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Volume 1l Issue 125

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Ed'torial Offices

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Llanaging Editor: Stan Morse


Edtorial: --.ra Palmer
l--s 3 shop
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s Chant
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Jeremy Moore KCB OBE MC, Comman-
der of British Land Forces during the
Falklands campaign.

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cksof
WbrldWbrll
The sweeping strategic manoeuvres made by armoured,
forces in World War II were made possible hy large-scale
Transport vehicles
were an essential
element in armoured
warfare. Tanks could
mechanization of transport; without massive fleets of lowies, wear out their tracks in
Blitzkrieg would not have been possible and the tempo of the under 100 km, hence
the needfor
conllict could not have been sustained. transporters.

Never had there previously been and in all possibillty w111 there subse- size ol its small automotive industry with its series of all wheel-dnve
quently ever be so mobile a war as was seen durrng World War IL tactical trucks ranging from 15-cwt 4x4 to 3{on 6x6, produced w-rth
From the very outset, with the German Blitzkrieg on Poland, such various types of cabs from l94O to 1943, During the early period the
warfare relied on mobillty to push home the attack, During these early Canadlan chassis and cabs were burit to Canadian designs but to Bntish
years much reliance was placed on the speed and efficiency of specifications, The early wooden bodies were later replaced by press-
armoured thrusts backed by a mobile supply line. Unfortunately for the ed steel bodies,
Germans, much of their supply line was strll horsedrawn and the number The invasion of Europe was soon in the mrnds of the Alhed planners,
of available motor transport vehicles was totally inadequate to the task. and considerable thought was being given to supplying the vast armies
To compensate for this, many civil trucks were conscripted into service that would make the attack across Europe into Germany, It would
along with the few surviving vehicles of the Poltsh army, In contrast with require a supply system of a magnitude never before envisaged, and the
thls, the Britlsh Expeditronary Force that landed in France in 1939 was a production of trucks would be at a premium for the next two to three
fu11y mechanized formation, years. The British truck industry thus began to produce its own four-
During the evacuatron of Dunkirk very few vehicles could be rescued, wheel-drive vehtcles, such established names as Bedford, Ford, Karrier,
They were thus captured (along with many different types of French Thornycroft and Albron being to the fore, Once the Allied assault had
trucks) by the Germans and pressed into service, leading to yet more gained momentum the supply lines wouid soon be overstretched, and to
spare parts problems. After thrs the German logistic department tried to help overcome this problem heavier lO-ton trucks were also put into
rationalize matters in a standardization programme involving the Schell production, The biggest supplier of all military trucks during World War
system, but even this never reached its target before the end of the war, II was the USA, although it was slow at flrst to respond to the ever-
Perhaps the loss of about 90,000 vehicles in France was a blessing to growing transport need of its own army and the now famous Lend-l:ease
the Brrtish mrlitary transport organization as it cleared all the 'dead wood' system to the UK. As the whole mrght of Amerrcan industry turned on to a
that would probably have been used and continued in production, and war footing, however, trucks were produced in countless thousands,
thus paved the way for fresh rdeas. The chronic shortage oi transport ranging from the %-ton Dodge 4x4 to massive Mack prime movers and
forced a further temporary introduction of impressment until specific Diamond T transporters,
types could be produced in greater numbers. The Commonwealth with
Mainstay of the US Armywas the 2 t/rton GMC truck, seen here coming ashore
its many assets was given the orders to produce many of these urgently atSalerno in 1944. By this time, the logistic tail of the US Army had grown to an
needed tvpes, Canada made a contribution out of all proportion to the enormous size.
Ifl ro A"#iih
To meet her urgent need for motor
and Australian tntcks
transport the UK turned to the Com-
monwealth for a degnee of support, the
major supp[er to the UK from the Com-
monwealth being Canada, Canada
hersell once on a war footing, had ur-
eenl n€,scl ro supply her own armres
with equipment as every transport
vehicle then in service was of crvil ori-
grn, During early 1937 Ford of Canada
had been approached to produce 15-
cwt trucks based on similar lines to
those of Bntish design, General Motors
of Canada also participated Ford's ex-
perimental vehicle was produced in
no great haste at the Windsor plant, the
pilot model being burlt up around a
Ford V-B chassis with wheels and tyres
imported from Enqland When com-
pleted in 1937 the vehicle was tested at
the then small army testlng ground at
Camp Petawawa near Ottawa, On Above: A I940 ChevroletWA is seen
arrival it was discovered that the spe- in the configuration developed by
cif,cation had chanqed to a four-wheel the LRDG for their operations in
drive applicatron. Nevertheless the North Africa. The vehicle illusttated
type gave a good account of itsell and carries a Lewis gun behind the cab
the Canadian Military Pattern Chassis and a Browning .30 cal M 1919 with
formed the basis of many 15-cwt and AA barrel above the dashboard.
B-cwt trucks, Durinq early 1940 the
standard pattern ofCanadian truck be-
gan to emerge with four-wheel dnve, models were produced rn the general-
and ln July of 1940, after Dunkirk, the service role, some with tLmber and
UK placed a preliminary order for some with all-pressed-steel bodies
7,000 vehicles. By Canadawas the
1941 and other types included water and
Emprre's main suppher of liqht and pelrol tankers. mobrle gun caJflages.
medium trucks, Standardization was wrreless house bcdies machrnery
again of the utmost importance within a vehicles (various types from l5-cwt
range of trucks includinq B-cwt, L5- mounted weldrng unrts to 6x6 fully-
cwt, 30-cwt and 3{on 4x4, 3{on 6x4 equipped workshops) office bodies,
and 3-ton 6 x 6 vehicles, Various Cana- ambulances and other medical re-
dian cabs were produced through the qurrement vehrcles, and breakdown
different stages of developmentt the and recovery vehrcles. Canada also
number I I cab was tdentifiable by the supplied many conventional types
radiator externally mounted to the from all the larete manufacturers, fltted
bonnet; the number 12 cab had the wlth mlhtary tyreVwheels and bodies.
radiator mounted instde the bonnet; Over 900,000 Canadian vehrcles were
the number 13 cab was a complete produced wrthin the five-year period,
revision in design to allow more cab The Australian commitment was not
tnterior space and better placing ofthe on so grand a scale the majority of
foot pedals, and also had a forward production trucks belng ln the llqht
sloping wrndscreen; and the number ranqfe. Most of the medium to heavy at the Ford subsrdiary plant a1 Two Chevrolet trucks pass through a
43 was basically a number L3 with a trucks were suppiied in kit or chassrs Geelong in Victoria state some 48 km rocky area of the desert carrying an
soft top, and cab form usually from Canada, to (30 miles) west of Melbourne. inlerestrngr ass ortment of weapons,
The 3-ton 4 z 4 became rhe mainsray which Jocally-buill bodies were including a Boys AntiTank rifle.
of Canaciian production, andwas a reli- added. Some of the conventional Specification
able vehicle produced by both Ford trucks supplied were used in halftrack Ford F60 wrdth2.29 m(7 ft6 in); helght3.05 m
and Chevroler. The body variatlons conversions, but this never progres- Powerplant: one 70.8-kW (95-bhp) (10ft0rn)
were enormous and can only be sed beyond the expenmental stage. Ford V-B petrol engrne Performance: max speed B0 km/h
touched briefly within this text AII All Canadian Fords were reassembled Dimensions: length 6.20 m (20 ft 4 in); (50 mph); 'range270 km (168 miles)

Below : T he C hevrolet C 60L GS truck


became the mainstay of Canadian
production andwas builtin a
bewildering variety of different
models includingwater and petrol
tanker s, am bu lances and r ecov ery
vehicles.

Above: This Canadian-built Ford 3-


ton truck is carrying a curious cargo
of lighting e qu ipme nt. C anadi an
Fords were also produced in
Australia, the Ford subsidiary plant
in Victoria S tate re- a s sembling
vehicles for use in the Pacific theatre.

2482
TheDrive on Smolensk
On 22 June I94I Hitler launched the most titanic invasion in history, aiming to defeat Betow: wheeted transport precedes a pair of
the Soviet Union before autumn. The spearhead of the attack consisted of two Panzer Panzer IIIs into a Soviet town during the
armies commanded byGenerals Hoti and Guderian; their taskwas to drive all-out triumphantGermanadvance.overhalf amillion
ioiMi";i: ti;; ."-t" i*orensk, trappiig iovietiories in a gigantilL.tii'iri
'::;fiY,"{"";i;39:lf:,ir""i::7:I\Y::itri:;t{'
encirclement. norses, for much transpoiremained horse-drawn
'When Barbarossa is launched,' declared Hit-
1er, 'the whole
world will hold rts breathl', and
lndeed the forces massed along the Soviet
frontrer from the Arctic Circle to the Black Sea
dwrng that early summer of I94l represented
the greatest concentratron of military force the
world had seen to that date,
Three German army giroups had under com-
mand 80 rnfantry dlvisions, 18 Panzer divisions
and 12 motonzed divisions, whrle behrnd them
waited another 2l infantry, two Panzer and one
motorized divisions in reserve: some two mil-
lion men, 3,200 tanks, 10,000 guns, Already in
position by mid-June to supply them were
enough stores dumps, fuel and ammunition re-
serves to feed them over a 565- to 645-km (350
to 400-mr1e) advance, and 500,000 iorries
waited in massed parks from East Prussia to
Rumania to rush rt forward on demand, To the
modern mind the only questionable (indeed
alarmrng) figure to emerge from the tables of
statistrcs among the planning memoranda for
Operation 'Barbarossa', rs that for 'stabling':
300000 horses were to play an apparently
essential part 1n this monumental military exer-
c1Se.
The drspositron of the army Groups (and the
directions of therr advances) were dictated to a
large extent by one inescapable geographical
factor, namely the Pripet Marshes, a virtualiy
uncrossable swamp nearly 160 km (100 mrles) 9-*
lrom north to south and 480 km (300 miles) from
east to west, divldlng Belorussia from the -k***
".--F ?
i#i*
Ukraine, Because of this, there could be lrttle 4 '*-;
contact during the first stage of the operation
between Army Group South launched from
Lubhn towards Kiev and the lower reaches of
the River Dniepr, and the two groups to the
north, These were Army Group Centre aimed "gc-Lffiga3 "
flrst at Smolensk and then (at least in ihe minds ,
tr :- *- * - *q*.".
oi the military leaders) at Moscow, and Army
Group North launched out of East Prussia flrst *.i#'-lir'* +'
towards Irake Peipus and then lreningrad, r.W*Y%j**
* -&,#*.* -*
- €ffi# *:ffiqd
Strengrth in the nonh ;#tufY.
la*e-qbe#e
S***a
It was in the northern sector that the greater ffis*;adk*
i€#'1:{t6,e :e{';
werght of the attack lay: 50 infantry, 13 Panzer ri:"'
'€5a*i",:iq{lt*q€F
and nine motorized divisions between the
groups, and ol the two, Army Group Centre *'e4;S{o*
-&+!w;
was the stronger. Under the command of the
icily aristocratic Generalfeldmarshall Fedor
von Bock were two infantry armres, the 9th and
the 4th, and two Panzer formations, lll Panzer
gruppe under General Hermann Hoth and II
Panzergruppe under General Heinz Guderian. ;q:q4
These were the armies whose commanders
intended to reduce Napoleon's feat of arms of ;%
129 years earher to hrstorical obscurity, for they
planned to reach Moscow in less than elght
weeks and to annihilate the Soviet army in the
process,
In this hope they were encouraged by Hitier,
who had assured them'We have only to kick rn
the front door and the whole rotten Russian operation, and could well execute the most his armoured spearheads towards the city of
edifrce will come tumbhng downl' exciting and spectacular military feat of the Minsk, curving up to it lrom the south to meet
To Cudenan, whose Panzergruppe con- century, perhaps of all history, And the lirst few Hoth's spearheads comrng down from the
sisted of three corps (XXIV XLVI and XLVII) days seemed to conflrm the prospeci. north. Thus would the Soviet forces immedrate-
containing four Panzer divisions this was the Guderian's first task was to throw his Panzer ly behind their attack fronts be isolated in a
supreme moment of hrs military career, It was gruppe across the Rrver Bug on each side of huge cauidron in which once their supplies
evident that he and Hoth between them com- the fortress of Brest-Litovsk, capture the for- had run out, they would have little alternative
manded the most signilicant forces in the entire tress and then drive precipitously forward wrth but to surrender.

2483
The Drive on Smolensk

Pa:-r!e&+'r

-s- l

Thrs was all achieved in five days ol breath- the attack, the l Tih Panzer Divlsion was driving 'AbatUewon'- aGerman soldierpasses ffte
:aking exhilaration which seemed to confirm into Slonim, over 160 km (lO0 miles) from the debris of victory in a Soviet town. Although the
iitler's pronouncements and the optrmrsm of frontier and half way to the Germans' first advance of the Panzer Divisions continued at a
.re Wehrmacht leaders, The waier-proofed objective. There Guderian visited the drvision, hectic pace, the thousands of Soviet troops which
had been cut off often putup a hard fight,
.anks of the l Bth Panzer Division forded ihe Bug taking part in a skrrmrsh wtth Soviet infantry just especially in urban centres.
before dawn on the morning of the attack, and pasi the village of Rozana, in which he himself
3uderian himself crossed the river in an assault acted as vehicle machtne-gunner, beiore nar- accomphshed the first stage of their mission.
bcat soon aftenn'ards; his XXIV Corps captured rowly avoiding capture by more Sovret iniantry But behind them they had left pockets of
,rtact all the bndges immedrately to the south on the way back to his command post, Gude- Soviet troops who, unlike those enemy lorces
:i the fortress, and aithough the Brest-Litovsk rian escaped this fate by rapid acceleration simrlarly encircled the year before in France,
garrison reacted qurckly and organized a reso throuEh the surprised enemy, It was all very showed little inclination to lay down their arms
-:rte delence whrch lasted some days, Gude- exciting; and three days later, on the afternoon and surrender, There were four of these pock-
rian's mobile units sped past and were 50 km of 27 June, the leading tanks of the 17th Panzer ets: the fortress at Brest-Litovsk, six divisions
132 mrles) on at Kobrin by the evenrng of their Division drove lnto Minsk to meet the spear- around Bialystok, six more at Volkovysk, and
rs day. heads oi Hoth's III Panzergruppe, which had another l5 between Novogrudok and Minsk
By 24 June, only 60 hours after ihe launch of covered 320 km (200 miles) in flve days and itself, The task of first containing and then des
troying and capturing them was assigned, in
Hoth's and Guderian's minds, to the German
rnfantry of the 4th and 9th Armies trudging
stolidly behrnd the Panzer divisions. t

Difficult roads l
il
The trouble was that the inlantry were now t
quite a long way behrnd, lor the roads shown on n

the 'Barbarossa'maps proved in the majority of t


cases to be hitle but mud tracks ,,ryhich were I
qurckly reduced to foot-deep dust, through t
which rt was impossrble to move at much more
than 5 km,/Lr (3 2 niph) And of the half million
lorries which were supposed to be bringing
not only troops but also the next issues of
ammunition and fuel, a large proportion had
been captured in France and proved to be
totally rnadequate for carrying heavy loads
across rough country, besides having no re-
serve of spare parts, Moreover, they had
already been driven from France across half
Europe and therr useful inileage had been
almost consumed,

The 28th Matorized Division reached Smolensk on


July 16. But many Soviet divisions were still active
to the west and the advance was halted, perhaps
fatally, as Hitler dithered over ultimate objectives.

2484
Trucks of World War II
Not surprisingly, arguments arose, Guderian
and Hoth were convinced that they must im-
mediately race farther ahead, first to Smolensk EAST
and then to Moscow, confident that speed PRUSSIA
would prove the decisrve factor ln this cam-
paign, And with a burst of ihat lnsubordination I I I Panzergruppe
which was later to mark the vrhoie oi the Rus- Hoth
sian invasion, on I July Guderian and Hoth re- **. o
leased Panzer units towards the next obstacle, 1. Roslav
the River Beresina, and were threatened with
court martial for so doing by their immediate
superior, General Gunther von Kluge.
T-34 success
On the same day, Guderian's Panzers met for
f\l
the flrst time a Soviet T-34 tank, which blocked
their advance for three hours, knocked out five
PzKpfw III tanks and was only removed by an
attack from the rear with an 88-mm (3 46-in)
gnrn. Fortunately no more T-34s were encoun- I I Puzergruppe

tered in the area and then, on 3 July, the order Guderian 7********!,!E
came for the next stage of the advance, So from
hts illicit bridgehead over the Beresina, Gude-
rian launched the l8th Panzer Division towards
the River Dniepr, which was reached on 5 July.
Here the division beat off a Soviet counterat- POLAND '.1 -
tack and then warted untrl all three ol the Pan- Z+tVt--- Moscow
0m 50

ffi.i
100
zergruppe's corps were hned up along the riv- +
0r 50 00 150
er between Orsha and Stary Bykhov - with >t -- " A
both flanks 'in the air', an increasingly tenuous ",. 'N
supply organization and ihe support infantry
two weeks' hard marching behind theml No
@ R!ssian pockets
L--
wonder von Kluge remonstrated violently, and
at first expressly forbade any attempt at further
advance. Panzergruppe spearheads. For l0 days II Pan- The staggering pace of Guderian's advance
But every day the Germans waited there the zergruppe had three separate objectrves to woftied not only the Soviets but also the German
Soviet defences would strffen untrl the task of pursue: to bar the Soviet forces it had bypassed staff , who feared that the enemy divisions which
crossing ihe Dniepr would become impossible srnce crossing the Dniepr lrom escape south or had been bypassed were still a threat and that the
east, to seek contact with III Panzergruppe armour would outrun its supplylines.
for anything less than an army group, Eventual
1y von Kluge gave way: 'Your operatlons always flghtinqr its way down from the north west, and
hang by a threadl' he muttered, but gave per- to widen its hoid on the land east of Smolensk
mission for the next stage. (towards Roslavl and the River Desna at Elnya) and emphasis,
into a solid bridgehead for ihe final thrust to- Moscow was perhaps not so important ai:e:
Threehardweeks wards the Germans' great goal, Moscow. all, The rollinq wheatlands of the Ukralle
The next three weeks were occupied with But on 29 July Hitler's adjutant, Colonel would provide the granary from whrch :h=
the hardest fightrng II Panzergruppe had yet Schmundt, arrlved at Gudertan's headquarters, ever-growing Axis armies could be fed aie
expenenced, for although advanced units of bnngrng wrth him Hitler's fehcitations and the moreover, down in that direction lay the Bak:
the 29th Motorized Division reached Smolensk Oak Leaves to the Knight's Cross (Guderian oilfields,
on 16 July, fierce fighting still raged behtnd was only the fifth man in the army to receive Moscow could wait. Guderian for the m:-
them and there was as yet no sign of Hoth's lll them) and also the first hint of changes of plan ment must go no farther east.

Above: A substantialpropottion of the Gemar


transpart remained horse-drawn throughour
World War II, motorized transport being
concentrated in the Panzer divisions and the
motorized divisions.

Left: Marching on the road to Moscow in i E i. 2 .

Napoleon's veterans had complained that ie :ea:


and dust of the Russian summ er was worse :ja:
Egypt.ltwas the same for the Germans ::. - l'4 - .

after a late spring thaw temperafures soa-.e.i a::


the wear and tear on both men a,rd zen:cr'es ieg.'a:
to take a heary toll.
m E#*"n lisht trucks
German light trucks before the out-
break of World War II were of com-
mercial 4x2 design u,'rth only super-
structure details to identify them as
army vehicles,
The Phaenomen Granit had an air-
cooled engine and was used in gneat
numbers, most speciflcally in the
ambulance role, Although the Granit
was a useful vehicle for the transpofi of
goods and supplies on hard roads, the
type's cross country ability left much to
be desired, A specification for a 6x4
truck was published and the response
from the industry was immediate,
Daimler-Benz had already built its
Daimler-Benz G3 6x4 model from
1928, many for sewice with the Ger-
man railways Biissing-NAG of Brauns
chweig was also involved with its Btis-
sing-NAG G3 I, in production from 1933
to 1935, Whilst all vehicles were fitted
as standard with petrol engines, a few
diesel enqines were also fltted ex-
perimentally. Daimler-Benz, Buessing-
NAG and Krupp produced chassis
which were also used as the basis for
armoured car bodies, Althougth a wide
range of vehicle types were still ln ser- by a V-B enginet this model was flrst Specification The Germans made extensive use of
vice during the invasion of Poland the used by the Czech army, and later bY Krupp Kfz 8I captured light truc ks and vehic Ie s
Schell programme had introduced the the Germans. The Praga RV models Powerpiant: one 38.B-kW (52-bhp) manufacture d in H ungary,
idea ofstandard truck designs. For ex- were aqain 6x4 types, and were built Krupp M3O4 4-cylinder engine Czechoslovakia and France. Their
ample the Daimler-Benz 15004 was as general-service trucks, wireless Dimensions: lenqth 4,95 m (16 ft 2.9 i own models,like theKrupp L2H43
built as the planned replacement for vehicles and command cars The wrdth 1,95 m (6 ft 4,8 in); height 2,30 m seen here, were similar to
all current 2-ton payload types in ser Schell proeramme was designed to (7 ft 6.6 in) contemporary British six -wheelers.
vrce, many of which served in the Ger- make these 6 x 4 vehicles obsolete, but Weisht:2600 kq (5 732 lb)
man army for general-service use. as production of Schetl types ioutd
Ttoop carrier versions were built on never keep up with demand the older Below: The Krupp Kfz B I (L2H43) had

the lines of hearry cars with fold-down models soldiered on to the end of the an air-cooled'Boxer' engine and an
hoods. war, some still being Lrsed Lmmedtate- al l- inde pe nde nt suspe n s ion ; i t was
Steyr of Austria built three basic ly after the war in cMlian hands. used in a number of different roles,
tllpes: a general-service truck, a healry including prime mover for the 20-
command car and a troop carrier, all mm (0.7 8 - in) anti- aircraft gun.
powered by an air-cooled V-B engine.
Steyr also provrded a 6x4 cargo Steyr
Model 640, which was also produced
,n ambulance and command car
zariants, One of the most common
lpes used during the early days of
World War II was the Krupp Kfz 8I
3x4, which was generally employed
as anartillery tractor, a role in which it
superseded the earlier Kfz 69 pur-
pose-built artillery tractor, The Krupp
Boxer, as it became known, was po-
-rered by a 4-cylinder horizontally
cpposed engine and had all-round in-
Cependent suspension,
Hunqary burlt few vehicles: one 6 x 4
personnel carrter for 14 men was the
Botond. In Czechoslovakia Tatra pro-
iuced the Tatra T92 2{onner powered

trI
B\ the late
iiplr
1930s
Blitz
the German military many different variants, for example
nventory presented an enormous general sewice, fuel tankers house
.:qnstic problem, with over i00 dtffe- body etc, As the need for better cross-
rent vehicle types in service. country performance became a pre-
A desperate programme lo ratlondl- mium it was decided by Opel to pro-
'ze thrs situatron was put in hand under duce a four-wheel-drive 3{on truck
-:e leadership of General von Schell, with the designation Typ A and based
,'.1o was then director of mechaniza- on the same basic vehicle desiqn as
-:n. Hrs aim was to cut down the vast the Typ S, The addition of a driven
:-:mber of types and bring in a degree front axle gave tremendous advan-
:- standardization which, when plans tages over the normal 4x2 truck, and
.';ere flnalized, allowed just 30 vehicle the wheelbase for the 4x4 was shor-
:_.pes.
ln the 3{on medrum cateqory OPel's
desigm was the most successiul The Opel Blitzes of the Afrika Korps are
Opel Blitz 4x2 was of a conventionai seen on a busy road in Libya, I 94 1.
,a;rout and ieatured a Pressed steel For all his panache as a tank
::mmercial type cab wtth wooden c ommander, R om m e I cons is te ntlY
i:cdy. Under the so called Schell proq- neglected the logtistics of the Afrika
:a::lme all 4x2 vehicles were deslq- Korps and imposedan i'mpossrb/e
:-ared Typ S. The 4 x 2 was produced tn burden on his transport columns.

I -c5
OpelBlitz (continued)

tened by 15 cm (5.9 in), A two-speed


transfer box qave the vehicle a choice
of l0 forward qears, Durinq the pro-
duction span from 1937 to 1944 some
70 000 Opel Blitz trucks were built, as
well as over 25,000 'Allrad' (four wheel
drive) models. By lale 1944. however
manuJacture was totally disrupted bv
Allied bombing and the Allied adv-
ance across Europe, making plans to
produce vehrcles in 1945 fruitless, The
variations of body design were numer-
ous the most popular model being the
house body. The Blrtz's possibilities
were endless, and the vehicles were
used as field ambulances, mobile
laboratories, Iaundries, mobile com-
mand posts, freld caravans, radio vans,
cipher offices, and mobile workshops
to name just a few. The body was made
of timber and compressed card to save
valuable steel, Later durinq the war
when raw materials were desperately
short, the cabs were produced from lies: the rear shaft was shofiened and Specification Above: An Opel Blitz Kfz 3l
wood and pressed card and termed the driven axle was moved forward to OpelBlitz ambulance model. The Germans
Ersatz cabs. During the winter cam- line up with the sprockets, and be- Powerplant: one 54. B-kW (73. 5-bhp) also used heavy car cftassjs
pargns on the Eastern Front even the cause of its performance the Maultier, Opel O-cylinder petrol engdne ambulances and captured some,like
four-wheel-drive vehicles were almost as the vehicle became known, was Dimensions: lenqth 6.02 m ( 19 ft 9 rn); the Austin K2. It was also used to
brought to a standstill, and the Waffen- accepted for standard production, width2.265 m(7 ft5.2 in); height carry mobile operating theatres.
SS developed a umque three-quarter Similar conversions to Ford and Daim- 2, 175 m (7 ft 1.6 in)
track vehicle from an Opel Typ A and ler-Benz vehicles were also carried Weights: chassis 2 100 kq (4,630 1b); Performance: maxrmum speed BC ic:
obsolete PzKpfw I tank track assemb- out, but were not so numerous, payload 3290 ks (7,253 lb) h (50 mph); range 410 kn (255 niles.

E#*"" heavy trucks


Most German healry trucks were basi- Right: The control offar-flung
cally civil-based vehrcles or Typ S armour e d for ces depended on a
models under the Schell programme. reliable network of radio
The majority were 4x2 4Vz to 6 ton- communications, b a s e d on mo bile
ners, such as the MAN ML4500 which radio stations mounted on heavy
was also burlt rn Austria Oy OAf. tfre trucks. This vehicle is part of a
Mercedes-Beru [4500A is a typical ex- G erman division al he adquar ter s
ample of the type of German vehicle outside Tobruk in I 941 . Heavy trucks
used by the Wehrmacht. Powered by were mainly used for specialist tasks,
a Darmler-Benz OM67/4 O-cylinder general supplies being entrusted to
dtesel engine, it formed part of the lighter vehicles and the r ailways.
backbone of German army transport,
and in one variant mobile antt-aircraft cargo truck qenerally being used in
equipment was built on the Mercedes conjunction with four-wheel trailers.
chassis in the form of a 37-mm Flak 4l Skoda also produced one of the oddt-
gnrn, ties of World War II, the 4x4 Skoda I75
An attempt was made to produce a built as an artillery tractor for use in
tank transporter unit for use with rough conditions on the Eastern Front,
PzKpfw I tanks, and a 4x4 version of 1t featured huge steel wheels
the Btissing-NAG 6.S-ton lorry was ( 1 500 x 300 mm front and
used, Very little progress was made in 1500x400mm rear), Some of these
this direction, and most tank haulagre production models were used ln North
was carried out by the 6x4 Faun West Europe.
L900D567 with a payload capacity of Hanomaq tractors were used to haul Overall the German transport sys- Dimensions: lenEth 10.40 m (3= ..
BB00 kg (19,400 1b). The German truck one or two laden traiiers and were pur- tem relied mainly on the railways, and 1.4 rn); width2 50 m (B ft2 -a ::l ::-t::
rndustry was never able to supply pose-built for this role: the Model on the road greater emphasis was 2,60 m (B ft 6,4 in)
enough types to transport tanks, half- SSI00 was employed by the army and placed on medium trucks, Weight: 9200 kg (20 2821b)
tracks with trailers eventually taking the Luftwaffe, the latter usinq the type
over this role, to tow fuel bowsers. It was strictly a Specification
With the German takeover of commercial type which was made FaunL900D567
Czechoslovakia in l93B many useful in- available to the crvil market, A largrer Powerplant:one I i 1,8-kW (150-bhp)
dustrres felt into German hands and but similar type was produced by Faun Deutz F6M517 6-cylinder diesel
were put to use supplying the German with a 13.54-litre engdne, and this vehr engme
armed forces, In Kolin the excellent cle could be adapted to flt railway
6 x 6 Tatra 6.5-ton truck was produced lines.
with some outstanding features: they
rncluded a tubular frame and indepen-
dent front and rear suspension, and
power was supplied by a l2-cylinder
air-cooled 157-kW (210 hp) engine
Skoda also supplied healry trucks to
ihe Germans, the Skoda 6 5T6 6x4
A Biissing-Nag 454 6 t/*ton 4x4 truck
carries a PzKpfw I command tank in
Afrika Korps colours. Only a small
number of these vehicles were
produced, the most widely used tank
transporter being the Faun 6x4,
whichwas capable of carrying the
PzKpfwll.
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Tru*i<- *f W*rid Tv'ar 13

',,. .l a .r,. . - rt) .r: !f'

,lt t
.it:t Kl.t t'"'t) .tl:

,A**t'g:.4fi in*red:"bi'e.qri;rlu;e oi
-
-hicies ai,iJ etu rls ar tht caveiL;
,.'ej.r;n,?sc,tool in Metz afte, its
.?pture .hy h,he li,S 95ift Jnfan fry
)ittisian. The tank ssn:-na:l*rs are
. 4 2 -; Draganll'a-qcns, Ifi e F cst
.'.iell, used A n'r erir:an l: n.(
ir-:nsp*ri. S/sr: y;sibie a,*e f-rucks
.z a d* byfr df, OpeJ, Suss;::g-"nIag
: .::r filrcen.
E;9-n l: Jl Sedfc'r g 3- ton trask uti!]'t GS
: ab tn'Atlickey Murise' carnouii*ge
j;tr!sfi e rhas ifs fa;'pauJ.rn raJJed baeJr
. /-i eal lls tanl(. fierilord,; ea:rieci
. . . : iif i; 3: andwaier t;ir&sona
,=r:;'.fu *.{:ie supersfri;cf ur€. yft e 3-
::r,ne'r ruas t*ihe Eritisk arrfiy what
: : (: 2 i ta1fier was f* d"he AmevJf,€tis
t

.-. ;''r: fl,'* Largres t v* jziti* whie h,


: ;.i:' =J,r.-
"be;:rcdsl'€ri a.ri.nr€sse.
,. :i veniries v\r.re ail oJ cld stlc<, veiv itttle concern being giverr 10 truck Gerrnan Jr:rces.
.-,iri:n (factor-es sL:ch as GAZ and Zis sipprlyinq most) o: Ce"siins that were Japran had lrttl-- use for iro:cr rfaiscorr due tc ts comrrlltrr-Lents in s and :rci
.-- :20 9.1 ;.,'in.\.Tto'cc'l;.55' rlol 'lire 1.-ie'v-LJ i.rfln'gr.g'ro:
-./ .lr 6c i : .(,- --.'6s lhoJelO1e^J-C ,v.
. r' t-e "i)
suir,piv lrurks ircnl ahe USA, Cairada and lhe UK USA suppiied thought that ihe operalcns -r; r:. Ci fa ,A'oL, d have led to rnore eiiecrtr,,e
-rl,8lC trucks ilcluclirrg rnost ci the produclion line cf ihe :itudebaKer ''n:.C '-1 ' rjl. e, | ^q -- .: r -dO . -e .r'rn) rU rno I-,p t.tral O
rmpror,,e iis curreni vehtc e r;ng;, a.I some 5 <4 r,eh cles u;er-e obia ned from
.-,-rgr .,.rosi Gerran veiticlgs ',r.,ere civil-orientale.j, te,/L.l.Jptr,cnis were Scamnnelt anct Tholrvcrcfr in Enclland, and from Tatra in Czechoslovakia. After
-- . :.ed ir-. r-iu,,-.r truck rnanufaciurers, Cpel ',,nrlih lis Bl tz be,r J fhe r.ncst .LJe :) l: .-r'J ' flo. .t.).1^.C 1 .; \l' 9j,'r--o-SrroeCatoO,- i
:'': ,.'','rle lhe Biiirsh iised iarge stngie r^rheels, llre Gerinans chose to rhe mcsr v", del', used rr,.l irie n the iapanese army. At the ourbreak of hcstil t:e,.
, ' ,ir dua i-ear ',rrheels on tireir +i7l trLrrks olhe, m.:nula,;rlTer: to '- -jJl rp: o. , " ^ ,' )4.a0) r.e- cles '.r7*,p ^ 11, Io-1 .s. ine ro s .t 'o ,c
. \, C ' oi t-y '. ,.sqe' J^u,,- L'rtr V' ceJ-sB,,. ri_on envrsagecifailed to materralize, largely because the biE manliacturei-s
. - ". '-1.r<ne l' Snrl Li0r0iward (fo-vola and Nissan) r,rrere ordered to pfoduce aei-o engines.
- :- : ,, La r, h;r.-t i heteroqeneous coliectiln oi vehicies ii-i servrce -he developrrent.f specal n-rilitar-y lypes and. eve"n mcre impcrtant, ine
'.- r. .'t: i": r,.-rL '.'..j4 .' : \ : - .r Fr o , reec ior srandard zat on obl:aineci clui-tng ihe rnrar is evidenl to this day in rr, tttarl,
.,:? Lll r-:.c - -C /' rnrTle l r r9 . 'i " .il LL o1l r?l i-: , Jot:. c
:: . .- r1e Cein'rali iorcr.s Fi.'t r.iras rlr. m,:j .-,upp ibr ro ihe ltalran and

2,4?,',J
OBe[ Blitz
Ape! Blitz truckswere among the many vehicles used by theAfrika
Korps, although the continual backwards-and-farwards of the
desertwar saf,v the Germans equippedwith Iarge numbers of
captured vehicles ; indeed, Rommel preferred. captured Brilish
trucks for desert operations, their lalge single rear tyres providing
more traction than the twin rear twes of the Opel. iVonefieless, llre
Ope! Blitzwas a mainstay of theWehrmacht logistics eflort,
although the production o{ almost I00,a}A vehicles in seven years
compares unfavourably with aver half a million GMC 2 t/zton 6 z 6
trucksproducedfrom l94I to 1945.

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Trucks of World War II

,i',ililfiiti:!' .l',r::1i
.i."j{ia!fj:_i::-:l:l
ru
ffill,1;ifis
fi.Ti,i:l=:!1 W
>K nuc Matador
-:-= AEC Matador 4x4 tractor fust AnAEC Matador comes ashore from
and was built to a
-:::-ed rn 1939, an American tank landing shiP
-.',--
Cdrce specification to tow 4 S-in during the Allied amPhibious
5 S-in (140 mm) and 6-tn
-l-:::m), operation at S alerno. I ntroduced as
a-n afiillew tractor in I939, some of
-:2-::n) howrtzers. The requtrement
-:.--
::l a four-wheel tractor with sea- the 9,000 froduced served for manY
::: -:: the crew and ammunitton stow- vears poit-war, an indication of the
soundness ofth e basic design.
==:l The early production vehlcles
----r a cab roof of drfferent shape to that
-: -a:er production trucks, the latter
:a-, -::g a crcular hatch for air observa- low-powered radio transmitting and
--::, ',';hen not in use this was covered receiving equrpment and an external
:; : small canvas sheet, The basic de- penthouse could be erected. As these
.-; :i ihe cab was verY simPle and vehicles were considered Prime
:,--:. berng burlt on a wooden frame targets they were carefully disguised
-:;-:, s:eel sheets. The body was of con- to look like general-service trucks
-.-::-::ral ttmber construction wtth a Approximately 175 Matadors were
:::c ia-dboard and a side door for use built in 1942 as self-propelled giun car-
:-; :-e gun crew. SPecial runners were riaQles and comprised a 6-pdr anti-tank
: :: tc the floor to allow shells to be gun mounted in an armoured box. The
::-:-"-ei io the rear tailgate for unload- cab and body were also armoured,
:; -ie Matador was Powered bY a Otl-er vanants included power equip-
:-:,-:.der 7.58-litre AEC engrne pro- ment 20 kVA, power equipment
::::-E 71 kW (95 bhP), allowing a toP 50 kVA, air-traffic control, and an ex-
;e:icf 58(torkn/h (36 mPh). For Pulling perimental 25-pdr port6e The last did
: ::!:ses examPle extractlng quns not proqress beyond the prototype
:::- nud) a 7-ton winch was fitted with stage,
-: :::1250 ft) of wire roPe. The Matador The last of the Matadors were au-
-,'.'- theatres of the war' In ctioned off rn the mid-1970s, this late
-ed rn itmost
-:,: jesert proved to be extremelY disposal date provinq the sound
:,r:':ar -wrth the gun crews for tts re- strenqth and reliability of these trucks,
-=. ';; and photogrraPhic evidence
.:-:-,',-s ihat some had the tops of the Specification
:..s Jrt down to door levei, Matadors AECMatador
::;::: also pressed into service in the Powerplant: one 70,8-kW (95-bhp)
r=-:r to tow transporter trailers be- AEC O-cylinder dresel enqne
::-.= lf ihe lack of proper tractors for Dimensions: lenqth 6.32 m (20 ft 9 in);
::-: p-jrpose. Total production of Mata- width 2.40 m (7 ft 10.5 in); height 3. l0 m
i:rs -,';as 8.612. The RAF was also a (10ft2in)
:-:-:r jser of this vehicle, 400 being Weights:unladen 7189 kq ( 15,848 lb)
.'.:c.:ed tn various offerings, The and laden L 1024 kg (24,304 ]b)
Gen-eral Load Carrier had a special Performance: maximum speed 58 km/
= :sei body with droP down sides h (36 mph); radius 579 km (360 miles)
-,: -a'lgate to facrlitate easy loading'
--: --:-c support Posts could aiso be
ThisAEC Matador has beenfitted
:::-:-;eci. Special flat Platform trucks
;;::e :lso supplied to transport heary with the'streamline' cab roof .
such as dumPers and com Developed from a HardY (AEC)
=l-!nent
::-:ss:rs. An armoured command Post designof the 1930s, theMatadorwas
-.';== :lsc burlt on this chassts, called the a medium attillery tractor used to
Dorchester, rn which accommodation move the 5.5-in ( I 40 -mm) medium
-:;.. :l:r'rded intenally for higth- or gun.

>K tedford QL Office issued orders for large quantl- road tests, Within a month two more
interest was expressed, but as no tm-
mediate requirement was envrsaqed ties of 4x2 vehrcles and also told Bed- had joined it for extensrve factory and
the matter proceeded no filther. Then ford to proceed with a prototype 4x4 milltary tests, The usuai army tests
Bedford decided to undertake private 3{on gteneral servrce truck, In Octo- were completed and the fitments for
development on a low-pnorrty basis ber 1939 a specification was approved, special tools installed, and drivers be-
with an eye to future military orders and on I February 1940 the first pro- qan training to operate this new truck,
After the outbreak of war the War totype was completed and was out on It had taken one year exactly from the
flrst prototype to the first productlon
vehicles, a commendable feat in a time
of gEeat stress and shortaqJes. The Bed-
ford QL was desiQlned to use its four-
used by the Army fire service, the
Bedford QL fire tender was
introduced in ]943 and saw sewice
in northwestEuroqe.lt towed a
trailer pump, and cartied an integral
water tank, hoses andPTO (Power
take-off) pump in the mainbodY.
tsedford QL (continued) Trucks of World War II
: --=:i drive on rough terrain, but
drsengaqe the front drrve for use
-:
:--d roads to ease the wear on tyres
:-
-,-: gearbox the chanqe berng
=-=:ied by movingr a lever on the
.=::edary gearbox. Another feather rn
::lorci's cap (and a surprise one) was
:= lack of normal teething troubles
r'lng the QL's early use, It was only
about one year rn sewice that the
=:r siQm
rst of trouble occurred and a
:::ner peculiar one at thati a tendency
::r the vehrcle to shudder when the
:rakes were applied slightly These
l:ports were followed up immediate
,_.- and it was found that only a small
,?C?:FSSffi
lroportlon of vehiales were shovurng tii:]iit:],9,9t::::
.::-s laulr Afier some rime spent on rn- ti:){i.:;,6idlii]rr:r::::1ru
'.-estrgation the fault was found to be ffi;:3}i
:t!:*:i;tr;i;ii6ir!::a)?
sLmple, and the deep-treaded cross-
sountry tyres were replaced by nor
mal road tyres whereupon the prob-
lem ceased.
The first production vehicle was the 6-pdr port6e a vehrcle desrgned to raised (alonq with the cab) on a special A Bedford QLB light AA (Bofor s)
steel-bodied QLD issued to unrts of the transport and fire a 6-pdr anti-tank qun frame for deep wading. When fully tractor comes ashore from a'Cjass 9'
Army Service Corps as a general car- from the body It was necessary to elevated the vehicle's automotive ferry during the 2 I st Army Group's
rrer. From this model stemmed many modify the cab by cuttrng off the upper parts were raised 2 13 m (7 ft) and the March 1945. The
r?ftine crossrng in
variants including the QLT 3{on troop half and fltting a canvas top, and when driver m (10 ft). The vehrcle was
3.05 QL saw sewice tor many years alter
carrier with a modified and leng- this type became redundant the sur- approved for production in the event the war, finally retiring in the earty
thened chassis to accommodate the viving vehrcles were converted back that the waterproofrng system then in J960s.
extra long body to caruy 29 troops and to greneral-service types after being use faiied. The Bren was developed by
krt, The QLT was popularly known as rebodieo lhe RAF was a malor oper. the Mtnrsl"y oJ Supplv by taking a sran Specification
the 'Drooper The QLR wireless house ator of the Bedford QL many being dard Bedford QLD and replacing the BedfordQLD
type was used by all arms of the sig used as ruel ankers with swingrng rear wheels wrth components from the Powerplant: one 53.7-kW (72 c.-l
nals. The truck featured an arxiliary booms to refuel aircraft, Two ex- Bren Gun Carrier, thus creating a half- Bed lord 6 cyhnder petrol er-cr, :-:
qrenerator, and other varrants on thLs penmental vehicles that never prog- track The atm of thts scheme was to Dimensions: lenqrth 5.99 m (i9 ... :-
house type body were command ressed beyond the prototype stage reduce rubber wear The vehicle was j
wrdlh 2.26 m (7 it 5 in) herghi . :- : -'
cipher offrce and mobile terminal car- were the Giraffe and Bren, The Giraffe consrdered adequate durinq tests, but 10 in)
rrer v^hicles A specral requrrtrmenl was designed for amphibrous land- the shortaqe of rubber did not mater- Performance: maxmum speei : . r-.
ior use in the Western Desert was a ings: all the major components were rahze and the pro.lect was dropped. h (38 mph); radius 370 kn (23C r:=:

Leyland Hippo

wrth a rotary offset printrng machine, removed, ofa Coles Mk 7 or Neal Type The 1 0 - ton 6 x 4 format became
and a photo-mechanrcal type equrp- QMC crane, widely used in the British anny alter
ped with a rotary offset printer, work the war Manufacturers included
tables and plateracks. Entrance to all Albion, Foden and Leyland- The
these bodies was through a singrle door Specification Leyland Hippo,mtroduced tn -l-143. :s
in the rear. Because of the lengrth of the Leyiand Hippo Mk 2 GS seen here with WD pattern op'n ah
body the spare wheel hadto be trans- Powerplant: one 74, 6-kW ( 100-bhp) andtheGS body.
ferred from behind the cab and placed Leyland Type L 6-cylinder dresel
under lhe rear of the chassis. engme Weights:unlacie :.-:=- <1 -: - -- -
A post-war fittinq was the adoption Dimensions: length 8,31 m (27 ft 3 in); andladen l97i . k; 1: l:i :
of a 9092litre (2,000-lmp gal) AVTUR width 2.46 m (B ft l in); height 3.33 m Performance: r:a . i :- -c- :l,
refuelier body and, with the rear body (10 ft l1 in) miles)
Italian trucks
l.l"::_,- ci ltaly's trucks were of old de-
.-;- but dulng the burld-up of the
-,.- :r. amed forces before the out-
::=- cf World War ll some measure
:: -=ciarrlization was achreved. The
--]es supplier of trucks to the ltalian
:r:::,,--n-as Flat, Fiat vehicles equipped
:-:r cf the transport units, vehicles
:<= .::e Fiat TL37 4x4 hght truck hav-
-:; --ge wheels and tyres to suit the
:=:::,r] of Ethropia and the Western
l--se::. The OM Autocarretta 32 was a
-:-;,re hght truck, and was highly re-
by its crews, and even by Brit-
=-=:ded
i:- l3cps when examples were cap-
--::j The type was intended primart-
.r ,:: mountain operations, and fea-
--:ej a 4-cylinder air-cooled diesel
=:-;:e and rndependenl suspension
:::: and rear, The gearbox was cen-
:J; mounted and drove both front
-,: rear
:-:k
axles direct, The medium-
lalgre was dominated by the Fiat
38R =x2 and the Lancia 3 RO N 672{on The F iatl Spa Dovunque was built by
{ .. 2 The latter vehicle also formed the kW (62-bhp) engine, and the Fiat burettor, which had a tendency to clog
'=.'. cf a mobile antr-aircraft mount. 665NL, The latter was quite advanced up in dusty conditions. the Spa factory, at that time under
-: s:e'1 these trucks a hand-cranked in truck body and cab desigm, F iat control.'Dovunque' means
-:=r:a start unit was placed forward of The Germans used largre numbers of Specification cr os s - coun try Qiter aLly' g o
:,: :rankshafi. The power unit was a Italian vehicles, these seeing service OMAutocarretta anwhere').
, -:-<::s two-stroke engrne. The Fiat Libya
on almost every German front, In Powerplant: one I5.7 kW (2l-bhp) OM
E33 BM rvas built on similar lines to the the British discovered that Italian Autocarretta 32 4 cylinder engine
diesel-engined trucks were of great Dimensions:length 3,80 m (12 ft 5.6 in); A Fiat/Spa Model3SR 2 t/z.ton 4x2
l.l:sr lta-Lial tarks were of the liqhter value because of their lack of a car- width 1.30 m (4 ft 3.2 in); heiqht 2. 15 m truck is seen in use as an artillery
.,:es a:ed could therefore be carried (7 ft 0,6 in) observation post in the pause after
:-'-:: bcdres of the Lancia, though a A Lancia 3 RO N 6 t/z- ton 4 x 4 AU P Weisht: 1615 kq (3,560 lb) the end of Operation'Crusader'.
=:r-larspofrer trailer could also be (Au tocarro U n ifi cate P e s ante, ot
-.=: T-;,.o other widely used vehrcles Standard Heavy Truck) is dug out of
,r:r: -:e Fiat 626BL powered by a 46- the sand in North Africa.

USA
E:
GEI-
: Dodge WC62
able the production lines to complete
vehicles at a much faster rate, The two
types used the same engine, clutch,
Lransmrssion, front axle. steering gear.
wheels, brakes, tyres, radiator, fan and
belt, windshield, seats and electrical
system. Basically designed as infantry
carriers, these vehicies found their
way into all arms of the American
forces, including the Army Air Force,
DurinQlstringent mllitary tests the vehi-
cle proved to have excellent stabllity
as a result of its low centre of gravity
and wide{read tyres, Sx-wheel drive
and hrgh ground clearance enabled
AWC62 towing an anti-tankgun(the
M 1 57 -mm adaptation of the British
6-pdr) halts infrontof Munichcity
hall as the7thArmy moves through
thecityinApril 1945.
-t
. :r_:,- '-l
;l
It5

.&
The l+tonDodgeT2l4was
elongated to Produce theWC62'
both shownherewith French trooPs
in the south of France in August I 944'
:he vehicle to give a good account of
itself over really rough telrain. Produc-
,
:ion of the personnel carrters con- r{

{D*
:inued throughout the war, many being
drstributed to other nations includhg
the Free French, who were equiPPed
almost entirely with Amerlcan mat6r-
jel. The majority of these vehicles
were supplied with a complete canvas
tiit, though a certain percentage was
f,tted with a pedestal grun mount on the
passenger side of the cab to carry a
12.7 -mm (0, S-in) machine-gnrn. Appro-
ximately 43,300 Dodge 6xO trucks
were produced between 1943 and
1945. Very few vartants were de-
veloped on this chassis: one such was a
scout car with an armoured shell fitted Dimensions: length 5,71 m (18 ft
around the Dodqe chassis and power- made, The 6x6 saw extenslve use of vehicle preservation societies,
post-war until the Korean War, after 8.75 in); width 1.91 m (6 ft 3,4 in); herght
plant; another was the mounting of twin
which the type became surPlus as a Specification 2.21 m (7 tt 3 in)
12.7-mm (0,5-in) machine-gn-lns (on a Performance: speed B0 hn/h (50 mph);
Gun Mount M33) on the rear body. This result of wear and the introduction of DodgeWC62
new equipment, TodaY the WC62 is a Powerplant: one 68,6-kW (92-bhP) radius 386 kn (240 miles)
model was developed and tested in
1943, but no further progress was much prized vehicle wrthin the ranks Dodge 6-cylinder peirol engine

E€= H*"ri"an medium trucks


When one thinks of US milttarY Federal model was used in the same
medium trucks, the GMC 2Y2ton 6x6 basrc wav. the power unit for lhis lype
immediately springs to mind, Howev- beino the Hercules O-cYlLnder RXC
er, this type is discussed overleafand engrne.
other types are treated here, In the 4ton cargo ranQle the FWD
Semt-trailer tractors come into this HARI saw extensive servtce with
category with designations from ZVz- American, Brttish and Canadian
ton to S-ton, These special-purpose forces It was powered bY a Waukesha
vehicles were used to haul larqe trail- GB2 O-cvlinder engine ManY of the
ers of all descriptions, The qeneral- trucks were instrumental in hauling
service bodies were used in great supplies along the Allied supply line
numbers during the advance across from Persta Io lhe USSR. One interest-
Europe, proving extremely useful in ing deployment of the FWD in British
such orqanized deploYments as the servic-e was its use to tow mobile
'Red Ball Express' route. Starting with smoke generators. The RAF used the
some of the less publicrzed vehicles, truck as mobile power supply vehicles
the Autocar Model U4I44T 4 x 4 tractor and as snow plouqihs, the latter betng
was basically used in the USA, verY fitted with a Bros rotary plouqh, for
few crossing the Atlantic and the US which the rear body was replaced by a
Army Arr Force being a major user for Iarge Climax R6 petrol engine unit
the fuel bowser{owtng role, Another TrJnsmission of power to the plough
early model, the GMC AFffi-s0z-BE was hvofold, first by V-belts to the rot-
COE tractor, was used to tow early arv parts then through lransmtsslon
shifis to the rolor assemolY wi'h a Specification The attack transporl William
horse box trailers for the cavalry. The Tilghman r's /oa ded for the Allied
GMC was powered bY a 6-cYlinder charn drive ior flnal power to the rake Diamond T 968
Diamond T supPlied a 6x6 medium Powerplant: one 79-kW (106-bhP) armies in north west Europe . Visible
9l-kW (122-bhp) enqine. Perhaps the areboth major types of medium
two most popular and publicized trac- truck, the Diamond T 968 this being Hercules RXC 6-cylinder Petrol
one of the US Army's cargto trucks unttl enqine truck, including the cab-over-engine
tors were the Autocar Model U7I44T (COE) AFKWX 6x6, also made by
and the Fed6ral 94x93, which were the end of the war Variants included Dimensions: length 6.82 m (22 ft 4 5 1n);
used in qute largre numbers for haul- tipper, map reproduction, wrecker width 2,44 m (8,0 ft); height 3 0l m (9 lt GMC.
age. The Autocar was used by artillery and bitumen tank vehicles. A total of 10 5 in)
10,551 was built, and a fwther 2, 197 Weights: unladen 8357 kq (18,424 lb) Performance: maximum sPeed 64 km/
units to tow van bodies, fitted out with h(40 mph); radius266 km(165ml]es)
radio equipment mostly for use by anti- were supplied as long- and short- and laden I 1939 kq (26,320 lb)
aircraft units, These trailers were de- wheelbaie vehicles (cab and chassts) 3r...F€-:l:i;
signed to use a front dolly wheel for Ior frtmenr of speciai engineering
use as full towinq trailer, thouqih when bodies. These were supplied to many
the trailer was coupled to the tractor other countries durinq and after World
the dolly could be towed behind the War IL
whole assembly. Early vehicles had
Rxed steel cabs, ffiese later beng
changed to soft tops in line with most
other American-produced mrlitary
transport vehicies. Many soft{op veht-
cles were fltted with a nng mount for a
I2]1-mm (0 S-in) machine-qun The

Studebaker pr o duce d almos t


200,000 2L/z-ton trucks, similar to the
GMC 6x6, butmore than half of that
produ ction went to the S ovie t U nion
under Lend-Lease. ManY were
produced with the Studebaker
commer cial- ty pe clos e d c ab.

o/o:
Hcilf ctmillion
The break-out from Normandy and the Soviet destruction of the Army Group Centre
limmies
ontheEasternFrontpresented theAllieswith aformidablelogistics problemin the
t/tton 6xG
summer of 1944. At tfue heart of the massive transport effort, the GMC 2
truck, known as the'Jimmy" servedingreaternumbersthan any other heavy
transport vehicle.
In 1939 the design of US milrtary trucks was By now Europe was at war and American
standardized: only two of each type of class involvement seemed hkely, Once the lrend-
would be considered from commercial manu- Lease aqreement was in operation, early GMC
facturers, Classes of vehicles would be 7e-ton, 6x6 trucks were shipped to the UK Before
IVz-Ion, ZYz-Ion,4-ton and 7Yz-Ion, and manu- proceeding, it is worth a look at the early de
facturers would have to compete for produc- velopment and production models, In 1939 the
tion contracts By 1941 just 16 manufacturers crvillderived GMC ACKWX353 was in produc-
were eligible to compete, and their prcducts tion and in general use in the USA Very few
were to include as many common mechanical actually saw combat, but the type was used rn
parts and accessortes as possible, Up to June its thousands by the armed forces and National
1940 the Quartermaster Corps had tested anC Guard. Many were strLl in service after the war
approved three vehrcle types: the lrlz ton rn home-based units, The cab and bonnet were
Dodge 4x4,ZVz ton CMC 6 x O and 6-ton Mack as those of crvrl models, including some
6xo chrome, A heavy channel girder was added as
{:. &l front bumper, and a heavy-duty brushguard
+" was fitted to protect the front, A milrtary body of
standard desrgn was used, The cab-over-en-
qrne (COE) version was designated Sunny ltaly was not always so sunny, and south o{
AfKWX352: its silhouette was htgh, making BolognainOctober 1944 itwas themule thatnade
concealment in the field difficult, but was found mosl progrress . N ev er thele s s, th e J ee ps and G M C
to be worth the sacrrfrce because the length 'Jimmy' 2 t/rtonners ploughed through the mud.

Breakout!
When General George S. Patton's newly-created 3rd Armyinitiatedthe Allied
break-out from Normandy in Augmst I944, it was the herald of a sustained, massive
F +s advance that was to strainthe logistical base that had been buiit up on the Channel
"sf, {'-*..
F: coast. Foremost amonq the reguirements of a modern army are petrol, ammunition
and food, and untilthe clearingofthe Scheldt estuary in November 1944 such
,

*+ $i t; supplies had to be tmcked the hundreds of miles across France to where the Ailied
:+'
'+uftl
-€. .r spearheads were battedng at the entrances to Germany.
eo$ l-
l]:,

i: -i-
;

: : ll
L:r.isr::r:r- :,

,...^.F*i.r*-
,,':,11 i,l;,:

+!i:.ij::11!i:
.::: 1r.--::;
Trucks of World War II
,.aved allowed a larger-capacity body to be
=lted No brushguard was iircorporaied, anci
-i'rer models had separate sidehghts aoded to
.re main headlghts. The succeedrng model
and probabiy the most famed soit-skrn vehicle
,f World War Ii followrng the Jeep) rnras the
ICKW Like all American trucks it was de-
._-toped
from off rhe_shetf civrt parts i::i11!|ryt
Goodreliability i 'l

-he re,rabr,- y oi lhese rrucks overhe ne, L

:/. VtrcrS wts maqninc-.n ond rn'l-ed 40


. .ors l,leris s il-orts und-ng. A I earry mode]s
:-ad the steel panel cab, thrs being replaced l'

'' -op canlas -rlr a:td srde screens The ha:d i*


::r're lines of the steel-panelled cab were lost
,i *rrng this transformation, but progress called ffi ,,,..: , , ..,.,:.: ,).,, -*.,,. , -:
,r extra shipping herght but lcwer silhouette.
-:e panel cab was retained on models in ser
:e and this type served until lhe 1970s in
qrSX
:-any countrres. The rnitial orders lor the nor
:-:l control types was placed wrth the Yellour }
:uck Company, a firm partly owned by GMC ;r
.-:C later absorbed fully rnlo the parent com-
:-,:x. The standard cominercial bonnet then in
-::duction was replaced bJ'a srmple pressed
- :el unit with squared mudguards
irom the outsei the Yellow Truck Company
.-i drlficulty 1n producing the vast numbers ol
'-. .. ' American LST(Z)s unload supplies direct onta the
'':-'::, - Normandybeach-head.The2lz-toncMc6x6
: l'n'r:;-;'" 6;::"" truckswiilbeheadingforthemainsupplydumpat
;'.,..*":' ..
.-r'r..-,i.?.;:., ',.t1':: ' Sfl6,fromwheretheywilljointhe'RedBall
?:-
...,.t: | . _ E*press'.
:

.':4
',g,
#-
=-l
t:

+::S:.,a;'rt,

ll,r':'jqi#*&
c -:L::".1:
.:-j

l -::.-:"
t=+=' '
;i':.:

t#
#,;F;

.
,.:
Half a m,illionJimmies

trucks required, a situation partly resolved


when Studebaker was called rn to produce
trucks of this type. For some reason Studebak-
er trucks used slightly different pressings on
the cab and bonnet, and were powered by a
Hercules engine, Because ofthe non-standard
desiqn most of these Studebaker vehicles
were exported. As GMC took over the lactory
of the Yellow Truck Company production
quickly increased, and outside contracts were
also given to Reo and international Harvester,
The majorlty of these ZVz-lon trucks were
produced as cargo vehlcles, but variants were
numerous and lncluded the dump truck de-
signed for the corps of engineers with the op-
tion of use as a troop carrier. Removable seats,
a front rack and an adjustable cab protector
could all be used to transform the truck to a
normal type general duty vehicle.
Loadingproblems
The Douqlas C-54 transport aircraft used in
ihe latter part of the war was equipped with
iricycle landing gear which left the cargo hold
more than 305m (l0ft) above ground level:
loading and unloading would have been almost
rmpossible with conventional trucks, and sub-
stantial damagte was envisaged to alrcraft, sup-
piies and trucks. So Garwood produced a spe-
cral high-liit body for use on the ACKW353
chassis. The hydraulic scissor{ift system util-
ued a tailgate adlustable to varying aircraft
heiqhts, and the hydraulic feed came from a
:elescopic pipe mounted at the rear of the sub- ing matenals, A more complex handltng truck One of the more unusual adaptations of the Jimmy
was issued to the army air force, consisting of was theDUKW, anexampleof whichis seenover
Irame.
two U-shaped frames in the upside down posi- the bow of theoldbattleshipUSS Arkansas on
Very few GMCZVz-Ionnerswere burlt speci- D -D ay. M ore than 2 1,000 of the fully amphibious
ncally-as wreckers, though a couple of mate- tion; through the top of these passed a double- trucks were built by I 9 45.
nal-handling types were often designated as channel girder to carry the hoist used for the
s'uch. The chemtcal servlce truck MI featured carriage of bombs between ammunitton
a double ghannel on which a liftrng hoist could dumps and aircraft, The Heil Company of Mil-
travel. Its main function was to transport che- waukee, Wisconsin, was responsible for pro- This amazing vehicle onginated from the ur-
ducing thrs body and frame, of whrch 2,286 gent need to discharge suppltes from ship to
mical barrels, and a special locker was built to
accommodate the appropriaie decontaminat- were built, One of the rarest applicatlons for shore when many port factlities were out of
the CCKW was as a 6-wheel tractor to tow action and shrps were frequently forced to walt
semi-trailers; most of these were based on the weeks to unload their cargoes. A standard
Wherever the armieswent, theJimmieswent too. A Chevrolet NK-G-7113 4x4 tractor. GMCZVz-Ion chassis was used and a complete
convoy croises the Rhine on the pontoon bridge boat shaped body was fitted around rt. One
built to replace the famous bridge at Remagen A major development in the success of
(seen jn the background) which finaL|y collapsed Allied amphibious landings was the rntroduc- priot model was built and demonstrated to the
I 0 days after its capture. tion of a fully amphibious truck, the DUKW. US Army, but was not at flrst greated with en-

2498
Trucks of World War II
iusiasm, At about this ttme Colonel McAuliffe
was faced with the problem of landing supplies
cn European beaches, After an introductton
ald demonstration McAuliffe initiated an order
:or 2,000 vehicles, the first of about 2t 000 built
up to late 1945. Technically it was apparent that
}le GMC powerplant, transmission, transfer
:ase and all mechanical components could be
--tsed
without too many problems. A decision to
economize on steel led to construction of the
jriver's compartment in p11wood, thouqh the
rull was fabricated of welded steel plate. The
propeller tunnel was raised as high as possible
e: the rear of the body as a compromise be-
:,Teen an aft location for increased efficiencv
=iC a iorward location for reduced vulnerabill
--.-. To assist in cleanng shipped water three
.1Ee pumps were specifled: a self-priming
pump, a standby high-capacrty pump
=anfolda hand pump for use when the propshaft
=d not turning,
-,';as

Lend-Lease vehicles
The first GMC 6xO vehicles to see actron
,';ere probably the earliest models sent to the
- K under the Lend-Lease agreement, The ear-
.'est
recorded action with American units was
-:- the Pacific theatre, although much larger
:-umbers were used in Europe and North Afrr-
:a. The first of these to see action was durino
Allied assault on North West Africat it wai
=e
rere, during the advance on the Kasserine
?ass, that many were destroyed by the Ger-
rans, Aiter the defeat of the Axrs forces in
-{rica, thoughts turned towards the invasion of
Srcily and lta1y, and to the eventual landings rn
:rance, During all of these campaigns lhe ZVz-
::n GMC, or Jimmy as it had become known in
re field, performed with outstanding success.
)uring the landings in the south of France the
: rench units involved were supplied solely
.'.rth equipment from the USA. rncluding hun-
:reds of ZVz-Ion 6x6 trucks.
Perhaps the greatest requirement for trucks
:ame with the invasion of North West Europe,
luring the early stages followrng D-Day only a
-:nited number of trucks could operate be-
:ause ofthe size ofthe beach-head, and vehr-
::es were to a degree stifled in movement. The
IUKW came into its own during these earty
iays before the 'Mulberry' harbours could be these the vast Allied armies would soon have lanuary 1945, and theGerman thrustthroughthe
=rected, shipping stores from ship to shore come to a hait (and on occasion did) so special Ardennes has been blunted. Vehictes of the goth
i.rmps before the supplies were taken forward supply routes were organized, the most famous Infantry Division move through the centre of
:- irucks to the front line, By D+60 about 2,000 being the American 'Red Ball Express', This Bastogne, whichhad beenheroically held by the
IUKWs were operating on the Normandy organizatlon ran trucks day and night on 1 0 l st Airborne D ivision.

rcast, about 800 of them in British service. Dur- selected routes cleared of all civihan and non-
lg these first few days much wreckage was essential military trafflc, and because of the
icating about, causinq a high destruction rate narrow French roads a one-way system had to
:: DUKW propellers and rudders, Many be devised. Supplies were loaded at St Ld then
:agedies occurred with DUKWs, but such had dumped at an area west ol Paris, On the return
ieen expected given the environment in journey the trucks traveiled on a different
-;hrch the vehicles worked, route, thereby creating a huge loop, GMC ZYz-
ton trucks were used in their hundreds on this
DUKWlandings route to carry fuel, supplies and ammunition.
A similar fate attended the landrno of US Many trucks towed cargo or fuel tratlers, As
lrlarine Corps howrtzers by DUKW duiing the was to be expected, the long journey took a
-.vo Jima landrngs in the Pacific, T\uelve loaded heavy toll of both drivers and trucks, so mainte-
IUKWs were to disembark from their tank nance and recovery depots were placed at
-=nding ship: in a heavy sea the first vehicle out stages along the route, Some 132 truck com-
:romptly sank wrth gun and crew, and ihe panies were used in the early days of this supp-
s.ame fate befell the followrng seven. Four ly line.
IUKWs managed to start the shoreward jour- GMC 2Yz-Ion trucks are still in service,
:-ey: two DUKWs were swamped on the French-owned vehicles being sold as surpius
-:icreline, making it imposstble to rescue the in 1985, Israel still has the type on its inventory,
The'Red B all Express' was typical of military
;:"ins, and only two howitzers could thus be as do many third-world countries, Post-war /ogritjcs roufes in that it was reser|€d solely for
:rcught into action. ZVz-lon trucks were based on the same design, military traffic. What civiljan trafrc existd was
Back in Europe the breakout from Normandy and this type of truck will remain in American strictly forbidden fo use tfte roads, in order to
-=: long supply hnes to be maintained. Wrthout military service for many years to come, allow themaximum flowof log:istics to thefronL
ffi Mack heavy trucks
The Mack company is one of the oldest
American truck manufacturers still in
existence, the company having started
in tBBg as wagton builders. With the
advent of the combustron engine Mack
was well to the fore in the aqe of truck
progress and by 1939 was weil estab-
lished to produce trucks for miiitary
use.
The first types to see combat were
supplied to the British tn the Western
Desert and consrsted of two 6 x 4 types,
the Mack E)CBX and NR4, SuPPIied in
cab and chassis form these were
bodied as tank transporters to carry
light tanks, such as the 'HoneY' (M3
Stuart) tanks then in use by the British
The NR4 had detachable ramPs whtle
the EXBX had a hinged arrangement
nicknamed 'Bees Knees'. The NR4 was
Abcsve: The Mack 7 )/rton 6x6 ModeL
also supplted ds a general-servlce car-
ner for long hauls across desed ter- NO2 prime mover was largelY used
rain. The rear bogie axles were to tow the 1 5 5 - mm' Long Tom' gun
spaced farther apart than normal, to and the 8-in howitzer. Other models
accommodate the larqer 1400x20 were used aswreckers.
high-flotatron tyres that were a 'must' tn
soft sand conditions All EXBX cabs Macks had to negotiare hatr-ratstno
were of steel construction based on bends in the slow advance. Arr unusual
the pre-war crvil type. The NR4 had an feature on the NO model was that tt
open military cab with canvas top or dispensed wrth the usual universal
alternatively an ali-steel cab was sup- jornt on the front wheel drive in favour
plied When the vehrcle was useo in ol a bevelled double gear reductlon ln
hot areas a spacer plate was fltted to the axle ends to allow both drive and
the rooffor cooltng purposes Many of steerinq. A larqe yoke was rnstalled in
these trucks were also used to supply the rear of the body, anelled out and
the USSR via Persia. The famous 'Red fltted with a chain, block and tackle, for
Ball Express' supply route across the purpose of llftlng the trail of the
North West Europe also made exten- heavy guns when the front limber was
sive use of the NR models, many tow not in use Most post-war British
ing four-wheel trailers. Perhaps the varrants had this item fitted The Cana-
most prominent Mack truck, the resuit dian army was also a major operator of
largely oi its immense size and power, Mack hearry trucks during World War
was the 772-ton NO 6x6 vehicle used I]
Dimensions: length 7,54 m (24 ft 9 tn); The Mack NM series of 6 - ton 6 x 6
by American and British armies to haul trucks was develoqed from a
hear,ry artrliery such as 155-mm (6. l-in) Specification width 2 62 m (B ft 7 rn); heiqht 3 15 m
MackNO (10 ft4 m) commercial design of 1939, butwas
howitzers. First seen in actron in Italy similar to the standard design built
where heavy artillery was required to Powerplart: one I 1B 6-kW (159-bhP) Weights: unladen l27Ol kq (28 000 lb)
MackEY 6 cyhnder enqtine andladen 19813 kq(43,680 lb) by Brockway, Corbitt or White.
blast out enemy strongPoints, the

-.I Japanese trucks


der 4B-kW (65-bhp) engine, and aqtain versron with steel panel cab was used duced, the Isuzu Type 2 7-ton beingt
Japanese industry produced trucks on one example; power was supplted bY
similar lines io other couniries but in Aner'con oestgn tnfluerce was o'.i- post-war by the Japanese self-defence
dent as this vehtcle was pattemed on iorces By lar the most popular vehtcle a 6-cylinder 75-kW (100-bhp) engine
much smaller numbers The lighter
the Chevrolet 1936 model. The Nissan rn the japanese truck industry was the
end of the scale saw ltn-Ion Io ZVz-lon
4 x 2 trucks Typical of this type was the I80 272{on cargo was a late model and Isuzu Type 94 produced in 6x4 con Specification
featured a w-ooden cab, and a modrfled frguration with a limited number of 4 x 2 Isuzu Type 94
Nissan 80 cargo truck Patterned on Powerplant: one 52.2-kW (70-bhp) 4-
the American Federal CDE Trucks mooels Abour 40 ditterent vorlarls
While the basic lsuzu I t/rton 6x4 were built on this chassis. The slx- cy[nder diesel engtne (Type 94A) or
sold to the civil market were of the 6-cylinder diesel engrne (Type 94B)
same design and an attractive subsidy was used as a prime mover and wheeled truck aiso sen'ed as an artll-
general-purpose truck, some 40 lery prime mover One interestinq de- Dimensions: lenqth 5 43 m (17 ft 9 B in);
was offered in anticipation of the need width 1.95 m (6 ft 4 B in); herght 2.25 m
to conscrlpt vehicles, The Toyota I{B s pe cial- pur p o s e v ar ia n ts w er e buiIt velopment to emerge was the amphi-
bious Toyota SUKI: the body was boat (7 ft 4.6 in)
I 7z-ton 4 x 2 was powered by a 6-cylin- on the chassis.
shaped and fabricated of steel plates,
and the axles and wheels were sus- Water supply was often aProblem on
pended beneath this body. Nearly 200 Japan's far-flungisland emptre. so
-truckssucfi
of these 2-ton trucks were built Very as theNtssan 180 I t/z-ton
few lapanese heavy trucks were pro- 4x2were often used aswater tankers.

2500
Armed Forces of the World

ag$cl
Malaysia's armed forces are relatively young. the
nation having come into being only in September
1963. Virtually allthe arms and equ pment in service
at that time originated from British sources. Since
that period, however, as replacements and addi-
tlons have become necessary the armed forces
have looked further afield for their requirements.
The only military operations that have been under-
taken in the wake of independence have been
aga nst Communist guerrilla groups operating along
:-: r:-c:e -nai borderareas and in the inaccessible
n3:f,er reg:on beNveen Sabah, Sarawak and lndone-
s a. Just as during the Malayan Emergency of 1949-
60, the terrorists retain the initiative ln choosing
where to strike, witn the result that the army and
police, even in collaboration with the Thai armed
forces, generally fight a containment campaign
rather than an all-out war. Units of both armies have
scored several notable successes against Commun-
'st
base camp areas in recent years.

The Army
Over the past five or so years. Malaysia has spent
considerable amounts of her gross national product German government refused to grant an export li- Since about 1980 Malaysia has steadily-ma-easec
cn upgrading and expanding her armed fcrces in cence to Thyssen Henschel for its TAM tank and her defence expenditure in response to the CuEa:
order to meet a projected military threat from the TH-302 APC, from Communist Vietnan andlaos. r?ecrenl
Communist countries of Laos, Kampuchea and Viet- The new vehicles join a collection of American, a?quisitions have included CondorAPCs fom
T hyssen H enschel, S corpion reconnajssancie
1am to the north. The army has increased its French and British types which will gradually be
vehicles from Alvis, and these SIBMAS 6 . 6
strength to 100,500, and the following units and passed on for second-line and lnternal security arm our e d fi re - suppo r t ve hicle s -
;ormations are in being: duties. These include some 93 Ferret scout cars.
100 or so AML-60 and AML-90 armoured cars, 40 or
cne corps HQ, AT-105 and Panhard M3 APCs, Fe"=: s::-: :.:=
so Panhard M3 APCs, 100 of the original Cadillac
'ourdivisional HOs, Shorland patrol cars; AM L-60 ano A\,'--3-
Gage V-100 Commando and 138 of the later V-1 50
12 infantry brigades (with 35 infantry battalions, one armoured cars; and SIBMAS fire s'jcD::
Commando armoured vehicles fitted with either
mechanized infantry battalion plus more forming, vehicles;
twin 7.62-mm MG, 90-mm MECAR gun or 20-mm
and support units),
cannon turrets. The 12,000-strong Police Field
artillery : (towed) 1 05-mm (4. 1 3-inr M56 :::<
'cur armoured cavalry reconnarssance regiments,
Force also operates specialist internal security
howitzersand l39.7-mm (5.5-in)rrec -- j--:
'ourfield artillery regiments, (mortars) 81-mm (3.19-in) British Ll ;
armoured vehicles ln the form of the GKN Sankey
:ne air-def ence regiment, a o u r weapons: B9-m m (3. 5-in r lv"l 2 C':.:,.=:-
nt i-a rm
AT-105 APC, the Short 58401 APC and Shorland
'rve signals regiments, and
patrol car.
launchers; 106-mm 14.17-in) M40 anc ' 2:---
:ne specialforces brigade group. (4 72-in) MOBAT recoilless rifles; ano SS' "
The other major arm of the Malaysian army is the
ATGWs;
To outfit the mechanized infantry battalions and artillery. This operates only two types of weapon;
anti-air weapons: 40-mm U70 Bofors anc 4C--*
:ne newly formed Malaysian Armoured Corps a the lightweight ltalian Model 56 pack howitzer, of
M'1 Bofors; and
:ompetition was opened in 1978 for a new genera- which some 1 14 are in service, and around 12 elder-
: cn of armoured vehicles. By 1981, and after much ly British 139.7-mm (5.5-in) medium guns.
smal I a rm s : 9-mm Browning pistol ; 9-n:r: St=- - ;
SMG; 5.56-mm (0.219-in) M1641 ,5 5&r"r-
:nanglng of operational requirements and procure- A f ull list of the equipment used by the Malaysian
HK33, 5.56-mmAR70, 7.62-mm (0.3-;nr G3 a-:
-ent numbers, a series of contracts was signed army includes the following:
7.62-mm FALautomatlc rif les; 7 62-rrr-r -a 3-::
,',',ih several West European manufacturers. These
:cluded deals with the Belgian firm SIBMAS for 162
armour:Scorpion 90 light tanks; Stormer, Condor, LMG; 7.62-mm L7 GPMG; and 12.7-mr 3 :--
Commando V-l 00, Commando V-1 50, SB401 Browning HMG.
l'its 6x6 Armoured Fire Support Vehicle (with the ,

:ivo-man Cockerill CM-90 turret and 90-mm/3.54-in


'rl < lll gun) plus 24 of the AFSV's armoured recovery
,ehicle version; with the West German firm Thys-
sen Henschel for 459 examples of its Condor 4x4
(with either a 20-mm
'-noured vehicle in the APC
:3nnon or twin 7.62-mm/0.3-in turret), command
:cst and ambulance verslons; and with the British
'rm Alvis Limited for 26 of its Scorpion tracked
-econnaissance vehicles equipped with the Cock-
:::ll 90-mnr gun, and for 25 of its tracked Stormer
+PC model (l2 fitted with the 20-mm gun turret and
-3
with the twin 7.62-mm MG turret). An MBT and
:V procurement to complement these vehicles in
:r armoured regiment was shelved when the West

The Malaysian armed forces were forged in the


long confrontation with C ommunist insurgents
kom 1949 to 1960, and when the nation came into
being in 1963 most of the equipmentwas of Britkh
origin. Here two Malaysian soldiers return from
operations against Communist guerrillas near the
Rajangriver.
Armed Forces of the World

trainers from the USA. There are also two dual-role Malaysia has recently purchased two Northrop
COIN/training squadrons flying 12 Aermacchi RF -SE Tigereyereconnar'ssance aircraft; this one
sports the new national insignia on the engine
M.8.339 advanced trainer/light strike aircraft, which
intake. Malaysia's F-SE Tiger IIs are now being
displaced the 12 or so survivlng Canadair CL-41 G supplemented by 36 refurbished McDonnell
Tebuans that are now with the 600-man Air Force DouglasA-4Sl<yhawks.
Reserve.
All primary and basic training duties are under- Similarly the fleet support component has been
taken by the three f light schools which f ly mainly the increased by the recent commissioning of three
Pilatus PC-7, with a few remaining BAe Bulldog West German- and South Korean-built logistic sup-
'102s and a,handful of Bell 47G and A6rospatiale port vessels which can undertake not only under-
Alouette lll helicopters. Transport, liaison and VIP way replenishment with stores and f uel, but also the
duties are handled by four squadrons of fixed-wing training, command and control and troop transport
aircraft. one with six Lockheed C-130H Hercules, roles. All three have a helicopter landing deck aft,
two with 14 de Havilland Canada DHC-4 Caribous together with a vehicle deck, embarkation ramps to
and one with two BAe 125s, two Fokker F.2Bs and port and starboard plus a divers' decompression
12 Cessna 4028s. There is also a maritime patrol/ chamber. To aid in the amphibious warfare role
SAR squadron with three specially configured Lock- there are also two ex-American LSTs which double
heed C-'130H-MP Hercules transports. All helicopter as light forces tenders, plus five LCMs, 15 LCPs and
lift and liaison operations are flown by two squad- nine RCPs. There are also a small number of auxili-
rons equipped wlth 36 Sikorsky 5-61A-4 Nuris and ary vessels and two survey shiPs.
two squadrons with 24 Alouette llls.
The Police
The Navy The Royal Malaysian Police has recently commis-
To match the army's modernization plans the sioned two 1,3001on coast guard patrol cutters built
11,0O0-strong navy has embarked on its own prog- in South Korea, and two more are planned. These
Desigmed as a private venture by BN Constructions ramme, of which the two MM.3B Exocet-armed vessels have facilitles to carry and operate one of
Fenoviaries et Metalliques, the SIBMAS APC has West German 'Type 1 500' class f rigates about to be the air force's Sikorsky 5-61A-4 helicopters if re-
ben ordered in two different versions. Seen iere delivered are the Iargest component. These willjoin quired. The larger units are supplemented by 15'PZ'
n typicalMalayiungle, this k
theAFSV model the Yarrow-buill Rahmat and the ex-Brltish 'Type class patrol boats {itted with a 40-mm Bofors gun
atmea win Cockerill CM-90 turret and 90-mm Mk 41 I 61' Hang luah f rigates as the largest surface unit and some 36 smaller patrol craft carrying 20-mm
lll gan. combatants. The frigates are supported by a mod- cannon and 7.62-mm MGs. There is also a small
erately sized light forces fleet that comprises four customs and excise force with six large and one
The Air Force 'Spica-M' class MM.3B Exocet-armed missile boats small patrol craft that carry small arms.
-c support the army in the field during counter- (with a further four MM,40 Exocet-armed units on The reserves for the navy number 6Q0, although
-s,igency operations and to provide the primary order), four 'Perdana' class MM.38-armed missile both these and the actual active numbers are to be
r€:errence to outslde aggressors there is a 1 3'000- boats, six 'Jerong' class 40- and 57-mm Bofors- increased over the next few years. The army's re-
sircng air force, which is divided into two Air Re- armed fast attack craft and 22 40-mm Bofors-armed serves total 60,000 men with 45,000 more in the
large patrol craft of the'Kedah" 'Sabah' and 'Kris' Malaysian Territorlal Defence Army and 15,000 in
; irs and a Support Command. The main strike the Local Defence Corps. ln addition to the 21 batta-
':-:e comprises a single fighter squadron with 13 classes.
lions of the Police Field Force there are 89 units with
S ::,,., nder-equipped Northrop F-5E Tiger lls, four The mine warfare fleet has been completely re-
:-5. ccerational trainers and two recently-delivered built, ex-British 'Ton'class minesweepers being re- 3,100 men in the Area Security Unit (or Home
=:--: lgereye tactical reconnaissance fighters placed by four modern ltallan-built 'Lerici' class Guard), and 1,200 border scouts (in Sabah and Sara-
minehunters equipped with the latest French mine- wak). All of them serve ln the paramilitary role,
=-':^:g combat squadrons are belng formed with together with some 250,000 personnel of the Peo-
:: -:'-rb shed McDonnell Douglas A-4 Skyhawk hunting system and PAP-I04 mine disposal vehi-
ple's Volunteer Corps (or RELA) organization.
cles.
=
;-::--ccrnbers and six TA-4 Skyhawk operational

s,svd