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Volume 8 Issue 90 t
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Cruisers ol
Six yearc before the outbreak of World War I the battle-
cntiser was introduced, Too slow to intercept their lighter
one ofthe six-strong
'Devonshire'class ot
brethren but too weak to stand in the line of battle, armoured armoured cruisers
builtbetween 1902
ctlaisets nevertheless fought tluoughout the wan and 1905.

As a type, ihe armoured cruiser was reckoned obsolete nV fgl+, its as flagships to distant
imperiat stations and the type was dlscontinued
development havrng been halted abruptly by the introduction of the Only with improvements in armour could the ilass be resurrected wrth a
battle-cruiser in 1908 In fact, the latter was initially referred to as an view to discharging its designed functions of reconnaissance in force
'armoured ciuiser' but this was a ploy to disguise its true nature. It support for smaller friendly cruisers, frustrating the aims of the enemy s
outclassed the older type so conclusively that its qualities put it in cruisers and finishrng damaged ships of superror size,
another bracket entirely and it could be argued that, if used with Upon the advent of the battle-crurser these arms should have been
common sense, the more traditlonal armoured cruiser could still have modified as, in a fleet context, they tended to throw the armoured cruiser
had a role complementar.y to that of the battle-crulser. Had this been the at the very ships that were designed to destroy it, That this was nc:
case, evolution would probably have taken the better qualities of each recogmized led directly to the disaster suffered by Arbuthnot at Jutlanc
and fused them into a third, and probably more healthy, type, War, Coupled with Coronel and the Falkiands battles and a very high loss ra:e
however, has a habit of interruptrng normal evolutionary processes. from a variety of other causes, this led to the armoured cruiser once
The origrns of the armoured cruiser go back to HMS Shann on ol lB77 agarn being banished to trade protection. The UK had disposed of is
and, therefore, almost to the introduction of the ironclad itself. Clearcut 19 hulls by 1922, but the type hngered in the fleets of France
categories such as 'battleship' and 'crulser' did not exist in modern terms Italy and the USA.
and, for long, an armoured cruiser was reckoned on a par wlth a thlrd-
(or even second-) class battleship, with protection and armament re- Aclassicarmoured cruiser, ffie.Russr'an Rurikwas builtbyVickers;her desigm
duced in scale for the benefit of speed, The indifferent quality of contem- incorporated the /essons of ffieft ussoy'apanese war. She carried a heavy
armarnentof four 254-mm (10-in) andeight203.2-mm($-in) guns and her
porary armour plate st111, however, meant enougrh weight to offset any defensive protection included a I52-mm (6-in) belt, armoured magazines and
effective gain in speed, To the Royal Navy they were a faiiure, banrshed torpedo detence.
ffi usA

Brooklyn was a'one-off vessel,
essentially an improved version of
Saratoga. Ifer u nitorm armament
of eight 203.2-mm (8 -in) guns
fores hadowe d I ater he avy
cruiser armament.


Though a 'one-off , the single'Brooklyn' participated in the Battle of Santiago

class ship USS Brooklyn launched in de Cuba rn 1898, the former as Schley's
1895 had a profile so distinctive that flagship, In the course ofthe Spantsh-
she rs probably the best-remembered American War an inferior Spanish
Amerrcan armoured cruiser, She was squadron, blockaded in the port, was
an improved version of the USS iVew forced out to avoid capture by land
York (later Sarafogra) of four years ear- operatrons, Ineptly handled, they were
lier though, in truth, neither was more destroyed by superior grunfire as they
than a protected cruiser with a very emerged, all ending as grrounded, gnrt-
shallow belt running only the lengrth of ted wrecks.
the machinery spaces. This lack of
depth was possible largely because of Specification
the low vertrcal heiqht of the small re- 'Brooklyn'class
ciprocating engines that were instal- Displacement: 9,215 tons standard and
led, The two shafts each had ftvo prtme 10, 100 tons frrll load
movers, directly-coupled and Dimensions:lengith 122,68 m (402.5 ft);
arranged in tandem. Most cruising beam 19.71 m (64,67 ft); draught 8,00 m
could be achreved on one engine to (26,25 ft)
each shaft, making for economy and Propr:Ision: four sets of tnple-
endurance, and foreshadowing the expansion steam engnnes delivertng
COGAG and CODAG arrangements in 13795 kW(lB 500 ihp)tohvoshafts
current practice. Speed:22 kts
Also prophetic was the armament Armament: eight 203,2-mm (B-in), 12
mtx, the eight 203.2-mm (B-in) and 12 I27-mm (S-ur) and 12 6-pdr gnrns, and
I27-mm (S-in) suns berng typical of a five 457,2-mm (18-in) torpedo tubes
ship four decades later, The earlier Armour: belt 203 2 mm (8 in) tapertng
New York had had only srx 203,2-mm to 76.2 mm (3 rr); protective deck 152,4
weapons, twin h-rrrets forward and aft, (6 in) taperinq to 76,2 mm (3 in);
toqether with a singrle in a shieid- barbettes 203.2 mm (B in); casemates Abore; Brooklyn was so lightly belt with no bulkheads at the ends.
protected barbette on each side 10L6 mm(4 in) armoured as to almostwarrant The low height of her reciprocating
amidships. With an increase in length Complement: 7lB classification as a protected cruiser, engines allowed the belt to be
of 6,1 m (20 ft) but none in the beam, having only a76.2-mm (3-in) armour equallyshallow.
the Brooklyn's designers substrtuted a I
hvin turret for each barbette mounting
! Brooklyn as slre appeared before her
and added a forecastle deck. With her 1909 reconstruction, the high
extremely high freeboard, exagger- free bo ar d and pr onoun ce d
atedly curved ends, pronounced tumblehome imparting a distinctly
tumblehome and tubular masts of French look. However, the
varyrnq section, the ship clearly owed incongruous ochre and white colour
much to French influences, though the scheme was wholly American.
three spindly funnels ofunusual height
were the desiqner's own.
Both the Brooklyn and New York

ffi fi"nr,rulvania'class
Six 'Pennsylvania' class armoured their size, ther armament was on the
crulsers Pennsflvanja, USS Wesf
(USS light side in a vain attempt to reduce
Virginia, C alifornia, C olorado, M ary- weight and improve speed to the Ewo-
Iand and Souffi Dakota,Iater renamed pean norm of 23 kts. Thrs was because
Pittsburgh, Huntingdon, San Diego, they (together with the follow-on'Ten-
Pueblo, Frederick and f/uron) were nessee' class ships) were meant, like
launched in 1903-4 and represented their British contemporaries, to be
not only a great leap in sheer size but used as a fast winQl of the main battle-
also a transition to Ewopean style of fleet. Though they were longer than
armament balance. They also typified
the American love for completely sym- Displacing over 15,000 tons, the
metrical armament layout, a trait that 'California'class were the first US
continued right through to the various armoured cruisers built on a
standard desrgns of World War Ii, For European scale.

'Pennsylvania' class (continued)

contemporary battleshrps, they had a Specification

common problem of inadequate 'Pennsylvania'class
speed margin, Displacement: 13, 700 tons standard
In terms of protectron, the amidships Dimensions:lenqth i53,62 m (504,0 ft);
armout, 127 mm (5 in) thick, rose suf- beann 21, lB m (69.5 ft); draught 7,39 m
flciently high to protect the 152,4-mm (24>25 fi)
(6-in) casemates but was long enougth Propulsion: two sets of triple-
only to cover the boiler and machinery expansion steam engines delivering
spaces. Thougrh BB,9-mm (3,S-in) belts 17151 kW (23,000 ihp) to hvo shafts
extended both to bow and stern, these Speed: 22 kts
were very shallow and typically of the Armament: four 203, 2-mm (B-in), 14
tlpe that rernforced thb British rdeas 152,4-mm (6-in) and 1B 76,Z-mm (3-in)
that, unless it could effectively keep guns, and two 457,Z-mm ( l8-in)
out 152,4-mm shell fire, its weigtht was torpedo tubes
better incorporated in the protecttve Armow:belts 152,4 mm (6 in) tapering
deck behind it, to BB,9 mm (3,5 in); transverse
War experience resulted in their bulkhead 101.6 mm (4 in); protective Above: For their size, the B elow uring lhe war Pittsburgh
: D
armaments berng considerably mod- deck38,l mm(1.5 in)with 101,6-mm 'Pennsylvannia' class were lightly acquired a basketwork cage
ified, 14-pdr AA guns being added (4-in) slopes; barbettes 152.4 mm armed, partlyin an attempttogive foremast allowing spotting tops to be
and, rn at least one case, an aircraft (6 in); casemates 127 mm(5 in) them a good margin of speed over higher but without incurring a
catapult being temporarrly added. Complement:829 contempor ary b attle ships. weightpenalty.
Most had their pole foremasts re-
placed by the 'baskelwork' cage
'masts, which enabled their spotting
tops to be considerably elevated with-
out incurrinq a viblation penalty to up:
set the rnstruments, while also impro-
ving the visibility by being clear of the
shrp's smoke,
The Pittsburgh emerged from her
mid-life refit with only three funnels,
giving her the looks of a 'Connecticut'
class battleship. Only one, the ,San
Drego, was lost, running on a mine in
home waters. The port machinery
spaces flooded and, though steam was
available, there was reluctance to
counterflood the starboard spaces and
the ship capsized,

ffi fi"r,n.rsee'class
The marn battery consisted of a twin American battleships, the landrrlg ::
Four 'Tennessee' class armoured The main belt, 127 mm (5 in) thick, ex-
cruisers (USS ?ennessee, USS tended from before the forward turet 254-mm (iO-in) turret at each end, the much of the secondary armarnen: a:-l
Washington, USSlVorlh C arolina and to abaft the after turret, betng con- largest calibre carried by any the acquisition of arrcraft catapul-s :-.-
USS Monlana, later renamed Mem- tinued in a shallower 76.2-mm (3-in) armoured crrriser of this generation, two ships, The Memphis was the s:-:
phis, Seattle, Charlotte and Missoula) belt to the extremities, this being Unlike the tnple-screwed French war loss of the class,
were burlt, the last completed in 1908, backed by a 0.91-m (3-ft) cofferdam and Cermans, the Americans followed
Except for the underarmed Charles- filled with a 'water-excluding matenal'. the Britrsh twin-screw layout, with their Specification
tons of 1904-5, no more of the type The 127-mm (5-in) side armow was engines rn separate compartments 'Tennessee'class
were built as a result of the introduc- taken high enough to enclose all ofthe and their 16 boilers in no less than Displacement: 14, 500 tons standard
tron of the battle-cruiser. Like earlier secondary gnrns, which were able, na eight sepaJate compartments. Dimensions:lenqth i53.62 m (504.i -
armoured cruisers, they eventually re-entrant pofis, to be stowed within its Wartrme alteratrons saw the re- beam22,25 m (73,0 ft); draught 7.92 :::
yielded the 'state' names in favour of protection, The protective deck had placement of the foremast pole by the (26 0 ft)
battleships, 101,6-mm (4-in) slopes. cage-rype slructure then common in Propulsion: two sets of trlple-
In size and in armament the 'Tennes- expansion steam engines dehver:::;:
sees' equated fairly to the contempor- The wartime camouflage of T ennessee makes a dramatic change trom the 17897 kW (24,000 ihp) to two sha-fts
ary British 'Warriors' though they car- pre-war panopilz of Brooklyn. The 'Tennessees' were the last armoured Speed: 22 kts
ried also 22 l4-pdr 76,2-mm (3-in) gmns cruisers to bebuiltby the USA. Armament: fow 254-mm ( 10-in), 16
for use in repelling torpedo craft, A I 52. 4 mm (6-in) and 22 76.}mm (
3- :.
major difference as compared with the Qnrns, and four 533, 4-mm (2 I -in)
British shrps was their bulk: like the torpedo tubes
French, the ,{mericans believed tn Armour: belt 127 mm (5 in) raper:.; -:
plenty of freeboard and, though six of 76.2 mm (3 1n); transverse bulkhea:
each ship's 152,4-mm (6-in) gmns were I52 4 mm (6 in): protective deck
casemated on each side, they were 25.4 mm (1 in) with BB,9-mm (3.5-::-.
sufficiently high to be fought satisfac- slopes; barbettes 228.6 mm (9 r.
torily, Above them, at upper deck casemates 127 mm (5 in)
Ievel, four more 152,4-mm quns were Complement:857
set in casemates, one at each corner of
the superstructwe,
A feature of the Tennessees was
their large expanse of armour plating,

Sutland-Twilighf of fhe
Armoured Cruiser whrch he went about it was true to his charac-
At thrs time, Beatty was exchanging fire with
the enemy main body, but when fubuthnot
turned his head and went away at a closer
Thebattleof theFalklands demonstrated thateven thebest armaured cruiserswere range and on a reciprocal course, the German
no match for battle-cruisers, yetMay 19i,6 found two cruiser squadrons scoutingfor gunlayers were presented with a far more
the Grand Fleet. Under the impetuous Rear-Admiral Arbuthnot four, attraciive target, From the bigger British ships,
Defence, Warrior, Dukeof EdinburghandBlackPrince, steamedaheadtoengagethe Arbuthnot's ships were virtually hidden by the
German Znd Scouting Group, but they were steering s traight for the German line. walls of water thrown up by salvoes from at
least four enemy capital shrps,
At 18,00 on 31 May 1916 the Battle ofJutlandwas mand of Rear-Admiral Sir Robert Arbuthnot, Visrbrlily was such thai even from r.he War-
at a critical juncture, The iong line of the Ger- His flag was in IJMSDefence, supported direct- rior, 40a m (440 yards) astern of the Defence,
man Hrgh Seas Fleet had been iured north- ly by HMS Warrior. Farther out was HMSDuke the source of the fire could not be made out but,
ward by Admlral Sir David Beaity's battle- of Edinburgh with HMS Black Pince on lhe at I8, 19. as he was lorced to alter awa-r
cruisers and its head was only 2l km (13 miies) wing Immedrately before the Grand Fleet's under the sheer weight of fire, Arbuthnot was
frorn Admiral Sir John Jellicoe's nearest bat- deployment began, A:buthnot signalled to the struck by two heavy salvoes in successron, The
tleship, within Qunshot but hrdden in the haze. Wamor (timed 17 53) 'Open fire and engage Defence staggered but was still proceeding a,
But Britain's Grand Fleet was still steaming enemy It is not known whjch ol the enemy he high speed when she suddenly erupted in a
south east in crursing formation, six parallei had sighted; probably it was l1ght crursers of cataclysmic explosion, The Wamor, herseif
columns of four shrps, its commander-in-chief the German's 2nd Scoutrng Group ai a pcintjust under heavy ftre, was so close aslern that she
yet unable to deploy into battle line for want of before they were savaged by the guns cf Rear- steamed straight through the smoke and ialling
firm information, His immediate 'eyes'were the Admlral Sir Horace Hood's battle-crr;isers debris, Burning at each end, hydraulic power
lst and 2nd Cruiser Squadrons, each consisting Even as Jellicoe deployed, the Cerrnan lne lost and gruns in local controi, she finally took a
oi four armoured cruisers, deployed on each rernained invisible to him, wlth Beat:y s battle- smashing blow rn the port machinery space
fcrward wrng of the fleet, Their task was lo cruisers storming across his vjsi,,,. f31 hrs part, Both spaces were filled wrth live steam and
support the fleet and rts hght cruisers, to reccn- Beatty was aware of two Bri:rs;-r armcured evacuated by those slrll able to but with steam
noitre in force and to deal with enemy cruisers, cruisers (they were lhe Defence anc W''amoil still feeding to the engines she kept her way
Aware of the need to prevent premature closrng on his port bow and iirr:g a'r an un- and crept toward the prorection oI the Sth Bar-
contact of the two fleets, Beatty at some cost known target. Ftre was mcre :ha: surpnsed tle Squadron, Already hit by an estimated 15
barged across the head of the German line, n'hen the two held thetr cours+ -::-ri-:.-r c.)se ma;or- and six lesser-calibre projectiles, she
forcing it irom its near northerlv course to about uncier his bows, forcing him tc al:er c:urse and would probably have shared the fate of the
east, By thrs time the die was cast and the lcse sight of the enemy line Defence but for the;amming of HMS Warspite s
Grand Fieet was deploying correctly onto a .a,-rbuthnot was, at tiris stage, ar:er SlvlS t{zies- he1m, Describing two compiete circles out of
battle line roughly parallehng that of ihe bacen, an enemy light cruiser rha. rad been control, the battieship drew the fire of the
enemy. Between the two fleets the calm sea disabled just before by Hooo s :rlrnre but still enemy gunners,
had been cut up by the manouevnngs of boih aijcai and ln a good position .: ia;:ch iorpe-
battle-cruiSer forces and their attendant scoui- ices at Jelhcoe's line.
ing groups oflight cruisers. The already flck1e Had Arbuthnot been able .: iirsh her off, TheGrand Fleel assemb/ed alscapa. ?he
vlsibility had deteriorated with the smoke irorn ::3ether with the rest oiher grc:c and gather armoured cruisers were now ships without a role:
a hundred funnels, :c-ro-date information on the ::arn German their reconnaissance fask usu rped by lighter
On the nearer srde to the enemy was the lst Li,e n would have been in acc:riance with vesseis and ba ttlecruisers, they were rclegated to
Cruiser Squadron, under the spirited com- :=...e rnstructions The prel.[ .n.+ nanner in Iow- ris k operations aftet J utland.

Lt a.f
Armoured Cruisers of Worlc +\ ar i

The battle moved away and Ihe Wamor,

with 68 dead, concentratedon survrvai. At 18 40
the seaplane carrier HMS Engadrae hove in
sighl and stood by, An hour later the cruiser
signalied that she was still trying to turn off
steam but, a.t 19,45, ordered 'Sland by to tow
me,' the Engadine, a lightly-bullt converted
cross-Channel packet, passed a iiqht line by
skrff andthen winched over a heavy towline, In
deterioratrng weather conditions, the tow slow-
ly got under way and, once the Warriolshard-
over rudder had been centred, burlt up to an
estimated 7 kts (wrth the Engadine doing re-
rrolutions for 19 kts). Despite all efforts at dam-
age conirol, lhe Wamor slowly settied by the
stern and, aithough 160 km (100 miles) had
been made good towards the Scottish coast,
daybreak found the cruiser in a parlous state, ln
a rrsing sea the bulkheads were yielding under
the strain and, at 07. I5,Ihe Wamor hoi.sted flag
'K', the pre-arranged srgnal for immediate eva-
cuation, It was loilowed by her last signal, by Crippled in the evening action, the unfartunate enemy that she had been in violen; c:---.,-.'
semaphore: 'Sirp wrre - Never mind buoying it,' Black Prince b/undered into the dreadnoughtSMS with the German battleship SMS.\hssar -
The Engadine ranged alongside and con- Thuringendurrng the night. The battleship put 15 engaged rn patching up her consrc::..-.-
ducied an orderly transfer; with no way oisink- 305-mm ( l2-in) shells into her before the blazing
hulk drifted into the night.
damaEe, the Spifi?re was nearly run dc.;: r ,,

rng the cruiser she left her, quarter deck large ship on fire 'from loremast ro mir:..-. '
aiready awash, to founder. She had been about on deck and betvreen decks , , , ' so clos: ' -,,
320 km (200 miles) from the safety of Cromarty, minutes later the Black Pr:nc-. as requested, she that the Spi/fre's crew could both hea.: -:. -:
At the point in the battle where Arbuthnot reiayed to Jellicoe a sliuattc:t repori from the feel the fire, The wreck had two wi::'
had started his impetuous dash, the neighbour- Falmouth but, alrnosi t:rlneiiately, was spaced funnels and was taken to be a c:. =-
ing Duke of Edtnburgh, having received his observed to make a malor chaiLge of course. It cruiser, but was almost certainly the i-.=,.
signal, made to conform, Fortunately, the risky was known ihat she was sliiiering irom an ear- Pnnce wrth her two centre stacks shot ar,---.. -:
dash under Beatty's bows could not be under- lier electrical breakcic-,r'il cu. io-,rr strangely, massive explosion was observed soon a--::-
taken and the cruiser lost touch with her lead- she 'disappeared'; she ',r! as r.i seen again until wards bur nerther trace nor survlvor Aai -: .

er, At 19, 17 she joined up with the 2nd Cruiser after midnight, At thls iisre :he German main lound.
Squadron and survived intact, body was breaking thrc:gh the irght forces The dlsaster to Arbuthnot's squarj. .

As wing ship oithe lst Cruiser Squadron, the massed at the tail of Jelhcce s cclumn The un- accelerated the flnal decline of the arm. *:= -l

Black Pnncewas some 2l km (13 miles) distant fortunate cruiser, rn wna: :li:st have been a cruiser. Coronel and the Falklands had r:-:.-
from Jellicoe and out of sight, At 17.33 she was semi-crippled condjtiorL bl:niered rnto a very lined the obvious, that older ships urer: ,.,
sighted by the liqht cruiser HMS Falmouthr as alert enemy rearguard. A: a rangte ol only match lor newer ones and that the nev-rer ::-.= -

the latter was attached to Beatty's force, this ]000 m (1,100 yards) she tas s;cieniy illumin- themselves were easy prey for the i:a.-=
was the flrst link between the hvo groups, Nine ated by the searchhghrs ct .;re oid battleshtp cruiser,
SMS Tfuinhgen whtch, sulsequeniiy, clarmed Jutland had shown in turn that arrni-.::-:
to have put LS 305-mn {-2--:, shells into her cruisers no longer had a role as the reconn: -::
without reply, Blazing iercei-,' s:e passed lrom nce wing of the fleet: too slow, they coi-ric :-- '
siqht, become vrctims of battleships as well Fcr :- =
A crur'ser js seen under ?arge-calibre shell ftre at
Also engaged in the despela:e encounters of remainder of the war they were useC in -:'.'.
Jutland. A murlq day, visibility was further
reduced by thevastvolumes ofsmoke produced that night was the destrc'.'e: HlvlS Spllfre, risk operations and areas, and lor the mcsr p .-,-
by coal-fired ships. which had carrred the i:h: s: ,.;ell to the survived the peace only by months.
'Rurik' class
The Rrirrk that served during World Her three stubby funnels garze Rwik
War I should not be confi:sed withthe a unique silhouette. All her maior
shlp of the same name completed in batteries were housed in twin
1896. This latter vessel, a 10,950tonner mountings which allowed space for
built like her near-sister Ros,3ia in St 20 1 1 9.3-mm (4.7 -in) quick-fire guns
Petersburg, so outclassed contempor- to be fitted in single casemates along
ary British protected cruisers that the the level of the upper deck.
two 'Powerfuls' were hurriedly con-
structed as a counter, Though poten-
trally a challenqe she was lost, like so the accommodation spaces on the two
much of the Russian fleet, in the war upper decks right forward.
with Japan, berng sunk in Augmst 1904 The Russian fleet of 1914-B was little
in the battle ol the Korea Strait, better used than its predecessor of a
Obvrously the Russians thought the decade before, The Rurj.k belonged to
name to be worth continuing, for the Baltic Fleet, numencally superior
another armoured crusier (more cor- to the Germans that opposed it, Both
lectly renderedRjurlk, after the found- sides were actively engaged in mine-
er of a long dynasty of early tsars) was layrng, in the course of which the Rurrk
ordered soon afterwards from Vickers twice badly qrrounded. In July 1915 the
at Barrow, the first of huo projected, Russians encountered an inferior Ger-
Completed in 1907, she was of unique man force east of Gotland and therRurlk
appearance wrth three funnels of claimed to have hit the rRoon several
equal height and a single, crossed times in an indecisive action, TheRurlk
mast which was stepped abaft them, Of was broken up in a general 'thinning' of
a size with the contemporary British the fleet in the later l92Os, after the Specification 203-mm (B-in) and 20 120-mm (4.7-in)
'Minotaws', she was slower but more Revolutron, 'Rurik'class guns, and hvo 457-mm ( l8-in) torpedo
heavlly armed, capable of putting four Displacement: 15,200 tons standard h-lbes
254-mm (10-in) and four 203-mm (8-in) Dimensions: lenqth 149,35 m (490 ft Protection:vertical beit 152 mm (6 in)
guns on each broadside, comPared 0 in); beam 22.86 m (75 ft O in); draught tapering to 76.2 mm (3 in); topsides
with four 233,7-mm (9.2-in) and five 7,92m(26ft0in) 76.2 mm (3 in); transverse buikheads
190,5-mm (7,5-in) enrns, or about 20 per Propulsion: two sets of triple- 76.2 mm (3 rn); protective deck
cent by weight, As the two major- expansion steam eng:ines deltvering 38, I mm (1,5 in); barbettes 203 mm
14690 kW (19, 700 ihp) to two shafts (B in); casemates 177,8 mm(7 in)
calibre batteries were all housed in
hvrn mountinqs, there was space also Speed:21 ks Complement:800
for 20 120-mm (4,7-in) QFs mounted ;Armament: fou-r 254-mm ( 10-in), eiqht
srngly in protective casemates, for the
most part at upper-deck level. The The Russ ian fleet w as hand Ie d with
Rufl,?s protection was rmpressive in much the same ineptitude and
the large area covered, the only 'soft' lethargy in World W ar I as it had
zones being the extreme counter and been jn J 905. Rurik spen t the war in
the Baltic largely inactive, a sad
waste of her potential.


'Bliicher' class
SMS Efticlrer (only'unit of the 'Bliicher'
class) affords a prime example of a
misfit warship produced rapidlY to
meet a mistakenly-perceived threat
from a rival power. The British butlt
therr first battle-cruisers in great
secrecy, referring to them (deliberate-
Iy misleadingiy) as 'armoured cruis-
ers', Of the latter, true current exam-
ples were displacing upwards of
13,500 tons, with a mix of 233.7- and
190,S-mm (9,2- and 7,5-in) gmns, and it
was easy to make the Germans accept
the idea of a 16,000-tonner with eight
233,7-mm gnrns when, in fact, the 'ln-
vrncibles' were to be 17,230{onners
with eisht 304.8-mm (12-in) guns.
Committed to 'reply', the uncertain
Germans prudentiy laid down a 'one-
off, the Bftjcier. By adoptrng a l2-gun
main battery, set in a six{urret hex:
agonal layout similar to that ofthe con-
temporary'Nassau' class battleships,
her designers expected a broadside
advantage: not only did their 210-mm

The design of the Bliicher sternmed

from a clever deception by the
British, who gave out that the new
'I nvincibles' were to be conventional
crukers mounting 2 33.7 -mm (9.Z-in)
gans. The Germans built Bliicher
with a much superior armament.

r 786
'Bliicher' class (continued) Armoured Cnrisers of World War I
(8,27-in) qun outrange the British 233.7-
mm gmns, but the available eight-gun
broadside weighed nearly 1134k9
(2,500 lb) asainst the 862 ks (1,900 ]b)
of the flve 233.7-mm guns expected to
bear in a single-gnrn layout,
On their part the British, strmulated
by their own deviousness, credited the
Blicher with more than she had, As
late as 19OB the authoritative Brassey3
Naval Annual, though properly report-
ing sx turrets, listed them as beinq four
twrn and two single 280-mm (11,02-in)
mountrngs, tempering thls with the
observation that eight gmns of thrs size
'at most' should be expected on the
Even when the true nature of the
'Ini,rncibles' was known, the Germans
had little choice but to complete the
ship, a super armoured cruiser with firll
lengrth belt, two protective decks and a
Above:Bli.icher was undoubtedly the Specification
speed of 26 kts. Unfortunately, the 'Bliicher'class
Bltchels srze found her tred to Hip- finest armoured cruiser ever built,
per's battle-crutser force despite the but she had no place among battle- Displacement: 15, 500 tons standard
cruisers. Attached to HiPPer's Dimensions: lenqth 161.61 m
fact that her speed and armament (530.22 ft); beam24.52 m(80.45 ft);
were inferior to those of her com- squadron at Dogger Bank, she was
panies. At the Dogger Bank in 1915 she shot to pieces by Beatty's squadron' drausht 8,07 m (26.48 ft)
Withflag still flying she capsizes, Propulsion: three sets oftriple-
was placed at the tail of the fleeing
crewmen scrambling for safetY. expansion steam engdnes deliveringi
German line, slowinq it down. As Beat-
32Bi I kW (44,000 ihp) to three shafts
ty's ships came into range their 304.8-
Speed:26 kts
mm shells, impacttng at steep angles,
Armament: 12 210-mm (8.27-in), eight
drilled through both protective decks 150-mm (5.91-in) and 16 BB-mm (3.46-
to guarantee her destruction, in) gn-rns, and three 450-mm (17.72-:-rr)
torpedo tubes
Armour: belt 185 mm (7,28 in) tapering
Bliicher's ?i 0-m m (8.2-in) guns not to 90 mm (3.54 rn); upperproteclive
only outranged the standard British deck 35 mm (1,38 in); Iower protecttve
cruiser armament, but her eight-grun deck 5O mm (1.97 in); barbettes
broadside threw a far heavierweight 150 mm (5,91 rn)
of shetl than the five-gun broadside
of typical British desr'gns.

H i#"tnt orst' class

Under the Naval Act of 1900, with later stretched the design minimally to tm-
additions, the German naw was set at prove the power by about B Per cent
38 battleships, 20 armoured cruisers, This, predictably, increased their
38 small cruisers and 144 torpedo speed by iess than a knot. An im-
boats; but the programme was rather ploved layout of the secondary 150-
spoiled by the advent of the Dread- mm (5 9}-in) qnrns (flve to a side, set on
nought, It was perceived that there two levels) enabled the protection to
was a need for 'at least one squadron of be better distributed. The result of
efficient armoured cruisers' for use more boilers was an rncrease in fun-
outside home waters, nels from three to four,
As rn light cruisers so tn larger cruis- Although their armament was excel-
ers, the Germans evolved continuous- lent, the 'Roons' were inferior in speed
ly, producing mainly 'one-offs' and and protection (marginally) compared
pairsofships. Thus, rn 1900, theylaun- with their Royal NaW yardsticks This
ched their first pair, SMS Ftjrsf Bjs- was rectified in the two 'Scharnhorst'
marclr and SMS Prinz Heinricft of the class units SMS Sc/rarnftorsf and SMS
'Bismarck' class which, though of simt- Gneisenau of 1906, which achleved
lar dimensions, varied in dsplacement 22,5 kls wlth 30 per cent more power,
because of two separate standards of The Germans resisted the temptation
protection, Each incorporated hvo of to increase the scale of armament (ex-
the older battleships' gmns of 240-mm cept to substitute four 210-mm gmns for
(9,45-in) calibre. These were followed casemated 150-mm guns) and im- Dimensions: lengith 144, 55 m SMS Gneisenau toge ther with he r
proved the protection, the belt armour (47 4.25 fI); beam 2 L 63 m (70, 96 ft); srif er Scharnhorsl, form ed the
closely by the two 'Prinz Adalbert' pr inciple s triking Pow et of von
class units SMS Prinz Adalbert and being thickened sliqrhtly at the ex- draught 7.46 m (24,48 ft)
SMS Frjedricft KarJ which, agarn of pense of the protective deck. Their Propulsion: three sets oftriple- Speet EastAsiatic squadron. The
application was sound, for the ships expansion steam engines delivering two cruisers represented a
similar size, adopted the lighter consider able im prov e men t over the
scheme of protection, greater installed bbih absorbed tremendous Punish- 19388 kW (26, 100 rhp) to three shafts
horsepower and doubled the number ment before being sunk, as related Speed: 22.5 kts earlier 'Roons' and gave GermanY
elsewhere, at the Falklands, Armament: eight 210-mm (8,27-in), sx the victory in the firstmajor naval
of main battery Suns bY changing to
150-mm (5,91-in) and 20 BB-mm (3,46- battle of thewar.
the excellent 210-mm (8,27-in) gun
Despite thrs, thetr speed was barely rn) gn-ins, and foui 450-mm (I7 ,72-tn)
Specification torpedo tubes 50 mm (1.97 in); barbettes -- - :::::
20 kts, (6.69 in)
The two'Roon' class units SMSRoon 'Scharnhorst' class Armour: belt 150 mm (5,91 in) tapering
to B0 mm (3. l5 in); protective deck Complement:770
and SMS Yorck, launched in 1903-4, Displacement: I 1,500 tons standard
The Schdrnhorsl
inAction 27 October, his cruiser strength supplemented
by the arrival of SMSDresden, which had been
hustled out of the South Atiantrc by an ominous
increase rn Britrsh naval presence,
On 3l October von Spee had the Letpzig
.A siatic squadron based af
Scharnhorst was the flagship of Graf vonSpee's Easf
TsingtaoinChina.Given theBritish dominance, the meteoriccareer of vonSpeeand detached in the neighbourhood of the small
port of Coronel, where she detected the pre-
hjs vesse/s could only end oneway, butbefore he was cornered he administeredthe sence of the British cruiser HMS GJasgow, As
RoyalNavy's firstmajor defeatfor twoand ahalf centuries. there seemed a good chance of destroyrng the
latter the German admiral came south, and the
In the early years of the 20th century, Ger- Thouqh there was great Allied concern ab- afternoon of the following day found hrm 80 km
many's imperial tradrng interests in China out his presence, threatening as it did a large (50 miles) north west of the port, His two
rn'ere administered from an enclave at Tsing number of trooping convoys, therr activity kept armoured ctuisers were in line ahead, closely
tao, which acted also as a base for river gun- von Spee lying low, He proceeded to Pagan followed by Ihe Leipzig, Some distance astern
boats and the powerful East Asiatic Squadron, Island, where he was jotned by lhe Emden. was the Dresden, with the Nfirnberg out of
Commanded by Vizeadmiral Graf von Spee, Deciding that offensive actrvity in the Pacific sight to the north, The ragged line was pound-
the latter was a highly effrclent force consisting would ceriainly result in the disablement and rng at 14 kts rnto a lumpy sea caused by the
ol the 11,400-ton armoured cruisers SMS destruction of his squadron, which lacked any
Scharnhorst and Gnejsenau, and the light base, von Spee detached the Emden for her
cruisers SMS Emden, Letpzig and Ni)rnberEl, raid into the Bay of Bengal and embarked on a
averaging about 3,500 tons apiece, A11 had leisurely and rambling trek eastwards across
been completed between 1906 and 1909. the Pacific, With little hostile presence in the
Germany recognized the fact that, in the theatre, his progress was not opposed and he
case of general war with the colonial powers aimed to work down the Chilean coast, disrupt-
and (probably) Japan, Tsrngtao would be inde- ing trade and breaking for home by way of the
fensible and it was not surprising, therefore, Horn, He was off the South Amerlcan coast by
that von Spee's ships were wrdely dispersed at
the outbreak of war in August 1914, His two
major shrps, unknown to the Allies, were at On I November 1914off thecoastof Chile,von
Ponape in the Carolines, where they were Spee was intercepted by Rear-Admiral Cradock's
rapidiy joined by Ihe Nilrnberg from the US scratch force led byHMS Good Hope.
west coast. Good-class mercaniile ships were
requisitroned and armed, and added as aux-
iliaries. Last out of Tsingtao was the Emden,
whlch left on 3 August ]914 with four colliers.
The Leipzig was recalled from the Mexican

Armowed Cruisers of World WarI
residue of a southerly gale when, at about oeuvred at this stage to keep well out ofrange, From the outset, the unpractised Britrsh gnm-
16.30, the smoke of two warships was sighted to and the Britrsh seemed unwilling to seize their nery was wretched and, with the advantage of
the south west, temporary advantage. light, von Spee closed ln. By 19.30 the range
The approaching ships were identifled as Sunset was about 19,00 and, anticipating the was down to 'sixty hectometres' (about 6,500
British and, not knowing their intentions, von reversal ofconditions, von Spee had closed to yards) and the rapid German fire was smolher-
Spee steered rnshore to cut them offfrom any about I 1000 m (12,030 yards), Once the sun had ing the opposition. At the cost of four luts, the
sanctuary in neutral waters. Some degree of dipped, the British were sharply silhouetted Gneisenau forced the Monmouth out of line.
concentratlon was desirable and neither side against the afterglow while his own force rapid- badly on fire, with her burnrng interior visrlcle
pushed for an immediate conclusion, von Spee ly merged with the increasing gloom in the rn places through rents in her glowing plates.
particularly not knowing the British strenqth east. The Schamhorst's opening three-gmn sal- The Gnersenau then shifted to the diffcr:lt and
backing lhe Glasgow. vo put a neat group into the sea 500 m (550 fleeting target of lhe Glasgow, and the Nrirn-
By 18.00 the Germans were running roughly yards) short of Ihe Good Hope. Her third salvo berEr was detailed to find and sink the sticken
parallel with a four-funnelled 'Drake' class put out of actron, the Good Hope's forward Monmouth.
atmoured cruiser and a three-funnelled'Coun- 233.7-mm (9 2-in) gnrns, and 12 210-mm (8.27-in)
ty'. These were HMS Good Hope and Mon- guns were now bearing against a solitary 233.7- GoodHopedestroyed
mouth, the former wearing the flag of Rear- mm and a variety of i52-mm (6-in) gmns, many The Scfiarnhorsf, meanwhile, had sustained
Admiral Slr Christopher Cradock, who had of which were in wave-immers!{g.e-"ter. oniy two hits in rnflicting an estimated 37 on the
come round from the Atlantic with a scratch- Good Hope. The latter, badly on fire forward,
crewed squadron with the ambrtious lntentron lq$te,
'.-- t was stlll gamely replying when she was sud-
of finding and stopprng von Spee, The German denly shattered by a magazine explosion, dis-
gmnlayers were looking westward at targets i integrating in what von Spee descrlbed as a
urdistinct against the dazzle of a lowering sun, I 'splendid firework display', The Glasgoraz dis-
which broke through occasional wrack. Them- engaged to the west and the completeness of
selves well tllurninated, the Germans man- victory became apparent iater when the Nrira-
berg reported having despatched t}ie Mon-
mouli which, by the time she was found rn
Scharnhorst sustained only two hits in reply from fleeting moonlight at 2 L 00, was listing too far to
Good Hope but achieved nearly 40 hits, setting the work the majority of her remaining gmns.
British cruiser on fire and disabling most ofher


{ $,
TheScha rnhorst in Action

Pan ter -Kreuzer Sl'1 S Schdrnhorst

Armed with eight 2 10-mm (8.27-in) 40-calibre and 1

six I 52-mm (6-in) 4)-calibre gntnt Scharnhorst uras
more than a match for her opponent at Coronel.
Powered by three sets ofvertical triple-inverted I
expansion steam engines, her designed I 9388 kW
(26,000 hp) gave her a maximum speed of 22-S kts,
although she was never able to steam as well as
her sistership after badly grounding in I 909.
Meeting avastly superior opponent at the
Fal/</ands, ScharnhorstfouErif to the last and went
downwith all hands.
The,Scfia rnhorst in Action

a+ Ni.irenbqrg
19.00 hours


19.OO hours [eipzig


21.18 horirs
Monmouth sank


Miles O

Leipzig locatedHMS Glasgow a lone at Coronel and Running into the whole British squadron, i'on Spee against the setting sun, theGermans hiddeninthe
von Spee brought his squadron south to attack heL closed in at dusk; the British were silhouetted murk by the Chilean coast.

Like ihe Good Hope lhe Monmouth IefI no erupted in the morning sun, It was lollowed by Sturdee, in command, the old battleship HMS
s'-rvivors, the seas being, in any case, too fierce a second, close enough to put fragments onto Canopus had been beached as a static harbour
:: permit the lowerrng of boats, the Gnersenau's upper deck Standrng farther defence and had bought time for the disadvan-
i/on Spee seemed far from elated by his out, the two German ships eventually rounded taged iorce by firing indirectly on the Gneise-
:*ccess, Though he had suffered no slgnifrcant the bluff that screened the harbour, At 09 40 nau.
rarnage, he had expended almost hall of his could be seen a great smoke cioud and tall, The Gnersenau andNilmberg closed on von
:-.rcr-calibre ammunition, There was little tripod masts, These could mean only British Spee and the whole squadron made all haste
:r:spect of obtaining more, he was 16000 km capital shrps, Von Spee had wasted too much away to the south-east in loose formation, None
-, ICO miles) from home and he was all too time, couid make designed speed through foul hulls
--,',-are that the world's qreatest seapower, After the disaster at Coronel the Bntish and machinery problems, Even before they
.::-; by its reverse, would be seekrng htm out Admrralty had moved raprdly despatching
.: :e jress the score, The day after the action he three battle-cruisers from the Grand Fleet Scharnhorst en tersvalparaiso the day after the
=:- ::ed Valparaiso for coal but refused to strength. Two of them, HMS lnnncrble and 1n- battle. Althoughelated by his victory,vonSpee
=..:--d ihe general celebrations, flexible, had just arrived wrth four cruisers and knew he was nearly I 6000 km ( I 0,000 miles) from
were still coaling. Fortunately lor Vrce-Admiral home and theRoyalNavywould be seeking revenge
Falklands encounter
::-.s:i:ry a quick break round the Horn and
:-.: -..aslness of the South Atlantic would
---='-= sp:--ed success at thts point, but again
: - :- S::: seemed to be afflicted by indecision,

-.::-I--=-l: =::':ad at the isolated island of Mas-a-

: -=:= --j::en an anchorage on the desolate
l -=-, ::as: north of the Magellan Strait,
'-- :-.'l. ::::.=.
--- -: I ,: .'enber, 25 days afler the action
:,e he sail at full strength for rhe
:. .----'-. .:.=:= he expected to deslroy its I
-:-:-i::: rai-: siatron, the survivors of Cra- I
r : ! !r-.:il::- :rd anv slocks LhaL were su-
::-:-----.s.:: :-s :-,"n needs,
s:::::ner in these latttudes, the
'j ----:=::-
:r-::: -,',-as
a:rcclor-rs and the squadron did
-:, :-e ..:m until the night of l/2 Decem-
-,: :- r-.'.
--=: -:- .l+ motntng of 2 December a
.-.'.:--- ..=-----; ',-:ssel. laden with coal, was
:.'.. :: =, :: :-:.aiiof hrs long runhome, von
jj== - : < :-a: jr:3 sheltered waters and spent
r1-.-s -ta:sierrrng her cargo,
. :=r ja.rned bright and clear, It
- l---=.s=.::u. supported by the,MLim-
--.r ;oilowrng the coast
::--g of East Falkland to-
',-.'-iStanley; von Spee was hull-down to the
..,:-r:h, Main batteries were being trained on
::re radio statron when suddenly the great
splashes of a two-gun, major-caltbre salvo
Armoured Cruisers of World War I

-,';ere over the horizon the Germans could see Above:VonSpee's squadron asseen from lfte Below: Her turbines giving her a S-kt advantage
:e first British shrps leavrng Stanley, Visibilrty Falklands, 8 December I914. After a lucky shot over the German crur'sers, Invincible opened fre
.';as perfect, the day was young and Nemesis from H MS Canopus, Spee made off at speed, but with her forward 304.8-mm (12-in) guns shortly
'.'.':s but a matter oi time. before he was over the horizon the battlecruisers before I 3.00 hours. Scharnhorst and Gneisenau
were leaving PortStanley in pursuit. swung towards their mighty enemy to give their
The Leipzig began to ]ag, but urQrency was consorls a cftance to escape.
:-arntained by the constant sight of the pur-
.;:ers who, in no hurry, overhauled them rnex-
- :ably under a dense cloud of funnel smoke, At
-2 47 came the ranging 304.8-mm (12-in) salvo
::n the leading battle-cruiser, Ihe Invinctble.
:; 13 00 the Germans were surrounded by
.p-ashes yet strll unable to reply, At 13 20 stlll
-.','-:hout signiflcant damage, von Spee de-
:=:hed his hght cruisers to shift for themselves
::: could see their British counterparts peel off
:- oursuit while his own ships were still suffer-
:-; at the hands of the two battle-cruisers, He
:-=eded to close the range so turned abruptly
--c, at 13,30, got io wrthin his 12000-m (13 125-
;-d) maximum, Opening fire, the.Schamhorsl
:-apidly hit the lnnacibie, but the British reply
-.';as merely to sheer further off and continue
-:-: bombardment. The British were obviously
l:rtent to stay at long range and expend as
:-,ch ammunrtion as rt took, even though the
l::eisenau was having a light time with her big
-i ;ersary, lhe Inflexjble, bhnded by her lead-
=lS SmOke.

periods elapsed with no flrrng on erther
.-je, as each manoeuvred for advantage, By
-: l0 the weather was deterioratinq and the
::::ish obviously went for a decision, The range
-=-- to 10975m (12000 yards) which, whrle
= c-wing von Spee's shrps to use their secon-
:=-ry 150-mm (5 9-rn) guns, began to prove de-
:'s:ve. The Schamhorst was burning heavily
:-:-,vard and had lost her thrrd funnel. As her
-:-ooiing began to fall off the Gnersenau also
-r-rted to list, Ignorrng a call to surrender, von
Spee's shrp suddenly ceased flre 'hke a hght
:-:,run out' and foundered at 16, 17. There were
:-: survtvors,
.Ee Gneisenau fought on though, through
:-4 mist ol drtzzhng rain now falling, she couid
.ee her two opponents had been jorned by a
-: *r-funnelled armoured cruiser, HMS Camar-
;-:-i. The murk offered no sanctuary from
_:':lshment. Reportedly hit by over 50 large-
,='rbre rounds, the cruiser had her foremost
--:-:.rel leaning drunkenly against the second,
.-:: foremast was missing and she was faltering
: 3 stop in a cloud of her own smoke, Ammuni-
--:r had run out and a Britrsh battle-cruiser
:--sed ihe range and put 15 deliberate rounds
;-,: the wreck. The survivors formed up on had been terribly avenged but, besides pro- Scharnhorst raren t down at I 6 . I 7 with all 770 of her
:::k. gave three cheers for the Kaiser and ving the obvious supremacy of the battle- crew and thegallantvonSpee. Gneisenau djdnot
suwive her sister for long;flags still flying and oul
=: =ndoned; only 200 were saved from the cruiser over the armoured crurser, the Falk-
of ammunition, shewas battered into submission
::ezinq water, lands battle demonstrated also the toughness
by 1 8.00. T he b attle - cruisers sfopped, an d s av ed
ii the light cruisers, only the Dresden was to of German ships, the surprising range of their 200 menfrom the freezingwater.
=slape for a further brief existence. Coronel armament and the fighting sptrit of their crews,
ffi iil"k"'ctass
Closely related to the 'Edgar' and the same but, curiously, with the for-
'Crescent' classes, the 'Blake' class ward 233.7-mm (9,2-in) qnrn replaced
together with the 'Powerful' class ships by an extra pair of 152,4-mm (6-in)
were protected crusers but are in- guns, All were reliable ships, with
cluded to show the stem from which proven machinery and excellent for
grew the later armoured cruiser, 'First- colonial service.
qeneration' armoured cruisers had By the outbreak ofwar all were con-
ceased in the UK with the 'Orlando' sidered old and outdated, and the two
class of 1886-7 which, on a limited dis- onginal pairs, toqether wtth two
placement, had been unhandy to the 'Edgars', had been demoted to use as
point where the ships were of nearly various types of depot ship. The
similar performance to the battleships Havrke was sunk by submarine in i914
for whrch they were supposed to be (the same U 9 that sank three 'Cres-
scoutinq, Weight-saving by the sup- sys'), The remaining four rendered
pression ofvertical belts led to a dozen sterling sewice in the blockading 10th
years of ascendancy for the protected Cruiser Squadron and, after being
CIUISEI. bulged rn 1914-5, at the Dardanelles,
The Royal Navy's cruiser force was
expanded rapidly through the Naval Specification
Defence Act of 1889. Of first-class 'Blake'class
cruisers, designed to act as flagships Displacement: 9, i50 tons standard
and to hold therr own in the interests of Dimensions:lengrth 114.30 m (375,0 ft);
trade protection on distant stations the beam 19,81 m (65,0 ft); draught 7.85 m
two 'Blakes' of 1BB9-90, HMSBjake and (25 75 ft)
Blenheim were a sound design. Pro- Propulsion: two sets of triple-
tection ofthe shrp proper was vested in expansion steam engines deliveringt
the arched armoured deck, with ver- 9694 kW ( 13, 100 ihp) to two shafts
tical armouring introduced only Speed: 21,5 kts
around vitals such as the conning tow- Armament: two 233, Tlmm (9.2-in), 10
er, casemates and ammunition hoists. I52.4-mm (6-in) and 16 3-pdr guns, and
What was to become a standard arma- four 355,6-mm (i4-in) torpedo tubes
ment layout of healry chase qn-rns for Armour: protective deck 152.4 mm
and aft, backed by a casemated secon- (6 in) tapering to 76.2 mm (3 in);
dary battery, was also incorporated, It casemates 152,4 mm (6 in); barbettes The Naval Defence Actof 1889 led to armoured cruiser designs of the turn
was, rn fact, in the 'Blakes' that the 177,8 mm (7 rn) a considerable expansion ofthe of the century, introducing maindeck
maindeck casemate was introduced. Complement: 570 Royal Navy's cruiser force. HMS casemafesand whatwas to be
With their hvo lofty funnels and origtnal Blake r,vas ffre p recursor of the stand ar d B ritis h armame nt -
rig they looked parttcularly Lmposing
in Victorian livery.
Between 1890 and lB92 was built a
flrst derivatrve in the form of the seven Designed primarily as flagships for
slightly shorter'Edgar' class first-class squadrons on dlstant stations and
cruisers with an armament similar to trade protection, the' B lakes' were
that of the 'Blakes' The 'Edgars' were armed with 2 33.7 -mm (9.2-in)
HMS Edgar, Endymion, Gibraltar, chasers fore and aft and a main
Grafton, Hawke, St George and battery of 1 0 1 5 2.4- mm (6- in) guns.
Tfteseus. The two 'Crescent' class Obsolete by I I I 4, they were
units HMS Crescent andRoyal Arthur destined never to see action.
were built in the same period, much

, t

ffi ibr"rry'class
With the sx'Cressy' class ships (HMS lower casemates so low as to be unus- shield. Armour was made by the rated!
Aboukir, Bacchante, Cressy, able in any sea, This basic design fault Krupp cemented process and, It is the tragic record ofthts class that
Euryalus, Hogue and Suf/e/), the was common through many classes. strength-for-strength, was lighter than it is remembered most often for having
armoured cruiser proper re-entered Extra armour amounted to about earlier plate, the ships were launched lost three of its number within 90 mr
the Royal Narry list, though the type 1,200 tons, absorbed mostly by a 152,4- between 1899 and 1901, nutes, Frve of them were attached to
had continued to be built abroad dur- mm (6-in) belt, stretching from a point On some of the class, windscoops the 7th Cruiser Squadron at the Nore,
ing the l3-year British hiahrs. These 36.6 m (120 ft) from the bows to another replaced the ranks of familiar cowl with the primary duties of supporting
were belted and rmproved'Diadems', some 27.4 m (90 ft) from the stern, tied ventilators; the idea was to reduce the the Harwich Force and covering the
therr Ionger hulls allowing more athwartships by 127-mm (S-in) bulk- profile offered to high-explosive northern approaches to the English
efficient drivrng, They also continued heads, The 'soft' ends, of no more than shells. Another innovaton was the use Channel, On 22 September 1914, with
the fashion of the 'Powerfuls tn a major- 50,8-mm (2-in) plate, were widely crrti- of fire-proofed wood whrch, reported- a disdainful disregard of the already
calibre chase grum forward and aft, and cized. The main protective deck was ly, was unpopular on the grrounds that, well-appreciated threat from sub-
an entirely casemated secondary bat- lighter than in the 'Diadems' as it was if
uniforms were stored rn furniture marine attack, Ihe A.boukir, Cressy and
tery which, while protected, had tts no Ionger consrdered the prrmary made of it, their qrold braid deterio- HoErue were patrolhng a narrow corrl-

Oriqinsof the
Cruisers were not only the'eyes of the fleet' butwere designed
toexercise, or indeed challenge, control of the oceantrade
routes. Their design was a delicate balance between speed,
protection and armament, with varying emphasis leading to a
bewildering variety of cruiser categories.
:s battlef leets of the 19th century were built to decide both wars at sea and the
of the states whose flags they wore, it was here that the money was
s:ent here that the great revolutions in warship development had most
Less glamorous were the considerable fleets of cruising ships maintained by
- Der,alpowers to police tneir overseas possessions and guarantee f ree naviga-
: :n on iheir vital trade routes. For these 'cruisers' the principal assets were
-.:lisufficiency, flexibility and endurance. Heavy armament was not deemed
-.cessary as iheir main defence lay tn their flag and the power it represented.
,', th maihinery still inefficlent and coal stocks uncertaln, sail was still retained
=:'both utilitV ahd smartness. Wooden hulls were undeniably more comfortable
:- an ron under the hot sun of the tropics. Thus had developed a heterogeneous
i I/MS Powerful was builtinresponseto aperceivedRussr'an cruiset threat. Fast
:: lection of powered and unpowered frigates, corvettes and sloops. and long-ranged,she was under-armed, and the imbalance of her desigm Id
\4ainstream evolution, meanwhile, had produced the steam-powered slng- to the'Diadem' class and lfi ence to a generation of armoured crur'sersproper.
::ecker of metal construction which, though technically a f rigate, completely
:-:classed any line-olbattle ship of the traditlonal navy. The cost and effort
-,clved in the rapid increase in ihe numbers of these was another reason for protected cruiser held sway. Typical of these were the two 'Blenheirr^s :'
.-: Royal Navy's cruising fleet to remain little changed. 1889-90, comparable in length with a'Royal Sovereign'class battlesh's:-:
-ne Americdn Civil War saw effective use of the large cruiser that could be lacking her heavy main battery, the hull being slimmer and packing in a 50 ca'
-sed not only against commerce but also to hunt down other cruisers, Always cent increase in power.
.:3n on the ideas o{ war against seaborne trade, the French also built the type, No Ionger able to engage a modern battleship, the large cruiserwas beginn.:o
-- :Jqh it took the powerlul Russian 'General Admiral'design of 'l 870 to prompt to bear the same relationship to it as had a sailing frigate to a ship of the Irne
, :-,iish reply. Tnis was HMS Shannon of 1877 which, in contrast with earlier With the introduction of improved armour at the turn of the century, it u,:s
::=am f rigaies, was heavily protected, having not only a substantial vertical belt again possible to think in terms of adding a vertical belt in addition to proteci 'l:
: -: also a protective deck. She began the vogue for ships as large as second- decks. Thus the 'Cressy' class adopted the basic 'Diadem' design of protecie:
: battleships and capable oi dispute with one. On paper their ultimate cruiser of 1 896-8 but with redistributed armour which added considerabiy tc :^e
::'ence lay in their speed but. practically, the margin was negligible, the scale of displacement. Further weight was added in shipping centreline guns of a cair:':
and armament makinq them extremely sluggish. This lack of perform- larger than those mounted in casemates. This fashion for two major cai'c':s
''-ourprecluded their practical use with the main battlefleet and guaranteed their was justified on the grounds that the ships would need to work witn:-:
'-:e battlef leet, and the fashion persisted until the armoured cruiser was su perse :=:
=-cloyment as flagships on distant stations. protection in 1 908 by the battle-cruiser.
Speed could be bbught only at the expense of and, for a period, the

it'itft tlre Cressy and her five skters, the armoured cruiser reappeared in the
?oyalNavy. The armament of the'Powerfuls'was retained -two large chase
;.ins and a casema led second ary b at tery - but the lower casemates were s o
.c;v as to be unusable in any sea. The fate of Cressy was a terrible portent for the Iuture. Steaming slow$ r a
straightlineoff theDutchcoastwithtwoof hersisfers, HogrueardAbo',:ktr. sre
: -: between minefields and the Dutch German rdeas on the possrbtlities of was attacked by the German submarineU-9. All three cruisers were su-n-k cre
:--r. unescofied, at low speed and submarine warfare, after the other, with the loss of I ,500 men.
:' :cut zigzagging. At 06.30 the
.:-::ukjr was torpedoed, Assumtng expansion steam engines delivering Armour: belt 152.4(6 rnj :i:::--. : ':-'
:--. she had been mined the others Specification shafts 50.8 mm (2 in); trarsverse i --,:==
i5660 kW (21,000 ihp) to two
::cced to render assistance, Allwere 'Cressy'class Speed: 21kts 127 mm (5 in); protectrve re:-<
'::doed, all were sunk. and nearlY Displacement: I l, 700 tons standard 12 76,2 mm (3 in) tapering ic :! - :::
Armament: two 233.7-mm (9.2-in),
- : -, men died, Weddigen's old sub- Dimensions:length 143.87 m (472.0 ft); 152.4-mm(6-in)and13 12-pdrgnrns, (1,5in);barbettes152.4ni::-
:.--re U-9 had done for them all, beam2l IBm(695ft) andtwo 457,2-mm (18-in) torpedo casemates 127 mm (5 tn)
.::aly influencing both British and Propulsion: two sets of triple- tubes Complement: 755
ffi !br"ke'class
Where the 'Cressys' had managred to D espite the poor showing of her
stow the armament of the 'Powerfuls' gsfer Good Hope aa Coronel, Drake
on a corsiderably shorter and cheapel was a worthy successor to the
hull, they were too short to be capable 'C ressys'. But her desigm was s till
of more than 2i kts. Battleships were bedevilled by outdated ideas; the
getting faster, so armoured cruisers ramsewedno serious purpose, and
were still experiencrnet a speed prob- the ineffective lower casemates were
lem and, to accommodate power for retained regardless of their proven
the desired 23 kts (HMS King Alfred failure.
averaged 24.8 k1s for eight hours in
1907) the four '' class that fol- had never and was never to be ius-
lowed were again of a size with the tified, and its only real use was to in-
'Powerfuls'. Together with the King crease the waterline lenqth of the ship.
,4lfred these were HMS Drake, Good The poor showing of the GoodHoPe
f/ope and treria!&an. They iacked the at Coronel has been described else-
great freeboard and general bulky where. Outclassed as she was, she
appearance of the 'Powerfuls', helped could have done better with a fully
by being cut-down by one deck aft and worked-up regnrlar crew and a better
adopting the new all-grey paint tactical sense on the part of Craddock,
scheme, The four ta11 funnels were The only other loss in the class was the
well-proportioned and uninterrupted Drake herself, With the grreater major-
by ventilator cowls, givrng the profile a ity of the now-obsolete atmoured
feeling of grrace and power, yet emph- cruisers, she was involved in the Atlan-
asizing the almost complete lack of su- tic convoy business, On 2 October
pentructure. As with all of their type, 1917, having just dispersed an inward
when completed rn 1902-3 the masts convoy, she was torpedoed by a sub-
were of enormous height and of three marine near Rathlin Island, A substan-
sections to give elevation to radio ae- tial escort materialized for her and she
rials, semaphore and gaffs and yards actualiy reached a secure anchorage,
for flag signals, Though double- only to capsize and become a total loss,
decked casemated armament was,
from exercises, already well under- Specification Propulsion: two sets of triple- hvo 457,2-mm (18-in) torpedo tubes
stood to be of little irse, they were still 'Drake'class expansion steam engines delivering Armour:belt 152.4 mm (6 in) tapering
included to house the 16 152,4-mm (6- Displacement: 14 100 tons standard 231 17 kW (31,000 rhp) to two shafts to 76,2 mm (3 in); transverse bulkhead
in) grr-rns deemed necessary. Another Dimensions: Iength 161,39 m (529.5 ft); Speed: 23 kts 127 mm(5 in); protectivedeckT6,2-
carry-over from mistaken thinking of beam21.64 m (71,0 m); drauetht8,23 m Armament: two 233.7-mm (9.2-in), ]6 50.8 mm (3-2 in)
the past was the ram bow; its existence (27 0 ft) 152,4 (6-in) and 14 12-pdr gmns, and Complement:900

>lK Black Prince', 'Warrior' and 'Minotaru' classes

Between 1906 and 1908 (when its first
battle-cruiser was commissioned), the
Royai Navy received its last nine
armoured cruisers, These were of
three closely-related groups: two
'Black Prince' class units (HMS Black
Prince and Edinburgh), four'Warrior'
class units (HMS Acfiilles, Cochrane,
iVafal and Warrior) and three 'Mino-
taur' class units (HMS Defence, Mino'
taur andSiannon). Though the design
was based on that of the 'Drakes', the
hulls were beamier yet appreciably

ffi Armoured Cnrisers of World War I
The only three-funnelled armowed Lying peacefully in Vladivostok, HMS
crursers in the Royal Navy, the high Suffolk (Jeft) js seen herewith USS
sided'County' class were second- Brooklyn T he' C ou nty' class lad a
class ships aimed pnmarily at com- clpquered historF.' Monmouth was
merce protection, As such they had lost at Coronel, but Kent took part in.
152.4-mm (6-in) armament, a total of i4 the batUe of the Falklands, where by
gnrns being carried, Of these, howev- ex ceeding her designed speed sft e
er, four were in two experimental and caught and sank tfie Niirnberg.
trouble-prone twin turrets and six
were in uselessly low casemates, fac-
tors whrch contributed to the poor
showrng of the Monmoutl at Coronel, 1914, Wrth Sturdee's battle-cruisers
Dwing the war, several had ther low- devoted to the pursuit and destruction
er casemated gmns resited on the up- of von Spee's two armoured cruisers,
per deck. the smaller British units were sent on a
As trade-protection cruisers, the general chase al'ter the enemy light
armour'of the 'Counties' was also on a cruisers, detached to shift for them-
hght scale. The belt was a maximum selves. The Kent, a poor steamer,
101,6 mm (4 in) in thickness, tapering found herse.lf.chasing the Ndrnberg,
to half that forward and terminating norninally faster but long out of dock,
beyond the after casemates. Speed The Kent forced her fires with wood,
was a major consrderation, and most reputedly the wardroom furmture, and
could manage 24 kts when pressed. As managed a previously unheard-of
their length was [mited, the produc- 25 kts, slowly overhauling her quarry'
tion of lines capable of being driven at For a whrle there was discomfiture
this speed did credit to the still- when it was found that the forward
developing science ofshrp hull design, 152.4-mm guns, superior in both
The class comprrsed HMS Bedfprd, calibre and elevation, were being out- Specification
Berwick, Cornwall, Cumberland, ranged by the ly'rirnberg's after 105- 'County'class Armament:14 152,4-mm(6n, --: -,
Donegal, Essex, Kent, Lancastet, mm (4. l-in) armament, For some time Displacement: 9,800 tons standard l2-pdrgnrns, andtwo457 2-r.::- -:- -
Monmouth andSuffolJ<, Of the 10 built the Kent was unable to reply to rn- Dimensions: IenglhI4L2T m (463.5 ft); torpedo tubes
cne, the Bedford, was wrecked in 19 10; creasinqly accurate fire but the Ger- beam 20, 12 m (66,0 ft); draught 7,47 m Armour: belt I0 L 6 mm (4 j:' :a;€:-:::
ihe Monmoutft, disabied by SMS man's arling machinery finally failed (24 s ft) to 50.8 mm (2 in); transverse
Gnersenau at Coronel, was flnished off under.the strain and she was over- Propr:lsion: two sets of triple- bulkheads 127 mm (5 Lr:) p::::--.-=
by the light cruiser SMS Ndmberg. It whelmed and sunk, The Cornwall, expansion steam engines delivering deck50.B mm(2 in); barbe*r. .i-
fell to her sister, the Keat, to avenge meanwhile, had assisted Ihe Glasgow 16405 kW (22, iOO ihp) to two shafts (5 in); casematds 101.6 rru:- .{ - --
her at the Falklands in December in despatching Sft4S lel,pzrg Speed: 23 kts Complement: 687

shorter, with the belt continued on a slightly improved horizontal protec-

irghter scale dght to the stem, tion. The grreat difference was in the
Like the'Drakes', the'Black Princes' reduction of the number of gnrns, Sx
completed in 1906 had a mixed 233.7- 233.7-mm gmns were carried in a simi-
mm and 152,4-mm (9,2-in and 6-tn) lar arrangement to that of the prevrous
armament, but took six of the former class, but with tvvo 190.5-mm (7,5-in)
arranged in single turrets in a hexagron guns on each beam in single turrets.
layout. Ten 152.4-mm gn-ms were set These could be sited at upper deck
rnpossibiy low in single casemates at level, worked in any weather and stlll
maindeck level but, as long as this throw B0 per cent of the broadside
number of single mountings was re- weight of the earlier five 152,4-mm
qurled, there was little altemative to weapons. Il however, it is accepted
this defective layout. Later in the war,
the casemate were plated-in and some Black Princeand her sisterwere the
cf their weapons resited on the upper last British armoured cruisers to
Ceck, carry a secondary battery of I 52.4-
In the 'Warriors' that followed a year mm (6-in) gans thatcould not be
later, the hulls were simrlar but with worked in any seaway; neither were
very good sea boats. With the
'Warrior' and'Minotaur' classes that
followed, a sensible grun layout was

HMS Achilles cutaway drawing key

(vessel shown as compieted, with short funnels and original tall masts)
Enslgn mast 7 Storesetc 33 Fourcyllndertrlple 57 Navigatioruroom
Sternlorpedo tube (1 904 8 Steerlngengine expansron engrne 58 Wireless room
model) I Winch engine 34 Feedwatertank 59 Charlroom
Balanced rudder 10 Gig 35 Barbette 60 Armoured conning to'{e-
Twin screws 1 1
Capstan 36 Twin 234-mm i9.2-ln)gun 6l Accessto conningtowe'
Captain's cabin 1 2
Middle awning ridge turret 62 Lowerarmoured
Captain's pantry 13 234-mm (9.2-in) lVkXlS0- 37 Steam launch command centre
calibre gun batrel 38 Lifeboat 63 ,Auxiliary machine shc.
14 Turret 39 Searchlightplatform 64 Dynamo
Tb Saddle 40 Searchlight 65 Fuelpump
16 Breech 41 Boathandlingderrick 66 Sailors'mess
T7 Turntable 42 l\,4alnmast 67 Upperarmourbelt
18 Turretmachlnery 43 Spottingtop 68 Lowerarmourbelt
19 Wardroom 44 Wireless aerials 69 Coal bunkers
20 3-pdrsemi-automaticoun 45 Machineshop 70 Ammunition hoist
21 Ammunition hoist 46 Funnel machinery
22 Magazine 47 Twln 190-mm (7.5-in) Mkll 71 Sailors'quaners
23 Hoistmachlnery 50{alibre guns 72 Canteen
24 Officers'quarters 48 Boilerroom 73 Main deck
25 Engineers'quaners 49 Cylindricalboilers 74 Cablestore
26 Armouredaccesstube 50 Yarrow large tube boilers 75 Anchorwells
27 Auxlliaryengine 51 Upperarmoureddeck 76 Anchors
28 lnspectionpit 52 Lowerarmoureddeck 77 Paintstore
29 Doublebottom 53 Funnel uptakes 78 Waterline
30 Turbine reduction gear 54 Steampipes 79 Slopinq armoured cjec<
31 Dynamo 55 Upperbridge 80 Rambow
32 Starboardengine room 56 Compassplatform 8'1 Foremast
'Black Prince','Warrior' and'Minotaur' classes (continued)

that the main function of the secondary Specification Armament: fow 233, 7-mm (9,2-in), l0
battery was to flght off torpedo attacks 'Minotaur'class 190,S-mm (7,S-in) and 14 12-pdr qms,
then five well-sited i52,4-mm QF had Displacement: 14, 600 tons standard and five 457.2-mm (18-in) torpedo
to be superior to two 190.5-mm gnrns. Dimensions:lenqth 158.19 m (519,0 ft); tubes
The final reflnement came with the beam22.7\ m (74.5 ft); draughtB.23 m Armow: belt 152,4 mm (6 in) tapering
'Minotaurs', whrch carried four 233,7- (27.0 ft) to 76,2 mm (3 in); protective deck 38. 1-
mm guns in two twinned centreline $-
b Propulsion: nro sets oftiple- 19,1 mm (1,5-0.75 in); barbettes
h.:rrets, allowrng four gn:ns in broad- ;t expansion steam engines delivering 203,2 mm (8 in)
side fire, the same as that possible for 20134 kW (27,000 ihp) to two shafts Complement:755
sx singles. This arrangement left the Speed: 23 kts
waist along each side free for the I
mounting of five single 190.5-mm gnrns,
$omewhat longer and beamier than
their predecessors, the'Minotaurs' The'Minotaurs' were the last class of
had a per cent tncrease in power for
British armoured cruisers, but were
the same speed. nol as successful as the'Wa.rriors'.
Though all rendered good wartrme Tlrrs is Sharuron in her late war colour
service, their record is forever over- scieme.As desr'gned, theclass had
shadowed by the disaster of Arbuth- shortfunnels but the uptakes were
not's rmpetuosity at Jutland, where the heightened by 4.5 m ( 15 ft) in 1909.
Black Prince, Warrior and Defence
were sunk, and the loss of thely'ala/ to a
magazine explosion in 1915, The
Cochrane was wrecked in 1918.


'Amiral Charner' class

Most elderly of the armoured crutsers
to wear the French tricolore flag in
World War I were the three'Amiral
Charne/ class ships Amiral Charner,
Brurx and Latouche-Tr6ville, com-
pleted rn 1895-6, A fourth, Chanzy, had
been lost in 1907. Therr design was
derived directly from that of the
pioneerinq Dupuy de -L6me of 1893,
The UK was havtng a 'holiday' from
armoured cruiser construction at this
time and, despite the fact that these
ships were openly constructed with course (commerce-raiding
campaigns) in mind, it was consldered
that the Bntlsh protected cruisers of
the day could match them. This was
hardly true for though their contem-
poraries, the'Hermiones', had a knot or
so speed advantaqe they also had far
liqhter armament and, to tackle a
Frenchman, would have needed to
approach close enough to rue the lack
of a vertical belt: was higher-powered and slightly lar- 65 mm (2.56 in)wrth 55-mm (2. l7-in) Above.' tatouche-Treville was one of
French ideas included a vertical ger, and eguipped with a further Pair ends; barbette and casemates 90 mm thr ee commerce- r aiding cruiser s
belt over the complete length, em- of secondary-calibre gnrns on each (3 54 rn) built in the 1890s which were still in
ploying exaggeratedlumblehome' to side. Four were casemated and two Complement:380 sewice during W or ld W ar I.
gnve gnrns the maximum fields of fire, were set in shields on Pronounced
and protruding bows and sterns ofhys- sponsons.
terical aspect to increase the waterline
length. Specification
Where theDupuydel6me had con- 'AmiralCharne/ class
srderable armoured freeboard and Displacement: 4,700 tons standard
was powered for a useful 20 kts, the Dimensions:lengrth I10,0 m (360.89 ft);
'Charners' were more modest and beam 14.0 m (45,93 ft); draught 6.0 m
used a low-freeboard protected hull (19,69 ft)
a full- Propulsion: two setsof triple-
"tritFwide side decks flankingt Along expansion steam engines delivering
length unarmoured deckhouse,
the lenqrth of the side decks were deep 6189 kW (8,300 ihp) to two shafts
armoured casemates for guns of some Speed: 1B,5kts
i38-mm (5,43-in) calibre. In the Armament: hvo 194-mm (7.64-in) and
accepted style, lwo large guns (194- sx I3B-mm (5,43-in) gmns, and fow 450-
mm/7.64-in calibre) were sitedone for- mm (17.72-rn) torpedo tubes
ward and one aft, so shorl was the fore- Armour: belts 90 mm (3,54 in) tapering
castle that the muzzle ofthe gnrn prot- to 70 mm (2,76 in)i protective deck
ruded almost to the stemhead. A slmi-
lar armament layout was adopted later
by the British, though the 'Charners'
did not follow the example of the Seen lrere offSalonika inDecember
Dupuy de l6me whlch had its two / 9J 5, Bruix drsp lays the exaggerated
large gnrns sited amidships and the sx tumblehome that was the hallmark of
smaller weapons in Qlroups of three on F rench w ar sh ip design. W hen
both foredeck and quarterdeck, completed,Brurxwas more than a
The design was taken one staQle m atch for contem por ary B ritish
further rn the one-off Pofhuau, which crursers ftke tfte Hermiones.

Amira] Charner' class (continued)

T he' funiral Charner' class was

developed trom the pioneering
Dupuy de L6me . Protected by a
vertical belt along the fulllength of
the hull, the six 138-mm (5.5-in) guns
were sited in deep armoured
casemates which had impressive
fields offire, thanks to the


'Kl6ber', 'Gueydon' and'Aube' classes
:899 the French launched the,fean- high-freeboard hull. In addition they
:.e d'Arc, an equivalent to the Britnh had a single centreline 194-mm (7.64-
l:',verfuls', Though smaller she was, in) piece at each end, Though the
--<: the latter, a prodignous eater of Dupetit-Thouars was torpedoed and
:::1, and she exerted a strong influ- sunk rn l9 l8 her two sisters. surprising-
on later ships, ly, suwived in auxiliary capacities until
aunched in 1900-2, the three 'KI6- World War II.
:el class,armoured cruisers (Duplerx, The flve'Aube'class ships of l90O-2
3esarx and Kl6ber) were intermeili- were derivatives of the 'Gueydons',
= :
between this monster and the The MarserJlaise, Gloire, Sully, Con-
::tuau and, by the standards of the d6 andAmiral Aube were slightly lon-
ger, beamier and better protected.
--,'. were qurte lightly armed, their
=-;ht main-battery guns being dis- These carried four of therr secondary
guns at a level one deck higher, Like
!,:sed in fow twin turrets, one forward,
::: aft and one on each beam, Thrs their predecessors they were tnple-
:rlption of the twrn mounting was ex- screwed, an aranqement that made
-:Jy contemporary wrth that in the them handle unpredicatably at low
:.:'ra-l Navy's 'Counties', By Gallic stan- speeds, The Su11y was wrecked in
r=rds quite pleasinq in appearance, 1905, and the others were deleted in
:= 'K16bers' had four funnels in two the 1920s.
--.--1ely-spaced pairs. each pair ex-
a space containing 10 boilers.
=-:sting Specification
-:.e Kbber was a war loss,
Sontemporary with the 'Kl6bers' 'Kl6ber'class
T=re the three larger'Gueydon' class Displacement: 7,650 tons standard
::-iisers. With a length of 138 m Dimensions:length 130.0 m (426,51 ft);
l:2.76 ft), these 9,500-ton ships had a beam 17.75 m(58.23 ft); draught7.40 m
-:-:k belt of gneater depth than that of (24.28 ft)
:: 'Kl6bers' and running nearly the Propulsion: three set oftriple- Gloire was one of the'Aube'class, of fhe c/ass, Sully , was wrecked in
:=--grtholthe ship, Indeed, the 'K16bers' expansion steam engnnes deliveringt good steamers thatwere derived February 1905 but the other tour
: contrary to normal French practice 13050 kW ( 17,500 ihp) to three shafts from the' G ueydons'. A fifth member sewed throughout the war.
r-r their meagre area of belt, The Speed:2l kts
3:eydons', too, had eight 164,4-mm Armament: eight I 64. 4-mm (6. 47-in), rn) torpedo iubes 65 mm (2,56 in); barbettes 90 mn
: {7-in) gn:ns, but all were casemated four 100-mm (3.94-in) and 10 47-mm Armow:beit iOC mm (3.94 in) tapering (3,54 in)
(1,85-in) euns, and two 450-mm to 75 mrn (2.95 ln): protective deck
='ectively at upper deck level on a (17, 72- Complement:570


'L6on Gambetta' class

-,'i-t paired First recrp.enls of the new mounting ched in 1902-5, Wlth a twtn -3{-:::-
the 164.4-mm (6.47-in) gmn
.::cessfully into hvin turrets in the were the icw L6on Gambetta'class mountinq at each end, three t!\E -41 l-
class, the French were en- cruisers/u/es Ferry, Leon Gambetta,
::-:-raged to go on to produce the twin Victor Hugo a::dJules MicheJef, laun-
-:--mm (7.64-in) mounting, thus doubl-
:-; firepower with mimmum penalty
::- Cisplacement and dimensions. The ships was considerable; -: ,';-
::srlt was successful, and was to be
'---: primary armament of French {eed, superror to that oi *le :::,
=:::oured cruisers untrl the end ofthetr
tVith the'Gambetta' clais the
F rench mounted I 94-mm (7.6-
::) gruns in twin turrets, an
.sninently sensible
I€ ,.
'L6on Gambetta' class (continued)

porary Btitish 'Devonshires', with the the French armoured cruisers was
further advantage of being set much their large bunker capacity for colonial
higher, Speed, however, was one pa- service. Above the long armour belt
rameter against which the French set the sides were pierced with numerous
much store and, in this, they were de- Iarge, rectangmlar scuttles to improve
flcient compared with the smaller habitability. Their war semce was ac-
Royal Navy ships. Supposedly, there- tive but none was ever grven the
fore, to improve speed, the fourth and chance to prove its merits in a grumnery
last unit, the Jules Michelef, sacrificed duel with an equrvalent surface target,
four secondary barrels but, as this was The sole loss was the class nameshtp,
done by substihrting eight srngle tur- Leon Gambetta.
rets for srx hvins, there was a net in-
crease of drsplacement, One can only Specification
conclude, therefore, that the measure 'L6on Gambefta'class
was aimed primarily at dispensing Displacement: 12,350 tons standard
with the twin tullet, an oprnion rein- Dimensions: lenqth 148,0 m (485.56 ft);
forced by the delay in the completion beam21,40 m(70.21 ft); draushtB,20 m
of the /u1es Michelet until 1908, the (26 I ft)
same year as the one-off follow-on Propulsion: three sets oftriple-
Ernest Renan, which carried a pre- expansion steam engines delivering Armour: belt 170 mm (6.69 in) taperrng The'Gambetta' class were excellent
cisely similar armament. As a measure 20505 kW (27,500 rhp) to three shafts to 90 mm (3.54 in); upper protective steamers, able to make over I 7 kts
to increase the speed of the latter, Speed: 22 kts deck35 mm (1.38 in); lower protective on half boilers and to maintain I I kts
however, she had about 28 per cent Armament: four 194-mm (7,64-in), 16 deck 65 mm (2.56 in); main barbettes for 72 hours continuously. Noted tor
greater installed power. requiring a 164.4-rnm (6,47-in), two 65-mm (2,56-in) 200 mm (7,82 in); secondary barbettes their very clear gun decks, the
9-m (29,5-ft) increase rn lengrth and hvo and 22 47-mm ( LBS-in) enrns, and four l40mm(5,51in) 'Gambettas'were better armed than
Qrroups ofthree funnels. A feature ofall 450-mm (17,72-in) torpedo tubes Complement: 730 their B ritish contempor arie s.

II lW"ra""k Rousseau' class

As a result of the introduction by the many problems with the small-bore du
British ofthe dreadnought in 1906, fol- Temple Guyots, of which only half the
lowed by the battle-crurser in 1907, the number needed to be carried,
established armoured cruiser $,'1th its The wide separation of the boiler
dual-calibre armament and compara- spaces was due to the englne room
tively low speed found itself a dated being set between them, Above this,
concept, The French had been very all French armoured cruisers had a
keen on the type and had developed it prominent rectangnrlar 'pillbox' for the
in a sound manner, T[e Ernesl Renan forced ventilating system, an alterna-
was to have been the first of a trio of tive to the many cowls or windscoops
rmproved 'Gambettas', but events in on British ships,
the UK ensured that only the one shlp Obsolete or not, the ships were still
was completed as planned, the other far from old at the Armistice and were
two being delayed pendinq develop- kept on until the I930s, the Edgar
ments, ln the event there was little that Qurnet being wrecked off Algeria in Above; Wald6ck Rousseau fies 8eJor,rr.' Wddeck Rousseau broke wifft
the designers could do to revamp the 1930 while sewing as a training ship, peacefully at anchor off Algiers. French tradition by adopting a
hulls except install a single-caltble Although fine cruisers, the class was uniform armament of I 4 I 94-mm
main battery. This they did by retain- Specification rendered obsolete by the new battle- (7.6-in) guns instead of the usual
ing the twin 194-mm (7,64-in) twrets at 'Waldeck Rousseau' class cruisers. combination.
each end, by siting three single 194- Displacement: 13, 750 tons standard
mm twrets along each side, and by Dimensions:length 159.0 m (521,65 ft);
adding single casemated 194-mm beam 2I.40 m (70,21 ft); draught 8.40 m
gnrns at each corner, The resultant 14 (27.56 fr)
barrels of thrs 'Waldeck Rousseau' Propulsion: three sets of tripie-
class (Edgar Qujnet and Waldeck expansion steam engrnes delivertng
Rousseau, launched ln 1907-8).were 272i8 kW (36,500 ihp) to three shafts
not insigniflcant. with nine bearing on Speed:23 kts
eaeh broadside, but its weight of Armament: i4 194-mm (7,64-in) and 14
777k9 (I,7I3lb) was inferior to that of 6S-mm (2,56-in) En:ns, andtwo 450-mm
the contemporary'Minotaurs' ( 17,72-in) torpedo tubes
lb) or even'Warriors'
(1143 kg/2,520 Armour:belt 170 mm (6,69 in) tapering
lb), The Britrsh ships
(871 kq/1,920 to90 mm (3,54 rn); upperprotective
were also credited with a similar deck 35 mm ( 1.38 in); lower protective
speed on considerably less power. deck 130 mm (5. 12 in); transverse
Externally, the'Waldeck Rousseaus' bulkhead i30 mm (5. 12 in); barbettes
were immedrately distinguishable I50 mm (5.91 in); casemates 120 mm
from the Renan andJeanne d'Arc by (4.72 in)
the fully-cased funnels of equal height gomplement:840
and unequal section. Agarn sx were i
set in tvvo groups of three, exhausting l''
40 Niclausse large-tube boilers which i.
had been reintroduced following ,j; t
Although the'Waldeck
r ffi-
ninerynstobearon ' &
eitherbeam,their :
broadsidewas inferior
to that of the British
tr ual f
Armed Forces of the World

The Soviet army has 208 divisions, but in peace not
all of these are maintained at full personnel strength
as to do so would put an undue burden on the Soviet
economy. The divisions are thus classified as being
at one of three readiness categories (Category 1,
Category 2 and Category 3). Category 1 divisions
have a strength of between 75 and 100 per cent in
both men and equiprnent, those divisions in key
areas such as East Germany being up to full strength
at all times. Those divisions within the Soviet Union
and not earmarked for early deployment probably
have most of their equipment but need reservists to
bring them up to full strength for military operations.
Category 2 divisions have a personnel strength of
between 50 and 75 per cent and most of their equip-
ment (much of it in storage), and it is estimated that
these divisions could not be ready for deployment
until after 30 days of mobilization. Category 3 divi-
sions have a personnel strength of between 1 0 and
33 per cent and an equipment strength of between
35 and 50 per cent, the majority of this latter in
storage. lt is estimated that these divisions would
not be ready for eff ective military operations until B0 79th Guards Tank Division Jena TheT-72 is fittedwith anew type of composite
to 120 days after mobilization, although if two 20th Guards Motorized Rif le protection, apparently similar to the Chobham
Category 3 divisions were merged into one this Division Grimma armour of the BritishChallenger and the US M j
could be reduced to perhaps 60 days. 39th Guards Motorized Rlf le Abrams, but without its characteristic flat surtaces.
Its I 25-mm gun can penetrate 475 mm of armour
Division Ohrdruf
firingHEAT and300 mmof armour at I km(0.6
57th Guards Motorized Rlf le
Deployment of Soviet Ground Forces Divlsion Naumberg-Saale

Group of Soviet Forces in Germany (GSFG) 20th Guards Army Eberswalde

(all Category 1) 6th Guards Motorized Rif le 1Oth Tank Division Milovice
Headquarters Zossen-WUnstorf Division Bernau 31 st TankDivision Bruntal
'14th Guards Motorized Rif le 66th Guards Motorized
34tffiun Artillery Division Dazu, Potsdam Rif le
1 st Guards Tank Army Dresden Division J uterbog Division Zvolen
6th G uards Tan k Division Lutherstadt- 3sth lVotorized Rifle 55th Guards Motorized R f le
Wittenberg Division Doberitz Division Vysoke Myto
/th Guards lanK lJrvrsron Dessau-Rosslau 16th Guards Motorized Rifle
9th Tank Division Riesa, Sachsen- Soviet Northern Group of Forces (Poland) Division Mlada Boleslav
Zeithain (all Category 1)
Guards Tank Division Dresden-Klotzsche Headquarters Legnica Baltic Military District (committed to Central
27th Guards Motorized Rifle 2Oth Tank Division Borne Europe,Category2&3)
Division Halle 3Bth Tank Division Swietoszow HO th Guards Army at Kaliningrad
1 1

2nd Guards Tank Army Furstenberg 3 tank divisions

16th Guards Tank Division Neustrelitz Soviet Southern Group ol Forces (Hungary) 6 motorized rifle divisions
21st Motorized Rif le Division Perleberg/Prignitz (all Category 1) 2 airborne divisions
2Sth Tank Division Vogelsang-Berlin Headquarters Budapest- 2 artillery divisions
94th Guards Motorized Matyasfold
Rifle Divlsion Schwerin 2nd Tank Division Esztergom Belorussian Military District (committed to
3rd ShockArmv Magdeburgh sth Tank Division Veszprem Central Europe, Category 1,2 &3)
1 Oth Guards Tank Division Krampnnitz, I02nd Guards Motorized HO Sth Guards Tank Army at Bobruysk, HO 7th
Potsdam Rif le Division Szekesfehervar Guards Tank Army at Borisov, and HO 28th Army
12th Guards Tank Division Neuruppin 35th Guards Motorized R f le at Grodno
47th Guards Tank Division Hillersleben, Division Kecskemet 9 tank divisions
Altmark 3 motorized r;fle divisions
207th Guards Motorized Soviet Central Group of Forces (Czechoslovakial 1 airborne division
Rlf le Division Stendal, Altmark (all Category 1) 1 artillery division
Bth Guards Army Weimar-Noha Headquarters Milovice, Prague
Carpathian Military District (committed to Central
Europe, Category 1,2 &3)
HO Bth Guards Tank Army at Zhitomir, HO'1 3th
Army at Rovno, and HO 38th Army at
3 tank divisions
9 motorized rifle divisions
1 artillery division

AbIe to haul loads of 75 tonnes, these MAZ 537

tractors can easily cope with 40 tonnes of T-62 .
Tanksusually travellong dktances thisway, or by
rail, as to do so on their own tracks causes
maintenance problems for both vehicles and road
Armed Forces of the World ltz- l4ts> SovietArmy il
Kiev Military District (committed to Central 7 motorized rif le division . all arms (land, sea and air), of which some 5 million
i-':le,Category2&3) 1 artillery division have undertaken military service in the last two
- I -
s: Guards Tank Army at Chernigov, and HO years.
-:- < Army at Dnepropetrovsk Far Eastern Military District (committed against Twice a year the local district m,ilitary commis-
3 --a- < divisions China, Category 1,2 &3) sariat calls up its quota of recruits who eventually
-' -:iorized rif le divisions HO at Chabarsoyil end up at specific units designated by the military
:': ,rery division 3 army HOs plus Corps HO district milltary headquarters. They then undergo a
21 motorized rif le c-rrvisions four-week intensive initial milltary training period,
Leningrad Military District (committed to tank division after which each recruit takes the soldier's oath of
\.lrineTn Europe, Category 1, 2 & 3) 2 artillery divisions allegiance. Once this four-week training has been
completed recruits are posted to their operational
:,": :crps HO Mongolia Military Division (com mitted against unit where training is completed. The yearly training
3 rifle divisions China, Category 1,2 &3) programme includes a winter period starting on 1
' -otorized
a :borne division HO at Ulan Bator December and a summer period commencing on 2
- :t llerydivision 2 tank divisions May,
2 motorized rif le dlvisions It should be noted that all Soviet airborne/air
Moseow Military District (committed to Central assault divisions are Category '1 formations. These
--'cpe, Category 1, 2 &3) Soviet Army units overseas come under direct control of the high command in
l:an< divisions Soviet army training teams and advisers can be Moscow as distinct f rom the command structure of
:- ctorlzed rif le divisions {ornd ,n rnany countries :ncluding, Algeria, Angola, the military districts in whlch they are located.
- : -corne division Cuba, Ethiopla, lraq. Kampuchea, Laos, Libya, Mali, Actual numbers of divisions statloned in European
Mozambique, Syria and Vietnam to name but a few. military districts are fairly accurate, but those in
Odessa Military District (committed to Southern ln Afghanistap are three motorized rif le and one air others are provisional.
:-:coe.category2&3) assault divisions plus many smaller units.
- i - gtn Army at Kishinev
Despite steadily narrowing the technological gap
6 -ctorized rif le divisions Manpower
- a.rborne division between Soviet and Western combat vehicles, the
It is estimated that the Sovlet army has a peace- USSRsfi/Jstrives to maintain its colossal numerical
" art!llerydivision time strength of about 1,800,000 offrcers and men, superiority. I t is estimated that the Red Army will
of whom 1,400,000 are conscripts. Some 25 million have at least 30,000 T-64/72 tanks in service by
Ural Military District (Strategic Reserve, oJficers and men are available on f ull mobilization for 1987.
Category 2 & 3)
-C at Sverdlovsk
2 n'otorized rifle divisions
1 tank division

Volga Military District (Strategic Reserve,

Category 3)
- 3 at Kuybyshev
3 r otorized rif le divisions

North Caucasus Military District (committed to

So.;thern Front, Category 2 & 3)
- fat Rostov
. Ccrps HOs
' ::r< division
: -:torized rif le divisions

Trans-Caucasus Military District (com mitted to

Sc-thern Front, Category 2 & 3)
-O ai Tbllisi, HO 76th Guards Army at Yerevan,
:O 4th Army at Baku, and HO 45th Army at
i motorized rifledivisions
" a rborne division
- arcillerydivision

Turkestan Military District (committed to

Scuthern Front, Category 2 & 3)
- I at Tash kent
c 'rotorized rifle divisions
artillery division

Central Asian Military District (committed against

Cnina, Category 1,2 &3)
- I at Alma Ata
' rank div'sion
6 rnotorlzed rif le divisions

Siberian Military District (committed against

- I at Novosibirsk
3.notorized rif le divisions

Transbaykal Military District (com mitted against

Cnina, Category 1,2 &3)
-O at Chita
2 tank divisions