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ue 6 Issue 69
hrblished by
:rbis Publishino Ltd
Q Aerospace P"ublishinq Ltd 1984
3ctour profiles, diagrams and cutaway
C.awings O Pilot Press Ltd

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tl rn
Modem electronic defence systems are desigmed to let
nothing tttrough, and certainly not a big piloted afucraft. How
Strategic Air Command
are air refuelled
can attack afucraft sttrlrive in any fufure all-out war? An on mrssions
es sentially s tr a teg ic in
extremely important element in the modern battlefield is the
nature. The Soviet
deep strike hehind enemy lines, desigmed to hamper the Su-24 has similar
movement of fotces and to cut communications. capability.

More than 30 years ago air staffs in several countries had recognized at speeds much beyond 460 mph (740 kmih) The specralized cj:s:-
fly support and anti-armour machines such as the Fairchild Republic A- _ -
that, to penetrate defended airspace, attacking aircraft would have to
as lovr aspossible, The UK issued far-sighted specifications for lowlevel and Sukhoi Su-25 are much slower still, while the ltahan/Brazilian AMX .
bombers, but failed to get any actually built, When the nation at last built only just getting into its flight-test proq-ramme. At the upper end of :h:
such an aircraft, the Blackburn Buccaneer, it was for the Royal Navy, and scale of size and cost, the monster Rockwell B- I was designed for }lach 2
lor this and other reasons the RAF steadfastly set its sights on Mach 2. (at high leve| where it dare not go) and for the past I0 years has bee:.
Such a speed can be reached only at great heights, where no manned made slower and slower as the USAF trles to get the design righ:
aircraft can survive except in airspace devord of modern defences, To survive, an attacking aircraft today needs stealth quaiity, If :he
Thepennykeepsdropping,andthoughsomemanufacturersstillinsist enemy does not detect lts presence, the aeroplane will not be shc:
on designing for Mach 2, which means high costs and a very comprom- down; conversely, if it is detected, lt will be shot down no matter how fas:
rsed aircraft unsuited to the true low-level attack mission, a few are at it flies, Obviously, in the absence of stealth, a very poor second-best is ::
lrying to 'get their act together', In general today's attack aircralt have load the aircraft up with the most comprehensive electronic systems f::
maxtmum speeds well below that of sound, especially when they are detecting hostile illuminating radars or oncoming missiles or oite:
cluttered with a heavy external bombload, The Buccaneer scorned for threats, and fast-reacting countermeasure systems operating at radar
rts slow maximum speed, can actually fly for long distances at treetop infra-red or optical wavelengths to try to defeat each threat as last as _:
teight with a 4,000-1b (1814-kq) bombload at speeds hrgher than any of materializes
its supersonic rivals, and with less than half the fuel consumptionl
rhe vousht A-7 corsair rr, McDonneu Douslas A
Grumman A-6 Intruder are all important attack types serving !yl"y\ ::1 :"3i':'i:*i:i,"i:;:i"'i:!:#:,n:;:ii3ii::;;3{,":::wii:i?:i{:::#';i"
in large
numbers despite the fact that they find it hard to deliver their ordnance demonstrated by this OmaniJaguar.

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' " lrrii.j.ii:-:L:il:ri"

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'.. :.::::::.=:::::::::::n.' ]:+
ft ijXtsa,rrt Mirase IVA
When France decided to create its de I'Alr deploy five small squadrons
nuclear deterent in 1954 the size of (each normally with hvo pairs, one of
aircraft needed was almost that of the each pair being a buddy tanker) dis-
B-58, with two afterburning J75 en- persed among six primary and many
gnnes. Finally the bold decision was secondary bases to avoid being
taken to build a smaller supersonrc caught on the ground. Another 12 au-
bomber, unable to fly a reh;rn trip but craft are multi-sensor reconnaissance
relylng heavily on inflight-refuelling platforms. I
from a force of 14 Boeing C-135F tank-
ers. The Dassault Mirage IVAwas thus
desigmed around two of the existing Specification
Atar engines, wrth an airframe derived Dassault Mirage IVA
foom an unbuilt night-fighter srmilar to Type: supersonic bomber
a scaled-up Mirage IIL The slim fusel- Powerplant: two 7000-kg ( t5, 432-ib)
age has a refuelhng probe rn the nose, thrust SNECMAAIaT 9K afterbuning
pilot and navrgator/systems operator
in tandem Martin-Baker BM4 seats, a
Performance: manmum speed (bnef
mapping radar v,rth a circular radome dash at high altitude) 2340 krn/ir
bulge iust ahead of the recess for the (1,454 mph); sustainedspeed 1966
bomb, and engrine ducts with inlets k'n/h (1,222 mph) at 18290 m (60,000 ft);
similar to the half-cone centrebody radius inthe nuclear rolelrth 12190 m
type of the Mirage IIL Bogre main (40,000 ft) cruise 1240 km (770 miies); Afuve : The original w eap n o f the Below: AII Miragre IVA }r.m}r-rs are
gears with non-skid brakes and large ferryrange 4000 lcn (2,485 miles) IYA was the 65-kilotonne AN 22 amoullagd. A total of I 8 are to be
tail parachutes assist recovery at short Weights:empty 14500 kg (31,967 lb); nucleat bmb sen fiere reoessed rebuilt for seruice until 1996 canying
airbases in friendly terrrtory. Dassault maximum take-ofl 33475 kg (73,800 lb) into the belly. Some MAs retain this the long-range ASMP nuclear missile
built 62 from 1963, a 1970s modification Dimensions: span 11,85 m (38 ft tlleapn, but with a quick- re tar d of 100- I 50 kilotonnes yield (seen on
being addition of wing hard-points. for 10.5 in); lengrth 23,5 m (77 ft I rn); rys(em added for use in the low-level the facing page carried by the short-
heavy conventional bombloads, Today height 5,40 m (17 ft 8,5 in); wrngarea ro le. O ther air cr dt have *n range Mirage 2000N).
the 91e and 94e Escadres ofthe Arm6e 78.0 m'z (839.6 sq ft) quip@tocarryHEbombs.

fI iiXs""rt-Bresruet Mirase 2000N

Though externally similar in appear- restressed to fly at speeds up to
ance to the original Miraate IIi of 1956, 1110 ks/h (690 mph) at treetop height,
the Dassault-Brequet Miraqe 2000 is a though the rough ride would certainly
totally new aircraft, In structure, afect crew effciency. T\mo crew are
aerodynamic design, flight-control carried, cutting sliqrhtly into i$eiaqre
system, radar, engine, cockpit and tankage, the navigator having extra
weapons it represents an enornous displays fed by the new Thomson-
advance over all previous Mirages, CSP/ESD Antlope V radar which has a
and rn particular marks a rejection of terrain-following mode. Other new
the costly multi-role formula previous- equlpment rnciudes twia hertial plat-
ly attempted in Dassault's ACF (Avion irrms and augmented ECM instala-
de Combat Fuhr). fhe ACF was aban- tiors, The first prototype Mirage 2000N
doned rn 1975, when work on the Mu- flew on 3 February 1983. In service
aqe 2000 began, and the flrst Mirage with the Arm6e de l'Air from early
2000 flew on I0 March 1978. AII current 1987, this version will normally fly with
production is of the basic Mirage two l?00-litre (374-lrnp gal) drop tanks,
2000C1 fighter which entered service carrying the ASMP standoff nuclear
at Creii ln June 1984, missile. Other loads are possrble for
Subsequently Dassault-Bregnlet was tactical use, as Iisted below. maximum afterburner The prototype Mirage 2000N k seen
given a contract to develop the Mirage Performance: maximum spded at 1ow here turning to begin its take-off,
2000N (N for nucl6atre) to replace the Specification level, with eight bombs plus huo AAMs carrying two tanks andtwo sel{-
Mirage IIIE in air{o-surface attack Dassault-Breguet Miraqe 2000N 11I0 kn/h (690 mph); service ceiiing d efence M atra M agic AAM s. The
roles. Though inevitably a fixed- TYpe: two-seat attack bomber 18000 m (59,055 ft), where speed can two-seat 2000N is strengthened to fly
geometry aircraft with a large delta Powerplant one SNECMA M53-5 easily exceed Mach 2 (clean); range at 600 kts at low level (Tornados are
wing is the wrong shape for firlI-throttle afterburning bypass turbojet rated at with hvo tanks more than 1850 kn clearedtoS00 kts).
attack at sea level, the Mirage 2000N is 9000-kg ( 19,842-1b) thrust vnth (i, 150 miles)

Dassaault-Bregnret Mirage 2000N (continued) Modern Strike Aircraft
Weights: empty(basic Mirage 2000
flshter) 7400 kg (16,314 lb); maxmum
take-off(fiqhter) 16500 ks (36,376 lb)
Dimensions: span 9.00 m (29 ft 6.3 in);
lengith 14.55 m (47 ft I in) height not
stated; mngarea4L0 m'(44I.3 sq ft)
Armament: pylons under fr:selage and
wings fortheoretical maximum load of
6000 kg ( 13,228 lb) of various bombs,
rockets or missiles inciuding Exocet;
AS.30 Laser, Durandal or Beiouga;
primary weapon will be a single ASMP
ramj et-propelled standoff nuclear
attack missile; in all cases hvo Magic
AAMs canbe carrledonthe outer
wing pylons for self-defence

A Mirage 2000N prototYpe carrtes a

durnmy ASMP as well as two tanks
and M agic AAM s. With a Yield of I 00'
150 kilotonnes, ASMP wil|flY uP to 62
miles ( 100 km) Iifted bY the
projecting inlet ducts to its rantjet

Developed jointly by BAC (now BAe) AJ agruar GR.Mk I of RAF No. 54 Sqn, normally based at Coltishall' Norfolk.
and Bregnret (now Dassault-Bregnrei),
who formed the consortium to manage
the progrramme, the SEPECAT Jagnrar
was created to m€et a need bY the
RAF and Arm6e de I'Auforalow-level
all-weather attack aircralt and, espe-
cially for the latter buyer, advanced jet
and weapons training. Slightly diffe-
rent versions were produced, with one
or two seats, for the two original cus-
tomers, and 403 aircraft of these basic worth SI08 mrllion were flown out to Specification Dimensions: span 8.69 m (28 ft 6 tn);
four sub-types were delivered. Expod Oman and Ecuador, and Oman has SEPECAT Jagiuar Intemational Iengrth excluding probe 15.52 m (50 ft
sales have been the responsibility of placed a repeat order. India placed an Type: multl-role tactical attack fighter I I rn); height^4.89 m (I6 ft 0,5 tn): winq
the UK partner (often in head-on com- order which in fuI] wrII be worth over Powerplant:two 38 lO-kg (8,4001b) areaZ4.IB m" (260.27 sq ft)
petition with the French partner) and S1 billion. A substantial sale has been thrust Rolls-Royce Turbom6ca Adour Armament: tvvo 30-mm Aden or DEFA
have so far taken sales beYond 550. made to Nigeria. All versions have Mk B l I afterburningr turbofars cannon; seven hardpoints phrs tro
The Jagnrar International has more complete ability to operate from short Performance: maximum speed at high overwing AAMpylors for totalof
powerful engines and is available with gnass airskips or any good section of altihrde 1750 kdh(1,087 mph), andat 4763 kq (10,500 lb) ofvariedstores
radar and other sensors, Magic AAMs highway. Not least of the good results lowaltitude 1350 lcn/h(839 mph);
and certaln aerodynamic imProve- achieved has been a level of mainte- attack radius on a lo-lolo mission FrenchJagaars have a dilferent
ments whrch enhance airto-air and nance man-hours rougrhly one{hird 9i7 kn(570 miles) equipment fit from those of the R'AF ;
anti-ship capability as well as giving that demanded by previous combat Weishts: empty7000 kq(15,432 1b); this example comes from EC I I at
true all-weather avionics. Orders aircraft. maximum take-off 15700 kg (34,612 lb) Toul-Rosidres.
lvlodern Attack I'lefhods Cockpit displays can show a detailed pictu re of the terrain ahead, or a ship at sea,
Modern air defence provides a formidable barrier to with a line-by-line composition looking just like a monochrome TV. Hot areas are
attacking aircraft, with sophisticated radars in theair andon usually white and very cold places black, the picture thus being made up o+
the ground providing detection and guidance to ever more rntermediate grey tones; but the polarity can be switched the other way, for
example to show a black ship on a cold grey sea. Making the wavelength even
capable defending aircraft,rnissrTes and guns. Sucft defences shorter brrngs the emission down neaito visible light, and here the-laser is
must be penetrated if success in battle is to be attained. useful A forward-looking laser can give extremely plec;se ranges to a target,
and thrs rs vrtal for accurate weapon delivery.
_ A.n example of a complete add-on navigation and targeting system is LAN-
For more than 30 years it has been accepted that the best, and perhaps only, TIRN, a US product packaged into two pods clipped on externaiiy. ihe navigation
way for an attacking aircraft to penetrate def ended airspace is to f ly at the lowest pod contains a small TFR which can be coupled through theautopilotbut is
possible height above the ground. For reasons of simple straight-line geometry, normally used merely to display the scene ahead so that ihe pilot can follow the
the lower the height. the more difficult it will be for defending radars to detect ground contours manually (a dangerous procedure). lt also has a FLIR with a
and lock-on to the enemy aircraft, and the greater will be the likelihood of the wide FOV {f ield of view) which displays the 'hear picture' on the HUD (head-up
radar breaking lock at the crucial moment because of an obstruction (a grove of display) in f ront of the pilot, so that he can see the picture whilst at the same timb
trees or some buildings, perhaps) getting in the way and confusing the radar looking through the HUD to the real scene ahead. The companion tarqetinq pod
with. a different set of ranges and relative velocities. contains a narrow-FOV FLIR, a target designating and rangihg laser and aut'oma-
Thus, in addition to all the other essentials, a modern attack aircraft needs tic arrangements for locking-on and tracking a chosen targ-et. Lasers can be used
aerodynamics and propulsion tailored to the sealevel atmosphere. lt needs the to 'designate' a target by illuminating it with their special light. lf a missile is
smallest possible wing, and in particular the smallest possible span, if the ride is launched with a seeker matched to that particular light, it will home on to its
not to be so rough that the ability of the pilot (and backseater if present) to do his source and thus hit the target. lf friendly troops are present on the ground one of
job is seriously degraded, And, in addition to all the other navaids (which are them can use a laser to designate an enemy tank, fortification or olher target; it
today centred on inertial systems, because these do not emit tell-tale radiation) can then be destroyed by a heavy missile from an aircraft fined with flaser
the aircraft needs a good forward-looking radar, a TFR (terrainJollowing radar) rece ver matched to that particular laser's emissions.
and precise radar altlmeter. The altimeter does not follow tradition and measure Of course, radars, lR and lasers can equally be used to shoot down the
barometric pressure but instead bounces radar signals off the Earth directly attacking aircraft. The answer is to equip the aircraft with appropriate ECM
beneath the aircraft and by measuring the time taken for the round trip indicates {electronic countermeasures). IRCM (infra-red countermeasuiesi and OCM
the true height above the ground. Thus, flying over a tall building would give a {optical countermeasures). First. some device must be carried to warn that
sudden 'hiccup' to the reading. The radar altimeter could not prevent the aircraft hostile defence systems are in use and have locked-on to an aircraft. Then an
flying into a tall building, but the TFR could" By projecting a beam or beams appropriate defence system must be brought into action. This is best done
diagonally ahead it guards the aircraft with a kind of invisible shape like the front automatically, with computer control, not only to relieve the pilot of constant
of a ski continuously projected ahead. Should the lnvisible toe of the ski meet a workload but also because of the speed of reaction needed, Computers are also
mountain, building or other obstruction it commands the autopilot to lift the needed to determine the exact direction and type of enemy system being used,
aircraft safely over it, though (as in the case of a tall radio mast) the best answer to code the wavelength(s) of our own responses and to send but radiation in the
may sometimes be to go round it. This can be done in fog or at night, and it needs correct direction to minimize wastage of onboard power. Enemy radars can be
a steelv-nerved flioht crew. masked or confused by a powerfuljammer built into the aircraft or carried in an
The hrain forwa"rd-looking radar can be operated in many 'modes' giving attached pod. Allernatively small jammers can be dispensed in little packages
different forms of picture calculated to help the crew find its way, locate targets fired from tubes in or carried on the aircraft. So tob can hot flare'paylo5ds
and attack them. Radars are the most widely used of all electromagnetic dispensed f rom s,imilar trrlres, to conf use and decoy lR-homing missileis. By far
sensors. but it is possible to choose quite different electromagnetic the commonest form of ECM is chaff, which fills the sky wit6 small refleitive
wavelengths. Making the radiation wavelength much shorter can bring it into slivers to blanket the enemy radar displays completely.
the lR (infra-red) region, more commonly called heat. lR devices can be purely
passive, able to detect and track the source of any strong lR emission, such as
the jet nozzles of an enemy aircraft. Sensitive lR seekers can even lock-on to the
cooler parts of an aircraft, even from head-on, and so they are used for many At RAF Honington a Tornado GR.Mk I otNo. I Sqn is armed for a training
anti-aircraft missiles, both AAMs (air-to-air missiles) and SAMs (surface-to-air mission.TheTornadois desigrned tobe used at low level, its smallwing and
missiles). Conversely, the aircraft can use a FLIR (forward-looking infra-red) to strong construction allowing very high speeds to be maintained while giving
detect targets ahead that are at a different temperature from their surroundings. its crews a stable platform for weapons delivery.


:,.:.:::::.: l:,!i:i;i:t!1,&
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: :. ar':..\t::!.t':'.tL': :\-,.1 L''
Modern Strike Aircraft

Above: A normal television image ot Below: Anavigator's-eyeview of a Above : I n w ide- ar ea su rv eillance Below : The SAR (Synthetic A pe r t u r e
a simulated convoy on the battlefield Tornado cockpit. Modern mode, the Pave Mover system Radar) has a high resolution moce
training zone of N ellis AFB, U tah. A computer i zed system s h ave enables an attacking aircraft, whichenhances the detection ol
purelyvisual attackwould have to be substantially lessened the workload penetratingenemy detences at low individu al slow-moving tar ge ts,
carried out in seconds, with in navigation, targeting and weapon level, to acquire and classify a range Modern systems can distingtsi.
consequent risk of inaccuracy. delivery, and the Tornado ian be of targets as well as se/ec! such targets even in conditions o:
flown atlow levels in allweather. approFiiate weaponry. background clutter.

R ight : F inal a ttac k ru n a nd weapon de livery is automatic, with the sy s tem

protecting itself against enemy ECM (electronic countermeasures). Bad
weather or night is no deterrent to the modern aircraft; indeed, a crew might
never even see the taryet they had destroyed or the ground over which they
ffi Hawker Siddeley Buccaneer

Above: A Buccaneer of No. I 6 Sqn,

which re-formed on the type
at Laarbruch, Germany, in I 97 2.
This squadron has since converted
totheTornadoGR.Mk I.

Right : T oday Buccaneers have

B-class redl blue national insignia,
but this aircraft was engaged on
Ministry trials with various external

Below : TheB uccaneers of RAF N o.

208 Sqn, Honington, will remain
operating in the maitime role tor the
foreseeable future.

Hawker Siddeley Buccaneer S.Mk 28
Type: low-level attack aircraft altitude wrth fuli internal bombload maximum take-otr28 123 kq (62,000 lb) Armament: internal bay for four 454-kg
Powerplant: two 5t03-kg (l l,250tb) I I I0 kn/h (690 mph); tacticalradius Dimensions:span 13.41 m(44 ft0 in); (I,000-ib) bombs, reconnaissance pod
:irr:st Rolls-Royce Spey Mk I0I with internal fuel on a hr-lo-hi mrssion leng'lh 19.33 m (63 ft 5 m): height 4.95 m or LR tank; four wing pylons each for
:gbofars 998 lsn (620 mrles) (16 ft3 in); wrng asea47.B2mz triple 454-kg (1,000-lb) bombs or
Performance: maximum speed at low Weights: empty 13540 kg (29,850 1b); (514.7 sq ft) various other stores

ffi & fI iffi"dltorn"ao IDS

lhe world's first combat aircrat to be Bearing its nationality code letter and unit aircraft numher atthe top of the fin,
cieveloped by three nations jointly, to thj,sTornadobelongs to theAMI (ltalianairforce) butis onthe strengthof the
meet the requirements of four national Trinational Tornado Training Unit at RAF Cottesmore.
:-r.stomers (MF, Luftwaffe, Marineflie-
ger and ltalian AMI), the Panavia Tor-
nado is the world's best long-ranqte
lcwlevel interdiction aircraft. No other
aircraft combines tvvo small and fuel-
et[cient engines, a crew of two with an
cutstandingly modern low-drag tan-
dem cockpit, swing-wings icr efficient
subsonic ioiter but treetop-height dash new records for accuracy. RAF Torna- Dimensions:span (swept) 8.60 m (28 ft
at krntr (92I mph) and the ability
1483 dos swept the board in the 1984 SAC 2.5 rn); lengrth 16,70 m(54 ft9.5 in);
to carry every tactical store in the 'Giant Voice' bombing competitionl heiqht 5.70 m (l8ft 8.5 in); winqi area Below: Another ltalian AMI Tornado,
European NATO armoury, Despite notstated this time basedinltaly, showing a
itris, the Tornado is a relatively small Specification Armament: two 27-mm Mauser typical conventional attack load ot
aircraft, wrth a shorter body than the Panavia Tornado IDS (RAF Tornado cannoni total of B 165 kq ( 18,000 lb) of eight 8L.755 cluster bombs, two selt-
F/A-18 and awingso much smallerthat GR.IvIk 1) drsposable stores on two tandem defence Sidewinders and two
tie gnrst response in the low high- Type: All-weather multi-roie attack fuselage pylors plus four swrvelltng E lettronica EC M pods. Britain,
speed attack role (at speeds 35 per and reconnatssance arrcraft wing pylons, plus centreline for multi- Germany and ltaly all use different
cent higher than the limit for the US Powerplant: two 7 167-kg ( I 5,800-1b) sensor reconnaissance pod ECM jammerpods.
aircraft) is more than l0 times better, thrust T\ubo-Union RB. 199 Mk 101
Including four of the sx pre-sertes au- (from i983, upratedMk I03)
craft, the customer procurement by augrmented turbofans
1982 totalled644,2I2for the l,uftwaffe, Performance: maxrmum speed, clean
ll2 for the Marineflieger, 220 for Ihe at hiqhaltitude 2414 lan/ir (i,500 mph);
RAF and I00 for the AML Production is radius (on a hi-lo-1o-hi mrssion with
proceedinq steadily, wrth the Tornado 3628 kq/8,000 lb of bombs) 1390 lan
entering squadron sewice with all (863 miles)
three nations in increasing numbers, Weights: empty about 14000 ker
Weapon-delivery trials by many (30,865 1b); maxrmum over 26490 kq
methods have in numerous cases set (58,400]b)

The most important single type of comhat aircraft in Western Europe , the Totnado is-
at present serving in its initial attack form with the F"AF, Lyltwaffe, Marineflieger and
AironauticaMili[are ltaliano.This accountis afirst-hand impressionof whatitislike
to fly a Tornado for a living, the chosen unit being a wing of theMarineflieger.

No strident klaxon sounds, nor does a voice erations, Much of the information, including
from the public-address system pierce the complete detarls of the mission, are pre-
night, as the Schleswig base comes to life at recorded and loaded into the aircraft's compu-
03 30 in the morning. Rain falls steadily through ter memories before take-off
the darkness as 40 pilots and 40 navigators During the night Schleswig's armoury has
(called WSOs, weapon-system officers) force- been dispenstng many kinds of ordnance: 27-
sleep from their eyes and adjust to a state of mm ammunition made up into different forma-
high alertness. Lookinq inllated in their Day- tions in giant belts; free-fall, Wtded and re-
GIo orange 'poopy suits', they bundle into the tarded bombs; rockets; practice bombs; and,
operations shelters of Nos I and 2 Squadrons of biqgest of all, the Kormoran missiles, each of
Marinefliegerqeschwader t and start the day's which can lcrock out and even sink almost any
work, ship. The firepower of each aircraft is now so
MFG I completed its conversion from the great that many tasks can be assigned to a
Lockheed F-104G to the Panavia Tornado in single aircraft; few assignments need more
1983. Some pilots found it difficult to share the than two or three, As far as possible MFG I,
workload with a backseater, but most found the all the 40-odd combat-ready Tornado units in At low level the Tornado is probably the fastest
transition a wonderfirl experience, Each mis- Europe, aims to complete its mission unde- aircraft in the world, cleared to 800 kts (92 I mphJ
tected, except perhaps at the target where the I 480 km/ h). This GR.Mk I ot the RAF is on erercise
sion became pure pleasure, especially when down aWelsh vailey with eight 454-kg (1,00eb)
real challenges were imposed. Unlike the F- Tomado's presence is very obvlous indeed. retardedbombs, two tanks and twoMarconiSEy
I04, the Tornado was designed from the start to Comprehersive ECM jamming and dtspenser ShadowECM jammerpods.
carry very heavy loads of bombs or missiles at systerns are used in conjunction with the max-
the lowest possible levels through heavily de- imum radio and radar silence as the lone
fended alrspaee and deliver them"witLpin. penetrator streaks to its tarqet hugging the we arrive just as the vast steel doors complete
point accuraiy in the worst weather. Every Earth's surface, their slow opening procedwe. We sigm for ow
man in MFGI.knew by mid-1984 that he could After half an hour of preparation the crews aircraft and do a carefirj walkaround, nobng
do this with unfailing certainty. have all completed.their cornpuler{apes and two body Kormorans, two full tanks, two self-
On this wet morning singie aircraft are betng worked out their exact procedures with clinic- defence Sidewinders, one Zeus active jammer
Iaunched at short intervals to bring back a com- al precision, How different from World War III pod and one BOZ. 100 chaff/flare dispenser
plete, recqnnaissance picture of most of the For a mission to be 'scrubbed' because of bad pod, It is nothing like a maximum load, but sttll
Baltic area. Others are to attack a ship target weather is almost unthinkable, and it is equally approximately double the iimit for an F-104.
with missiles, In a few minutes each crew has to exceptional for an aircraft to abort with unser-
absorb a vast amount of information on tasks, viceabiiity, despite the fantastic on-board com-
code-words, alert states, electronic-warfare plexity. We gather up our mass of gear (fi1m At well over I 000 km/ h (62 I mph) in tull
policies, control of emissions (by timing, cassettes, maps, charts and booklets in a bag, afterburner, this Tornado of MFG I is armd with
waveiengths and many other variables), as plus lifejackets and helmets) and walk out to four Kormorananft'-si& mjssjJes, but is not
well as factors such as airfields and alternates, the waiting line{axi which speeds us almost carrying tanksorECM pods (theGerman jamm*
weather trends and special security consid- silently to Shelter 17, Here in dimmed lighting podistheZeus).
canopy shut, inertiai system run up and aligned Somewhere ahead, towards Oslo and about
and all systems GO The shelter launch light 50km (31 miles) off the Swedish coast to the
shows green, so whilst checking control move- right, is our target. As we head towards it at a
ments and the HUD (head-up display) icr the steady 925 km/h (575 mph) we suddenly get an
coffect mode, we sweep the wings part way update of its exact position from another MFG i
back, pulling back the distinctive lever on the aircraft. We are not using an initial point and
left front console, and roll quickly into the dark- have to be spot-on with the target position. The
ness, stabbing the brakes to hold speed dovm, refined figmres are quickly inserted into the
and restoring the wings to 25'. computer and at the right moment we go into
reheat for the attack. In seconds it comes into
Automaticflight view on the radar and we 'launch' one of ow
Take-off checks are complete long before Kormorans, at the next.moment banking verti-
we reach the long nrnway; without stopping we cally away on to an exit heading. WEAPON
It is not often one sees a dispJay ofweapons at an go straiqht into maxlmum reheat and the Torna- AWAY continues to glow on the weapon con-
operational station (in this case RAF Honington), do surges forward like a dragster. In seconds trol panel dead ahead under the biq projected
and evenmore rarely is the display as vart'ed as we select gear up, flaps up, cancel reheat and map display, though really the costly Kormoran
this; Tornado has been cleared with more types of turn hard to the right on course, There is almost is still securely attached and everything has
store than any aircraft except theF-4. The unitis nothing to do as we thunder across the invisible been done by electronic means (and is at this
JVo.9Sgn. moment on tape, for subsequent playback),
flat countryside at 60 m (200 ft), cross the coast
and enter the Kattegat between the great is-
We climb aboard, and in seconds check out lands of Denmark. The autopilot does it all, the Fighters approaching
the cockpit, Tightly strapped into the Martin- autothrottles holding our speed and the radar We get a warning of fighters from an MFG 1
Baker Mk 10 seat, we check stowage of the pins altimeter and TFR (terrain-following radar) aircraft a few kilometres away. We go into the
and then follow with the similar pins flor the EPS marntalning the exact clearance above the wa- manual mode, in full reheat, and rise a little
" (emergency power supply), canopy and MDC ter, Should a big ship loom ahead, we would further above the sea. Dawn is near and the
(micro-detonatlng cord). see it in the HUD and on the E-scope radar horizon is visible, and now we can make life
Now iet battle commence. Reaching out with display, and the TFR would pull us either up or hard for anyone who tries to intercept us. With
our left arm we push the APU (auxiliary power around it. The inertial system and many other its computerlzed flight-controls and stabiltty
unit) start button. No external power of any klnd sources of information keep precise tabs on augmentation system the Tornado can man-
is needed; we could get going just as well at the where we are, and at what time; we must not be oeuwe as weil as all but one or two of the very
North Poie, The tiny gas hrrbine whines almost a second early or late. In daylight we might newest fighters, and we can show a clean pair
inaudibly far at the rear, but in seconds we choose to fly rnanually, but at nlght this is im-
have fuli onboard power and can then fire up possible, just as it is in dense fog or snow. Then
the main engines, The APU drives by shaft- we need to have complete confidence in those

power, via the right-hand gearbox, and can be little electrons flying through those microsco-
coupled to crank up either RB. 199 engine in pic circurts, which are keeping us alive
sequence. In 30 seconds we are ready to move, throughout the mission. .a

Panavia Tornado GR.Mk 1 cutaway drawing key

1 Airdataprobe 45 Pilot's Martin-BakerMk 10 74 lntakesuction relief doors
2 Radome ejection seat 75 Wing glove Krrigerflap
3 Lightningconductorstrip 46 Safetyharness 76 lntake bypass airspill ducts
4 Terrain following radar 47 Eiectionseatheadrest 77 lntake ramp hydraulic
antenna 48 Cockpitcanopycover actuator
5 Groundmappingradar (Kopperschmidt) 78 Fowardfuselagefueltank
antenna 49 Canopycentrearch 79 Wing sweep control screw \P-
6 Radarequipmentbay
hinged position
7 Radomehingedposition
50 Navigator's radardisplays
51 Navigator'sinstrument
panel and weapons control
jack {Microtecnica)
Flapand slatcontroldrive
B lFFaerial
9 Badarantennatracking
52 Footrests
8'1 Wing sweep, f lap and slat
central control unit and 2&
mechanism 53 Canopyexternal latch motor (Microtecnica)
10 Radarequipmentbay 54 Pitothead 82 Wing pivot box integralfuel
11 UHF/TACANaerial 55 Mauser2T-mmcannon tank
12 LaserRangerandt\4arked 56 Ammunition feed chute 83 Airsystemducting
Target Seeker (Ferranti), 57 Cold air unit ram airintake 84 Anti{ollision light
starboard side 58 Ammunition tank Bb UHFaerials
13 Cannon muzzle 59 Liquidoxygenconverter BO Wing pivot box carry-
14 Ventral Doppleraerial 60 Cablncoldairunit through, electron beam
15 Angleof attacktransmitter 61 Storesmanagement welded titanium structure
l6 Canoplemergency system computer 87 Starboardwingpivot
62 Portengine airintake
*88 uEdililg
bearing 4
17 Avionicsequipmentbay
18 Frontpressure bulkhead
19 Windscreen rain dispersal
63 lntake lip
64 Cockpitframing
65 Naviqator'sMartin-Baker 89
iii'iJ";1.,"r['*"*uPk (( lll'?3
Flanend slattelescooic

Starboard wino
zt/zTt '

sweeo l\\\ 1// rff

20 Windscreen (Lucas-Rotax)
light ref uelling probe
22 Proberetractionlink
N4k'1 0 ejection seat
Starboard engine
67 lntakespiilduct
68 Canopyjack
69 Canopyhingepoint
airintake /zu=
l/rl, ia
23 Windscreen open position, 70 Rearpressure bulkhead
instrument access
24 Head-updisplay, HUD
71 lntakerampactuator
(Smiths) 72 Navigation light
25 lnstrumentpanel 73 Two-dimensional variable
26 Radar'head-down' display area lntake rampdoors
27 lnstrumentpanel shroud
28 Controlcolumn
29 Rudderpedals
30 Battery
31 Cannonbarrel
32 Nosewheeldoors
33 Landing/taxiinglamp
34 Noseundercarriageleg I
strut (Dowty-Rotol)
35 Torquescissorlinks
36 Twin foMard-retracting
nosewheels iDunlop)
37 Nosewheel steerino unit @ Pilot Press Limited
38 Nosewheelleodooi
39 Electrical equi6mentbay
40 Ejectionseatrocketpack
41 Enginethrottlelevers

42 Wing sweep control lever
43 Radarhandcontroller
44 Sideconsolepanel

r 368
of heeis to most, We put the main radar and co-ordinates ofan alternate, Eggebeck, on the
HUD into an air-combat snapshoot mode and Danish frontier, The computer never com-
suddenly are able to frighten a 'hostile' by laun- plains but effortlessly banks us on the correct
ching a Sidewinder (again purely electronical- headlng and even adjusts the throttles as we
Iy, but with the mrssile's IR-homing head prop- enter the circuit, We take over manually for the
erly locked-on) at a fighter that we had been landing, making a radar approach despite the
watching for several seconds as it trled to growing daytime vislbility, Soft touchdown,
attack another Tornado. Despite the violent slam the reversers in and slow to walklng pace
manoeuvring in reheat the RB. I99s are so small in little over 300 m (l 000 ft). Turn off with the
and economical that we are still using our ex- beautifully precise nosewheel steering at the
ternai fuel, and rf we had to we could go for a first intersectron (lmpossible for an F-104 to
quick trip rlght round the British Isles (but not at make the third onel), shut down the right en- Two Tornado GR.Mk I s of RAF No. 9 Sqn, from
sea level), glne to slow the taxi roll and then park where Honington, reach a turning point on a simulated
A11 the time the WSO in the back has been we are told, Mlnutes hence we'll be allowed to mjssjon exercjse. The underfuselage load on both
watching our progress on hls two reprogramm- go to Schleswtg, aircraft comprises 454-kg
( I ,000-lb) retarded
able electronic displays, Some people say bomhs, thewings havingtanks andECM pods.
single-seat aircraft are cheaper and just as
good, but there is no way we could fly this 108 Wing tlp fairing '167 Engineoiltank
'168 Rearfuselagefueltank
109 Double-slotted Fowler-
misslon with a one-place cockpit. Maybe if the typef laps, down position 169 Wing root pneumatic seal
piiot had two heads and four arms , . . 1 10 F ap guide rails 1 70
Enginedriven accessory
1 1 1 Starboardspoilers, open gearboxes. port and
It never does to be relaxed about fuel, be- 1 12 F apscrewjacks stdrboard (KHD). airf rame
cause at any time 'they'might choose to spring 1 13 Externalfueltanktailfins mounted
114 Wlngsweptposition 171 lntegrated drive generator
something nasty, We hear by coded radio trailing edge housing (two)
transmissron that Schleswig has been heavily 1 15 Dorsal spinefairing '172 Hydraulic pump {two)
16 Aftfuselagefueltank 173 Gearbox interconnecting
attacked, No sweat; the WSO cranks in the 1
1 1 7 Fln root antenna fairino shaft
1 18 HF aerial 174 Starboard sideAuxiliary
1 19 Heatexchangerramair Power Unit, APU (KHD)
intake 175 Telescopicfuel pipes
'120 Starboardwing fullyswept 176 Ponwing pivotbearing
back position 177 Flexible wing sea ing
'121 Airbrake, open p ates
122 Starboard allmoving 178 Wing skin panelling
tailplane (taileron) 179 Rearspar
1 23 Airbrake hydraulic jack 180 Port spoilerhousinqs
90Leading-edge sealing 124 Prlmarv heatexchanoer 1 81 Spoi er hydrau ic actuators
ta nng 1 25 Heat exchanger exhiust actuators
91 Wing root glove fa r no duct 182 Flap screw jacks
92 External fuel tank, capacitv '1
26 Englne bleed airductrng 183 Flapribconstruction
330 lmp qal (1500 titrbs) 1 27 Fin attachmenl iolnt 184 Port Fowletrtypedouble-
93 AIM-91 Sidewinderaitrto- 128 Portairbrakerib slotted f laps, down
air self-def ence misslle construction posltion
94 Canopyopenposition 129 Finheatshield 185 Por(wingfullysweptback
95 Canopyiettisonunit 130 Vortexgenerators position
96 Pilot's rearviewmitrors 131 Fin integralfueltank 186 Wing tip constructlon
97 Starboard three-segment T 32 Fuel systemventpiping 187 Fuelvent
leading-edge slat, open 1 33 Tailfin structure 188 Portnavigation andstrobe
98 Slatscrewiacks T34 lLSaeriai lights
99 Satdrivetorqueshaft T35 Finleadingedge 189 Leading-edgeslat rib
100 Wing py on sw velling 136 FoMard passive ECi\.4 constructlon
conlrol rod housing 1 90
T37 Fuel jettisonandventvalve ECM pod
1 38 Fin tip antenna fairing 191 Outboard swivelllng pylon
139 VHFaerlal 192 Pylonpivotbearing
'140 Tail navioation lioht 193 Frontspar
i4l Aftpass-ive ECMhousinq 1 94 Portwing integral f uel tank
142 Obstruction lLoht T 95 Machined wing skin/
143 Fueliettison " stringer paneL
144 Rudder 196 Wing ribconstructlon
145 Rudderhoneycomb 197 Swive llng pylon control
construction rod
198 Portleading-edgeslat
segments. open
199 Slatguiderails
200 Externalfueltank
201 lnboard swivelling pylon
202 lnboard pylon pivotbearlng
203 Missile launch rail
:ia(:#HiEA 1 46 Rudder hydraulicactuator 204 AIM-91 Sidewinderalrto-
(Fairey Hydraulics) air self-def ence mlssile
147 Dorsal spine tail fairing 205 Pon mainwheel (Dunlop),
148 Thrustreverserbucket foMard retracting
doors, open 206 Main undercarriage leg
149 Variable area afterburner strut (Dowty-Rotol)
nozzle 207 Undercarriagelegpivot
150 Nozzle control jacks (four) bearing
1 5l Thrust reverserdoor 208 Hydraulicretraction jack
actuator 209 Leg swivelling control link
1 52 Honeycombtrailing edge 210 Telescopicflapand slat
constructlon drive torque shafts
I 53 Portal!movingtailplane 21 1
{taileron) fairing
1 54 Tailplane rib construction 2'l 2
Kriigerflap hydraulicjack
{ 213 Mainundercariage leg
t87 214 lvlainwheeldoor
2T 5 Landing lamp
155 Leading-edge nose ribs 21 6 Hunting JP 233Alrfield
156 Tailplane pivot bearlng AttackWeapon (two, side-
1 57 Tailplane bearing sealing by-side)
plates 217 Submunitions
158 Afterburnerduct compartments (30 SG357
101 inboardpVon pivotbearinq 1 59 Airbrake hydraulic jack runway penetration bombs
102 Stdrboardwrna rnteqral 1 60 Turbo-Union R.B.1 99-34R and 21 5 H 8876 area denial
fuei tank lvlk 1 01 afterburning weapons in each JP 233)
103 Wingfuel systemaccess turbofan engine 218 Portshoulderpylon
panels 161 Tailplane hydraulicactuator 219 Fuseage shoulderpylon
104 Outboardpylon pivot 162 Hydraulicsystemfilters 6wo)
bearing 163 Hydraulicreservoir 220 MLtwin storescatriers
1 05 lvlarconi'Sky-Shadow' (Dowty) 221 Hunting BLTSScluster
ECM pod 164 Airbrake hinge point bombs (eight)
106 Outboard wing swivelling '1
65 lntake f rame/production 222 Mk83 high speed retarded
pylon ioint bomb
107 Starboard navigationand 1 66 Engine bayventralaccess 223 lMk 13/1 5454-kg (1,000-lb)
strobe lights panels HE bomb

Tornado IDS in Action

-:. .7
Strike Air€raft

The serial number on this TornadoGR_ML 1

(aircraftE of No. 9 Sgn) rstrjdden bhind tb tb d
the wing; it would also be repealed under the-
tailerons, this being considered a btter
signboard than the variable-swep wing-Tb
Ferranti laser ranger and marked-targe reEE rer
(carried only by RAF Tornados)canbeseen mrrtr
the right side of the nose ahead of thenosetawrirg
g-ear. Four conventional 454-kg ( 1,000-Ib) ir@
bombs' are shown on each of the two k,narm. W
eiector-release units, while the wing pylons lrlr-'
fan.ks andS/<ySfi adow ECM jammei @s

II g iilritatia/En/BRAER AMx
l:.s :;:::::-r- 3=ac:.\ie light attack
:-r::1i :F.:s :-ji-::ed :c meet a need of
:= -:-:::-:--:: Ifi;are ltalana to re-
;ia:: -': F=: G9l ard Lockheed F-
--43 --:= lvrzi'ar af staff decided
::a; -e : :-eec ior a similar aircra-ft,
--'-'r ir :eplace ine EMBMER AT-
lE E-.=:::: l:se]j a hcersed ]taltan de-
1= -:3 -:.erracchi M.B. 326GB), The
:-.-=:.-1 a-:rajle team compriSeS
]-=:-:='-z 'r pafmership with Aermac-
-'- ." --.--,-
a::d EMBRAER in Brazil, the
,:::::-a-,:::Qr a 30 per ceni share by
--a:= l::aie up of the complete wrng,
:--:'--.= :aiplane and pylons, Aerita-
:- € per cent, compnsing the cen-
:-elagre. wrng movables, vertical
and radome, Aermacchi
'=. =-e;a:ors
2{ .ler cent, compdsing the nose
.--'. j= (',vrth cockpit and avionics in-
:e7a:cn), tarlcone and canopy,
}:e emphasis of the AM( has wisely
'ee- on simplicity and affordability,
-se:-:-l short-field ability has been
::::e'red by a good thrusVweight ratio
--i excellent high-hft devices, The
l-1'! las an initial requirement for 187
-li'!{ aircraft, while the BraLzilian FAB
to receive 79, with different Specification 520 kn(321miles) The tirst prototype AMX was
i;:ilcs and guns, as outlined below, Aeritalia/Aermacchi/EMBRAER AM( Weishts: empty 6000 kq ( 13, 228 lb); tragically lost early in iE test
Itr versions have a fuselage bay in Type: single-seat tactical attack and maxmum take-off I1500 kg (25,353 lb) progr amme, te s t pilot Qu arantelli
r:::ch can be accommodated three reconnaissance aircraft Dimensions: span (over AAMs) succumbing to the injuries he
jjerent hnds of reconnaissance pal- Powerplant: one 5000-kg (1 1,032{b) I0,00 m(32 ft9.7 rn); lensth 13,575 m susfained. The second aircraft took
.e: cr other mission avionics, though an thrust ltalian-built Rolls-Royce Spey (44 ft 6.5 in); height 4,576-m (15 ft over flight development at once,
.F, EO (infra-red/electro-optics) pod ts 807 turbofan 0.2 in); wrngarea 21.0 mz (226 sq ft) after its roll- out on 5 J uly I 9 84.
:-:rmally hung externally on the cen- Performance: maximum speed not Armament: (Italian) one 20-mm M6 lAl
:ebne. The first AMX crashed, but the disclosed but about I 130 krnh multibarrel cannon with 350 rounds, hung on five extemal pylons, not
second prototype flew soon after- (700 mph) cleanat sea levei; attack (Brazilian) two 30-mm DEFA 553 including two Sidewinder self-
rards and in late 1984 development radrus wrth full allowances (2722-kgl cannon each with 130 rounds, plus a defence air-combat AAMs on winQrtlp
',';as on schedule, 6,0001b bombs on a hr-lo-hi mission) totaIof3500 kg (7,716 ib) ofordnance rails

tI Hitr.noi su-24 'Fencer'

j',rst as TsAGI produced the shapes FrontalAviation attack aircraft have recently been seen invarious colours,
adopted by all the major constructors and though this Su-24 shows a commonly used camouflage, some aircraft ot
:: supersonic aircraft of the 1955-80 this type have even been seen unpainted in bright polished metal!
era, so did it develop both an interim
sring-wing scheme for modifyrng ex-
strng aircraft (applied to the Su-7 and
Tu-22) and also an ideal shape for new
iesigrns, The latter was adopted by the
MrG bureau for the MiG-23/27 and also
by Sukhoi for its Sukhoi Su-24, the latter
naving exactly twice the power of the
lvhG aircraft. Unlike the MrG the new
Sukhoi has been developed pwely for
long-range all-weather attack, and
there is no known fighter version
(though parts may be used in the Su-27
'Ram-K'). In many respects the Su-24 ts
similar to the American F- I I I, thouqrh it
is smaller, lghter, much more power-
n:l and has a belly that can be fes-
tooned with weapons, Features in-
clude a large forward-looking radar,
side-by-side seats, twin guns with
bulged ventral fairings partly formed
by the twin airbrakes, variable lateral
mlets and twin ventral flns on the flanks
of the wide fuselage, A very heavy
load of at least 25 drfferent types of
external store can be carried, and mrs-
sions can be flown to the tip of Brittany,
Scotland or as far as Sparn. Called
'Fencer' by NATO, this efhcient and
well-equipped aircraft has given the
Sovret FA (Frontal Aviation) a quantita-

Looking up at an Su-24 with the wings

at minimum sweep. In the landing
pattern, this aircraft has the twin
speed brakes p art-open. N ATO
codenames have been applied to
three positively identitied variants of
this formidable aircraft, but details

!r*r'c: Su-24'Fencer' (continued) Modern Strike Aircraft
10 in); heisht 5,5 m (18 ft 0 in); wins
area not published
Armament: eight external pylons each
rated at 1000 kq (2,205 lb) for bombs
(including tactical nuclear). various
airto-surface missiles (including AS-7
i;eciEcation 'Kerry', AS-9, AS- 10 and AS-1 1), rocket
i5:ciSu-24 pods, cluster dispensers and other
lape: :Ji-weather attack aircraft storesi two guns of 23-mm or larger
i:'n-:plant:believed to be two 12700- calibre under fuselagte
, ; :- ?98lb)T\rmanskyR-29B
. -;::-:lted turbofans
l: jcrmance: (estimated) maximum
:::=:i clean at high altitude over
- --- lsrr,tr (1,320 mph) or Mach 2; Another 'Fencer' in the circuit at an
- on a hi-lo-hi misston with 4000- airfieldof theGSFG (Groupof Soviet
,'; :- 3LB-lb)bombload
1400 km Forces in Germany).In this case the
:,- tw in a ir brakes - which cover a gun
Tie:ghts: (estimated) empty 19050 kg and (it is believed) a weapon-aiming
=, :38 1b); maximumtake-off39500 kg sensor- arec,losed. Some of the eight
: , ,33 ]b) pylons, which give the aircraft an
}:nersions: (estimated) span ( 6') 1 800 0 - kg ( 1 7, 637 Jb) ordnance
-- -, m(56 ft3 in); length21.29 m(69 ft capacity are visible.

rc iupot"u Tu-22'Blinder'
--splayed publicly in 196I, the First foreign client to be supplied with the enormous Tu-22 was Libya, which
Tlpolev Tu-22 was larger and more used onein angertodrophombs during a conflictwithTanzania. Others have
:.:rerful than previous Soviet super- been used'[or real' by lraq.
:-.::rc bombers, and though it still lack-
=: the range for many missions, tt was
;:r into production and about 250 were
: ltin four versions, all equipped with
- urflight-refuelling probe, The basic '
:ee-fall bomber, named'Blinder-A' by
::ATO, was deployed in Iimited num-
:ers from i965, but the main Produc- pensers. The free-fall bomber verston
--:n centred on the'Blinder-B' missile- has been used in action over lran, Iraq
:errier and various 'Blinder-C' recon- (against Kurds), Tanzania (by Libya)
:arssance and electronic-warfare plat- and most recently aetatnst Afghan re-
::rrns, as well as a few'Blinder-D' dual bels by the Soviet air force.
:ainers with the instructor in a second
::ckpit above and behind that for the
::igdnal prlot. Most versions have a Specification
-arge mapping and navigation radar in Tupolev Tu-22'Blinder-A/3'
:e pointed nose, followed by a navi- Type: bomber and missile-carrier
;ator/bombardier compartment with Powerplant: believed to be two 14000-
;iazed downlook wtndows, Aft of the kg (30,8641b) thrust Kolesov VD-7
::essunzed cockpit section is an enor- afterburning turbo j ets
:rous fuselage tank, behind which is Performance: maximum speed at high
-:e unique engrne installation on each altitude about l4B0 krn/h (920 mph) or
s:de of the fin, with the nozzles close to Mach 1,4; radius on a hi-lo-hi mission
-re rear warning radar, ECM aerials with maximum bombload 3 100 km
axd remote-control tail cannon, In l9B3 (1,926 miles)
about 125 of the 'Blinder-A' and 'Blin- Weights: empty about 40800 kg
jer-B' versions remained operational, (89,949 lb); maximumtake-off 84000 kg
- well as a squadron in Libya and a (185,188 ]b)
::'ru in iraq. The most active version is Dimensions:span 27.7 m (90 ft 10,5 in); Above : T aken when Tu- 2 2 s were Below:Take-off by one of the fusi.
3Linder-C', of which about 40 continue lensth 40,53 m (132 ft I i.5 in): height ^ being delivered to Libya in April production Tu- 2 2 s. showing the
.: fly intensively with the AV-MF 10.6i m (35 ft 0 in); wingarea 145.0 m2 1977, this photograph shows the socket above the nose for !ie :::1;-::-
.Scviet naval air force) on maritime re- (1,560,8 sq ft) original national insignia u sed by refuelling probe (which is no t i t tet.
::nnaissance and electronic-warfare Armament: (A) up to 10000 kg that country. The escorting US Navy The fuselage, vettical tail a:.. :::.. :
ruties with various fits of cameras, IR (22,046 lb) of bombs or (B) one AS-4 F-4NcamefromVF-|I l 'The wing suwive basicaily unc:.a:.g+= :
--rescan, passive receivers and, in 'Kitchen' missrle; two 23-mm tatl Sundowners'. Inflight refuelling is today's'Backfire'.
s:me aircraft, ECM jammers and dis- cannon in remote-control barbette not fi tted to Libyan Tu - 22 bomber s.
f {iipotev Tu-22W/Trrr-26'Backfire'
I Fr{.ff;EF of the naval AV-MF,
relcfr easabo.rt 120 of the 255 in
scrre m la 6e J 984. This example is
fus anlrmg an AS4 Kitchen'
ry=mic cruise missile, but latet 6' -. ,.,8
re esarpa64v abutto enter ' t,- *:,, ,,:*i*.*8ffiQ6
sen:be on'Bacltrres' and'Bears'. l

-rk ser=::r :'.irer Soviet aircraft, the bogie main gears folding inwards into in i984-5 the much larger bomber cal-
led Ram-P 'Blackjack' is expected to
Weights: empty about 47175 kg
5::-2i s:pe:scmc bomber was de- the fuselage. By 1983 about 220 ofthe ( i04, 003 lb); maxmum take-off
irp:: -- :-gepayload, and a clear improved aircraft were in servrce, di- enter servrce, I i I I30 ks (245,000 lb)
i:erng modrfied with the vrded equally between DA (strategic Dimensions: span (55") 34.45 m ( 1 13 ft
l= =:
:- 3--:e;e-cped parhal swtng-vrtlng, aviatron) and AV-MF (naval aviation). 0.3 in), and (20") 26,0 m (85 ft 3,5 in);
:r-1 ::::er wings berng pivoted, Many have been seen with varrous Specification 1engrth40.0 m (131 ft 2.8 in); height
Ile :=J--g Tupolev Tu-22M prob- armament schemes, and these aircraft Tupolev Tu-26'Backfire-B' 10.0 m (Q2 ft 9,75 in); wingarea

-'f i:= fel; at Kazal il 1969 and a pose a severe threat to all ships within Type: strategic attack and 166.0 mz (1,786,9 sq ft)

-p" :-:::ier
entered service in the
-:11.s. In tum this led to an air-
about 3220 lcn (2,000 miles) of Soviet
bases, With inflight-refuelling to an
reconnaissance arrcraft
Powerplant: believed two 20000-kg Taken by a Swedish fighter, for
ceLeved to be the Tu-26, and cal- overload weight after take-ofl direct (44,092-lb) thrust Kuznetsov NK- I44 which the'Backfire' was deliberately
=-=tsaclcfire-B' by NATO. This has a
F-: missions could be flown against the augmented turbofans pose d, this photogr aph shows the
T.:-pietely revised fi.rselaqe with the USA, though with the Soviet Union's Performance: maxmum speed, clean highly loadedwings spread out in
installed conventionally in the gigantic ICBM force thrs is unneces- at high altitude about 19 I5 h/h the cruise position. The twin 23-mm
:e= ::selage fed by extremely large sary and bombers are used entirely ( 1, 190 mph) or Mach LBi radius on a tail cannon are remotely directed by
:-::-s from variable inlets on the sides against moving targets, Production is ht-lo-hi mrssron with maxmum radar, andextremely
:: -:e forward fr:selage, and with the continuing at about 42 per year, while bombload about 3220 krn (2,000 miles) comprehensive ECM is installed.

il tlpot"u (?)'Blackjack'
On 25 November 19Bl an American combat aircraft in history, though cer- may carry similar types of weapon, at high altitude 2225 lar/h (I,383 mph);
reconnaissance satellite sensor trans- tainly much slower than the stillborn The big unknown is how far the Soviet unrefuelled combat radius (conditions
mitted a poor hnescan picture showing North American XB-70 (which had electronics and other electromagme- not stated by US Department of .

a large variable-sweep bomber roughly the same engine power), the tic-wavelenglh engineers have progr- Defense) 7300 kn (4,536 miles)
parked on the Ramenskoye test centre 'Blackjack' obviously has tremendous ressed along the road to an unobserv- Weights: empty about 90000 kg
near Moscow, From two Tu-I44s rangre with very healry weapon loads, able 'stealth' aircraft, which is the key ( 198,4 16 1b); maximum take-off
parked nearby it was possible to see and unquestionably encompasses the to the survivability of this monster 260800 kg (574,966 lb)
that the new aircra-ft was much larger whole of North America from bases bomber in any future conflict, Dimersions: span (spread) 45,75 m
than the Tupolev Tu-22M'Backfire', wlthin the Soviet Unlon without even (I50 ft); length 55,00 m (1BO ft); height
and also much larger than the Rock- needing much inflight-refuelling, Specifi cation(estimated) 13,75 m (45 ft)
well B-I, though rn many respects it is Penetration of defended airspace Tupolev (?)'Blackjack' Armament: weapon load of 16330-
extremely similar to the USAF bom- would certainly have to be at the Type: Iong-range strategic bomber 22680 kq (36,000-50,000 lb), includins
ber. The new bomber is assumed tn lowest safe altihrde, with the wings fttl- andmissile carrier all known Soviet strategic nuclear
the West to have been designed at the ly swept and probably with an automa- Powerplant: four large auqmented weapons and the new AS-X- 15 standoff
T\rpolev bureau, thouqh even this can- tic ride control using active flight- turbofans (possibly derived from the missile
not yet be conflrmed, and the NATO control surfaces, There is no likelihood 20000-kg/44,0921b thrust Kuznetsov
reporting name is 'Blackjack', of any major commonaltty wtth the ex- NK- I44 used in the Tu- 144)
Biggest, heaviest and most powerful rstrng 'Backfire', though the tvvo types Performance: maximum speed, clean

E General Dynamics F-lIl

TheF-l l lCversionfortheRAAF haslow-thrustTF30enginesbutthelong-spanwingasfittedtotheFB-l I lA. Four

of them have beenmodifiedtocarry amulti-sensorreconnaissancepack, though theywould notnormally f\y both
reconnaissance and attack in the samemrssion.
'-..: Ln a production type vanable-
j:,'=:p 'swlng wings" augmented tur-
: -:=: engines and terrain-following
: r- Pilot and navigator are slde-by-
:,r: Ln a jettisonable capsule which

:i- serve as a boat or suwival shelter,

- :.= largre main-gear tyres are surted to
,-:;l strips but are so located that
. .,-lage stores are hmited to an ECM
:,, j apart ftom a small weapon bay
-::--:h can carry a qlln, In the F-IIIC
: re RAAF and FB-IIIA for SAC the
-:::gs have grreater span and the gear
. sirengthened for greater gross
''.::ghts. Thanks to enornous internal
,-:i (usually i9010 litres/4,182 Imp gal)
-::-gre exceeds that of any other TAC
-.;e. but problems with engrines, rnlet
: -:s and avionics resulted in succes-
.-'.': subtypes such as the F-l I lA ( 14I
: -1t) F-IllD (96, advanced but costly
=,.crucs), F-IIIE (94) and F-lllF (106, Specification Weights: empty 21537 kg; (a7,48i lb); Afterburner take-offby a USAF F- i : ,
lreater power and optimized General Dynamics F- I I lF maximumtake-off 45359 kg (100,000 lb) carrying four empU MERs (multjp;e
.',--:mcs). SAC received 76 FB-l1ls, Tlpe: ail-weather interdiction aircraft Dimensions: span (wrngs spread) ej ector racks). The only stores
.=r,rng il two wings with normal load Powerplant: two I I3B5 kq (25, I00 1b) 19,20 m (63 ft 0 in); tensth 22.40 m (73 ft carried on the fuselage are ECM
-, ,wo B43 bombs or two SRAM mrs- thrust Pratt & Whitney TF30- 100 6 m)i height q,22 m (17 ft 1,5 in); wrng pods.
.-:s Lnternally plns up to four SRAMs auqmented twbofans area 48,77 m2 (525.0 sq fD
=-rernally, Grumman, partner on the Performance: maximum speed, clean Armament: internal bay for two B43 or View from the right seat of an
::--,mct US Navy F-1118, rs rebuilding at 12I90 m (40,000 ft) 2655 kn/h olher bombs or one bomb and one FB-l 1 IA of USAF StrategricAir
=i F-11 lAs as EF-IIIA Raven electro- ( 1,650 mph) or Mach 2,5; range at high 20-mm MOI gmn; sxwing pylons for Command as acompanion lakes on
:, : -warfare platforms. altitude, clean with maxrmum internal theoretrcal conventional load of fuel from aKC- ]35 tanker. The
fueI4707 lan (2,925 miles) 14288 ks(31,500lb) technique is vital to FB- I I I As.
''''':'!i-t!lr'tt'1 :a''

F-lllAAqrdvqrks' Thundering inwith'burners blazing, F-[ I lA

67-113[ets go thevery lastloadonVietnam on 15
August 1973. Operating outafTakhliAB, the

agc$nsf NorfhVietnam
standard Load comprisedup to 24 bombs plus
tandem ALQ-87 ECM jammer pods under the

For the first I 1-odd years from ils introduction to service in 1967 the F- I I I was the der'. As the men settled rn amid the heat and
most advanced and unstoppable attack aircraft in the world. How ironic that, having red dust at Takhli, it was now more than a
already suffered terrible political, financial and technical difficulties, and a mauling decade since the flrst studies aimed at de-
veloping the costly and trouble-prone F-lll,
from the media, this great aircraft should gointo action and suffer disasterafter seven years since Secretary of Defense Robert
disaster! S, MacNamara had ballyhooed production of
what was then perceived as the bi-sewice TFX
On 28 March 1968 1n the first combat mission tion'Combat Lancer', the US Air Force's con- multi-role strike craft, and four years since the
by a General Dynamics F-111A, an aircraft troversial baptism of fire for the F-111, Under marden flight of the aeroplane on 2 I December
laden with two ALQ-87 jammrng pods and 24 Colonel Ivan H. Dethman, cigar-smoking, tyre- 1964 The F-111, so unloved that it was never
Mk 82 bombs hfted off from Takhli, Thailand, to kickrng combat veteran, the 428th Tactical assiqned a popular name, dubbed 'Aardvark
assault a target in North Vietnam, Thts F-I I lA Fighter Squadron on l7 March 1968 had ferrred by enthusiasts but not by crews, had failed
(66-0022) vanished forever. On 22 April 1968, six F-l l iAs from Nellis AFB, Nevada, to Takhli totally and abysmally in the crucible of combat
another attempt was made to hurl the F-l11A where the strike aircraft were detached to the Dethman's men, his ACs (aircraft comman-
rnto battle, Now, another F-lllA (68-0024) 355th Tactrcal Fighter Wing, then flying Re- ders) and YOTs ('You over therel', the term for
headed north, and also disappeared. public F-105D Thunderchiefs in the campaign an F-lllA weapon system offlcer) were de-
It was a grim and frightening start for Opera- against North Vietnam known as'Rolling Thun- moralized by the unexplained loss of half their
strike force, for by }ate Aprll 1968 a third F-
l11A had travelied one-way rnto North Viet-
nam, and instead of proving that the aircrai:
design had merit, the theatre deployment had
instead, yielded gloom and doom.
It should not have been that way. Indeed, the
s.*.:i F-lllA seemed ideally constructed to deal
punishing blows to the North Vietnamese. Wt:h
its 6743-km (4 19O-mrle) range, rt was the onli'
strike aircraft able to carry a full }oad of ordn-

February 1968, andF-l I 1A67-0060 hasjustbeen

delivered to the 429th TFS, seen on exercise
over the Panamint Range. Within months, the
'Aardvarks'ofa srstersquadron, the 428th, were ta
be in action over the hostile skies of NorthVietnarr,,
After a tragic start, the F-l I I was to prove its
1 ..: :-.: i :,i:-:-=

-;:::= .i
.lI 5r.:==.-.:=:::

*ii i

. : do.;yntow-n' (to Hanoi) -without infliqht- obvrated tlie need for parachutes or ejection level mission renderinE the strike aircr:
- .:ihngi, its advanced Lrtton LliD-21/A seais) were headrng out on a 1o-lo-1o, ground, visible to North Vietnam's fielcl-svreep r.-:-
,, la':ion ancl weapons delivery sysiem per- skimmlnq mrssion of the krnd which had Endurance oithe F IIiA beingso much :r:-l
.' :C Ceep penetration by lone aircraft, wrth ciaimed three pianes and six buddies ter tharr the F 105D or McDonneli F 4C --.-
:scort, wrth no back-up from iankers ECll, This time, everyihing weni like ciockwork. consumpttcn (aithough ravenous 'on the i-= -,
'.',-'i ot any other support plaires, a 'lone wolf The sophrstrcated navigation system of the F' wasnotaproblem. TheACandYOT re1: - =
, - -i:rlity matched rn all the inrorld only by the 1i1A permitted a ground-hugging ultra-low- comlortable in therr spacious cockpit :r,
' -ir,an A-6}" Intruder. The F'lllA could
r :-/ up io 14424 kq (31 800 ib) of iron bombs'
- -.:liy the proxrmity fused 227 kq/500-1b N4k
, :lakeye) on a night or bad rr,reather, terrain-
.3rng rnrssion cleep rnto Ho Chi lr,{inh's
- .:-eiand. It was clearly an effective vrarplane,
- ::. jf ACs and YCTs grumbled unceasingiy
- ,l: its unorihodox side-by side seating.
, r.e number four slzp[6]12es bad luck 1n
r.-:r socieiies On attempt number four, a
- -.nbat Lancer crew sl:apped in. hurtled alofr
-:r Takhli beiore darrun orr 28 Apni 1968 and
..ier radro silence bored north east io-,ruard a
.- 1ei in ltlorih Vlernam thought lo be the Hai
:ng raii complex Aqain, 21 Snakeyes hung
-: multiple ejector racks (MER) on the F-
- A pylons whrle lwin ALQ-87 lammer pods
=re lead-y' io disrupt enemy iadar iiansnrs-
,:s. Again, two men ln the unique forwa::d-
-.:laqJe escape pod of the 'Aardvark' (which
he 42Bth TFS was ta return fo ti:e i4elnemese
.,.*ies fsr ffle,bombrng earnper';qrur s af 1972.
:.:companied by the #Afiz FFS, jf de-p,trofed fo

;l'ere fo re-enfer tLte hattle. The ftrst aircraft ts

: r r i v e, shaw n here, was d,he ft arbingrer of nr
::an 4.440 at the rnosf cftalJengjn g bamhing
'l;ssioRs gver.
-rri :heir target with radar homing and help in 1968 planninqt, it became clear that Pilot's view of companion aircraft heading for
.: .-rg system (RHAWS) utterly silent, evr abrupt tailplane failure caused by fatigme at a distantThailand as the first aircraft of the 428th
:=--:: :hat they were undetected, No AA flre, weiding fault, not enemy action, threw the F- TFS head autfroml{ellis in March I968.'Combat
Lancer' was tosee f&einlroduction of an entirely
, i,-ivls no MiGs, rose to challenge them, The 11tA into an uncontrollable fatal rnanoeuvre. new farmof aerialwarfare, wjtftF-J J Jspossesstnsr
' ::len were lugging a substantial payload at Dethman's force was withdrawn wtth the 3l the capability to un derlake mrisions irnposs:b/e fo
.::. subsonic ctrrise at treetop leve1 against October 1968 temporary bombing halt, and in fly with less advanced aircra{t.
': :,-aviest defences the world had ever seen, 1969 al1 'Aardvarks' were grounded to colrect
= 'We were at an aititude of 250 feet (76 2 m)
.:-:i iobody seemed to know they were com- this flaw. But F- 1Ils returned with a vengeance
._-.1 for the 1972 campaign against North Vietnam, moving at Mach ,87 rn a region of odd-shaped
j--ne 5l more, equally successful missions called 'Linebacker', ridges and peaks, and we were in ciouds and
'=:: flown by Colonel Deihman's 'Combat Captain Peter A. Messenies, F-111}' pilot, haze for the final 14 minutes of our run-in to
recalls a mrssion to the outskirts of Hanoi where target
-.,--:er' F lllAs. After war's end, too late to
, , ,'
Though four F' llls were iost in combat in
1972 (67'0063 67 0068 67'0A92,67-0094) and
one more rn Laotian operattons after war's end
(67-0111), the never-very-popular'Aardvark'
had proved itself as a lonq-rangte strike aircrait
.rlith unmatched ntqhVall-weather capability,
F- I I 1s assaulted fuei dumps, railyarcis,
brrdges. Some, under the 'lgloo White' prog-
ramme, seeded enerny lerrain with paradrop-
ped acoustic sensors -which detectecl North
Vietnarlese iroop movements, F II IAs from
the 428th and 430th Tacttcal F ighter Squadrons
supported the massive 'Christmas bombing by
Boeing B-52s in the Hanor/Harphong region rn
December 1972. These trno squadrons flew
4,030 sorties in five months, mostly at low leve1
in bad weather, and 2,5 million kq (5 5 million
lb) of bornl:s were carried to enemy targets.
Despite its poor beginmng, the F-11I dealt out
crippling punishment, helped force North
Vretnam to a settlement, and (when overali
mission sorties are counted) su-ffered fewer los
ses per combai hour than an--i other aircraft
'y1r,' of the Souih ;a5' f,5i3 rvar
B axfour fr om the 4 2 I th T I'S fly p a s t with w ing s fit lly
swept on arrival at Takhli AB an I 7 IvI arch I 968, an
the ariginal Combat Lancer deplayment" Qne'
EJevens sejdorn fllt tight farmation, anef tfiese
particular aircraft were fo emba rk on their
mrssions aJone.
€ toct*ell International B-18
No aircraft in history has taken so long
to mature as the Rockwell B-lB, which
at last does seem likely to enter USAF
service in 1985 and become combat
ready rn July 1987 as the replacement-..
for the Boeing B-52. The latter has
already had to soldier on several times
longer than planned, and is costing in-
creasingly more to update and stlll fall- ThisB-lAprototypeis shownwithconventionalejectionseats instead of acapsule, frxedinlets andotherupdates,
ing short on penetrative capability. butretains the dorsal spine and long pointed tailcone.
The orignnal B-lA, first flown in De-
cember 1974, was a Mach-2 high- refuelling, the weapon-bay bulkhead Powerplant: four 13563-kg (29,900Jb) Armament: eiqht ALCM internally plus
altih:de nuclear bomber, with limited is movable for carriage of such long thrust General Electric Fi01-I02 14 extemally, or 24 SRAM internaily
low{evel conventional-warfare capa- stores as the ALCM, and the structure augmented turbofans phs 14 externally, or 12 B2B or B43
bility. The B-1B, which looks much the is strengthened and specially de- Performance: maromum speed, clean nuclear bombs internally plus 8/I4
same, is designed to fly at low leve1 on signed and coated to reduce radar at 152 m (500 ft) 1207 lcntr (750 mph) externally, or 24 internal and 14
terrain-foilowrnq radar, with extreme- cross-section (apparent size on enemy or Mach 0,99; range with maximum external B61 or BB3 nuclear bombs, or
ly heavy loads ofvaned weapons, and radars) to one-tenth that of the B-14, internal fue1, maximum missile ioad 36287 kg (80,000 lb) ofconventional
to use the world's most comprehensive which rtself was one-tenth that of a B- andunrefuelled over I 1265 krn bombs
avionic systems for naviqation, 52H, It rs planned to burld 100, costing (7,000 miles)
weapon delivery and, in particular, around $40,000 million, even though Weights: empty 72575 kq (160,000 lb);
protection agarnst hostile defence sys- there is a prospect of an even less- maxrmum take-off 216364 kg The fourth B-lA prototype is air-
tems. Unhke the original four pro- vrsilcle Northrop'stealth' bomber from (477,000 lb) refuelled by an Air National Guard
tot)-pes it wrll have plain fixed engnne the early 1990s. Dimersions: spanvanabie 23.84 to KC- 1 35A. I n tact it was the second
inlets, four ordinary ejection seats and 4I.67 m(78 ft2,5 into i36 ft8.5 in); B- 1 A that was brought up most
no special provision for supersonic Specification Ienqth 45.78 m (150 ft 2,5 in); height closely toB-lB standard, themost
fliqht. Fuel capacity is greatly in- Rockwell lrternational B- lB 10,24 m-(33 ft 7.25 in); wing area externally obvious change being
creased for global range even wlthout Type: strategic bomber 181.2 ma (1,950,0 sq ft) removal of the long dors aI spine.

IAI Lavi
Fortrfied by its successful develop- propulsion, the only major subcontract sion is berng aggrressively marketed (6 19 mph), or clean at high altitude
ment of the Nesher and then the large- has gone to Grumman Aerospace, by Boeing which hopes to re-engnne 1964 lar'/h (1,220 mph); combatradius
ly IAi-designed Kfir flghters, the whose gneat experience in advanced several hundreds of Phantoms in many at low level with eight M I 17 bombs
Israeli aircraft ndustry (IAI) agreed in composite structures is being used in countries, Israel berng the most likely 452 kn(2Bl miles)
1976 to corsider the daunting task of the design and manufacture of the launch customer. First flrght ofthe Lavr Weights: empty6760 kg(14,903 Ib);
creating a completely new multi-role wing, The US company is to build is scheduled for 1986, and eventually normal loaded, clean 9664 kg
combat aircraft for use rn the I990s. wings for the first 20 aircraft, IAI hopes to burld 300 for the Israeli dr (21,305 Ib); I70I0 kg
The IAI Lavi (young ljon) is bernq de- Like most agile air-combat aircraft force alone, including about 60 tandem (37,500 rb)
veloped to meet the need of the Israeli of today, the Lavi has a canard fore- trarner versions with full combat capa- Dimensioirs:span8,71 m(28 ft7 in);
air force for a new-technology aucraft plane, swept back and close-coupled bihty. lenqth 14.39 m (47 ft 2.5 in); height ^
confignred primanly for tactical attack to the wing (and remarkably in line 5,28 m (17 ft 4 in); wing area 32,5 mz
missrons, to replace first the McDon- with the pilot's seat), A ventral inlet is Specification (349,8 sq ft)
neli Douglas A-4 Skyhawk and later used, ahead of the nose landing gear, IAILavi Armament: fuselage pylons for up to
the Kfir. At first rt was expected a col- the mail gears also retracting into the Type: single-seat tactical attaCk fighter sx bombs, and fow wing pylors for
laborative deal would be reached fuselage. A turbojet was selected for Powerplant: one Pratt &Whitney missiles, bombs, rocketsorother
either with another country embarking many reasons, and a very sigmficant PW I 20 afterburning turbojet with
1 stores; $rthon or Sidewinder AAM rail
on a similar project or, as a paid sub- spin-off of the eng[ne choice is that maxrmum rating of 9353-kg (20, 620-lb) ateachwingtip
contract, with a US company. In the Israei is one of the largest operators of thrust
event, while Pratt & Whitney has an the McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom, Performance: maxrmum speed at 1ow
lntense interest in collaboratinQr on the for which the PWll20 engine conver- levelwith eight MI17bombs 997 lcnrh

Saab 37 Vissen
A S aab SF 37 reconnaiss ance Viggen
from wing F2 l, wirbi also uses
another multi- sensor version, the
5H37. The latterftasnoseradar, Ir'ke
the attack AJ 37 but unlike this chisel-
nose machine, which is depicted
with a Red B aron recon pod.

By 1960 the Swedish air board had

once again taken the bold decision to
procure a new-generation combat
aeroplane from Sweden's own indus-
try. As before it was agrreed the same
basic type should be developed for toqether totalling IB0, Since 1979 de-
multiple roles, and on this occasion liveries have continued of the com-
particular emphasis was wisely placed pletely revised JA37 interceptor,
on the ability to operate away from which also has considerable attack
known airfields, STOL capability was potential as a secondary role.
demanded, for safe operation from
country roads, and this was achieved Specification
by selecting a giant rear wing and a SaabAJ3TViggen
Iarge flapped canard, tandem-wheel Type: slngle-seat attack aircraft
main gears strong enough for no-flare Powerplant: one Volvo Flygmotor
Iandings, and a thrust reverser. The RMBA augrmented turbofan rated with
first Saab 37 prototype flew on 8 Febru- maximum aft erbuner at 1 800-kg

ary 1967, and the System 37 was subse- (26,0I51b) thrust

quently developed as an integral part Performance: maximum speed, clean
of Sweden's Stril60 electronic defence Mach 1,2 at low level, and over Mach 2
system. (2130 l<rr/h/I,323 mph) at hish altihrde;
Several versions were subsequently tactrcal radius with external weapons
produced for the Swedish air force on a hi-lo-hi mission 1000 lcn
(Flyervapen). First, and most numer- (621 miles)
ous, was the AJ3? attack variant. Even Weights: empty 1U00 kg (25,794 lb);
this initial modei contains some 600 kg ma:omum take-otr20500 kg (45, I95 ]b)
(I,323 ]b) otspecial avionics, including Dimensions:span 10.60 m (34 ft 9.5 in);
a large Errbsson radar, comprehen- lensth 16,30 m (53 ft 5,7 in); heisht
sive navaids, two quite different aids to 5.80 m(19 ft0.2 in); wirgarea(main
blind landinq and very advanced uring) 46.0 m'z(495.2 sq ft) Above: Head-on aspect of an AJ 37 B elow : An AJ 37 attack Viggen from
weapon-delivery systems and ECM, Armament: seven pylons (two more attackViggen over the Baltic islands wingFT, armedwithfour pods each
some of the latter being housed in ex- optional) for ail types of bomb, rocket- with two of the big RB04E anti-ship housingsix formidable 135-mm air/
ternal pods. Closely related versions launcher, gnrn pod and various missiles cruise mrbsrles. The usual centreline surtace rockets. The cttrved grey
were the SF37 and SH37 reconnatss- including Saab RB04E or RB05A, RB75 store k a long-range fuel tank, which rectangle on the side of the rear
ance aircraft and SK37 dual trarner, (Maverick) or RB24 Sidewinderor is also carried byreconnarbsance fuselage is a thrust-reverser ouilet.
production of these four sub-types RB2B FalconAAMs Viggens.
Armed Forces of the World

US ArmgPar,z
Order of Battle
3rerational Test and Evaluation Agency, Falls Church, Va
3allistic Missile Defense Systems Command, RedstoneArsenal,
\'lilitary Personnel Center, Alexandria, Va
?ecruiting Command, Fort Sheridan, lll
VilitaryAcademy, West Point, NY
AmyWar College, Carlisle Barracks, Pa
Amy Nuclear and Chemical Agency, Fon Belvoir, Va
;roop SupportAgency. Fort Lee, Va
Computer Systems Command, Fort Belvoir, Va
:inanceandAccounting Center, Fort Benjamin Harrison, Ind
Reserye Components Personnel and Administration Center, St
Louis, Mo
Medical Research and Development Command, Fort Detrick,
Developmentand EmploymentAgency, Fort Lewis,Washington
Headquarters, Alexandria, Va
Armament, Munitions and Chemical Command, Rock lsland, lll
Aviation Systems Command, St Louis, Mo
Chemiel Research and Development Center, Aberdeen Proving Now in producton at a rate of 60 tanks a month, the replacing, as well as being exceptionally mobib- jt
Ground, Md
M I Abrarns has proved popular with the 7th Army will also have its I 05-mm gan replacd by the
Communications-Electronics Command, Fort Monmouth, NJ smath-fure gun.
DARCOM-Europe, Seckenheim, Germany
in Germany. More reHable than the M60 it is excellent German I 20-mm
Depot System Command, Chambersburg, Pa
Electronics R&D Command, Adelphi, Md WESTERN COMMAND (WESTCOM} Schoolsand Centers
Missile Command, Redstone Arsenal, Al Headquarters, Fort Shafter, Hl Air Defense Centerand School, Fort Bliss, Tx
SecurityAssistance Center, Alexandria, Va 25th lnfantry Division, Schofield Barracks, H I ArmorCenlerand School. Fort Knox, Ky
Tank-Automotive Command, Warren, Mich Support Command, Fort Shafter, Hl Aviation Center, Fort Rucker, Al
Testand Evaluation Command. Aberdeen Proving Ground, l\4d 45th Support Group, Schofield Barracks. Hl Chaplain Centerand School, Fort Monmouth. N-
Troop Support Command, St Louis. Mo Commandand General Staff College, Foft Leavenwc--- (:
Logistics Management Center, Fort Lee. Va Defense lnformation School, Fort Benjamin Ham*-, -:
FORCES COMMAND (FORSCOM) Defense Language Institute Foreign Languge Certe.
(TRADOC) Presidioof Monterey, Ca
Headquarters, Fort McPherson, Ga
Headquarters, Fort Monroe, Va Engineer Center and School, Fon Belvoir, Va
First USArmy. Fort Meade, Md
Combined Arms Center, Fort Leavenworth, Ka Field Artillery Center and School. Fon Sill, Ok
Second USArmy. Fort Giilem. Ga
Logistics Center, Fort Lee,Va lnfantry Center and School. Fort Benning, Ga
Third USArmy, Fort McPherson, Ga
Soldier Support Center. Fon Benjamin Harrison, lnd lnstitute of Personnel and Resource lVanagement. Fc:
Fifth USArmy. FortSam Houston,Tx
Combat Developments Experimentation Center, FortOrd. Ca Benjamin Harrison, Ind
Sixth US Army, San Francisco, Ca
Combined Arms TestActivity, Fort Hood, Tx lntelligence Centerand School, Fort Huachuc, Ar
I Corps. Fort Lewis, Wash
Systems Analysis Activity. White Sands Missile Range, NM lntelligence School. Fort Devens, Mass
7th lnfantry Division. Fort Ord, Ca
gth lnfantry Division. Fort Lewis. Wash Training Support Center, Fort Eustis,Va JudgeAdvocate General's School, Charlottesville. Va
First ROTC Region, Fort Bragg. NC Mlssile and Munitions Center and School, Redstcne
1 72nd lnfantry Brigade, Fort Richardson, Alaska
Second ROTC Region, Fort Knox, KY Arsenal, Al
lll Corps, Fort Hood,Tx
1 st lnfantry Division (Mech), Fon Riley, Ka
Third ROTC Region. Fort Riley, Ka Ordnance Center and School, Aberdeen Proving G rc; -:
Fourth ROTC Region. Fort Lewis, Wash Md
1 st Cavalry Division, Fort Hood. Tx

2nd Armored Division. Fort Hood. Tx

Training Centers Organizational Effectivdness Training Center. Fort oT :€
Fort Benning, Ga Ouartermaster Center/School. Fon Lee, Va
4th lnfantry Division (N/ech), Fort Carson. Colo
Fort Bliss, Tx Sergeants MajorAcademy, Fort Bliss. Tx
5th lnfantry Division (Mech), Fort Polk. La
Fon Dix, NJ Signal Centerand School, FortGordon. Ga
6th Cavalry {AirCombat) Brigade, Fort Hood.Tx
FortGordon, Ga 1 st SpecialWarfare Center. Fort Bragg. NC
3rdArmored Cavalry Regiment, Fort Bliss, Tx FortJackson, SC
lll Corps Artillery, Fort Sill, Ok Transportation Centerand School, Fort Eustis, Va
Fort Knox, Ky
XVI I I Airborne Corps, Fort Bragg. NC
Fort Leonard Wood, Mo
24th lnfantry Division, Fort Stewart, Ga
S2ndAirborne Division, Fon Bragg, NC Arlington Hall Station,Va
'101st Airborne Division {AirAssault). Fort Campbell, Ky Fort Sill. Ok

l94thArmored Brigade, Fort Knox, Ky

197th Infantry Brigade, Fort Benning, Ga
1 93rd lnfantry Brigade, Fort Clayton, Panama

1 8th Field Artillery Brigade. Fon Bragg, NC

75th Field Artillery Brigade. Fort Sill. Ok

212th Field Artillery Brigade, Fort Slll. Ok
2'14th Field Artillery Brigade, Fort Sill. Ok ;-)
'lst Special Operations Command, Fort Bragg. NC F
sth Special Forces Group (Airlcorne), Fort Bragg. NC
7th Special Forces Group (Airborne), Fort Bragg. NC
1 oth Special Forces Group (Airlcome), Fort Devens. Mass

4th Psychologiml Operations Group, Fon Bragg. NC

1 1 th Air Defense Artillery Group, Fort Bliss. Tx

Army Readiness and Mobilization Region ll. Fort Dix. NJ

Army Readiness and Mobilization Region V, Fort Sheridan, Ill
Army Readiness and Mobilization Region Vl. Fort Knox. Ky
Army Readiness and Mobilization Region Vll, Fort Sam Houston.
ArmyReadinessand Mobilization BegionVl l. FltzsimonsArmy
MedicalCenter. Colo
Army Readiness and Mobilization Region lX, Presidio of San
Francisco, Ca
NationalTraining Center, Fort lMin, Ca
Training Centers
Fort Devens, Mass
Fort Drum, NY
Fort lndiantown Gap, Pa
Fort lVccoy, Wis
Fort lvlcPherson, Ga
Fort Meade, Md
Fort Sam Houston, Tx
F iring a 9 5.2 - kg (2 I 0 - lb) shell to a r ange of 2 lan M I 07 and M 1 I 0. Gun crew well wrappd up
Presidio of San Francisco, Ca
( I 3 miles) and with a new round planned to reach against the cold, 'Belligerent' is seen fiere on
FortSheridan lll 29 latt ( I 8 miles), the M I 1 0A2 has replaced the exercise in Korea, M arch I 984.
l Li.€

8th Medical Brigade, Fort Hamilton, NY

30th Hospital Center. FortSheridan, lll
103rd Corps SupportCommand, Des Moines, ld
143rd Transportation Brigade, Orlando, Fla
220th Military Police Brigade. Gaithersburg. lvld
221st Military Police Brigade, San Jose, Ca
290th Military Police Brigade (POW), Nashville,Tenn
300th Military Police Command {POW), lnkster, Mich
31 oth Theater ArmyArea Command, Fort Belvoir, Va
31 1 th Corps Support Command, Los Angeles, Ca
351st CivilAffairs Command. Mountain View, Ca
352nd CivilAffairs Command, Riverdale. Md
i;,: :=i.5ir l 353rd CivilAffairs Command. Bronx, NY
377th TheaterArmyArea Command, New Orleans, La
4'l 1 th Engineer Brigade, Brooklyn, NY
41 2th Engineer Command, Vicksburg, Miss
41 6th Engineer Command, Chicago, lll
420th Engineer Brigade. Bryan, Tx
425th Transportation Brigade, Fort Sheridan, lll
804th Hospital Center, Bedford, Mass
807th Medical Brigade, Seagoville, Tx
8'18th Hospital Center, Fort Gillem, Ga
2290th Army Hospital, Rockville, Md
2291slArmy Hospital. Columbus. Oh
5501st Army Hospital, Fort Snelling, Minn
7581 st USAR Garison. Fort Buchanan. PR

S{il] soldiering on, the M48AS is the last of the M48 Vll Corps Artillery, Stuttgan NATIONAL GUARD UNITS
2nd Armored Division (FoMard), Garlstedt 26th lnfantry Division, Boston, Mass
series still in tront-Iine US service, equipping the
Southern European Task Force 28th lnfantry Division, Harrisburg, Pa
two US armoured battalions in South Korea. 2nd SupportCommand (Corps) 38th lnfantry Division. lndianapolis, lnd
3rd Suppon Command (CorPS) 40th lnfantry Division (Mech), Long Beach, Ca
coM MUN TCATTONS COMMAND (USACC) 21 st Support Command 42nd lnfantry Division. NewYork, NY
Headquarters, Fon Huachum, Ar 32nd Air Defense Command, Darmstadt 47th lnfantry Divisron, St Paul, Minn
sth Signal Command (Europe), Worms, Germany lstPersonnel Command 49th Armored Division, Austin, Tx
7th Signal Command (CONUS), Fort Ritchie, Md 7th MedicalCommand 50th Armored Division, Somerset, NJ
Communications-Electronics Engineering lnstallation Agency Seventh ArmyTraining Command 29th lnfantry Brigade, Honolulu, Hl
Fort Huachuca, Ar US Command Berlin 3oth Separate lnfantry Brigade (Mech). Clinton. NC
Communi€tions Systems Agency, Fort Monmouth, NJ Berlin Brigade 32nd Separate lnfantry Brigade (Mech), Milwaukee, Wis
1 stSignal Brigade, Seoul, Korea 1 7th Field Anillery Brigade, Augsburg 33rd Separate lnfantry Brigade, Chimgo, lll
1 1 th Signal Brigade. Fort Huachuca,Ar 41st Field Artillery Brigade. Babenhausen 39th Separate lnfantry Brigade, Little Rock,Ar
42nd Field Artillery Brigade, Giessen 41 st lnfantry Brigade, Portland, Or
56th Field Artillery Brigade, Swabisch-Gmiind 45th Separate lnfantry Brigade. Edmond. Ok
72nd Field Artillery Brigade, Wertheim 48th lnfantry Brigade (Mech), Macon, Ga
Falls Church,Va
21 Oth Field Artillery Brigade, Heuogenaurach 53rd Separate lnfantry Brigade, Tampa, Fla
CORPS OF ENGINEERS (USACE) 4th Transportation Brigade 58th Separate lnfantry Brigade, Baltimore, Md
Headquarters, Washington DC '1
8th Engineer Brigade 67th Separate lnfantry Brigade (Mech). Lincoln, Neb
Europe Division, Frankfurt, West Germany 22nd Signal Brigade 69th Separate lnfantry Brigade {Mech), Topeka, Kan
Huntsville Division, Huntsville, Al 59th Ordnance Brigade 73rd Separate lnfantry Brigade, Columbus, Oh
Lower Mississippi Valley Division, Vicksburg, Miss 81 st Separate lnfantry Brigade (Mech), Seattle. Wash
Middle East Division. Riyadh, SaudiArabia 92nd Separate Infantry Brigade, San Juan, PR
Headquarters, Seoul
Missouri River Division, Omaha, Neb 1 1 6th Separate lnfantry Brigade, Staunton, Va
Combined Field Army (ROIVUS), Seoul
New England Division,'Waltham, Mass 21 8th Separate lnfantry Brigade (Mech). Newberry, SC
2nd lnfantry Division, CamPCaseY
North Atlantic Division, New York, NY 2561h lnfantry Brigade (Mech), Lafayette, La
1gth Support Command
North Central Division, Chicago, lll 2o7th nfantry G roup (Scout), Anchorage, Alaska

North Pacific Division, Portland, Or 30th Separate Armored Brigade, Jackson, Tenn
Ohio River Division, Cincinnati. Oh Headquarters
31 st Separate Armored Brigade, Tuscaloosa, Al
Pacific Ocean Division, Honolulu, Hl lX Corps
149th Separate Armored Brigade, Louisville, Ky
South Atlantic Division, Atlanta, Ga MAJOR ARMY RESERVE COMMANDS 155th SeparateArmored Brigade. Tupelo, lViss
South Pacific Division, San Francisco. Ca 63rdArmy Reserve Command. LosAlamitos, Ca 1o7th Armored Cavalry Regiment. Cleveland. Oh
Southwestern Division, Dallas, Tx 77th Army Reserye Command. FortToten, NY l l6thArmored Cavalry Regiment, Twin Falls, ld
Missile Construction Office. San Francisco. Ca 79th Army Reserue Command, Willow Grove, Pa 1 63rdArmored Cavalry Regiment, Bozeman, Mont

HEALTH SERVICES COMMAND (HSC) 81 stArmy Reserve Command, East Point, Ga 278th Armored Cavalry Regiment. Knowille. Tenn
Headquarters, Fon Sam Houston, Tx 83rd Army Reserue Command, Colombus, Oh Xl Corps Artillery, Salt Lake City, Utah
BrookeArmy Medical Center. Fort Sam Houston,Tx 86th Army Reserve Command, Forest Park, lll 45th Field Artillery Brigade, Enid, Ok
Dwight David EisenhowerArmy Medical Center, Fort Gordon, Ga SSthArmy Reserue Command, FonSnelling, Minn 57th Field Artillery Brigade, Whitefish Bay, Wis
Wichita. Kan 1 03rd Field Artillery Brigade, Providence, Rl
Fitzsimons Army Medical Center, Aurora, Co SgthArmy Reserue Command,
LettermanArmy Medical Center, Presidio of San Francisco, Ca gothArmy Reserve Command, San Antonio. Tx 1 1 3th Field Artillery Brigade, Greensboro, NC
1 sth Field Artillery Brigade. Cheyenne, Wy
Madigan Army lvledical Center. Tacoma. Wash 94th Army Reserve Command, HanscomAFB, Mass
Fort Douglas, Utah 1 1 8th Field Artillery Brigade. Savannah, Ga
TriplerArmy Mediml Center, Hl 96th Army Reserve Command,
Walter ReedArmy MedicalCenter, Washington DC 97th Army Resewe Command, Fort Meade, lvld 130th FieldArtillery Brigade, Hutchinson. Kan
1 35th Field Artillery Brigade, Sedalia, Mo
William Beaumont Army Medical Center, El Paso, Tx 99th Army Reserue Command, Oakdale. Pa
Amdemyof Health Sciences, FortSam Houston,Tx l02ndArmyReserueCommand,StLouis,Mo l38th Field Artillery Brigade, Lexington, Ky
ArmyAeromedical Center. Fort Rucker, Al 1 2oth Army Reserve Command, Fort Jackson, SC 1 42nd Field Artillery Brigade, Fayetteville, Ark

Army Environmental Hygiene Agency, Aberdeen Proving 12l stArmy Reserve Command, Birmingham, Al 147th Field Artillery Brigade. Pierre. SC
Ground, Md 122nd Army Reserve Command, Litlle Rock, Ark 1 51st Field Artillery Brigade, Sumter, SC

USArmyGarrison. Fort Detrick. Md 123rdArmy Reserve Command. Fort Benjamin Harrison,lnd 153rd Field Artillery Brigade, Glendale, Ariz
124thArmy Reserue Command, Fort Lawton, Wash 1 69th Field Artillery Brigade, Aurora, Colo
MI LITARY TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT COMMAN D 1 96th Field Artillery Brigade. Chattanooga, Tenn
lX Corps (Augmentation), Foft deRussy, Hl
(MTMC) 70th Divislon (Training), Livonia, Mich 1 97th Field Artillery Brigade, Manchester, NH
Headquarters, Washington DC 76th Division {Training), West Hartford, Conn 209th Field Artillery Brigade, Rochester, NY
EasternArea, Bayonne, NJ 78th Division (Training), Edison, NJ 224th Field Artillery Brigade, Sandston, Va
Western Area. Oakland ArmY Base. Ca SOth Division (Training), Richmond. Va 227th Field Anillery Brigade. Miami, Ila
Transportation Termina! Command, Europe' Rotterdam, 631st Field Artillery Brigade. Grenada, Miss
84th Division (Training), Milwaukee, Wis
Netherlands 85th Division (Training), Chicago, lll 1 I 1 th Air Defense Artillery Brigade, Albuquerque, NM

MILITARY DISTRICT OF WASHINGTON (MDW) 91 st Division {Training), Sausalito, Ca 1 6th Engineer Brigade, Columbus, Oh

Fort LesleyJ. McNair, Washington DC 95th Division (Training). Midwest City, Ok 30th Engineer Brigade. Charlotte, NC
35th Engineer Brigade. St Louis. Mo
US ARMY EUROPE (USAREUR) 98th Division (Training), Rochester, NY
'l ooth Division (Training), Louisville. Kv 1 94th Engineer Brigade, Nashville, Tenn
Headquarters, USAREUR and Seventh US Army, Heidelberg
1 O4th Division (Training). Vancouver Barracks,Wash 1 12th Medical Brigade, Worthington. Oh
V Corps, Frankf urt-am-Main
1 75th Medical Brigade. Sacramento, Ca
3rd Armored Division, Frankf urt-am-Main lOgth Division {Training), Charlotte, NC
1 57th lnfantry Brigade (Separate) (Mech), Horsham. Pa
213th Medical Brigade, Jackson, Miss
8th Infantry Division (Mech). Bad Kreuznach
1 87th lnfantry Brigade (Separate). Fort Devens. Mass 43rd l\,4ilitary Police Brigade, Providence, Rl
4th Brigade, 4th lnfantry Division (Mech), Wiesbaden
2o5th lnfantry Brigade (Separate). Fort Snelling, Minn 49th Military Police Brigade, Alameda. Ca
1 1th Armored Cavalry Regiment, Fulda
428th Field Artillery Brigade, South Bend, lnd 261 st Signal Command. Dover. Del
V Corps Artillery, Frankf urt€m-Main
434th Field Artillery Brigade, Chicago, lll 142nd Signal Brigade, Decatur, AI
Vll Corps.Stuttgart
479th FieldArtillery Brigade, Pittsburgh, Pa 228th Signal Brigade, Spartanburg, SC
1 st Armored Division, Ansbach
7sth ManeuverArea Command, Houston, Tx 1 67th Support Command, Birmingham, Al
3rd lnfantry Division (Mech), Wiizburg
87th ManeuverArea Command, Birmingham, Al 2'l 3th Area Support Group, Allentown, Pa
1st lnfantry Division (Foruard), Goppingen
2nd Hospital Center, Hamilton Field, Ca 1 S4thTransportation Brigade, Laurel, Miss
2nd Armored Cavalry Beqiment, Ntirnberg