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Yolume 12 Issue 142

Published by
Orbis Publishino Ltd
@ Aerospace P"ublishing Lld 1986
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War Machine
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Editorial: Trisha Palmer
Chris Bishop
Chris Chant
lan Drury

Design: Rod Teasdale

Golour Origination: lmago Publishing Ltd,
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Typesetting: SX Composing Ltd

Film work: Precise Litho Ltd
Consultant Editor: Major General Sir
Artists: Jeremy Moore KCB OBE MC, Comman-
Dave Etchell
Peter Sarson & Tony Bryan der of British Land Forces during the
Falklands campaign.

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The New

A new generation of armowed fighting vehicles is entering Finland is one of the latest countries to receive the T-72 main battle tank from
the Soviet Union. The Soviets have managed to keep secref ffie critical details
production. Main battle tanks are evoluing to cowrter the of the tank's fire control systems and the composition of its armour; exported
threats posed by gttidedrnissiJes, and a new breed of light ve hicle s m ay, of cou rse, be diff er ent to those in the R e d Army.

tanks has appeated, with much the same firelnwer as an and FMC Close Combat Vehicle - Light, which have been designed to
MBTbut at afraction of the cost. be transported and dropped by parachute from a standard Lockheed
C-130 Hercules transport aircraft,
Previous studies in this serres have concentrated on one particular type The Soviets continue to field new weapons and equipment: some-
of armoured flghting vehicle, for example main battle tanks, reconnaiss- times these are in advance of anything in the West, while in other areas
ance vehicles, and tracked or wheeled armoured personnel carriers. they lag behind, A good example is the ZSU-23-4 self-propelted anti-
Thls study is rather different as it covers a wide range of armoured aircraft gun system which was first fielded in lg60s and caused the
vehicles that have been developed in recent years, some ofwhich have Israeli air force much trouble rn the 1973 and 1982 Middle East conflicts.
yet to enter production or sewice, Many of these vehicles (such as the In 1985 the US cancelled its Sgt York DIVAD twin 4O-mm arr-defence
AMX-40, Vickers Mk 7 and Strngray) have been designed specifically as system as it had so many shortcomings. The US Army now urgently
private ventures with company fundrng, and are aimed at the export needs a low-level air-defence system, and will probably have to buy
market, something already in production, perhaps from Europe,
For many years armorrred flghting vehicles were deslgned and built Armoured fighting vehicle design is now at the crossroads, and future
only by highly industrrahzed Western countries, Since the early 1970s, tanks may well look quite different to the ones in sewice today, Automa-
however, other countries have started their own armoured vehrcle tic loaders are already installed in the Slank and Soviet T-64/T-Z2
industries, Brazil being a good example The ENGESA company started vehicles, and it has been confirmed that the new French MBT expected
building the Cascavel and Urutu 6x6 armoured vehicles, and in 1985 to enter servrce in the I990s wrll also have a three-man crew and an
unveiled its EE-T1 Osorro MBT which is at present competing against automatic loader,
European tanks in the Middle East market. Egypt has recently designed Although anti-tank gnrided weapons have been introduced on a largre
and built the Fahd armoured personnel carrier to meet the require- scale over the past 20 years, the armoured fighting vehicle (especially
ments of the Egyptran army and other potential customers in the Middle the MBT) still has a key role on the battlefield of the future and perhaps
LdSL, has no real substitute,
Some countries are now placrng increased emphasis on their air-
The Brazilian arms industry has beenadvancing by leaps and bounds, and
borne or airmobile forces, so this study includes the Wiesel lightweiqht ENGESA have now produced the Osorio main battle tank, seen here firing its
armoured vehicle which should enter service with the West German B ritis h R oy al O rdnance I 0 5 -mm ( 4. I 3 - in) gun. D eveloped wi th the ex por t
army later this decade, and the private-venture Cadrllac Gage Stingray m ar ket fi rmly in mrhd, lft e ciassjs will fom the basis tor a s eries of AW s.
ffi ftartr*an air-defence system
Mechanized forces have always been
lrrlnerabie to attack from the air, but in
recent years this threat has grown with
the advent of new and dedrcated
attack arrcraft which can fly very low
and attack tarqets on the first pass, The
introduction of the attack helicopter
carryinq gmided mrssiles, rapid-firing
cannon and ungurded rockets has
added a new dimension to land combat.
A number of countries in the West
have fielded complete self propelled
antr-aircraft systems (for example the
West German Gepard and French
AMX-30 DCA) to protect mechanized
forces agalnst attack by such aircraft
and helicopters.
Marconi Command and Control Sys-
tems has desiqned and built air-de-
fence radars for land and sea applica-
tions over a perrod of many years, and
some years ago undertook a market
survey which showed that there was a
gap in the market for a complete all-
weather air-defence turret which
could be fltted onto existinq Chieftain,
Challenger, Centurion, T-54/T-55,
Type 59, M4B M60 and Vickers tank
chassis wrth the minimum of modifrca-
tron, By using a chassis already in ser-
vrce the user would have signiflcant
cost advantages as not only would the
crews already be familiar with the
automotive aspects of the chassis but
spare parts would already be avail-
The flrst prototype of this air-de-
fence turret, called Marksman, was
completed 1n mid 1984 and shown for
the first time at the British Army Equip-
ment Exhibition on the Vickers Mk 3
MBT chassis,
Major sub-contractors to Marconi
Command and Controi Systems are
Vrckers Defence Systems of Newcas-
tle upon Tyne, whrch built the all-steel
turret, and Oerlikon-Bilhrle, which
supplied the twin 35-mm KDA cannon
and ammumtion
The tunet is of all-welded construc-
tion providing the crew with complete of about 12 km (7.5 miles). The cannon can also be laid with the With the ominous exception of
protection from small arms fire and A considerable amount of effort has aid of the roof-mounted siqhts, this Britain, most armies use a mixture of
shell splinters. The commander sits on qone into the design of the fire-control being of particular use when electro- guns andmissiles to defend
the left and the gunner on the right, and system to make its operation as stmpie nic countermeasures are being used themselves against air attack.
in addition to having periscopes for as possrbie. '1 he compiele syslem In- to degrade the performance of the Marksman is an AA gun system
all-round observation with the hatches cludes the roof-mounted radat, com- radar. developedbyMarconiand is able to
closed, each has a roof-mounted qyro- puter, transmitter, synthesizer, signal By early 19BO the prototype Marks- fit on to most tank chassis with
stabilized sight with magniflcattons of processing unit, control console (vtsi- man turet have been tested on Centu- minimal modification.
x3 and x1O, The gmnner's sight also ble to both crew members), data ex- rion, Challenger and T-series tank
has a laser rangefinder. traction unit and radar power am- chassis In the case ofthe Challenger, Tracer) for engaginq ground targets,
The turret armour provtdes com- plifier The system has a number of the Marksman turret was rnstalled and
plete protection against 14.5-mm (0.57- operating methods, including fully operatrng rn just under one and a half Specification
in) rounds over the frontal arc and automatic. In this mode the radar picks hours Marksman
against 7.62 mm (0.3-in) armour-pLe.rc- up the target, checks that it is hosttle The 35-mm cannon are the same as Crew:2
ing bullets over the remainder. and then starts to track the target; the those installed in the Gepard, and the Armament: two 35-mm cannon
Mounred on rhe rool oi Lhe turret IS d turret is then traversed, the guns ele- gmnner can select single shots, bursts Ammunition: 230 anti-aircraft and 20
Series 400 radar, which is unusual in vated, and the qunner informed when or full automatic fire. Each cannon has anti-armour rounds per barrel
that it uses a single antenna for surveill- the target is wrthin effective range; all 230 rounds of ready-use air defence Turret traverse: 360'
ance and tracking, and this has a max- the gunner then has to do is press the ammunrtion and 20 rounds of APDS-T Cannon elevation: - lO' to + 85"
imum range in the surverllance mode flring button. (Armour-Piercing Discardiner-Sabot Weisht: 11000 kg (24,250 lb)

ffi Vi"t
Mk 7 main battle tank
In the late 1970s Vickers Defence Sys- covered that a number of customers already taking delivery of the heavier smoothbore Qun can be installed,
tems designed and bullt as a private believed that the turret of the Valiant Challenger MBT armed with the same The Vickers Mk 7 has a Marconr
venture the Valiant MBT which made could be marrted to a chassis incor- QUn, Command and Control Systems Cen
rts flrst public apperance durrnQr the porating automotive components of the The Vickers Mk 7 is fltted with the taur I flre-control system: both the
1980 British Army Equipment Exhibt- Leopard 2 MBT currently in service standard Royal Ordnance l2O-mm commdnder and gn-Lnner can alm and
tlon, This was armed with a 120-mm with the West German and Dutch Ll1A5 tank gnm, a McDonnell Douglas fire the gnm, and'he matn armament ts
(4,72-tn) Royal Ordnance tank gun and armies, and also ordered by the Swiss Helicopters 7.62-mm (03-in) Charn stabilized in both elevatlon and
army. The first prototype of this tank, Gun berng mounted co-axial with the traverse The commander rs provideci
a Marconi flre-control system, and was
desiqned to have the new Chobham called the Vickers Mk 7, was com- main atmament. A total of 38 rounds of with a roof-mounted French SFIM
armour, The Valiant was demonstrated pleted in mld-1985 and later in that 120-mm and 3,000 rounds of machrne- panoramic siqiht that allows him to scan
ln the Middle East but no ordets wete year went to Egypt for trials. This tank gtm ammunition are carried, throuqh 360'without moving his head
placed, has been desigtned speciflcally for the As an alternative to the LllAS a The srqht also incorporates a lasel
Vickers Defence SYstems then dis- expofi market as the Britlsh armY ts West German Rheinmetalal 120-mm ranqefinder. The qn-rnner has a Vtckers

Vickers Mk 7 mainbattletank (continued) The New Generation of Fighting Vehicles
telescoprc laser sight and a roof- which is considered to be essential for
mounted periscope sigrht, operatlons in the Middle East,
Also mounted on the tuffet roof rs a
Philips UA9090 gyro-stabilized panor-
amic sight which provides a thermal
picture on a TV screen at both tank Specification
commander's and gunner's positions, Vickers Mk 7
A very useful auto-scanntng device is Crew:4
flttedr this scans a pre-set arc, and if Weights: empty 52640 kq (116,050 ib);
there is a change in the thermal picture loaded 54641 kq (120,460 lb)
an alarm sounds, so alerting the crew. Powerplant: one MTU MB 873 Ka 501
The MTU dresel engine is coupled I 2-cylinder turbocharged diesel
to Renk HSWL 354/3 automatic trans- developing 1,500 bhp (1119 kW)
mission with four forward and two re- Dimensions: length, gun forward
verse qears, 10.95 m (35 ft 1 1 in) and hull 7.72 m
Standard equipment includes an t25 tt 4 in): wrdth 3 43 m 1l I ll 3 rn;:
NBC pack and a fire-extingutshing sys- heiqht overall 3.00 m (9ft l0 in)
tem for engrne compartment, while Performance: maximum road speed
optional equipment includes a roof- 72krn/h( 5 mph); ranqe 500 km (310
mounted anti-arrcraft machine-gun, a miles); fording I 7 m (5 ft 7 in); vertical The Vickers Mk 7 is a private venture by the company aimed purely at the
fully automatic flre detection and sup- obstacle L i m (3 ft 7 rn); trench 3.0 m export market. It combines the turret of thevaliant MBT, which failed to gain
pression system for the crew compart- (9 ft 10 in) gradrent60percent, side any orders, with automotive components of the German Leopard carries
ment, and an air-conditionrng system slope 3O per cent the powerful Royal Ordnance I 20-mm (4.72-in) gun.

ENGESA EE-T I Osorio main battle tank

Since the early 1970s the ENGESA The Osorio is not a particularly
company has built over 4,000 of rts innovative tank design, but it is an
Jararac 4x4 scout cars, EE-9 Cascavel attractive MBT for smaller countries
6x6 armoured cars and EE-ll Urutu which lack their own manufacturing
6x6 armoured personnel carriers, capability and forwhom the latest
sales having been made to virtually European or American vehicles are
every contrnent. Several years ago the too big, too complicated and too
company decided to desiqn and burld expensive.
a new MBT whrch would meet the
needs of both the home and export
markets, The first prototype, armed
with the combat-proven British Royai
Ordnance 105-mm (4, 13-in) rifled tank
gun, was completed in 1985. This was
demonstrated in Saudi Arabia late in
19BS and the second prototype, armed
wrth a French GIAT 120-mm (4.72-tn)
smoothbore gun, was completed early
in l9BO Vickers Defence Systems oi
the UK desrgned both the 105-mm and
120-mm turrets specifically to meet the
requirements of ENGESA Mounted on each srde of the turret is Specification 1 1 in); vertical obstacle 1. 1 5 m (3 ft
The EE-TI Osorio has an all-welded a bank of electrically-operated smoke- EE-TI Osorio 4 rn); trench 3,0 m (9 ft 10 in); gradient
hull and turret. The conventional layout dischargers, and optional equipment Crew:4 60per cent; side slope 30 per cent
locates the driver at front left, the turret (aparl irom rhe chorce oI main arma- Weights: empty 37000 kq (B 1,570 1b),
in the centre, and the engine and ment and flre-control systems) in- loaded 39000 kq (85,979 ]b)
transmlssion at the rear, The 12 cylin- cludes an NBC system, a flre detection Powerplant: one 2-cyhnder diesel

der turbocharged diesel is coupled to and suppression system a land developing 1,000 hp (745 kW)
a fully automatrc transmission with four navigatron system, a laser detector and Dimensions: length, gmn forward Osorio is offered with a choice of
forward and two reverse gears indirect flre control equipment, 9,995 m (32 ft 9.5 in) and hull 7.08 m armament, either the proven British
The suspension is of the hydro- Usinq components of the EE-Tl Q3fr2.75 in); width3.26 m(10 ftB.3 in); 105-mm gunused allover theworld
pneumatic type and has been de- Osorro, ENGESA is now developing heisht 2.371 m (7 ft 9.3 in) or the F rench GI AT I 20-mm smooth-
signed by Dunlop of the UK. It has sx other variants includinq an armoured Performance: maximum road speed bore. The turrets for bothweapons
road wheeis with the drive sprocket al recovery vehicle, a bridgelayer, and 70 km/h (43,5 mph); maximum range were desigmed byVickers Defence
the rear and idler at the front; there are an anti-arrcraft qun vehicle, 550 km(342mrles); fordinsr 1.20 m(3 it Sy s tem s to ENG ESA's requiremen ts.
three track-return rollers.
Turret traverse rs electnc and con
trols are provided for both tank com-
mander and gunner. At present two
fire-control systems are available for
the EE-Tl Osorio. The firsr oprion is a
an jnlegrated hre control system rn
which the gunner has a day/niqht sight
with a laser rangefinder and the com
mander a day/night sight The second
frre-control option inciudes a stabrliza-
tion system for the main armament
allowing the gun to be fired against
movinq tarqets while the tank rtself is
moving across country, The tank com
mander has a roof-mounted SFIM sta-
brlized periscopic sight with a laser
rangeflnder while the gunner also has
an SFIM stabrhzed sight with laser
rangefinder, To enable targets to be
detected and engagred at night,
mounted on the turret roof is a Phi[ps
stabilized thermal camera which pro-
vides a TV picture on screens at the
commander's and gunner's posrtions

TheFVSO FamfllU
TheSwedish armyhas adopted a wlll share the same basic chassis and cci:=-::-
number of innovativeAFVs in the past, automotive components such as engine. :-s-
and is now evaluating a new family of mission, tracks, suspension and so on. This -r, --
vehicles which wiII sewe in a multitude not only help to reduce procu-rement cos=-c--
ofdifferent roles. Extensive use of also make for easier training and muc: r:-
existing automotive parts will minimize duced life cycle costs, which are beco::-:-g
unitcosts. ever more crrtical as pressure bui.:ds :::
Sweden's defence budget,
The Swedish army currently operates a fleet of Wherever possible standard commer::='
over 1,000 Pbv 302 armoured personnel car- automotive components, such as a diese. e:--
riers built by Hdgglund and S6ner between gine coupled to an automalic iransm-rssion are
1966 and 1971. In addition to the basic APC with being used in the FV90,
a turret-mounted 20-mm cannon, more special- The main improvements of the FV90 over'-ne
The basic Armoured Personnel Carrierversion of
ized versions include an artillery fire direction cwrent Pbv 302 can be summarized as drama the FVgA ts desigmated the Pbv L and carries eight
post vehicle, an armoured command post vehi- trc improvements in armour protection, mobil- fuW quipped inlantrymen and a crew of three
cle, and an armoured observation post vehicle. ity and firepower whrch wtl1 lead to greater (ammander. gtnner and driver).ltis armedwith
The Bqbv 82 armoured recovery vehlcle and survrvability on the battlefieldA11 of the series a25-mm cannon and can alsomountthe Bofors Bill
the Brobv 941 armoured bridgelayer also have virtually the same chassis and automolive topattackATGM.
share a number of common components with characteristics.
the Pbv 302, s::::..< -:e Scl'ret BMP-l mechanized infantry
When originally fielded, the Pbv 302 was an Pbv L armoured personnel carrier ccria: -,-ericle, and go through the sides and
excellent desrgn and had a number of adv- This is the basrc APC of the serles and will be rear c: NIBTs.
anced features not found on other armoured able to carry eight fully equipped infanlrymen The :urre: -wrll be fitted with a full range of
personnel carriers of thrs period, such as the plus a three-man crew consisting of comman- rugh:--,asicn equipment and two Bolors 7l-mm
British FV432 and the American MI13. der, qunner and driver, The maln armament (219-n) L1'ran lnortars which fire flares to pro-
Prototypes of a product improved version of will be a 25-mm rapid-flre cannon with much -ncie :arget i,llumination at night.
the Pbv 302 were bul]t, but in the end it was improved armour-penetrating capabilities On each side of the turret will be a bank of six
decided to develop a whole new family ofveht- over the present 20-mm cannon insialled in the elecirically-operated smoke-discharqers,
cles under the qeneral designation Stridsfor- Pbv 302. In addition a Bofors BILL top-attack These are '.ised to provide a smoke screen
don 90, or Fighting Vehicle 90 (fV90) wire-guided anti-tank missile can be fitted behind whrch the vehicle can withdraw. in
Before takrng the decision to develop the over the roof of the rear troop compartment to add-riion the dischargers can'also fire grenades
FV90, the Swedish army looked closely at other engage MBTs out to a range of 2000 m (2 187 to decoy and confuse anti-tank gutded
light vehrcles on the world market and evalu- yards), weapons,
ated a British Alvis Scorpion llght tank and an The rnfantry will be able to enter and leave
Alvis Stormer armoured personnel carrier, but the vehicle rapidly via twin doors in.the hull Supportvehicles
a decision was eventualiy made to push ahead rear, which will also have firing ports and vision l,owlevel alr defence of the Swedish army is
with FV90, blocks, No provision wrll be made for the infan- at present carried out by towed Bofors 40-mm
Prime contractor for the FV90 is HB Utveck- try to use their 5,56 mm (0.219-1n) rifles in the anti-aircraft guns and Bofors RBS-70 surface-to-
ling AB based in Stockholm, a company formed sides ol the hull. arr missiles, the latter in both man-portable and
some years ago to undertake design and de- The Pbv G will have the same complement self-propelled configurations. But the threat
velopment of a new MBT for the Swedish army as the basic Pbv L but will be fitted with a from low-flying aircraft grows year by year,
and then an articulated tank destroyer armed two-man power-operated turret armed with an and the advent of the armed attack helicopter
with a 120-mm (4.72-in) Rheinmetal] smooth- automatic cannon and a 7,62-mm (0.3-rn) has added a new dimension to land warfare.
bore gnrn, The former was never built and the machine-gun. The Swedish army intends to counter this
latter was dropped after trials with a prototype. A number of main armament types are under threat with a mix of guns and missiles, wlth the
HB Utveckling is only a small company with consideration, includrng the Bofors 40-mm L 70 Lvkv A'2 system playing a key role. The vehicle
less than l0 staff and has two main subcontrac- and a 60-mm (2 36-in) hrgh-velocity weapon wril be virtually identrcal to the previous ver-
tors: AB Bofors which built all of the S-tanks for from Israel Military Industries, The former is sion (havrng the same hull, turret and arma-
the Swedish army, and Hdgglund and Soner based on the well known anti-aircraft gun and, ment) but will be optrmized for the air-defence
which have extensive experience in buildtng in addition to the normal range of ammunitton,
llght tracked vehicles. fires a specially developed APFSDS (Armour-
At present it is envisaged that there wi]l be at Piercing Frn-Stabihzed Discarding-Sabot) pro-
least seven members of the FV90, all of which jectile which will easily penetrate vehicles

TheW90 in action: infantry dismountfrom thePbvLAPC. Fittedwith atwo-man power-operated turret,

thePbvG can carry achoice of weapons, includinga 60-mm high-velocitygun developed by Israel
Military Industries or theubiquitousBofors 40-mmL/70 gun, firing aspecially developed APFSDS
projectile which wilL penetrate the sjde and rear armour of most main battle tanks and sftool a ny other
APC topieces.

..:': :l*I:i.,:..

:fi::r,ii:.ii. ,:ir:
r"!il,!:1i l ti '
The New Generation of Fighting Vehicles

role, Mounted on the turret rear will be a Swed- An armoured recovery version of the FVSO tion of the crew from small arms fire and shell
ish Ericsson 3D radar designed to detect air- family is planned, as armoured vehicles often splinters, and the ability to carry more ready-
craft and hovering helicopters, the latter being break down, get stuck in rough terrain, or are use rounds.
notably difficult to pick up. Thrs radar was de- disabled by enemy action, Whatever the In addition to the normal hrgh explosive and
veloped several years ago and has been suc- cause, such disabled vehicles have to be re- smoke bombs, the 120-mm mortar will prob-
cessfuily tested on the ARMAD model of the turned to their unlts as soon as possibie, ably fire the new FFV Strlx gmided mortar pro-
Bofors RBS-70. Mounted at the front ol thrs version, called jectile which has been designed to attack the
The 40-mm Bofors gun can fire a variety of the Bgbv, rs a hydraulically-operated blade vulnerable upper surfaces of tanks and other
ammuniiion including pre-formed high expio- which can be used to stabilize the vehicle dur- armoured vehicles.
slve, high capacity hrgh explosrve, high explo- ing liftlng or recovery operatrons, or used as a
sive tracer, armour-piercing capped tracer, dozer blade to ciear away battlefield obstacles First prototypes in 1988
the new armour-piercing fin-stabilized dis- or to prepare fire positions, Other equipment By using proven components, the normal l0-
cardrng-sabot round, and target practice trac- will include a winch to recover damaged and year development progtramme has been con-
er, The first of these (pre-formed high explo- disabled vehicles, and a hydraulic crane for siderably shortened and hopefully this w111
sive, with a proximity fuse) wouid normally be changing complete powerpacks (engrine, lead Lo significant cost savings.
used rn the air-defence role. transmissison and cooling system) and other In the summer of 1985 the Swedrsh army
TVro command and control vehicles are in- components. placed an order for five prototypes of FV9O,
cluded in the series; the Stripv armoured com- and the first of these is expected to be com-
mand post, whlch will be fitted with extensive Mortar carrier pleted in 1988 The five prototypes will consist
communicatio4s equrpment, and the Epbv At present the BI-mm (3 2-in) and 120-mm of one each of the anti-aircraft/antrhelicopter
armoured obse{vation post, which wili be the (4.72 in) mortars used by the Swedish army are vehicle, the armoured infantry fightlng vehrcle,
eyes and ears of towed and self propelled artrl- not mounted in armoured vehicies: the former the armoured personnel carrier, the recovery
Iery unirs. To catry out its mrssion it will have is carried disassembled and the latter on a vehicle and the mortar carrrer, If trials of these
communications pquipment and sensors sirch two-wheeled carriage towed behind a truck, are successful, the first production vehicles
as a laser rangeflhder, i The installation of a l20-mm on an armoured could be delivered to the Swedish army in
i!1'r chassis offers a number of advantages, lnclud- 1992. For both the development and produc-
1i ing faster into- and out-of-actton times, protec- tion phases, Hdgglund and Soner will buiid the
chassrs whlle Bofors will be responsible for the
complete turret and weapon system,
1 Once fielded, the FV90 will provide a well
\ balanced family of light tracked vehicles which
1 should meet the Swedish army's unique re-
quirements for many years to come,



/\ e
\1.." ..E

d#;].', ,:r:l

#'{ ..,

t tuo" 63 lisrht tank
After the end of World War II the USSR The turret and hull are of welded
supplied China with a significant steel constructron with a maxlmum
amount of military equipment includ- thickress of 14 mm (0.55 in), which is
rng T-54 MBTs and PT-76 light ampht- sufficient to provide protection against
brous tanks, Further development of small arms flre and shell splinters only,
the latter by China resulted rn the Type if the armour was any thicker then the
63 liqht tank, whjch has been tn service vehrcle would require a flotation
with the Chinese army for many years screen to be amphtbious.
and has seen combat in the hands not Suspension is ofthe torsion bar type,
only of the Chinese army but also of the and consists of six large rubber{yred
Pakistani army (against India) and of road wheels with the idler at the front
the North Vletnamese army (against and drive sprocket at rear; there are
South Vietnam). no track-return rollers,
In many respects the Type 63 has a In the Chinese army four Type 63
number of signiflcant improvements light tanks can be found in the recon-
over the origdnal Soviet PT-76, includ- naissance platoon of each armoured
inq a four-man crew, increased fire- regiment, while there are l0 in the re-
power and (as it has a more powerful connaissance company of each
enqine) a greater power-to-weight armoured divrsion, The vehicle is also
ratro which gives much improved road in servrce with Pakistan. Sudan, Tanza-
and water speeds. nia and Vietnam, and is now beingr
The hu1l ofthe Tlpe 63 is, like that of offered for sale to other countries,
the PT-76, very large to allow the vehi-
cle to float wrthout any preparation Specification
apart from erectrng the trim vane at the Type 63
front of the hull and switchrng on the Crew:4
bilge pumps. The TYpe 63 is propelled Weights: empty 16700 kg (36,8i6 lb);
in the water at a maximum speed of loaded 18700 kg(41,226 lb)
12 km/h (7.5 mph) by two water jets Powerplant: one Type 12150-L 12-
mounted at the rear of the vehicle. cy[nder diesel developing 400 hp
Main armament compises an 85- (299 kw)
mm (3.34-rn) gun which fires a variety Dimensions: length, qn-rn forward
of ammuni ion tncluding armour-pterc-
I 8,437 m(27 ft 8,2 in) and hull 7. 125 m
ing HE, HE, HEAT and smoke; 47 (23 ft 4,5 in); wtdth3.20 m (i0 ft 6 in);
rounds of ammunition are carrted, A height without machine-gun 2. 522 m Above : The Type 6 3 amphibious light Below:TheWpe 63 needs only to
7.62-mm (0.3-in) machine-gun (for (B ft 3.3 in) tankwas one of the tirst AFVs to be erect its trim vane and switch on the
which 1,000 rounds are carried) is Performance: maximum road speed produced by China. Sharing many bilgepumps before entering the
mounted co-axial with lhe main arma- 64 kn/h (40 mph); range 370 km (230 components with the Type 77 has a more powertul engine
ment, and a l2.7-mm (0,5-in) machine- miles); fording amphibious; vertical armoured personnel carrier, it is a than the PT-76, which gives it
gnrn (for which 500 rounds are carried) obstacte 0.87 ?n (2 ft 10 in); trench 2,9 m development of the Soviet PT-76 and nd ing ly fas ter speeds bo f/t
c o r r e s po
is mounted on the turret roof for anti- (9 ft 6 rn); gradient 60 per cent; side ftasseen acfion in Vietnam and on land and in the water.
arcraft defence. slope 30 per cent Pakistan.

t iifVfp-Z mechanized infantry combat vehicle

The BMP-2 mechanized infantrY therefore had poor observation to the first-qeneration'Saqqer' mrssiie ment.
lightlng vehicle is a further develop- riqht side of the vehicle. In the BMP-2 needed a well-trained qunner to en- Mounted on the turret roof is an AT-4
ment of the BMP-I and was flrst the commander now sits in the much sure a flrst-round hit, 'Spigot' anti-tank gurded weapon,
observed in pubhc dulng a Parade enlarged turret alongside the gunner, These major disadvantages have which has a maximum range of 20OO m
and has excellent all-round battlefield been overcome in the BMP-2, as the (2, 187 yards) and is fitted wrth a HEAT'
held in Red Square, Moscow, late in
1982, although it entered service with obsewation. armament now compnses a 30-mm warhead. A11 the operator has to do to
the Soviet army several years before The BMP-] is armed with a 73-mm rapid-fire automatic cannon which can ensure a hir is to keep I ne crosswires of
that. Since then it has also been (2.87-in) weapon that flres a fin-stabil- be elevated to +74" so enabling it to his sight on the target. (On the earlter
observed in sewice with the Czech ized HEAT (Hiqh Explosive Anti-Tank) be used against low-flying aircraft and AT-3 'Sagger' he had to operate a small
or HE-FRAG (Hiqh Explosive FraQt- helicopters, The gunner can select joystick,)
The basic chassts of the BMP-2 ts mentation) round, with a 7.62-mm (0 3- either sinqle shots or one oftwo rates of In addL ron to able lo lnlec'
very srmrlar to that of the original BMP in) co-axral machine-gun, and with a automatic fire (2OOl300 or 500 rounds diesel fuel into the exhaust to lay lts
1 which entered service with the 'saqqer' wtre-guided anti-tank per mrnute) and 500 rounds of HE-T own smoke screen the BMP-2 has a
Soviet army rn the early 1960s, but has weapon mounted above the main -
(High Explosive Tracer) and AP-T oank ol .hree elec.lcalty_ooeratel
a new turrel and drfferenl crew posi' armament. The 73-mm gnrn suffered (Armour-Piercing -Tracer) are car smoke-dischargers mounted on eacl--
srde of the turret towards the rea:
tions. On the BMP-] the commander from a number of drawbacks and ts ned. A 7,62 mm PKT machtne-gun is
was seated behind the driver and ineffective in high winds, while the mounleo co-axial with the main arma- More recent BMP-2s have aPPiiqr-:

BMP-2 mechanized infantry combat vehicle (continued)

armour on their turret sides,

Seven fully-equrpped infantrymen
are carried, compared with eight in
the earher vehicler one man is seated
to the rear of the commander, and the
other six in the troop compartment at
the rear facing outwards, each beingt
provided with a flring port with an
obsewation periscope above.
Like the BMP-], the BMP-2 is fully
amphibrous, beinq propelled in the
water by its tracks. Before entering the
water a trim vane is erected at the front
of the vehicle and the bilge pumps are
switched on.

BMP-2 width3.09 m(10 ft 1.7 in); heisht2 06 m Ahove:The BMP-2 is a newversion of B elow : Like most S oviet AFVs, the
Crew:3+7 (6 ft 9 in) the BMP Mechanized Infantry BMP-2 is able to lay a smokescreen
Weight: Ioaded 14600 kg (32,187 lb) Performance: maximum road speed CombatVehicle, and substitutes a by injecting diesel fuel dfuectly into
Powerplant: believed to be one Type 60 kdh (37.3 mph); range 5OO hn (31 I 30-mm cannon for the 73-mm smooth the exhaust, but it also carries a bank
5D20 turbocharged 6-cylinder water- miles); fording amphibious; vertical bore grun of the first model. It also of e le ctrically oper ated smo ke
cooled diesel developing 350 hp obstacle0.T m(2 ft3 in); trench2,O m carries AT-4'S pigot' ATGM s in place dischargers on the turret sides.
(261kW) (6 it 7 rn); gradient 60 per cent; side of outdated AT -3',Sagger'mrssfles. Some BMP-2s have been sporting
Dimensions: Iength6,7l m (22 ft0.2 in); slope 30 per cent appliqu6 armour on their sides.

L ['jze main battle tank

For many years there has been much to the basic gmn tank there is a verslon, - Fin-Stabilized), HE-FRAG (FS) (Hish mand vehicle, another firing the 'Cob-
confusion in the West as to exactly the T-648, that fires a 'Cobra' quided Explosive-Fragmentaion Fln-Stabil- ra' anti-tank missile and the BREM-I
which main battle tanks the USSR has missile in the long-ranqe anti{ank role. ized). A 7,62-mm (0,3-in) machine-gnrn armoured recovery vehicle.
produced in quantrty rn recent years. The T-72 MBT entered productton is mounted co-axial with the main
This problem has been compounded in and Ln 1986 was being pro
1971, armament, and a Trmm (0,S-in)
12 Specification
by the fact that different countries give duced in at least three plants in the machine-gn-rn rs mounted on the com- T-72
different designatrons to the same USSR as well as in Czechoslovakia and mander's cupola. Like other Soviet Crew:3
vehicle. Poland, Production of modifled ver- armoured vehicles, the T-72 can lay its Weishts: empty 39000 kq (85,979 Ib);
From recenr information it appears sions is also berng undertaken in Indra own smoke screen by injecting diesel loaded41000 ks (90,388 ib)
that the USSR has mass produced two and Yugoslavia, fuel rnto the exhaust, Powerplant: one V-12 diesel
MBTs in the last 15 years, The T-64 The T-72 and its later varlants have Since the T-72 flrst appeared a num- developins 780 hp (582 kW)
entered production in 1967 and re- now been identfied in service with ber of improvements have been car- Dimensions: length, gnrn forward
mained rn productron until 1981. This Algeria, Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslova- ried out, includrnq the installation of a 9.24 m (30 ft 3.8 in) and hull 6.95 m (22 ft
was built in fairly large numbers, but so kra, East Germany, Hungary, India, laser rangefinder, additional armour 9,6 in); widthwithoutskirts3.60 m(1I ft
far has been identified in service only Iraq, Libya, Poland, Romania, Syria, protection, smoke grenade launchers 9,7 in); height with machrne-gn-rn2.37 m
with the Soviet army The basic tank the USSR and Yugoslavia. Finland is on each side of the turret and so on. (7 ft 9,3 in)
has the same armament as the later expected to take delivery of its vehi- The late production T-72 is known as Performance: maxrmum road speed
T-72 and is fed by an automatic loader, cles in the near future. the T-74 in the USSR, although the USA 60 l<n/h (37 mph); range 480 km (298
so enabling the crew to be reduced to The 125-mm (4,92'in) qnrn is fed by calls rt the T-80, miles); fording 1.4 m (4 ft 7 in); vertical
just three men (commander, gunner an automatic loader which flrst inserts The area ofgreatest confusion on the obstacle 0,BS m (2 ft 10 in); trench 2.8 m
and driver). From most reports there the projectile and then the charge into T-ZUT-74 is its armour, It is assumed (9 ft 2 in); qrradient 60 per cent; side
were many problems with the T-64 the breech, Three types of ammunition that the hull front is of a laminate slope 40 per cent
once it reached the troops, especially are carried: APDSDS (Armour-Pierc- armour, but it is believed that the turret
with the engdne transmission, suspen- ing Fin-Stabilized Discarding-Sabot), is of conventional armour,
sion and automatic loader. In addition HEAT FS (Hiqh Explosive Anti-Tank Variants of the T-72 include a com-

The T-72 in Action
TheT-72 has beenin servicewith the
Soviet army for I 5 years, but many
important details of its construction
remain obscure to Western analysts.
Even if one is captured, perhaps during
the nextwar in the Middle East, there is
no guarantee the mystery will end.
Although Ihe T-72 MBT entered service with
the Soviet army as far back as I971 there is still
a shroud of mystery surrounding many aspects
of the vehicle and rts numerous variants.
As far as it is known no example of the T-72
has yet fallen into Western or Israeli hands to
enable a detailed technical examination of the
vehicle to be carried out.
In addition to berng rn service with the War- vehicle, such as well sloped frontal armour, Withits automatic loader and laser rangefinder,
saw Pact it has also been identifled as being in and by installation of spaced armour which theT-72 underminedNATO's cosy belief in the
detonates the HEAT warhead away from the qualitative superiority of its armour. The T-72 was
service with Algeria, Cuba, lndia, lraq, Libya, probably already in sewice by 1975 but more
Syria and Yugoslavia. As well as being pro main armour of the tank, The effects of HEAT details have only just emerged. It is widely
duced at three plants rn the USSR, the T 72 is warhead can be eliminated by the installation assumed that exported T-72s are not as advanced
also produced under licence in Czechoslova- of reactive armour or advanced composite as thoseused by the RedArmy.
kra, Poland, India and Yugoslavia, (lamrnate) armour such as that known to be
In the past vehicles of Soviet destgn which employed over the frontal hui] and turrets of T-72 and rts unique automatic loader have been
have been produced for the export market modern Western tanks, for example, the Chal- described in some detaii in Soviet miiitary pub-
have often been less sophisticated in key areas lenger, Leopard 2 and Ml/MlAl, lications, although detarls of the crucial fire-
(for example armour protection and fire con- Reactive armour (such as the lsraeli Blazer) control system required to obtain a first round
trol) and those used by members of the War can be installed on existing tanks (for example hit are strll lackrng,
saw Pact, many Israeli M48, M60 and Centurion series First models of the T-62 had an optical
While detailed specifications of the T 72 vehicles) but thrs can provide protectron only rangefinder but latest production models are
such as weight, performance and dimensions against HEAT attack, not ktnetic-energy believed to have a laser rangefinder which ts
are accurately known, the one area of concern rounds such as APDS (Armour-Pierctng Dis- lar more accurate, especially at longter ranges,
to NATO is the thrckness and type of armour carding-Saboi) or APFSDS (Armour-Piercing First vehicles were fitted wrth infra-red
fitted to the vehrcle, This information is of cru- Irtn-Stabilized Discardrng-Sabot). Laminate night-vision equipment but it can be assumed
cial importance to the designers of ammunition armour provides protection agatnst both HEAT that passive or perhaps thermal night-vision
and anti-tank gurded weapons in order that and APDS/APFSDS attack over the vulnerable equipment will soon be introduced to enhance
they can design weapons to defeat this armour, frontal area. the combat capabilrty of the T-72. The intro-
Throughout the 1960s and I970s no tank in The development of these new armours has duction of thermai qunnery equipment would
the world was safe from penetration from anti- led to the development of new and more enable the T-72 to engage targets not only by
tank gnrided weapons frtted wrth a HEAT (Hiqh poweriul HEAT warheads for Western Mtlan, night but also in poor weather conditions, and
Explosive Anti-Tank) warheadr the Euromis- HOT and TOW anti-tank gurded missiles, but even to see through trees and bushes,
sile Mi1an, for example, can penetrate some as no known examples of T 72s have been The latest version of the T-72, called the T-74
700 mm (27 56 ln) of armour, captured the efiectiveness of these missiles ls in Europe but T-80 in the USA, has a modified
The elfect of HEAT warheads, which are still an unknown factor, Even il for example, a flre-control system as well as a number of other
fitted to every type of anti{ank gurded missile T-72 was captured in the Middle East and ex- improvements including forward-firing smoke-
in service in the world today and are fitted to amined in detail by Western lntel1igence, dischargers, lmproved armour and more ex
some anti-tank rounds fired by tank gnrns instal- there is no guarantee that this would have the ternal stowage.
led in MBTs such as the T-72, T 62 T-55 M] same iype of armour as T-72s used by the The T-72 was preceded by the T-64. Thts has
Ireopard 2, Leopard I and so on, can be signr Warsaw Pact, been identified rn service only with the Soviet
ficantly downgraded by careful design of the Detarls of the 125-mm (4 92-1n) gun of the army, and has never been deployed outsrde
the Warsaw Pact, Although the tank entered
service almost 20 years ago, it is still very much
a mystery vehicle and has never appeared on
any oi the parades held rn Red Square, Mos
Unreliability in service
Like the T-72, the T-64 has a 125-mm smooth-
bore gun fed by an automatic loader, but it has
not proved to be a very reliable tank in service
and there have been many reports of problems
wrth the engine, transmission and suspension
In addition to the basic T-64 MBT there was
also the T'64B which althoush similar in
appearance to the T-64,\, frred Cobra anti-tank
guided missiles from its gun tube in addition to
the normal types of ammunition.
It is assumed that the T-648 fulfi]led a similar
role to that of the US M60A2 MBT, now with-
drawn lrom service. This was armed with a
152-mm (6-in) weapon which could fire either
the Shrllelagh gurded missile or conventional
The T-72's turret is smaller and lower than that of
the T-62 because it has to fit only twomen, the tank
commander and thegunner.The glacis slopeis
noticeably morE pronounced and, even if the
Soviets have not developed an effective composite
armout, this will improve protection.
The New Generation of Fighting Vehicles

round with a combustible cartridge case. The

object of the M60A2 was to give long-range fire
support to the M60 and M60A1 ianks armed
with the standard I05-mm (4 I3-rn) rifled tank
guns, The main drawbacks of the Shillelagh
weapon system, which rn a slightly different
form was also fltted to the M55i Sherrdan light
tank, were its slow rate of fire, and the exces-
sive amount of trainingt and maintenance re-
qurred to keep the system effective.
The slow rate of flre of the Shillelagh mlssile
was caused by the fact that the gunner had to
keep hrs sights on the target until the missile
impacted, The launcher could then be re-
loaded and another target engaqed,
Recent combat expenence has shown that
the vast majority of tank engagements ln any
future conflict wiil take place at very short
ranges, olten less than I00O m (1 094 yards),
The raprd urbanization of Western Europe has
meant that in many parts of West Germany it
will be rmpossrble to engage tanks beyond this
range because ofobstructions. For this reason
it rs difficult to see why the T-648 was flelded,
unless it was simply a response to the introduc-
tion of the US M60A2 Some sources state that
the new Soviet MBT is fitted with a similar
weapon to the T-648, but perhaps with a fire- than those accomplished by normal lirst eche- The T-72 has a dozer blade under its nose for
and-forget capability which would make it a lon unrts, clearing obstacles and preparing fire positions.
much more effective weapon as well as having Airborne or air assault units would be used to This EastGermanT-72 is carryingKMT-| mine-
a higher rate of fire, knock out allied airfields, communicaltons cen clearing equipment.
tres, tactical nuclear weapon storagre and flring
Soviet divisions strengrthened posrtions, fuel and ammunition dumps, stock- assets (to overcome ooslacles such as rivers
Not only has the USSR tntroduced new piles or reserve vehicles and so on, Ports and and anti{ank defences), attack helicopters and
armoured flghting vehicles such as lhe T-72 airfields allocated lor use by US reinforcement massive air support. Marntenance and repair of
MBT BMP-2 mechanized infantry combat units would also be priortty targets as these damaged and disabled vehrcles would also
vehicle, new mobile arr-defence systems (gun play a vrtal role rn NATO's defensive pians, have high priority.
and mrssile) and a whole range of self-pro- Sovret Spetsnaz special forces, the equivalent The OMG may operate on one axis or be
pelled gmns and howilzers, but the number of of the Bntrsh Specral Air Service (SAS), whose split into two complete units and is designed to
tanks in the tank divisron has been lncreased to strength rs beheved to consist of 16 brigades punch through any weak point in the allied
no less than 328 and in the motorized rifle divi- each with three regiments, would also be used defence found by the flrst echelon,
sion to 220. well behrnd NATO lines and on the flanks of Once through alhed first hne defences the
Towed gnrns and howitzers in the divtsions NATO OMG, which would be fresh and have no losses
have grven way to self-propelled weapons Thrs would force NATO commanders to take of men or equrpment, would have a number of
which not only have greater cross-country away front line units or use essential reserve missrons; for example, stopping allied rern-
mobilrty, so enabling them to keep up wlth units to police the rear areas, Some NATO forcements reaching the front line preventing
mechanized units, but which can also operate countries, such as West Germany and the UK, the retreat to new positions by alired units, and
in an NBC environment and have higher rates have already allocated reserve units just to seizing key objectives such as rrver crossing
of fire, defend key rear areas. points and intersectrons of major rail or road
Since well before World War II Soviet tactics communication systems.
have emphasized offensive operattons at all Operational Manoeuvre Group The OMG would be under the personal con-
times, with defensive tactics used only as a One of the latest Soviei concepts, although its trol of the Front commander at all times, and
preliminary to a resumed offensive, origins can be traced back to World War II, rs once committed would have fairly deflned
Types of Soviet offensive action include the the Operational Manoeuvre Group (OMG). objectives
well-known meeting engagement, the break- The size of an OMG would depend on its The Soviet Front commander would still con-
rhrough attack and pursuir mission, but typically would consist of a tank or trol his normal units. A Soviet Front size de-
Over the last l5 or 20 years the Soviet army motorized rifle division with addrtional ele- pends on its missions and position but typrcally
has been placing increasing emphasis on milit- ments attached, not only to increase its fire- consists olthree or four combined-arms armies
ary operations that penetrate deep into enemy power (for example artillery and multiple rock- and one or two tank armies, plus many support-
territory, covering much greater distances eL launchers) but also have greater engineer rng brrgades, battalions and regiments,
The object of the OMG would be to pene-
trate as far into aihed territory and to cause as
much damage and confusion as possible, A
much larger force, perhaps consisting of an
army-size OMG, would foliow with the object of
penetrating deeper into the rear areas, so
causing the collapse of whoie allied units.
At present NATO hopes to slow down any
Warsaw Pact advance into its terrrtory and
channel enemy units into killing zones for
tanks, antrtank gurded weapons and artillery,
Nuclear weapons will only be used after the
NATO aihes have consulted wrth each other,
and this takes time, If the Warsaw Pact forces
Late production models of theT-72 are designated Possibly designedinparallelwith theT-72 by a had penetrated far rnto Western Germany, for
T-74 in the Soviet Union, but are called T-80 in the different design bureau, the T-64 has still not been example, and were actually amonq NATO un-
USA. They carry a laser rangefinder. exported. Production is believed to have finally its, then the use of nuclear weapons would be
ceased in 198 L rmpossible,

T-72 tf lggo/l
The New Generation of Fighting Vehicles


This improved model of the T-72 was first observed at a parade in Berlin in I98.1 , and it subsequently
appeaied at theNovember Parade inMoscow. EarlyT-72s had a pronounced hood infront of the
right-hand (commander's) cupola; the absence of this on the latest model indicates that optical
eiuipment'has been replaced by a laser rangefinder. The full details of the construction of the T-72 will
not be revealed until several ex6mples of the tank have been brought to theWest intact, for example after
SyrianT-72s have beenoverrun by the Israelis.However, the controversy might not end there, as the
Soviets often remove some of the more sensitive equipmentfrom tanks or aircraft which are intended for
export;these are referred to as'monkey models'inSoviet jargon. SovietT-72s ate l<nowntobeverywell
protected from nuclear contamination, carrying a skin layer of a lead-based foam; .this lining is not fitted
io exported T-72s. 1f rs aiso to be expected that the fire control sysfems and possrb ly the automatic
loaders are differcnt inSoviet and exportT-72s.
tI [iig-** M197s self-propelled sun
In the mrd-l97Os the Sovret almy 1n-
troduced a 203-mm (B-in) seli-prop-
elled Sowttzer whicr nas beon giren
the NATO designation MI975 rn the
usual absence of any offictai Sovlet de-
signation. The M1975 ts believed to be
employed at front level, and has the
distrnction of being the larqest
armoured vehicle tn servtce at the pre-
sent trme.
The fully enclosed armoured cab is
at the front of the vehicle with the en-
grne to the rear. The weapon ttsell is
mounted at the very rear of the hull,
and when travelling is held in posttion
by a lock above the cab rool Before
the weapon can be ftred a large hYd-
rautrcally-operated blade ts lowered
at the rear of the hull to provlde a more
stabie flrinqi platform and mounted on
the riqht stde of the chassis is a hyd-
raulic loading system to help lift the
heavy projectrles and charges rnto the
lt rs probable that a few rounds ol
ready use ammunitton are carried on
the actual vehrcle thouqth the main
supply of ammunitton and most of the Since the early I 970s the Soviets have been manufacturing an expanding - -
gun crew are carrted in another track- range of self-propelled artillery which now includes the massive M I 97 5 203-
ed and armoured supporting vehicle mm weapon, theworld's largestAFV.It is assumed to fire nuclear aswell as
Like the 2SS the M1975 suffers from conven tion a I am munition.
one major dtsadvantage there is no
protectlon for the qun crew when the years Specifi cation (provrsional)
vehicle is rn action Also introduced rn the mid-1970s M1975
No firm details of the tYpes of was a 240 mm (9.45-in) self-propelled Weiqhts: empty 37000 kq (8 1,570 lb);
ammunition fired by the M1975 are yet mortar whrch has also been called the toaded 40000 kq (BB 183 ]b)
available but rt is hkelY that the M1975 (this being the year it was first Powerplant: one dresel developtngt
weapon has both nuclear and conven- seen by Western rntelhqence) Lrke 450 hp (336 kW)
tronal capabilitres, and it rs qenerally the 203-mm M1975 self propelled gun, Dimensions: length, with gun 12.80 m
comparable to the American Mli0/ it has yet to make a pubiic appearance (42 ft 0 1n) and hull lO 50 m (34 ft 5 4 rn)
Mt l0A1/M1 10A2 self-propeiled howtt- and no frrm details are available. wrdth3 50 m(11 ft 5 B in); herght3 50 m
zers that have been in servtce for many (11ft5.Bin)

niWX-+O main battle tank

- -=,--<: West Germany, the UK and the
,S-:- irance has not develoPed a
.::::,d-greneration MBT such as the
-::!1ro 2. Challenger or Ml/MlAl.
:= s:andard French armY MBT is sttll
= i-1"'iX-30 whose desrqn can be
::::i back to the late 1950s. This ts
:, ,-. -:rnq moderntzed untrl the new
: r=:-:: army MBT, the so called Engrin
::,::,pal de Combat (recently re-
:-:::C rhe Futur Char or future tank)
=::ls production,that there would be a
3--i.T realized
:-l l:ap between the end of AMX-30
;::irctron and the beqinning of EPC Above : T he AMX - 40 carries laminate
:::iuction, so a decision was taken to armour over the hull front to give
::-id a new MBT speciftcallY for the impr ov ed pro tec tio n agains t H EAT
: '.trn market. ammunition. It carries its
]e first tank built was the so called ammunition in the turret bustle,
-:-lriX 32, which was based on the which, if penetrated, will explode
-:-1lX-30 but fitted with a IZA-mm (4,72- upwards and away from the crew
.:. lxr ner'r' armo*l. lmproveo hre compartment.
:.'rol system and some automol-ve
:rcrovements. Its crucial power-to- Right: The French army is still stuck
'.',-:lght ratio was beiow that of the with a firslgeneration tank, the
-..MX-30, however, and the AMX-32 AMX-30, and the promised'future
:as not been sold It is now offered only tank' is still a long way off. GIAT has
',';irh the standard 105-mm (4 13-in) gun developed a much-improved MBT
.s rnstalled in the AMX-30 for the export market, the AMX-40,
In unveiled the AMX-40
1983 GIAT which is armed with a I 20-mm
which rs a brand new desiqn and
lr.1BT. smooth-bore gun.
:as srqntflcant improvements over the
earher AMX-30 rn the three key areas whrch has a requtrement for new MBT
:i tank desLqn: armour mobrlrtY and wrth a L2O-mm gun.
:rrepower, The AMX 40 has been de The armout over the frontal part is of
s.gned speciflcally for the export mar- the lamlnate type and provides protec
kei and by early 1986 four prototypes tron agtainst HEAT (Hiqh Explostve
lad been completed and one of these Anti-Tank) rounds with a cahbre of up
ls beheved to have been tested tn the to i00 m (3 94 rn)
Mrddle East. The AMX-40 has also The layout of the AMX-40 rs simtlar
ceen offered to the Spanrsh armY to that oi other French IilBTs, with the
AMX-40 main battle tank (continued) The New Generation of Fighting Vehicles
iriver at the front left, the turret tn the armament is a 20-rrr.:-::.::. ::' r=:l-
3entre (with the commander and gun- ing wrLh hghtly "rn:;l=j -..!;"':
rer on the right and the loader on the whrle mou,rted or. ::e ::r:_r.-,*,i+ls
-eft t and lhe englne and transmission ar cupola is a 7.e2-mm r,-:a--:._t_+-l jt.
Lhe rear, which can be aLmed and ired lrom
The AMX-40 is powered by a within the saJety cf the tank.
Poyaud diesel engrine which gives a The integrated fire-control sysiem
power{o-weight ratio of around 25 hp includes a laser rangeflnder and low-
(18 6 kW) per tonne, a very significant light-level TV wrth screens at both the
lmprovement over current French commander's and gt:nner's posirions.
MBTs, The engrine is coupled to a West The commander also has a roof-
German ZF automatic transmtssion for mounted SFIM stabrhzed sight, which
ease of handling and reduced driver enables hrm to aim and fire the main
fatique, armament,
The main armament compnses a
120-mm smoothbore gun which flres Specification
ammunition wtth combustible car- AI\D(-40
tridge case. Ammunition stowed in the Crew:4
turret bustle is separated from the Weights: empty 4lOOO kq (90,388 lb); herghroverail 3 0B m(lO ft 1.3 in) Although heavier than the AM X- 30,
crew compartment by bulkheads and loaded 43000 kq (9a,798 lb) Performance: maximum road speed the AMX-40 is still a very agile MBT
if a round penetrates the turret bustle Powerplant: one Poyaud 2-cylinder
1 TAknt/h(44 mph); range 600 km (323 thanks to its Poyaud diesel engine,
the force of the exploding ammunition diesel developing 1, 100 hp (820 kW) m'les;;lordrng t.30 m(4 ft3 rnJ which gives a power-to-weightrctio
rs vented upward rather than into the Dimensions: length, gmn forward verlrcaiobstacle I m (6 fl 7 tn): trench of I 8.6 kW per tonne. Its automatic
crew compartment. 10,04 m (32 ft I 1.3 in) and hull 6.80 m 3 20 m I 1O tt 6 in;: graoienr TOpercenl; transmission reduces driver fatigue.
Mounted co-axrally with the main (22ft3.7 in); width3 36 m (11 ft 0 3 in); side slope 30 per cent

fE iint VBL scout car

Some years ago the"ra
French army The Panhard light armoured vehicle
rssued a requirement for a small, light is designed as a reconnaissance
and fast armoured vehicle whrch scout car and anti-tank guided
would be able to carry out two basic weapons platform carrying M ilan
roles on the battlefleldt antr-tank mt'ssiJes. /lrsfully amphibious and is
armed with the Euromissile Milan anti fitted with an NBC system and
rark quided weapon and reconnarss- combattyres.
ance/scout armed with machine-guns,
Five manufacturers submrtted designs
for this competition, and Panhard and
Renault were each awarded a contract
to deliver three prototypes for trials
with the French army.
Followinqr these trials the Panhard
VBL (Vehicule Blinde Leger) was
accepted for sewice althouqh no im-
mediate productlon order was placed
because of a shortage of funding The
total French army requirement is for a
total of3,00O vehicles (1,000 in the anti-
tank role and the remaining 2,000 rn the
scouVreconnaissance role),
Panhard was convinced that its de-
sign would win the French army com-
petition so it built additional pro-
totypes with its own funds and
embarked on an lntenslve overseas
marketinq drive whrch invotved the
despatch of vehicles to many parts of
the world. This marketing effort was tronal with the enqine and transmrs-
successfui to the extent that Mexico sion at the front, the driver and com-
placed an order for 40 VBLs in 1984, an mander in the centre, and space for a
these had all been dehvered bv late third man weapons or other special-
1985 Of these 40 vehrcles, 32 were ized equipment tn the rear. Bulletproof
armed with machrne-guns and the re- wrndows (providing the same degree
maining eight wrth Mrlan anti-tank of protection as the hull) are provrded
guided weapons for all crew meml-rers and standard
The hull of the Panhard VBL is of equipment on French army vehicles
all welded steel armour and nrovides will include an NBC system, heater
the crew with protection from small and communicatrons equrpment. The
arms fire and shell splinters. The small combat tyres allow the VBL to travel a
size and rapid acceleration ofthe vehr- distance of 50 km (31 mph) at a speed
cle also increases its survivabilitv on of 30km/h (l9mph) after they have Panhard is already proposinq a The Panhard VBL has a propeller at
the battlefield. been damagoi by enemy nre. wide range of varrants of the VBL in the rear of the hull and needs little
To reduce both initial procurement The vehicie is fully amphibious with cludrng a police/internal security ver- preparation to enter the water. Many
costs and life cycle costs, proven com- very little preparation, and is moved in sron. a ba'tlefieid model va- proven commef cial automative parts
mercial automotlve parts have been the water by a propeller at the rear of rious surveillance or air-defence are usedin the VBL, including the
used in the design of the VBL: for ex- the hull. radars, and an AA vehicle armed with engine from the Peugeot 505 civilian
ample, the diesel engine is from the The anti-tank model has a three-man surface-to-air mpsiles. car.
Peugreot 505 and 605 civilian cars and crew and rs armed with a Milan anti-
the Peugeot P4 4x4 light vehicle tank guided missile launcher with sx Specification
already entering service with the missiles and a 7,62-mm (0.3-in) VBt Dimensions: lenqrth3,82 m (12 ft6.4 in);
French army in significant numbers as machine-gun with 3,000 rounds of Crew: 2 or 3 width2.02 m(6 ft7,5 rn); heightwithout
the replacement for the Hotchkiss ammunition. The scout model normally Weights: empty 2850 kg (6,283 1b), weapons 1,70 m (5 ft 6 9 in)
M20l jeep, while the West German ZF has addLt-onal commLnrcar ions equ'p Ioaded 3550 ks (7,826 lb) Performance: maximum road speed
fully automatic transmission is used in ment, a two-man crew and armament Powerplant: one Peugeot XD 3T 4, 100 km/h (62 mph); ranse 1000 km (621
many civrlian cars. comprising a 7 62 mm or 12.7-mm (0 5- cylinder turbochargred diesel miles); fording amphibious; gradrent
The layout ol lhe vehrcle is conven in) machine-gun. developing 105 hp (78 kW) 5O per cent; side slope 30 per cent

fl iint
Sagaie 2 armoured car
In 1977 Panhard unverled its prrvate-
venture ranqe of 6 x 6 armoured vehr
cles, which included a family of
armoured cars and a complete family
of armoured personnel carrters all us-
ing identic.ql automotive components
with obvious trainrng, logistical and
cosr advantages ro lhe lser
The armoured car family was com-
monly known as the Engin de Recon-
narssance Cannon (ERC) and included
the ERC 90 F4 Sagaie 1, ERC 90 Fl
Lyrx, ERC 60/20 Serval, ERC 20 Krlss,
and ERC 60/12 Mangouste, These
were originally developed speciflcally
for the export market, but the Sagaie 1
was subsequently adopted by the
French army
The Sagaie I is fltted with a two-man
GIAT turet armed with a 9O-mm (3,54-
in) gmn frring a range of ammunition
including APFSDS (Armour-Pierctng
Fin-Stabilized Discardinq-Sabot).
in l9BS Panhard announced that it
had developed the Saqaie 2 armoured
car and that one overseas country had
already piaced an order for the vehi-
cle The Sagare 2 has a slightly longter
and wider hull, and instead of the 90- The Saqaie 1 and 2 have full 6x6 Panhard's private venture range of 6x6 armoured cars has attracted a
mm GIAT TS-90 turret it is fitted with drive with powered steering on the number ofexport orders as well as interest from the French army. The ERC 90
the SMM TTB-1900 turret, which has front road wheels only. An unusual fea- ftas seen actjon in Chad's interminable civilwar, and now equips part of the
the same gnrn as the TS-90 turret, The ture is that when travelitngT on roads French rapid deployment force.
SAMM turret has much improved the centre wheels can be rarsed clear
armour protection, however, and is of the eround, so reducing resrstance
available with a wide range of turet and saving wear on the tyres The
controls, fire-control systems and wheels are normally Iowered for
optical devices TVro types of ammuni- cross-country use,
tion stowage are available, one having As with most armoured vehicles to-
35 rounds of 90 mm ammunition of day a wide range of optional equiP-
which 13 are ready for immediate use, ment can be installed, including a NBC
and the other 32 rounds ofwhtch l0 are system, a heater or air conditiontng
for ready use. system, night vrsion equipment for the
The original Panhard Sagare I was commander, gunner and driver, and a
powered by a single Peugeot V 6 pet- land navlqatron system.
ro1 engine developinq 155 hp
(116 kW), but the Saqaie 2 is powered Specification
by two Peuqeot XD 3T 4-cylinder tur- Crew:3
bocharqed diesels which deveiop a Weights:loaded 10000 kq (22,046 ]b)
'otalof t96 hp (146 kW); these engines Powerplant:two Peugeot XD 3T 4 2.30 m (7 ft 6.6 rn) The S agaie 2 was unveiled in I 9 I 5
are also used in the Panhard VBL 4x4 cylinder diesels developing a total of Performance: maximum road speed and has been ordered by an as yet
light armoured vehicle, As an alterna- 196 hp ( 146 kW), or two Peuqeot 6- 100 km/h (62 mph); maximum road undisclosed country. I t has a new
tive.the Sagaie 2 can be powered by cylinder petrol engines developing a range 600 km (373 km); fordrng 1.2 m turret and better armour protection,
two V-6 petrol enqines developing a totalof 290 hp(216 kW) (3 ft I I in); vertical obstacle 0.8 m (2 ft and is offered with a wide range of
total of 290 hp (216 kW) which qives an Dimensions: length, gun forward 7,5 in); trench0,B m(2 ft7.5 in); fire control systems and optical
exceptionally high power-to-werght 7.97 m(26 ft LB 1n) and hu1l 5.57 m (19 ft grradient 50 per cent; srde slope 30 per devices-
tal;o. 3.3 in); width 2.70 m (B ft i0,3 in); heiqht cent

G w#:;i air-portable armoured vehicle

Today the West German armY has one
three-brigade airborne dlvision, and
this uses the Faun Kraka 4x2 light
cross-country vehicle for a wide range
of roles including the carriage of TOW
and Milan anti-tank gnrided weapons
Many years ago the West German
army issued a requirement for a new
light armoured tracked vehicle for use
by the arrborne brigades, and Porsche
was subsequently awarded a develop-
ment contract. After prototypes had
been built and tested, the whole pro-
ject was shelved as the West German
mimstry of defence found that it could
not fund all of lts projects.
More recently thrs Wiesel has been
tested by the US ArmY, while in 1984

T he W ies el w ill pr ovid e W e s t

German paratroops with the sort of
mobilefiresupport the ASU light
tanks provide for the Soviet airborne
forces.Twomodels are planned: one
with a20-mm canon, seen here, and
another mounting TOW anti-tank

Wiesel air-portable armowed vehicle (continued) The New Generation of Fighting Vehicles
:he West German army annourceci T:r: :ril .i ihe Wlesel ts of all-
that it was to fund flnal development of r.,'eldec s1eel armour construciion pro-
the Wiesel air-portable armoured r,rdrng protection irom small arms fire
vehicle and to purchase 312 produc- and shell sphnters. The enqrne rs at the
tion variants with flrst deliveries due rn foont left and coupled to a fi:1ly automa-
1989. trc transmission. The driver is seated at
TWo basic models of the Wiesel are the front on the right, so leaving the
to be produced, one armed with a complete rear of the vehicle clear for a
Hughes TOW anti-tank quided missile weapons station,
and the other with a 20-mm cannon. As the Wiesel has been desigmed
The frrst of these has a three-man for arr transport it is very compact and
crew and is armed wrth a Huqhes difficult to detect on the battlefield. A
TOW anti-tank qrurded missile laun- Sikorsky CH-53 helicopter, as used by
cher on an elevating pedestal which West Germany, can carry two Wiesel
can be traversed 45" to each side ofthe vehicles, whlle a Lockheed C-130 Her-
centreline, and elevated and depress- cules transport aircraft can carry three
ed l0', Seven TOW missiles are car- internally and the Transall C,160 four,
ried, ofwhich hvo are for ready use. In The manufacturer has sugqested
action, as soon as it has launched two that the Wiesel could be adopted for a
missiles, the vehicle chanqes its firing wide range of other missions, all usingt
positron (to avoid beinq detected by the same basic chassis or a slightly
the enemy) and loads another pair of Ionger chassis with an additional road Specification Two Wiesels can be carried by a
TOWs, wheel on each side, These variants in- Wiesel (with TOWlauncher) Sikorsky CH-53 helicopter and four
The second model is armed with a clude an anti-tank model with a turret Crew:3 by a Transall C- I 60 transport
Rheinmetall 20-mm dual-feed cannon for HOT missiles in the ready-to- Weights: empty 2030 kg (4,475 lb); aircraft. Thevehicle may be used for
in a turret which can be traversed I 10" launch position, an antr-aircraft model loaded 2750 kq (6,063 Ib) avariety of other roles including
left and right while the cannon has an with Stinger surfaceto-air misstles, a Powerplant: one 5-cylinder mobile SAM system, APC and
elevation of +45" and a depression of recovery vehicle, an ambulance, a re- turbocharged diesel developing B6 hp commandvehicle.
- l0'. Some 400 rounds of 20-mm connalssance vehicle, a command and (64 kW)
ammunition are carried, of which 160 control vehicle, a battiefleld surveill- Dimensions: lenqth 3 265 m ( 10 it B0 ha/h (50 mph); range 200 km (124
rounds are for ready use and the re- ance model and an atmouted person- 8.5 in); width 1,82 m (5 ft 11.7 in); height miles); vertrcalobstacle 0.4 m (1 ft
mainder in reserve. This version has a nel carrier, to name bu a lew 1,875 m(6 ft LB in) 4 in); trench 1.2 m (3 ft I L in); gradient
two-man crew Performance: maximum road speed 60 per cent; side slope 30 per cent

E iffrnr Abrams main battle tank

The frrst Ml Abrams MBT came off the InAugust 1985 thefirstMlAl was
production line at the Lima Army Tank completed, andhas now replaced
Plant in February 1980, the initial vehi- the M I in production. Armour
cles from the Detroit Arsenal Tank prctection has been increased and
Plant followinq two years later. The an integr ate d N BC sy s tem fitte d.
basic Mi is armed wrth a standard lO5-
mm (4. 13-in) M6B rifled tank gun of the
type also installed in the M4BA5 and
M60/M60A]/M60A3 MBTs, The MOB is
essentially the British LZ gun, de-
veloped in the 1950s but fitted with an
US breech mechanism,
Some years ago the USA decided to
adopt the West German Rheinmetall
120-mm (4,72-tn) smoothbore gun
already selected for the Leopard 2
MBT for an rrhproved version of the
M1, which was given the development
designation M IE I After the usual trials Tank Plant and the Lima Army Tank
and modifications this vehicle was Plant were producrng both the Mi and
accepted ior service as the MlAl MlAl but from early 1986 only the
Abrams, the first two production vehi- MlAl was in production At present
cles being completed Auwst 1985, there are no plans for the 105-mm
Other armament is a 12,7-mm (0.S-in) armed Ml to be upgrunned with the
commander's machine-gnrn and a 7,62- 120-mm gnrn.
mm (0,3-in) loader's machrne-enrn. As lne Ml/MIAI will remain in ser-
The 120-mm Rheinmetall gnrn is burlt vice until the 2lst century many other
urider licence in the USA under the rmprovements are already under de-
designation M256, with Honel'wel1 re- velopment, including a new and safer
sponsible for the complete ranqe of Iaser rangeflnder an rmproved com-
ammumtion toqether with its combusti- mander's weapon station with panor-
ble cartridqe case, In addition to the amic srght, and a raprd refulling capa-
making of the West German APFSDS- bility.
T (Armour-Piercrnq Fin-Stabilized The Ml Abrams has already been
Drscarding-Sabot - Tracer) and evaluated by Saudi Arabia and
HEAT-MP-T (High Explosive Anti- Switzerland, but so far no export
Tank Multi-Purpose Tracer), Hon- orders have been placed.
eywell has also developed new types At present there are no variants of The production M lAl s carry the same Rheinmetall I20-mm smooth-bore gun
with much improved armour-penetra the M1/M1A, although under develop- as theLeopard 2;it has acombustible case and fires APFSDS ammunition.The
tion characteristics, ment by BMY is the Heavy Assault MiAl will be the MBT of the US Army untilwell into the 2lst century.
In addition to the 120-mm gn-rn the Bridqe which uses a Ml chassrs It is
MlAl nas a number oloLher improve- probable that an armoured recovery Specification 0 in) with 3 658 m (12 ft 0 Ln)r heisht
ments rncluding increased armour vehicle wrll be developed on the Ml MlAI overall 2 896 m (9 ft 6 in)
protection and an inteqrated NBC sys- chassis as the current MBBA] is not Crew: 4 Performance: maximum road speed
tem which not only provides the four powerful enough io handle the MlAl Weight: loaded 57154 kg (126 000 1b) 67 km/h (41.6 mph); range, road
man crew with conditroned air for Underqornq trials rs the Tank Test Powerplant: one Avco Lycoming AGT 465 km (2BB miles); fordins 1.2 19 m (4 lt
breathinq but also supphed coolinq or Bed which is a Ml chassis wrth an ex- 1500 gas turbine developing 1 500 hp 0 rr;: r,-rtrcal obstac'e' 066 m rJ ft
heating as long as the crew are wear ternally-mounted 120-mm gun, the (1118 kw) 6 rn); trench 2.743 m (9 ft 0 rn); qradient
ing their protectlve sults and masks, three-man crew beingr safely seated Dimensions: iength gnrn forward 6O per cent; side slope 30 per cent
At one time both the Detroit Arsenal within the hull 9. 83 m (32 ft 3 in) and hull 7.925 m (26 ft

The Fulure of the Tank
The latest generation of main battle tanks is more powerful than ever befare,
protected by new types of armour and yet, fitted with a new generation of
powerplant, more agile than their predecessors. Increasing use of computerization
and automated equipment enables them to remain the most important weapon on
the battlefield despite thevast range of anti-tankweapons now available.

With one or tvro exceptions, the basic design of Shortly after the end of World War II France
the tank has remained virtually unchanged rntroluc^d rhe AMX .3 hghr rank whrch had
since the l920sr lhe driver at front, lhe turret in an unusual osciliating turret armed wrth a 75-
centre, and the engine and transmission at mm (2.95-in) gun fed by two revolver type
maQtazrnes each holdrng six rounds, Once a
Srnce World War II there have been many round hacl been flred the empty cartrrdge case
protolypes ofnew concepts in tank desrgn, but was ejected out of a door in the bustle rear and
-rnril ta,r17 recently rhe only one Lo enter pro- another round was loaded automatically, This
duction was ihe Swedish Bolors S tank, This enabled 12 rounds to be fired very qurckly, but
has a three-man crew and rs armed with a the crew then had to dismount and reload the
105-mm (4 13-in) gun led by an automatic load- two magazines via hatches in the roof, The US
er holding a mixture of 50 rounds of ammuni- Army also experimented with oscillating tur-
tion. This makes possible a rate of flre of 15 rets on heavier tanks but none ofthese entered
rounds per mrnute until the ammunttion supply productron.
has been exhausted The empty cartridge
cases are ejected out of a trap door in the rear Three-mancrew
of the hull The first country to field a turreted MBT with
In the S-tank, the gun is aimed by the driver a three-man crew was the USSR wrth its T-64,
traversing tank on its tracks to lay onto the whrch entered production in 1967. The T-64
target rn azimuth and rarsing and lo-"vering the continued in production until 19Bl but was not
hydropneumatic suspension to lay in elevatron. exported outside of the Warsaw Pact and is
Although the S-tank has been evaluated by a beheved to have had many shortcomings,
number of other countries, including the UK especially with its automatic loader. This is re- The I sraelis are lie mosf .succes sfu I pr actitioner s
and USA, the only customer was the Su,'edtsh ported often to have put one ofthe turret crew of armoured warfare sinceWorldWar II, and it is
army, which has just over 300 in service, The rather than ammunition tnto the breech of the significant that their only indigenous tanj< desr'Ern is
gunl a ponderous, heavily-protected vehicle, the
S-tank does, however suffer from a number of
hmrtations: for example, it has to stop and lay The T 64 was followed 1n production by the
onto the target before opening fire. T 72 durinc 1971 and this, wtth some improve-
Most light tanks and armoured cars in ser- ments remains in production today, not only in
vice today have a two-man turret with the com the USSR but also in Czechoslovakia, Poland, A Brazilian Osorio puts on a turn of speed during
mander on one srde and lhe gunner on the Yugoslavia and more recently lndia, testing. The sheer complexity of the new
other, in action the commander acting as ioad At present all Western N{BTs have a four- generation of MBTs has dramatically escalated
er as well as commanding the vehicle and look- man crew, but the new French MBT wtll have a their cost and created a market for a /ess capable
ing alter the communications equipment. three-man crew thanks to the use olan automa- but much more affordable type of tank.

.:a:t _..:.r. I -:r::-;r,: :: I :..:i:..,:.,-.r:.::r..,:,tl

': ..

* ,,,. diftd ;s.;::+;r'.'

: :.:::::;::::i..
, -,
] :. ..:::::::':.::: i:

The New Generation of Fighting Vehicles

.tc loader, The installatron of an automatlc load-

er ofiers a number of advantages apart from
reducing the crew, includrng a hrgh rate ollire
especlally when moving across country,
There are three key areas of tank technolo,
W (armour, mooility and firFpower) and rhere
have been srgniflcant improvement in each of
these areas in recent years.
For many years al. ranks had sreel armour
which was well sloped on lhe lronr ior Ln-
creased prorecrion. Developmenls rr an i-tank
ammuniiion, especially the High Explosive
Antj tank tHtAf ' warheods nrred to antj-rank
gurded wedpons (such as the Sagger, Milan
and HOl ) and Armour Prerc-no Fin Srabrtized Typical of the latest generation of MBTs, the AMX- TheVickers Mk7 has successfully compteted
Drscarding Sabot (AP|SDS) arinuniL-on then 40 has been designed for the export market, while testing inEgypt.ltis fully air con&itioned and NBC
reached the point at which such rounds could the French army continues to use the outdated protected: standard equipment also jncludes an
penetrale the fronLa.l armour o{ -he heaviest AMX-30. Protected by laminate armour conferring automatic fire detection and suppression system.
good protection against HEAT warheads, it carries Its thermal sight has an alarm to alert the crew to
tanks in servrce.
an I20-mm smooth-bore gun. enemypresence.
The intLoducrion of Lhe Brrrish Chobham
armour, still one of the closest guarded military such as sensors to de ec' mrssiles controi system but also wrth a stabtlization sys,
secrels has meanl thar MBTs such as the Ml and activate counlermeasures, A,ready avarl tem thdt al-ows the Lank'o aim and fire -he gun
Abrams and Challenger are vrrlualty rnvllner- able are devices that will te1l a tank crew that rt accurately at moving targets whrle it also rs
able to pene'ral.on over their rronLal arc. rs.being ranged by enemy lasers, moving. Commanders and gunners can even
Chobham armour cannol ar present be firted The firepower of the tank comprises not only have stabrlized srghrs incorporaring a iaser
to ranks and has to be desiqned inro the gun and its ammunition but also its flre- rangefinder, In the future fire-control systems
'he vehrcie Bul several years ago Israel an- control system, For many years all tanks had will be able automatrcally to detect enemy
nounced that it had deveiooed reacttve armour rifled tank guns, but many of the more recent vehicles and to align the gun with the targei,
which coulo be hrted to any exrsltng tan< and tanks (for example the Leopard 2 MlA1 leaving rhe gunner merely lo open nre
provrde protec ion agajnst HIAT a-rack This Abrams, AMX-40, T-62 T-64 and T-72) have a The main drmamenL ol lanks wilI remain the
reaclrve d.rmour is called Blazer. and consists o1 smoothbore gun. There is a fierce debate as to gun, but there are already a number of new
small panels of explosive ha' are bohed cnlo which rs the better type, and there are good weapons on the horizon which could supple,
the rank, lor example over lhe lrontal arc. argumenrs for both. ment or replace the currenr types, these rn-
When one of the Blazer panels is hit it explodes Until the 1960s the marn tank-killing rounds cludrng liquid-propellant guns, eleciromagne-
ouLwards. so drss-paling rhe ma-n lorce o{ Lhe carried by tanks were Armour-Piercrng Dis- -ic guns and ollensive ]asers.
tncomrnc HIAT warhe"d. cardrng-Sabot (APDS), Hlgh Explosive Antr-
Theriare olher ways oi makinq the tank Tank and Fligh Explosive Sguash-Head Turret-mounted guns
more survivable on lhe battlefreld as well as (HESH) New types ofadvanced armour have With the exception of the S-tank, all current
improving armour protection, This includes the very much reduced rhe effectiveness ol these tanks have lurret mounled ouns. For some ttme
rnslailatron ol qrenade-launchers to the ironr 01 rounds, especrally HEAT and HESH, Most there have been a numbdr of triais vehicles
the turret whLh can fire smoke srenacles to tanks now fire Armour-Prercing Ftn-Srabilized frtted wlth an external gun fed by an automatic
confuse 'he enemy or lay a smoke screen lo Discarding-Sabot (APFSDS) rounds which loader, their crews being seated safely in the
a1low the tank to move back behind cover, havc a penetraloro1 very strong. heavy mela.l 1ow hull, The rnstallation of an external gun wlth
More recentiy decoy grenades have been de- such as depleted uranium, and thus greatly
veloped which can also be hred irom rhese increased armour penetrating characterlstics,
Iaunchers to decov eremv an --rank ouided Tank gunnery has made dramatic advances The tank destroyer concept has recently been
weapons. over the last few years with the laser rangefin- resurrected as various companies have designed
Iighttanks for the US light divisions. TheFMC
der replacing optical rangefinders and the CCY-Lweighs under 20 tonnes but carfies the
Diesel fuel smoke screen ranging machine-gun. Most modern tanks are same 105-mm gan as the M60 series MBTs (fitted
For many years Soviet armoured vehicles now fitted not only with a computerized fire- witha |ow recoil system).
have been able ro rnjecL dresel iuel into rheir
exhaust systems io lay a smokescreen, and a
number of Western countries (inciudrng the
USA) are instalhng similar systems rn therr
armoured vehicles (for example the US M60
series MBT and the Bradley IFV),
Careful stowage of fuel and ammunition can
also increase th6 survivability of a tank. In the
US Ml/MlA1 Abrams, for example, some of the
ready-use ammunition is stowed in the turret
bustle and separaied from the crew by slidrng
doors. If one cl lhese rounds explodes, the
main lorce ol the explosion is vented upwards
to the roof provrded 'haL rhe doors are shul. In
the rool are blowout panels which give way
under the force of the explosion,
For many years most tanks and armoured
frqhtinq vehicles have been filled wrth flre-
detection and flre-suppression systems ln the
engrne compartmen ll rhe engine catches fire
an alarm sounds and the flre is automatically
exttnguished This provision has now been ex
tended to the crew compartment, and the sys-
tem wrll detect (for example) a HEAT charge
as soon as it penetrates the armour of the tank
and then extinguish the flre in milliseconds,
In the future- tanks will have other aids to
increase iheir survivabrlity on the battlefield,

The Future of the Tank

automatic loader and recent advances in eiec-

ironics wouid perhaps enable tanks with just
iwo men to be fielded, When used in a defen-
srve role, a tank wrth an external gun would be
very difficult to detect, let alone hit.
Once tanks could light onty in daylight, but
the introduction of infra-red night-vision equip-
ment, even with rts disadvantages, a1lows the
tank to move and fight at night, Infra-red equip-
menl is now givrng uray to image intensiflcation
and thermal imagers which are even more
effective, the latter allowing a tank gunner to
see through trees and smoke.
Many of today's tanks are heavter than their
predecessors, for example, the Leopard 2
werqhs 55 tonnes compared with 40 tonnes ol
the original Leopard 1. Much of this weight
increase is additional armour, but at the same
trme much more powerful engrnes have been
rnstailed, Thus the Leopard 2 is not only faster
than the older Leopard I but also has a much
better power-to-weight ratio and is laster
across country, New advances in suspension
design, such as the hydro-pneumatic system
installed on the Challenger, permtt tanks to
move faster across country and also provide a
better ride for the crew and a more stable gun MliMlAl has a gas turbine. The }atter is much Stingray is a Z1-tonne light tankwhich uses the
plaLform. smaller than a diesel engine but uses more fuel suspension of the M 109 SP gun and carries the
Tank design is at the crossroads and future British 105-mm gun. The tank is only really
For many years tanks were powered by pet- protected trom small-arms fire, although reactive
ro1 engines, but these had very short operating tanks may well be quite different to the ones armour could be fitted to keep out HEAT
ranges and there was always the constant dan- we know today. There are stilt a few people projectiles.
ger ol fire, so most tanks today have the more who firmly believe that the tank is dead and
fuel-efftcient diesel engine and thus greater that lt cannot survive on the battleheld of the Marksman uses the same twin 35-mm cannon
operating ranQles, There are exceptions, future. But there is at present no substitute for syslem as used on the West German Gepard. It
however the S{ank has a diesel engine and a the tank, and it will remain the key to success in Carries 230 rounds of ready-use ammunition plus
gas turbine (the latter being engaged when the the land battle well into the next century, 20 APDS -T (Armour-Piercing Discarding-S abot -
tank is moving across couniry) whllst the US Tracer) to dealwith ground targets.

ffi iior" Combat Vehicle - Lisrht
he Ordnance Divisron of the F\:3
Jorporation of San Jose, Cahforrua -s
.re largest manufacturer of trackec
','ehicles in the West, having producei
:ver 70,000 units in the Ml l3 senes c:
armoured personnel carriers and over
2,000 Bradley Infantry Fightrng Vehi-
:les, plus large numbers of armoured
amphibious tracked vehrcles, recon-
narssance vehrcles, M59s and
Armoured Infantry Fighting vehicles. The three-manCCV-L has been built
Several years ago the company real- byFMC's ordnance division as a
rzed that the US Army would require a privateventure intended for the US
highly mobrle armoured vehicle Army's light divisions. It carries a
armed with a 105-mm (4.13-in) stan- modified version of the I 05 -mm gun
dard tank gun for use wrth its light divi- carried by M48s, M60s and M I s but
sions, A decision was then taken to has aWestGerman lowrecoil system
desrqn and burid a prototype of the and an automatic loader.
Close Combat Vehicle - Liqht (CCV -
L) with company money, years, the transmissron is from the The turret traverse and weapon Specification
The first prototype of the CCV L FMC-built Bradley IFV, and parts of elevation systems are based on those ccv-t
was unveiled late in 1985 and attracted the suspensron are from the Ml13,{2 installed rn the M]. The gnrnner has a Crew: 3
a great deal of interest as its crew had The main armament comp'ises a stabilized day/night sight with laser Weights: empty 17509 kq (38,600 lb);
been reduced to just three men (com- 105-mm M6BA1 qun of the type instal- rangefinder, while the commander has loaded 19414 ks(42 800 lb)
mander gunner and driver) by the in- led in the M4BA5 M60/M60A1/M60A3 periscopes for all-round observation Powerplant: one Detroit Diesel Model
stallation of an automatic Ioader for the and Ml MBTs already in servrce with and an rndependent thermal viewer 6V-92 TA 6-cyirnder diesel developing
marn armament. the US Army, but in this application which can be traversed through 360" 552 hp (412 kW)
The prototype cost $26 million to fitted with a West German Rheinmetall and has a day/night capability. Dimensions: length, qtun forward
buitd, of which around $14 million low recoil system The automatic load- The US Army has a requrrement for 9 37 m (30 ft 9 in) and hull 6 2A mQj fI
came from FMC and the remainder er for the main armament has been a vehicle it calls the Armoured Gun 4 in); width 2.69 m (B ft l0 in); heisht
from the many subcontractors ln- designed by FMC Northern Ordnance System (AGS) and hoped to get some 2.36 m (7 ft 9 in)
volved in the project, Divrsion, which has some 40 years of funding for thrs rn the FYBT budqet, but Performance: maxrmum road speed
To reduce development time and experience rn desigming and buiiding this has been disapproved. So far three 70 km/h (43.5 mph); range 483 km (300
cost, proven automotive components automatic loaders mainly for naval ap- US companies have built vehicles miles); fording 1.32 m (4 ft 4 in);
have been used in the design of the plications, The automatic loader which could meet the AGS require- vertical obstacle O.76 m (2 ft 6 in);
CCV - L: {or example. the engine uses makes possible a rate of fire of 12 ment: these are the FMC Close Com- trench2 13 m(7 ft0 in); gradrent60per
many parts ot rhe BV-92TA engine jn- rounds per minute. Nineteen rounds bat Vehicle Lrght, the Cadillac Gage cent, srde slope 40 per cent
stalled in the Hearry Expanded Mobii- are carried in the automatic loader, Stingray and the Teledyne Continental
ity Tactical Truck which has been in with a further 24 rounds carried else- Motors General Products Diviston
sewice with the US Army for some where in the hu]] TCM 20

ffi Hiinqr"u lisht tank

Since the early 1960s the Cadillac
Gaqe Company has built over 3,500 of
its Commando range of 4x4 multr mis-
sion vehicles, most of which have been
exported. More recently the company
has developed and placed in produc-
tron the V-300 6xO and Commando
Scout 4x4 vehrcles, while the Com-
mando Ranger 4x4 iight armoured The Stingray light tank weighs little
personnel carrier has been built in over 17 tons, but has the firepower of
large numbers for the the US Air Force a main battle tank. Costs have been
base-production role. minim i ze d by the us e of au tom otiv e
Some years ago Cadillac Gaqe real- parts already in production; for
rzed that there was a need for a light example,lhe suspension js fhe same
tank wrth good cross-country mobility, as that of the M109 SP gun.
the combat-proved 105-mm (4, 13-in)
tank qnrn, and simplicrty of operation Merkava and some models of the
and mainlenance. Wilh rhis require- Centurion) and includinq the recent
ment in mind the company designed APFSDS-T (Armour-Piercing Fin-Sta-
and built the Stingray [ght tank, whose bilized Discarding-Sabot - Tracer).
prototype was unveiled for the flrst Mounted co-axral with the main Right: Given the vulnerability of
time late in 1984. armament is a 7 62-mm (0.3-in) many MBTs toHEATwarheads, the
To reduce development and pro- machine-gnrn for the engagement of Iight armour of Stingray is not
curement costs, proved and in pro- soft targets such as trucks or infantry, necessarily a great disadvantage. A
duction automotive components have whrle a 7.62-mm or 12.7-mm (0.5-in) stabilization system can be fitted,
been used wherever possibler for ex- machine-gun is mounted on the roof for enabling the main armament to be
ample, the suspension rs the same as antr-arrcraft defence. Mounted on aimed and firedwhile thevehicle is
that on the Ml09 self-propelled howit- each side of the turet is a bank of moving.
zer used by more than 20 coLntries. electrically operated smoke-dischar-
The turret and hull are of all-welded gers. navigation system, a laser rangeflnder Ioaded l9O5 I ks (42 000 lb)
steel armour construction providtnet The turret has power conttrols, and an NBC system, and a flre detection Powerplant: one Detroit Diesel Model
complete protection from small arms the prototype Stingray has a Marconr and suppression system. 8V-92 TA diesel developinq 535 hp
flre and shell splinters. If required, Command and Control System com- So far the Stingray 1s still at the pro- (399 kw)
additional armour can be added for putenzed digrtal Fire-Control System, totype stage, but number ofcountnes
a Dimensions: ienqth, qun forward
example of the reactive type which which gives a high first-round hit prob- are showLnq more than a pass n l !n 9.35 m (30 ft B in) and hull 6.30 m (20 ft
provides protection aqainst HEAT pro- ability. As an option a stabrlization sys- terest in this vehicle, whrch has the B in); width 2 7L m (B ft 11 in); helght
jectiles tem can be installed allowing the matn mobility and flrepower of a MBT but ls overall 2.54 (B ft 4 in)
Marn armament comprises a British armament to be laid and fired while much cheaper. Performance: maxtmum road speed
Royal Ordnance NottrnQrham 105-mm the Stingrray is movinq across country. 69 kn/h (43 mph); ranqe 483 km (300
rifled tank gun which fires an identical As with most armoured vehicles to- Specification miles); fording 1.22 m (4 lt 0 in)
range of ammunition to that of the L7l day, a wrde range of optional equip- Stingray vertical obstacle 0,76 m (2 ft 6 in);
M6B gun used rn many MBTs (inciud- ment is available to surt different user's Crew: 4 trench 1 69 m (5 ft Z in); gradient 60 per
rng the Leopard l, M4BA5, M60, Ml, requirements for example a land Weights: empty 17237 kg cent: srde slope 30 per cent


Fahd armoured personnel carrier

For many years one of the standard
wheeled armoured personnel carriers
of the Egyptian army has been the
Walid, This 4 x 4 vehicle is essentially a
West German Magrirus Deutz truck
chassis fitted with an armoured body
desiqned and built in Egypt, In many
respects the Fahd fulflls a similar role
to that of the Soviet BTR-40 vehlcle
which has also been used by the Egryp-
tian army, The BTR-40 does however,
suffer the major drsadvantge in having
an open{opped troop compartment,
so making the troops vulnerable to
shell splinters.
The Fahd 4x4 armoured personnel
carrier has been desigmed and bullt by
the Kadar Factory for Developed In-
dustries in Heliopolis not only to meet
the demandinq requirements of the
Egyptian army but also for the export
market. The vehicle was first sho-wn in with a bulletproof vision block above it, including a front-mounted winch (used Soon to enter producton, the Fahd
public late in l9B4 and rs expected to allowing the infantrymen to flre their to recover other vehicles or rtself), APC is basedon aDaimler-Benz
enter production in the very near fu- weapons from within the vehrcle, night-vision equipment and an NBC truck cftassis a nd can carry I 0 fully-
ture, The standard commercial Mer- pack, equipped troops. Firing ports in the
The vehicle consists basrcally ofthe cedes-Benz six-cylinder diesel engine The basic vehicle rs at present un- sideand rear allow them tofire their
proven Daimler-Benz LAP 1117/32 is coupled to a fully automatic gearbox armed, although awide rangre of arma- weapons from the vehicle.
4x4 truck chassis fitted with a fully and a two-speed transfer case, Steer- ment systems can be fltted including a
armoured body that provides com- inq is power-assisted to reduce driver 7.62-mm (0,3-in) or 12.7-mm (0.S-in)
plele protection against penetration fattgnre, and standard equipment in- machine-q-rn, or a 20-mm cannon The Weights: empty 9 100 kg (20,026 lb);
Irom 7.62-mmx54 armour-plerc]ng cludes a tyre pressure-regulation sys- type can also operate in the antrtank loaded 10900 kq (24,030 lb)
projectiles and shell splinters. tern that allows the driver to adjust the role with wire-guided anti-tank sys- Powerplant: one Mercedes-Benz OM-
The commander and driver are sea- pressure to suit the type of gnound tems such as the Euromrssrle Milan, 352 A 6-cylinder turbocharged diesel
ted at the very front of the vehrcle, with beinq crossed, this being ofgreat use More specialized variants include a developing 168 hp (125 kW)
the troop compartment at the rear. The when the Fahd is crossing desed ter- command posl wilh exlensive com- Dimensions:length 6,00 m (19 ft 8.2 in);
l0 fully equipped infantrymen are sea- rain, The wide low-pressure tyres are munications equipment, a recovery width 2,45 m (B ft 0.5 in); heisht 2. 10 m
ted down the centre of the vehicle, and of the run-flat type, and allow the vehr- vehicle, a reconnaissance vehicle, a (6 ft 10,7 in)
enter and leave via a rear hatch, of cle to travel for a distance of 50 km (31 multiple rocket - launcher, a forward Performance: maximum road speed
which the upper part opens upwards miles) at a speed of 30 krnih ( 18,6 mph) ambulance and a supply carner. 90 krdh (56 mph); maximumrange
and the lower part folds down to pro- if they are punctwed by small arms flre 800 km (497 miles); fording 0.7 m (2 ft
vide a step. or shell fragments, Specification 4 in); verticalobstacle0.S m(1 ft4 in);
In the sides and rear of the troop As usual, the Fahd can be fitted with Fahd trench 0.8 m (2 ft B rn); qradient 70 per
compartment are firingT ports, each a wide range of optional equipment Crew:2+ 10 cent; side slope 30 per cent

ry T;b-** SPlzzself-propelled howitzer

Untrl the recent lntroduction of the US machrne-qun, for which 500 rounds of Royal Ordnance Leeds expects that Ioaded 20000 ks (44,092 lb)
M109A2 155-mm (6, I'in) self-prop- ammunition are carried. SP122 will be the flrst of a complete Powerplant: one Perkins TVB.540
elled howitzer, virtually all Egryptian Rather than use an exrstrng chassis family of hght tracked vehicles usrngr e ight-cylinder diesel developi ng
artrllery was towed, most of this having Royal Ordnance Leeds desiqned a the same basic chassis, the other vehi- 300 hp (224 kW)
been supplied by the USSR and in- new vehicle from scratch of all welded cles rncluding a command post with Dimensions: Ienqth 7.70 m (25 ft 3 in);
cludrnq larqe numbers of excellent steel construction rather than alumr- exl ensive com m unications equipmenr. width 2,82 m (9 ft 3 in); height 2.69 m
122-mm (4.8-in ) D-30s. whose ammuni nium as used in the BMY entry. The a recovery vehicle, an ambulance and (B ft 10 rn)
tion Egypt has been makinq for some reason for thrs was that steel IS easler to an ammunition cafiier. Performance: maxrmum road speed
years, More recently Eqrypt has started weld than aluminrum, and Egypt 55 km/h (34 mph); range 300 km ( 186
to produce the D-30 for both the home already has extensjve experrence in Specifi cation (provisional) miles); fording 1,0 m (3 ft 3 in); vertical
and export markets. using this materiai in other armoured sP122 obstacle 0.75 m (2 ft 6 in); trench 2,2 m
The Egryptian army decided that it vehicle progrrammes. Crew:5 (7 ft 3 in); gradient 60 per cent; srde
wanted a self-propelled version of the The layout of the Royal Ordnance Weights: empty 17500 kg (38,580 lb); slope 30 per cent
D-30 more advanced than the Syrian D-30 self-propell--d howitzer is similar
version, which was essentially an old to the BMY type, but is much more
T-34/85 tank with its turret replaced by compact. The driver is at the front left
a D 30 flrrng over the rear engrne with engrne to his right and the gun
deckingr; no protectlon is provided for compartment at rear. Weapon eleva-
the gmn crew from small arms frre and tion, depression and traverse are iden-
shell splinters, tical to the BMY vehicle, and B0 projec-
In l9B4 itwas announced that BMY of trles and charqes are carried. A i2,7-
the USA and Royal Ordnance ofthe UK mm M2 HB machrne-gun rs carried on
had each been awarded contracts to the roof for anti-aircraft defence.
design and build a self-propelled ver- Tne Perkins diesel engine rs cou-
sion of the D-30 which would eventual- pled to a fully automatic Self-Changing
ly be made in Eqypt, The prototypes Gears srx-speed transmission. Some
made ther frrst official appearance at a parts ofthe suspensron are also used in
defence exhibition in Cairo late in the Royal Ordnance Nottinqham Com-
1984. bat Enqdneer Tractor already in ser-
The BMY entry in thrs competition vlce wrth the Brrrish ano Indian armres.
conssts essentially of a Ml09 chassis
with a new fixed superstructure at the Egy pt has bee n manufactur ing the
rear: in the forward pafi of thrs ls the S oviet D-30 1 2 2 -mm gun for some
D-30 howitzer which has an elevation years, and invited RoyalOrdnance
of +70' a depression of -5" and a and BMYinthe USA to produce a
traverse of 30' left and right Some 85 s e lf- prope lle d version. R oy al
rounds of 122-mm ammunitton are car- Ordnance have desigmed a
ried, of which flve are normaliy HEAT comp le te ly new cfi assr't which m ay
(Hiqh Explosive Anti-Tank) Mounted also be used for awhole family of
on the roof is a 12.7-mm (0.5-in) M2 HB AITs.

Armed Forces of the World


Despite losing the 1982 Falklands war in a fairly

ignominious manner, the Argentine armed forces
are now stronger than ever and, more importantly,
have taken the lessons of poor leadership, lack of
training and bad tactics to heart by correcting them
in the most efficient manner available. The only
problem in doing this has stemmed from Argenti-
na's economic troubles, which have forced a curtail-
ment of pace in some areas. ln any future conflict
with the UK. however, it is certain that the three
services would make a markedly better showing
than they managed in 1982.

The Army
The 55,000-man army has been much reduced in
size but reorganized along more sensible lines to
cover the five military regions and garrison areas
into which Argentina is divided. Despite the political
settlement of the Beagle Channel dispute with
Chile, large elements of the army are still located in
the vicinity of the border. A total of four corps com-
mand the following units, many of which are at
cadre strength and would only be brought up to full
complement during wartime by mobilization of the

two armoured cavalry brigades (each with two

armoured cavalry regiments, one tank regiment duced under llcence from European manufacturers Above: Conscripts after their surrender to the
and one artillery battalion), (notably in France, ltaly and West Germany) British on the Falklands. Today's Argentine army is
three mechanized infantry brigades (each with three although several locally produced and designed very different from the badly-led force entrusted
mechanized infantry regiments, one armoured heavy artillery pieces are now in service. A f ull iist of
with the islands' defence. Reorganized, and
slimmed down, itis now evenbetter equipped
cavalry squadron, one engineer battalion and one the equipment in service use is: than before thewar
artillery battalion),
two motorized infantry brigades (each with three Armour: M4 Sherman Fireflyand TAM MBTs;
motorized infantry regiments, one armoured AMX-1 3FL-1 2 and M41 light tanks; AM L-90 lnfantry small arms and support systems such as
cavalry squadron, one engineer battalion and one armoured cars; and AMX-VCl, BDX, M3 halftrack, light mortars and rocket-launchers. There is also an
artillery battalion), l\41 13A1 , MOWAG Roland and WCP APCs; air division of the Gendarmeria which has 24 fixed-
two jungle brigades (each with three jungle light Artillery: (towed) 1 05-mm (4.1 3-in) pack howitzer, wing and '1 0 rotary-wing aircraft of various types.
infantry regiments. and one heavy mortar artillery 105-mm M 1 01 howitzer, 1 55-mm (6.1 -in) M53 The army aviation command (Aviaci6n del Ejerci-
battalion), gun, 155-mm M1 14 howitzer, 155-mm CITEFA to) is divided into an aviation battalion of f ive detach-
one airborne brigade (of three airborne regiments Model 77 howitzerand 155-mm CITEFA Model ments and a support company. lt has a total of 70
and one artillery battalion), B1 howitzer; fixed-wing aircraft (of which the most important are
two mountain infantry brigades (each with three (self-propelled) 105-mm M7 SP howitzer, l55-mm the th ree Ae rita lia G.222s, Ihr ee D H C-6 Twi n Otters,
mountain infantry regiments, one reconnaissance Mk 3 SP gun and 155-mm Palmaria/TAM SP gun; 15 Cessna'lB2sand20Cessna U 17AlBs)andsome
company. one engineer battalion and one artillery (mortars) B1 -mm (3.2-in) Brandt and 1 20-mm (4.7-in) 100 odd helicopters including 1B Agusta A 109s, 1B
battalion), Brandt; Bell UH-l Hs. 14 A6rospatiale SA330 Pumas and 24
three independent horse cavalry regiments, (MRLs) 105-mm SLAM-Pampero and 127-mm (5-in) SA332B Super Pumas.
one presidential guard tank regiment, SAPBA-I; and
one independent mechanized infantry regiment, (SSM)Condor l; The Navy
one independent airborne infantry regiment, Anti-armourweapons: B9-mm (3.5-in) M65 The 23,O0O-strong Argentine navy has been the
four independent f ield artillery battalions, rocket-launchers; 75-mm (2.95-in) M20, 90-mm recipient of much modern equipment since the end
f ive ai r-def ence arti llery battalions, (3.54-in) M67 and 105-mm M968 recoilless rifles; of the Falklands war. The f lagship remains the light
one independent engineer regiment, 105-mm KUrassier SP tank destroyer; and SS.1 1, fleet carrler Veinticinco de Mayo,which now carries
f ive engineer construction battalions, Cobra, Mamba. Bantam and MathagoATGWs; an enhanced air group of 1 B Dassau lt-B reguet Super
five logistic support battalions, and Anti-airweapons: (towed) 2O-mm Rh202, 3O-mm Etendards, McDonnell Douglas A-4O Skyhawks and
one amphibious engineer battalion. HSSB'1 6 Hispano-Suiza, 35-mm GDF-002, 40-mm Grumman S-2E Trackers together with four 46ro-
Bofors L/60,40-mm Bofors L/70,40-mm Bofors spatiale Alouette lll and Sikorsky SH-3D Sea King
Practically all rhe mat1rieland weapon losses suf- M1and90-mmM117;and helicopters. The engine problems which apparently
fered during the Falklands war have now been made (SAMs) BIowpipe, SA-7'Grail', Tigercatand Roland; kept the Vetnticinco de Mayo from playing a. more
good from the indlgenous arms industry and foreign and prominent part durlng the Falklands war have now
sources. Argentina is militarily the most self-suf- Small arms: 9-mm Browning Hi-powerpistol; 9- been cured.
ficient of the Latin American states and is capable of mm PA3-DM and 0.45-in M3A1 sub-machine The submarine squadron of two 'Type 209' class
producing f airly sophisticated weaponry such as tac- guns; 7.62-mm FN-FAL rifles; and 7.62-mm FN- units has also been reinforced by the first two of
tical surface-to-surface missiles. Called the Condor, MAG and 12.7-mm (0.5-in) Browning machine- eventually fou r 'TR 1 700' class boats which are more
the first version is a single-stage solid-propellant guns. suitable for long-range work including (it is thought)
weapon that can ca rry a 475-kg (1,041 -lb) payload to the ability to operate as f ar north as Ascension lsland
a range of 75 km (46.6 miles) or a 350-kg (772-lb) The reserves total 200.000 in the National Guard or even, with suitable refuelling at sea during the
payload to a range of 150 km (93.2 miles). A two- and 50,000 in the Territorial Guard. These and the transit periods, around Gibraltar where much of the
stage version with a range of 650 km (404 miles). regulars are supported by the '1 2,000-man paramillt- original logistic supplying for the first units of the
which is sufficient to hlt the Falklands from the ary Gendarmeria Nacional, which is equipped with Task Force was done.
mainland, is under development. Most heavy Shorland armoured patrol cars, MOWAG Roland The obsolete ex-American World War ll des-
weapons such as MBTs. APCs and artlllery are pro- and M113 APCs in addiiion to personal sidearms, troyers (although armed with Exocet SSMs) have
Armed Forces of the World Arsentina m
been deleted. They have been replaced by four
MM.40 Exocet-armed 'Almirante Brown' class
West German-built 'MEKO 360' type destroyers.
The two British 'Type 42' air-defence Sea Dart-
equipped destroyers are still in service, but are be-
lieved to be available for sale as a result of obvious
spares problems. The shortfall in destroyer num-
bers has been made up by the acquisition of the f irst
four out of six 'Espora' class 'MEKO 140' type
MM 4O-armed frlgates being built in Argentina.
These join three French-built '469' class frigates
acquired in the late 1970s.
A force of seven patrol ships, most of which are
converted ocean-going American tugs, complete
the major surface ship listings. One of these is the
Comodoro Somellera reported sunk by Sea Skua
missile attack during the war, but actually undam-
aged. Fleet flagshipYeinticinco de Mayoft as undergone The submarine Sarta was m dockyard hands
The amphibious warfare fleet has been reduced improvements to cure her of the engine trouble throughout the Falklands war but her sister, the
to two relatively modern LSTs backed by four LCMs which plagued her ln recentyears. San Luis, carried out two unsuccessfuj a ttacks on
and at least 20 LCVPs. They are used by the elite the British.
0,000-man marine corps, which is dlvrded into two According to type tney can carry Matra R.530, l\,4atra
fleet marine forces (of regimental and brigade size R.550 Magic, Shafrir or AIM-98 Sidewinder AAMs. Chinooks.
respectively) with an amphibious support force. The main ground-attack element is the air opera- Fixed-wing transport and liaison duties are the
There are also six marine security companres and a tions command of eight brigades. This has one light responsibility of six further squadrons fiying some
special forces swimmer/commando group. The bomber squadron with six BAC Canberra B,Mk 62s, aircraft of 'l 2 different types, the most important
small arms and support weapons are similar to three attack squadrons with the 30 or so survivors of of which are three Boeing 707lKC-707 combined
those of the army, although the heavier equipment the 75 A-48/C Skyhawks delivered from the USA transport-tankers, eight Lockheed C-130E/H Her-
tends to be different. This lncludes Bantam ATGWS, (and now equipped with R.550 Magic AAMs and cules, two KC-130H tankers, 14 FIVA lA-50 Guarani
Panhard ERC-90 Lynx armoured cars, LVTP-7 Durandal anti-runway bombs), and four COIN squad- lls and '13 Rockwell Shrike Commanders. A recon-
amphibious APCs, MOWAG Roland and Panhard rons which have some 50 FIVA |A-5BA two- and naissance squadron f lles one Elint-equipped Boeing
VCR-TT 4x4 wheeled APCs. LARC-S amphibious lA-5BC single-seat Pucard aircraft. There are also 707 plus several camera-equipped variants of the
cargo carriers, 105-mm M101 howitzers, Tigercat two helicopter gunship units with 12 Hughes lA-50 and Learjet 35A. There is also an antarctic
and Blowpipe SAM systems, and 20-mm Rh202, 500Ms and six armed Bell UH-1 Hs. Helicopter trans- support unit which has two specially-equipped
30-mm Hispano-Suiza and 35-mm GDF-002 towed port and SAR duties are performed in the command fixed-wing transports plus a number of helicopters.
anti-aircraft guns. by three squadrons with some 33 aircraft, ncluding Airfield air-defence is handled by Israeli 20-mm twin
The Comando de Aviaci6n Naval Argentina eight Bell 2l2s, three UH-1 Ds, 12 Super Pumas, five and Swiss 35-mm GDF-002 AA guns coupled to Elta
(CANA) or naval air arm is 3,000 strong and is divided A6rospatiale Lamas and two Boeing-Vertol CH-47C and Super Fledermaus fire-control radars,
into six naval air wings. Of these the most irnportant
is the 3rdwhich controls the three attack squadrons
of Super Etendards and 28 A-4O Skyhawks plus
the two ASW helicopter squadrons flying nine
Alouette llls, four Sea Kings, several SA330 Pumas
and a single Sikorsky S 61D for SAR work. Of the
others the 2nd has the main reconnaissance ele-
ment with one squadron of six maritime patrol and
one Elint Lockheed Electra airliner conversions and
the carrierbased squadron of six S-2E TrackerASW
patrol aircraft. ln the other wings there are three
further combat squadrons flying 11 EMBRAER
EMB-326G8s, six Aermacchi M.B.3268s, six Aer-
macchi M.B.339As and 'l 1 Beech T-34C-1 armed
trainers. The navy also has a training school, plus
one photo-reconnaissance, five general-purpose/
liaison, one antarctic and two transport squadrons
f lying some 28 assorted fixed-wing aircraft and heli-
The strike squadrons have been tralned specifical-
Above: Now adapted for inflight-refuelling to Below: Argentina ts llemosf self-sufficientof the
ly for anti-shipping tasks with the Super Etendards
incre ase their combat radius, D assault-B reguet Latin American nations, producing MBTs and
(equipped with AM.39 Exocets) and the A-4Q Sky-
Mirages make up just over half the strength of the APCs under licence, and her own surface-to-
hawks (eq ui pep d wilh 227 -kgl 500-l b Sna keye h g h-
Iour interceptor/fighter bomber squadrons of the surface missile. The FMA PucarA ground-attack
drag iron bombs and locally produced Marttn Pesca- Argentine air force. aircraft, seen here, has also been exported.
dor ASMs) Argentina is the third largest foreign
customer for the Exocet, having bought a total of
212 MM.3B, MM.4O and AM.39 rounds.

The Air Force

The 17,000-man Fuerza Aerea Argentina (FAA)
has rebuilt lts strength and now deploys 10 air bri-
gades, of which two belong to the air-defence com-
mand. This has four squadrons of intercepto,
fighter-bombers flying 14 Dassault-Breguet Mirage
lllEA single- and three Mirage lllB E/DA two-seaters,
19 Mirage lllCJ single- and three Mirage lllBJ two-
seaters, nine Mirage 5P single-seaters and up to 38
single-seat and four two-seat IAI Daggers. All the
Daggers and Mirages have now been equipped for
inflight-refuelling to increase their combat ranges.