warheads carried, To
back up the Americans in NATO and to provide an independent deter-
rent, the UK maintains one of its four Polaris-equrpped SSBNs on patrol Because of this type of submarine's relative invulnerability to iS-,'.-
continuously, whilst France remains outside the NATO organization but countermeasures, rt is expected that such boats will be around for i::a:--.-
still deploys one or two of her six-vessel SSBN force as part of her decades to come, although possibly rn modifred form as new mtss..=
natronal strategic deterrent. In a bid to counter both major superpowers types and defences evolve.
the People's Republlc of China became the flfth SSBN operator recently
when she deployed the first of ai least four 'Xia' class SSBNs with an Larger than most cruisers of WorldWar ll, the current generation of ballistic
rndigenously designed and built SLBM fitted wrth a thermonuclear rntsstTesubmarines asrepresented by themassive USS Ohio arewithout
warhead, parallel in their frightening destructive might.
m iil['n"aoutab.le' class ssBN
First of the French stategic missile
submarines was Le Redoutable
(56 I I ), commissioned in December
197 1.

Le Redoutable cutaway drawing key 35 Surface navigation platform

36 Whipaerial
45 Controlconsole
46 Galley
56 FoMardescapehatch
57 Pump
'I Single screw 11 Airconditioning plant 25 Access door 37 Dieselexhaust 47 Crewquaners 58 Torpedoroom
2 Rudder 12 Maincondenser 26 Tunnel 38 EW (ElectronicWarfare) 48 Wardroom 59 Sparetorpedo
3 Hydroplane '13 Aftescapehatch 27 Loading hatch mast 49 Galley 60 Torpedotubes
4 Enginethrustblock 14 Dieselgenerating room 28 Switchboard room 39 Snorkel 50 Sonarcontrol 61 Torpedopons
5 Propulsion motor 15 Controlpanel 29 Pump room 40 Radarmast 51 Juniormesshall 62 Compressed airflasks
6 Batterydrivecontroller 16 Turboqenerator 30 Bulkhead 41 Periscopes 52 Pressurehull 63 Accesstubetoconninq
7 Flagstaffholder '17 Ballast 31 Missile tube 42 Directionalantennae 53 Stores tower
B Main engine room 18 Motorgenerator N,4SBS M20 submarine- 43 Controlroomhatch 54 Batteries
9 Gearbox 1 I Motordriven feed pump launched ballistic missile 44 Centralcontrol position 55 Batterycovers
10 Turbine 20 Reactorcompanment 33, Conning tower (sail)
21 Reactor 34 Bridoe 13
22 Turbofeedpump "1
23 Primary coolant pump
24 Access hatch

The first French SSBN (or more cor- overhauls. The fourth boat , L'lndompt-
rectly Sous-Marin Nucl6are Lance- able (5613), was commrssioned urto
Engrne or SNLE) Le Redoutabie (SO I l) service in 1977 with the vastly im-
was authorized in March 1963, laid proved M20 missile that has the same
down in November 1964 and commis- range and accuracy as the M2 but car-
sioned in 197i after being employed ries a new 1.2-megaton yield specially
for 2Yz years on trials as the prototype hardened warhead with what is be-
for the French naval deterrent known lieved to be chaff dispensinq penetra-
as the Force de Dissuaston in official tion aids to confuse defending radar
circles. She and her'Le Redoutable' systems. The last vessel, .Le Tonnant
class sistership Le Terrible (5612) (5614), was also completed wrth the
were initially equipped with the 2400- M2O whilst the three units equipped
km (1,490-mile) rangTe hvo-staqte solid- with the M2 have now been brought up
propellant inertially-gnrided Ml SLBM to the same standard, From i9BS the
that had a single S00-kiloton thermo- last four units built will underqo yet
nuclear warhead and a CEP of 930 m another modification to carry the M4
(3 050 ft) In 1974 the third unrt, le SLBM that s due to enter serurce in
Foudroyant (5610), was commis- January of that year aboard L'lnf|exi-
sioned with the improved 3100-km bie, All five boats are to be converted
(1,925-mile) range M2 missile with a to carry the underwater-launched
more powerful second-stage motor SM,39 Exocet anti-ship missile and the
but carrying the same warhead and sonars of-L7n{exrbJe. The planned de-
having a similar CEP, The two pre- letron dates for the class are 56 1 I 1997, Le Foudroyant (.S 6 I 0) and her sister- Americans, unlike the British Poiaris
vious vessels were then retrofltted 5612 1999, 5610 2002, 5613 2OO4 and slrps were design ed and built in boats, which required considerable
withthe M2 system durinqtheir normal s614 2008, France without any help from the desjgn assisfance.

'L'Inflexible' class SSBN

Ordered in September l9?8, the sole submarines in sewice, a number one 32IG Super Frelon ASW helicopter Divingdepth:350 m (1, i50 ft)
'L'Inflexible' class boat L'lntlexible more than the 'l,e Redoutable' class unit, Plottille 32F, which operates in operational and 465 m (1,525 ft)
(S6tS) is to be an intermediate design total, qroups of up to four helicopters to maximum
between the 'Le Redoutable' class and l,aid down in March 1980, LIrflexi- screen the boats, one helicopter dunk- Armament: 16 launch tubes for 16 M4
a new class of 14,000-15,000 tons plan- ble will achieve operational status in ing its sonar whiist the others stand submarine-launched ballistrc missiles,
ned to be operational around 1993-4. January 1985 and is not due for deletion back ready to attack if required, and four 533-mm (21-in) bow tubes for
She will retain most of the external untll 2012. Like all French missile sub- 14 L5 ASW and F17 anli-ship
charactedstlcs ofthe ea.rlier class, but marines, she will have two crews, Bleu Specification torpedoes plus four SM.39 Exocet anti-
the intemal fittings and sensors will (blue) and Ambre (amber), to crew the 't'Inflexible'class ship missiles
differ by taking advantage of the adv- vessel in rotation in order to maxtmize Displacement: 8,080 tons surfaced and Electronics: one surface-search radar,
ances made in the propulsion system, the time spent on patrol between reac- 8,920 tons dived one passive ESM system, one DLT D3
electronics and weapons srnce the'Le tor-refuellinq reflts, French SSBNs nor- Dimensions: length 128,7 m (422,2 ft); torpedo and Exocet fire-control
Redoutable' class boats were con- mally undertake patrols of two months' beam 10,6 m (34.8 ft); drauerht 10,0 m system, one DSUX 2] sonar, and one
structed, The rationale behind this in- duration, with three months as the (32 8 f0 DUUX 5 underwater telephone
termediate boat lies in the fact that absolute maximum, All the vessels are Propulsion: one pressurized water- Complement: 135
France requires three SSBNs to be based at lle Iron€nre near Brest and cooled reactor powering two steam
continuously available, of which two have special protection when transit- twbines driving one shaft
are to be on patrol. In order to achieve ing to and from the port, This includes Speed: 18 kts surfaced and 25 kts
this the French-navy has to have six the French navy's sole A6rospatiale SA dived

'Le Redoutable' class SSBN (continued) Modern Missile Sr:bmarines
Specification Propulsion: one pressurized water-
'te Redoutable'clasS cooled reactor powering two steam
Displacement: 8,045 tons surfaced and turbines driving one shaft
8,940 tons dived Speed: 18 kts surfaced and 25 kts
Dimensions: lenglh 128.7 m (422.2 tt), dived
beam 10.6 m (34.8 ft); draught I0,0 m Divingdepth:250 m (820 ft)
(32.8 ft) operationaland 330 m (1,085 ft)
Armament: 16 launch tubes for 16 M20
submarine-launched ballistic missiles,
andfour 550-mm (21,7-in) bowtubes
for 18 L5 ASW and F 17 anti-ship
torpedoes "

Above: The French try to maintain a

minimum of two SNLEs on patol at
any one time, with submarines sudr
aslre Terrible (5612) being sqer;ned.
on departure and return byFrench
navy surface units, submarines and
ASW aircraft in order tomaintain

Electronics: one Calypso surface-

search radar, one DLT D3 torpedo i:=
control system, one passive ESM
system, one DSUV 23 sonar, and one
DUUX 2 underwater telephone
Complement: 135



The Mer-Sol Balistigue Strat6gique Destined to attain operational capabil-
M20 is essentially a vaiiant of the ear- tly with L'lnflexible in 1985, the Mer-Sol
lier two-stage M2 with the Rita 11/P6 Balistigue Strat6gique M4 was tested at
second stage converted to carry a sea in early March 1982 from the ex-
single re-entry vehicle (RV) with an perimental mrssrle submarine Gym-
MR60 l,2-megaton yreld thermonuc- nofe, The design of the missile was
iear warhead and associated penetra- started in 1976, and the missile was
tion aids, Since initial deployment in fired for the very first time from a land-
1977 aboard L'lndomptable, the mis- based test pad in November 1980. The
sile has been refitted to carry the light- three-staqe solid-propellant weapon
er but similar-yield MR61 warhead. has a payload of sx 15O-kiloton yield
Both types were specially hardened to multiple independent re-entry vehi-
resist damage from the electromagne- cles (MIRVs) of gneater circular error
tic pulse (EMP) and fast radiation pro- probability (CEP) accuracy than pre-
duced when nuclear-tipped anti- vious French single-warhead SLBMs,
baljrstrc missiles (from systems such a with the added advantage ofadvanced
the ABM-] 'Galosh' network around penetration aids to defeat enemy bal-
Moscow) explode in therr vicinity, The Iistic missile defences. The interval
M20 is ejected by compressed air, and between missile launchings is also
is the culrnination of a missile program- shorter, and the possible launch depth
me that started design development in is greater as a result ofthe use ofpow-
1959 and entered operational service der charge injectron, thia significantly
as the MSBS Ml in 1971, The develop- improving the launch platform's suwi-
ment progressed through the uprated vability factor. A1l the French navy
M2 that entered sewice rn 1974 to the SSBNs except Le Redoutable are due
present M2O, The whole 16 M20 mis- to have the M4 retrofitted from 1985,
sile outfit of a French SSBN can be and wrll thus have extensive modifica-
launched within 15 minutes. From 1985 Although due to be eventually tlons to their launch tubes, together
the M20 missile will be replaced superseded by the M4, the M20 wtth new flre-control and missile tube
aboard the last four ofthe 'Le Redout- remains in sewice aboardtlKe'Le ejector systems. The refit schedule
able' class by the M4, which is virtually Redoubtable' class. It is armed with a will be in the order Le Terrible, Le
a new design for a MIRV payload, The ) .2-megaton yield thermonuclear Foudroyant, L'lndomptable and le
last M2O missiles, however, will not be warhead that is specially hardened Tonnant, and is to be part of the boats'
phased out until.Le Redoulable herself against the elfects of detensive ABM normal overhaul cycles,
is paid off rn 1997, nucle ar w e a p on systems.

Specification M4
M20 Type: submarine-launched ballistic The M4SLBM is due to enter service
Tlpe: submarine{aunched ballistic missile in early I 985 aboard the SNLE
mrssile Dimensions: length 1 1,05 m (36,25 ft); L'Inflexible (55' I 5 ). The new missile
Dimensions:length 10,4 m (34, I ft); Warhead: one re-entry vehicle with an diameter L92 m (6 ft 3,6 in) has a longer range than previous
diameter 1.5 m (4 ft 11 in) MR61 I,2-megatonweaponand Launch weight: 35073, 2 kg (77, 323 lb) FrenchSLBMs.
taunch weight: 20054, 6 kg (44, 2 13 lb) penetration alds Performance: range 4000 km (2,485
Performance: range 3100 km (1,926 Propulsion: solid-propellant rocket miles); CEP 460 m (503 yards) Propulsion: solid-propeliant rocke:
miles); CEP 930 m ( 1,017 yards) Guidance:inertial Warhead: srx ]S0-kiloton MIRVs Guidance: inertial
I'lissile Submnrine Developrnenf
With agenesis reaching back toGerrnan plans of WorldWar II, the concept of the
missild-armed submaiine is not new. Both theAmerican andSovietnavie!made use
of captured.Germantechnologryinthepost-waryears,butitwasintfrel950s thatthe
modern conception of the nuclear-powered, nuclear-missj/e-arrnedsubmarine
Although the precrse origins of the Amerrcan But rn I958 this new missile was cancelleci and
submarine-launched strategic rnissile prog- the submarines reordered as attack units.
ramme cannot be traced, it is known that on 5
lvlarch 1946 the Chief of Naval Operations Soviet systems
ordered the conversion of two World War tI : .-
The Reoulus ll had fallen foul of the Polaris
fleet submarines, the USS Cusk and USS Car- ballisiic missile. Evolved during the mrd-1950s,
E"r"lo, to cariy and flre two of the air- this new type of underwater-launched missile
breaLhrng Loon missiles whjch had been de- required a projected force level of 30 sub-
rived from the German V- L At the same time as marines to be on station from a total of 45-50
the first successful Loon was launched in units, To accommodate the 2220-km (1380-
March i947 from the Cusk, deveiopment prog- mrle) ranqre interlm Poiaris A! .moQgl a cr.ash
rammes for two indigenous long-range sub- conversion proqramme was initiated in the late
marine bombardment missiles werb in prog- 1950s to insLall o 39 6 m (130-fr) long section ior
ress; these became the Rigel and Regulus. The 16 mrssiles abaft the fln in the hulls olsix 'Skip-
forrrrer was subsequently cancelled in 1953 be- jack' class attack submarines to produce the
cause of launcher probiems, but in the year 'George Washinqton' SSBN class. As these ves-
prer,.-ious the fleet submarrne USS Tunay had sels were being -aunched so the six Elhan
been converted to carry two Regulus I mrssiles, Allen' class vessels, designed from the keel up
which could be fired from the surfaced sub- as SSBNs, were laid down. These were in eflect
marine, An additronal unrt, the USS Barbero, ballistic mrssite versrons oi the conlemporary
was later converted along the same lines, and 'Thresher' ciass SSNs and made effective use of One o{ the first launctres of Polaris 43, in } 964,
two more unlts, the USS Grayback and USS that rype s suoerior machtnery-silencrng lech- signalled the culmination of the aslonrshing
Growler, were completed on the stocks as mis- niques and deeper divlng hull materrals. scientific and industrial achievement which
sr.le launchers but with capacity for four mis- Equipped with the Polaris A2 SLBMN they marked the Polaris programme.ln the spaceof
fiveyears the USA had built 41 boafs and
srles. were rapjdly fcll:r.r'eo dorn'n Lhe production estabftsfted a s trategic advantage over tfte USSR
line by the still larger 3l-strong'Lafayette'and that was to last into the I 9 80s.
Nuclearpower Benjainln Frankhn. classes of SlBNs, ihe last 23
With the advenL oi the nuclear reactor for of whrch commissrcned inio service carrying
submarine propulsion a further conventtonal the Polaris A3 mrssrle Wnen 'he first Pacifrc
boat, the USSHa/ibul whLchhad oeenordered Fleet SSBN carried oui iis frrst patrol at the end
as a Regulus carrier, was reordered rn 1956 oi 1964 so the five ReEir:}us I submarines were Now deactivated, fhe USS Robert E. Lee (SSB]VS'0J,
wrth the new propulsion system and the ability phased out after seven years of patrols in the
with four sister ships, comprised the 'Gearge
to carry five missiles, She was to have been area, Al1 of the 4l Polaris-equipped vessels Washington' class ofS,SBiVs fh atwas converted
followed by a class of even larger nuclear- were completed between 1959 and 1964, from the'skipjack' class attack submarine desjg::
powered submarines each carrying four of the which still ranks as one of the major rndustriai to give the world's first true ballislrcm:ssiJe
larger supersonic Regulus II lollow-on misstles, and military achievements oi recent times in submarines.

i 524
Modern Missile Subnra: ::-.e s

., r,.:iS

.Hr , ''.,

r:i"&di!\ '.*lF r'-

the Western world. class conventional submarine. This was foi- The f o llow - on class to lie Sovjef ' Tw i n C y ! i n c e :
Meanwhile, in the Soviet Union durinq the lowed by flve further 'Zulu V' conversions conversions was the'Whiskey Long Bin' gpe. - : : -:
1950s the leadership, under Khrushchev afrer (1956-8. each wrth two^mrssrles)^and the 23 involved lengthening the huit andi"tirtthTZ'
rhe dearh of Stalin. elevated Admiral Gorshkov specrally burlt Project 629 (builr 1958 62, each section into the sail to carry four SS-]V-3C -
10 the navy commander-in-chrefs post wrth the wuh ihree missiles) Colfl ciass boars whrch 'Shaddock' strategic cruise missj,le coniajre---
direclrve to build new missile-armed sub, carried the surface,launched R-13 (SS-N-4 launchers at a fixed angle of t 5 degrees.
marines and surface shrps to defend rhe Sovier Sark) missrle In their usual manner of de-
hcmeland. Before 1g56, when Gorshkov be- ve-op-ng alternative stralegic submarine svs- 5, each with four P-5s) conversions
came C-in-C, the Sovrets had already had rn Iems the Soviers also designed and burlt rtre p-S As these entered service so the Sc,-,::s .-..
development a submarine ballisrrc missile (SS-N-3C'shaddock') surlace-launched in- introduced their own nuclear-powet". ,-

programme based on technology captured ertially-gutded 800-kiloton yield cruise missile sions using a common desrgn rbot T:re j:-l
ftorn the Germans at the end of World War 11. which was tested in 1957 on a conventional class became known in the West as lhe __ -
This culminated rn September 1955 when a submarine given the NATO codename 'Whrs- (erght built 1959-62 each with three ---_:- =.
conventionally armed R-l lFM mrssrle derived key Single Cylinder' This was foilowed by flve whilst the SSGNs became the Ech,- I :_. : -
from the Soviet army's 'Scud' tacticai ballistic Whiskey lwin Cylinder (]959-61 each-wrth 1960-2. each wrth six P-Ss). 'lhe lar:r .' :, ': ,
missile was ]aunched from a converted 'Zulu' two P-5s, and seven 'Whiskev Lcnq Bin' (1961- only nuciear-powered class equippe: -.'
strategic cruise missiies because :.: j
navy was shifted from its strategic rc-e -:. :.-.=
early 1960swhen the newland-basei S::- _:.:
Rocket Forces assumed rhe task _l: =: - :
deploying rhe submerqed.iaunch R-. - j:-1 .:
'Serb') mrssrle on seven of the Hc:e.: :: :. .

the HoLel Ii' subciass and on 13 oi:ne I _. :

grve the Golf II vanant, rhe Soviet na -' I : .-. -'

march the massive American SSB\:-_:-_
untri the strateglc role was reassrgr.=: '_ .-
navy as one ol its primary roles, B.v ::-s ..::.-
Soviet mililary rnrelligence had oi:ir:.+ : .: : .'
of the relevant plans of the Amenca: =:_-..:.
Allen' class, together wrth British lcl:-:::._:=
sonar derarls Thus in 1967 there e:_'=:-+:
vice the first 'Yankee' SSBN that was ,..3..' :.,:".,
lar in appearance to the Americer- :-,... .-
equipped with a new long-range 1o-r :r::-:...
cy sonar of the type requlred for J: ! I _ :_ *. ,.
in a programme that matcheci a
SSBN consrruction rale. the Sov;e-. : -
its between 1967 and 1974 at nr, o si :-

The first Soviet nuclear-powered baJlrstic.-n:s-.:. :

submarrne c/ass was the'Hotel' type.
R econtigu red in the t I 60 s to c ar il
ri e .SS-r\'. j
these boals are now being phased ou t an d a : t
either being scrapped or converted to other ::"::
sucfi as subme rged naval command pos ts.
Missile Submarine Development

evenhral use oflboth coasts of the USA,'Howev- SS-NX-Z3 into servjce.possibiy on board
er, because these vessels had to translt iong another 'Deltal variant, whilst the Americans
distances throueth enemy-controlled waters to are stiil researchinq the pssslbtlity of procuring
their patroi areas, the Soviets designed and a cheaper SSBN than lhe 'Ohios' to carry the
tested new lonqr-ranQle SLBMs ,thal could be Trident IL
fired lrom waters adjacent to the Soviet home-
land and still hrt tarsets in the USA, To Polaris and Trident
accommodate lhese they simpiy took the Of the other three SSBN opeiators, the UK
'Yankee' design and enlarged it to give the burlt rn the late 1960s the 'Resolution'class of
]2{ube 'Delta i' with the SS-N-B and then the four units wlth British technoloery but carrying
16-tube 'Deita 1l' with the same mnsile. With the American Polaris A3 SLBM. These are due
MlRVlng of submarine-launched misslles the to be replaced in the mid- 1990s by four 'V' ciass
Soviets aqain modifled the 'Delta' to produce SSBNs carryrng the Trident II missile system.
the 'Delta lll'variant with 16 SS-N-]8s The design will be larger than the current
As the Soviets inlroduced the first oithe 'De- Polaris vessels but will have only i6 missiie
lta' Series the Americans began to deploy the tubes rather than the 24 aboard comparable
Poseidon MlRV-equipped SI,BM aboard iheir American submarines, France, the other Euro:
last 31 SSBNs to improve force capabiltties. Ils pean nation equrpped wlth SSBNs, went her
foilow-on, the Trident, whtch olfers longer own way designing and building both the sub-
range, was ultimately deemed to requlre a new marines and the missiles that they carry. The
submaiine deslgn with more missile tubes to first class burlt was the 'Le Redoutable', the five
obiain greater cost effectiveness. As an intertm units of which have been followed by a single
measure 12 of the Poseidon-equipped units interim uni|, L'lnflexible, that is the lrrerunner
were converted to carry the Tndent 1 SLBM of an enlirely new design br the 1990s, More
Thc result of the new desjgn programme was recently American intelligence has indlcated
the 'Ohro' class which. wtth 24 missrle tubes for thai Communist Cbina has made operationai
initially the Tndent I and then the Trldent II the first of the 8,800-ton 120-m (393.7-ft) iong
when. il becomes available, is the West's SSBNs known as the 'Xia' c1ass. Fitted with I2 of
iarsest SSBN and will eventually be the only the rndigenous lwo-stage solld-propeLlant CSS- A'Yankee I'tlassSS8jVruns on the surface. The
type in service with the US Navy. N-2 SLBM a iorce of up to six units is expected Sovrets keep several units ol this type offeach
to be operational by the late 1980s, tareteted coast of the United States to provide a ininimum
As soon as the Soviets learnt ol the new class
primarily against the Soviei Far East, warning attack on.firne-sensitive largels sucft as
they began design ol thetr own counterpart, S tlategic Air C ommand bomber bases in't&e ever
the incredibly large 'Typhoon' ciass, which Where the SSBN goes lrom heie is probably ofanuclearwar.
attained operational status in 1983 With 20 mis- dependent on how successful is the develop-
srle iubes lorward of the fin ior the SS'N-20, the ment and deployment of 'Star Wars' beam and The'Ohio' class of SSBN, much larger than its
rressel is sBecifically designed for operations laser weapons, but what ts likely is that the predecessors, is armed with the Trident I I
under the Arctic ice cap, a capability which is weapons load carried may well switch towards mrssjjesyslern, ?fieD5mtssi/e in that system wi|l
not matched by the West. For lhe luture the the strategic ultralow-]evel cruise missile, wilh tor the tirst time be accurate enough to allow
Soviets intend io introduce a new SLBM, the tire Soviet narry probably leading the way. submarjnes lo altack'hard' targets.

'Yankee' class SSBN Modern Missile Submarines

The 'Yankee' class was the first mool-
ern Soviet SSBN to be built, The design
was apparently based on the plans of
the US 'Benjamtn Franklin' and
'Lafayette' classes that were covefily
obtained by Soviet mititary intelli-
gence (GRU) in the early 1960s Thirty-
four units were built between 1967 and
1974 at the shipyards in Severodvinsk
and Komsomolsk, the peak year being
1970 when lO vessels were comoleted.
The Yankees' are distrngruishabie from
the later 'Deltas' by having a smaller
rise to the 'turtle-back' missile com-
partment abaft the sail, In 1976 one unit
was convefied to a 'Yankee II' class
conflgmratron in which the original 16
missile tubes were replaced by 12lar-
ger units for the experrmental solid-
propellant SS-NX- l7 SLBM. The'Yank-
ee II' also differs from the similar t2-
round 'Delta Is' by havrng a sloping
forward edge to, the lurtle-back' cas-
ing of the missile tubes,
In order to comply with the SALT
agreement a number of 'Yankee I'
SSBNs have been deactivated as
SLBM carriers By mid-1984 t0 had
been so treated, a number being con-
verted to SSNs by the complete re- ing the American higher command Diving depth: 400 m (1,315 ft) Apparently builtwith the aid of
moval of the missile sectron of the hull. echelons as much as possible to ease operational and 600 m ( 1,970 ft) Polaris missile submarine plans
Another has posslbly become the trials the task of follow-up ICBM strikes. maxlmum stolen from the Americans, the
plarform for the highly accurate SS-N- More recently, NATO sources have in- Armament: 16 ('Yankee I') or 12 'Yankee I'class, wilhils SS-N-6
21 533-mm (2 I-in) diameter 7-m (23-ft) dicated that severai of the 'Yankees' in ('Yankee il') launch tubes for i6 SS-N-6 missiles, formed the major part of the
long cruise missile with a single 200- each theatre have been switched to ('Yankee I') or 12 SS-NX-17 ('Yankee Soyjel ^SSBJVfleet in the early t g 70 s.
kiloton yield warhead and a range of operate against theatre nuclear II') submarine{aunched balhstic
3000 km (1,865 mrles). targets, with the submannes operating missiles, and six 533-mm (21-in) bow sonar. one medrum-frequency tc::'. : :
At present three or four of 14 'Yank- in sanctuary areas closer to the Soviet tubes for a maximumof 12 533-mm (21- fire-control sonar, VHF/SHFAIHF
ee I' boats, plus the odd 'Yankee II' in homeland, These vessels are believed in) weapons, though the normal load is communications systems one VLF
the Northern Fleet, are on station at to be replacrng the older'Hotel II'and eight 533-mm (21-in) ASWanti-ship towed communications buoy, one E- :
any one time off the eastern seaboard 'Golf II submarines in this role. torpedoes and six 406-mm (16-in) ASW floating antenna, one 'Brick Group
of the USA, wrth a further unit either on torpedoes ESM surte. and one 'Park Lamp
transit to or from a patrol area. Over- Specification Electronics: one'Snoop Tray' surface- drrection-fl nding antenna
laps do occur, and these occasionally 'Yankee'class search radar, one low-frequency bow Complement:130
raise the number of boats on patrol. Of Displacement: 7,700 tons surfaced and
the nine 'Yankee Is' tn the Pacific Fleet 9,300 dived A total o{ 34 'Yankee I' class
two are on permanent patrol off the Dimensions: lenqth 130 0 m (426.5 ft); su bm ar ines were cons tr uc ted
USA's western seaboard with another beam ll,6 m(38. I ft); &aughtB 0 m in a relatively short space of
on transit to or from the patrol zones, (26 3 fr) time at the Severodvinskand
The forward-deployed'Yankees' are Propuision: two pressurLzed water- Komsomolsk shipyards.
assigned the wartime role of des- cooled reactors poweringT four steam Some I0 units of the class
troying time-sensitive area targets turbines dnving two shafts have now been converted to
such as SAC bomber alert bases and Speed: 2O kts surfaced and 27 kts other duties.
carriers/SSBNs in port, and of disrupt- dived


The photographs that have been re-
ieased of what NATO codenames
'Sawfly'are in fact of a competitive pro- rr
totype that was never taken into ser- li
ii, ,l ,r'il
vice, Such ruses are a common pafi of i.
Soviet disinformation exercises. The :i 's+m.,ei
actual SS-N-6 was tested on a diesel-
electdc 'Golf class submanne that was 6 Mod I with a srngle 7OO-kiloton yield development, initial deployment hap- Now beingused in its Mod 3 version
converted around 1970 to carry and warhead entered service two years pening in 1974, one year after the SS- with two Multiple Re-entry Vehicle
fire srx such weapons in a lengthened before the 'Golf trials boat used to test N-6 Mod 2, This third vadant has the w arhe ads, fie SS-JV-6 arms the
sail structure that was added to an lB- the much improved and lighter SS-N-6 same range as tts predecessor, but the 'Yankee I' class ofSSE/V.
m (59{t) extension to the hull, Being a Mod 2 variant in 1972, This missile uses single RV has been replaced by two
third-generation weapon, the missile a 650-kiloton warhead instead of the 3SO-kiloton yield multiple re-entry
is actually something of a hybrid as it previous one and has a 600-km (375- vehicles (MRVs) for use against iargie Specification
utilizes both components and technol- mile) increase in range, which enables area targrets such as cities, By t9B5 ss-N-6
oqy derived from the land-based SS- I l 'Yankees' cruising off either US sea- those 'Yankee Is' that were left ln ser- Type: submanne-launched Da,i-.: :
ICBM. It is a single-staqe SI:BM with board to provide full target coverage vice had either SS-N-6 Mod I or SS-N-6 missile
liquid-propellant propulsion, The ori lrom the 183-m (600-ft) contour. At the Mod 3 missiles in their tubes, Dimensions: length 10,0 m (32.E ...
ginal 2400-km (1,490-mile) ranqe SS-N- same time the SS-N-6 Mod 3 began diameter LB m (5 ft 10 9 in)
SS-N-6 SIBM (continued)

Launchweight: 18900 kg (41,667 lb)

Performance:range (Mod 1) 2400 km
(1,490 miles) or (Mods 2 and 3) 3000 km
( 1,865 miles); CEP lB50 m (2,023 yards)
Warhead: one ?OO-kiloton yield re-
entry vehicle in Mod l, or one 650-
kiloton yield re-entry vehicle in Mod 2,
ortwo 35O-kilotonyield MRVs in Mod 3
Propulsion: liquid-propellant rocket
Guidance: inertial

Predecessor to the SS-N-6 SLBM was

theSS-N-S'Serb'. Thk utilized a cold
gas ejection system to fire the missile
clear of the launch platform, where
the main rocket motor was ignited.
The'Yankee' class SSBiVs use a
similar sy s tem to ejecf tfi e SS-JV-6
mrsr7es from their launch tubes'

L iilrt" r, nDelta II' and Delta III' class ssBNs

The 'Delta I' class design was an en- At present the 'Delta III' is tn senes marines in port or under refit would for Now into its third variant, the 'Delta'
largemenl of the previous 'Yankee' construction, with some 15 units built to protection either be dispersed to con- class ballistic missilesubmariner
date, and at least another two or three crete-hardened tunnels built into cliffs es se ntially the'Y anke e' de sign
class design. Built initially at Severod-
vinsk and then at Komsomolsk in the are expected before a new variant is or be submerged in the deep fjords lengthened to accommodate new
Soviet Far East, the 'Delta I' was the introduced to cary the SS-N-23, The that lie just off their piers, SLBMs.
world's largest undetsea craft when 22'Delta I', 'Delta II'and'Delta III'class
the first unit was completed in 1972, vessels in the Northern Fleet have pat- Specification launched balhstic missrles, and six 533-
The erghteenth and last of the class rol areas in the Greenland, Norwegian 'Delta'class mm (2l-in) bow tubes for a maximum of
was completed at Komsomolsk in 1977. and Barents Seas with one vessei nor- Displacement: 8,750 tons surfaced and 12 533-mm (21-in) weapons, though the
Desrgnated a ballistic missile sub- mally on patrol in each location. More 10,000 tons dived for 'Delta I', and 9,750 normal load is eiqht 533-mm (2l-in)
marine (podrodnaya lodka raketnaya recently it has been revealed that a tons surfaced and I 1,000 tons dived for ASWanti-ship torpedoes and six 406-
laylataya or PLRK) by the Sovrets, the further unit is deployed in the eastem 'Delta il' and'Delta III' mm ( l6-in) ASW torpedoes
class carries two parallel rows of sx Atlantic, probably as far south as the Dimensions:lengrth 136,5 m (447.8 ft) Electronics: one'Snoop Tray' surface-
missile tubes for the SS-N-8 missile aft Azores, in order to complicate Yet for'Delta I' and I52.7 m (501 ft) for search radar, one low-frequency bow
of the sail, which is set forward with further the task of US defence radars. 'Delta II' and'Delta III'; beam 12.0 m sonar, one medium-frequency torpedo
divrng planes on each side. In the Pacific Fleet only tlvo of l5 'Delta (39.4 ft); drauqht B.7 m (28,5 ft) fire-control sonar, VHFiSHF/UHF
in 1975 at Severodvinsk an inteirm I'or 'Delta III' class units are on patrol at Propulsion: two pressurized water- commumcations systems, one VLf
batch of four'Delta II' class units was any one time, one in the Sea of Okhotsk cooled reactors powedng four steam towed communtcations buoy, one ELF
constructed, These were essentially and the other in the Bering Sea, turbines dnving hvo shafts floatlng antenna, one 'Brick GrouP'
the earlier desrgn lengthened by However, tn time of tension the num- Speed: 20 kts surfaced and 26 kts ESM suite, one 'Park Lamp' direction-
16,2 m (53.2 ft) to make possrble the ber of unils on patrol would be in- ('Delta I'), 25 kts ('Delta II') or 24 kts flnding antenna, and one'Pert Spring'
incorporation of a further four mtssile creased consrderably so that an effec- ('Delta lll') dived satellite navrgation system
tubes to match contemporary Westem tive second strlke force would be Divins depth: 400 m ( 1,315 ft) Complement: 130 ('Delta I') or i40
available in a protracted nuclear ex- operational and 600 m ( 1,970 ft) ('Delta II'and 'Delta III')
SSBNs. These boats were followed in
1976 by the flrst units of the 'Delta III' change. It was also revealed in the maxlmutn
class, They are similar to the 'Delta II' latest US Department of Defense Armament: 12 ('Delta I') or 16 ('Delta l1') OnIy four 'Deltal/' c/ass submarines
boats but have the 'turtle-back' struc- Soviet Military Povrrer document that launch tubes for 12 ('Delta i') or 16 were built, as an interim desigm. The
ttue aft ofthe sail increased in height to the Soviets have been practising ('Delta II') SS-N-B submarine-launched only difference between the vessels
accommodate the longer and more SLBM missile resupply from tenders in ballistic missiles, or 16 launch tubes and the earlier 'Delta ls' is an
capable SS-N-18 in the missile tubes, protected areas, whilst those sub- ('Delta lll ) for 16 SS-N- lB submanne- increase in hull length.

Soviet Submqrines in Action
With a tradition of submarine
operations, the Sovietnavy has long
maintained the largest submarine force
in the world, the surest shield against
nuclear attack being a submarine-based
The Soviet Union maintains the world's largest
force of ballistic missile submarines for
strategic attack. As of March 1984 the force
numbered 64 vessels embarking a total of 936
nuclear-tipped missiles, T\ruo of the total do not
count towards the SALT limit oi 62 SSBNs
whilst an additronal 15 older vessels with 45
embarked missiles are not included 1n SALT
limitations because they are assigned to the
theatre strike and anti-shipping roles,
The l4 units'of the 'Delta lll' class, together
wrth the two'Typhoons', were completed in the
last seven years and carry the Sovrets' SLBM
MIRV force of 264 SS-N-18 and SS-N-20 mts-
siles, It is these units, together with the I8 ear-
her'Delta I' and four'Delta II' class boats, which
are fitted with the long-range SS-N-8 that per-
miis the boats' assignment to patrol areas in
waters adjacent to the Soviet Union. This
alfords the boats considerable immunity from
NATO ASW operations, and also allows the
submarines to fire from their home ports if re-
quired and still strike the continental USA
(CONUS) The remaining 22 'Yankee I' class
boats and the solrtary 'Yankee II'unit are used
primarily on forward-deployment patrols off
both coasts of the CONUS to disrupt American One of the remaining'Golf-ll' conventional three tubesfor tfteS^S-JV-5'Serb', retained in the
strategic command, control and communica- powered ballistic missile submarines is fitted with Northern Fleet for trials purposes.
tions networks in the early minutes of a nuclear
exchange and to destroy as many strategic At present the Soviet navy's Northern Fleet The Northern Fleet missile boats ha-..e a
weapon systems (such as SAC bombers on has the malority of the SSBN force with two much harder task if they want to transit to pa :: .
alert and SSBNs stili in port) as possible, More 'Typhoons', 21 'Delta UIynI', 14'Yankee I' and areas off the US eastern seaboard or for :-=
recentlyit has learnt that several 'Yankees' the srngle 'Yankee Ii', together with several occasional 'Delta' that qtoes as far south as -,:-:
have been reassigned to patrol areas on the older 'Hotel II'and 'Golf trials vessels, All are Azores, since the vessels have to transi: --:-:
eastern side of the Atlantic and the Norwegian located at bases on the Kola peninsula. The natural series of 'choke pornts' known as :.:
sea, where as part ofthe Soviet theatre nuclear Paciflc Fleet, with nine 'Yankee I' and 15 'Delta Greenland-lceland-United Krngdom Gap .:: =
lorces they can bombard piaces such as the Tlll' class boats, has two SSBN bases, one near offers NATO the best chance of detectrng :::-
UK. To ensure an adequate level of com- Petropavlovsk on the Kamchatka peninsula by use of the Sound Surveillance Under S:=
munications under most operating condittons, and the other near Vladivostok close to the (SOSUS) fixed sonar array network. Th= :=-
the Soviets are depioying an dxtremely low lunction of the Soviet, Chinese and North Ko- maining'Deltas' and'Typhoons' thai opera e -:,
frequency (ELF) radio transmission system that rean borders. It rs likely that the 'Deltas' and the Soviet side of the gap have to be ]:.-:-:=:
will allow the submannes to receive messagtes strategic-role 'Yankees' operate from the for- down by rndividual nuclear-powereo hi--l
at depths well in excess of what is achieved mer as it gives access to both the Sea of attack submarines sent into their sancb:ar:=s ::-
currently by usrng towed buoys and floating Okhotsk and Bering Sea sanctuary area, whtlst hrgh-nsk missions wlth llttle chance oi s'-:-, --.-=
antennae, the latter base would house the theatre-role once they have destroyed a target, To rr.r==:
To enhance their SSBNs' capabilities further 'Yankees' as it is close to Japan and well within NATO's problems further, the 'Typhoor- ::::=
in a protracted nuclear exchange, the Soviets launch ranqe of most of the important American would actually be operating wiihin the i::-:
are regularly practising the resupply of mts- Far Eastern bases. icepack which is a notoriously difflcu: i-S-,','
sile-exhausted SSBNs from missile tenders
anchored in protected waters, the reloadtng
and refurbishment of the missile tubes taking
less than 24 hours to complete. In these resupp-
ly zones, and in the sanctuary areas within
which the SSBNs operate close to the Soviei
homeland, specialist surface warship and sub-
marine task groups with reglmental-sized
maritrme patrol aircraft support are assigned to
d,eal with any NATO ASW untis that may
attempt to attack the missile submarines. But if
the Americans go after the command echelons
ashore, and destroy the hardened under-
ground bunkers which house them, then
alternative mobile aircraft and multiple vehi-
cle-based command posts are available, The
SSBNs which are still under refrt or simply have
not sailed would be dispersed to protected
camouflaged tunnels constructed near their The sole'Yankee//'SSBJVTs converted to carry l2 some two or three knots fastet underwater thatl
home ports or taken out to the deep water SS-IV-i Tmsfead of J 6,SS-iV-6mssiJes. ln all other any of the contemporarywestemSSBlf destgns. j:
flords just off the docks and submerged. respects the boat is similat to the 'Yankee I', being r's based on the Kola Peninsula.
Soviet Submarines in Action

environment because of the hiqh background

noise from the moving ice flows. Submarines
which hide within or just under the ice (as the
'Typhoon' ls built to do) could only be detected
at relatively short ranges by other submarines
operating at very slow speeds, a tactical situa-
tion whlch nullifies the normal advantages of
Western attack submarines so that the winner Yfiiiffi
oi any such engagement would slmply be the ii{ffi
more alert unit with the qurcker trtgger flnger
on the torpedoes, This rs the main reason why
both the UK and USA are placing great emph- !:.: . ,;
asls on under-ice ASW operatrons by their ibirr# i ..1:tr*i*i.!.r!;::

attack submarines, periodically announclng r:rrrjj:ijtisrr,ii:

the sending of such craft on 'trips' to the North ir*tiiffi r: ;"&t


Pole and staging submarine exercises by :i.'iiii14F,.:-.

several boats within the Arctic ctrcle,

e.: #.:ii.,,
Jii.+ +-,i.;,,ri
Future plans
For the future the Soviets are certain io capi- ?F.,*
talize on this NATO deficlencv by increasing
their 'Typhoon' fleet for under-the-ice opera-
tions and by decreasing the number of their ;!::i!i: :: :,', :' :i:i I t: ..,

forward-deployed'Yankees' to the minimum t'.*- a

required, so enhancing the survlvability of ,",:W,


thelr SSBN forces, A new MIRVed SLBM is .

already under flight test for future retrofitting to

the existing 'Delta IIIs' and to arm a new mid-
1980s SSBN class to comPlement the
'TYphoons', Older vessels such as the 'Delta Is' i;i
may well be switched to theatre roles, whtle
the 'Yankees' appear to be under gradual con-
version to other tasks including, possibly, one
of the mdn carriers of the Soviet submarine-
launched cruise missile force of SS-N-2ls

Above: Construction of the 'Delta III' class

continues at Severodvinsk at the rate of two units
per year. The hatches in the aft part of the rar'sed
rear decking are believed tocover towedvery low
frequency communications buoys..whilst i ust
forward of the rudder can be seen the top of a
submarine rescue buoy marker.

I 530
Modern Missile Submarines

Soviet' Delta lll'clqss

Ballisfic lvlissile
Below : For many years the world's largest
underwater vessel, the'Delta III' class of ballistic
mrssrTe submarine is a mainstay of currentSoviet
strategic capability. At least 15 have heen built at
Severodvinsk, with several more under
construction, possibly in a modified form to take
the next-generation SS-N-23 missile. At present the
class is armed with 16 SS-N- I I MIRV missiles, each
with several low-yield warheads. ?ie SS-/V-J 8 fias
a range of up to 8000 km (almost 5,000 miles).
L fivphoon'
SSBN and
A true monster oI the deep, the
Typhoon as been desrirned for
operations under the polar ice. Its
huge size enables it to be armed with
missi/es capab le of hitting the
continental USA without ever having
to leave northern Soviet waters .

The 'Typhoon' class boats are the SI,BM, the SS-N-20, from 1973. First-
largest undersea vessels yet built, and flight tested in 1980, the SS-N-20 rs a
are believed to be based on a cata- three-stage solid-propellant MIRVed
maran-type design that comprises hvo missile wrth a range of 8300 kn (5,160
'Delta III' hulls joined by a single outer miles). This allows the submarine to
covering to give increased protectton fire the weapon from within the Arctic
against ASW weapons, in overall size a circle and still hit a target anywhere
'Typhoon' is almost half as long again as within the continental USA, Before the
the US 'Ohio' class Tndent missile- end of this decade the Soviets are due
carrying submarines, and has a dis- to test fly an improved version of the
placement some 9,500 tons greater ss-N-20.
when running on the surface, It is
thought that the class has been built Specification
specifically for operations with the 'Typhoon'class
Soviet Northern Fleet in the Arctic ice- Displacement: 26, 000 tons swfaced
pack. The two parallel rows of missile and 30,000 tons dived
tubes fitted forward of the stub-like sail Dimensions: length 170,0 m (557.7 ft);
a-ftof the craft's centre point, together beam 23,0 m (75.5 ft); draught not
with the high-rise hull and retractable known T he mamm oth Typhoon SSBiV js Such submarines are being builtfor
bow hydroplanes, allows the sub- Propulsion: four pressurized water- thought to be comprised of two operations beneath andwithin the
marine to break easily ihrough the cooled reactors powering four steam 'Delta' class hulls in a side-by-side polar ice regions of the northern
spots of thin ice (known as polnyas) twbines driving four shafts configruration with the missile tube hemisphere.
wrthin the Arctic ice sheli Speed: 20 kts surfaced and 30 kts dived comparhnentforward of the sail.
The flrst unit was laid down in 1975 at Divins depth: 400 m (I,3i5 ft)
Severodvinsk and launched ln 1980. It operational and 600 m ( 1,970 ft) one ESM system, one low-frequency missile
achieved operational status in 1983. A maxlmum bow sonar, one medium-frequency Dimensions:length I5,0 m(49,2 ft);
second unit has now been completed, Armament: 20 iaunch tubes for 20 SS- torpedo fire-control sonar, VHF/SHF/ diameter2.0 m(6 ft6,7 in)
whiist there are at least another four N-20 submarinelaunched bailistic UHF communications systems, one Iraunch weight: not known
under senes construction in a special missiles, andsix 533-mm (21-in) bow VLF towed communicatrons buoy, and Performance: range B30O kn (5, 160
covered shipyard. A US intelligence tubesfor amaximum of 24 533-mm (21- one ELF floating antenna miles); CEP betterthan 1400 m (1,530
report suggtests that by the early I990s in) weapons, though the normai load is Complement: 150 yards)
eight of these monsters will be in ser- 16 533-mm (2 I -in) ASWantrship Warhead:between sx and nine
v]ce, torpedoes and 14 407-mm ( I6-in) ASW Specification MIRVs of unknown yield
To arm the 'Typhoon' the Soviets torpedoes ss-N-20 Pfopulsion: so[d-propellant rocket
started to design a fifth-gteneration Electronics: one surface-search radar, Type: submarine-launched ballistic Guidance: stellar-inertial

L HT.N.A, SS.N-I8 and SS.NX.z3 SLBMs

Introduced into operational sewtce rn
1972 aboard the 'Delta I' class SSBN,
the SS-N-8 is a fourth-generation SLBM
that beqan flight trials back in 1969
aboard a lengrthened'Hotel' class nuc-
lear-powered baltistic missile sub-
marine (codenamed 'Hotel III') con-
verted to carry and fire three of the
missiles in an enlarged sail, A second
fials vessel was con'erted ln the early
1970s from a dresel-electdc 'Golf class
bailistic missile submarine. Code- ?lre SS-/V- J 8 ts n ow the mainstay of
named 'Golf III' and fltted to carry and SS-N-18 (Soviet desiqnation RSM-50) pected to egulp a 'Delta lil'variant tn- flre Sovr'ef SSBjV force with the
fire six SS-N-Bs, the vessel has now which became operational on the 'De- itially and then be retrofitted to the introduction into sewice of aversion
been dismantled under the SAI,T Ita III' class in late 1976. The SS-N-I8 earlier boats, carry ing M ultiple I ndependent Re -
limitations..The SS-N-B is a two-stage Mod l version was also the first Sovtet entry Vehicle warheads.
hquid-propellant missile that, in its SS- SLBM to feature MIRV capability, This Specification
N-8 Mod I form, has a range of 7800 lcn was followed in 1979 by the SS-N-Mod ss-N-8 Specification
(4,845 miles), To ensure accuracy over 2 with a single warhead but much Type: submanne-launched ballistic SS-N-I8
that range, steljar-inertial gnrldance is gEeater range. The SS-N-18 Mod I was missile Type: submarinelaunched ballistic
used to update the navigation compu- then superseded in the same Year bY Dimensions:length 12,9 m (42,3 ft); missile
ter by utilizing tvvo 'star fixes' for mid- the SS-N-I8 Mod 3 which has a larger diameter 1.65 m (5 ft 5 in) Dimensions: length 14, I m (46.3 ft);
course fllght profile corrections ln number of lower-yield MIRVs and the Launchweight:20400 kg (44,974 Ib) diameter l.B m(5 ft 10.9 in)
1977 an engineering rmproved variant, same range, Performance:range (Mod 1) 7800 lsn Launchweight: 25000 kg (55, I l5 lb)
the SS-N-8 Mod 2, entered service with Both the SS-N-B and the SS-N-18 are (4,845 miles) or (Mod 2) 9100 kn (5,655 Performance: range (Mods I and 3)
a range of 9100kn (5,655 miles) and expected to be replaced bY a new miles); CEP (Mod 1) 1410 m (1,540 6500 lcn (4,040 miles) or (Mod 2)
the same warhead. lrquid-propellant SLBM, the SS-NX-23, yards) or (Mod 2) 1550 m (1,695 yards) B0O0 icrn (4,970 miles); CEP (Mods I
However, two years before this the which is of similar size to the latter Warhead: one 8OO-loloton re-entry and 3) I4I0 m (1,540 yards) or (Mod 2)
Sovrets had begmn fhght testing of the missile but will have a erreater throvr- vehicle 1550 m (1,695 yards)
fourth-qreneration 6500-km (4,040- weiqht, carry more MIRVs and be con- Propulsion: liquid-propellant rocket Propulsion: liqurd-propellant rocket
mile) range storable hquid-propellanl siderably more accurate. It is ex- Guidance: stellar-inertral Guidance: stellar-inertial

I 532
The shield protecting both East and

SUbPrrtrol: Westfrom thehorrors of nuclear war is

to a large extent provided by the
subrnarine forces of tlze res pec tive

the silenf navie s o p e r af:ng SSBJVs. T o th e m e n

responsr'ble for maintaining that shield,
hawever, a ml'ssi/epa trol means

1:.rrr -31

{55.5iV6S1 ,tr
Sub Patrol

As the last lines are slipped, the small tug SSBN on the surface down the river and once per cent of the ttme. The crew are kept at a
pushes the great bulk of the SSBN towards the clear of the mouth dives it to begin a complex constan[ state of alert by periodical missile-
centre of the Ciyde river and the run to the series of escape and evasion manoeuvres de- flring drilis, but an actuai launch can only be
open water beyond, where the SSBN will slip, signed to ouiwit and confuse the watching conducted when the appropriate codes have
beneath the waves for a lonely two-month pat- Soviets in the trawler as to the direction taken. been received for the firing panel and safety
ro1. Ahead lies the usual cat-and-mouse game If by chance the Soviets have a submarine locks have been simuitanedu'sly disarmed bit
with the Soviet rntelligence-gathering trawler waiting to attempt to trail the SSBN, then the the skipper and one of his officers.
off Northern lreland, whose job it is to record SSBN will halt for the appropriate 'delousing'
the boat's acoustic signature and to signal the operation by friendiy units. Once free of unwei- Evasive action
boat's course back to the Soviet navy head- cbme eyes ihe boat-commences the trip to the Apart from being ready to fire at any trme,
quarters near Moscow. The Soviets already patrol area fully submerged, the boat has also to be ready to take evasive
know she is due to come down the river by Where it actualiy goes, the route taken and action if any strange surface or submarine craft
studying the patrol cycies, but do not know the the final return date is only pnsqyn to the skip- are detected in the viclnity. To do this the boat
actual date or time of departure, which are per, No messages are transrnitted during the carries the latest state-of-the-art passive sonar
obtarned by the resldent GRU (Soviet miiitary duration of the patrol, but the boat approaches systems rncludrng a jong-range retractable
intelligence) officers, who live along the banks to within several hundred feet of the surface at towed array which is streamed astern at every
of the Ciyde wlth the sole task of monitoring the regular intewals to receive operational mes- opportunity to allow monitoring of contacts out
movements to and from the British SSBN base sages and short family messages at periodic to a radius of 160 km (100 mrles) or so around
at Faslane and the American submarine tender intervals vra the floating ELF antenna and VLF the boat's position, If the SSBN ls detected,
at Holy Loch, towed communications buoy that it carries. As which both the Royal Navy and the US Navy
With nuclear power for propulsion and con- the boat heads towards the designated patrol have claimed has never been done by the
tinual regeneration of the atmosphere, the en- area at transit speed, the crew settles into the Soviets, self-defence acoustic-homing t6rpe-
durance of the vessel is limited oniy by food routine that will be followed for the entire does and powered decoys are carried in the
storage capacity and the stamina of the crew. cruise. Within the patrol zone the speed is forward torpedo room ready for use against
To take full advantage of this, the Royal Navy reduced to only a few knots to reduce the any hostile intent. But these are to be used only
uses two alternating crews, each with its own chances of detection, but the boat will be kept in the final resort as the SSBN's primary ds-
skipper and full complement ol officers and within firing range of its targets ln the Sovlet fence is the boat's stealth aspects. it is be6arise
eniisted men. One crew takes the boat on pat- Union at all times. The main emphasrs of the of this secrecy about locatron that the sub-
rol whilst the other remalns in the home port daily schedules is directed towards keeping marine sends no radio communications since
undergoing refresher courses, taking leave or the 16 weapons in the missile tubes in the the Soviets have a very capable radio direc-
inducting new crewmen into the routine of op- ready-to-launch status. Alt i6 will be available tion-finding network based on shore stations
erations. for around 95 per cent of the trme spent in the and ferret satellites to watch out for just such
The skipper of the crew on patrol takes the patrol area, whilst 15 will be ready for over 99 transmissrons

Unlike its Sou.iet contemporary, the mo.nstrous 'Typhoon' class, the

'Ohio' class ofSSBIVisnot eguipped to operate through weakspofs
(known as polnyas) in the polar ice. I n Areas where the ice {orms
bergs, however, madern sonar equipment would enable a
submarine to shelter in the'shadow' of the ice.
The increasing sophistication of modern A,SW and
SSBJVhunlrng f echniques me an that old-style
short-ranged missiles would force subm arines to
patrol dangerouswaters. The new generation of
Iong. rangg d missrTes en leringr sewice w ill enable
,SS8iVs lo opera te in evet morC:remote sectors in
greater safety.
,. ,tl
Modern Missile Stdcmarines
Crewaccommodation near to the mouth only to make the run up the chrefs as one ol the major advantages c: s..::-_
Internally the ballistrc missile submarines river to the docks. The crew then spends a forces, the years of painstakmg colltc:tc:. a:-:
are a lot biqger and roomier than other nuc- couple ofdays or so handing over the boat to collation by the Soviets of all intelligence :--
Iear-powered submarines, The captain and the the other crew lor the next patrol cycle. A few formation, hydrographic data ald prcce-=
flrst or executive officer usually have their own days before departure tire iroat is iate; i;;;; targeting patterns of Western SLBMs cc , :
cabins whilst the remaining officers share two- lor a short shakedown trip to see if the vessel easily suggest the likeliest oceaaic areas :::
or three-berth rooms. The petfy officers and and the equipment aboard are seaworthy, the location of patrol zones. In wartrnle :1es.
enlisted men all have individual bunks, and the would therefore receive the apcrccr-a:=
mdn mess is iarger than normal as lt also dou- Vulnerability Soviet attention up to and includrng ihe
bles up as the recreation hall, movie theatre The SSBN is at its most vulnerable when of ICBMs. Nor does the Western =.:::::
vie'r:ake :::
and study area, Internal decoratron is chosen to sailing to or returning from a patrol, usually on consideration the introduction of r:ei,,' S:',-=:
provide a pleasant working environment to the final leg whllst on the surface within several ASW systems exemphfied by the rece:-: .:.:-
help offset the boredom that may be encoun- miles of rts base. In times of tension or war it will ing ol synthetic-aperture radars ,.',-'n-:: :-_
lered on long patrols. The ship's cooks are be necessary to increase protection afforded apparently detect submerged sub;ia::::es
;rven more than enough food to cover the dura- to the vessels at these pornts, especially against down to severai hundreds of feet bei:','; :=
-,ion ol the patrol and they make sure that mines and air attacks. Those SSBNs operatlng
the surface. This means that satellite-basel s;s-
neals served throughout the daily cycle are lo from the Clyde are particularly open to attack tems and aircraft fitted with the rada: ;;:^:
a very high cuiinary standard; they have the from the former as the Soviets would probably have the ability to detect SSBNs as ire-,- :.:-,-::
additional problem that the sailors eat in shifts iry numbers of its special ASW rising mines near the surface to receive communlca.:::: _
as a result of watchkeeping requirements, so
:rost types of meals have to be available at all
and underwater electrical potential influence the technlque actually works then the i::f ::::-
mines on the continental shelf and continental tion of the 'Ohio' class SSBN into patroi ar:;.
:mes. To reduce the possibility of boredom rrse j ust off the western isles of Scotland, astride erien more remote from the Soviet hor=l--i
:aient shows, games and concerts are also submarine transit routes that have been deter- than before becomes of paramour'. lrr:p,:.-
.rranged. mr.ned by watching SSBN operations in peace- ance, as does the introduction of the LiKs-:e-,';
Once the time arrives for the submariae to time. The attrition of missile submarines-at such deterrent force with the Trident I1 SLBM: :=
:eiwn to base it picks up speed again for the points could then easily be passed off as unin- current status quo is to be maintarned.
:ansit, and as lt starts the withdrawal the boat tentional by-products of the conventional war
avoids any possible sonar contacis byusing the phase rather than a direct assault on the West's
s.ame tactics as those employed a-gainsi the strategic stnke forces with all that entails,
Soviet trawler. The SSBN again adopG these as Ahhough the invulnerability ol the SSBN on
,::e Clyde estuary is approached, and swlaces patroi is quite often quoted by Western naval

modem missiles are'cold launched', ejected

kom their missile tube by compressedgrasei, tfte
rocket motor igniting as theweapon reaches the
surface. AllWestern missiles have a solid In the past, the major deterrent effect of
propellant, but many Soviet systems are liquid-
propelled. underwater missilesyslems las been the relative
invulnerability of the submarine. Added to that i!1
the future willbe greatly increased accuracy,
especially in the case of Trident, which wil| enabie
submarine forces fo be assign ed to patticular
targets ofvalue instead of'trashing' cities or area
Sub Patrol

:?.:::{r: ,*tt

' ' ::ltlirffiiin'
,a:. Above: Missile submarines rely on Below:Although much better off than
.ffr.i,p,., secrecy for their own protection, the c r ew m e n abo a r d conve ntional
/afesf sorars b eing us ed to ev ade submarrnes, those on long
any hos tile tactical confrontation. submergedSSB/V patrols can still
find life tedious.

maintenance on the missileswhilst in elow : The prim ary offensive station positions would have the awesome
Above : The immense size of the B

'Ohio' class can be gauged from this their tubes is performed here, as are aboard any SSBN is the missile fire responsibility of exercising the final
inter nal view of the C4 Trident I the continual checks to see if they are control panel. Should the option. and potentially causing
missile tube compartmenL Any still functional. unthinkable occur, themenin these destruction on an unparalleled sca/e.
€ fier,ja*in Franklin' and'Lafayette' class SSBNs
Modern Missile Submarines
Although actually two classes, the 12 fire the Tndent I C4 SITBM, A1131 units (SSBN620). USS ,lames Monroe (SSBN655) USS George Wa.s,hington
'Benjamin Franklin' class and 19 serve with the Atlantic Fleet, several (SSBN622), USS jVarfian I/a/e
'Lafayette' class submarines are very
Carver (SSBN656), USS Frana.s Scofi
being forward-deployed to a sub- (SSBN623), USS Woodrow Wilson Key (SSBN657), USSMan'ano G. Izali,+.
similar in appearance. The main differ- marine tender located at Holy Loch on (qFBN624) IJSS Henry Ctay (SSBN65B) and USS Will Rqiers
ence is that the former were built with the Rrver Clyde in Scotland, Several t'o
(SSBN625), USS DanjeJ Webst6r (SSBN659). Those from SSBN64]::-
quieter machrnery outfits. All have units with Poseidon missiles have been (SSBN626), USS /ames Madison wards are of the 'Benjamil Fra:i-:-
diesel-electric stand-by propulsion, reassigned to the theatre nuclear role (S!BN627) USS ?eiumseh (SSBN62B), subclass.
snod masts and an auxiliary propeller, in support of NATO, Each American USS DanjeJ Eoone (SSBN629) USS-
As built, the first eight 'Lafayettes'car- SSBN rs assigned two crews desig- John C. Cathoun (SSBNffiO) USS U/ys-
ried 16 single 8O0-kiloton yield war- nated Blue and Gold, one manmng the ses .S. Granl (SSBN63I), USS Zon Specification
head 2775-km (1,72S-mile) range vessel durlnq a 70-day patrol and help- .Steuben (SSBN632), USS Casmjr 'Lafayette' and tsenjamin Franl<lin'
Polaris A2 SLBMs, the rest receiving ing during the following 32-day minor Pulaski (SSBN633), USS Sloner,rralJ glasses
the Polaris aS fitleO with three 200-- overhar:-l before the other crew takes J ackson (SSBN634), USS Sam.Rayburn Displacement: 7,250 tors sr::acec
hloton yield MRVs. Of the Polaris A2 the vessel out on patrol, Every sx (SSBN635), USS jVatfianjel Greene 8,250 tons dived
boats four (SSBN620 and SSBN622-625) years each boat undergoes a complete (SSBN636), USS Eenlamrn Franklin Dimensions: length 129.5 m (423 I :.
,vete rearmed with the Polaris A3 dur- overhaul and reactor refuelling that (SSBN640), USS Sjmon Botivar beam i0, I m (33.0 ft); draugrr I 3 r
rg refuelling overhauls in 1968-70, In lasts about 22-23 months, The indi (SSBN641), USS Kamehameha (31.5 ft)
Augmst of the latter year SSBN627 be- vtdual submarines that compnse the (SSBN642), USS George Banctoft Propulsion: one SSW pressr-r-ze:
.ame the flrst of the Poseidon C3 SLBM two classes are the USS .Lafayette (SSBN643), USS .[ewjs and Ctark water-cooled reactor powerirrg :ri:
:onversrons, whilst between Septem-
ber 1978 and December 1982 12 units
(SSBN616), USS A]exander Hamilton
(SSBN617), USS Andrew Jackson
(SSBN644). USS /ames K. Potk stearn twbines drinng one shai
(SSBN645), USS Georse C. Marshatl Speed:28 kts surfaced and 25 ks
'rere fMher. converted to carry and (SSBN619), USS John Adams (SSBN654), USS llenry L. Stimson dived
Divingdepth:350 m (1,150 ft)
operational and 465 m (1, 525 ft)
Armament: 16 launch fubes for :i
Trident I C4 (SSBNs 627, 629. 5-?: :i2-
634, 640, 641, 643, 655, 657anci 6c8l ::
for 16 Poseidon C3 (remainder)
submarine-launched balls[c rnir=-
and four 533-mm (2l-in) bovr t:bes :::
12 Mk 48 ASWantr-stlp torpedoes
Electronics: one BPS- i lA or BPS-:5
surface-search radar, one ESM
system, one BQR-7 sonar. one BQF.- -:
towed-array sonar, one BQR-:9 sc:=:
one BQR-2 I sonar, one BQS-4 sc:a:
and extensive communicators a:-c
navigatron systems
Complement: 140 (:Laiaytte') or i6E
('Benjamin Frankiin')

Left: The C4 Trident l-equipped

'B e nj am i n F r a nkfih' c/asi yeiseJ USS
Mariano G. Vallejo (SS8JV658).
Nowadays Amerrban SSB,lVs do not
carry identifying pennant numbrs
for security reasons.

Below: The last 12 units built to the machinery. Of tftese resse/s, sixfiarze
'Lalayette' S S BN des ign were been converted to carry tlteC4
otficially des ignated the' Benj amin Tidentl SLBM inplaceof thi.eC3
Franklin' class because they were Poseidon.
completed with quieter propulsion @;

AC3 PoseidonSLBM just after

i,fcf.freed UGM-Z3A Poseidon Iaunch. One problem for an SSBN

commander is that he would preter
all hisSLBMs tobelaunched in one
go and not in several groups because
3y 1964two follow-on designs to the SLBMs, Up to a maximum of ]4 Mk 3 each firing points to his location.
ielaris were under review. One sub- independently targeted RVs (each
-.equently evolved into the Jrockheed mth a yield of 40 kilotons) can be car- control facrlities. A total of 6lg oper-
UGM-73A Poseidon C3 SLBM which ried over a ranqe of 4000 }cn (2,485 atronal missiles was bought, and 304 of
:culd use the launch tubes of the ex- miles), but wrth the normal loading of these plps their 3.040 associated war-
j:ng fleet of SSBNs, Ultrmately 3l out 10 MIRVs the range is increased to heads are still afloat on the remainmo
:: the oriqinal 41 SSBNs built were 5200 km (3,230 miles), Penetration aids l9 Poseidon-equipped SSBNs. T\vo oi
::itted to carry the Poseidon, although to confuse defence systems are also three Poseidon vessels are always
sme were later fitted to carry the Tri- carried. The two-stage solid- assigned to the NATO hrgh command
ient L The Poseidon C3 entered oper- propellant missiles are targeted main- for the theatre nuclear role in Europe
=:cnal sewice in 1970 after initial flight Iy against soft milrtary and industrial and the Mediteranean, The Poseidon
:ss in 1968, The missrle introduced targets such as airfields, storaqe de- wtll evenluallv be replaced bv the Tri-
:e concept of MIRVing to Amencan pots, and above-ground command and dent lI
I-ockheed UGM-73A Polaris C3 SIEM (continued)

Type: submarine-launched ballistic
Dimensions: lenqth i0,4 m (34' ] ft);
l,aunchweight: 29030 kg (64,000 lb)
Performance: range 4000-5200 km Warhead:between 10 and 14 MiRVs
each with a 4O-kiloton weapon StiII in sewice aboard 19 'Lafayettel relatively low-yield warheads to
.2 1813,230 miles) dePending on the
::r:,ber of MIRVs carriedt CEP 553 m Propulsion: solid-propellant rocket Benj amin Frankln' class,S,SBJVS, ffi e attack inde pendent targets.
: ^: ,---^-\ Guidance: inertral C 3 Poseidon can carry up to I 4

E '6nio' class SSBN

Destined to become the mainstay of theAmerican SSBN fleet in the next

aeiide and after, the'Ohio'classwilleventually carry theDS Tridentll SLBM
thatwitl allow these submarjnes to operate in patol zones close to the
American coasts, wherc they can be protected more easily.

late. Since then further delays have oceans, making effective Soviet ASW named boats, At least another 11 are
Desiqned in the early 1970s as the fol- projected. The flrst eigrht are to be
bw-on SSBN to the 'Benjamin Franklin' occurred in the Programme but the measures agtainst them virtually im-
ard 'Lafayette' classes, the lead ship of rate of production is now beginningi to possible for the foreseeable future, based in the Pacific at Bangor,
especially as the boats are acoustically Washingrton, whilst the remainder will
:he 'Ohlo' class, the USS Oftio get back on schedule.
go to the Atlantic Fleet at Kings Bay,
Each submarine is expected to have very quiet.
|SSBN726) was contracted to the Elec- Georgia, to replace Poseidon boats
tnc Boat Divisron ofthe General Dyna- a l2-month reactor refuelling refit ev- At present four 'Ohios are in com-
ery nine vears and will work a Patrol mission: the Ofiio, the USS Michigan From SSBN734 onwards the 'Ohios'wtll
mics Corporation in July 1974, As the carrv the Trident II missile in their 20
petioa of?O days with the next 25 days (SSBN727), the USS F/orjda (SSBN72B)
result of an unfortunate series of prob- tauni:h tubes whilst the others will be
lems both in Washington, DC, and at ipent alongside a tender or jetty and the USS Georgja (SSBN729), Stx
readyrng for the next patrol. Because more are bulldlng: the USS Henry M. refltted at the first available opportun-
rle shrpvard, the lead vessel did not
:-.rn hei frrst sea trials until June I9B1 of their longer-range T?ident missiles, Jackson (SSBN730), USS Alabama itv.
and was not flnally commissioned untll the 'Ohio' class boats have patrol areas (SSBN731) USS AJaska (SSBN732)
November of that Year, three Years rn the remoter parts of the world's USS iVevada (SSBN733) and hvo un-
Displacement: i6, 764 tons surfaced
and lB,TS0tonsdived
Dimersions: length 170,7 m (560.0 ft);
beam 12,8 m(42,0 ft); drausht 10.8 m
(35.s ft)
Propulsion: one SBG pressurized
water-cooled natural-circulation
reactor powering a turbo-reduction
drive to one shaft
Speed: 20 kts surfaced and 24 I<Is
Diving depth: 300 m (985 ft)
operational and 500 m (1,640 ft)
Armament: 24 launch tubes for 24
Trident I C4 submarinelaunched
ballistic mrssiles, and four 533-mm (21-
in) bow tubes for an unknown number
of tube-launched weapons
Electronics: one BPS- l5A surface-
searchradar, one WLR-B(V) ESM
system, one BQQ-6 sonar, one BQS-13
sonar, one BQS-15 sonar, one BQR-19
sonar, one BQR-23 towed-array sonar,
and extensive cornmunications and
navigation systems
Complement: 133

under w aY'
Tft e USS Ohio (SSBJV7Z 6 )
This class represents the latest in
American technologY, and is
designed to defeat all toreseeable
ASW threats that the Soviets are
known to possess or believed to be
capable of develoPing.

ffi hesolution' class SSBN
ern Mis s i-le Sr:bmarine s

AJthough constructed in the United Kingdom, the four'Resoiufion'classSSBlVs

have a considerable atnount of their internal syslems based on American
componen[s tfi at wete used in the'Lafayette' c]ass.

3ficially stated in February 1963 was

:.e British governments rntentron lc
::der four or five 'Resolution' class
fclaris missile-equipped 7,000-ici
:. :clear-powered submarrnes ::-::
r;ruld take over the nuclear deterl3:-:
::,e from the Royal Air For::s ',--
:cmber force from 1968 onwards T::
-jst lwo parrs of boats were orde:: j :.
l"iay i963 from Vickers Shipb',lc-::;
-:i. Barrow-in-Furness,.and Cari.r:-:-
-.ird & Co. Ltd, Birkenhead; the cp:::-
::- a fifth unit was cancelled in Fei:r:-
=:_,' 1965, With characteristics vel;
.::iar to the American 'Lalayenes :+
,:ad ship HMS ResoJutrbn (S22) '*.s
=::ched in September 1966 and co;:--
:--rsroned in October of the follo'n -r-g
:::rr. The second vessel, HMS rte
:ulse (S23), followed in September
-::8, with the third, HMS Renown
J:l), and fourth, HMS fievenge (S2l)
:':::rnissioning in November 1968 ali
-e:ember 1969 respectively, Early n
- :3 the Reso]ulron sarled to Florida ur
:: United States for missile launch
:-=,s, making the UK's flrst successfi:l
:':-:r1S launch on 15 February. Four
-::ths later she sailed on her first de-
'=::ent patrol, As in French and Amer-
,;::. SSBNs, two crews (Port and Star-
:,--d) are used to maxrmize the tLme
:;::lt at sea, each patrol lasting around
----:ee months. When not aboard the
--::-as take leave and undergro re-
r:sher traimng at the 10th Submanne Diving depth: 350 m ( 1, 150 ft) I{MSRevenge (S27).In 1983 she
Jq:adron base at Faslane on the operational and 465 m ( i.525 ft) becarne lft e se cond of B ritain's
l-'.-de. According to curent plans the maxlmum Polaris submarines to operate wlth
i':-als boats are to be replaced on a Armament: 16 launch tubes for 16 the upgraded Polaris A3TK
-:-:-for-one basis from 1994 onwards Polaris A3TK submarine{aunched Chevaline system designed to
:.- iour 'V' class Trident II missile- ballistic missiles, and sx 533-mm (21- pene tt ate S oviet AB M d ef e n ce s
:=:rying submannes, All four boats in) bow tubes for an unknown number aroundMoscow-
-.=-,'e recently undergone conversrons of tube-launched weapons
:-:ng normal overhauls to carry the Electronics: one Type 1003 surface-
:--als A-TK variant fitted with the search radar, one type 2001 bow one ESM suite, and an extei:--.'=
l:-evaline MRV warhead system, sonar,oneType200Tsonar,oneType communicatronsoutfit
2023retractabletowed-araysonar, Complement:135

ffi i,o"f.n"ed UGM -27C Polaris A3 SLBM

l;:w the sole user of the US-designed
Lockheed UGM-2?C Polaris A3 SLBM
as severai smaller-yield weapons
around the rarget perrneter cause sig-
Now used only by the United
Kingdom, the PolarisAS SLBM is
:: Royal Navy has recently had its ruficantly more damage, However, as a undergoing a rocket-motor
= :ckprle of Polaris missiles re- resu-lt of Sonet developments in ABM r ep laceme nt progr amme.
=:-gined so that it can contrnue as the defences it was decided rn the early
-lls nuclear deterent force, with a 1970s that countermeasures would ber of credible threats at the same
:=ge of 4749km (2,950 mites). The have to be bult into the Polaris system trme, wilh the result that the incoming
::--:ish buy.of the missile was, accord- The result was the Polaris A3TK Che- warhead picture is swamped,
--,; to US Congressional records, 102 vaiine protect. whrch had rts roots in a Although not specifled, these mod-
r-:n another 30 purchased later to cancelled US warhead proQlramme rflcations are believed to include the
--=ke up atlrrlion. These were equip- called Antelope, Chevaline involves fitting of chaff penetration ards and the
;ejjltwith three British-desiqned and the replacement of the 20O-kiloton possrble carriage ofdecoys that on re-
-: 2OO-kiloton yield MRVs for use MRVs with three 60-kiloton weapons entry behave as real warheads do, The
rlilst area targets such as cities and hardened against EMP and fast radia- flrst submarine to be retrofltted wrth
: =elds: the effect of a single high-
tion, as well as the inodification of the the new system was HMS Renoryn. As
warhead falls off rapidly with dis- carier bus to present defendinq radar each boat comes in for refuelling she is
t:-:e from the point of impact, where- systems wrth a confusrngly large num- converted to the new missrle system,
t ockheed UGM-2?C Polaris A3 SLBM (continued)

Dimensions: length 9,8 m (32,2 ft);

diameter 1.4 m (4 ft 6 in)
Launchweight: 15876 kg (35,000 lb)
Performance: range 4748 km (2,950
miles); CEP 930 m ( 1,017 yards)
Warhead: three 60-kiloton yield MRVs
plus an unknown number ofdecoYs
Specification and chalf penetration alds
Polaris A3TK
ipping the ?' cJass subma rines of the R oy al N avy, the
E qu P ola r is A 3 is the las t Propulsion: solid-propellant rocket
Tlpe: submarine-launched ballistic Guidance: inertral
missile moabi ot ine pioneering SLBM to remain operational.

E i,octfreed UGM-96A Trident I C4 SIBM

The purpose of the tockheed UGM-
96A Trident I C4 missile development
proetramme was essentiallY to in-
brease the range of American SLBMs
to allow the use of largrer and remoter
patrol areas. A three-stage solid-
propellant missile, the Trident I was
fllght tested in 1977. becominq oper-
ational two years later aboard the
SSBN conversions of the 'Benjamin
Franklin' and 'Lafayette' classes, The
hrst two stages of the missile are
essentially the same as those fitted to
the earlier Poseidon C3 SLBM, but the
third stage is frtted wlth stellar-inertial
gnldance to give the required accura-
cv over the lonqer range. The first
eiqht 'Ohio' class SSBNs are being
itted to carry the Trident 1, but these
llril eventually be retrofltted to carry
:he yet longrer-ranged Tndent Ii in the
early t99Os. Rapid onboard targetlng
:o another pre-Planned target co-
crdhates package ls possible, but a far
lengrthier operation is required if the
system has to be fed new target co-
:idinates from an external source ,{s
ncreased range was considered to be
=ore important than accuracY im-
-lrovement, a CEP comParable with
'nat of the Poseidon was accepted, The
-:se of higher-yield warheads, howev-
er allows more hardened military and
rdustrial targets to be engaged on a
satrsfactory basis than was possible
-,",iih the earlier missile, and as such it is
believed that one Trident-equipped
submarine will have its re-entry vehi-
:les assigned to NATO for use in the
ireatre nuclear role, A total of 740 mis-
siles is to be procured, with eight
llIRVs per mtssile. Eventually, in the
::ext century, the American SSBN force
'rd be a mix only of 'Ohio' class boats
r.rth Trident II missiles, Fitted to I 2 of the 'LafaYettel
Launch weight: 3 175] kq (70 000 lb) At enormous cost, the Trident
Performance: range 6808 km (4,230 programme will Brovide the Benjamin FrankJrn' cJass SSBNs and
Specification the new'Ohios'. the Trident I
TridentIC4 mrles); CEP 549 m (600 Yards) seaborne element of the US strategic C4

Warhead: erqht MIRVs each with a deterrent for the foreseeable future. SLBM proves the nearestAmerican
Type: submarine-launched ballistic
100-kiloton weapon Trident I employs the 7400 - km equivalent to the long-range Soviet
nlssile (4,600 -mile) ranged C 4 missile, which SLBM s but with m ore accur ate
Dimensions:length i0.4 m (34,1 ft); Propulsion: solid-propellant rocket
Guidance: stellar-inertial will eventually be replaced by the D5. payloads of MRV w arhe ads.
iiameter 1.9 m (6 ft 2.8 in)

: i,f"r.need Trident II D5 SIBM

fne lockheed Trident II D5 is the re- rmll have had the capabrlity to attack replace the Polaris boats in the mid- Specification
s,:J1 cf an improved accwacy progrram- any Soviet tarqet type. In additton to 1990s. The Brttrsh missiles will differ in Trident II DS
thd Trident II the programme is aimed that they will carry only eight lower- Type: submarrne-launched balltstic
i:e ior American SLBMs begun in Fis- yield MIRVs desigmed and built by the missile
::i Year 1975, Scheduled for oPer- at increasing the number of warhead
Atomic Weapons Research Establish- Dimensions:length 13,96 m (45.8 ft);
::-::a1 deploYment on 'Ohio' class vehicles available to something like
the total at the height of the Poseidon ment and Royal Ordnance Factortes, diameter i.89 m (6 ft 2,4 in)
SS3\s ftom the ninth vessel onwards Launch weight: 57 I53 kg (I26,000 lb)
'- l--cember 1989, the Trldent il will programme, but with gneater meqa- Thrs lower number of ltqhter warheads
ionnage to match Sovtet increases A will allow the missiles to be fired over Performance: range 74OO-1 I 100 km
:e accurate and have the abllity even longer ranges than the US ver- (4,600-6,900 miles) depending on
:: =:ry a gneater number of largrer- minimum of 857 missiles will be pro-
cured for the 20 or more 'Ohio' class stons. numberof MIRVscarriedl CEP92,5 m
,r:ld warheads than its predecessor, (101 yards)
-:e Trident 1. The accuracy will be submarines.
Warhead: between eight and 14
s,.i.crent to make feasible the target- A further batch of around 100 (to be
sewiced in the USA) wrll be procured MIRVs each with a 375-kiloton weapon
-::: of Sonet hardened underground Propulsion: solid-propellant rocket
::::ssrle srlos and command bunkers, by the UK, as in 1982 it was decided
Guidance: stellar-inertial
,:= will be the first time ever
that th-at thls missrle would be adopted for
-:-::e:rcan sea-based strateqlc forces the new 'V' class submarines that are to

Armed Forces of the World

Brifish Arrng
Army Air Corps

Tne Army Air Corps has frve main roles, namely

rbservation and reconnaissance. armed action in
:ne anti-tank role, direction of artillery f ire, command
:nd control for land-based unlts, and movement of
men and material (to a limited degree only).
To carry out these duties within BAOB the Army
+ r Corps is organized into army aviation reglments.
:ach of these regiments (thereare basicallythree) is
33rt of an armoured division establishment, and ,t
::mes directly under the control of the armoured
: vrsron headquarters. Each regiment has two
squadrons, one equipped with Westland Lynx heli-
sopters and the other with 46rospatiale Gazelles.
The Lynx squadron has a basis of 1 2 helicopters,
but this might vary in some squadrons. The Lynx is
charged with the anti-tank role and s equipped with
up tc eight TOW anti-tank guided m ss les TOW is
an American wire-guided m ssile with a maxtmum
range of 3750 m (4,100 yards) and weighing approx- tant liaison role and ls frequently used by senior The shape of AAC equipment in the fu tu r e ? T r. :s
rmately 24 kg (52.9 lb). This makes the TOW a very commanders as a mobile command post. One Pilatus Britten-Norman Islander has recentl'/
powerful anti-tank weapon and the [ynxrTOW com- squadron of Gazelles rs deployed at I (BR) Corps disflayed under the acronym CASTOR {Corps
bination is regarded as among the best ant-tank level for just this role. The Gazelle is also widely Airborne Stand-off Radar) inan attempt to meei
weapon systems in use in NATO The Lynx helicop- used at all levels for general reconnaissance. the army's battlefield reconnaissance
ter crews have developed spec al ant -tank tactrcs The Lynx can carry a crew of two and up to 1O requirements.
and frequently train with their equiva ents from soldiers, although it is not intended that it will often This Westland Lynx AH.Mk I sports a full
other NATO nations. be used for the trooo-carrying role, a LasK lnder- complement of eight Hughes TOW ATG M s. Ar,
The Gazelle's main combat use is artillery taken for the army by the Royal Arr Force. The Lynx additional six to eight missiles can be carrieC :r.
observation and spotting, but it also has an impor- is a fairly large helicopter with a f uselage length of the cahinfor re-arming and awide range of ot:e:
weapons is available.


.SE zilrs
Armed Forces of the World

1i.665 m (38.27 tl). but it is fast and manoeuvrable. A busy scene at the Army Air Corps base, Middle The equipment of the modern British infantryman-:
in the anti-tank role Lynx helicopters normally oper- Wal|op, as three Gazelle AH.Mkl s prepare for on the telt, the GPMG on a tripod tor the sustained
operations. The nearest machine, XW885/8, is firerole;on theright, aCarIGustavRR and aLAW.
aie in pairs. The soldier himself sports the new pattern helmet
operated by the Advanced Rotary Wing School
ln contrast Gazelles tend to operate individually. (ARWS), as indicated by the Dav-Glo patches, and carries the Enfield 5.56-mm Individual
Apart from the pilot the Gazelle can accommodate while the two in the background are from BAOR' weapon.
cniyfour passengers, and no armament is carried. ln
olace of the seating special equipment such as Territorial Army order of battle
r,ght-vision deviQes can be carried, and it is possible British Army order of battle
io use the Gazelle as a flying ambulance. 29 headquarters units 2 infantry brigades
ln the United Kingdom some army aviation squad- 12 armoured regiments 5 armoured reconnaissance regiments
rons continue to use the Westland Scout helicopter, 7 armoured reconnaissance regiments 35 infantry battallons
and the one army aviation squadron to be formed in 53 infantry battalions (including 6 Ghurka ba.ttalions) 2 $pecial Air Service regiments
'lne Territorial Army will also use the Scout. The 3 parachute battalions (only 2 in para role) 2 field artillery regiments (Light Gun)
Scout is a sturdy multi-purpose helicopter that at 1 Special Air Service regirnent 3 light air defence regiments (Blowpipe)
cne time used the AS.1 1 wire-gulded misslle for the 1 missile regiment (Lance) 7 engineer regiments
'1 army aviation squadron
anti-tank role, but this has now been assumed by 3 air defence regiments (RaPier).
tne LynxiTOW combination. At various times i7 artillery regiments 11 battalions Ulster Defence Regiment
-achineguns have been fitted to the Scout, either 1 locating regiment
4 independent anti-tank units
A true workhorse during the Falklands war, and
on over-skid mountings or on pintles to be f ired f rom carrently replacing the Lynx in the garrison Army
:.e main cabin. 10 engineer regiments Air squadron, the Westland Scout AH.Mk I is seen
The only other helicopter used operationally by 1 armoured engineer regiment here transporting troops during the conflict. Note
tne Army Air Corps is the A6rospatiale Alouette 1 amphibious engineer regiment the stabilized optical tracking sight above the
AH.Mk 2. This is now used in small numbers only 1 independent engineer squadron cockpit for use with the Nord AS I I air-to'surtace

,about eight all told) for liaison and the carriage of 4 army aviation regiments missrJes.
r"'lPs, but most of the Alouettes are based in Cyprus
'cr use with the UNIFCYP forces.
The Army Air Corps uses only one type of fixed-
ir'ng aircraft for operations, and that is the vener-
abie de Havilland Canada Beaver AL.Mk 1. This is
:sed for a variety of purposes that range from small-
scaie supply dropping to general communications.
iney can be used for photographic reconnaissance
and casualty evacuation, and have been fitted with
c':dspeakers for 'voice from the sky' purposes.
-,rere is no def inlte establishment for the Beaver as
tney are deployed as and wlren required. About
egnt are left in service, some of them in Northern
.etand and at least one at the BATUS training area in
Middle Wallop in Hampshire is the main base for
:re Army Air Corps and also acts as the corps'
--.a', ng base. For flying training de Havilland Chip-
- -i-.< T.Mk 10s are used for basic training, followed
lr Bell 47Js for basic helicopter training; these Bell
-17Js are operated under contract with a civilian
crganization. For advanced training Lynxes and
3azelles are used.
The Army Air Corps operates about eight Beav-
els, about 20 Chipmunks. about 40 $couts, elght
Atouettes. 155 Gazelles and approximately B0
-!nxes, not all of which are fitted for TOW.