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Volume 6 Issue 68

Published by
Orbis Publishing Ltd
@Aerospace Publishing Ltd 1984
Editorial Offices
War Machine
Aerospace Publishing Ltd
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Managing Editor: Stan Morse

Editorial: Trisha Palmer
Chris Bishop
Chris Chant
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Jeremy Moore KCB OBE MG, Comman-
Artists: der of British Land Forces during the
Tony Gibbons
John Ridyard Falklands campaign.

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Of all the sights to stir the patrtofic spiit in the years hefore Looking forward on a'Kaiser' class
WorldWarI, it wasthe serrtedsteel ranks of Dreadnoughts battleship in I I I 7 . Though Zeppelins
were used extensivelv bv the
that most effectively symbolized military potency, and the Germans in co-operationwith the
possession of a strong fleet became a means to glortfy the Hrglr Seas F/ee t, they werc obviously
still rare enough to cause much
nation, interest.

If it can be argued that only armies could wln World War I, rt is beyond fleet-in-being, tyrng down the numerically more powerfui Rova- 1,.=.-
doubt that navies could have lost rt, To prosecute a war on such a scale and offering battle only on its own terms, perhaps the grea-?:. t_:
meant, for the Brittsh rn particuiar, contrnuous and guaranteed move- appointment of the battleshrp fleets was that in this war, dunng ,,.,,:.
ment of men and materials whrch, in turn, demanded fu11 control oi the they could really have justified themselves, they occupied thJrr :_:=
sea. Through this it was possibte also to effectively deny the sea to the largely cancelling out each other's existence, Numbers were impcr.=,-..
enemy; blockade could cut off the vital raw materials and foodstu_ffs in the need to survive tempering boldness and originairty in manr. :,:__
whrch he was not self sufficient and, by tts grindrng remorselessness, manders. In the end, even as wtth the French revolutionary naw c: :,.,=r.
gradually erode hrs will to resist. a century before, insufficient real use robbed the High Seas FlLe: :: ...
Close blockade, as practised during the earty tgth century, had been sense of purpose, so that it drifted into deterioration and revolt.
rendered impracttcable by the submarine, the torpedo and the mine, so Though, between them, the warrrng powers could boast manv cac_:_
this 'front-line' function of the battleshtp had drsappeared The geo- ships, few achieved much beyond those involved in the tiny ur"nu oi ...=
graphical advantages enjoyed by ihe UK, however, enabled drstant North Sea In retrospect rt may be said that the Royal Nar,ry ,.,:.-_=
biockade to be rigorously applied by comparatively weak and obsolete retarning the Grand Fleet in its main roie, could have used its laige (a:.:
ships. These were buttressed by the full might of the Grand Fleet, its expendable) force of pre-Dreadnoughts far more adventurouily t._ _
nrain strength iying at Scapa Flow to deter the German Hiqh Seas Fleet variety of unorthodox ways.
fiom either interfering wrth thrs slow strangmlatlon or rnduiging more
ambitious deep-sea adventures, !!1!" t::!j:Py theHishseas Fteet, probabty in 19tZ as the'Bayer.n,c/ass s.hrp
on the nght has amainmast and all have landed their torpedo'nets. The
As rt happened, however, the Kaiser hedged his cherished fleet with
such suffocating operational restrictions that it existed largely as a
_ermgnl successfully preserved the greater part of their battle lleet as a
'ileet-n-berng', tying down the superior strength of the British.

..'$rL'-n -:

:. :: -rti :-,,:.:

Had HMS Drea dnought not been built an extra centreline main battery turret
precisely when she was. tt is concelv- and the standard 127-mm (5-in) calibre
able that 'all-brg-qiun ships would have was readopted for the secondarY
been termed'Mrchigans , thrs pair hav- armament
rng been approved before the Brittsh
ship and embodyinq all the principles Boatbooms and awnings rigged, the
of a healry and homogeneous main bat- Michigan and a 'Delaware' class ship
tery, The USS Micft igan and USS Souffi lie peacefully at anchor. Firstwith
Carolina"were laid down after the superr'mposed turrets, she would
Dreadnought, however, and took also have been the first all-big-gun
three years to construct compared capital ship buffor Dreadnought's
with only one. A drawback of the de- rushed completion.
sign was that steam turbrnes were not
available for propulsion, but their Below : I nitiatedbefore Dreadnought
primary feature was their armament bu t com pleted well afte rw ar d s, the
layout. Thougrh the Dreadnought car- 'Michigans' had all-superfi ring main
ried 10 305-mm (12-in) guns, only eight armament.This allowed allguns to
could be used in broadside as two tur- fire on both beams, in contrast to the
rets were sited in the waist The 'Michi- British vessel, which required two
gans had only eighi qnrns but, well be- extraguns. Specification
; 'Michigan' class (asbuilt)
fore the arrangement became gener- I

al, mounted them in twrnned super-

! Displacement: 16,000 tons standard
firing turrets at each end. and 17,900 tons full load
Sensibly, the Amertcans also ship- Dimensions: Iength 138 07 m (453,0 ft);
ped a secondary battery, albeit a light- beam 24,38 m (80,0 ft); draught 7.49 m
weight one of 22 76-mm (3-in) grLrns but
for the qreater part, behind protected
casemates in the superstructure at a
l--iFjl (24 6 ft)
Propulsion: rwo quadruple expansion
steam engines delivering 16, 500 ihp
herght where they could always be (12304 kW) to two shafts
used, Speed: IB,5 ks
A further innovatron was the basket Armament: eiqht 305-mm ( I2-in) and
n-rast. Theorencally combtnLng max- 22 76-mm (3-in) gnrns, and two 533-mm
rmum strffness with minimum weight it (21-in) torpedo tubes
was far from universally loved and was Armour: belt 305 mm (12 in);
to remain peculiarly Amertcan, bulkheads 279 mm (l 1 in); barbettes
Even before the Michigans were in 254 mm (10 in); middle deck 19 mm
the water, two improved versions (the (0.75 in); lower deck 38 mm (LS in)
'Delaware' class) were lard down, Only Complement:870
one was turbine driven but both had

€='Pennsylvania' class
-Lmerican'post-ltlichigan' battleships sylvanias' were both completed ln berng driven from any turbo qener- The Arizona was shattered by a
added firepower in logical steps, The 19 I 6 as the USS PennsJzivania and USS ator, Further, propulsion motors could magulne explosion during the Pearl
:ve-turret'Delawares' and'Floridas' Arizona be sited well aft, shortening shafts ald Harbor attack; with her died nearlY
.ius developed into the six-turret The 'Pennsylvanias' were turbtne- allowing improved standards of water- 1,200 crewmen. The Pennsylvania,
-,\ryomings' of 1911. As all of it was dnven but, in the 'New Mexico' class tight integrity, fulrher updated, obtained redress in
:-:ed on the centreline, this armament that followed them turbo-electric drive Starting their career with character- several operations, notably as one of
was introduced Inadequacies in lstic basket masts, small bridge struc- Admral Oldendorfs qrun line at the
:emanded a long ship with a large
:rea to protect. In 1912, therefore, the American healry gear production was ture and a generally uncluttered Surigao Strait; post-war she survived
:::d was halted by a reversion to l0 the overridinq reason for this, the tur- appearance, the'Pennsylvalias' were hvo Brlcini nuclear tests and was finally
Ir::s rn the 'New Yorks', though these bo-electric machinery requiring neith- remodelled between the wars, expended as a bombing target,
,:-:reased the calibre from 305 to er reduction nor reversing qear, De- emerqing almost unrecoqnizable wrth
::: mm (i2 to 14 in). Again these were spite being heavy and exPensive, heavy tophamper, massive tripod Specification
however, the system had advantages masts and the paraphernaha of aLrcraft 'Pennsylvania' class (as built)
;:::ped in frve turrets, but the follow- Displacement: 3 1,400 tons standard
----r raLr of 'Nevadas' had much im- in flexibility with any shaft capable of operatron,
:::'=d protection at little penalty by and 33,000 tons full load
:r:!,rng a fow-turret arrangement Dimensions: lenqth 185.39 m
':; - ,',ins superfiring triples, It was (608.25 ft); beam 29.62 m (97. 17 ft);
triples drauqht B,79 m (28,84 ft)
--,::- ;::t a smali step to ship four
Propulsion: four main and four cruising
: ;-.: a broadside of 356-mm (14-in)
;-:j jr iile'Pennsylvania' class, This I geared steam lurbines delivering
31,500 shp (23490 kW) to four shafts
-: , : -: r, as successful and retained in 1j
-.. . .--',',tn; two classes to give a ir Speed:2I kts
- -:.::.eJUS seven-shtP grouP, Armament: 12 356-mm ( l4-in) and 22
-:--:: -,',:s not outclassed until the in- 127-mm (5-in) quns, andtwo 533-mm
r r-:--r:- oi the 406-mm (16-in) qmn (21-in) torcedo tubes
: :: J-:l:rados'of1921,The'Penn- Armour: belt 356 mm ( 14 in);
bulkheads356 mm(14 in); barbettes
7 :e P ennsylvanias' were the first US 343 mm(13,5 in); upperdeckT6 mm
(3 in); lowerdeckT6 mm(3 in)
-"i: ;-; ix mount all their
rl-lesJrip s to
i: a:: triple turrets, a
a:Tnaj?en t in Complement:915
--::::::E .ral became a standard
-!-::. e - :a: _or actice.
The Rise olthe Dreqdnought
The Russo-J apanese war in I 904-5 demonstrated to the
world's naval thinkers the need for a radical changeof
emphasis in warship design. In most of the major maritime
nations plans were being advanced, but it wai Britain who
gave the world the Dreadnought.

On Trafalgar Day, 1 904, 63-year-old 'Jacky' Fisher was appointed First Sea Lord,
embarking immediately on a series of f undamental changes that would take the
Royal Navy from the somnolence of the long, lotus yeariof the 'pax Britannica'
to the battleworthiness demanded by a waithat he saw as inevitable. Within a
year.the Dreadnou-ght had been laid down, her concept the best of a series
considered by his'Committee on Designs'. Fisherclaimed to have been refining
the idea since 1900 when, as Commander-in-Chief Mediterranean, he had
discussed it at length with William Gard, Chief Constructor at Malta.
Fisherwas notalone. Professional publications of majornaval powerswereall
familiar with the f lorid prose of the ltalian Vittorio Cuniberti, whose theories cut
little ice at home. His dream ship would be fast and carry the greatest number of
the.largest guns available, choosing her range to 'poui in a ierrible converging
fire' on any hapless battleship of the time. -
,by,aHaving.the world's largest f leet. the U K had no interest in rendering it obsolete
si,gnificant advance, but the impetus came with the improving p-erformance Dreadnought-se t new standards in cap ital s hips I arger and f as ter, w i th I O
of both torpedoes and guns, forcef ully demonstrated by pieviously unimagined large guns of homogeneou.s callbre. I n practice,- her-lack of second.i -
engagement ranges during the Russo-Japanese War of j 904-5. Fisher's s-ense armament was a drawback and, despite her turbine propulsion, she'proved
ot urgency may also have been heightened by knowledge that the Americans too slow for the Grand Ffteet, from which she was witidr;wn in I g I 6.'
- --
were abo.ut to pre-empt him, the Congress approving pi-ans for Admiral Sim's
rdeas in the two 'Michigans' early in 1905. practical considerations of blast effects. A single major gun cat c.:
?glegpy the
. Because of its higher"rate of fi16 and because more barrels could be carried, srmplrtred both magazine arrangements and fire control.-The rbas"onino :^::
the 254-mm_(1O-in) gun was prefened by Fisher to the 30b-mm (12-in) weapon resulted in the abandoning of a credible secondary battery was fault\i
but Admiral Bacon, a committee member, convinced him that fewer laroe ouns. rectified in subsequent classes.
married to n.igh speed, would lead ro 'scienrific and practical shoorinj'. bnce The 'Dreadnought Committee' was tasked also with defining d S;ci-
accepted, this argument led directly to the daring adoption of the steam*turbine, armoured cruiser, later to be termed the battle-cruiser. As a 30 per cinr sce=:
yet untried in the requ_ired power range, togetner with oil fuell;ng, that would *g: sought over comparable battleships, tne result wds a targe 's-
demand the pterctng of bulkheads on a far more modest scale than necessary in I1lS,n,
pacKed wtth
machtnery and protected on a scale that was acceptable o^ly w ^:-
coal-fired ships. used agatnst con,ventionalarmoured cruisers. Carryjng tne same 305_mrn (12. -
I,n HMS Dreadn oughtthe Royal Navy acquired a ship that could steam reliably maln battery calibre as the Dreadnoughtherself, the ilrst of these 'qlass-ian s:
at high speed and which could fight iis armament in all conditions. Firing arci mo^nsters, NMS lnvincible, was completed some 1b months lat"er in'Ma::-
were good, but the layout reflected Fisher's obsession with chase{ire:tem- 1 908.
Right: Though the main battery was
better afianged than that of
Dreadnough! the'Michigans'
re tained reciprocating s te am
machinery. They were also coal-
fired, which meant smoke at higher
speeds, as sfi orvn by South Carolina
making her full 1|Yz kts.
Below: The four 'Nassaus' were
G e rmany's fir s t D readnoughts, ye t
.;" .:i:,.: ::
still contrived to lookorthodox. By
restricting the main battery calibre
" -;;-""'
to only 280 mm (1 I in), six twin ry:5tr(t((;(ta5
turrets could be carried, two o{ them
on either beam. Typical German
features are the large gooseneck
boat cranes and uncased funnel
'Courbet' class
In spite of the highly individual were remodelled soon after thts, Ex-
funnel layout, the French'Courbets' ternally the forward uptakes were
were not unpleasing in appearance paired into a single, larger casing (ex-
as first huilt. In the background is an cept in the Parrs) and a massive tripod
'Aube' class armoured cruiser foremast with a control top was added
completed a decade earlier. over the bridge. This layout, ifadopted
orrginally, would have allowed an all-
creased and, as the class was already centreline main battery, which was not
notable for its protected area (the seen until the following three 'Prov-
armour being continued unusually low ence'class units which, carrying one
on the hull) the result had to be on the turret less for the same broadside,
thin side. Torpedo attack had always could also have the calibre increased
fignrred largely in French thouqht, and to 340 mm (I3.4 in).
the 22 casemated secondary guns During the rapid German advance
were selected for late of fire rather in 1940, both Courbet and Paris saw
than werght of metal. Launched in brief bombardment action but then
1911-2, the shrps were the Courbet, shared the fate of many major French
France, Jean Bart and Pan's. umts, wasted through the double loyal-
Through a combination of backruard As the mast carried no control toP, The France was wrecked off ties of an occupied 1and,
naval thought and an inadequate in- there was no valid reason for its siting, Quiberon tn 1922, and the remainder
dustrial base, France for a while particularly as the overall layout was Specification
ignored the Dreadnought revolutton thus incapable of taking a centreline 'Courbet' class (as built)
and built, between 1906 and 1911, the turret, Although supedmposed turets Displacement: 23, 200 tons standard
six 18,300{on 'Dantons' whrch were were adopted fore and aft, therefore, and 25,850 tons full load
obsolete on completion, Only after this, two sided turrets had to be tncorpo- Dimensions:]enqrth 168.00 m (551.2 ft);
with the four'Courbet' class ships, did rated amidships to give the required beam 27,00 m (BB,58 ft); draught 9,00 m
IO-gnrn broadside. This in tum meant (29.53 ft)
they acknowlege the inevitable,
French designs were hallmarked bY that the area to be protected-wad in- Propulsion: four sets ofgeared steam
therr eccentric mast and funnel turbrnes delivering 28,000 shp (20880
affanqements, and the 'Courbets' had kW) to four shafts
thef three stacks divided betvveen a Speed: 20,5 kts
forward pair and a single much farther Armament: 12 305-mm ( I2-in) and 22
aft, a pole mast being planted almost 138.6-mm (5,46-in) gn.rns, and fow 450-
exactly amidships in the resulting gap mm (17,7-in) torpedo tubes
Armour:belt 270 mm (10.6 in)
The 'Courbet' class were France's barbettes 280 mm (l I in); upPer deck
50 mm ( 1,97 in); lower deck 70 mm
fir st D readnoughts, comPleted long (2.76 in)
after the other maiot maritime
nations had entered the battleship-.-

ffit rj"n Alighieri' class

" While the resultant finng arcs were down, their design tempering some of
As Vittorio Cuniberti was one of the accommodate only four turrets on the
earhest protaqonists of the 'all-big-gmn' lenqth, so he adopted the then ad- exceptionally good, the bridgte struc- Cuniberti's more extreme features.
capital ship, rt is not surprising that lta- vanced concept of the triple turret' twe was impractically small and low, The earlier eccentdc parred funnels
Iy's first Dreadnought was a Pure copied immediately afterwards by the and no control top was fitted, The lay- were, for instance, combined in com-
embodiment of his ideas. These Austro-Hungarians for their'Virlbus out also demanded an immense areaof mon casings, and superimposed tw-
espoused the greatest posstble num- Unitis' class battleships. The forward protection which thus had to be on the rets (twins over triples at each end)
ber ofthe largrest available gmns, car- turret was sited on a ratsed forecastle, thin srde and which would have made allowed an inctease of one barrel
ried on a fast hull, thus enabling the two more were placed amidshiPs and the ship lrrlnerable to attack by a more whrle reducing the number of
ship to decide the ranQle at which to one was located aft, leavlnq space for orthodox Dreadnougtht. amidships turets to onlY one,
pour rn an overwhelming fire, the large only two vestigral superslructure Modrfications during the 1920s in-
number of barrels compensating for blocks, Kept axially as short as possl- creased her bridge size and added a Specification
ble, these comprised mainly two se- large tripod foremast with top. Even 'Dante Alighieri'class (as built)
their slow rate of fire, standard
Very much a prototype, the Danfe vere croups of close-spaced pairs of before the Dante AJighieri was laun- Displacement: 19, 500 tons

Alighieri had a layout dictated by the funnels each separated by a pole mast ched, the three 'Cavours' were laid and 2i,800 tons ful1load
qeometry of givrng the main battery Dimensions: length 168,10 m (55L5 ft);
the best possible flring arcs. Probably beam 26, 60 m (87.27 ft), draught 9, 20 m
(30 2 fD
because of fears of blast effects or in-
teraction, Cuniberti rejected superim- Propulsion: four sets ofqeared steam
posed furrets, and he wrsely avoided turbines delivering 32,000 shp (23862
sided or echeloned mountings, His all- kW) to four shafts
centreline arranQtement could Speed: 23 kts
Armament: 12 305-mm (12-in) and 20
120-mm (4,7-in) gmns, and three 450-
Tie Dante Alighieri bore a
resemblance to a battlecruiser in the mm (17,7-in) torpedo tubes
concentration oI the maximum Armour: belt 250 mm (9,84 1n);
possible frrepower on thefastest barbettes 250 mm (9.84 in); upPer
possible hullltwas one of the first deck30 mm (1.2 tn): lowerdeck
capital ships toemploy triple turrets 20srm (0,8 in)
to house the I 2 305-mm ( I Z-in) main Complement:970

r 344
Battleships of World War I

Development o,l
Fire Control Sgstens
The advance in fire controlsysfems wasrnadenecessa,ryby Thle Battle of Julland saw the Germar,
the rapidly increasing performance of warships and the andBritkhmethods or
unprecedented engagemenf range.sp ossible with the new, rangefinding and fire coniro:
powerful armament thenbeing fitted.'
rangefindingterms, the
. German navywas
superior;the Britisk
olthe 19th centur:ywere carrying {ewerlar:ge guns,
Capital ships toward the end : weremuchslower ic
so_every shot needed to tell. lmprovgd weaponS and projectile ballistics also
.predictability, fi1td the range, but hac a
offered consjslency- and which enabled iorward+hinkers to . more effective fire
approach gunnery in a more sclentific rnanner. To hit the enemv before hocould .. control system. The m
hit you demanded centralized'gun iohtrol from a director, e{uipped with the a::
meanS of measuring the iange and bearing oJ the.targetr iogbther with a
prediclion of wheie that target was likelv to be after the ca-lculated time of flight
:: :.indications of accuracT
spJ.qsiesmade by the ma;:.
of the proiectiles. 'armament. From the mat
ln lepl Watkins, using precision,optics and telephonrc communication, up- ,
top, a telescopic',,;e.,+'
dated the old sailing navy metnod of measurlng :rangq through taking tiie ' immediately showed whethe:
horizontal angles to the target from the.known length of baseline of one,s own : a salvo was over. under or. as
ship. The system remained.vulnerable, however, aid a6curate onlywide on the
shawn here, straddling the range
beam, ard was_soon super$eded by Barf s optical rangefindqi,which, though of of the.tatset.
only 1 37-m (4.sjt) baseline, enabled a single observeito moasure range on any
bearing. ,

The target's course and speed could berestimated after.a peiiod o{ observa-
tion, and then combined with onels own course and,speed to give a firing
soiution, this having to be modlfied by other variables sudh as Wind speed and Scort changed all th,s, firing the fleet with a spirit of innovation and comce: : _ -
direction. Competitions stimulated the development of instrurhents to speed torchallenge.trophies Scou,forinstanee,daiVexercisedhisgunnerswiiir..-::
ihe process so; for inqtance, in 1902 the Dumaresq was introduced, predicting he termed his 'Dotter', sirnulati,ng ship' movement and firirig without ire :,_
rates of 9f q1ge in target range and bearing. This was followed,by ihe Rang6 penditure olammunltion. His comnranbs, HMS Scy/la'and HhTS Terribte l-'.=
Clock, which gave predicted'ranges directly,and then the complex Dreyer Ffre al1 grnnery records ;n their time.
control Table, which relied on extremely accurately-cut gearing to m.x a'var ety Extens,ve trials on specialued test ranges, followed by regular l\3 ::..:
of inputvariables, the result of rwhich was elevati6n-ahl train'ing settings thai practices, enabled ships tO calibrate,theif weaponsand to prbve them in i.ea, :: :
could be transmitted to each gun turrei. Onie all of these had reforted r6ady, a conditions. By 1912, iangeS of j 37 lE ,m (1 b.000 yardsl 'were not cons'::l:
central firing key was.closed to loose. a salVo sirtrultaneouslv. -
Praitice formed this salvo into a tight group, and fall of siiot relatrve to tne Amer,can and German practice was generally behind that of t^e Br::;- -,- .- ,
target was spotted from the high control top so thatrcorrections could be but ran roughly parallel. The Germans, hLowever, did have rhe ce-=.. :.
srgnalled (up or down, left or rightf until sijbsequent salvoes aihieved a ,strad- superb long-based stereoscopic rangefinders which, in the riqnr hancs :: _ :
dle'. gettherangefarmorerapidlythanthewell-triedBritishmethod'of Js1:-;-r-:
Gunnery rn the Victorian navy envisaged typtcal engeigement.s at ranges not salvoes. Experience was to show that this. difference could be cruciar ::-:-:
exceeding 2750 m (3,000 yards). Enrhusiasts such ai'Gckylf isher and percy' , ,

'Kongo' class
Experience rn rts recent war with the tery in place of 10 343-mm (13 5-rn) Yaned only in detail. In the 1920s with heavy escorts, again took :,: :. - - _ .
Russians had shown the Japanese naw gmns, and wrth better protection. As a severe treaty limits on new construc- tn hand ror remodeilt: : - :
the value of superior speed to dictate result, HMS Trgrerwas built as an anglL- tion, all four were thoroughiy rebuilt. their hnes. rherr leno-f. -1.'t. .-
the course of an action, and the intro- cized Kongo the latter still lookrng Their lrghr horizonral protection was by about B m(26.25fr a:. : -= :
duction of the battle-cruiser by the very British in spite ofclipper bow and thickened and anti-torpedo bulges installed power vrds :--::- '. ..
British soon after thrs war caused much round-section funnels, added. The latter addition reduced bled to achieve a ?.--< : -: r-
rnterest. Though lacking the necessary The Kongo s three sisters were burll their speed by about 2 kts despite re- result ol advances -r. -.':.-....
expertise the Japanese required four, in separate Japanese yards and rn ver-l boilering nology thrs was ac:..:' .: .'.. .
crdering the lead shrp from Vrckers crediloble rrmes, the Hiei berng com- During the 1930s the Japanese navy stantial cut in weigrr:
and acquiring the necessary technical pleted like Ihe Konga in 1912 and the vras developing its rdeas on fast carrier Extra elevatLon rr, . . :- ..
support to build three sisters in home Haruna and Krnslrr'ma in 1913. Thev groups and requiring high speed borh primary anc .-' '
I'ards Vickers was able to benefit by I menl, arrcraft a:.: Ii-: ..
improving on the destgn of the 'Lton' .,! added and '-.= :.. .: =..
class HMSPrrncessRoya,/ whrch it was
heavy too har -:=: ' ,..
then constructtng so that the 'Kongo' The jobwas.'.=. : ..-'
class for about the same speed carried fout were s ti.K - - : .-.
an erght-gun 356-mm (14 in) main bat- bv'heexplcs..- ":.-..
tle-cruLsor i=.
;.. i. . - .
C ompleted in I 9 I 2, Kongo w as a very spect wa: --.= .'..."..
powerfulvessel, with eight 356-mm .

( 1 4-in) guns and a speed of over

Is],:.: :-..: .

nllletlCo-l ^i .:. ..
.:' ' -
27 kts. Built in England, she was to be -
tedly ar :., :-

drastically rebuilt in the 1930s in

order to fill the new role of carrier Specification
escort. She was sunk by the US
submarrhe Sealion rh JVovember
'Kongo'class -.:
t 944.
Displacemer.r :.-.
'Kongo' class (continued)

ard 27,500 tons tull load

Dimensions:length 214.70 m (704.4 ft);
beam 28,00 m (91,8 ft) draught 8.40 m
(27.6 ft)
Propulsion: four sets ofgeared steam
turbrnes deliverlng 64,000 shp (47725
kW) to four shafts
Speed: 27,5 kts
Armament:eiqht 356-mm (14-in) and
16 152-mm (6-in) suns, and eight 533-
mm (2l-ln) torpedo tubes
Armour: belt203 mm(B in); bulkheads
230 mm (9 in); barbettes 254 mm
( 10 in); deck 51 mm (2 in)
Complement: 1,221

Epitomizing the grace and Power of

the battlecruiser is the J aPanese
Kongo soon afler comPletion' She
washuilt in Britain as a model for
three home-built coPies, buther
desr'crn was so successful that it
fomied the basis of the Bfitish TigeL

'Fuso' class
Launched in 19l4-5 the two'F\rso'class tripod and bridgework made waY for
battleships Fuso and Yamasftrro were the extraordinary pagoda-like con-
contemporartes of the American struction that was to become such a
'Nevadas'and came between the Brit- Japanese trademark, a structure that
rsh 'lron Dukes' and 'Queen Eli- grew ever more complex with time
zabeths', The l0-gnrn broadsides of the Despite th:s thorough remoulding,
two former classes were tncreased by WorldWar 1I saw the 'Fusos' (like the
hvo fr.uther barrels but, lacking experi- Ise and Hyuga) threatened Post-
ence of constructing trlple turrets, the Midway wrth conversion to hybrid air-
Japanese adopted six centreline twin craft-carriers, They avoided this furth-
mountinqs which, Ilke those in the er surgery only to be sacrificed
American 'Wyomings', demanded a togethei in the dark waters of the Suri-
Iong hull. Except for the odd little pairs qao Strait, running the gauntlet to
of 'satsumas' and 'Kawachis', the throw themselves at the massed guns
Japanese had had no exPerience of of Admiral Oldendorfs battle line in a
Dreadnougtht battleship deslgn and hopeless attempt to penetrate to Leyte
construction, and the almost cruiser- Gulf. 152-mm (6-in) gn:ns, and six 533-mm Everybody's idea of the archetYPal
like 'Fusos' echoed this with their low, (21-in) torpedo tubes Japanese battleship, flre Fuso t's seen
Specification Armour: belt 305 mm (12 in); following her 1933 rebuilding.
clean lines, Fragility, however, was Note how the six centreline turrets
only apparent as they carried a heavy 'Fuso'class (asbuilt) bulkheads305 mm(12 tn); barbettes
punch on a well-protected and subdi- Displacement: 30, 600 tons standard 203 mm (B in); upper deck 32 mm break the superstructure into three
and 31,000 tons ful]]oad (1,25 in); lowerdeckSl mm(2 in) dr'sfinclmasses. At this stage, she still
vlded hull, turbine-driven for 23 kts carried an aircraftcatapult on the
For the first time, most gear was home- Dimensions: lenqth 205.21 m Complement: 1,195
(673.25 ft); beam 28.73 m (94.25 ft); roof of ' C' turret, abaft the' pagoda'.
As with so many battleshiPs of this drausht 8,69 m (28,5 ft)
era, the 'Fusos' expertenced a comPa- Propr:lsion: four sets ofgeared steam
ratively uneventful World War I, fol- turbines delivering 40,000 shp (29BZB
Iowed by a period of drastic recon- kW) to four shafts
struction precedinq a World War II of Speed: 23 }ts
hectic activity, Thus in the 1930s they Armament: 12 356-mm (14-in) and ]4
were extenslvely remodelled, being j

lengrthened by 7,5m (24,6ft) to take /il Fuso as buj,lt, displaying her notably
'r!' slim lines.For thefirsttime, the
advantage of a more Powerful but
lighter set of machinery, with oll firing maj or ity of the e quipment fitted to
Main and secondary armaments had the two'Fusos' was of J apanese
their ranges improved by increased construction. Well protected, both
elevation, horizontal protection was were to be extensively rebuilt during
thickened aetainst long-ranqe plung- the early 1930s.
ing fire, and anti-torpedo bulges were
added. Externally the lorward funnel,

ffi lb"nop,rs'class
needed a restricted draugtht in order measure was the omission of the steam-rarsinq surface and could,
Completed at the end of the Victortan
to transit the Suez Canal, Much weight underwater sheathing and coppering therefore, develop more energy. The
era, the six'Canopus' class tYPified three umts completed rn 1900 were
contemporary Britrsh battleships, with was saved in the design by the incor- then still customary, ProPulsion
poration of the new KruPP steel machinery was the universally-used HMS Canopus, HMS Gofiaffi and HMS
a twin 305-mm (12-in) barbette mount-
armow which afforded the same Pro- triple-expansion reciprocating en- Ocean (the latter tuvo being lost in the
ing at either end and a secondary 152-
tective qualities on only tfito-thirds the gine, but a 2-knot advantage was Dardanelles in 1915), whrle the three
mm (6-in) armamenl arranqed in pro- completed in l90l were HMS GIotY,
tected casemates along each side thicknes-s of the Hawey armour in the gained over the 'Majestics' bY the
earlier and similarlY sized 'Majestic' adoption of the water-tube boller HMS l/engreance and HMS Albion
Thev had been designed particularly Though the RoYal NavY in general
ffiththe Chlna station in mind, and they class ships, A further weight-saving which, size for size, had a far larger

'Canopus' class (continued) Battleships of World War I
grreatly underutilized the resewe of quns, and four 457-mm (lB-in) torpedo
strength that it possessed in its older tubes
battleships, the 'Canopus' class had its Armour: belt 152 mm (6 in) amidships;
share of action. C,omprising the cohe- transverse bulkheads 254-305 mm ( 10-
rent Bth Battle Squadron ofthe Channel l2 in); barbettes 305 mm (12 in); upper
Fleet at the outbreak ofwar, the ships deck 25 mm ( I in); lower deck 5I mm
were rapidly and widely dispersed, (2 in)
Canopus goinq to the South American Complement:680
station. With von Spee's squadron
coming eastward across the Pacific, Right:Though obsolete, the Royal
Admiral Cradock took a scratch col- Navy's pre-Dreadnoughts, such as
lectron of ships to intercept him, The the 'Canopus' class, still played very
result was the disaster off Coronel on i active roles.
November l9]4. The Canopus was not Left: Last British battleships of the
involved in the action, labouring with Victori an er a, tft e'Canopus' c/ass
machinery trouble through heavy seas had the new Krupp armour and
well to the south. improvedwater tube boilers. Main
arm ament comprise d four 3 0 5 - mm
Specification (l Z-in) guns.
Displacement: 2,950 tons standard

and 14,300tonsfullload
Dimensions:lenqth 118,87 m (390,0 ft);
beam 22,56 m ( 74.0 ft); draught 7,87 m
(25.85 ft)
Propulsion: rvvo sets oftriple-
expansion steam engines delivering
13,500ihp(10067kW)totwoshafts ,
Speed: l8.Skts /'
Armament:lour305-mm(1Z-in). 12 152-
mm(6-in), 10 l2-pdrandsomesmal]er- --( r

ffi "invincible'class
As the world's first battle-cruisers, the on any tarqet, enough to counter any Admiral Sturdee's destruction of the ed in these irstances through corre:
three'Invincible' class ships marked a armoured crurser, whose scale of pro- hvo 'Scharnhorsts' (among the finest application. With the olfensive dc:-
real revolution in warship develop- tection was also logically adopted, armoured cruisers afloat) at the Battle trine inbred to the Royal Navy, hol';e;-
ment, The first of the class, HMS /n- Admiral Beatty's dramatic interven- of the Falklands confumed the sound- er, lt was only a matter of time '.:---
flexible, was laid down only days be- tion at the Heliqoland Brght fracas and ness of Fisher's ideas, which had work- these enormous ships had their gl-s
fore the Dreadnought was launched jaws broken by somethrng out of 'r:e-:
but, where the latter represented class. Thrs occurred with horrl:,--;
Ioqical (if sudden) progression, the finality at Jutland, when tirree ba::r:-
newcomers were of an entirely new cruisers, of different classes l:*: :--
breed, All major fleets operated cludrng the lnrzincrble. were de---'.'::
atmoured cruisers, some of which by magaztne explosiors caused i'.' .--'.
were comparable with smaller con- inflrcted aL medlum range. F::-:.=:
temporary battleshrps. Admiral protectionwas worked in after .i= l: -
Fisher's brainchildren were to make tle, but the reputailon was sla:=:=:
these ther.r naturai prey, beinq able to and the baltle-cruiser's bnei ii; :-=:
sacriflce protection to Inouit a Dread- already reached its eventnqt
nought-sca1e armament on a Dread-
nought-scale hull packed with machin-
ery for unprecedented speed. Used
properly, the battle-cruisers would
use their speed and range to force or
decline action as circumstance de-
manded. All three units were com-
pleted in 1908, the other two being Above : T his photogr ap h s how s the Below: Designed to combat
HMS /ndomifab,le and HMS /nflexi- smoke problem that caused armoured cruisers, the' I nvincible'
ble. invincible's fore fu nnel to be class was armoured against fire from
The battle-cruisers needed 3l boil- lengthened,in 1915. sucft yesse,ls.
ers to the Dreadnought's lB, deman-
ding a hull some 12.2 m (40 ft) greater
in lengrth, a feahre which also permit-
ted extra fineness of line. Three une-
qually-spaced funnels marked the
boiler room layout. T\ivo fewer matn
battery gmns still enabled six to bear

TheLioninAction force out in pursuit, to be ambushed in turn and
Emhodyingallthestrengthsandweaknessesof Fisher'sbattlecruiserconcept,Lion destroyed by the main body of the High Sgas
was every inch a thoroughbred. Fast and powerful, butvulnerable tofire fromheavy Fleet which was to render distant support, De-
yessels, ihe sight of Lioiat the head of Beatty's battlecruiser fleet was a stirring sighl coded radro- intercepts had, however, warned
iiicndisguiieatnenisiiriaittyitnign'p6eia,Wnttyarmouredvessels. :X?t#'j,t "::i:S?3",',it"f"SitJffirT,?J3t'S;
Vice Admlral Warrender's 2nd Battle Squad-
The masnificent HMSlion was the warhorse of from the Humber were available, but had not f?:-ffi?rl*:dll':3J,
David Beatty, the impetuously couraqeous been inlbrmed olthe decision of AdmiralJeili- ran into the German main body which, timtdly
genius commanding the Grand-Fleet's Battle- coe, the commander-in-chiei to back these assuming that it was about to encounter th.e
|ruiserSquadron. l,ikeallof herkindshecar- with Beatty's force and Commodore Goode- whole Grand Fleet, turned away. Tlpicalll
riecl a pun-ch that could crack a battieship, yet nougrh's six light cruisers These were ody Beatty gave chase, his four battle-cruisers (led
was perilously vulnerable to any plunglng re- 65 km (40 miles) from Heligoland and neither Py tire .Lion) actually pursulng a force of 22
turn fire. Th'e deflclencies of iuch-battle- commander hesitated. Like the cavalry in a battleshrps,hvoarmouredcruisers,sevenlighi
cru.isers were recognized and accepted as the Western drama they surprtsed TyrwEltt as cruisers and 54 destroyersl This farcical situa-
type could not be ulsed effectively 6y the cau- much as his tormentors by their entry. Thrce tion was ended abruptly by the news that both
tious, and caution was one word thai Beatty German light cruisers were sunk, SMS Ariadne Scarborough and Hartlepool were being shel-
never learned by the Llon herself with three 343-mm ( 13 5-1n) 1ed. Hipper had split his battle-cruiser liorce for
As a rear admiral, Beatty had been salvoesatbarely4STSm(5,000yards), Speedl- thetaskandwasinadisadvaatageouspQsition
appolnteci by Churchill in March l9l3 and, in ly withdrawing before the enemy s heavy hard by an enemy coast and able to withdraq'
tie tTmonthiremainlngtotheoutbreakof war forces could cross their tide-bound bars, the safely oniy eastward through a gap in the de-
he hacl infused a real fighting spirit into the Brltishfoundpublicacclaimawaitingthembut, fensive minefield. But rnto this gap were
squadron with endless qunneri eiercises con- in truth, it had been a shambies of an encoun- thundering both Beatty and Warrender, their
dlctecl at previously ummagined ranges and ter, unco-ordinated and poorly planned, Only forces sepalated by the shallow southwesi
speeds. if was as well, foi Beatty's battle- Beatty's instant acceptance of risk had lifted it patch of the Dogger Bank. Then the weather
cruisers were to be involved in every action of from an untldy skirmish to a naval event, doing previously flne, turned to rain squalls, wlt!Poor
note in the North Sea. In a letter to his wlfe, wonders in the process for the morale of both visibility. Despite this the inimitable Good-
Beatty wrote that 'We've lived for 40 years in fleet and nation, enough.latched onto the now-retiring Hipper

&?L?i"o"ifi?'"!"Hf.,l""YffiffiJ:*'#'l:: Germanraid !'t'I.!""?'?'fifrlS?y""f.?:ijlTl11','i:i3H;,f

easily rattled.- Wliatever comes, the battle- In December 1914, two of Jellicoe's battle- the Germans slipped through. Beatty was
cruisbrs wr11 give a good account of them- cruisers were sent south, repeating the exer- heartbroken ('the blackest week of my itfe'l
selves.' How rfght he was. cise on von Spee at the Falklands. The Squad- but, rather unfarrly,_ supported censure of
Wrth the wai not yet a month old, Commo- ron now had enormous prestige (yet could still Goodenough rather than his own inadequate
dore Tyrwhitfs Harwich Force was sent deep attract petty official displeasure at their rate of signal stafl
intotheHehgolandBighttodisruptanddestroy ammunitionexpenditure!)butwereabouttobe Only a month later, 1n Jqlugry 1915,- both
any of the e"nemy [g6t forces that conducteil more severely tested. , . Beatty atrd the outraged British p-ublic had-a
regular patrols. 'ihe"Harwich Force was itself Now all too aware of the detachment of the chance for a measure of revenge. Sigmal trafrc
suiprrse-d severai enemy light cruisers arriv- two battle-cruisers, the Germans selzed their warned of another German operation: Hipper.
ing unexpectedly and pressiig it hard in a very chance oi a bombardment raid on the English wlth a light screen, but backed by the might of
co-nfuseci action in po6r visibiiity. Thus caught east coast, using the battle-cruisers of Beatty's the High Seasfieet, wasbound for the Dogger
on the Germans'veiy doorstep, 'ilrwhitt cali-ed able counterpart, Admiral Hipper. By this pro- Bank area with a vague brief to deal with any
forasslstance.Heknewthattwobattle-cruisers vocation,itwashopedtolureBeatty'sreduced British liqht forces that may have been out.

Left: Admiral Sir David Beatty k seen aboard Lion

with his FLag Captain, Captain A.E. Chatfield.
Beatty served with distinction during the Boxer
Rebellion of I 900 , when he was promoted to
captain at the exceptionally early age of29. The
youngest admira,lsr'nceiVelson, ft e led the British
battlecruiser squadron, and later the battlecruiser
fleet, with all the elan of a light cavalryman. Itwas
on the bridge of Lion that Beattymade a c,lassr'c
understatement: having seen the destruction of
Indefatigable and Queen Mary, he turned to
Chatfield to say, 'There seems to be something
wrong with our bloody ships today'

Right:'Lion'classbaffJecrujsers at sea prior to the

battle of J utland. Princess Royal and Lionwere both
damaged during the battle, but even then escaped
the fate of theirsrslersftip. Queen Mary was
engaged simultaneously by the German
batflecrurers Seydlitz and Derfflinger rrhen ftifs
forward and inQ magazine led to anexplosion that
took the ship and the lives of 67 officers and I ,209
men, leaving only a handful of survivors. Note the
anti-torpedo nets, whichwere swung out on
booms under the threat of torpedo attack.
Above : The I'ionb funne,lspacin g betrays the
manner in which the already generous volume
devoted to the 42 boilers and turbine machinery
was splitby sitingthe fourth turret amidships.
Seen lrere a I /n vergor don early in J g J 5, Lion ias
already landed the boats from the atter
superstructure. Note the paintscft eme.
Right: Splendid cafs * Lion and Tiger exercise with
an'R'-class battleship in the oItinE..Losses suffered
at t utland, though fully j ustified when weighed
aganslresu/tt discredited the battlecruiser
concept and, lacking any clear cut postwar role,
they were among the first to be taken out of sewice
following the W ashing ton Treaty.

Beatty sailed with five battle-cruisers and opposite number but, as Hipper had only four force should engage the hapless Blitcher
Goodenough's lst Light Cruiser Squadron, ren- ships, this was ambignrous and resulted in SMS whrch, shattered and ablaze, was falling well
dezvousing with Tfrwhitt's Harwlch Force in Dedflinger, ahead ol Ihe Blijcher, not being behind the remalnder, With no power for sig-
the grey of darnm south-east of the bank. Vrr- engaged at all. Undisturbed, she made good nal projectors and at a range where flags could
tually at that instant, the latter ran into Hlpper's practice, and undoubtedly contributed to the no longer be interpreted, Beatty lost control of
screen and, as day broke, the .Ljon led the severe punishment soon sustained by the llon, the battle. In vain did he shift his flag, for Hip-
British line rn a tail chase of the already fleeing Her fuel contaminated by holed tanks and pow- per's three survivors were beyond reach and
enemy, whose force was slowed somewhat by er generators farling, the fton slowed, signall- the Blficher fought to the very end,
the hybrid cruiser/lcattle-crurser SMS Blicher ing the remarnder to close the enemy, This was
By fuIl daylight, in clear conditions, Ihe Lion followed by an order to turn elght points to .Lion damaged
had closed to withrn 18300 m (20,000 yards) of avoid a totally nonexistent submarine. Beatty, Though the enemy had lost a usetul ship and
Ihe B|ficher (at the rear of Hipper's line), and losing touch as the battle moved away, signal- SMS Seycllllz had narrowly missed blowing up,
opened fire with her forward 343-mm (13 S-in) led 'Course NE', followed too quickly by 'En- an annihilating vrctory had been iost through
guns. As the range dropped to 16000 m (17,500 gage the enemy's rear'. The two srgnals were poor gunnery, poor initiatlve and poor sigrnall-
yards), Beatty signalled each ship io engage lts read ln conjunction, and taken to mean that the ing. As a fuming Flsher wrote, 'What excuse
The.Lion inAction

have we to offer?' The.Ljon, hit by an estimated

16 heavy shells, languished under repair for
four months,
On return to service, she was flagship of
Beatty's reorganized Battle-Cruiser Fleet of
three homogeneous squadrons. A quiet year
followed, enlivened only by a couple of sea-
plane raids on the enemy coast and yet another
failure to apprehend a hit-and-run attack, on
Lowestoft and Yarmouth in Aprrl 1916. Only five
weeks later came Jutland,
The battle is covered elsewhere but, during
the initial 'run to the south', a shell from SMS
Liitzow removed the better part of the roof of
'Q' turret, the resultant exploslon and fire in
which would have destroyed the ship except
for the couraqeous action of a mortaiiy-
wounded Royal Marine officer who promptly
flooded the magazine, earning a Victoria
Cross. Within 30 minutes Beatty was to see two
more of his ships blow up from the same cause,
prompting the famous remark to his flag cap-
tain that 'there seems to be something wrong flag of Vice Admiral Pakenham but, although at Above: An unusual overhead view of Lionshows
with our bloody ships today'. sea as much as ever, was not again to see the dominant effect on the layout due to the single
The trjon and her consorts sighted Admiral action, turret amidships. Much useful superstructure area
is lost due to the need for angling it to give the
Scheer's Hrgh Seas Fleet, closed it, reported A victim of the Washington Treaty condi- maximum firing arcs, and litfle canbemountedon
and then drew it to the north onto Jellicoe's tlons, she was scrapped at Jarrow in i924, it because of blas t d am age. N ote that her torpedo
gnrns, finally forcing round the head of the Ger- nets have been landed.
man line to gain time, After the indecisive bat-
tle fleet encounter, in the failing light of late
dusk, a frustrated Beatty was still in contact with
Hipper, unable to goad Jellicoe into further
major contact before darkness,
The anti-climax of the end of Jutland was
painful for Beatty after his all-oui efforts, The
fton had sustarned 12 heavy hrts, HMS Ztqer I0
and HMS Princess rRoyal six and, on the pas-
sage back to Rosyth, the flagship committed 99
dead to the deep. She reported ready for ac-
tion within two days and was fully repaired
within seven weeks,
Beatty's association with the shrp ended ear-
ly in I9l7 on his appointment as Commander-
in-Chief of the Grand Fleet, The lron took the

Battleships of World War I

Above: Jutland. tionrsseen sf eaming at fuLl speed

shortly before receiving the near-disastrous hiton
'Q'turret. Boldhandlingof the battle crukers by
Beatty meant casualties but ensuredsuccessr'n ftr's
primary aims of scouting and reporting,
containing Hipper and luring theffigh SeasF/eet
onto J ellicoe's massed guns.

Above and below; Lion as sfte app eared just prior

to her trial atJutland. The tripod foremast and
built-up bridge structure gave Lion a more
rnodern aspect than her original configuration,
and her rear two funnels have been raked to the
level of her forefunnel, matching those offt ersr'sler
ships. Her torpedonels weresoon tobe removed.
Ut€ Y:'Renown'class
Crders for the 'Revenge' class bat- which was sited in the new triple
rleships were placed in 1914 but then mounting that was to fall.far short of
shelved because lt was considered exDectations,
that they would not be completed in bnly the Repuise saw any real action
time for the short war that was antict- , during World War I, being involved in
pated. Followinq the emphatic suc- the messy and indecisive affair in the
cess of the battle-cruisers at the Falk- German Bight in Novembei. 1917.
lands battle of December 19 14, howev- Creat efforts were made between the
er, Admiral Fisher had two units hastily wars to rectrfy the ships' shortcomings,
redesigned for delivery tn an impossi- Ihe Renown being particularly thor-
ble 15 months as the 'Renown' class, oughly modernized, With tmproved
That they were completed in a little protection a new secondary armament
over 18 months as HMS Renourn and and a main battery capable of gneater
HMSRepuJse was a credit to the buil- elevation, she both took and delivered
ders, particularly as extra horizontal punishment, being vdry active as a'unit
protection had to be incorporated at a of Force H, The Repulse was less for-
Iate stage following the awful experi- tunate, being sunk with HMSPrince of This late wartime picture shows vertical armour belt above the
ences of Jutland. Wales by an overwhelmtnq Japanese Renown (foregrround) and Repulse th waterline. This was rectified soon
The 'Renowns' were the first hvo- air assault that put flve torpedoes into a near-identical phase. Noteworthy af ter the war. &enown patticulafly
funnelled British battle-crursers and her. is thedoublerow of scuttles along was to undergo coAsiderable
the flrst to mount 38l-mm (1S-in) guns, the hull, betraying the absence of any modification.
though only srx of these were shipped
due to availability over the very short Specification
construction period. At a time when 'fenown'class (asbuilt) ' ,

the UK was building the fast and well- Displacement: 27,950 tons standard
protected 'Queen Elizabeth' class 'su- and 32,725 tons fuil load
per-Dreadnouqhts', the'Renowns' rep- Dimensions: lenqrh242.0I m (794.0 ft);
resented a step backward, though beam 27.43 m (90.0 ft); draught 8,23 m
their 32-kt speed placed them ln a (27 0 ft)
class of their own. Propr:lsion: four sets ofgeared steam
Therr gleatest weakness was in ver- turbines delivering 126,000 shp
tical protection and, despite subse- (93958 kW) to fourshafts
quent modernizations, this was not Speed:32 kls
easily rectified since the lower edge of Armament: srx 38 l-mm ( 15-in), 17 102-
the shallow main belt was supported, mm (4-in) and huo 76-mm (3-in) AA
just below the load waterline, on the gmns, andtwo 533-mm (2l-in) torpedo
upper slope of the large anti-torpedo tubes
bulges whrch, for the first time, had Armour:belt 152 mm(6 in); bulkheads Renown js seen after the fitting oI Even with oil-firing they were still
been made an inteQlral part of the hull 102 mm (4 in); barbettes l78 mm (7 in); aircraft flying-off platforms on both capable of generating vast quantities
structure, Another unsatisfactory fea- maindeckT6 mm(3 in); deckover 'B' anda{ter turrets, and the of smoke, and the forefunnel had to
ture was the reversion to a lO2-mm steering giear 64 mm (2.5 in) searchlights re- arr anged on be raised even before completion.
(4-in) secondary armament, most of Complement:970 separate towers by the after funnel.

ffi iiellerophon'class
The three 'Billy Ruffians' would have virtually the same dimensions. Ten 45- waist and two on the centreltne aft, notably a 5l-mm (2-in) longrtudinal
been four but for a slower-than- calibre 305-mm (I2-tn) guns were Theoretically, the layout allowed be- bulkhead running the greater length of
expected foreigTn resPonse to HMS arranged similarly in five turrets; of hveen srx and eight bear in any
gr-rns ro the ship on each side.
Dreadnought L,aid down within these the foremost was at forecastle direction. All completed in 1909, the The Dreadnought's masting
months of the latter's completion, they deck level and the remainder one 'Bellerophons' were HMS Beller- arrangements had been highlY un-
incorporated only minor changes on deck lower, hvo of them sided in the opion, HMS Temeraire and HMSSU- satisfactory, a single tri.pod foremast
perb. set abaft the forward funnel and sup-
One great improvement over the porting the control top in smoke and
Dreadnought herself was the substitu- heat. The follow-ons had two lofty tri-
tionof 102-mm (4-in) secondary gruns in pods, each forward of a funnel, with the
place of the prototype's near-riseless control tops pre-war providlng the
12-pdr weapons, The'al1-big-gnm' doc- base for tall WT extensions.
trine had been taken too lrterally and The steam rurbine machinery was
the ship was practlcally helpless simiiar to that in the prototype with the
against determined torpedo boat boilers accepttnq coal, oil or patent
attack (a mistake later echoed in the fuel, all three of which were carried,
all-mrssile armaments of the early Following the Bellerophons were
1960s). Sixteen larger weapons en- three more virtual repeats, HMS St
abled the 'Beilerophons' to engage Vincent, HMS Collingwood and HMS
such targets at safer ranges, although Vanguard of the 'St Vincent' class,
eight of the gnrns were sited vulnerably whose malor advance was the adop-
on the turret roofs. That the torpedo
was beinq taken very seriously was Un&?eDreadnought fie
evidenced by improved subdivision, 'Bellerophons' had their foremasts
ahead of their forefunnels, which had
the great advantage of keeping the
control tops out of the smoke. Main
and secondary armament was
otherwise u nch anged from
A.bove : The' B illy Ruffi an' (i.e.
Bellerophon) an d her two sisters
were, es s enti ally, improved
Dreadnoughts. They had a similar
main battery, similarly disposed.
ellerophon' class (continued)
Battleships of World War i
-:n of an Lmproved S0-calibre gmn rn
-:e Specification Propulsioru four sets ofgeared steam ,Armour belt 254 mm (10 l,
main battery, All six ships went 'Bellerophon'class turbines delivering 23,000 shp ( tZlS I amidships; transverse br-rlka: a
=ough Jutland without a single casual-
but the Vanguard was destroyed by
Displacement: 18,800 tons standard
and 22, 100 tons fulI load
kW) to four shafts 203 mm (B rn): barbetres 22: : -- :::-
= nagazrne explosion rn 1917. The re- Dimensions: lenqth 160,32 m (526.0 ft)
Armament: 10 305-mm (12-rn), 16 102-
upper deck 19 mm (0.75 ir. :_ :
' : _

deck 76 mm (3 in); Iower cie:r . _ ::.

::arnder fell victim to the terms of the beam 25. 15 m (82.5 ft); drausht B.3l m mm (4-in) and four 3-pdr suns, and (4 in)
'Vash-rngton TYeaty in the 1920s. (2! 25 ft) three 457-mm (18-rn) torpedo tubes Complement: 735

'Colossus' class
tsoth'Colossus' class ships (HMS Col- Scapa's low hills form the
ossus and HMS.FlercuJes, both com- inhospitable backdrop to the
pleted in 191 1) were vutual repeats of Colossus and the llree
-:e single HMS lVeptune, laid down 'Bellerophons', all oJ which were
some six months before, and showed sewing in the Fourth Batile
:lo significant improvements over her. Squadron.
The Nepfune herself carried the same
nain battery as the precedrng'St Vin-
--ents but. in answer to foreign prac- one at least was removed in war,
:ce, this was laid out so that 10-gun Another effect of the main battery
broadsides were posstble. To achieve layout was the fragmentation of the
ris, the two waist hrrrets were dis- ship's internal arangements, Despite
posed en echelori, enabling them to this, the shtps were innovatory in being
1e across the deck, albeit on res- fitted with separate cruising twbines
xcted arcs, Considerable extra stif- to improve fuel economy at lower
:emng and blast-proofing needed to speeds,
be rncorporated as a consequence, The superimposition of X-turret de-
-he layout also demanded more creased the ships' stability range.
-ength, though this was mitigated probably the reason behind the rever-
nmewhat by the adoption, for the first sron in the two repeat ships to the herself was the onlv Grand fleel bat-
--,re in lhe Royal Nalry, of superrm- Propulsion: four sets of geaiec s ..t :-:
Dreadnought's layout of a stngle, lofty tle,ship of the clasb to suffer heavy- turbines delivering 25 000 s:.-, . :: i :
posed turrets aft. tripod. Though often criticized, thls cahbre shell damage, but on an insuf- kW)tofowshafts
All 16 102-mm (4-in) guns of the arangement must have proved satrs- ficrent scale to venfy the soundness ol Speed:21 kts
secondary armament were factory, as it was repeated in further thls new arrangement. Armament: 10 305-mm (12-Ln; =:.: -:
'*nd blast screens withrn the super- classes, Indeed, the rVepfune's after 102-mm (4-in) and three : : :.:-._:
s:ructure blocks, The new layout also control top was later removed as belng Specification (21-in) torpedo tubes
severely limited the stowage space for almost uninhabitable through smok6 'Colossus'class Armour: belt 279 mm ( I 1 Ln)
--ie many boats then carried, so drs- and heat, A cwious change of thought Displacement: 20, 220 tons standard transversebulkheaG254mr:. . __
:rctive flying decks were rntroduced in the design of the follow-on pair was and 23,050 tons fu]] load barbettes 2?9 mm ( I I in,;: n'r:-j. t=-,'
::r the purpose, As these were the abandonment of longrtudinal antr- Dimensions: lenqth 166.42 m (546,0 fr) 38 mm (1,5 in); mrddle deck 44 : ::-
jeemed likely to be destroyed in ac- torpedo bulkheads in favour ofslightly beam25.91 m(85.0 ft); drauqhtZ,Z0 m (1.75 in); lowerdeck 102 mn.1 _*
::n, thus fouling the amrdships gmns, heavrer belt armour, The Cojossus (2s 25 ft) Complement: 755

>K 'i,gincourt'class
-{MS Agincourt was unique. She was whose account another battleship was
:rdered from Elsrmck by Brazil in the being completed in the UK, and re-
:curse of one of the periodic 'one- namedSu,lfan OsmanL Both, perhaps
*pmanship' exercises conducted by unfortunately, were completed in the
-:e larger South American states to thts very month ofthe outbreak ofwar and,
lay, Four impressive designs had despite being very much 'odd-balls',
i:een short-listed, that chosen revert- were appropnated by the Royal Nary
rg to the 305-mm (12-in) gun (at a time as the Agmcourl and HMS Errn. This
-,.;nen the British standard was 343- windfall was, however, acquired at
::n/13,5-in) for reasons of commonai- great cost for the irate T\rrks were pla- Unique in the Grand Fleet, the to accommodate seyen cer
with two ships already serving. L' e
-:_r cated by a prompt German offer of Agincourt is seen here at gunnery turrets is apparent.
Iven so, no less than 14 barrels were immedlate replacement, which action practice. The immense fiength of hull
irounted, in seven twin turets, the greatly influenced Tlukey's entering
r--:ost in any battleship. All were sited the enemy camp. Despite the un- tricted firing arcs, Offered for sale Specification
:r the centreline to permit l4-grun doubted firepower of the ship, it was again to Brazil after the war, she was 'Agincourt'class
i:rcadsides, a spectacle that reported- fortunate that she was never severely rejected and prematurely found her
..,''i/as not to be mlssed. Thrs arrange- tested in action for the hull was weak as
Displacement: -:: : :. - : :
:rent demanded a very long hull with, well as berng underprotected, and
way to the breakers in the early 1920s l:ai
and 30,250 tons full
in the company of much othei useful Dimensions:ler:qrj..-l :. .. : -. : -
:.nsequently, a reduced standard of three of the seven turrets had res- tonnage. beam?7.I?m(B9 l- ::=-; :-_-
lrotection to cover it. The secondary (27 0 ft)
:rd tertiary batteries were on an
:qually lavish scale, with 20 152-mm Propulsion: four s:--. :: _;.
furbines deLve::::::4 - -r
- = : r= --
.:-Ln) and 10 76-mm (3-in) quns, kW) to four shai-<
Shortly after the ship's launch as the
Speed:22 kts
Rio deJaneiroin 1913, her owners dis- Armament: l-a:,:-:_.-
:rvered that their ambitions had out- mm (6-rn) ala -, -:-::-:-
rripped their purse and put her up for and three 5-?.3-::::- : - -:
sale. She was acquired by Twkey, on
Agincourt rs seen in her original form
Armonr: be-: ::: ::- : -- : _. : = - =
l52mm'.5:. i,::--:=.--- = --
with flying- ho at decks. The centr aI
turrets had restricted arcs ol fire,
matnde:k:!:::- . : * -_::-: --- :r .

38 mm (: : :.' .: ,l:: :=:: -: - - . _.

and the long hull was weak and Complement: - 2- -
Iutland Indefatigable, ildtft fi er sisfer New Zealartd, forming
the Second B attle Cruiser Squadron at J utland, is
Alter two years of shadow boxing , the spring of I 9 I 6 saw the tw9 greatest fleets in seen alftigrfi speed.They could bedistingukhed
theworldatsea andstea ming towards eachother.If theymet, then abattleunlike from the'Invincibles' by their equispaced funnels,
any p reviously f ought c ould E e e x pected. T he pl ace w as J qtlay d B ank ; the date 3 I allowing for improved chances of a full broadside
UAi.Over tn6fottiwing twodaysiome25 vesselsweretohelast,withalmost9,l0A with echeloned amidships turrets. Note the very
high baat stowage.
sailors dead on bofh sides.

At 14. 20 on 3 I May 19 16, the British ligrht cruiser

HMS Galafea made an'enemy in sight'signal
and, wlth her consorts, went on to engage Ger-
man light units that had stopped a neutral mer-
chantman. The British shlps were attached to
Admiral Beatty who, with six battle-cruisers
and flrur 'Queen Elizabeth' class battleships,
almost immediately came in to assist But the
German ships also possessed heavy backing in
ihe shape of Admiral Hipper's five battle-
cruisers: these too bore in, sighting Beatty at
15, 20. It was a fine, if hazy, spring afternoon and
the position just west of the iutland Bank, One oi
ihe greatest and most contentious of sea battles
was about to commence,
Hipper was in fact out to be seen, hls task
being to lure out a sizable British squadron,
preferably Beatty's, and lead it back into the
arms of the main body of the High Seas Fleet for
destruction, This body built around 16 Dread-
noughts and six pre-Dreadnoughts under the
oveiall command of Admiral Scheer, was fol-
lowing some B0 km (50 miles) to the south, and
f expected Beatty steered to cut Hlpper off
from his bases, he would find himself niceiy use of the superior range of thelr larger guns. the enemy qunners found HMS Queen Mary'.
caught between two fires, Hipper manoeuvred to keep the ranges short, several hits amidshlps resulted probably in
Unfortunately for German plans, much of thelracks parallel and the course southward flash penetrating doum to 'Q' turret handling
iheir routine radio traffic was being monitored towards Scheer. His shootlng was rapid and room and magazine, the ship breaking in two in
and decoded by the British who, with adequate accurate and, at i6.02, HMS Indefatigable aI a series of colossal explosions, HMS /,jon, Beat-
warning of an impending operation, had also the tail of the British line was smitten by three ty's flagship, had narrowly missed a slmilar fate
sailed the full available strength of the Grand simuitaneous hits, suffered an expiosion and 'when hit at 16.00.
Fleet under Admiral Jel1icoe, whose 24 Dread- began to settle aft, A minute later she took
noughts were about 113km (70 miles) to the another salvo forward and disintegrated in a
Throughout the battle the hazy conditions were
north of Beatty. massive magazine exPlosion. accentuated by funnel and grun smoke' This was
For the moment, as they closed each other, Within minutes, the slower HMS Queen E1j- the scene from the light cruiser Birmingham at
neither battle-cruiser admiralwas aware of the zabethhadcrept within range, and her forward about I 6.00, just before thelndefatigable b/ew up.
presence ofthese enormous concentrations. It 381-mm (15-in) q-ins began to punish the tail of Beatty's battle crutsers are lo lh e right and the Fifth
was 15 48 before the opposing forces opened the German line. Beatty impetuously strove to Battle Squadron, under fire from Hipper, ta the left,
-with light cruisers beyond.
fire, the haze not altowing the British to make close further and paid the price at 16.26, when
Battleships of World War I

Shortly before the end of lhe Queen Mary,

:oth Beatty and Hipper had ordered destroyer
-:rpedo attacks on the other to relieve the
pressure, Under this new threat, Hipper broke
:i the action temporarrly at 16,36 by a turn to
:e eastward. At this juncture, however, the
cruiser HMS Soufftamplon, commanded
ly the admirable Commodore Goodenough,
s.ationed a little ahead of Beatty, siqhted the '#:*.
-ead ships of Scheer's main body pounding up
:cm the south. Hipper had done his job per-
and the stage was now Beatty's. Though
..:rprised by the advancing armada, Beatty did
:oi wait to be annihilated, turning on his heel at
-3.46 and taking the shortest course to Jellicoe's
p':sition, now some 80 km (50 miles) to the north
,',-est, Beatty had now become the lure, the
::eans of delivering the unsuspecting Scheer,
:-:w in exuberant full cry, into the grateful
:ands of the Grand Fleet, To do this successful-
-,; he had both to survive and to ensure that
:ipper's marauding battle-cruisers did not
At I 8.30 Hood'stTagsfiip Invincible was /eadhg fft e was heavily hit on 'Q' turret amjdsft jps. The picture
s-ght Jellicoe prematurely,
British line as it torced the head of the High Seas shows the roaring inferno of the magazine fue that
Beattylures Scheer Fleet around to the eastward. At 18.33, under fire preceded the fatal explosion.
from aboutfive enemy ships at shortrange, she
Beatty's attached battleships were some-
-,thattardy in executing thelr l6-point turn but,
:Jhng in astern, covered his rear and, between
-3 50 and 17,30, made good practrce on the
lnflicting 20 hits for only 1.3 in return,
-;-:pper remained tenaciously in contact with
:eatty, the poor visibility which limited their
gradually lmproving in favour of the
-a:ter who, with the lowering sun behlnd hlm,
s:cceeded in forcing an enemy disengage-
at 17.51. In turning away, however, Hip-
per faced disaster in running straight into a
:ew opponent in the shape of Rear Admiral
-iood's 3rd Battle-cruiser Squadron but suc-
:eeded in turnlng south west and gaining sanc-
:jary at the head of Scheer's lbrce, which was
:eering about north east. The time was 18. 10
ard, between them, Beatty and Hood had pre-
;ented the sorely-punished Hipper from sight-
-::g Jellicoe's van.
Only about 19 km (12 miles) now separated As Jellicoe's fleet turned to starboard by divisions was thatof thelnvincible, destroyed 20 minutes
at 1 8. 5 5 follow ing S cheer's' battle turnaway', the earlier. OnIy three suruivorswere rescaed by the
SMSKdnigat the headof the German line from Benbowpassed this remarkable sight. Her crew destrorer Badger, ako uisible.
the closest of Jellicoe's bat- cheered, assuming thewreckwas German, butit
--eships. These were steaming tn six parallel
:clumns (each of four ships) and needed to be
ieployed into line without delay, This man-
:euvre would take at least 15 minutes and had
:: be correct first tlme. Jellicoe was undecided
::r account of a dearth of reliable information on
-:e enemy's bearing, speed and disposttion. At
-::s juncture (18. 14) Beatty, ln the rapidly nar-
:c'wing gap between the two fleets, made con-
:act, the Marlborough sighting his gmn flashes.
--eiiicoe acted swlftly, deploying into line on his
r'crt column, steering to the east with the port
::lumn leader HMS King George Vat the head
=:rd himself, in the flagship HMS lron Duke,
--,-,ng ninth in line,
With the Queen Elizabeth bringing up the
:ear, the Grand Fleet presented a solid wall oi
::ls some 9 6 km (6 miles) in length, and not a
:-cment too soon. Even as they manoeuvred
i::o posltion, the 'Queen Elizabeths' of the Sth
Hipper's battlecruisers at Jutland, despite boflr Invincible and Queen Mary, yet hersell
3att1e Squadron sighted the German line at survived 2 I recorded hits , returning with over
suffering more actual hits, showed a remarkable
:-cse range. They attracted heavy fire, at
capacity for survival. TheDertfltnger (seen al a 3,000 tons of water in her hull.
-,.;hich juncture HMS Warspite's helm jammed,
Iater date) was instrumental in the destruction of
:ausing the ship to describe two complete cir-
:-es and to sustain 13 large-calibre hits. now, successfully brossed the enemy's T' and German line just melted from the s:gh: :::-=
At the head of the British llne, Beatty and was pouring an intolerable fire into the head of British gnrnlayers, Jellicoe's line s*'.u::gr :: :-:
--:od were again joustinq with their opposite Scheer's column, which was in a poor position south east by divisions and mrght ha;e :--i.q=:
:-':mbers when HMS Inuincible was hit, disin- to reply. At 18.33, therelbre, Scheer risked all the Germans, who were movrrg l','es:,', - j r :.
::3irating even as had the other hvo battle- on a simultaneous 16-point turnaway; peace- for the tenacity ol Gocdenouqrhs s::-:-:-;
:::isers before her, The British llne had, by time practice paid off as, without collislon, the cmlsers,
Possibly not appreciatrng his favourable
position, Scheer now surprrsingly agatn turned
16 points, running strarght at the British who,
wrth the gloom at therr backs, made the most of
their chance, inflrcting about 35 quick hrts vir-
tually without reply. Hipper's LLitzow had had
to retire with severe damage, but Scheer sent
the remaining four battle-cruisers, already sev-
erely damaged themselves, on a suicidal
charge at Beatty, synchronized with a des-
troyer attack, These diversions worked and, as
Jellicoe turned away before the threat of the
torpedoes, Scheer was able to make a third
Little daylight was left and the British had
become disengaged, between 19,35 and 20,00,
the Grand Fleet very dehberately coming
around onto a westerly course, Sunset was at
and the enemy was in a ragged line head-
20, 19
ing southward for the Horns Reef channel and
The battle-cruisers were still in contact, and
Beatty began to show impatience at Jellicoe's
apparent lack of urgency in forcing a decision only 8 km (5 mlles) distant, the contact was not A 'Nassa u ' cJass battleship fires a salvo from her

by cutting off Scheer's line of retreat. Even as prosecuted on the grounds that they were amjdshrbs-gun s. Though six turretswere included
probably Beatty's shipsi in the design, only four could bear oneither beam.
Hipper's ships became little but drm silhouet- The four 'Nassaus' formed the Second Battleship
tes, Beatty remained, pressing htm hard, The British admiral made his night disposi- Division atJutland but, being elderly,were
tions in the behef that Scheer could not slip positioned well back in the line.
Actionavoided across his bows and would be prevented lrom
Jelhcoe did not relish a night actron, which crossing asiern through his stationing there of without heavy back-up they could not prevent
would throw away his numertcal advantaqe on massed destroyer flotillas. Action would be re- the enemy bursting through, Quite astounding-
a chancy encounter for which the Germans sumed at dawn. 1y, these furious actlons were observed by the
were, in any case, better trained At 20 45 Scheer did not oblige, his ltne passing in end of the British hne, the battleshrps neither
when a cruiser reported to the British lead ship stages through Jellicoe's light forces, These intervenlng nor informing Jeilicoe of what was
Ktng George I/ that enemy battleships were fought bravely and at great sacrifice but in vain; occurnng,

The batUe reached a decisive point at about I 8.30. Scheer's HighSeasFleed engrossed in chasing
Beatty's battle cruisers, was confronted byJellicoe and the Grand Fleet, some l0 km (6 miles) af heavy
guns'inalineacro.sshjsbows. ThebattleshipKingGeorgeV,headedtheBritishli4g,folloryedfyAjax,
fft e rest of the fleet led by the flagship, i.on
Centurion, Erin, Orion, Monarch, Conqueror, Thunderer and

. :. .: '*E- ,
!{:}-.4-a.- . ,

-:,,. ::::+:::::=-f::..

aa..:1:.:+ :;; : I :a=:'

3.v 0100 on I June Scheer had broken
:-::ugh and, even though still challenged by
.,lrt forces up to 02.00, no longrer had the
l:and Fleet athwart his route home. At about
i l0 the lron Duke turned about, Jutland was
-he British had lost three battle-cruisers,
--,13e armoured cruisers and eight destroyers
- a battleship, a battle-cruiser, lour crutsers
. ,i five destroyers, Manpower losses were
: -10 British to 2,550 German dead, but the
.:.cry that the latter claimed was hollow for,
-:::ca11y, no beaten fleet ever chased a victor
: r:k into port and, strategically, the situation at
.=- had not changed,
Sritish gnrnnery had been ihe better, many
-=::e German ships being heavily damaged,
: -. :he latter survived because of their better
r -:-partmentation, because a grreater propor-
.-,: cf their displacement was devoted to pro-
'=:.:cn and because Brttrsh shells tended to
=,,:,:de on contact rather than on penetration,
-'rnng the nlght phase, the enemy made
, , : j use of hrs knowledge of British challenges ,Scfteerfaced anintolerable situation,with the head of his line
r-.r responses, While the British light forces receiving severepunr'sftmenf. Kontg, at the head of the line, was
j fire through lack of posrtive identification, /osingspeed a ndwas taking water in the bow, and Grosser Klr:;s
:.= Sermans would suddenly overwhelm them and Markgnaf were also being hit. Scheer's remedy was a
,.- searchlights and gunfire, They also bluf- i',
manoeuvr e pr aclrsed in peace time : a simu ltaneous I 6 - po i n t ( ) 8
: r .o good effect, saving several damaged turn, reversing course in as si ort a time as possible.
..'--:s thereby, Poor British leadership that
-lr- was acted upon, and was reciified 25 #=*j=:==
-.-s later at Matapan.
-. ras been said that Jellicoe, cautious and
.-.=-',-:ly aware of his responsibilittes, 'fought to ':
:--e German victory impossible rather than
. ::-:rsh victory certain'. That about sums it up,




8$ - r
"-. --t3
' " 's
....9 &:
a,-- ..:
>K ibu"*n Elizabeth' class
One of the most successful classes of force rather than to the main body of
capital ships ever built, the five units of the Grand Fleet. They thus became
the 'Queen Elizabeth' class were also heavily engaged at a crrtical point of
the first true fast battleships, This re- the battle. Between them they suffered
sulted from the decision to mount 38l- 27 major calibre hits, the Talanf com-
mm (15-in) Qnlns, the current British ing through unscathed but the trUa-rs-
343-mm (13.5-in) weapon beingr pile taking 13, They were well able to
already surpassed by larger foreign absorb rt and all were again fully oper-
calibres. Though there was no ques- ational by the following month, All
tion of building ships large enough to were modified rn varying degrees be-
take the accepted lO-gnrn main bat- tween the wars and all were active in
tery, an eight-gnrn battery was deemed the second, in which only the Bariam
acceptable as its broadside weight became a total loss,
was 6940 kg (15,300 lb) compared with
the 6350ks (l4,00Olb) of 10 343-mm Speciflcation
(13,S-in) cruns, The abandonment ofthe 'Queen Elizabeth'class (as built) Tlre Queen Eliz abeth toward the end superimposed turrets. The lighting
amidships turret was further advan- Displacement: 29, 150 tons standard of thewar, recognizable by her masts puts the casemate guns into high
tageous rn that the machinery spaces and 33,000 tons full load of virtually equal height. Soon after relief, only the Iorward ones being
beneath were not fragmented. As a Dimensions: length 196,82 m this, aircraft flying-off platforms fitted. The spotting balloon lies
result the 29,000-shp (21625-kW) (645,75 ft); beam 27,58 m (90,5 ft); wereaddedtoeachof the beyond.
machinery of the preceding 'Iron drausht 9.35 m (30.66 ft)
Dukes' could be increased to 75,000 Propulsion: four sets ofgeared steam
shp (55927 kW), giving 24 ks desprte a turbines delivering 75,000 shp (55927
larger hull. With tmproved speed and kW) to four shafts
gun range, the 'Queen Ehzabeths' Speed:24 kts
were judgred able to accept protection Armament: eight 381-mm (15-in), 14
on a slightly reduced scale and therr 152-mm (6-in) and two 76-mm (3-in) AA
greatly increased bunker require- gn:ns, and four 533-mm (2 1-in) torpedo
ments were met by the adoption of tubes
all-oil firing. One drawback was that Armour: belt 330 mm ( 13 in);
much bunker space lay between the bulkheads t 52-mm (6-in); barbettes
outer skin and the longrtudinal 'torpe- 254 mm(10 in); upperdeck44 mm
do bulkheads', As otl is incompressible (1.75 in); maindeck32 mm(1.25 in);
this space could no longer satisfactori- middle deck 25 mm (1 rn); lower deck
Iy absorb an explosion; moreover, if 76 mm (3 in)
essentiallyempty it couldwell be filled Complement: 950
with an explosive vapour. The three
i915 unrts were HMS Queen EIi- Lying in the stream on a starboard
zabeth, HMS l,Tarspite and HMS anchor, with the port anchor'a-
Barham, while the two 1916 umts were cockbill', tfte Queen Elizabeth
HMS Valranl and HMS Malaya presenfs a pea ceful scene with
The powerful i6 152-mm (6-in) awningsrigged.
secondary battery was feastble only
by siting the majority in casemates, a Possibly the finest class of battleship
layout already so completely discre- to see action inWorldWar I, the
dited as to guarantee that only the 'Queen Elizabeths' were fast and well
nameship was thus completed, armoured.
Four of the class were present at
Jutland as the homoqeneous Sth Battle
Squadron which, because ofits speed,
was attached to Beatty's battle-cruiser

'Deutschland' class
Last of the German pre-Dreadnoughts, ships had a protective lower deck that
the five'Deutschland' class ships con- ran full lenqth. At main deck level a
tinued the progxessron of small bat- strip of light horizontal armour ran the
tleships dimensroned for the North Sea lenglh of each side of the central re-
and Baltic use rather than worldwide doubt, protectinq the casemates. No
deployment, Together with the very torpedo bulkheads were fltted, the in-
similar'Braunschweigs' that preceded adequacy of the wing coal bunker
them, they marked a major step for- spaces for protection being demons-
ward in the adoption of the 280-mm trated when Ihe Pommern was torpe-
(l i-in) gmn in place of earlier classes' doed by a British destroyer in the clos-
240-mm (9.4-in) weapon, Following ing stages of Jutland. The resulting
contemporary practice, the main bat- maqazine explosion destroyed both
tery of four guns was disposed in hvin the ship and her 839 crew,
barbette mountings forward and aft A A funnel originally served each of
heavy secondary battery of 14 170-mm
(6.7-in) weapons was flawed by being Ploughing through a peaceful pre-
sited in low casemates. Srx torpedo war sea, tfie Schleswigt-Holstein was
tubes were carried (two on each the very last German pre-
beam, one above the forefoot and one Dreadnought. Only one 280-mm ( I I -
offset beneath the counter), The ships, in) turret is sited at each end, and all
all completed between 1904 and 1906, seven casemated 170-mm (6.7-in)
were SMS Deutschland, SMS IIan- guns are seen trained on the beatn.
nover, SMS Pommern, SMS Scfi /esr'en The'blisters'of the original bow-
and SMS Schleswig-Holstein, chasers have been plated ovet to
Well armoured for their size, the give extra accommodation space.

Smschlaad' class (continued) Battleships of World War I
-.:: -:::€ boiler rooms, but in later (418,64 ft); beam22.20 m (72.83 ft)
--: of the .Schiesien and draught 8.20 m (26,90 ft)
!::-es,,ryig-Holstein the two for- Propulsion: three triple-expanslon
-: s::ks were combined rn one, The 'Deutschland' class were steam engines delivering 20 000 rhp
l:-= -1:ier ship had the doubtful dis- m ade imme diate ly obs o Ie te ( 14914 kW) to three shafts
:n---::- :f flring the first naval shots of by HMS Dreadnought. Two \i Speed:18kts
ii -r-r ,rJar II when, on I September were sunk in the Baltic. Armament: four 280-mm (l f -in), 14 i7l
- l': : .:-e bombarded the Polish posi- mm (6,?-in) and 20 BB-mm (3.46-in)
:.:,-- a: Westerplatte, near Danzig enrns, and six 450-mm ( 17. 7-in) torpeci:
. }ansk). Both old ships were , .:i j; tubes
:=-,=::-,-ed in Baltic waters in the final ..t'..j Armour:belt 240 mm (9,45 1n);
:-;:l:-s 3f the wal, bulkheads 170 mm (6,7 in); barbettes
250 mm (9,84 in); deck 40 mm (1.6 Ln)
Specification \l'i i
Complement: 743
5g:tschland' class (as built)
lreplacement: 12,980 tons standard 'lii',j
.-: -i 390tonsfullload
lq:rersions: lenqth 127 60 m \ l',
;i,. i'.'liii

s l\,

'Moltke' class
1: :gh Germany's first battle-cruiser
f"','l Von der Tann carried an eighl
J-:- :rarn battery disposed similarly to
::-: -a her British contemporaries, the
-:.-::rm (1 f-in) calibre threw a sigmr-
":--tiy lower broadside weight than
::= Bntish 305-mm (i2-in) battery,
=-,-::: befote lhe Von der Tann's
;::-:h, therefore, the first of an en-
--;ed pair of follow-ons was lard
::-rn. These two examples of the
'}!oltke' class retained the smaller
:-=-bre, though in an improved ver-
..:: but added an extra, superim-
;,:sed turret aJt. The forecastle deck
e-,-el was continued aft to this point,
:-=ng both of the amidships turrets ,9;,,i{
::-i the casemated secondary arma-
-::it. SMS Moltke wx completed in
,:-. SMS Goeben followrng in 1912.
--';rbine-propelled, their legend
:peed was inferior to that of their Brit-
.: equivalents though, in practice,
:::;r could well hold their own. Better
!::iected than even the later Britrsh
being', threatening the Black Sea and Looking distinctly weather-worn, the
--:n' class, they were shorter but
:eamrer, well subdivided and stable.
exercises designed to entice out ele-
ments of the British fleet into prepared Levant, In action several times, she Moltke wassrsferfo tfte Goebenaad
-he Moltke served with Admiral ambush, survived mining, grounding and near-srsf er of S ey dlitz. L a t e r G e rm an
-:-pper's battle-cruiser squadron The Goeben became something of a bombing. Days before hostilities en- batilecruiser s had a m or e comp ad
-:::ughout the war, twice surviving cause c6ldbrewhen, at the very outset, ded, she was finally handed over, to Iook, dropping the echeloned
:::pedoing by British submarines, She she evaded the British Mediterranean sewe as the T\rrkish I'ayuz to as late as amidships turrets infavour of fewer
m- the least damaged of Hipper's Fieet to reach T\rrkey as a replace- 1963, but larger gruns, sited in
r-ps at Jutland, though receiving fow ment for the latter's appropriated bat- superrinposed turrets at either end.
':.auy-calibre hits (one 305-mm/12-in tleships (see the Agincourt enlry). Specification
;-ercing her main belt at long range) Under Tlrrkish colours, but German- 'Moltke' class (asbuilt) and 25,000 tons firl] load
--C taking aboard ],000 tons of water, crewed, she spent the war largely1n- Displacement: 22, 6 I0 tons standard Dimensions: lenqth 186,50 m
i:e fought at Heligoland Bight and (6I LBB ft); beam 29,50 m (96 78 il
Jcgrger Bank and achieved notorrety draught 9,20 m (30, 18 fi)
:-,- assistinq in the bombardment of Propulsion: two sets of geared s:ea.i::
:r:bsh east coast towns, coat-trai[ng turbines delivering 85.500 sLp 'i: - i -
kW) to four shafts
Ostensibly slower than their British Speed:28 kts
co n tempor aries, the' M oltke' class Armament: l0 280-mm ( I l-Ln)
were more etfective fighting ships as 150-mm (5.9-in) qus, and ic ' =a
a resultof superior protection. SMS T
(I9,7-in) torpedo tubes
Goeben en fere d Turkish waters in :. Armour:belt270 mm(10 5 :.
'914, and from thenoperatedunder 1., barbetres 250 mm (9.64 r.l :=:l<
the Turkish flag (although retaining t 50 mm (1.97 in)
her German crew till I 9 I 8). Complement: 1,053
Germany's first Dreadnougrhts, the four
'Nassaus' of 1907, were remarkable
mainly for their conservatism, Limited
The topweight of the main battery
was probably the reason for the whole
14-gun secondary armament beingT
in lenglh and draught, they were made sited in the casemates too low to be of
exceptionally beamy, With the re- any practical use.
quirement for an eight-gn-rn broadside, At Jutland, the Thtringen shattered
yet lacking the length for sufficient the British armoured cruiser HMS
centreline turrets, the designers opted Black Pince in a chance night encoul-
for six hvin turets, set in a hexagton, ter. The Helgoland received one
Although the hull was very well com- heavy hrt and the Oslfjesland struck a
partmented, it was badly broken up by mine durinq the retirement, All four
the main battery disposition. The re- were drsposed of as post-war repara-
ciprocating engines and 280-mm (11- tions, the Ostfriesland going to the Un-
in,; guns of the preceding pre- ited States and being sunk tn cele-
Dreadnougrhts were retained, brated but controversial aerial bomb-
The four'Helgoland' class units fol- ing trials, These would seem to have
lowed in the next year, the ships being indicated that topside direct hits could
essentially 'Nassaus' scaled up to take be absorbed but the concussive effect
a 305-mm (12-in) main battery. Thrs of a near mrss could prove fata1,
was drsposed similarly, the ships
being almost equally portly. They Specification 28,000 ihp (20880 kW) to three shafts Unlike British Dreadnoughts, the first
were also fitted with reciprocating en- 'Helgoland'class Speed: 20 kts two classes of all big-gunned ships in
grnes. despite lhe fact that the pioneer Displacement: 22,440 tons standard Armament: 12 305-mm ( 12-in) and 14 the Germannavy retained the less
battle-crurser SMS Von der Tann had and 24,3i0 tons full load 150-mm (5,9-in) gmns, andsix 500-mm efficient reciprocating engine. The
been equipped with steam turbrnes in Dimensions: lenqth 167,20 m ( 19,7-in) torpedo tubes four vessels in the 'Helgoland' class
the previous year, The machinery had (548.55 ft); beam 28.50 m (93.5 l1); Armour:belt30O mm (11,8 in); saw action with Battle Squadron I at
been upgrraded, however, from triple drausht 8.90 m (29,2 ft) bulkheads 300 mm (l l.B in); barbettes Jutland, nrftere Helgroland and
to quadruple expansion and, when Propulsion: three quadruple- 270 mm(10,6 in); deck55 mm (2. 17 in) Ostfriesland received some damage.
pushed, the three engines could drive expansion steam engnnes delivering Complement: 1,110
the ships at 2 1 kts, as fast as their Brttish G e rm any's on ly th r e e - fu nn e I le d
contemporaries, An odd reverslon Dreadnoughts, the dis tinctive
was to three funnels, particularly sur- 'Helgolands' continued the six-tufiet
prising as the three borler rooms were 'hexagon' layout used earlier in the
'iVassa u ' c/ass, b ut with heavier gans .
adjacent, whereas in the two-funnelled
'Nassaus' these spaces were divrded
two-and-one. The first three units were
SMS Tirizngen, SMS Helgoland and
SMS Osffries/and, all completed in
1911, joined in 1912 by SMS Olden-


'Baden' class
Rumours that caused the Brrtish to opt thoroughly subdivrded by virtue oflon- elsewhere in the prosecution of a Specification
for 3BI-mm (15-in) quns in the 'Re- gitudinal bulkheads and coal bunkers 'short' war, In 1919 both ships were tsaden'class
venge' and 'Queen Elizabeth' classes stretchrnq continuor:sly from 'A' to 'Y' scuttled by their crews at Scapa, the Displacement: 28, 060 tons standard
were true, therr contemporanes, the turets, the degnee of protection in the Bayern successfully and the Eaden and 31,700 tons fu]Iload
'Baden' class, receiving the marQnnally 'Badens' was afterwards reckoned to berng beached by the Royal Navy. Dimensions: Iength 180.00 m
smaller 380-mm weapon. As the Ger- be inferior to that of the Bntish 'Re- Taken south to Podsmouth, she was (590,55 ft); beam30,00 m
mans had consrdered their exlsting venges'. Coal firing was inferior on thorouqhly evaluated before beingt (98,43 ft); drauetht 9,40 m (30,84 ft)
305-mm (12-in) qmn to be only slightly several counts (e,9, awkward bunker- sunk ln the Englsh Channel as a gnrn- Propulsion: three sets ofgeared steam
inferior to the British 343-mm (13,5-in) ing and refuelling and large quanttties nery target. turbines delivering 48,000 shp (35794
gn-rn. they did not develop an equiva- of smoke produced at speed) but kW) to three shafts
lent intermediate calibre, so the even- necessary because Germany could Speed: 22 kts
tual step was the Clreater and the re- not guarantee her oii supplies in time Armament: eight 380-mm (]S-in), 16
sults inltially disappointing in SMS of war, I50-mm (5.9-in) andfour B8-mm (3.46-
Baden and SMS Bayern, each com- Of the planned class of fow, onlY the in) guns, andfive 600-mm (23.6-in)
pleted in 1916. Baden and Bayern were ever com- torpedo tubes
The preceding 'Kaiser' and 'Kdnig' pleted and neither of these saw much Armour: belt 350 mm (13.8 in);
classes had each shipped a lO-gnrn rseful action. Both of the others (Sach- bulkheads 200 mm (7.9 in); barbettes
main battery, the former with superim- sen and Wtirttemberg) could have 350 mm (13,8 in); upper deck 120 mm
posed after twrets and tvro echeloned been flnished well before the Armis- (4,7 in); middledeckS0 mm(L97 in);
mounts amidships, and the latter much tice, but again like the Britrsh, the Ger- lower deck 40 mm ( 1,6 in)
improved with superimposrtion at mans needed to put their priorities Complement: l,170
each end and a single centreline turret
in the waist. Like their British counter- Developed as a reaction to rumours
parts, the desiqners ofthe 'Baden' class of the Britkh'Queen Elizaheth' class,
found that four of the larger twin the 'Baden' class ruas a ,less
mountings was the best that could be successfu/ desr'grn . Coal fired, and
practicaily accommodated, the similar with a less effective main armament,
arrangrement of two superimposed tur- the two completed saw little in the
rets, forward and aft, also requiring a wayof action.
shorter protected citadel. Though very