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Volume 9 Issue 108

Published by
Crbis Publishing Ltd
Q Aerospace Publishing Ltd 1985 i
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After World War I it was widely believed that air power wouJd make aII other
machines of war obsolete and that futwe conflicts would be settled by huge fleets Day@ht raids, so strongly advocated belore
1939, proved prohibitively expensive for the
of bombets. World War II quickly exposed the limitations of air power; daylight bombers in the firstyearsof thewanThe
bombing could be prevented by aggressive fighter air*aft, and night bombing was Americans, however, were determined to bomb
by day, and despite the best efforts of the
witdly inaccurate. But by 1943 weapons and tactics had been developed, Luftwaffe, German cities were bombed right
particuJarly by RAF Boznber Commutd, which made the dteams of the pte'war roundtheclock.
bonber lobby a honific reality.
The art of dropping explosives lrom an aircraft ls almost as old as aviatlon conventional free-fall bombs. The early methods of merely destroying
rtselt rt being recorded that Giulio Gavotti dropped a quartet of picric everything with huge quantities of high explosive released over a target
acid bombs of I.8 kg (4 lb) on Turkish troops in the Libyan desert in 19 I 1. later gave place to controlled 'carpet bombing', and to the system which
Seven years later the art was developtng into a science wlth the design was to prove the comparative crudity of eariier methods, namely that of
of such specialist machlnes as the Sopwrth Salamander, opening up buildings by blowing the roofs off with high explosive and
That new targets would have to include armoured vehicles became then destroyrng the unprotected structures with a rain of rncendiary
clear during the 'dress rehearsal' of World War II that was the Spanish bombs. Over and above all these advances, some thoughts were given
Civil War, and soon refinements such as Ihe Dinort extension rods (on to increasing the psychologicai elfect of ground attack with screamers
the noses of perhaps the SC 50 bombs delivered by that supreme on bomb fins to augment the normal whistle, and Jericho trumpets' on
exponent of the early ground attack, theJunkersJu 87) became common- the iegs of diving Stukas,
place means of ensuring a maxtmum blast effect over a wide area,
Whiie heavier guns were soon demanded as the thrckness of armour
Luftwaffe ground crew manoeuvre an SC 500 bomb towards a Heinkel He I I I .
on 'hard-skinned' vehicles increased, it was realty the re-invention of the German bombs were colour coded: the thin-wal/edSCseriessported a yellow
rocket as a weapon that moved the science forward. stripe betweenthe quadrants of the tailcone;thick-walledSD bombs canied
Also taking on a less hit-and-miss aspect was the manner of dropping ared stripe; and armour-piercingmunitionshad ablue one.

-$.] German standard bombs

Three categories of standard bomb .1nr{li.:!.:j.:=ssl{ffi1!1F':,:rruurrf li:*-,.::ii:'i1:-::}urr.irlrIFr",l
by the Luftwaffe all rn the
,',,ere in use '!-=-.==:=
;eneral purpose group designated
:ccorciing to their natu_re and werght
iLrst of these was the hrqh explosrve
SC (Sprengbom be Cylindrisch), athtn- i
walled type for normal free-fall use; t,
ren 'here was the semr-armour pierc- I
tng SD (Sprengbombe DickwAndig), a
ihLck-walled type; and finally there
was the armour-piercing PC (Panzer,
sprengbombe Cylindnsch) with extra
thick walls air-to-ground weapons used by the Luftwaffe. The number after the letter
The SC 2000 was among the heaviest of
Of these amonq the most commonly designationwassupposed tobe theweightof theweapon in kilograms but itactuallyweighed 1953 kgQ,306 lb).
used were the SC 250 type, the second
lrart of the designation indicating the
-,-.eight of the explosive in kiloqram-
nal racks, German bombs were sus-
pended from sinqle 'H'' or 'T' Iugs (or
r:es (55 l lb) and eight ofthese or 32 of less commonly a ring bolt), and were
.:e SC 50 or SD 50 (10 lb) type would colour-coded with a stripe between
nake up a typical load for a Heinkel He the quadrants of the tall cone (or the
- i L bomber, and be deposited on entire cone in the case of small bombs
.:'qeL mrxed wrth -ncendraries. such as the SC 50 etc,) denoting their
Many of these bombs raptdly ac- classiflcation SC was yellow, SD red
q'rired names so that while the latest of and PC blue.
.:e GP bombs (the SD 1700) for some Electrically-charged impact fuses
reason had none the SD 1400 became were fltted wLth charging plungers
'Fritz' the slightly smaller SD 1000 above the main fuse body wrth its
berng 'Esau' Strangely, there was tumbler switch, Below thrs lay the flash
:on-o for the common SD 500 of which pellet, Penthrite wax and picnc acid to
.nere were two types one with streng- complete the whole, although varia-
:enlng bands and trunnion bolts on a tions were incorporated such as the SD 250s were thicker-walled than ffte SCsen'es to give them limited armour-
iiiferently shaped case. At the other Type 17 clockwork delayed action de- piercing capability at the cost of a slight reduction in payload.
::d of the scale the SC 1000 was 'Her- vices or the Type 50 with a trembler
man' and the SC IB00 was 'Satan', switch fuse acting as a booby trap, or
3arrred either on external or inter- the infamous 2,U,S,40 set beneath the
normal fuse rn such a way that the ex-
Below: AJunkersJu 8BA-5 prepares traction of one, made 'safe', activated
for take-off, carrying a pair of SC 250 the other concealed beneath it,
bombs underneath the wings
inboard of the engine nacelles. Right: A Heinkel He I I I could carry
Lacking capacious bomb bays, many up to 32 of the SC 50 ( I |)-lb) bombs
German bombers carried the seen here, although it was common
majority of their ordnance on practice to mix a number of
external mountings. incendiaries into the bombload.


.!ta= :=.::=:1e::
:-:: '
. .,:-:==:::===:::=:==:
German standard bombs (continued) World War II Air-to-Ground Weapons

Specification Above : This I 800-kg (3,968-lb)

sc 2000 German bomb was found at Barce,
Tlpe: high explosive bomb an air base in Libya, in I 942 . The
Weights: 1953,2 ks (4,306 lb) I 800 kg bomb was one of the biggest Allied forces found these German bombs scattered from a wrecked
Dimensions: Iength 3.44 m (1 I ft 3.4 in); ingeneral useby theLultwaffe, and ammunition train near Taranto. Most of the bombs appear to be of the SC 250
diameter 0.661 m (2 ft 2 in) was generally carried by Heinkel He type, which had stiltening stays between the fins, whereas some larger bombs
Filling:Tinalin llls. had annular rings.

reI iruilrr,"hl/Iftamer x-l (Fritz X)

The agneed surrender of the italian
fleet to the Allies on 9 September 1943
saw the battleships ltala (damaged)
and the Roma (sunk) as the targets of a
new type of airlaunched weapon, the
RuhrstahVlkamer X-I (or Fritz X), This
was a free-fall bomb that could be
gmided towards its target after release
from an altrtude of about 6000 m
by the time it had reached
(19,685 ft);
its target perhaps 2,4km (1,5 mlles)
distant it had gained a velocity
approaching that of sound.
Control was by means of electro-
magnetically operated spoilers acti-
vated in sympathy wrth radio srgnals
from the aircraft (frequently a Dornier
Do 217) that, after releasing the bomb,
had rts motors throttled back and was
taken to a hiqher altitude so that it was
over the target at the moment of im- The Allied assault on Italy meant that But the real end to the Fritz X program- This is allthatremainedof the
pact, the observer having kept track of the Fritz X was pressed into increased me was brought about not by produc- 45,000-ton battlesftip Roma affer two
the missile with the aid of a convention- use: the cruiser USSSavanna-h was suc- tion difflculties but by the high loss rate X- 1 glide bombs struck her as she
al Lotfe 7 bombsight, Wire{ink control cessfully attacked, as were some naval among the bombers equipped to de- steamed to Malta to surrender to the
using transmission lines some B km transpofis, while rn the confusron cre- liver the missile: because of the need Allies. The fi rs t bomb pas sed
(4,97 mrles) long was later discarded ated by a mght attack two Brttish cruis- for relatively slow speed over the through the ship and detonated
as an economy measure. ers came into collision, Seven days la- targetarea, the launch aircraft became underneath; the second penetrated
Tests were begnrn in Germany dur- ter the battleship HMS Warspite was particularly n-rlnerable, the fotward magazine, which blew
ing 1942, later being moved to ltaly. hit by these armour-piercers, so that a her in halt.
Here pneumatic power was ex- tow to Malta was necessary, Specification
perimentally substituted for the elec- About 66 of the bombs were pro- x-I Weights:round 1570 kq (3,461 1b);
tro-maqnetic actuation of the spoilers, duced each month, far short of the Type: free-fall gmided bomb explosrve 320 kq (705,5 ib)
but variations in temperature created target fignrre, and about half of these Powerplant: none Dimensions: span (over flns) I 352 m
problems so the concept was drop- were used during tests conducted dur- Performance: maximum speed (4 ft5,2 in); lenqth3,262 m(10 ftB,41n)r
ped. inq 1943 and into the iollowing year. 1035 lrr/h (643 mph) fuseiage diameter 0,562 m (1 ft 10. I in)

German ungruided missiles

-lithough grround attack was one of the was in part due to the lack of results proved almost impossible to aim since sile (also of BB-mm calibre) was inr:
::ajor roles of the Luftwaffe, this task seemingly achieved by the Soviet 82- their low velocity after release re- duced: this packed somethinq li<:
-,';as generally carried out with con- mm (3,23-rn) rockets, and the import- sulted rn a sudden drop in their trayec- twice the punch ofthe Panzerschre:<
;entional aircraft armament, plus ance of such unguided weapons tory, but neither was used on any scale
normal free-fall bombs up to the seemed to be further devalued by ex- However, although these were dis-
2:l-kg (551-1b) capaclty, or those of perience of German field trials, These carded, two years later some Focke- Specification
specialist design including the small had taken place during 1942 when Wulf Fw l9Os were fltted with an im- ParuerblitzPb I
Sl 2 fragrmentation ('butterfly') bomb,
-.'.-:-ch was flrst used on the openrng
Jagdgeschwader 54 had been tempor- proved rocket variant rn October 1944 Type: aLr - lo-ground arrcraft-lar. --.'.= :
arily equipped for operational tests the flrst to be fitted to these aircraft rocket
:a_,'cf the German assault on the Sovtet against targets crossing Lake Ladoga These were Paruerschreck missiles of Weight: 6,9 kg (15.21 lb)
-::-:n. It was, however, thrs same to supply Leningrad. The missiles em- BB-mm (3.46-in) calibre, the desiqn Dimensions: lenqth 0.70 m (2 -r : : :-
r:'-:-yy that was to influence the Luft- ployed were adapted armytype 210- source being originally the infantry diameter B.B cm (3 46 in)
r-=ie s rntroduction of rockets as air-to- mm (8,27-in) rockets on launchers 'bazooka'. Each aircraft was fitted to
;:'rd weapons, under the wings of Messerschmitt Bf take sx ofthese weapons, and in De-
l:-e slow advent of these weapons 109Fs. Unfortunately these rockets cember the new Paruerblitz Pb I mis-
Henschel Hs 293
-:--e begnnmngs of what was to evolve
-:-:r 'le Henschel Hs 293 were laid as
:-1i- as 1939, and a test model takinet
:-e fcrm of a glider was constructed
-:-e :ollowrng year, the ultrmate inten-
:::: beinq to develop a missile that
:,:jd be Lrsed agalnst shipprng under
:e:::cte control from a launching air-
iJrhough a suitable rocket motor
;r- strll not avarlable, development
;';e:.. ahead using a standard SC 500
:,:rb fitted wrth wings and tail unit,
.':cugrh no rudder was incorporated,
as trme progrressed the program-
--l saw
:-: the fitting of the first version
,.;-: a propulsive unit, this takrng the TheHenschelHs 293A stand-off guided bombwas droppedfrom thecarrier aircraftonaparallelcourse lo tfie
:::r: of a liqurd rocket (rsing T-stoff target on the port side, and radio-gruided to the target. A flare in the rear of the bomb gave visible evidence of the
Z-stolf propellants) slung under
--i main mr'ssiJeSposifion to the aimer.
-:-e body. An l8-channel radio
s;;em ersured control.
I: was antrcipated that the missile
-r,:ld be carried rnto action under a
:a:Ent aucraft, from whrch warm air
-r;- channelled to prevent the missile
fueezing up at the high altitude at
rt was released, but at 1400 m
+ r95 ft) a maximum of 3 hn (5 miles)
::':ld be anticipated, Once released
--:-e lls 293 dropped some 90 m (295 ft)
be:ore the rocket developed max-
-::---ra thri:st, and the parent ailcraft
::::.nued to fly a set course parallel
-,',r: the target, while permitting the
b:nb-armer to keep the missile in
s-j:ri and gnrde it wrth the aid of a small
::::=ol box on which was mounted a
:*.::jailte control column, keeping in
<:ii'rhe red grLudance flare in the tail,
-:-e actual flight path being a series of
-=:3s as corections were received.
lle main disadvantage of the Hs
l::A wm that the launching aircraft
:-aj ic maintain a steady, Ievel course
evasive actron to escape AA fire
--j mpossible, An improved Hs 293D
-,'ir- a televlsion aiming system was
:ia::'Led. but the war ended before it
::id be constructed. Specification 900 km/h (559 mph) Above:Thls HenschelHs 293 has had
i{:wever, icing was a problem nev- Hs 293 Weights:round 1045 kq (2,304 lb); its rocket propulsion unit removed to
:::ea-lly overcome and as a consequ- Type: rocket-propelled anti-ship explosive 295 kg (650 lb) show the internal equipment. The
::::e further propulsion units were de- missile Dimensions:span 3, 14 m (10 ft3.6 in); flare unit for visual location of the
;=-:ped. But these were never taken Powerplant: one 600-kq (1,323{b) length 3,58 m (11 ft 9 in); fixelage mksile in flight can be seen af tfi e
::_.-oad the experrmental stage. thrust Walter I 09-507B rocket diameter 0.48 m (1 ft 6.9 rn), wing area backoftheweapon.
Performance: maximum speed 1,92 m' (20.67 sq ft)


Crew members learn to control theHenschelHs 293 Wided bombin a A Henschel Hs 293A stand-off guided bomb. This example was found near
ssx uja for. The widance operators always sat on the starboard (right) side ot Paris in 1 944 by AIlied forces . The flat disc around the nose of the bomb
Je cabin. and therefore it was always necessary to attack a target from the prevented deep penetration before exploding.
port srde andrn the same movement direction.
The Sinking of Ht'lS Egret
Attacking ships with conventional bombs is a hazardous busrness, as the Argentine courses, with the observer sighting ::-=
doomed vessel at 90o to the line of fliohr: -::i
air force discovered in the F alklands campaign. The Germans were well aware of thus able to keep both it and the missrl6 u:je:
this before World War II , and in 1943 they launched the firsf successfu/ attack with a observationwhile the movementsof the icr=-=:
guidedmissi/e onanenemywarship.Flyingoutof rangeof Britishanti-aircraftfire,a were controlled by means of a mrniatwe :::--
Dornier Do 2 17 E-5 guided an Hs 293 missile towards its target. trol column in his hands, the Herschei ;e:-;
made the more visible by its tail-flare,
The introduction of the new tvpe of ouided effective, small ligrhtly-protected ships; at a la- Below, the iittle sloop Egrel looked like a ::-,-
bomb presented problems'for'ihe Lufiwaffe ter period, even these would learn the techni- as she twisted and turned to avoid the ne;:-
Training was the least of these, and each man que of dealing with their threat by means of able, her eight 101.6-mm (4-in) gmns no de-
under instruction was to be allowed experi- concentrated close-range fire. However, on fence against the new weapons, and ia ::.c -
ence controlling three ach:ai Henschel Hs 293 this orcasion none of the British shrps were more than 100 seconds both the Athabask.:-
launches, but what was lacking was operation- sunk and the results were inconclusive. and Egret were hit, the latter immedia:e-;
al experience with the new device; to this end Two days later, Friday 27 August, was catchrng fire and shortiy afterwards blowrrg :i
i3. Staffel of KG I00 was dissolved and re- another of those days when, true to the epithet with the loss of lhe 232 ratings aboard. a:d
formed as an experimental unit in July 1943, the that War is mostly warting', the newspapers at seven of her officers. T/Sub-Lieutenan: T E
Hs 293A.-1 missile in the meantime having been home were forced to record in glowing tones Brotherldge was mentioned rr the casuai:r
in production since January of the previous the fact that the French diplomatic committee published in the middle of the followrnq -i
year. had been recognized by the USSR and as having escaped, wounded, but there.,.;as:::
The piace and time oithe little bomb's bap- Nationalist China. In the Bay of Brscay, by con- mention of J.V. Waterhouse DSO, RN :i=
tism of fire was naturally in the iap of the god of trast, the day was to prove one of historical Egret's acting commander,
wars, and the venue for this was as curious as it action. Thus passed into history the sloop that 'r;r
was unexpected. Kampfgeschwader 100's the first victim of the Henschel lIs 293 I::e
second Gruppe was, in the late summer of Dorniers approach other vessels escaped, and in September l3l:
1943 flying from its base at Cognac, and Joined only a few hours earlier by HMS IVKG 100 was translerred to Istres, not far fr:=
Wednesday 25 Augnrst (the day that saw the Grenuille and HMCS Athabaskan, the support Marseilles, to attack ships in the Mediterra,
end of Japanese resistance in New Georgia) group began a sweep south of Finisterre, but it nean by night,
found a smal British naval force approaching was only a short time past mid-day when the But by a curious coincidence the U-boas ra:
the Bay of Biscay. The role was fairly routine sound of aircraft motors seemed to fill the air as had been the indirect cause olthe first success-
since the ships' duty was to sweep the area for the lookouts spotted the approach of 18 Dor- ful Henschel 293 actron come again intc :.=
German U-boats, whose increased activity had niers from IyKG 100. To some of the observers plcture of the missile in the following Octc'le:
given rise to the belief that they were using on the ships the manoeuvres of the attackers it was in an attempt to stem the rlsurg losses
Spanish waters. appeared strange, for they released their mis- inflicted on these submarines that Hs 2::
As the group of vessels (made up largely of siles and almost at once turned away to star- attacks began to be concentrated on Ath-::
destroyers) neared its rendezvous, it was board, while the little Henschels came away convoys, it being to this end that the Heinkei F-e
doing no more than relieve the 40th Escort from the mother planes and could be seen to 177A-5s of IVKG 40 with Hs 293 missiles vrer:
Group, the relieving vessels being under the drop some 90 m (300 ft) before the rocket sent to Bordeaux-M6rignac. Their first ma':l
command of the senior officer of the lst Support motors developed full thrust and drove them attack was carried out with 20 machines in-:'ai
Group in the sioop HMS Egret, of 1,200 tons. back almost to their original altitude. weather on Sunday 2l November. The res;-
The Germans were alerted by this activity, One Dornier was seen to turn now, its missile tant action was as a consequence somethi::g ::
and it was not long before the Dornier Do 2l7E- released at a range of almost 18000 m (19,685 a failure, IyKG 40 being soon aftern'arj:
5s of IVKG I00 were in the air, each carrying yards), and fly parallel to theEgref, while in the moved again, this time to operations over --:-.e
beneath them examples of the new type of hail of fire that the defenders put up another Mediterranean, Ieaving the work over -ie
Henschel bomb. was seen to be stalking the Alftabaskan in the Atlantic to the modified Focke-Wulf 200 C::-
It was not difficult to flnd the naval force that same way. The reason for this was that a-fter dors ofIIVKG 40, Sloops, transports and esc:r.
was the target, and before long the waters of about 12 seconds oirunning the rocket motors vessels apart, it is on record that a total oir;:
the Bay of Biscay were churned into a liquid of the Henschels cut out, leaving them to ex- destroyers were sunk by the Hs 293A
inferno as the ships took avoiding action to ecute shallow glides towards their targets,
escape the new robots. This was the type of accelerating under gravity, They and the laun-
target against which the Hs 293 was at its most ching Dorniers were thus placed on divergent

ADornierDo 217E-5 otII|KG 1A0, basedat

Cognac, launches an Hs 293 wire-gpided ghde
bomb atBritish destroyers in the Bay of Biscay.

TheHenschelHs 294Awas toolatetoenter sewiceinWorldWar IL Itwas designed to attackheavily-armoured

ships below the waterline . The wings and rear fuselage were designed to break away from the warhead for
- :e
,use of the Henschel Hs 293 against underwater stability, and it had an upward movementinwater.
::-pping had proved to be not without
entw intoiS" *iiei nious arrangement, This took the form which, if employgd, would have re- buili) differed in having wing-fitted
::rh strke at the lower irull had qener- of fltting the wings and rear fuselage sulted in the missile being introduced spoiler controls
Jy cieflected the missile's course. In with weak points that allowed these into service much earlier, As the prop-
:r.ier to dtscover a means of Coiteci: tvvo parts to be shed on entry, while the osed production rate was scheduled to Specification
igihls aseriesoftestswascarriedout fitting of a ridge o_nthe upper Part.of be in the region of 50 per month, an Hs294
-.-L H.2g3 fuselages carrying mod- the iose was sulficient tb-gmide the earlier service debut might have Typejrocket-propelledanti-ship
noses these"for the moit part 'saw missileupwardstowardsthehullofthe posed a serious threat to Allied ship- missile
target vessel, the residual momentum ping
;;q l;rg and stender; 1943 Powerplant:tvvo 1Q00tg(2 866-lb)
::eie-trial riodels evolved into a larger berng enough to propel the bomb on A later version, paving the way for thrust Walter 109-507D rockets
..i:Japon tlui *as suffictently differ-ent the inal parl of iti journey- the Hs 294D, was in process of being maximumspeed
_ Pe^rformanc^s
::beredesignatedHenschelHs2g4. Thenewmissrlehadsufflcientflex- fitted with television cameras in the B60km/h(534mph)
There wer6 hvo basic variants of this ibility of operation for its entry into the leading edgte of the starboard rocket Weights: round 2170 kg (4,784 1b);
,.;eapon the Hs 2948 having wireJink water to vary between i5" and 30", and housing when the war ended, and exploswe 656 kg (l 446 lb)
:."t?of. This shared with its radio- thechargeinthewarheadwasfiredby there were also plans to produce a Dimensions:span4,O25m(13ft25ln);
::ntrolied companion model, the Hs means of naval torpedo proximity latervariantproPelledbyonlyasingle length6.12q(20ft09tn); fuselaqe
2gaA an ability to lessen the water- fuses, although the desigrn was -cap- unitof increasedthrust,whileafurther diamqter0.65m(2ft1,6in); winqarea
::ty deflection by means oT an rnse able of beind fitted with 6ontact fusbs version (of which a small number was 5.3 m'z (57.05 sq fD


Blohm und Voss Bv 143

-:: hmitatrons of conventional air- Ailerons were not inset but of the au- with the waves, The resultant run was Specification
-:':nched torpedoes caused the Luft- xrhary wing pattem, and set below the of only 40 seconds duration as the Bv I43
r,-3ie to cast around for some method body (at roughly the centre of gravity) thrust became spent; the motor was Type: rocket-propelled aerial torpedo
:: :nendinq the type's range, and the was an articulated feeler arm powered by petrol and T-Stoff (hyd. Powerplant: one liquid-propellant
Thrs arm did not come into play until rogen peroxide) the combustion Blohm und Voss ATO rocket of 700 kg
---r;er seemed to lie inwas
the develop-
the missile had completed its flat glide being rendered more complete by the (1,543 lb) thrust
::-::r of a mrssile whrch capable of
'';it before entering the water, where approach to the target after release decomposition of the T-Stoff by Z-Stofl Performance: maximum speed
-. :;:uld proceed with the aid of its own from the parent aircraft, but at an altl- Hydrazine hydrate initiated the reac- 415 knn/h (258 mph)
tude of some 2 m (6 ft 7 in) from the tion of the propellants. Weights:round lO55 kq (2,326 lb);
-:::culsion unit,
.:e body ofthe Blohm und Voss Bv surface of the water, Here the design Tests conducted during 1943 usinq explosive 180 kq (397 Ib)
143 -.-:as shaped much like a conven- differed from the original concept four Bv l43s proved that there was not Dimensions:span 3. 13 m (10 ft 3.2 in);
:::,al torpedo but with an improved since the torpedo did not enter the enough time for the alteration of the lengthS,9B m(19 ft7.4 in); tuselage
-=::C1'namic profile, and added to this ocean but instead continued at the flight-path from descending glide to diameter0.SB m(1 ft 10.8 in): wrngarea
'.'.-=:: wings of low asPecI ratlo aforesaid low altitude towards its Ievel, and pending the development of 2 45 mz (26 37 sq ft)
:r l:ener with a cruciform tail with the target, the flight profile now having an aneroid trmer to replace the actuat-
:::-zontal members set well ahead of flattened out and the mtssile being ing arm the projectwas dropped. Ex-
-,: :ns and rudders, the control sur- driven by a liquid-propellant rocket cept for those lnvolv-^d in trials of other
--:=s berng actuated via a gyroscope. motor actuated by the arm on contact weapons, no further Bv l43s flew.


Blohm und Voss Bv 246 Hagelkorn

the Bv 246s which had entered produc-
tion over the previous eight or so
weeks were cancelled, although the
time was sufficiently long for a substan-
tial number to have been produced,
With these a test programme was
begn-rn duringi the followinq summer
with a vanety of carrier aircraft, all of
them launching the conventional high
explosrve bomb, none of the addittonal
variants desigtned for use as anti-
arrcraft and air-to-air missile targets
beinq then in production. However,
this programme was abruptly stopped
until stocks could be replenished fol-
lowing an Allied raid in the middle
months of 1944

Right: Bv 246 Hagelkorns are seen

stored atKarlshagen in the earlY
months of 1944.Note the unusual
versl0n nose of the missile in the foregtound,
which probably houses Radieschen
( ra d.rslr ) passjve r ad ar homing
Blohm und Voss Bv 246 Hagelkorn (continued) World War II Air-to-Ground Weapons
Further trials were conducted into F ocke-Wulf Fw I 90 F -8s were used to
the early months of 1945 and investi- launch alarge number oI Bv 246
qated the possibillty of using the missrTes,'the sfruts beneath the
weapon against ground transmitters, wings bent the bomb's wings down,
usinq their signals as homing sorrces; which held the weapon steady and
this part of the proqtramme was not provided the tension to project it
successfully concluded because oj clear of the launch aircraftwhen
teething troubles with the Qnridance released.
and control systems,
450 kmih (280 mph)
Specification Weights: round 730 kg ( 1,609 tb);
Bv 2468 explosive 435 kg (959 ]b)
Tlpe: g[der bomb intended prlmarily Dimensions: span 6,41 m (21 ft 0,4 in);
for anti-shrpping use lenqth 3,53 m (11 ft 7 in); fuselage
Powerplant: none dtameter0.54 m (1 ft 9.3 in); wtng area
Performance: maximum sPeed 1,47 mz ( 15.82 sq ft)


Yokosuka MXYZ Ohka

There can be little doubt that the The result of this was the NavY to the Allies as the Baka (fool), could from the target that the three soltd-
Yokosuka IvDfYT Ohka (cherry blos- Suicide Attacker Ohka Model lI, prove a difficult target for interception, propellant rockets in the tail were
som) was one of the most bizarre together with an Ohka K-l trainer although this resulted chiefly from its flred, thus accelerating the Ohka ::
weapons to come out of World War II, vadant, that was to be air-launched small size rather than its powet of eva- some 927 lanr/h (576 mph) in a stee;
rndicating the desperate state ofaffairs from a modified Mitsubishi G4M2e sive action, whrch was limited, Howev- dive that would detonate the warheac
for Japan in 1944 when the Kamjkaze bomber (Allied codename 'Betty') er, the weighty combination of launch on the target, killing the pilot in the
idea oriqrnated as a definite policy of which would transpofi the little Yoko- aircraft and Ohka was very vulnerable process. During this final run the boml:
the Imperial Japanese Nalry, In con- suka aeroplane to withrn about 37 lcrt to fighter attack, was almost unstoppable, so that the
sequence, Augtust of that year saw the (23 miles) of the tarQlet area, where lt Observers among the US forces in only means of dealing with it was ::
Naval Research and DeveloPment would be released and flown to the the Pacific, against which a1l of the destroy the motherplanes before the:
Centre initiate work on lhe Marudai target by its own pilot in a fast, unpo- operatronal machines from the 755 loads could be released.
project to design a special machine for wered glide. During thts terminal produced were drrected, noted that rt
manned bomb attacks. phase the machine, soon to be known was not until about 4.8lcn (3 miles)

The Yokosuka MXYT Ohka

Model I 1 was a piloted flying-
homb thatwas carried to
within 37 lan (23 miles) of the
target by a Mitsubishi G4M2e
tw in- engined bom ber. T he
Ohka was then released and
commenced a shallow dive
towards the target, the speed
boosted by rocket motors.

TheJapanese conducted considerable research into guided misst7es. bu:

none ieached operational status. With the O kha they byp assed the comp iez
business ofdesigrn ing a guidance system by recruiting suicide piloa b !i; a
iet-hoosted glide bomb on to the target.
Yokosuka M(Y7 Ohka (continued)

-:r3ut 50 slightly smaller Ohka Mod- The Ohka Model I I piloted flying
eI 22 aircraft (with a reduced 600-kq/ bomb's shallow dive speed was
- lZ3-lb warhead and a gas h:rbine en- boosted by three solid fuel rockets.
;e. and desigmed to be carried by The Ohka Model 22 was a longer-
::k:suka P1YI Ginga bombers) ranged version powered by a T su-l I
pl:;ed a failwe as they were under- gas-turbine engine.
pcr';ered, and the jet-powered Ohka
Model 33 (wlth the original-capacity
,r-:nead and designed to be trans-
!.:.d by the Nakajima GBNI Renzan explosive missile
rcrjcer) was not completed by the Powerplant: three Tlpe 4 Mk I Model
The jet-poweredOhka 20 solid-propellant rockets providing a
=*i:f thewar.
Model 43A and Ohka Model 438 (the combined thrust of800 kg ( 1,764 Ib) with folding and the latter with Performance: maximum speed
1ed wrngs) remained no more than 649 lan/h (403 mph) at 3500 m
p::jects; an interestinq feature of the (ll,4BS ft); diveveiocity92T km,tr
l'I:cel 43B was the facility for the pilot (576 mph); range 37 lcn (23 miles)
:: .erison the wingrtips during the final Weights: maximum take-off 2 I 40 kg
i;e io increase impact speed. (4,718 1b); explosive 1200 ks (2,646 lb)
Dimensions:span 5. i2 m (16 ft 9.6 in);
Specification lensth 6.066 m (19 ft 10,8 in); heisht
OhkaModel lI L 16 m (3 ft9,7 in); wrngarea6,0 mz
Type: rocket-propelled suicide (64.59 sq ft)

a Japanese standard bombs

i.argmg from comparatively simple
bcmb contarners capable oftaking 30
i:cmbs weighrnq 0,735 kq (1,6lb),
each albeit for altiaircraft work, via
-:e larger ones capable of scattering
:-: less than 76 such bomblets to the
!, l-kg (1,763.7Jb) greneral-purpose
::gh explosive naval bomb, Japan pos-
a good range of air{o-gnound
r-issiles h World War II, Smailest of
-:ese was the 15-kg (33.071b) antr-
personnel type wlth a 10.16-cm (4-rn)
-arneter body measuring only 64 cm Above:TheTYpe 99 no.80 750-kgGP
.2:2 rn) rn lengrth, bomh was one of the largest bombs
h the majority of Japanese bombs, regularly employed by the Japanese.
:-sas were carried in the nose, and it
-;;:s only on the introduction of the 50- Left: The J apanese Tlpe 2 no. 2 5 Mk
k: ('10.23-lb) HE bomb that both nose I 1 I 250-kg bomb had twisted fins to
=::C tarl fuses were employed, spin-stabilize the bomb and to
.'-:ouQth this combination is usually activate the fuses by centrifugal
:.-ssciated with the 250-kg (551.I5-lb) continuous welded./spot-welded nose, force.
'-'gh explosrve bomb, of which there although the tail cone was strll fastened
-i;ere two vanants. by rivets. The army favoured screwed Below:Japanese armourers unloadbombs, probably of 50-kgGP type, from a
lcnslruction of Japanese bombs fol- steel bodies and nose, with a welded truck. Judging from the flying gear being worn, the photograph suggests that
.:,.,-eC convenlional lines with plain tail cone, theflyingcrewmembers also acted as armourers andloaded theirown
:- iacking a ring, and promrnently- The Japanese annoury included a bombs into their aircraft.
r;=ied sheet metal v/ds frequently contemporary of the German 'oil
Forged steel was, howev- bomb', used by the navy. This con-
:: -:sed for the body of the 800-kg tained a centrai thermite core sur-
- -:,3.7-lb) armour-piercing bomb, an rounded by a mxture ofkerosene, pet-
::p:essive naval weapon with a pair of rol and alchohol-soap; alternatively
:-2:b) tan tuses. Fllling was Tdnitro rubber pie-shaped pellets impreg-
-i:-=:l wrth an dumimum plug in the nated with iron and aluminium were
::-;ard end of the cavity, deep rn the packed round tlie explosive in its cen-
..-t body, to prevent the filling taking tral tube to act as a bursting and scat-
::.: Jreat a shock on striking the target; terinq charge.
:-: sngle-prece machined-steel body
'.i erght recesses in the nose for the
-:.:-g of windshields rf the bomb was Specification
:-cied as a projectile, 250-kgGP
T:e most widely used Japanese Type: high explosive qeneral-purpose
::::=ra-l-purpose bomb was the naval bomb
25,i-kg type arid its army equivalent. Weisht:250 kg (551.15 Ib)
llele ivere two versions of the naval
.il::iDcn. the later model being slightly
Dimensions: length 1,937 m (6 ft 4.3 in);
diameter 30,0 cm ( I LB in)
,-;re:';rith thicker walls and havrng a Filling: preformed picric

rariety olJapanese aircraft, from heavy bombers to fighters.

Operafion Gomorrah
incendiary bombs, dehberately i:::e::jei ::
After nearly four years of war, RAF Bomber Command had grown into a force of collapse large buildlngs, destroy -ra:=:
enormous, if unselective, power. The difficulty of attacking pinpoint targets had led =:
gas mains and trap the fue services:- i-::,:::
the bombers to turn their attention to the big cities of Germany, and in July 1943 it streets, Although a total of 22 of the i::: 3i2:-i::
was decided to direct their full strength against the port of Hamburg. bombs was dropped, ail of whrch qcp:-=: -:
have exploded causing large areas c- jes:--
tion, more than two-thirds of the bomb ::::,-:e
In the most devastating series of raids up to that plays were covered by blossoming clouds of of 2,396 dropped that night comprs:: -:-::..-
time launched by bombers, Air Chief Marshal new signals which effectively obliterated the diarles,
Sir Arthur Harris, Commander-in-Chief of RAF scopes. Devastation was qreatest rn the sub-::c= :-
Bomber Command, set out on the ntghlof 24/25 Shortly after midnight the flak crews were Altona, Einsbiittel and Hohelu-ft, and u: .re :-.y
july 1943 to give a demonstration of just what alerted, only to find their gun and searchlight centre; the Police Presidency was gu:ei :-=
could be achieved by the systematic applica- radars apparently useless, Night-fighter Air Raid Precaution control room engu-:ei :;
tion of what were, by the standards of the time, crews, intent on stalking the bombers from fire, and many other vital civil defence :!e.:-
sophisticated weapons, equipment and tactics, astern, had to break away as the drifting foil tions centres destroyed or damaged, Gas -,r =-
The operation, brutally and appropriately gave all the indlcations that the bombers had ter, electricity and telephone serrices -,r:l=
codenamed 'Gomorrah', involved the despatch suddenly turned towards them, Dead on sche- severed at countless points and mcre -:::-
of347 Avro Lancasters, 246 Handley Page Ha1l- ,dule at 01.57 the first yellow rlluminators were 4,000 key personnel in the crty's emerge:-l-;
faxes, I25 Short Stirlings and 73 Vlckers Wel- released by the leading pathfinders, followed services were kiiled or seriously tnjrued -:
lingtons against Germany's second-largest by lines ofred 250{b ( I 13-kq) target indicators. add to the confusion, long-delay fuses l--.'
city, the ancient Hanseatic port of Hamburg been fitted to a high proportion of the 45i-<;:
with rts population oi 1,5 million citizens. Devastatingfire bombs, which thus continued to detonaie s:=:
Such was the slze of the target (an 'area For three weeks Hamburg had been en- hours after the last bombers had depa::a:
target' as distinct from a specific objective joying hot, dry weather, with no more than frequently erupting to bring buildrngs cras:':;
within the city) that it was acknowledged from 43 mm (l 7 in) of rarn; many of the large static down on the rescue workers.
the outset that several raids, carried out in a water tanks were half empty, and everywhere The surprise and disruption caused bi- ::
short period, would be necessary to accom- was tinder dry Added to this, a large area of use of 'Window' wrecked the defences of Ha::--
piish the most wldespread devastation, The the city consisted ol ancient buiidinqs con- burg no less than the bombing had devas:a:+i
strategic choice of Hamburg as the target was structed of timber. As the leadinq Lancasters the ancient city itself; the searchlight anci g;::
made on account of its concentration of war and Stirlings unloaded huge numbers of incen- radars had been rendered impotent, and -::
industries, not least of which was the huge diaries and fires sprang up over a wide area, raiders had escaped liqhtly; 12 bombers (ict:
Blohm und Voss shipyard which contributed 45 the city's numerous fire-fighting teams started Lancasters, four Haiifaxes, three Stirlings a:d
per cent of Germany's total U-boat construction out to tackle the minor blazes. Then came the one Wellington) were lost, the ma;ority of the:-
proqramme, Among the city's 3,000 industrlal Wellingtons, each carrying a single 907-kq having strayed from the protection afforded b-;
plants and 5,000 commercial estabhshments (2,000-1b) parachute mines fused to explode the bomber stream's 'Window' clouds tc c=
were Theodor Zeise, a large manu-facturer of about I5 m (50 ft) above the ground and de-
marine screws, the Rhenania Ossag distillatron slgned for maximum blast efiect which knock-
plant, the Europdische Tanklager und Trans- ed down large buildings and blocked the Boeing B-17 FlyingFortresses of the 323rd
port AG, the Deutsche Petroleum AG refinery, Bombardment Squadron, I I st Bombardment
streets with rubble, Flnally the Halifaxes and Group, US SthAirForce.TheUS hombers attacH
Ernst Schhemann's plant at Wllhelmsburg and more Lancasters unloaded a mix of 3629-kg Hamburg by day on 25 July after the city had ben
the huge Neuhoff power station, (8,000-1b), 1814-kq (4 000-1b)'blockbusters' and pounded throughout the night by RAF Bomber
Tactically, being located on the broad estu- delayed-actron 454-kq (1,000-lb) bombs ptus Command.
ary of the EIbe, the port would be easily dis-
tinguishable on the Pathfinders' HZS radar
screens, considerably assisting in effective
marking concentration; moreover the modest
1529-km (950-m11e) ouVback journey would
allow the bombers to carry their maxlmum
The bombers would also carry a new
weapon in the war of the ether: millions of
tln-foii strips in bundles which, codenamed
'Window' and cut to half the wavelength of
enemy radar, would when dropped effectively
blanket and confuse the Germannight-flghters'
and ground defences' radar displays. Ham-
burg had been previously raided on 98 occa-
sions and the extensive defences had claimed
heavy casuaities among RAF aircrews and air-
craft, By employing a large but compact bom-
ber stream, each of whose bombers would
discharge a bundle ol'Window' strips every
minute after approaching the German coast, it
was hoped to avoid catastrophrc losses from
the 54 hearry flak batteries round Hamburg,
and from Ihe 172 niqht-fiqhters known to be
deployed in northern Germany.
The first raid started to take-off from bases in
England at aboul 22.00 and an hour later, led by
the pathfinders of No. 8 Group, 746 bombers
(45 had aborted) in a 322-km (200-mile) stream
set course for the mouth of the Elbe, Shortly
before crossing the German coast the 'Win-
dow'-dropping started; one moment the Ger-
mans had been lollowlng the approach of the
raid on their coastal radar, the next, their dis-
On the night of 27 July 1943 the RAF returned and
raind incendiaries on to the tinder-dry city. The cuation of civilians from the devastated city, the canals where they remained relatrvely safe
6re services had already been crippled in earlier
raids, and nothing could stop the ffuestorm which and more than 250,000 civilians had fled, many from incineration, This fire-storm phe-
developed. At the heart ofthe inferno it reached to pitch camps in the surrounding countryside. nomenon, for which Hamburg was to gain a
I NO'C, attracting gale-force winds which sucked On the night of 27/28 luly Bomber Command terrifying immortality, laid to ashes an area of
anything and anyone into the tlames. returned once more as 722 oul of 739 bombers I9770 hectares (6,000 acres), As dawn
despatched unloaded 2,417 tons of bombs, well approached, to the accompaniment of explod-
s:-r: Cown by night fighters, Compared with a over half thls weight composed of incendraries, ing delayed-action bombs and the full extent of
:,:rlr ol5 per cent losses, the loss rate of I,5 per The bomber stream flew across the eastern the horror became apparent, Gauleiter Kauf-
l=:-: in this first brg raid on Hamburg repre- half of the city from north to south, engnrlfing the mann appealed to all remarning civilians to
--:-:ed a saving of 26 bombers, attrlbutable districts of Borgfelde, Hammerbrook and leave Hamburg: almost I million peopie
s-:-p11r :o the dropping of some 40 tons of metal Hohenfelde, Wrthin 30 minutelthe congested needed no second biddinq and stumbled to
::- s:Ilps. dock area, comprising 20.7 km" (8 sq miles) of the safety of the open countryslde beyond the
-:-s daylight came to the stricken city on 25 narrow streets and warehouses, was trans- crty's limits.
,:,-- a vast pall of smoke and dust obliterated formed into a lake of fire which superheated
:-= s.:li as the dazed rnhabitants struggled to the arr to a temperature of 1000"C (1,832"F); this The bombers return I
:=-=ase the trapped victims in cellars and shel- monster conflagration, demanding oxygen, Two nights later the bombers returned,
.:rs and isolated flres were left to burn them- created a terrifying suctlon from its perimeter when on the nlght of 29/30 luly 726 Lancasters,
'so that the air stormed through the streets with Halifaxes and Stirlings dropped 2,382 tons of
-r=-;es cut, On that day 68 heavy bombers of the
,: :i Arr Force carried out a relatlvely liQlht immense force, bearing upon rt sparks, tlmber bombs, scarcely requiring the services of path-
:--i a.gainsi the dock area and the district of
and roof beams, and thus spreading the fire still finders so bright were the fires still ragrng be-
where the plant of Ernst further and further tlll it became a typhoon such low, With methodical precision the suburb of
S::-ei::ann was hit and damaged, On 26 July as had never before been witnessed, and Barmbeck was deluged with incendiarres and
Amerrcan raid by 53 bombers severe- against which all human resistance was power- once more a fire-typhoon erupted, By now,
-. i::::aged the Neuhoff power statlon. The less', Thus ran the subsequent report to Hitler with more than 70 per cent of the city's flre-
:-::-cicads dropped during these daylight by Hamburg's Air Protection Leader, General- fighting personnel dead or injured, and almost
=:.::-<s consisted almost entirely of 227-kg major H. Kehrl. The man-made winds of 80 per cent of the civil defence vehlcles im-
:-i,-;, and 454-kq HE bombs (parttcularly 240km/h (150 mph) tossed human beings like mobile, the city was powerless to prevent
=::l-;e agaust large brick structures and so much chaff into the flames; largte trees were further destruction, Some 28,000 personnel of
-r:-=:, -a:j.-:es) and once more delayed-action uprooted and reduced to charcoal in seconds; the military labour corps had been drafted rn to
:-=s -.',::ught carnage among the rescue citizens strove to avoid oxygen starvation ln demohsh dangerous and totterlng bulldings.
,ri_:-<3rs their sheiters by emerging rnto the holocaust, and to assist in rescuing and evacuating the
l.1e=-,';:c.e the Rerch Defence Commission- only to be driven back by the rain of hlgh tens of thousands ol rnjured,
=::-=j -ss:ed a drective for the voluntary eva- explosive, Hundreds upon hundreds leapt into One final attack was launched on the nrght oi

2r3 August when 762 heavy bombers set out for

,{amburg, However, as if the Fates decreed
.hat Armageddon should not befall the c1ty,
severe storms persisted all the way across the
\orth Sea and 'only' 442 aircraft attacked, drop-
:ing 1,426 tons of bombs, To the terror of fire
-nd explosrves were added the crash of natural
.runder and the flash oi lightning, not even the
ieluge of rain could quench the rnferno, nor
lrevent yet a thrrd fire-storm,
Wrth considerable rngenuity, born of horror
-:d desperation, the Iruftwaffe had seized on
.--rried expedients to circumvent the chaos
::=ated by the RAF's use of 'Window', using
:.:e-lancing single-seat day fighters to attack
.--: bombers which could be ciearly seen
-icuetted against the flres raging in Hamburg
=-:w, This and the broadcast to the night-
;::ers of a running commentary on the gtener-
rrurse, height and position of the bomber
r ::am, had met with increasing success,
,.- *gh RAF losses had remained low at 17,27
.:-: 31 respectively durrng the last three raids,
:e statistrcs of the attacks speak for them-
.= .':s Out of 3,095 bombers despatched by
-= :iF 2 630 had attacked, dropping 4,309
-,: ,: incendiaries and 4,312 tons ol high ex-
The Hamburg Firestorm

p,csive. Damage in Hamburg was prodtgtous,

',';::r 40.385 residential houses and 275,000 flats
131 per cent of the city's residentlal acccom-
::r:dation) destroyed or made uninhabitable;
;E0 industrial and armament plants were des-
:cyed or rendered useiess, as were 2,632
shops, 76 pubhc offices, 24 hospitals, 277
*hools, 58 churches and 83 banks. Twelve
bndges were broken or made impassable, and
re famor:s Hagenbeck Zoo destroyed,obltter-
a:ed in the first great attack. Yet despite the
.nitial casualty figures of 41 800 killed and
31 439 severely injured (of whom many were to
succumb from the injurres suffered), Hamburg
recovered with astonishing speed. Power sup-
piies were restored to normal within six months
ald, despite a permanent loss of about 25 per
cent of the working population (from death,
rnluy and a loss of living accommodatlon),
overall manu-facturing output had recovered to
some 70 per cent of the pre-raid effort within
six weeks, Oil production fell by about 40 per
cent for no more than a month.
Lr less quantrfiable terms Operation 'Gomor-
rah' provided the UK wrth satisfying retribution,
Bntrsh civilian casualties from German ralds
su-ffered thus far in World War II stood at some
49.810 killed. The German dead in the Ruhr
and Hamburg already far exceeded this fignrre.
On the other hand, the Nazi propaganda chiel
Josel Goebbels, confided in his diary that 'der
Hambwger Zusammenbruci (the catastrophe
cf Hamburg) simply staggered the imagina-
Above:746 bombers participated in the first attack
on H amburg on 24/ 25 J uly I 943. The bomber
stream was over 300 km (200 miles) long and
disgruised its whereabouts from German radar by
dropping 'Window', strips of metal foil cut to half
the wavelength of the radar sets.

A massed formation of the 305th

Bombardment Group which participated in
Operation'Gomorrah'. The daylight raids
complemented the RAF's night attacks by
hampering Civil Defence and rescue efforts.

Below: AnAvroLancaster runs up for take-off on a

mission to Hamburg. The Royal Air Force heavy
bombers were always operated at night from the
days ofVirginias andHeyfords, andby the timeof
the bombing of Hamburg considerable
experience had been builtup.
ffi tritish standard bombs World War II Airto-Ground Weaporu
,r--nough there existed in 1918 not only tub
Left: The 54-kg ( I 20-lb) GP i'iE
:e 816,5-ks (1,800-lb) GP high- was one of a series ofner. .u:-ar='e:
:-.plosrve bomb used principally by bom b s of better a erodFamra s:+E
l.:. 207 Squadron RAF, toerether with fian fftose used sinceWorldWat ]
:e 1496.9-ks (3,300-1b) HE bomb in- fr This weapon replacred tfie oJd c:5-.nEi
-:rded to be delivered by the Handley (11Z-lb)GPbomb.
?age V/I500, these were comparative-
--,- crude weapons, The art of bomb
iesigm was concentrated on the light-
:r types, so that at the outbreak of
,Vorld War Ii offensive loads consisted Right : The 2 27 -kg (500-1b) MC, M k I I I
-:r the main of bombs weighing HE bomb was much more effective
- 13 4 ks (250 lb) or 226.8ks (500 Ib), than the earlier 500-IbGP bomb, due
Certainly there was strll scope for to a higher filling-to-overall-weight
fie use of smaller free-fall bombs, and ratio.The cropped annular vane
iese particularly came rnto their own permitted four of these bombs to be
.,vith the advent of the Hawker 'Hurri- carried by the Mosquito bomber.It
bomber' equipped to take four 22.68- did not affect stability.
kg (501b) bombs under each wing,
Nevertheless, British bombs did ly evident concerning the design of became unstable when struck by the being readily identified from their cas-
present some variations ofshape, and that vital part of a bomb, the tail, and slipstream; it was the tail that finally ing that mrght have strengthening
while the ones carried by flQrhters soon almost throughout the design of British straightened its flight as the forward bands as on some '500-pounders'.
assumed near-conical noses with flat- standard bombs, the assembly here momentum imparted by the launch
tened fronts, the majorrty were of con- consisted of four sheet fins with a aircraft was lost and the downward Specification
ventional appearance with'egq-like' broad rrng containing their trailing path commenced in an arc towards the Mk ItoMk3GP
contours until the introduction of the edges, These facts were in part dic- target as gravity exerted a pull, All Type: general-purpose hrgh explosive
thousand-pounder', the 453,6-kg type tated by the British practrce of stowing these factors were common to the stan- bomb
designed for the extemal racks of the bombs horizontally, the resultant re- dard bombs of the day which were all Weisht: 119,4 kg (263 ]b)
Hawker T\7phoon, all rllustrations of the lease beinq the most aerodynamic that of pre-1940 desiqn and lncluded the Dimensions: lenqth 1,37 m (4 ft 6 in);
advancing state of the art in refining could be achieved, since a bomb largely-forgotten HE type of 54 kg diameter 0,26 m (10.3 in)
the shape of bombs for the RAF. dropping away from an aeroplane of (120lb); there were drfferent versions Filling: TNTor Amatol B0/20
A degrree of agreement was certain- the time inevitably spun or otherwise of all types, some of these variants

The bombs of the RAF. From the top: 9979-kg (22,000-lb) MC ; 5443-kst ( I 2,000- 454-kg ( I ,000-Ib) MC bombs drop from an RAF bomber into the jungle ot
lb) HC; nose ot 5443-kg (1 2,000-lb) MC; 3629-kg (8,000-1b) HC; I I I4-kg (4,000- Burma.EarlierRAF bombs hadlong annular tailvanes, butby cropping the
tb) HC; (righl 862-kg ( 1,900-1b) GP; 907-kst (2,000-lb) AP; (fron| 454-kg vanes of 227-kg(500-lb) bombs thebombbay of Mosquitoes could
(1,000-Ib) and227-kg(500-lb) GPs.Thesmallbomb is 18 kg (40-1b). accommodate four instead of two of theseweapons.

-r:ieJdslrave always presented achallenge to the bomber, provingvery A 227-kg (500-Ib) Mk III MC bomb is loaded on the wing rack of a Hawker
t-' glt to jgtock ouL Lacking today's specialist weapons, the RAF had to rely Tlphoon.The pistol and detonator has notyetbeeninstalledrn tienose of the
x. ar:'tracy and delayed actionbombs tofrustrate repairwork.Here, a stick bomh;the armed bomb had pistols and detonators in both nose and tail.
:r con:bsimpa cts on aJapanese airfield inBurma.
Special Purpose Weqpons
Many of today's air-to-groundweapons can trace their ancestryback tomunitions
designed in World War IL Most nations experimented with guided weapons, the
Germans deploying some to great effect. There were also unique ideas sucft as ffte
Dambusters' 'Bouncing Bomb' produced for special operations.
,',=ary Willie'and'Tired Tim'were a couple of much-beloved strip cartoon
--:-acters in the days before World War ll, and it was probably the American
,- -.:r. of describing time-expired operational airf rames as 'war weary' that led
.: .^e name'Weary Willie' for the Boeing B-17s modified for remote-control
:-:s-:ng onto targets such as the underground lairs ('No-ball'targets) of
,',::30ns llke the V-1 flying bomb. The relegated bombers were never in the
. :^ . lsed
f or such work, but would have been packed with explosive and taken

--::r radio control on their last mission.

l-: r such outsize flying bombs as these represent the larger of the special-
:,-:cse weapons, the other end ofthe scale rs surely and ably represented by
.-: : ry Razzle (and the larger Decker). These were incendiary devices intended
': - -se aga nst enemy crops and forests, and consisted of a small piece of wet
::::cn woolwrapped round a phosphorus pellet and enclosed within two sheets
:' ::iluloid about 7.6 cm (3 in) square. Some 450 such devices were carried in a
:'-- of liquid and dropped over enerny territory. to lay on the ground unde-
.=::ed untrl they dried out and ignited.
-et undoubtedly the most famous special device of the enttre conflict is the
:. ^drical bomb used to destroy the vital Ruhr dams.
S rple in concept, thls Barnes Wallis design was little more than a metal
:. ^oer, set spinning by means of a VSG Hydraulic motor via a 'V' belt. With
-33.1 <g (6,600 lb) of RDX explosive making up the greater part of the 4196 kg
j 2-0 lb) total, the bomb was capable of skipping over the protective booms at
-,i rpm once released by the parting of the the pair of suspended trusses. to
. ^..againstthetargetwallandbefiredbythehydrostaticfusessettooperateat
: :ecth of 9.14 m (30 ft).
special weapon of similar concept was that intended to sink the
:2. Thrs preceded the larger bomb, and was codenamed 'Highball'. Of
.:^e:cidal shape, lt was intended to be carried in pairs by an adapted de
- : . I and Mosquito, The delivery journey and dash back to base would be carried
- --- z:4572-m (15,000-ft) altitude which, although probably alerting the enemy
':::'. would permit an enhanced range and improved flexibility of the actual
..:-:<. Unfortunately all came to nought although tests had been satisfactorily
::-: lded, political pressures finally winning the day so that not even the
::-.cron of special Mosquitoes despatched to operate agalnst the Japanese
'=:- ',VaS eVer USed.
The SG I I 3A F6rstersonde consisted of a pair of 77-mm recoilless guns
mounted vertically in the wing of an F W I 90 and triggered by the electro-
magneticfieldcrcated by themass of metalin a tank.ltwas successfulin
penetrating the armour of a captured T-34 tank, but was not adopted.

, :.e . :: LT- I combination weapon was developed by the Germans as a On making contactwith thewater theLT-J torpedo separatedfrom theLl0
::.ea:.s ci iaunching torpedoes from outside the area of anti-aircraft fire. The and operated in the normal way. The weapon was extensively tested but was
1,, .2=.: consisted of a Blohm undVoss Ll0 glider carrying an LT- l torpedo. never used operationally, for reasons that are not apparent.
7::',,,'eapon was gyro-stabilized toglide at I5 degrees tothewater.

.!-:7:aby the most famous special

-;:::pose aenal weapon used during
i|ar II was the'Bouncing
:.:.s :esjgmed by Dr Barnes Wallis
1:: --e3 io attack the Ruhr dams.
l-:e ;,r'eepor: rs shown here beneath
r: .i;:: iarcaster o{No.617
J;:ai:c:: ptioted by PIO L.G. Knight,
;+-.:: c:ea:red the Eder dam.
World War II Air{o-Ground Weapors

'M istel (mistletoe ) w as the

name the Germans gave lo
their combination sys tem
whereby a fighter airdaltwas
attached to an old bombr
loaded with explosives. The
fighter, in this case an Me I 09,
flew ik charge to the target,
broke contact and Widd the
bomber to impact by radio

The supplv of special weapons was not in any measure conf ined to the Allies
For examptd, the Luftwaffe boasted that its iargest conventional bomb, the
s,sri-tO SC 2soo nicknamed'Max'which was 3.895 m (12 ft 9.3 in) long and
had a diameter of 0.829 m (2 ft 8.6 in), was too large to f it into the internal bay of
any German bomber and thus had to be carried externally.
One of the special weapons associated wlth the night raids against the UK
was that oooularlv known as the 'land mine'. This was an adapted device that
was commonly spoken of in some awe because of its high blast effect; this was
partly the resuh of the weapon's lack of penetration, since it was dropped under
b larje parachute of coarse green material secured to the thin-walled casing with
plait"ed'lines some 12.7-mh (0.5-in) thick. These weapons frequently
dropped in company with a percentage of 'oil -bombs', fire-raising devices
disiinct from Lhe normal thermite incendiaries or which an explosive verston
was introduced. The oil bombs carried both fuel-oil and phosphorus within a
single casing. Another conternporary special weapon was the so-called
tov"cocktaili whicn consisted in the main of a high-explosive bomb
attached container for conventional incendiaries which opened betore makrng
imoact and th,"rs scattered its load.
but perhaps the most dangerotts special weapon to come from the German
aerial armoury was quite small, the'butterfly-bomb' or SD-2 which consisted of
a cylinder no more than a few centimetres in diameter' Sem!-circular 'wings'
stowed round this casing opened in f light so that the bomb spun to the ground in
the manner of a sycamore seed. These weapons proved ot partlcula.r value
aqainst soft-skinneij vehicles or troops rn the open, detonation taking place on
.rioact or alter a delav: the weapons coulo alio act as 'booby-traps', lying in
unberqrowthetc.untildisturbeo.FigntersorJunkersJuBTscouldlayatrailof up
to 96;f these SD-2s, while twln-motor bombers could deposit some 360, a
contrast in size and scope with such special weapons as the explosive:laden
Grumman FGF Hellcats earmarked to f ly.unmanned against targets in the Pacif ic
a rea.

Below: The 'Weary Willie' idea of packing old B- I7s with explosive and Above: A parachute-retarded bomb drops ontoJotman Airtieldin northwest
crashing themon to a targetwasAbandoned infavour of more modeslpJans New Guinea.Here, theseweapons arebeingused atvery low altitudeto
involving theseGrummanF6F Hellcats'Toolatefor sewice in 1945, they saw permit the bomber to get clear belore the bomb detonates amongst parked
action in the Korean War. aircraft. The bombs are probably of the fragmentation type.

.. il:.:r.i'\i
.". :-
lr.i. ::'::::i.\:'
ffi tritish heavy bombs
The largrest of the British war-time
bombs was the well-known 'Grand
Slam', a 9979-kg (22,000-1b) missile de-
siqmed chiefly for deep penetration,
equipped with aerodynamically
shaped flns to rmpart an assisting iwist
to its fal. Forty-one of these monsters
were dropped by sppcially-modrfied
Awo Lancasters in 1945, the first on 14
March when Lancaster B,Mk I (Spe-
cra-l) PDl 12 of No. 617 Squadron, with
Sguadron-Leader C.C. Calder at the
controls, demolished two spans of the
Bielefeld Viaduct with one of these
weapons only a single day alter the
fi-rst test-drop had been made.
British heavy bombs of 5443-kg
(12,000-Ib) capacity were ofhvo types,
the most sophisticated being the'Tall- Above : The I 8 I 4-kg (4,000-lb) HC Mk
boy' desiqmed for deep penetratioh, I I I HE bomb had three pistols and
and of which no less than 854 were detonators in the nose. In the centre
dropped by Awo Lancasfers followrng of the bomb there was a continuous
the first attack with them on the nioht of tube with exploders linked into the
&9 ]une 1944, central detonator. These bombs had
While the 'Tallboy' was of conven- avery high explosivefilling to overcll
fional streamlined shape, the other weightratio.
M43-kg missile was a departure from
common practlce in that it was cylin- Right: A 1 8 I 4-kg (4,000- Ib) HC M k I
drical and was in fact formed ftom high-explosive bomb is wheeled up
three 1814-kg (4,000-lb)'Cookies' to a Wellington B.M k I I L This was an
bolted together (the sections being early version with a single pktol and
clearly visrlcle) with an annular-rrngred detonator in the nose. This example
sx-fin tarl attached. This was the is painted in the yellow-buff shade
General-Purpose'Factory Buste/, also originally used on high-explosive
much used in 1944, but in fact first used bombs.
during a rard on the Dortmund-Ems
Canal during the hows of darkness of for a further two years that the general
1Vl6 September in the previous year, public was to know the name of the
'Big, beautiful' bombs were man who had taken such a prominent
pioneered by the 907-kg (2,000-1b) part rn the development of British war-
version first used during the night trme bombs, Air Commodore Patrick
attack on the Emden shipyards on 31 Huskinson, who had himself been
March/l April 1941, However, a com- blinded during a raid by the Luftwaile
parison of weight alone ts deceptive, in 1941.
silce the explosive power of the iater
bomb was greater than that of the Specification
illings used at the beginnrrg of the GP'FactoryBuster'
-amr, when a 907-kg 'heavy' certainly Tlpe: generai-purpose high explosive
existed in armour-piercing form for bomb
atiacks on shipping, although the ver- Weisht 5443 ks (12,000 lb)
sron of a mere 227-kg (500.ib) weapon Dimensions: length 5.33 m (17 ft 6 in);
mas the accepted 'big bomb' in the diameter L02 m(3 ft4 in)
FSF, Filins:2358.7 kg (5,200 lb) ofTorpex
The ordinary'Cookie'had made its 'cemented' within a 25.4-mm ( I-in)
:perational debut over Wilheim- jacketofTNT
slaven on 8 Jr:1y 1942, obsewers at the
:rne reporhng that \4rhole houses took Atypical scene on any Lancaster
::'the ar-1, thus gaining for the weapon base during Ia ter years of World W ar
--:e name of 'Block Buster' in the UK, I I : a 3629-kg (8,000-lb) HC blast
al:hough the Germans knew the type bomb is brought up by tractor for
- Bezirkbomben, The existence of
was, however, not announced
loading into the capacious bomb bay
of a Lancaster. The Lancaster,
=esesome time after their
--::il first use, not Manchester and Halifax could carry
-:: nct until September, and it was not these bombs in ternally.

>K tritish 25-lb rocket

f:--! rockets employed a solid prop- turbed as the charge was consumed, ly equal to the demands made on it.
:' ::: lside a cast iron tube and Concrete heads were employed for This Britrsh innovation was disliked
::r:--::=C a variety of warheads and practice. by pilots because of its effect on per-
--rr=. - "eir bodies were a length of Experimental work took up the formance, and there was a sharp temp-
- :2-::: l3-r-a) drameter cast pipe f,tted greater part of 1942, and included tests tatron to expend them on the f,rst avail-
r:-: a ser:iflat plate fins to constitute a mounted under the wings of the new able tarqet, whatever it was, regard-
iad. and a pair of lugs by Hawker \phoon, but it was the Haw-
=:;:::=:: r:iich
:=,::-= it was slunq from the ker Hurncane thatwas to fly the rocket
less of what warhead was being car-
:j:r-s ra-,::rching ra{. on one end into action for the first trme when air-
;n- s::=r,-ed the 11.34-kg (25-lb) craft of No, 184 Squadron made Fighter Specification
=::::-:r-c-=lcing warhead. A solid- Threeversions of the I 1.34-kg (25-lb) Command's first operational strike, Un- Tlpe: airto-gnound aircraft-launched
p::_r-e-'.-: ilLag was packed into the w arhead exkted, two armour - fortunately the long rails necessary for armour-piercing rocket
,=:;:-: :: p-pe rhat made up the greater piercing and one semi-armour- launching exacted a serious penalty Warheadweight: 1 1,34 kg (25 lb)
;r: :: -:: rjssrle. which was electri- piercing. The AP shell no. I, M k I from the aircraft's performance, and Dimensions: length 1,69 m (5 ft 6.5 in);
=-; -:t:- such a way that, although
=r",=--+-.: lim the openend, burning
shownwasused atdive angleof 15
degrees or over, while the AP shell
except ftom a very steep dive the mis-
siles were difficult to aim because of
diameterB,B9 cm(3.5 in)
r-:.: :--:ei irom the foont, a system no. 2, Mk I was used under I 5 their sharp trajectory drop. aiming
--.e:is5 :: crder to enswe that the degrrees. The SAP shown was for beingby means of the standard Mk IIG
.F-:-l: :: -i:e rocket was not dis- trainingonly. reflector gnrnsight, which was not real-

Aerfsl Anfi-lbnk Guns
.: tanks cauld afford to reduce their performance by the
:iditionof thicktop armour, and toexploit thisweakness
::ti- tank cannon were fitted to ground attack aircraft.
: tomatic weapons of up to 40 mm ( 1 .57 in) were fi tted early
.: the war, and later on the Germans installed guns of up to
Ii-mm (2.95-in) calibrein specialisttank-busting aircraft to try
:c sfern the Soviet advance.

.'rough arguably the most sophisticated air-to-grcund weapon to come out of
War Il was the German SG 13'lA device capable of detecttng the magne-
: frelcl of a mass of metal, and therefore in efiec{ to select ts own target, in the
'- : n guns were favoured for the anti-tank roie These guns were fairly conven-
.:nal,orrlrTtherateof fire,muzz{evelcotyandcaitbrebeingincreasedasarmour
. : :rre thicke'.
Even so the array of these weapons was formidable, perhaps the best known
:: ng the 3.7-cm ('1 .457-in) Flak 'l B cannon for anti-tank work, chief ly becagge-9
::'r ri,,as slung underthe wings of a Jin<ers Ju 87D (then redesignated Ju B7G).
-re BK 3,7 w-hich was of thelame catibre and both practical and effective, was
. so carried bV some Henschel Hs -l 29B Panzerjager as an alternative to the pair
:'20-mm (0.'787-in) MG15'1i20 cannon and two 2.92-mm (0,312-in) MG171
rachine-guns more commonly carleC About a year before the end of the war,
ienschels were also encountered witn tne 7 5-cm (2.95-in) BK 7,5 under the
Hor,iever, the gun most wideiy used for attacks on armour from the air by the
ls 129B {conceived in imitation of the llyushin ll-2, it might be added) was the HawkerHurricaneMkllD anti-tank aircraft are seenin tlze MiddleEast, The
: ^gle 30-mm {1.18-in) MK10' a tnoJgL the ammrnition load was lim ted to a 4 0 - mm Vic ker s guns with I 5 r ou nds each, an d r,r';
M k I I D w as arm e d with two
-eiaSb rojnds Some uTsrs ny6rysj.1 alti-tank operations in the battle for 0.303-inBrowning guns with 330 raunds eadh.TheBrowning gunswere use.
>evastopol where no rporta^1 srccesses were ach eved against Soviet with tracer. for sighting the big guns.
l r^.rou r', due cnief ly to a p'oper tec n ^ que oeiag ^ot yel adopted; and in Septem-
:ertheaircraltwerew tho'aw-'cr'Jrt-erc'ewtrairing. lnthe meanttme some ln this, the Yakovlev fighter-bomber was similar to another machine use: '-
3K 3,7 cannon were used, or 5-cm {1.969-tnJ BK 5s were carried, but the best anti-tank work by Soviet pilots, the Bell P-39 Airacobra supplied f rom the . S -
resuiis came with adoption of the M K1 03 Very similar to the MK1 01 from which under Lend-Lease from early 1942. Despite the alleged solenoid-trigger inte i:'.
t was developed, thd MKl-03 had a nigher muzzle velocity. ence with the compass, the type was useful by viitue of its 37-mm M4 ncs:-
It was 1942 that saw some Messerichmitt Bf 1'l OGs fitted with a BK 3,7 mounted cannon, which was supported by a formidable array of six macr'.=-
inder the fuselage, weight compensatron being effected by the removal of the guns, four of 7.62-mm (0.3-in) and two of 12.7-mm (0.5-in) calibre.
.:andard pair of 20-mrr MG i51 c:^no: -^cer I^e nose. Britrsh attempts to introduce cannon had been something of a fiasco, a':
Lesser <nown anti-ta'k a-'ra-e-t ,rseo oy ine Germans ncludes the Junkers although these were only of 20-mm calibre, it was the hope that they coLric ::
:u BBA-4 that was converted to take a KwK 39 gun of 7.S-cm calibre under the used f or ground-attack as well as the original air-to-air work that kept the prc ::'
;orwirci tuseragL, irt.r"r" iti lirge fairing repliced the normal bomb-aimer's going when a hcst of feed troubles nad ro be overcome. lt was lhe adopr c - - -
;ondola. Therelollowecj a smail productr6n run designated the Ju B8P-1 with a belt feed that enabled a more aerodynamic mounting of these Hispano weap.':
1.S-cm PaK 40 gun, while the Ju 88P-2 was adapted tb take two 3.7-cm BK guns to be made in the Hawker Hurncane Mk llC, althougl adequate rejcoil to opi,: =
tT:3tt the 'eed did present some cont n-eo probtems.
anti-tank guns were almost synonymous with the various versions of Strangely, the 40-mm (1.575-in) gun was not widely used by the RAF, be ^l
'.nell2 Shturmovlk;and these came to the fore durLng the Baltle of Kursk in early confined mainly to operations in the Middle East. A Vickers proCuct, ii s:..
.;,.llv 1943 when tl-re Germans threw in vast numbe-rs of PzKpfw lV and some greatest service during 1942 and '1 943 when such weapons were fitted to :- =
-oie rrodern tanks. plJs tre'd nano selr-propelled guns. Among ail these the Ipeciaiist Hurricane MT< ttD, on whrch their size made it necessary to slrng rr-:--
-2m3 aircraftwith long-barrel 37-mm NS-37 cannon did massive execution, one externally under the wings and below the centre of gravity where the r:::
3erman division reported to have lost 70 tanks in 20 minutes. effected the trim of the machine, causing the nose to drop. The ammunitrci,., ..
l-lowever, other Soviet cannon weTe carr ed by other versions of the Shturmo- based on that used by the Royal Navy, with the same cartridge case anC D: r-=
. these 'ncluding tne 20-rnrr SrVAK and the 23-i'nrr {0.906- nt VYa cannon.
-re liqhter 12.1-mm (0.5-in) U BS machine-gun that was mounted to lire through
as these were already in production, but a degree of redesign to this pre-1?'-
configuration was required when the original idea of a 40-mm canncr
a oiooeiler disc of the Ya^ovlev Yak-gtfiqhter was also used for anti-tank air-to-air work was changed to include anti-tank use. ln this the cannon ,...:
. -.<, b,t th s merelV sLtppofted the 20--m"ShVAK tnat was molnted to fire entirely successful, an a#nour-piercing shell weighing 1.106 kg 12.44lbi ce ^ .
--rough the propellei shiir. capable of penetrating 50 mm of armbur at an angle of 30".

. ;. : s h in I I- 2m3 anti-tank and ground attack aircratt was armed with two T'he Henschel Hs I29B-3/Wa. anti-tank aircratt carried a modifie{i P a-K i : .
-:.,"iS-aKB-l6-37 guns,withS2 rounds each.With this armament the I1-2 75 mm anti-tank cannon. which had a rate of fire of 40 rounds pet rt:r.:::€
: : ; s :rc-v li e m aj or ity of Germ an tank type s, including the T iger I. T h e I I- 2 rounds were provided in the aircratt. Two 20-mm MG I 5 I cannor t" e : e :
: :.: : ci:ry rocket bombs" installed.
>K tritish 60-lb rocket
l\::-ih a simrlar basic concept to the The 76.2-mm (3-in) rocket was used
- - 34-kg (25-lb) armour-piercing pro- by the Royal Air Force for attacking a
,ectile. the rocket with a 27.22-kg (60- variety of targek, including ships,
lb) iuqh explosive head became stan- tanks, strongpoints, submarines and
dard after 1943, while later in the war troop concentrations. A number of
:ragmentatron missiles of simrlar warheads were evolved for different
-veights were introduced, types of target; the most-usedwas
By this trne a method of delivery the 27.22-kg (60-lb) HE head shown
designed to ensure maximum destruc- here.
5on of the target had been perfected,
This called for the aircraft formation,
row usually Typhoons, to make an
approach al between 1829 m (6,000 ft)
ard3048 m (10,OOO ft), andfrom this the
leader would make the first dive at
about 40" to mark the target, he being
followed at a similar angle at 644 kl/h
(400 mph) or at 30o when a lower
speed of some 612 km/h (380 mph) was
indicated. At an altitude of not more a load of four weapons under each
ihan l52m (500ft) and a distance of wing was no longrer carried side by
500 m (550 yards) from the target the side but instead, on the Mk 7 installa-
complete salvo, said to have a striking tion, fitted in two vertical pairs. A varia-
power equivalent to the broadside tion of this was to be found on the Mk 6
from a destroyer's gnlns, might be fired fitted to the Bristol Beaufighter, which
before the pllot pulled up sharply and gnouped the four round a central fair-
took himself out of the radius of action, ing from which they could be jetti-
there being about five seconds before soned.
the shrapnel from the exploding rock- Developments of the basrc 27.22-kg
ets constituted a real danger to the rocket included the 81.65-kg (180-lb)
aircraft that had launched them, Unfor- projectrle with its three tubes of prop-
tunately it is on record that some 25 per ellant, and the 'Admonitor'with seven
cent of the rockets failed to detonate, motors insrde a large diameter casingr
particularly in the earlier days, and fitted with sx fins, and having a 113,4-
there was a definrte tendency to ks (250-1b) warhead,
uldershoot and the trajectory drop to
be inaccurately estimated, Specification
Before the end of the war, zero- Type: air-to-ground aircraft-launched
lengrth rocket rails were introduced high explosive rocket A Hawker Tlphoon Mk IB, with the old'car door' type canopy, carries 76.2-
-'*'hich alfected the aircraft's perform- Warhead weight : 27,22 kg (60 Ib) mm (3-in) rockets. The shells attached are the 27.22-kg (60-lb) SAP type. Other
ance less markedly, Some of these re- Dimensions: length 1,88 m (6 ft 2 in); types used were the 27.22-kg (60-lb) 'F' fragmentation shell, I I .34-kg (25-Ib)
-rised the position of the mrssiles so that diameter 15.24 cm (6 in) AP and 25Jb SAP shells, and concrete practice versions of tft ese sfie//s.

76.2-mm (3-in) rcckets speed towards locomotiveswaiting in a siding, fired For use against lsoft' targets the 27-kg (60-Ib) HE Type F shell was deyeloped.
bom a South African Air Force Beaufighter. The 27.22-kg (60-lb) shell was This was a thick-walled shell, which exploded into small high-velocity
efrxtive for penetrating locomotive boilers, but the I I .34-kg (25-lb) AP shell fragnents. Pilots using this weapon were warned not to use it under 550 m
wx spcified for use against merchantslrips andsubmarines. (600 yards) because of flying fragments .

Left: Debris flies high in the air after a Above: Four rockets are launched
rocket strike by an SAAF Bristol from a H awker Tlphoon at a German
B e aufigh ter agains t locomotives barge on the Wester Schelde . These
waiting in a siding. Thk locomotive are 76.2-mm (s-in) aircraft rockets
target was in Yugoslavia during the with 27.22-kg (60-lb) semi-armour-
G erman occu pation of that country. piercing shells. Heatfrom the rocket
motor ignited the thermal initiator,
World War II Air{o-Ground Weapons
American bombs
lbsewers in 1945 were in the habit of point suspensron, .ras iiar -uney carleci
:::aking comparison between what an extemal arming wue. Thrs:ar fore
-::ey called the 'superior aerodynamic and afi of the hfting lug posrtron, where
-.:ape' of British bombs and the more it was formed into an eye. From this
s:andardized hnes of those dropped point ii was led rh-rough the twrn sus-
:y the Luftwaffe. Be this as it may, the pension eyes to the nose and tail firses,
jmted States probably displayed the The weight of the released bomb tug-
Ieatest variety of proflles among rts ged thrs wfe foee as it ieft the rack ard
:ee-fall bombs. Almost German in thus armed the missile in a crude but
:neir appearance were the 907-kg effective safety system, T he 454 - kg ( 1,00 0 - Ib) ar mour-piercing bomb u s e d by the USAA.F w as a thic k-
:2,000-lb) AN-M66 GPs used by the US Both the Mk I and Mk 4 'thousand- cased weapon with an explosive filling to weight ratio of only 14 per cent.
Amry and NaW; this type proved tts pounders' were declared obsolete in
-.'alue against ammunition dumps, rarl- 1944, although they continued in ser-
way junctions, airfields and factory nce as lonq as bases held any in store,
sites, while a modifled version of Lhe so that they remained in use until the
AN-M66 could be fltted with an AN-Mk end of the fighting in one theatre or
230 hydrostatic fuse, enablinq tt to be another. These, in common with the
employed agtainst heavily armed sLt- majority of American bombs for qrener-
iace vessels, as well as submarines. a1-purpose use, had a tail formed by
Either Amatol or TNT were the filli:rgs four vanes welded to the tail cone
used for this type. wluch was fastened to the body by
The 454-kg (1,000-1b) sreneral- screv/s. A box form resulted from
prrpose bomb resembled the larqer webs connecting the fins, and the
version, but probably less closely thal whoie was strut-braced internally
it did the 227-kq (500-lb) bomb wrth rts At the opposite end of the scale of
squat construction and a semi-braceci United States bombs mention must be
tail with sheet flns, which was really made ol the obsolete armour-piercing
the lypical Uniled Stares weapon c: ilpes forming the 'M' series, Of these A typical general purpose bomb in use with US forces was the 227-kg (500-lb)
World War II, Employed once more the heavrest was the 408-kq (900{b) weapon shown. It had an explosive filling to weight ratio of 5l per cent
by both the US Army and Narry, these M6. whrch like the rest of the sroup brought about by the use of a thin case. The bomb had two fuses, one in the
were rsed against similar targets tc tjle were converted artillery projectiles. nose and the other in the tail.
Iarger versions, their nose fuses berngr
in the main of AN-M103 pattern. Specification
although the AN-M 125 long-delay ine AN-M8I
fuse could be substituted rf the targe: Type: hrgh explosive fragmentation
jLrstified such a changre, bomb
A feature of United States bon:bs. Weights: I 17,9 kg (260 ]b)
some of which were eqrupped 'n& Dimensions: Ienqth 1.092 m (3 ft 7 in);
lugrs permitting British-style single- drameter 0,203 m (B in)

This shower ofbombs descen ds fromB-17s duringanSthAirForce raid on The tamiliar pictures of Hiroshima have tended to obscure the fact thatUS
Germany inJanuary 1945. Despite enomous advances in aiming techniques conventional raids onJapan often caused greater destruction; this is
and navigational aids, errors still ocanrred and sometimes itwas not only the Hammamatsu after a visit from the B-29 Superforlresses./apanese cities
wrong city thatwas bombed, butthewrong country. proved horribly vulnerable to incendiary munitions.

-r-:nourers ride on two 454-kg (l,000-lb) GP bombs being brought up tor InthePacificwar the aircraftmade little useof guidedweapons, relying on
beding into Boeing B- I 7E day bombers of the United States Army Air Corps. torpedoes and accurate bombing. Here aJapanese escorf fakes a direct hit
7:e fuont bomb still has the transit plug fitted in the nose ; this would have fr om a bom b dropped by a B - 2 5 duting an attack on a convoy off Leyte.
:en replacedby thefuse and armingvane.
A*erican hear,ry bombs
:.ap-cily becoming known by the The US I 8 I 4-Icg (4,000-lb) light case
;e:::nc htle of 'concrete-piercers', Un- bomb was used for large-scale
-:=d States bombs designed for attacks demolition of targels sucfi as
:;:-:si rernforced tarqets of concrete factories.Ithad an explosive tilling to
:: sieel construction were, although weight ratio of 80 per cent.
:::ridable, never to rival the British
::1',1es tn power and sze.
largest was the 725,7-kg (1,600-lb) steel construction, was the SAP (semi-
:rnour-piercinq AN-Ivlk I fitted with a armow-prercing) type, This was cap-
s:::gle tail fi$e, the AN-Mk 228 with a able of having an altemative fitting of
- l3-second delay, Filled with pressed either AN-M10242 or AN-M103 fuses
-tplosive D'or TNT, the AN-Mk I was in the tail and nose respectively so that
::raed ftom a single piece of steel, fragmentation could be achieved on
-::ged and machined, with a pointed suitable targets, These weapons il/ere
:-:se. parallel sides and slight boat tail- of single-piece cast or spun constmc-
-:-jl ieading to a male-type base plate. tion wrth streamlined, semi-pointed
l: thrs was fitted the normal box type noses in which a threaded opening re-
:a:l assembly while the body was ceived a fuse-seat liner and steel plug,
with side trunnions between which could be exchanged for an in-
-je hvo suspension lugs on the upper stantaneous fuse if required.
s,-iment, with British single point be- A modified version of the generally
similar AN-M58 weighing only 227 kg
Sumlar to this type tn detail was the (500 ]b) was produced by the removal
AN-Mk 33, 272ks (6001b) lishter but of 4.3i ks (9.5]b) of the Amatol fi1ling
:apable ol being used aqatnst similar and replacing it with 14.29 kg (31 5]b)
:argets, which might also include bat- of steel to improve penetration. They
leships and cruisers, These smaller were then re-designated AN-MS8AL
lcmbs were later modrfied (as were
:e Mk ls) for suspension by means of Specification
screw-in lugs secured by bolts, thus AN-I\4k I
:eplacing those of the welded type T'ype: armour-piercing high explosive
=ired to bands set in qooves in the bomb
aeslngi. W eight: 72L2 kq ( 1, 590 lb) A good example of the high concentration of bombing obtained by US day
A second tlpe of 454-kg (1,000-lb) Dimensions: length2, t I m(6 ft I I in) bombers: the targetin this casewas Marifu railyard, two miles south of Otaka,
i,rnerican bomb, intended for use Filling: compressed expiosive 'D' or Japan, whichyvas bombed by Boeing B-29s of the 2 I st Bombardment Group
:;arnst land targets of concrete or castTNT dwingAuglu!t 1945.

I Houi"t rockets
l::e Soviet Union may well be able to crete defensire positions, the BETAB-
:iam that it pioneered the introduction l50DS,
:- :he rocket as a modern aerial It is perhaps not fu1ly realized that
,r-rpon, but this was when they were one of the contributions to the acclaim
::-iisaged as air-to-air weapons, heaped on the llyushin il-2 aircraft as
:esied first in 1937, the idea being that the war progressed was the type's
.i ighters wouid be equrpped to carry effective use of B2-mm rockets, which
: baltery of srx to eigrht rockets on were deployed wlth success against
::-iermng launchers. They were to targets such as soft-skinned transport
:::eive the desigmations RS-75 and RS- and troop concentrations, particularly The 1 00-kg (220Jb) high-explosive bomb was a
ts2 'ne numencal suffix referring to ifthe latter were caught unprepared in standard weapon used by I lyushin ll-Zs tor ground
:-er diameters, 75mm (2,95in) and the open, attackwork. The fatnous heavily-armoured attack
:2 rm (3.23 rn) respectively. Introduced at a later date were the aircraft could carry six of these bombs.
;. girourd-attack version was de- RS-132 variants: similar to the ROFS-
;=i:ped during the following year, and 132, these could be fitted with two
-,:- largier and of increased dia- types of head, the solid verston being
:-er=r. Thrs RS-I32 was rntended for rntended for burlding demolitton,
:::::g to bombers, while that with a hollow-chargre head
l,leanwhile the RS-75 was used for was directed against armour,
1e :rsi trme over Mongolia, durinq the
l.::::cnhan Incident agatnst Japanese Specification The Soviet Union commenced production of airborne
:r:11t. but although some successes RS-82 rocke t we apons in I 9 37, the first being the RS - 7 5, a
;';::: claimed, the RS-75 and RS-82 Type: air-to-ground aircraft-launched 750-mm diameter rocket. At first this was used for
:--r.ies ceased to be mentioned in re- rocket air-to-air combat, but later these weapons were used
pc:- a-fter the opening months of the Weight: 24,9 kg (55 ]b) for ground attack. The rocket shown is equipped with
rr:: aqamst Germany, although their Dimensions: lenqth 0,864 m (2 ft 10 tn); a fragimentation head.
::-,-:1:pment was to make an impor- diameter82 mm(3,23 in)
:--: ::nirrbutron tn another fleld,
--:-s :cok the form of a specialized The Souiet U nion's rocket we apons
;:--::i-aitack rocket, the RBS-82, that for airborne usewere produced in
r== ::oduced in 1941. itwas from this flrreesr'zes, RS-75, RS-82 and RS- I 32,
:.:: : ;:e-,v vanant was produced with the numerals denoting the diafieter
::-pr:-;ed velocity and rncreased
-;::::11=t in millimetres. The RS- I 32 shown has
capacity as the armour- an explosive headfor piercing
;-=::-::j ROFS-132, while much the strongpoints. Il-2s used these bombs
i-:-: --r::e saw the introduction of a and 37-mm cannon to gireateffect.
;::=:: :::e::.ded for use agamst con-

A MiG-S of the I Zth Fighter Regiment in I 942 carries RS-82 rocket weapons
under thewings.This 82-mm rocketcouldbeused as an air-to-airor air-lo-
giround weapon. Firings of rockets of 75, 82 and 132-mm diameter began in
tfi e USSR in J 933, and the RS -Z 5 was firs t produced in I I 37.
Armed Forces of the World

Part 2

TheAir Force
A vital component in NATO's front-line strength,
West Germany fields an air force of 1,200 aircraft,
650 of which are combat-capable. The number ls to
be reduced slightly as replacement continues of
Lockheed Starfighters by a smaller number of Pana-
via Tornados, but strike/attack potential will be con-
siderably enhanced. ln order to maintain an efficient
fighting force, a 1S-year defence programme has
just begun, the major features of which will include
200 new fighters deslgnated JF-90; a replacement
tactical reconnaissance system; and new jet train-
ers. The JF-90 will almost certainly be provided by a
European programme and will involve 144 aircraft,
plus reserves and a training allocation, for four oper-
ational wings.
ln its present form, the Luftwaffe comprises
three major commands: Taktische Luftf lotten Kom-
mando (Tactical Air Force Command); Luftflotten-
amt (Air Force General Office); and Luftwaffe Unter-
stutzungskommando (Air Force Support Com-
mand), which has no flying units. Tactical Command
operates all the combat aircraft, sub-divided into Nr
1 Luftwaffe Division for attack units in the south of
the country; Nr3 LwDlvfor northern attack units; Nr
2 LwDiv for southern air-defence units; and Nr 4
LwDiv for northern air-defence units. ln total, these
administer eight fighter-bomber, two interceptor
and two tactical reconnaissance wings (usually of Completely overshadowing all other aircraft in the The air fiorces ofNATO constantly practise and
wvo squadrons each), two OCUs and a training orga- inventory is the Tornado, 228 ot which are being refine operational techniques. Here a Luftwaffe
nization in the USA. received (togetherwith 96 for the naval air arm)from McDonnell Douglas F-4F takes fuel from a USAF
production by MBB. Apart from nuclear weapons KC- 1 35 Stratotanker above Northern Europe.
Time is now running out for the F-'104 Starfighter,
316 of which were delivered, the greater proportion and conventional bombs, the Tornado will carry the
lf them from European manufacture. Over 250 bulky MW-l stores dispenser under the belly for JBG 38. The Federal German navy formed the first
^ave been lost in accidents, as a result of which the anti-armour and airfield attacks; Hughes Maverick Tornado wing, followed by the Luftwaffe's JBG 31.
-rftwaffe Starfighter has gained an unenviable ASMs; and, Iater, a stand-off stores dispenser. An which was established at Norvenich in August 1983.
'eputation although, on balance, it is no more electronic combat and reconnaissance (ECR) model JBG 31 (which is named in honourof the Germanair
:angerous than the F-1 04s of other users. Only one is also being studied, in which lamming capability ace, Boelcke) was formerly a Starfighter wlng, as
'ghter-bomber wlng now flies the type: Jagdbom- will be provided by the same ALO-99 equipment was JBG 32 at Lechfeld, the recipient of Tornados in
::rgeschwader (JBG) 34 at Memmingen, with a fitted to the USAF's General Dynamics EF-1 11 August 1985. At Brichel, JBG 33 relinquished its
--rminal strength of 54 F-l04Gs and eight TF-1 04G Ravens. F-l04s in April 1985 before receiving Tornados four
:-: ners. Since 1983, however, extra TF-'1 04Gs have Conversion to the Tornado as an aircraft is under- months later, and it will be augmented (probably lr.
::en operated. following disbandment of the taken in the UK at the Trinational Tornado Training 1 987) by JBG 34 to complete the Tornado progran'-

S::rfighter conversion unit, Waffenschule 10. A Establishment (TTTE), RAF Cottesmore, while me as currently envisaged.
:-all unit at Manching, Luftwaffenschleuse 11, is weapon system instruction is the responsibility of McDonnell Douglas Phantoms are important ele-
':sponsible for handling F-1 04s being prepared for JBG 38 at Jever. Some 22 German Tornados are ments of the combat force, includlng 79 of the 8E
-,-:.sfer to Greece and Turkev. based at Cottesmore, and a similar number with RF-4E tactical reconnaissance aircraft ordered 'r-
1968 for Aufkliirungsgeschwader 51 'lmmelman' a:
Bremgarten and AG 52 at Leck. Beginning in 1973
these have been converted to dual-role capabilrt
with the addition of a weapon sight and equipmen:
for external stores. Next, between 1 973 and 1 976.
the Luftwaffe received 175 F-4Fs (of which '1 62
remain), half of them assigned to the f ighter-bombei'
wings, JBG 35 at Pferdsfeld and JBG 36 at Hopster
A further 10 F-4Es were bought in 1977, but these
are operated in full USAF markings from George
AFB, California, by the 35th FTW for training Ge-
man personnel. Afler conversion, crews report ::
the Zentrale Ausbildungsstaffel (Central Training
Squadron) at Hopsten, where they become acc;s-
tomed to a European environment by flying in tne
F-4Fs of an extra (third) squadron of JBG 36. F-4:s
have recently completed an update programme :.
enable them to carry a wider range of weapcns
including the Maverick ASM, the AIM-9L verslcn c'
the Sidewinder AAM, and laser-guided bombs.
Destined to form the backbone of the Luftwalfe's
strike/attackforce tothe end of the century, the
Panavia Tornado is in the process of equipping
four operational wings. I llustrated is a'lizard'-
camouflaged machine of JBG 31 .
Armed Forces of the World WestGermany T
Synonymous with Luftwaffe oper ations over the
last two decades, the LockheedF-104G Starfighter
has rapidly diminished in terms of frontJine
commitmentas the PanaviaTornado has entered
service. This is an aircraft ofJtsG 34, the last
op er a tio nal fr ont- Iine unit.

Luftwaffeflying units
Unit Equipment Base
JBG 31 Tornado Norvenich
JBG 32 Tornado Lechf eld
3./JBG 32 HFB 32OECM Lechfeld
JBG 33 Tornado B r.ichel
JBG 34 F-1 04 Starfighter Memmingen
JBG 35 F-4F Phantorrr Pf erdsf eld
JBG 36 F 4F Phantom Hopsten
JBG 38 Tornado Jever
JBG 41 Alpha Jet Husum
JBG 43 Alpha Jet Oldenburg
(JBG 44-) Alpha Jet (Leipheim)
JBG 49 Alpha Jet FLI rstenfeldbruck
3./J BG 49 P.'1 49D/Skvservant FU rstenfeldbruck
AG 51 RF-4E Phantom Bremgarten
AG 52 RF-4E Phantom Leck
LTG 61 Transall C.160D Landsberg
3 /LTG 61 UH-1 D lroquois Landsberg
LTG 62 Transall C.160D Wunstorf
- l-. attack missions are flown by the 175 Das- service until 2010. Lufttransportgeschwader 61, 62 2.ILIG 62 C.1 60D/Skyservant Wunstorf
- .3,eguet/Dornier Alpha Jets delivered up to and 63 at Landsberg, Wunsdorf and Hohn share the (Detachment
-,.-,, 1983. Conversion trarning is by JBG 49 at C.1 60s, although LTG 61 has an addit onal squadron at Beja)
-..:r'eldbruck (invarably shortened to 'FL.lrsty'), of 25 Ds, and ITG 62 maintarns a transport

- :^ :
UH-'1 LTG 63 TransallC.l60D Hohn
so hasathirdsquadronwrth Piaggio P.149D training flight (also including Skyservants) wrth a HG 64 UH-1D lroquois Ahlhorn
- : :ires and Dornier Do 2BD-2 Skyservants for detachment at Beja. The remain ng three squadrons JG 71 F-4F Phantom Wittmundhaven
-. ::'eening and initial navrgator train ng. (Most of UH-'1 Ds are at Ahlhorn with Hubschrauberge- JGl4 F-4F Phantom Neuburg
-:- .'. 1gs havethree orfourSkyservants, from 90 schwader 64 and the helrcopter crew school (l-1ub- FBS Boeing 707, Hansa, Cologne/Bonn
--: ^ ^g, for communrcat ons.) Weapons trarning schrauberschule). HG 64 is responsible for many of VFW614,
. -: . :ce at Beja, in Portugal, on B Alpha Jets of 1 the SAR and base rescue f lights of lroquo s helicop- Skyservant
: - .::.e Luftwaffenkommando Beja, these being ters detached to several airfields. VIP and long- JetStar
=- :-e 'shadow' identity and base of JBG 44 at distance f lying is the responsibility of the SpecialAir .AusbStff
T-37, T-38Talon Sheppard AFB
--: - n the event of wartime mobilizatron. The Missions Squadron (Flugbereitschaftstaffel) at Col- 2.AusbStff F-4EPhantom George AFB
=- - rna Jetwings are JBG 41 at Husum and JBG ogne/Bonn Airport with four Boeing 707-320Cs, TTTE Tornado RAF Cottesmore
.. 3 denburg, and their combat duties would three VFW 614s, four Skyservants, four UH-1Ds, LwS '11 F-'1 04 Starfighter Manching
r. :-: y nvolve
antr-helicopter operations. three Lockheed JetStars and six HFB 320 Hansas. EStelle 61 various Manching
-- ::'ence units include the F-4F Phantoms of The JetStars and Hansas are in the process o{ re-
.:;=::rwader 7'1 'Richthofen' and JG l4'Mal- placement by seven Canadair 601 Challengers. Luftwaffe missile u nits
-- :.::d at Wittmundhaven and Neuburg re- Training operations at home are adminrstered by '1A
FKG Pershing Landsberg
=-..:. and armed with AIM-9L Sidewinders the Ausbildungskommando within the Luftwaffen- 1

- ,'-., ..'ie has no medium-ranqe radar-quided amt, flying being restricted to the 40 P.149Ds of FKG 2 Pershing 1A Geilenkirchen
-- .': .-l .nust rely on RAF Phantoms and USAF JBG 49 used for grading at 'Fursty' Other actrvities FRR 1 lmproved HAWK Freising
I - - -= louqlas F 15 Eagles, whrch have such a are now in the USA. under the control of Tactical FRR 2 Nike-Hercules Lich
--.. -alvever, JG 71 and 74 are'war onJy' Command. After grading, students report to Nr 1 FRR 3 lmproved HAWK Heide
: ::::-se the post-1945 Allied peace treaty, Ausbildungsgruppe USA, otherwise known as the FRR 4 lmprovedHAWK Bremervorde
- ,- .-: .-SSR insists on retaininq, permits only B0th Fly ng Training Wing, USAF, at Sheppard AFB, FRR13 Nike-Hercules Soest
: ,:-: :rd French aircraft to police West Ger- Texas. The BOth FTW operates some 40 each of FRR 14 N ike-H e rc u les O lden bu rq

: - . -::::: n the future, however, F-4Fs are to Cessna T-37Bs and Northrop T-3BA Talons remain- *'shadow' for DtLwKdo Beja
- ,:' :: .'.'i. new radar and Hughes AIM-120 ing from 41 and 46, respectively, bought with Ger-
: - -'.': : o ve an all-weather, look-down/shoot man f unds and painted in USAF markings. Pilots f ly Abbreviations
- : - :-.: On the ground, the Luftwaffe has 1 32 hours on T-37s and an advanced course of 1 30 AG Auf kldrunosgeschwader
:...,^: s x reg rnents) of Baytheon Mllvl-23B hours with the T-38, although plans are in hand to (reconnaissance wrng)
acquire new trainers in the course of the current AusbStff Ausbildungsstaffel(trainlngsquadron)
------- Seltls, the latterto be replaced later 15-year defence programme. The 10 F-4E Phan- EStelle Erprobungsstelle (experimentai
= :. ;avtheon MIM 104 Patrots. Euro- toms at George AFB are known as Nr 3 Aus establishment)
- - 'I --',1 SAMs are also being acqulred for bi dungsgruppe. FBS Flugbereitschaftstaffel (specialarr
. , --'--:: :-JO ement ng 20-mm cannon. Re Miscellaneous aircraft to be seen in service ln- missions squadron)
- - : -'. '. .": -
ss les are Martin MGM-3i Per- clude seven Hansas fitted for ECM training and FKG Flugkorpergeschwader (missile wing)
-. ---
=,- SSVs of Flugkorpergeschwader 1 operated by the Flugmessstaffel at Lechfeld, where FRR Flugabwehrraketenregiment (ant -
it is attached to the Tornado wing, J BG 32. There are aircraft missrle regiment)
also two BAC Canberra B.Mk 2s used for survey HG H ubsch rau bergeschwader (helicopter
j 1 3s s expected to total only work by the Military Geographic Off ice (MilGeoAmt) wing)
from Schleswig-Jagel; and 16 Rockwell OV-l08 JG Jagdgeschwader {interceptor wing)
:- - -' '' a.-', -'orce command, the Luft-
-: Broncos and24FiaI G91 R/Ts at Lubeckand Husum, JBG Jagdbombergeschwader (f ig hter-
-- .-:-sr.rt Jn,ts, wth a main fleet
:'- -.:- flown by civilian firms rn the target facrlities role. bomberwing)
.. - l. '-: I 1O Dornier-Bell UH-1D Lastly, there s Erprobungsstelle 61 at Manchrng, LTG Lr.r'ttransportgeschwader (air
: : :-: '-:^- T i0 and l35 deliveries which is the central nnilitary aircraft test establish- transport wing)
: ...-- . I - 6Cs t"vere transf erred to ment, operating a small f ieet of current operational LwS Luftwaff enschleuse (air f orce
'e'r'b shed fo- types and a few back-up aircraft. forwarding unit)