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Volume 6 Issue 66

Published by
Orbis Publishing Ltd
@ Aerospace Publishing Ltd 1984
Colour profiles, diagrams and cutaway
drawings @ Pilot Press Ltd

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Grrier Aircrcfftof
the 1960s
Cgrier aircraft continued to develop throughout the 1960sn
and the new generation of aircraft wete more capable than
even Leading the way were the Americuts, who had the
ehance of proving their caruierborne air power over the skies
of South East Asia, frere we describe the sHpboatd aitcraft of
the era andtheir combat action.

Well before the 1950s came to an end, the decade's hectic pace of
aircraft technical development had resulted in several major trans-
formations in shlpboard aircraft. One was the emergence of the helicop-
ter as a mature and useful weapon and transport vehicle, but that is not
covered here. Another was the mating of the supersonic jet with the With a narrow-track undercarriage and its large size, the Douglas A-3
carrier deck, a synthesis that was assisted by errowth in the size of those Skywarrior was quite a handful to land on a pitching deck. It was-andslillis-
decks, but which was later accomplished by the British and French one ofthe largest aircraft to fly from a carrier.
using decks no larger than those of World War II. The gas twbine engine
played a centrai role in many of the new developments, one obvious (for example they invariably have to fold up to fit in small hangars below
advantage belng eiimination from the scene of high-octane petrol (gaso- decks), What may be less obvious is just how tough the design require-
line). Its power transformed the capabilities of shipboard attack aircraft ments really are, The pull of the modern catapult is nothing short of
and tvrro of the bombers discussed in thrs issue could take off at a weight brutal; even if the aircraft had its englne ofland the wheel brakes locked
exceeding 40 tons. Another new development, which in fact was first the 'cat'would fling the aircraft oflthe deck at some 150 mph (241 kn/h).
achieved with piston engines, was the combination ln one aircraft of the Each l{on store hung under the aircraft slams back with the iorce of 5
ability to search for submerged submarines and then to attack them; tons, and even the fuel in the tanks exerts a Zton force on every sguare
prevlously this had demanded a team of two aircraft, one the hunter and foot of tank rear walll As for the landing, this is roughly iike dropping from
the other the killer, the rool ol a two-storey buildinq, often over a deck that is rolling or
It is well known that carrier-based aircraft have a harsher life than pitching in a rough sea, At the instant of impact the pilot slams the
those based on airfields, and that their design has to be more complex throttle(s) wide open in case the arresting cables are missed, The hook
then snatches a cable and the colossal pull brings the screaming mass to
Two of the most advanced carrier aircraft of the I 960s were the Mfionnell F-4
a stop in just two seconds, Modern birds are designed to su-ffer this 6,000
Phantom II and the North American A'5 Vigilante, here seen together over
Hawaii. The F-4 sometimes provided fighter escort for the A-5. times, and to stay serviceable,
Douglas F-O (F4D) Skyray
Yet another of Ed Heinemann's de- D ouglas F 4D s of M arine squ adron
signs for the US Navy, the prototYPe VMF-53 1 formate for the camera
Douglas XF4D-I Skyray flew on 23 showing the distinctive lines of this
January 1951, Inspired by the German aircra{t. Bestowed with astonishing
l,ippisch designs, it was almost a tail- vertical climb, the S ky r ay s ewed
less delta, the wrng actually being a with the Marines until I 964, in hoth
cuwed swept wing of low aspect ratio interceptor and ground-attack roles.
with remarkable drooping slats and
with elevons and outboard ailerons on Iar aircraft, it was one of the first single-
the trailing edge, Another unusual fea- seaters tobe equipped with a large
ture was that the sktn was composed of all-weather interception radar fire-
inner and outer layers of thin alumt- control system, the Westinghouse
nium joined at a sedes of drmPles on APQ-50rAero 13. In two successive
the inner skin to give stability, Yet vears the Skyray won the premler tro-
another unusual choice was that the bhy awarded to the best of all fighter
flight controis were fullY Powered, squadrons based rn the USA. despite
almost for the first time on a fighter, but the fact 1t equipped the only non-USAF
in the event of failure the pilot could unit to compete.
extend his telescopic control column In 1962 the Skyraywasredesignated
to give increased leverage in the F-6A, By this trne it was being re-
manual mode, placed in first-line service by the F-4
Deslqned to climb fast and steePlY and F-8, but a few survrved with US afterburning thrust Pratt & Whitney Dimensions: span 10.21 m (33 ft 6 in),
to intercept bombers attackinq the Marine untts in both intercePt and J57-B turbojet Iensth 13 79 m (45 ft 3 in)-height 3.96 rn
gnound attack missions until Performance: maximum speed (13 ft0ln); wingarea5l,75 m
fleet, the F4D-I (from its designation 1964,
(557 sq ft)
popularly called the 'Ford') was I 162 krn/h (7 22 mph) at sea level;
another US Navy type that began llfe Specification range on internal fuel 1931 kn (1,200 Armament: four 20-mm Mk 12 cannon
with the Westinqhouse J40 engine. Douglas F-6A Skyray miles); service ceilinq 16765 m each with 70 rounds, plus seven
This succeeded in setting a world Type: sinetle-seat carrier-based (55,000 ft) external pylonsfor 1814 kg (4,000 lb) of
speed record at 121 1,5 km/h interceptor Weights:empty 7268 kg (16,024 lb); bombs, rocket pods or four
(752.8 mph) in 1953 but was actually a Powerplant: one 6804-kg ( 15, 000-1b) maximum take-off 12701 kq (28,000 lb) SidewrnderAAMs
failwe, and the J57 was fitted to the 420
production 'Fords' delivered in 1956-8,
Thanks to its early inception the Sky-
ray did not dispense with gmns, and in
semce with US Nalry and US Marine
Corps squadrons it quicklY estab-
lished itselfas a highly aedle and popu-

The Skyray could carry bombs or

ungaided rockets (illustrated) in the
ground attack ro[e, as well as the four
wing-mounted 20-mm cannon. For
inter ception du ties, AI M - I
Sidewinders were usually carried'
This example is from VFAW-3.

E tougtas A-3 (A3D) SkYwarrior

Representing a fantastlc quantum stalled, Despite the use of the Grum-
jump in the capablltty of carrier-based man KA-6D Intruder, the KA-38 is sttll
attack aircraft, the prototlpe Douglas often found aboard US NavY carriers,
XA3D-I Slolwarrior flew in 1952, Yet as well as berng the standard heavy
many of these gneat machtnes soldier tanker for use from shore bases. Con-
on rn the mid-1980s. Planned to fit the sidering it was designed to a 1948 spe-
giant new 'Forrestal' class carrier, the cification, the Sk]'warrior has had an
A3D was almost a seagoing Boeing B- amazingly long innings, and in its flve
47, and 1t gave the US Nalry nuclear major veisions proved an ideal aircraJt
retaliation capabriity all over the for many of the US NavY's most chal-
world, Ed Heinemann's design team at lensinghissions throughout the 1960s
first said 'This is a Westrnghouse air-
plane built by Douglas', because that Specification
supplier was responsible for the big Douglas A-38 Skywarrior
podded engines, the defensive tail tur- Tlpe: three-seat carrier-based
ret, the giant nose nav/bombingt radar, bomber
the electrical system and many other Powerplant: two 5625-kg ( 12,4001b)
items, But the engine was a fatlure and thrust (wet ratinqr) Pratt & Whitney J57-
the A,3D-I entered service in 1956 with l0 turbojets The immense size of the Sl<ywarrior to I aunch. The S kyw arrior fi as been
the reliable J57, thereafter being stan- Performance: maximum sPeed fiispjcture of USS Nimitz
is evident in operated in the electronicwarlare
dard equipment in the US NavY VAH 982 kn/h (610 mph) at 3050 m crewmen moving a VQ- I EA-38 prior role for nearly 20 years.
heavy attack wings, (10,000 ft); range on internalstandard
A three-seater, the A3D (redesig- fuel4667 km (2,900 miles); service length (excluding probe) 23,27 m (76 ft nuclear. plus two 20-mm cannon In
nated A-3 rn 1962) has swept foldingt ceilins 12500 m(41,000 ft) 4 in); heishlQ,95 m(22 fl9.5 rn); wins radar-duected tail turret
wings and folding vertical tail, giant Weights: empty 17876 ks (39,409 1b); area 75,43 m'(B12 sq ft)
fuselage airbrakes and a capacious maxlmum take-off 37 195 kq (82, 000 lb) Armament: typically 5443 kg
Dimensions: span 22, 10 m (72 ft 6 in); (12,000 lb) of various bombs, including
weapons bay. Variants included the
RA-38 five-seat reconnaissance air-
craft with an impressive fit of cameras
(12) and other sensors, the EA-3B This Douglas A3D-27 (TA-38 after 1962) crewlradar trainer is attached to
seven-seat EW (electronic warfare) reconnaiisance squadronRvAH'3. These aircraft had a pressurized fuselage
and ECM (electronlc countermea- for six pupils, and-retained the original remotely'controlled tail gun barbette,
sures) models with great electronic re- although the actual guns were removed
connaissance capability, the TA-3B
-&-t Ew v
eight-seat crew trainer, and the KA-38 r'h .
tanker. Today only the tanker remains
in use, though some are EKA-38 air-
craft with va-rious EW systems still iri

I 302
Carrier Aircraft in Vietnam
Naval aviation had its first hard work-out since the Korean war in the skies ovet until Operation 'Frequent Wind. re :;::'j:-
Vietnam. Throughout the I L-year involvement, the US Navy continued the fine tion of Saigon, in April 1975 F-4B Ph=::=_ --
traditions first encountered by the J apanese during World War I I. This time, fighters from the USS Mldway (CVA i _. s:: :3tr
however, there was to be no glorious victory. the first and last aerial victories c: -:-= -,';-
shootlng down a MiG-17 on 4 Septer::ie: -:::
and a MiG-21 on 12 January 1973. E'.'e:- -,:-:::r:
At the controls of Vought F-8E Crusader 150924 service at the outset of the decade faded away US fighters had the added burden :: L=_::
of Fighter Squadron VF-211 from the carrier or acquired new roles as the Vietnam fighting built for rugged, demanding opera--:::-s :::-_
the USS Ticonderoga (CV 14), Commander heated up, The Douglas F-6A (F4D-l) Skyray carrier decks, Crusaders and P:ia::--:=--:
Harold L, Marr turned round and saw a MiG-17 andGrummanF-l1A (Fl iF-l) Tigerwere gone proved themselves a match for Hano:s c,::::_-
on his taii. It was 2 December 1966 over paddy from ships' decks before hostllities began. The MrG force, shootrng down 67 MiGs in-hie s-=: : -
fields north west of Hanoi, and Marr had just Douglas EF-I0B (F3D-2) Skykniqht two-seat ing only 17 losses in alr-to-air comba: i:=:o:
demonstrated the fighting mettie of the carrier- twin-jet, designed as a night-fighter, served in planes, reconnaissance aircraft, tankers
based F-8E by outmanoeuvring a MIG-17 and Vietnam as an electronic warfare alrcraft. The --l
helicopters proved durrng the South Eas: -:-s_:
shooting rt down with a heat-seeking AIM-9D Vought F-8 Crusader and Douglas A-3 Skywar- fighting that shipboard aircraft, des:gr-::
Sidewinder mlssile. Now Marr heeded a wing- rior entered Vietnam combat in therr intended maintained and flown by professionai r:
man's warning, broke to the left, and allowed a roles as fighter and bomber, but by iate in the among the most formidable of weapors
second North Vletnamese fighter to pass him, decade were being used ior reconnalssance
Marr's earphones hummed with the tone re- and infliqht-refuelling, North American's A-5 The carrierforce
vealing that the seeker head of his infra-red Vigilante never went into battle ln its intended At least one attack carrier (CVA) was a--,';a,,-s
Sidewinder had iocked on to the MiG, Marr capacity as a bomber but was the most impor- at 'Dixie' Statlon off the coast of South Vie:-=::_
fired his remainlng missile, watched MiG and tant reconnalssance aircraft of the war, Even for strikes against Viet Cong gnrerrrllas .l: :=
missile vanish into cumulus, and saw the qulck the plucky Douglas A-4 Skyhawk, which fought south, and another at 'Yankee' Station r- -:_=
glare of an explosion, His second klll of the day heroically in the mid- and late-1960s, was gone Gulf of Tonkin to assault the heartland ol N:r:-
was a 'probable', An hour later, the arresting from carrrer decks by the decade's end. Ulti- Vietnam, Carrier aircraft really fought -::=e
hook of Marr's Crusader caught the trap' res- mately, the Vietnam carrier war would be the separate wars: ground-attack and c-cse-
training wire on Ihe Ticonderoga's pitching province of aircraft whrch flew for the first time
flight deck and the F-8E pilot was home, having or began sewice in the 1960s, the McDonnell
risen from the sea to figrht in the air in a duel Douglas F-4 Phantom, Vought A-7 Corsair, and In the hot and humid climate of the South China
Sea, ground crew prepare aDouglas A-4 Slqhawk
characteristrc of sky battles fought by US naval Grumman A-6 Intruder. for another mission against Communist forces in
aviation in the long Vietnam conflict, Using aircraft of the 1960s throughout, US Vietnam. The S fuhawk was to become the maj or
Vietnam was a crucible for shipboard men Navy carrier avration played a vitai role in Vlet- light attack aircraft for the US Navy throughout the
and machines of the 1960s, Carrier aircraft in nam from the Gulf of Tonkin incidents in 1964 campaign.
* r\'0

ilf:: "::

,i: l-"ttt'
. ...i.
, ,'tt

'Tracer Detachment 34);

craft (VFP-63 one of Grumman-
!' ,i' E- I B AEW aircraft (VAW- I 1 I); one of
EA-lF Skyraiders (VAW-13) andone of Kaman
support missions in South Vreinam (196+-.i, UH-2A Seasprite hehcopters (HC-I) In some
the-'Rolllng Thunder' campaign agairs: \:l: carrier air wings, US Marine Corps aircraft
Vietnam (1965-8) which ended with a :enpcr- were assigned, the corps'VMFA-333 sqgq4ron
ary bombing halt; and the Lrnebackqr cp.eli- in F-4J Phantoms on the USSAmenca (CY4 961
tions agarnst North Vietnam (1972-3) -rlcn scoring the sole US Marine carrierbased MiG
finally pressured Hanoi into a setilemerr:. !-.t-l- iension While carrying out duties whtch, even ki]] of the war.
ing the final stages, as many as three carr:ers in peacetime, are extremely dangerous. Deck Fighters provrded MiG combat air patrol
crews who worked with powerful steam cata- (MIGCAP) to shield the fleet and its attack air-
were positioned off North Vletnam
'Flat-tops' varying in size from lhe Wcrid \r'ral pu-lts and risky arresting gear shared the credit craft from enemy interceptors, but were used,
II USS Hancock (CVA 19) to :he :.ruciear- lor combat success with men who routinely too, in the strike role, the sight of a Crusader or
powered USS Enlerprrse (CVAli 65) hac ic a-llowed themselves to be slammed into the sky Phantom with bombs and rockets being a
expect enemy attack even thougn :hey re- from heaving, pitching carrier decks. Dramatic familiar one to enemy ground troops Carrier
malned largely untouched throughcu: -he',var' incidents proved that carriers could be aviatlon's real punch came from the Alpha
and ctews of up to 4,000 men lived tn constani threatened: during the mining of Haiphong har- Strike', a daytime missron by attack aircraft
bour by A-7 Corsairs, for example, a MiG was under visual flying conditions, to deliver rocket
shot down by a ship-launched Talos surface{o- projectiles and/or tron bombs to enemy
air missile before tt could reach the USS Coral iargrets, On strlke missions in South Vietnam,
Sea (CVA 43). Skyhawk or Corsair pilots held no option over
A carrier air wing was typically equipped the choice of tarqets, belng directed to Viet
with two or three attack, two fighter and one Cong strongholds by forward air controllers
reconnaissance squadrons, wlth detachments and requiring formal clearance before ex-
of tankers, airborne early warning (AEW) air- pending ordnance, tn order to avoid strikes on
craft and helicopters, An itlustrative 'mix' of targets, North Vietnam was 'free',
aircraft was iound on USS Onskany (CVA 34), a attack pilots being authorized to roam the
39,700-ton veteran built just after Worid War II North in search of targets of opportunity.
and used throughout the Vietnam conflict. On The aircraft
its 26 May-16 November 1966 West Paclflc/
Vietnam cruise, the 'Big O' carrled all or part of The Douglas A-4 Skyhawk light attack alr-
Severalaircraftwere painted in an experimental lO squadrons: tvvo of F-8C Crusaders (VF-l1l craft, aithough universally loved by piiots and
green camouflage during the war . The scheme and VF-162); two of A-4E Skyhawks (VA-163 able to absorb punishing anti-aircraft arti11ery
was dropped ai the deck crew found it difficult to damage, will be remembered by some for lts
and VA-164); one of A-lH Skyraiders (VA-152);
handle the aircraft during night operations. cramped cockpit and limited range. By the late
Among the types converted were the A-4 Skyhawk, one of A-3B Skywarriors (VAH-4 Detachment
RA-l Vigilante and the A-6 Intruder. G); one ofRF-8G Crusader reconnaissance air- I960s, it had been superseded on carrier

I 304
One of the most famous actions of the war CarrierAircraft of the 1960s
occurred when C ommander Dick Bellinger,
skipper of W- 162 flying from USS OriskJny, sfiot
down the first MiG-Z I for the Navy in his Vought
F-lE Crusader. Bellinger used tuio Sidewind,-er
missiles to hit the MiG, whieh was manoeuvring
hard . Following the hit, Bellinger iound himseii too
low and had to wrestle the airZraft out o! its dive,
pulling outjust above the trees.


decks by the Vought A-7 Corsarr II, which had

a spacious cockpit, a computerized navigation
and weapons-delivery system, and enough en- sion took place after 5 April 1965 when an
durance to prowl the entire North Vietnamese RF-8G Crusader returned to the USS Coral Sea
coastline on a single mission, On carrier decks, (CVA 43) with the first photos of a North Viet- continued throughout the war, a darinq Shrike
the low-slung, gaping air inlet for the A-7s namese surface-to-air missile site under con, 'lron Hand' mission being carrled out by Corn-
turbofan engine had a way of rngesting loose struction. An 'iron Hand' or SAM suppression mander Lewis W, Dunton III in an A-7A CorsaLr
objects (and people, there being no grille effort was mounted by A-4E Skyhawks of ofSquadron VA-37 on the USS Saratoga (CYF
ahead of the engine stator blades) but aloft the Squadron VA-23 from the USS Midway (CVA 60) under a quarter-moon in the dead of nigh:
15 000-1b (6804-kq) thrust Allison TF4]-A-2 (a 4l) which assaulted the enemy positions on 12 on 18 December 1972, By that date, the issue
US development of the Rolls-Royce Spey) Augmst 1965 using AGM-65 Shrike anti-radar was almost decided. Bred and tempered in the
propelled a rugged aircraft of great ordnance- missiles (ARM) which homed on North Viet- 1960s US Navy carrier pilots and planes con
carrying capability, Although the A-7 also has namese electronic emissions, These attacks tinued the battle untrl its end.
some all-weather capability, the nrght and bad-
weather champion in carrier operations in
Vretnam was another product of the I960s, the
Grumman A.-6 Intruder, the sole embarked
strike aircraft of its day to possess fuII all-
weather capability and the poientlal for a sing-
le-pass attack,
Covered by their own fighter force, attack
pilots flying from carrier decks flew every klnd
of mission: assaultrng truck convoys, dropping
bridge spans, hitting petrol, oil and lubricant
(POL) facilities and laying mlnes, Their job, of
course, was dictated by policy-makers who
wanted to use force of arms to pressure Hanoi
into a negotiated end to the fightrnq, a goal that
was eventually achieved, An illustrative mis-

Several Douglas RA-3 Skywarriors were painted

black for clandestine reconnarssance mr'ssions
over Vietnam. The scheme was not adopted for
major use. The RA-3 carried video real-time
carnera.s a.s rrle 11 as special film which could
differentiate between live foliage and camouflage.
Carrier Aircraft in Vietnam

Above lef t: The North American RA- 5

Vig il an te pr ovide d tactic al
r e co nnaiss a n ce alo ngside RF - 8

Above: The venerable Douglas A- 1

Skyraider continued to serve in the
attack role until 1968 on the smaller

.Leff; Possessin g devas tating blind

fir s t- pas s attack capabilitY, the
G rumman A- 6 I ntruder greatlY
increased the US Navy's options. Th:s
pair drops 1 2 Snakeye retarded
bombs each.

B elow : A shark-mouthed Crus ader

receives the launch signal from the
C atapult Officer aboard USS
Oriskany. /t is /oaded with four
S idewinder s on'Y- racks' for the


Douglas (McDonnell Douglas) A-4 (A4D) Skyhawk

Another of the brilliant designs of Ed This A-4 Skyhawk was employed bY
Heinemann at the El Segn:ndo plant, VX-i at the Navy's test centre at
the Douglas A4D Skyhawk jet attack ChinaLake on aerodynamic tests for
aircraft came out at just half the weight air borne nuclear w eapons.
the US NarT predicted, and was also
dramatrcally faster. The englne grreatly updated A-4F whlch was the
chosen was the British Armstrong Sid- first with a 'camel hump' fairinq for Bull-
deley Sapphire (licence-built as the pup gruidance and oTher extra avionics.
Wriqht J65), which was placed above a All models from the A-4E have five
winq made in the form of an integrral pylons, as well bs provision for an in-
tank from tip to t1p and so small it did flighlrefuelling probe on the rigtht side
not have to fold. The long main gears of the nose. The TA-4F and simplifled
were arranged to retract forwards TA-4J are major tandem dual trainer
without cuttinq into the wing except for versions, and the ultimate new-build
the wheel bay ahead of the front spar, sinqle-seater was the A-4M Skyhawk
Everything possible was done to srm- II wrth a square{ip fln (later fltted with
phfy the design. The prototype flew on an ECM pod), new windshield and
world 500-
22 June 1954, and soon set a canopy, drag chute and many other
km (3i1-mi1e) circuit speed record updates. The OA-4M is a reburlt two-
The A4D-l (later A-4A) entered ser seat TA 4F for forward air control
vrce,in 1956. duties ivrth very comprehenslve
So good was the Skyhawk that ter- avronics Anonqt the man-v export ver-
mination of production was postponed stons Israels ccmpleteLv rebillt A-4N
until 1979, when the 2,960th and Iast is distilquLshed b',' l lg ann-mtsstle
example came offthe line. There were jetpipes, ',vhtie Srlgap:l: s TA-4S has Armament: two 20-mm Mk 12 ce,:.:. -'.
14 basic variants, some purely for ex- two seoora r r r,a-- ''': :.:.-:.1'.rl eachwith 200 rounds, plus one
port, and many later sub{ypes Pro- canoples centreline pylon rated at 1587 kg
duced by conversions. The chief al- (3,500 lb), two inboard wing pvlc:-s
teration during production was the eachratedal l02Ikq{Z 250 Io a. -
switch to the J52 engine in the A-4E of two outboard wing pylor's eac:. :;. :

1961, gMnq more thmst and slightlY at 454 ks ( I,000 ]b)

better range, Throughout the early
1960s the J65-engrned A-4C was the A late-model A-4M of Marines
main versron, servingt with 23 US Navy squadronVMA-S? tires a Zuni air-
and US Manne attack squadrons, but to-ground unguided rocket at a
this gave way to the A-4E and the range in California.

. ,r; :.; ;.. : ".-:.,..,

.: ' :"€'
..r':irii;i:l'! ;q-'
' ';,,!: .,;*.8 , .


i,, l
Gmmman S-2 (SzF) Tracker
First flown on 4 December 1952, the operators
Grumman XS2F-I prototype had its It was no easy rcb :c pac<age thea1l
genesis in a US Narry specification two requrred uens lr.lo . '. mt j '
years earlier demanding the prevlous- frame, The APS-38 raCarrias put Ln the
ly unattainable qualrty of being able to rear luselage 'he rad:t..e oe.n; tr.n-
operate from a small (1,e. not a giant ched down for use. A searchlLght 'r'/as
'Forrestal' class) carrier whilst car- installed on the ouier righl -wLng and
ryrng both ASW (anti-submarine war- the MAD (magnetrc anomaly detector)
fare) sensors and weapons to effect the was mounted on a tube whrch could be
krl1, Previously the task had demanded extended from the rear fuselagie well
two aircraft operating rn a hunter,4<iller aft of the tail, Sonobuoys could be in February 1954 the S2F-I, named
ream. Grummans G-89 design was a ejected from the rear of the enqine Tracker, did all that was asked. Pro-
basically conventional aircraft wtth a nacelles, and weapons were carrled in duction continued until after 1960 and
high wing of lonq span, two prston en- an rnternal bay and also on sr-x wing there were many converstons and re-
pylons. builds, the later models having APS-BB Wel1dS L=: - -
gines and a cabin ahead ofthe winq for
1p*r pilots and two radar and sensor From the start of operational seruice radar twice as many sonobuoys (32) hold,
Grumman S-2 (S2F) Tracker (continued)

Thk VS - 3 1 S - 2 Tr acker displays the

main sensor used by the aircraftfor
detecting subm arines, the magnetic
anomaly detector. This retracts back
into the fuselage when not in use. The
idea of the extendable sting is to take
the detector gear as far away from
the metal aircraft as possible.

G-125 version which entered NavY

service in 1957 as the TF-IQ special-
ized ECM (electronic countermea-
sures) platform with the main cabin
taken over by hrgh-power receivers
and jamming systems. In 1962 these
little-publicued machines were rede-
siqmated as EC-14.
Eventualiy, from 1965, the T?ader
began to be replaced bY the much
more powerful Grumman C-2A
Greyhound, but a few continued in
second-line sewice until the end of the

Grumman S-2E Tracker
Type: four-seat carrier-based ASW
Powerplant: two I,525-hP (t 137-kW)
Wriqht R- 1820-B2WA Cyclone piston
tracted to supply the US NavY with a other parts of the S-2 Tracker, its tail Performance: maximum sPeed
Julie/Jezebel detection gear, 1n-
behq ofthe enlarged type introduced 426 kdh (265 mph) at sea level; patrol
treased wing span and tail area and specially desigmed transport for COD
(carner on-board delivery) missions with the S-2D, the C-lA was glven a speed240 kdh(I49 mPh); ranqe
mrmerous improved avionics systems
which involves supptying a carrier at new fi-selage with increased volume, 1850 kn (1, 150 miles); endurance 9
The last major addltion was the AQA-7
Difar sonobuoy processing sYstem sea with personnel, mail and all providing sufficient room for nlne hours
urgently needed stores. The require-- strong 99 all-facing passenger seats, Weights: empty 8633 ks (19, 033 lb);
Over 1,170 T?ackers were built' not maximum take-of 12 187 kq (26, 867 lb)
including 100 62F-lTracker aircraft ment dited foom 1950, but Pressure of or a cargro load of 1587 kg (3,500 Ib). AII
other work delayed the G-96, which loads qo on board via side doors, larqe Dimensions:span22.I2 m(72 ft7 in);
burlt at foronto bY DH Canada From
appeared tn 1955 as the Gnrmman TF- items and small vehicles not being lenqth 13.26 m (43 ft 6 in); height 5.05 m
1962 the desiqnation was changed to ( i6 ft 7 in); wrng area 46.08 m'
$2A to S-2G, depending on model Itrader, the designation actuallY compatible. Of course full carrier com-
patibilrty is retained, the firlly loaded (496 sq ft)
Many S-2 Tracker ASW aircraft meaning trainer (a secondary role) In
the rationalized USAF/US NavY aircraft making arested lanCings and Armament: internal bay and six pylors
were later converted into US-2C air- fortotalloadup to 2IB2 kg (4,810 ]b)
craff and vanous other utility versions scheme of 1962 the T?ader was rede- catapult take-offs.
GlA. Grumman delivered 87 production includiag AS torpedoes, depth bombs
used as hacks and for general truckrngt sigmated
duties, In addition Grumman was con- Usrng the wuig, enelnes and manY C-lA Traders, as well as four of the androckets

€ i***an E-I (WF-z) Tracer

Ia 1954 the success ofl,ockheed Super
Constellations and other US Navy au-
craft tested ln the high-flYlng AEW
(arborne early warning) role, which
then was called radar picket duty,
caused Grumman to recelve a contract
for a development ofthe S2F- 1 Tracker
specially confign-ued to carry a large
surveillance radar. This aircraft, the
WF-l, never flew; rnstead the com-
pany type number G-l 17 was carried
over to a radar-carryinq development
of the more capactous C-lA T?ader,
the Grumman WF-z, with the btgger
wing and tarl. The C-]A (then TF-])
BuNo 136792 was fitted with a mock-up
of the proposed radome and tail to
serve as the aerodynamic prototype.
This flew on I March 1957 and the first
of BB production machines, named
Tracer and after 1962 redesigrnated as
E-tB, flew on 2 February 1958. (The
new desigmation arrived too late to
prevent the unofficial name, from the
WF designation, becomrng 'WillY pleteiy redesigmed three-fin tail The Specification S een with its predecessor, the
tvvo operators amidships worked at Gnrmman E- lB Tracer Douglas EA- I Sl<yraider, this
identical consoles but with different Type: four-seat AEW suweilance and Grumman E- 1 B Tracer PrePares for
The radar used in the T?acer was
control aircraft 1 au nch fr o m th e w oo d en declr of USS
the AN/APS-82, with the main racking duties, managing not only the main
radar but also extensive iFF and com- Powerplant: hvo i,525-hp (1 137-kW) Oriskany. Tlre ra dical carriage of the
flllurg the centre and rear fuselage and
munications systems, the two pilots Wright Cyclone R- IB20-B2WA piston radar antenna is clearlY visible'
the rotating aenal (antenna) housed in- unusual aerofoil-Proflle handling navtQlation. In sewice as de- enqmes
tachments of VAW-] I and VAW- 12 the Performance: maximum sPeed maximumtake-otr 12232 kq (26,966 Ib)
radome Lke a vast teardroP saucer Dimensions: span 22.05 m (72 ft 4 in);
carried on struts above the fuselage Tracer pioneered shipboard early- 402 kn/h (250 mph) at medium
The front of this fixed radome had a waming and fighter direction, belng altitudes; operatinq height 6095 m lelgth 13 p2 m (45 ft 4 in);treight 5. 13 m
replaced by the much more Powerfrrl (20,000 ft); maxrmumendurance B (16 ft t0 in); wingarea47.0 m-
de-icer boot larger than any prellous- (506 sq ft)
1y rnade, while at the rear it was ex- E-2A Hawkeye from 1964. hours
Weights: empty 9536 kq (21,024 1b); Armament:none
tended to join the centre fin of the com-

ffi fficOonnell F3H (F-3) Demon
Like the contemporary Supermarine
Swift in the UK, the McDonnell F3H
Demon was sustaining a biq produc- i_g
tion programme when it was belatedly
recognized that the aircraft pouring off
the line were unacceptable; a grreat
outcry ensued as dozens of aircraft
were scrapped or put aside for later
rework. McDonnell knew the fault lay
solely urth the _140 engnne, and after
years of trauma got a redesigmed F3H
into US Navy service where it proved a
fing aircraft. ftame and engine but retained the ori- and off the Lebanon in 1958. Last de- McDonnell F3H -2 Demon of W- I 3 I
When the XF3H-1 prototype flew on ginal Hughes APG-SI radar matched liveries took place in 1959 and re- based on tlre U.SS Constellationn tft e
7 Augnrst 1951, it was structurally and with gnrn armament, four wing pylons placement by the McDonnell F-4 was early 1960s.
aerodynamicaliy the most advanced being added for attack loads, McDon- complete by August 1964 (first line)
navy aircraft in the world. Ali wingr and nell delivered B0 F3H-2M (later called and February 1965 (reserve), Dimensiors:span 10.77 m (35 ft4 rn);
tail surfaces were acutely swept, the MF-38) aircraft which had augmented lenqth 17,98 m (59 ft O rn); height 4,44 m
wing having fuIly variable camber and avionics for all-weather interception Specification (14 ft 7 in); wing area 48.22 mz
the tailplane being a slab. During flight and a CW (continuous-wave) target McDonnell F-3C Demon (F3H-2N) (519 sq ft)
testing the US Navy demanded extra illuminator for use wrth the prrmary ar- Type: single-seat carrier-based Armament: fow 20-mm Mk I 2 cannon.
fuel and all-weather radar, and the J40 to-air armament of four AIM-7C Spar- fighter plus four winq pylons for AIM-9C
engile proved totally unable to cope row III missiles, the first time these Powerplant: one 6350-kq ( 14, 000tb) Sidewinder AAMs or up to 2722 kg
with the increased weight. McDonnell entered servrce. The F3H-2N (F-3C), of a-fterbuming thrust AllisonJTl-2 or -2E (6,000 lb) of various attackweapons
evenlrally, in 1954, redesigned the air- which 144 were delivered, was a Li- turbojet
aart wfth f he l7 ( e ng rne, vnlh stl( mor e mr(ed a(l-wea(her flgh@r w*h basri ?er(ormance : maxtinum spee{ clean K D e m o n o f l.F- 6 I To lly Roge r s'
fuel and a bigger wing. Production at APG-51 radar and four Sidewmder at sea level I170 kn/h (727 mph); launches.The severe delay in
last went ahead with 5I9 in three main AAMs oi the radar-gmided AIM-9C range 2205 ]an (1,370 miles); seryrce development meant that the F 3H - 2
models. The F3H-2 (F-38 after 1962) variety. cerling 13000 m (42,650 ft) had to compete with the F9U
was the basic strike fighter, 239 beinq Demons had a very active career, Weights: empty 9656 kg (21,282 1b); Crusader, but the Sparrow III did
delivered. These had the new air- seeing combat duty around Quemoy maxmrum take-off I 5 16 I kg (33, 424 1b) much to redress the balance.

€ ificPonnell F-4 Phantom II

Produced as a pnvate company ven- was also bought rn vast numbers as a wingis as the F-4S. Powerplant: two 77 I l-kg ( U, 000-1b)
ture in the mid-1950s, the McDorurell land-based f,qhter for air forces. The UKs Royal Narry bought 24 F-4K afterburninq thrust General Electnc
Phantom II was first ordered as the The Lmhal carrier-based model was aircra-ft similar to the F-4j but with J79-BB turbojets
AH-l attack aircraft but then became the F-48, of which 649 were burlt (rn- Rolls-Royce Spey engineq AWG-ll Performance: maximum speed, clean
the F4H interceptor with only a sinqle cluding 12E-4G aircraft wrth djfferent with radar in a hinged nose, double- at 14630 m (48,000 ft) 2390 kn/h
centreline pylon for a gdant drop tank. radio). This had a bulged nose to house extension nose leg and other changes, (I,4BS mph); combat radius
Guns were deleted, fow Sparrow lil the 810 mm (32-rn) dnh of the AMAPQ- aaother 28 going to the RAF (designa- interceptor with tanks, over t44B kn
AAMs were recessed under the broad 72 radar and a raised rear seat. It went tion Phantom FG.IVIk l) which today (900 miles); ferry range 3701 kn (2,300
flat belly, a powerfirl Westinghouse to sea in Auqust 1962 and became the has all surviviag Phantom FG.Mk ls. mrles); sewiceceilinq 18900 m
ANiAPQ-S0 Mod radar was added standard ali-weather flghter with the The RAF ald many other arr forces (62,000 ft)
along with a radar operator in the back US Navy and US Mannes, the latter purchased land-based versrons. Weights: empty 12700 kg (28,000 lb);
seat, and the first of 23 test aircraft flew service also buyinq 46 unarmed RF-4B The F-4 was the worlds premier maximum take-off 24766 kg (54, 600 lb)
on 27 May 1958, Though large, their multi-sensor reconnaissance aucraft. fighter of the I96Os, It saw extensive Dimensions: span I 1,71 m (38 ft 5 rn);
splendid propulsion system, instalied Service experience led to the F-4J of combat duty rn Vietnam and has also lenqth U.75 m (58 ft 3 in); heiqht 4.95 m
between fully variable inlets and noz- 1965, rn'rth the AWG-10 fire-control sys- been much used by Israel, Iran and (16 ft 3 in); wing area 49.2 m'z(530 sq ft)
zles with carefully arranged secon- tem, an exfta tank, slotted tailplane, other countries, Total production was Armament: four (or six) AIM-? Sparrow
dary flow, gave all-round flight per- drooping ailerons, bigger wheels and 5, t7?. III AAMs, up to four AIM-98 or 9D
formance never attained by any brakes and (as a modrfication) ECM fin SidewrnderAAMs, andupto 7257 kg
flghter. Early F4H (F-44) aircraft cap- cap. This replaced the F-4B model in Specification (16,000 lb) of attackweapons
tured almost every world record for the US Navy and US Marines, 522 McDonnell F-4B Phantom II
speed at low and high aitihrdes, time to being built, and today sumvors have Type: two-seat carrier-based all-
height and other parameters, so that it been updated and fitted with slatted weatherfiqhter

Resplendent in the colours otw-142 'Ghostriders' aboardusS constellatio&
*ii UcOonnen F-48 phantom II k configared for the MiGCAP role with four
eini:z siili.i^lssites canied inwelfs under the fuselage and four NM-9
Sidewinders on spreader bars on the inboard pylons. Phantoms were to
iiri"-air fighting overVietnam (althoush the hEllv capa\Ie
ioiiit Ciiiaa., would'retuin a much better kill-loss ratio)' The lack of
*;;;; *clth; smol<y engines were the main blernisfies on fir's otherwise
excellent all-round fighter.

F-4 Phantom ll


ffig g* *€&



Phantom Carrier OPerations
in rhe 1960s
The best-I<nown fighter since World War II , the incredible Phantom started life as a
carrierborne attadk aircraft.Itwas soonredesigned as amissilefighter,whereits
jower andstrengthwere soontoconquer allits enemies.Althoughitsheydaywasin
the 1960s, the PhAntom lives on today ai afront-lineaircraft.

In the Kennedy era, in a radical new shipboard able neither to raise the landing gear firlly nor
fighter designed for the US Navy's 59,000{on to exceed the speed of sor:nd. It was an inauspi-
'Fbrrestal' (CVA 59) class of carriers, land- cious beginning for a fighter which, to make
based US Marines very nearly drew blood matters worse, did not look right. But by the VI|IFA-333 F-4J on the cat. The Marines flew
from Fidel Castro's MiG-17 flghter force The outset of the 1960s, Phantom carrier trials were Phantoms from carriers throughout theVietnam
first real action for the McDonnell F-48 Phan- proceeding, more than 20 airframes were war, as weII as from their main bases at Chu Lai
tom Ii took place just after the Cuban missile ilyinq, and-orders woutd eventually total 47 and Da Nang. Thk continued through the I 970s
crisis of October 1962 when the 'Gray Ghosts' of F-4As powered by an early General Electric when this aircraftwas photographed on U.SS

squadron VMFA-S31 were rushed to NAS K9y J?9 engine and 651 F-4Bs which employed the Nimitz.
West, Florida, for 'hot pad alert' I54 km (96 I79-GE-8 yieldins 4944-kg (10,900-lb) thrust on
miles) lrom Cuba. Squadron commander Col- hrtitary power and 7{ll-kg (17,000-lb) thrust Lyndon Johnson's ad hoc retaliation aqailpl
onel Robert Foxworth recalls: 'The Phantom wrth a-fterburning. Nbrth Vi6tnam for torpedo-boat attacks on US
was new. The MiG-I7s out in those troubled The Phantom was not merely new, it was vessels. In Aprii 1965, sustained air action over
waters between Florida and Cuba seemed to diflerent. It had two men, pilot and radar inter- North Vietnam began. On 17 June 1965, Com-
be flovrm by very good men, perhaps some cept officer (RIO). It had bent qrngs and a mander Louis Page and Lieutenant John C
Russians among them. They hadsomething we drooped tailplane. It was armed with missiles, Smith Jr of the 'Freelancers' of Squadron VF-ZI
didnl - cannons, for close-quarters fighting. not guns. With a tailhook and catapult-launch on the USS Midway (CVA 4t), flying an F-4B
hardpoints, the Phantom was clearly a carrier (151488) used a Sparrow missile to shoot dovm
During one mission we came within half a mile
of each other and spent tvventy minutes claw- aircraft yet sacrificed nothing in speed, ordn- a MiG-I7 near Hanoi. This was the first of 41
ing for position, aware that their fighter was ance load or manoeuwe capability when com- MiG kilis by carrierborne Phantoms, com-
potent and ours was unproven. We never pared with less sturdy, Iandbased fighters. By pared with only six losses in air-to-air battle.
bctually did battle with the Cubans but at the ihe time Commander Paul Spencer, comman- Carrier-based Phantom variants
time it felt like the "real thing".' der of the 'Be-devilers' of Squadron VF-74 on
Robert C. Little, now Vice-President at the Atlantic coast, became the first man to Ajter the F-4A and F-4B models, 12 produc-
McDonnell and once chief test pilot, visited make 100 carrier-deck 'traps' in the F-4B in tion F-4B drframes were completed as the F-
Farnborough in 1984 and reminisced wistfr:lly mid-I962, it was clear that early vicissitudes 4G variant. The F-4B had first flown on 25
about his first flight in the first Phantom, de- were behind and the Phantom would have a US Navy Phantoms have carried colourfulpaint
signed from the outset to bring new combat Iong career prowling the world's oceans from schemes throughout their career, and these three
capability to aircraft-carrier decks. O:i 2!tylqy ship decks. from W- I 54 based on USS Ranger are no
1958, when Bob Little went aloft in the F4H-1 In Augnrst 1964, F-4Bs were catapuited from exception. The Phantom now sewes only on the
Phantom prototype ( 142259),'Not much of any- the USS ConsteLlaIon (CVA 64) to fly top cover LIS.S Midway,' all other carrier fighter squadrons

thing went right.' On his lnitial flight, Little was for the GuU of Tonkin air strikes, President now tly the Grumman F- l4 Tomcat.
ablo-air role. the F4
As well as its
alsoflew many stnkemrssjons oler
Vietnant whereits attributes o{
s q
pee d, load - carrying an d acvur a
made it an excellent ground-attacL

I{arines units flew their RF-48

rec-onnaissance platform s from the
delcl<s of US Navy carriers throughoul
'ke conflict.TheRF-48 carried both
hlack-and-white and infra-red ---.<
a.meras, and provided a valuable
back-up to the Navy's own PuA-5s and

l,?:ch 1961 and the F-4G followed on 20 March

-::"3 F-4Gs were fitted with the AN/ASW-2I
' ;:al data-link system which permitted auto-
:,r:ed carrier landings, They were flovm in
: - ::rat by the'Black Lions' of Squadron VF-2 13
= r,: ard the USS Kitty Hawk (CVA 63)
=,'.:riually to F-4B configmration more than a
r=:ade before the F-4G designation was
::ied by the US Alr Force.
-le RF-4B reconnaissance Phantom,
12 March I965 and built solely for the US
l-1-rne Corps, has operated from carrier
i=:<s until recently; 46 were delivered, some
:e-:lg still in service at MCAS El Toro.
- re definitive naval Phantom was the F-4J,
r=,srgrned with higher landing weight and low-
:: approach speed for more ellective carrier
:ierations. First flown on 27 May 1966, the F-41
1r: :ntroduced drooped ailerons and slotted
: -lator, retained the F-4G model's AIVASW-
-, jata-link system, and had upgraded
;r:,:Don and electronics systems, The F-4J (like
",= iS Marlne RF-4Bs) had bigger brakes and
:-l::ier mainwheel tyres, The F-4J was po- The F-4K was the Royal Navy's shipboard The only other naval operator of the Phantom was
i'l=:ed by two J79-GE-19 engines provrdrng Phantom, first flovm in June 1966. Powered by Britain, which operated F-4K models wilh Rolls-
:--:-kq (17,900-lb) thrust with afterburmng; Rolls-Royce Spey 20U203 engines giving 9072- Royce Spey engines and extended nosewheel lqs.
:-: : -4Js were built and a few were in action rn kg (20 0001b) thrust with afterburning and This example is from No. 892 Sqn, launching {rom
---e to participate in the 'Rolling Thundel equrpped with raised nose gear and AWG-l I IIMS Ark Royal ECM gear was added to the top of
:--:-paigm against North Vietnam which ter- fire-control system, the F-4K put to sea aboard
--:-a:ed with a bombing halt in October 1968, the carrier HMS Ark RoyaL T\vo YF-4K service
test craft were foliowed by 52 production structure and updated equipment items sucll
machines, of which 24 went to the Royal Navy as the helmet-sight Visual Target Acguisrtion
3 tered pilots on account of its lack of
at by F-8
armamen{ size and all-roundugliness, the for shipboard operations. System (VTAS). A totai ol 248 F-4J aircraft (c:
F-4 was soon to prove that size and beauty had Some 228 US Navy F-4B airframes were con- 302 once schedr-rled) have been converted to
:::ie to dowith success in air combatityou had vertedrinder a service life extension program- F-4S configuration with manoeuvre slats
w*edul enough engines, and a sound airtrame. me (SLEP) to F-4N standard with improved smokeless engines and improved systems.

,.""tn :::;*aA.qp::: '

Phantom Carrier Operations in the 1960s
One of the most famous colour
schemes ever carried by a Phantom
was that apphed by Fighting I I I
'S undowners' whils t flying both
fighter-cover and ground attack
mis s ions from USS Coral Sea during
the later years in Vietnam.

Phantom fighting tools

Conceived as an interceptor, the carrier
Phantom proved an awesome fighter-bomber
as well. But the F-4 will best be remembered
for air battles over North Vietnam. By I960s
measure, the Phantom was 'one up' because of
its superb radar which often could detect an
enemy unseen. In air{o-air combat the,prin-
cipal punch of the Phantom was the AIM-7
Sparrow semi-active radar homing (SAnQ qry:
to-air missile, The Sparrow was 3.66 m (12 ft)
long and had a iaunch weight of 181 kg (400 lb)
carrying a 27.2-kg (60-1b) high explosive war-
head to an accurate range of up to 22 lan (14
miles). It was the most effective possible
weapon when a MiG pilot did not know it was
coming and the attacking Phantom crew faced HE warhead over a 3.7-km (2,3-mile) range. Not to be confused with the present US Air Force
Initially tested with six Spartows, carrier- F -4G Wild Weasel' versr'on, several F-4Bs were
no risk of losing its radar 'lock on',
based Phantoms usually carried four Sparrows converted toF-4Gs with an automatic carrier-
Also arming the Phantom was the AIM-9 landing system tor night operadons. ?ftese
Sidewinder infra-red (IR) hominq air-to-air and fow Sidewinders, Over North Vietnam, appeared with W-2 I 3 aboard USS Kitty Hawk ri#r
missile. The AIM-9E model in use in 1965 was this weapons mix proved effective against an experimental green camouflage.
2 87 m (9 ft) 1ong, with a launch weight of MiG-17s, MiG-l9s and MiG-2Is,
72.5 kg (160lb), which carried a 4.54-kq (10-1b) A world-class fighter in the 1960s, the Phan-
tom has become outclassed in a more modern Saigon in Aprii 1975, an occasion which also
world, Says a US Navy reservist who flies the marked first combat for the fighter destined to
Late evening in the GulI of Tonkin; deck and F-4S: 'l'm tired of going out to Red Flag (air replace the Phantom on ships' decks, the
aircrew have a few moments to savour the beauty combat training in Nevada) and getting zapped Grumman F- 14 Tomcat, Today, the world's only
of the South China Sea, to reflect on the day's remaining carrier-based Phantoms are two
mrsions and f o plan those of the next day. At the bv an F-15 or F-16 before I ever see him,' The
final combat for carrier Phantoms came durlng squadrons of F-4Ss aboard the Japanese-based
heartof many oflfiesemissrbns was the legendary
Phantom. Operation 'Frequent Wind', the evacuation of USS Midway.

E iiLnrr American (Rockwell) A-s (A3J) visilante
-:cugh it never made the limelight, North American RA-1C of RVAH-Sbased on USS Constellation during the
::-e North American A3J Vigilante Vietnamwar. ffi

:robably introduced more design in-

-r'lations than any other aircraft in his-
::ry, including fu1ly variable rnlets and
--:ules, a one-piece moving fin, slab ::,
-Jerons used for roll in conjunction
r.::h roll-control sporlers, variable-
a'nlcer blown wings, complete iner- ..-rs*tr,-.^'. ' '
.r naviqation wtth autopilol coupling,. i...:-
,. r,qe.i ,Sil:,::.
=::cmatic bad-weather carrier E
=:proach, drogue-stabilized rocket-
-:gnnented seats, and extensive tita-
:-'-m structure with gold coating in
'';rh-temperature areas, The pro-
:::'tr'pe was a tandem-seat carrrer-
:a-red bomber flown in Auqust 1958,
::i another advanced feature was the
.:i ;le tunnel between the engines
.':rg the centreline. This housed two
;:ge fuel tanks and a nuclear weapon,
.'' :cured together and released as one
'-::r: over the target (the tanks then
:e-rg empty and stabilizing the fall of
-:e bomb); the assembly was ejected
:: :re rear by gas pressure.
3y early 1962 the first combat unit,
was operating from USS Enter-
the original A3J-I designatron
:ecoming A-54, NAA delivered 57,
::-:wedby sx A-58 aircraft with a
;-:-rt humped fuselage housing extra
-:eL and with still further hiqh-hff wing
isrems. By far the most importanl
-:del was the RA-SC long-range mul-
.--sensor teconnaissance platform,
,t1ch formed the arrborne part of the
-S Navy Integrated Operatronal In-
::Jigence System wlth automatic real-
:::e information processrng on the
=:ler or the
at a shore base, The RA-SC
bomb tunnel by extra
--:el. and a giant SLAR (side{ookrng
:-:borne radar) was housed in a fairing
=':ng the belly, An rmpressive array of The attack ver sion of the Vigilante reconnalssance allcraft (19 ft 4,8 in); wrngarea 70.0 m2
and Elint (electronic intelli-
=merassensors was the A3J- I (A-5A after 1962) which Powerplant: two 77 I -kg ( 7, 000{b)
1 1 (754 sq ft)
;=nce) made up the most featured a tunnelbomb-bay between afterbu:ni:rq thnrst General Electric Armament:none
::mprehensive reconnaissance sys- the two engines. The bomb was F9-8A BB turbojets
::ra of its day, NAA delivered 55 RA- released backwards during aclimb Performalce : maxmum speed, clean The mos t important version of the
-Js, plus 59 converted from previous
over the target. This proved sUghtJy a: l::qh altitude 2229 km/h ( i,3BS mph); Vigilante was the RA-1C. I ts main
:-:dels, RVAH-5 equipped with this dangerous in practice as leaking fuel ra:ge 4B2B lcn (3,000 mrles): service sensor ryas an en ormous side-
j:-e aircraft in June 1964, operating in the tunnel often ignited. ceN:::g 19505 m (64,000 ft) looking airhorne radar (SLAR)
r:m the UssRangerin South East Asia, Weights:empty 17009 kq (37,498 1b); mounted under the tuselage along
li:t until 1980 did the Vigilante begnn Specification naxnurn take-off 36 00 kg (79, 5BB lb) with other cameras. RA-siwere
:: be replaced by the F-14 with a North American RA-SC Vigilante

Dimensions:span 16. 15 m (53 ft 0 in); usually escorted by F-4s over

l-iRPS reconnaissance pallet, Type: tlvo-seat multi-sensor ler:g.h 23.32 ni 1ZO ft O in); herghr S.9l m Vietnam to protectthemfrom MiGs

I il..r . t:: :::
€ %usht F-8 (F8U) Crusader
It is a remarkable fact that, powered Four F?U-ZNE (F-8E) Crusaders of
by the near-identical J57 engine, the VF-1 I break for the camera. The
carrier-based Vought F8U Crusader Crusader was universally loved by
came out faster, much lonqer-ranged, its pilots on account olits excellent
more manoeuvrable, much slower agility and hard-hitting cannons.
landinq and in almost every other way Vietnam combat proved that it more
superior to the famed North American than equalled the pilots'views.
F-100 Super Sabre, even though it had
all the penalties of carrier operationl
By the I960s it was distinctly long in the Powerplant: one B 65-kg ( 18, 000-1b)

tooth and being replaced by the F-4, afterburning thrust Pratt & Whttney
yet in Vietnam it not only gained more J57-20A or -420 turbojet
air-combat victories than any other Performance: maxmum speed
type but was so popular it was com- lB59 kn/h (1, 155 mph); ranse 2253 kn
(1,400 miles)
monly said that 'When you're out of
F-Bs, you're out of fighters', Weights: empty 8935 kg (19,700 lb);
The requirement was issued in maximum take- off 15422 kg (3a, 000 lb)
September 1952, calling for a super- Dimensions:span 10,72 m (35 ft 2 in);
sonic air-superiority fighter. The most lengrth 16.61 m (54 ft 6 in); height 4.8 m
unusual feature was that the wing was
( 15 I 1n); wtng area 34.'84 mz
placed above the fuselage and hinged (375 sq ft)
so that, by varying its angle of inci- Armament: four 20-mm Mk l2 cannon
dence, the fuselage could be tilted each wlth 84 or 125 rounds and hvo/
nose-down to give the pilot a perfect four SidewinderAAMs plusup to
forward new on the approach to the 1814 kg (4,000 Ib) ofbombs, rockets or
carrier, This also enabled the landing Bullpup missrles on four wing pylons
gears to be short, folding into the belly
of the fuselage which also carried a
Qdant door-type airbrake which, in
turn, mounted the large tray of un-
Qnrided arr{o-air rockets forminq the
main armament, Four cannon were
also installed, in the srdes of the nose
beside the engine air duct, The slab
tailplane was mounted low, and
another advanced feature was that the
entire winq inboard of the fold axis on
each side formed an integral tank,
The I(FSU-I prototype flew on 25
March 1955, and after most rapid de-
velopment the first US Navy squadron,
VF-32, completed conversion in
March 1957, Their F8U-l aircraft (later
restyled F-8A) had a Martin-Baker F5 }975 km/h/I, 227 mph) and new sions (F-8H to F-8M), Many of the un-
seat, neat folding inflight-refuelling avionics, and 286 F-8E multi-role attack armed RF-8A photo aircraft were re-
probe in the left side of the fuselage machines with new radar, an IR seeker built as RF-8G platforms, and these
and launch rails for Sidewinder on and various external weaPons, The were the last to remain in US sewice,
each srde ofthe fuselage, Vought built final 42 were F-8E(FN) fighters for the
3lB of this model before followingwith French A6ronavale with French R53O
130 F-8B aircraft with radar, IBZ of an missiles and modrfied high-lift wing to Specification
upgraded all-weather model, the F- suit small flight decks, By 1970 a total of Vought F-8E Crusader
8C, 152 of the F-8D with more power 446 US Navy and US Marine F-Bs had Type: single-seat carrier-based attack
(fastest version, at Mach L86 or been completely rebuilt into new ver- fighter

T he variable- incidence wing w as an

ingenious answer to theProhlem of
eicessive angle of attack during
landing and take-off, which severely
restricted pilot vision. The principle
worked well on the Crusader and no
major problems were ever
The Crusader was a natural choice for conversion to a reconnaissance
aircraft. The resultwas the RF-9, with enlarged fuse,lage iousjng the cameras.
itwas unamed and oftenflewwifhF-Ssasescort.This example is anRF-BG of
oneof thelastUSNavy units still operating the type.


The other naval operator of theF-B is

lte French A6ronavale, which
operates F-BE(FN)s from the carr
Clemenceau and Foch. Tirese are
:onfigured to carry MatraMagic
),!atra 530 missiles.

Vought F-8E Grusader cutaway drawing key 50 Leadingedqefaprb 67 Enginecompressorintake 102 Emergencya rcrr.;-
construction 68 Wirio root rlb generator, exters::
_l,tpVHFaerralfarrng l6Frnattachmentmainframe 40 nboardwngpanemulti- 5T Outerwingpanelspar 69 Ceniresectionfueltank position
-;l^avigat,on Afterburnerduct
17 sparconstruttion construction 70 Wing sparcarry-through 103 Liquidoxyqen bc:: _: .
ignt lB Buoderconrroilinkage5 r'l Sia,boarowinqinteora 52
--Ooerconslructon '9 rinleadingedge fuelrdrk.totalfuetsistem
Leadrng edge f ap hydraulic structure I04 Fuseiaaesiore:L:-
)rdde'hvdrautrcjack consrrrct-on' caodcttv.l.34gUsoal
53 Wino lotd hrnoe
71 Dorsalfairinq 105 lntaL-^dLrcr
'106 Hedtexchangera -., -:
: q reexl'alsl rozzle 20 Dortal.movingra;lplane {5i03lii,es) 54 Froni spar " 73
Ponf lao iack-
Port pl;in f lap, lowered l0/ -:
,-ahledrearozzleflaps 21 I:nroot.i etc6nstlrctior az Arteionpowe.corrroturit Arrcond t onrno o:-_
55 Lead ng edge flap rnboard position U8 Dorsal trrr no
-1e'burne"coolingdirduct 22 Bea.engi-emourring 43 Starboarddrooorgaleron sectron 74

\ozzeconrroljacks 23'uselageoreakpont- construcrior 56 Lead ng edqe doq-tooth

Portdrooped aileron.
lowered position
109 Upperfuseljgeacces:
: a'ooardall-rovr9
-,tpaneconstrucrion double[.dmelelgine 44 HvdraJ.icwinofoldiac. 57 W nq pylon 75 Alleron power control unit
removal) 45 -6,lrngeogerios 1 1 0 Electronics bay anc
-ailplanesparbox 24 Afterburnerfuetspray +O fiieOfiorti"onoiiraiting 58 AGM-128 BullpupAaitrto- 76 Fuelsvstemotoino electrlcal power sys:;-
ground misslle / /
Wrnq fold hvdraulic iack 1 FuselagepVonadao:a-
-eadingedgeribs 59 Starboardmainwheel
1 1

i lplane hydrauliccontrol lystem
25Tailplaneautopilotcontrol +tWi"ngtiptairing
48 StarSoird nav"igatlon light
60 Maln undercarrageleg
78 F \ed
portron oftrdtllnq

79 Port wrnq fo ded oosition

1 1
1 T
l\,4issile aunch ralls
AIM-9 Sidewinder a -:: :
-+ Jci .
-a iplpecoolingairvents
26 Deckarresterhook 49 Leadingedgeilaplowdred
61 Shockabsorberstrut B0 Wrnq tipia nno
missiles (4)
14 lnflight+efuel proc:
27 Starboardventraifin position 62 HVdrau ic retractlon iack B1 Port navrgation ltaht
28 Rearfuselagefueitank 63 Lindrnq amp 82 Portoutboard leadino edoe 1 15 Befuelling probe hous -:
29 Pratt &WhitneyJST-P,20 64 Wheel baydoors
; afterburnlng turbojet
30 Enginebaycoolinoair \,; 65 Ma n undercarragepivot
I t: lng
flap, lowered
83 Oulboard flap hydraulic
16 Ammunition tanks (i
rounds pergun)
louvres 66 Wing spar/'f ront englne 84 Lead
31 Wrno roottraillno edoe
nq edqe doq-tooth T 17 Avionicssystem inertia
mounting maln bulkhead 85 Wingfoldhinqe' platform
frllei i)'
32 Bleedairsvstemoioino
33 Engineoi iank(8S USdati
\ 86 lnboard leadrng edge flap
hydraulic jacks
1B Ammunition feed chures
119 Gunbaygasventpane
87 Portwina nteqral fueltank
32litres) 7 88 Ant -col|a on tiqht
120 MK1220-mmcannon
121 Spentcartridoecase I nl
34 Winq spar pivotf ixinq 89 N,'lisslle system avionlcs
35 Hvdraulrcflaoiack - 90 Two-position variable
col ectorchutes
1 22 Gun companment access
36 Siarboard f io' incldence winq, raised panel
37 Control rod linkages position '123 Nosewheeldoors
38 Rearspar 91 lntaketrunkino '124 Nosewheel
39 Engineaccessorygearbox 92 Wrnq incrdenc; hvdraulic 125 Pivotedaxlebeam
compartment -! g1
/ h)* 93 Fuselage upperlonqeron
1 26 Nose undercarriage ieg
94 Airsystem exhaust heat 127 Cannonbatrels
shleld 1 2B Radio and electronics
95 Mainfuselagefueltank equipment bays
96 Airbral.e hvdraulic iacl 129 Canopyhinqepoint
97 Airbrakehousino 130 Cockpit rearpressure
98 Ventral airbrake]lowered bulkhead
99 Rocket aunchtubes 131 Ejectionseatrails
1 00 launcherpylon '1
32 Pilot's l\,4artin-Baker
ddaPtOr ejection seat
1 01 Zuni fold ngJin ground 133 Facebiindfinnohandie
attack rockets (B) T 34 Cockpit canop;cover

135 Safetvharness
136 Canopyemergency
T37 Pilot'sstarboardslde
console panel
'138 Cockpitfloorlevel
139 Cannonmuzzleblast
troug hs
i40 lntakeductframinq
141 Radarcoolrngairpiprna
142 Rudderpeddls
143 Controlcolumn
1 44 lnstrument panel shro!d

145 Enginethrottle control

'146 Radarqunsioht
147 Bul et 6roof i^,/indshretd
148 lnfra{edseekerhead
149 Radarelectron cspdcl aqe
1 50 Cockpitf ront pressure
b ulk h -oad
1 51Engine airlntake
1 52Radarscannertrackinq
153 Radarantenna
154 Glass-fibre radome
]r7 155 pitottube

O Pilot Press Limited

ffi i"ir"y (Westland) Gannet
Providing the Fleet Air Arm's
Unique in many ways, this distinctive
machrne beQlan life as the Fairey GR.l7 airborne early warning throughout
(from the specification, GR.17145), the the I 9 60 s was the W estland G annet
flrst prototype flying on 19 September AEW.Mk 3, which replaced the
1949, It was designed as an ASW (anti- Douglas Skyraider in this role. This
submarine warfare) hunter-killer able aircr att sew ed on board H M S Atk
to operate from small carriers yet car- RoyalwithNo.849 Sgn.
ry radar and sonobuoys to detect sub-
marines, as well as weapons in an in- weapon bay and a radar extended
ternal bay to kill such submarines as from below the rear fuselagte, Gannet
were found, Delay was caused bY a AS.Mk l, Gannet AS.Mk 4, Gannet
sudden decrsion to add a third crew- AS.Mk 6 and Gannet AS.Mk 7 aircraft
member, but eventuallY the Gannet sewed with the Royal and some other
AS.Mk I entered servrce with No. 826 navies, survinng into the earlv I960s in
Squadron in January 1955, West Germany, Australia and Indone-
Propulsion was provided bY a tur- sia, The Gannet T.Mk 2 and Gannet
boprop with two independent Power T.Mk 5 were trainers.
sections each driving one halfof a dou- Most important in the l€60s was the
ble co-axial propeller. Thus, without Westland Gannet AEW.M\ 3, the air-
affecting the handling, either half- borne early-warning version built to
engine and its propeller could be shut replace the Skyraider in the RoYal
down in flight to extend mission endur- NaW's No. 849 Squadron. Powered bY
ance, Another advantaQte was that the an uprated engtne, this had a new
engdne could operate on ship's diesel fuseliqe wtth no weapon baY, a single
oil, The large wing folded in four pilot cockpit at the front and a cabin for
places to reduce span and height with- iwo radar obserrrers aft of the winel, the when the RN fixed-wing force was run later in the South Atlantic,
out interfering with access to the rear tail also being enlarged to balance the down and 'B' Flight of No, 849 Squadron
cockpits or the twin jetpipes, and other big radome of the APS-2OA radar, and left HMS&kRoyal rn I97B the UK had Specification
features included steerable twin- the landing gear being lengrthened no seaborne AEW capability, some- Westland Garuret AEW.Mk 3
The last was delivered in 1961, and thing bitterly regretted just four years Type: three-seat carrier-based AEW
wheel nose qears, a verY large aircra-ft
Powerplant:one 3,875-hp (2890 kW)
Bristol Siddeley (previously
Armstrong Siddeley, later Rolls-
Royce) Double Mamba 102 couPled
Performance: maximum speed
417lrn/h (259 mph); ranse 1127 kn
(700 mrles); patrol height 7770 m
(25,500 ft)
Weishts: empty 7421 ks ( 16,360 1b);
maximumtake-off 11340 kg (25,000 lb)
Dimensions: span 16,61 m (54 ft 6 in);
lenErth 13,41 m (44 ft 01n); height 5. 13 m
(16 ft 10 in); wrngarea44,9 m'
(483 sq ft)

The Fairey Gannet was develoPed as

an anti-submarine aircraft and
served in this role for manY Years
until superseded by theWestland
Sea King helicopter . This example is
a T.Mk 5 trainer. An unusual feature
of the G annet was the four- folding

ffi liawker Siddeley (BlackburnlBAe) Buccaneer :ff"'"

Desiqned as a strike aircraft for the
Royal Naw, the Hawker SiddeleYBuc-
Lld ,w
caneer flrst flew in April 1958 and had a ROYAT NAW A*'

distingmished career in the Fleet Air

Arm, Today 1t serves in the maritime
strike role with RAF Nos 12 and 208 x# : ;---.--,.
Squadrons based at Lossiemouth, Sea- Buccsf,eet
ting pilot and obsewer in tandem, the
BuCcaneer S.Mk 2 is a large atrcraft
distinwished by its capacious internal
bomb bay, whose rotary door mcorpo-
rares a laroe luel tank, With a load of The initiat cotour scheme for the Buccaneer was overall 'anti'flash' white, as
1814 ks (4:0OO ]b) inside the bay, this cirried by the 18th pre-production aircraft, bearing the marking ot Fleet Air
subsonic alrcraft is faster than any su- Arm trials unit No. 7002 Sqn based at Lossiemouth-
personic aircraft with the same load
hung externally, and its fuel consump- Thefirstoperationaluser of the.Buccaneer S'Mk2 wasNo' 801 S :qntw4ich
tion is very modest because the formed in- 1 965 for service on board HMSVicloious. Early S.Mk 2s had
efficient fan engines have no afterbur- extra-dark seagrey upper sideswith antiflash white underneath.
In recent years Sidewinders have
been added for seif-defence and the
ECM fit has been ggeatly augmented,
with further updates rn the pipellne,
Though a few aircraft were lost to the i:- Ed#
sewice because of structural prob-
lems in 1982, which necessitated a ma-
jor anti-fatignre modification pro€ram-

-3 1B
Xlawker Siddeley (Blackburn/BAe) Buccaneer (continued) Ca:rierAircraft of the 1.96,0s

:-: i,...:::t.r.., , ,rr 1:iltf,,

.l:: rr" ..,,. .i ,a.r, . , ,

:-: replacement by Panavia Tornados port from the UK, These arrcraft carry at sealevel I I 10 lan/h (690 mph); A Blackburn BuccaneerSrVfr j i::.-
:- some squadrons means there ts no the AS,30 missrle among other range \^'th internal bombs and on HMS Eagle while a 'plane-g:
:---.rtage of these extremely popular weapons, and have an inbutlt 85,605 maxrmum fuel on a hr-lo-hi mrssion Wessex waits, ready to pick up a:7
=C capable long-range attack air- rocket motor to boost holtrigh take- 3701 kn(2,300miles) aircrew unfortunate enough to cl::
:::-ft. Some might be converted for the oI1s. Weishts: empty 13608 kg (30,000 lb); TheBuccaneerS.Mk ) was pwe:e=
=-=ctronic reconnaissance and jam- maxrmum take-off 28 123 kg (62,000 lb) by two 3,220-kg (7, I 00 Jb) D H Gyrs :
:-lg role, A refuelling probe can be Specification Dimensions: span 13,41 m (44 ft 0 in); Juniorengines.
-:ached above the nose but rs seldom Hawker Siddeley Buccaneer S.Mk 28 19,33 m(63 ft5 rn)-heiyht4 95 m
'::d. Type: two-seat attack aircraft
(16 ft3 iri); wrngiarea4T.82 m 5443 kg (12,000 lb) on fourrl,r-;: -.
. -:
Six Buccaneer S.Mk 50 aircraft con- Powerplart: two 5003-kg ( l 1, 0301b) (514.7 sq ft) loads can include Sea Eagle l,l==-.
::ue to serve w'lth the South Afrrcan air thrust Rolls-Royce Spey 101 turbofans Armament: maxlmum bombload of Harpoon, Shrike, Alarm aad
:::ce, despite a longterm ban on sup- Performance: maximum speed, clean lB14 kq (4,000 lb) rn rnternal bayplus Sidewrnder missiles

>K liawker Siddeley (DHEAe) Sea Vixen

liis rmpressive two-seat all-weather practice these flne aircraft were used being converted after delivery to Mk 2 I I l0 km,h (690 mph) ar sea le.,'e.
-:-:erceptor began life in 1946 and mainly as interceptors, standard. After replacement by range at hiqh allitude on intema _-:.
::ght have been in service in 1951, but The 92nd aircraJt was modifled on McDonnell Douglas Phantoms lrom 193i lcn(1,200miles); semcec: -:
:anks to a succession of indecisions the production line as the first Sea Vix- many Sea Vixens were rebuilt as
1970, 14630 m(48,000 ft)
::d a horriflc crash of a prototype, the en FAW.Mk 2, with swollen tail booms Sea Vixen D.Mk 3 pilotless RPV Weights: empty I 1793 kg (26 0l - :
e Havilland Sea Vixen langmlshed un- housing more fuel, and with a modified targets. maximum rake-off IBBSB kg (41 : : _ :
:.1 the Royal Navy renewed interest in fire-control system compatible with Dimensions: span 15,54 m (51 ft C :-
-354, Eventually a fully navalized pro- the much more formidable Red Top Specification length 16.94 m(55 ft7 in) hergh: : -: -
:rtlpe flew in 1957 and the fust Sea AAM, As on the Mk i aircraft, an in- de Havilland SeaVixen FAW.Mk 2 (10ft9in); wingarea602m2 16{. s;-
Vixen FAW.Mk I squadron was com- flight-refuelling probe could be Type: two-seat camer-based all- Armament:four Red Top AAMs a:-::!
:::rssioned on 2 July 1959, attached in the wing leading edge out- weatherfighter Mtcrocell2-in (51-mm)rockels !.. .
Retaining the company's twin-boom board of the left boom, and there were Powerplant: two 5094-kg1,230tb)
( 1 provisron for very varied offensr', :
-ayout, the Vixen was unique in seatingr addrtional avionic items, Total produc- thnst Rolls-Royce Avon turbojets
208 loads up to 1361 kg (3,000 lb) Lri'.'.'e: ;-.-
:e pilot high on the left, with the radar tion of both marks was 148, many Mk ls Performance: maxrmum speed on four or sx wing pylons
:bserver inside what was called lhe
:cal hole' low down on the riqht, with a lilerri;::lrllli9!lrrBrr:sr1:gllj_':ilptr}u::i9rr{'r,el1i:@r:i9riii:i:1,i::
::of hatch and small wrndow, Im- " -;- - 'h- { s -;-:- $
::ediately beside were the inlet ducts
:om the wing roots leading to the two
-.rbojets in the rear of the nacelle, The
:,cse was filled by the big GEC ALMk
-3 radar, No guns were fitted, their
place being occupied by two hinged
packs each housing a battery of 14 ar-
-)-at rockets, Wing pylons carried up
:c four Blue Jay (Firestreak) IR-homing
Ii,Ms, and the Vxen was also cleared
.3 operate in the attack role with a
;ide range of bombs and air-to-
s:rface missrles such as Bullpup. In
Part of the Sea Vixen's repertoire was
buddy- bu ddy refue lling, here
demonstrated by two FAW.Mk I s
from N o. 899 S qn. The missiles
carried are de Havilland Firestreak
infr a- re d homing. The FAW. M k 2
{eatured enlarged tail booms which
extended forward of the leading
edge, andwas equipped totire the
m or e adv anced R ed T op mis sile.
>K $up"r*arine Scimitar
In the UK the process of introducing
transonic swept-wing flghters into the
Fleet Arr Arm was painfully slow, Vir-
tually nothing was done in the flrst five
years after World War II; then,
apparently unexpectedly, the callier
trials of the swepl-wing Supermarine
Type 510 in November 1950 showed
that there need not be anY Problem,
Even then it was to be almost another
l0 vears before anything reached the
sqriadrons. Via the butterfly-tailed Su-
permarine Type 508 and Type 529 and
all-swept Tlpe 525 the halting prog-
ress led to the Type 544, or N, I 13D, of
January ]956. This was fitted with 200-
senes Avons, large flaps intended to
be blown from the enqines, folding
wings, perforated airbrakes on the
rear fuselagTe and a slab tailplane, It
led directly to the flrst of 76 Super-
marine Scimitar F.Mk I afcraft built in
A big and tough machine, the Sciml-
tar had been planned as a carrier-
based interceptor, though nobodY
thought of giving it any radar. By the
mid- 1950s it seemed that the need was
for a lowlevel bomber and in service
the Scimitar, though designated as a
fighter, spent most of its brief life in
vaglle attack roles, Its four wing pylons
were each rated at 907 kq (2,000 1b),
though no squadron machine ever car-
ried external loads ofweapons greater
than 1814 kg (4,000 lb), Nuclear capa-
brlity was announced, though the Fleet
Air Arm did not possess such
weapons, It was also announced that
the Scimitars would carry 'missiles',
but the only offensive type carrled
(very briefly, on trials) was the com-
mand-gnridance Bullpup, There was
never any proper atrlsurface vJeapon-
aiming system, and the lone prlot 1n any Specification sewice ceilinq 14020 m (46,000 ft) S eenwith AEW Siqrraiders and Sea
case had his hands full trying to navi- Supermarine Scimitar F.Mk I Weights: empty I1295 kg (24,900 lb); Venoms, thisScimitar F.Mk I is being
gate at sea without ariY modern Tlpe: sinqle-seat attack flghter maximum take-off 18 i44 kg (40,000 lb) prepared for a mission. The Scimitar
navaids, At least the squadron aircraft Powerplant: two 5 103-kg ( l 1, 25Olb) Dimensions:span I 1,33 m (37 ft 2 in); was never successful in its intended
had a nose-mounted inflight-refuelling thrust Rolls-Royce Avon 202 turbojets, Iengrth (excluding probe) 16,8? m (55 ft role and was retired in favour of the
probe, and the Scimrtar's last combat with bleed for flap-blowlng 4 in); heisht 4,65 m (15 ft 3 in); wing two-seat Buccaneer early in its
role was carrying a buddy pack to re- Performance: maximum sPeed, clean area 45.0 m'Z(484,9 sq ft) expected life, as the extra crew
fuel Hawker Siddeley Buccaneers of at sea ievel I 143 krr/h (710 mPh); Armament:four 30-mm Aden cannon member made life much easier.
No, 800 Squadron in 1965-6, With pro- combat radius on a hi-lo-hi mission each with 100 rounds, plus four wing
with lnternal fuel 579 lcn (360 miles); pylons each rated at 907 kg (2,000 lb) pods, buddy packs or 9C9-litre (200-
per avionics these basically capable
aircraft might have had long careers. ferry range 3380 km (2, 100 miles); for Sidewinder AAMs, bombs, rocket Imp gal) drop tanks

voted well up the large fin, The leading Another modiication in the Etendard
ii"s""rt Etendard edges had a marked dogrtooth inboard
of hinged flaps depressed at low
IVP rs an independent navtgation sys-
tem, This model oi which 2l were
Desrgned at the same time as the Mir- engines, was the Atar BB, basicallY a speeds for flight at high angles of ordered, equrps squadron l6F, and
Mirage III engine without the afterbur- attack, has no vrsriole leplacement.
aqe, in 1954-5, the Dassault Etendard
was intended as a NATO light attack ner (because there was no requtre- A total of 69 Etendard IVM attack
aircraft but eventually, rn 1962, entered ment for supersonic performance) An aircraft was delivered. equipping Specification
extremely conventional aircraft, the squadrons I lF and 17F and often oper- Dassault Etendard IVM
service wlth the French A6ronavale as
a carrier-based attack aircraft (Eten- Etendard seated its pilot in a Martin- ating from the carriers Foch ot Tlpe: single-seat carrier-based attack
dard IVM) or photo-reconnalssance Baker N4A seat, had long-stroke matn Clemenceau. A refuelling probe can aircraft
aircraft (Etendard IVP), The engine gears, small flaps and ailerons all in- be attached above the slim nose, Powerplant: one 4400-kq (9,700ib)
selected, after flight testtng various board of the wrng fold (which folded which houses a small Aida ranging thrust SNECMAAtaT BB turbojet
other arrangements of sinqle and twin only the tips) and a honzontal tail pi- radar (which has no search or bad- Performance: maximum sPeed, clean
weather capability), and the only aid to at sea level 1099 kn/h (683 mPh);
weapon delivery is a Saab toss- lactLcal radtus on a 1o attack mission
bombing computer, The unique fin u,rth maxmum internal fu el 300 l:n
under the nose housed the gmidance (lB6 miles)
transmitter aerial for the Nord AS,20 or Weights: empty 6123 kg (13,500 1b);
AS.30 missiles, The Etendard IVP re- maxrmum take-off 10275 kq (22,650 lb)
places the radar by a fixed probe and Dimensions:span9,60 m(31 ft6 in);
the quns by flve OMERA cameras, Iength l4 4amG7 ft3 in); heiqht4.30 m
( 14 ft 1.3 in) wing area 29.0 m'
The Etendard has sewed with the (312.2 sq ft)
FrenchAeronavale since 1962 as Armament: tv\to 3O-mm DEFA cannon
both alight strike aircraft and a each wrth 100 rounds, Plus four wing
photo- reconnaissance aircraft. The pylons for a maxtmum total load of
Etendard IVP carries out the latter 1361 kg(3 000 1b)ofbombsorother
function and carries cameras in a stores including AS,30 attack missiles
redesr'gned nos e. These are still in or Sidewinder self-defence AAMs
service and there is no likelY

Armed Forces of the World

US Part 5

Missiles and artillery primarily for use against massed enemy armour. jectiles. The M1'1 0 series can fire nuclear projec-
Most frightening of the US Army's weapons is the This'programme is known as Tank Breaker and tiles. The basic HE shellweighs no less than 92.5 kg
MGM-31A Pershing battlefield missile. This hefty already a specialwarhead containing a large number (204 lb) and has tremendous destructive potential,
ballistic missile uses inertial guidance to steer its of anti-tank bomblets has been developed and The howitzer of the M110 is carried on a special
nuclear warhead to a target up to 740 km (460 issued. Lance is deployed in Europe with US and tracked carriage and there is no protection for the
miles) distant. The Pershing can be towed and used NATO units. gun crew, which consists of f ive men actually on the
direct from field sites with only a limited amount of A rocket system yet to be deployed by the US gun with more in support vehicles carrying ammuni-
preparations. Pershings already serve in Europe, Army is the Multiple Launch Rocket System tion. The basic M 1 1 0 has now been replaced by the
and the US Army has four Pershing battalions, one a (MLRS). MLRS is primarily an artillery rocket M110A1 with a longer barrel and by the M110A2
training formation capable of taking the field if intended to saturate enemy targets with salvoes of which has the longer barrel with a muzzle brake
required. Starting in 1984, it is scheduled that exist- unguided 227-mm (8.93-in) rounds. These are enabling it to fire more powerful propellant charges.
ing Pershings will be replaced by the Pershing 2 with transported and issued in six-rocket pallets that also The most numerous of US Army self-propelled
terminal guidance for a superior but smaller war- act as the launching frames, carried on the rear of items is the series of vehicles based on the M'109
head, and with improved range. The new model is armoured tracked vehicles. The launcher vehicles 155-mm (6.1-in) howitzers. The M'1 09 has its
the fear of peace demonstrators and a volatile new are equipped with some very advanced battlefield howitzer in a 360" traversing turret mounted on a
factor in the European equation, reducing to as little navigation and positionJixing electronics that chassis that is fitted with armour manufactured
as 15 minutes the decision time available to Soviet enables the three-man crew to launch the rockets at from aluminium alloys. The vehicle is thus light for
policymakers when they think it is coming at them. targets 30000 m (32,800 yds) distant. Once the its bulk and is amphibious to a limited degree. The
The same ground support equipment as that for the rockets have been launched, the vehicles reload howitzer can fire an HE shell weighing 43 kg (95 lb)
existing Pershing will be used. f rom support vehicles close by. MLRS warheads for to a range of 18100 m (19,800 yds) in the M10941
Only slightly less powerful than the Pershing is the initial batch will be fitted with West German version, and the projectiles fired are all standard
the MGM-52C Lance battlefield support missile. AT-2 anti-tank mines. The first MLRS equipments NATO items that can be acquired throughout the
Like the Pershing, the Lance can be fitted with a have already been issued and the first battery has Treaty nations. The original Ml09 has now been
nuclear warhead, but the US Army also fields large been activated.
HE warheads for this missile. The range of the In artillery, the US Army is now almost entirely
Lance is 120 km (75 miles), and the missile is Vought Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS)
equipped with self-propelled items for front-line for-
launches a rocket during its early trial. ByJune
carried on the battlefield by a special launch vehicle, mations. Largest in calibre is the 203-mm (B-in) 1984 over I00 of tiese systems ft ad been built, and
yet another variation on the M 1 1 3 APC. The Lance is M110 howitzer, which has a range of 21300 m the fi$t battery was operational with the 7th Army
currently being used as the base vehicle for a new (23.300 yds), and in its latest M110A2 form of inWestGermany. The systemwill also be fielded
generation of battlefield support missiles intended 29100 m 131 ,825 yds) with enhanced-range pro- by four other NATO countries.
Armed Forces of the World UD}
-eolaced by the M10941 with a longer barrel to
r--prove range, and the M'10942 is the f ull' produc-
: on version with the long banel and other detail
rternal lmprovements. The M10941 is the basic
vehicle used by artillery battalions in Europe and a
soecial version known as the M992 Field Artillery
Srpport Vehicle is now being introduced into
sery ce. The M992 is an ammunition carrierwhich is
-sed to supply ammunition to lV109s in the field. lt
larries the ammunitlon in racks. and from the racks
'ounds can be moved mechanically and under cover
rto the recipient M109.
The M109 is in service in large numbers (about
2.500) but already its successor is under considera-
: cn: specifications have been drawn up for a new
"55-mm (6.1-in) howitzer system known as the
lrvisional Support Weapon System. or DSWS, The
ISWS will have an automatic loader. a computer-
:ased fire-control system, inertial navigation equip-
-ent. a very high power-to-weight ratio (a pro-
:r,leC series of 'shoot and scoot' fire missions is
:-: : oated)and a high rate of fire at ranges up to
I L:30 m (32,800 yds). While such a weapon would
:: ceal. costs will be astronomical, so steps are
:: ig taken to improve the basic M109's perform-
:-:e and prolong its operational life.
-cwed artillery is stillwidely used in the US Army,
,', :n large numbers of M 1 14 1 55-mm (6. i -in) towed
-cwitzers still in service. The M 1 1 4 is of World War
vintage. but with a new and longer barrel on a head enters service. Meanwhile, a nuclear projectile Since I 962 the I 5 5 -mm M I 09 has been the
-odified carriage has become the updated for 155-mm howitzers is under development, as is a standard sell-proplled howitzer of the US Army.
\,!114A2. The basic M114 fires a 43-kg (95-lb) HE binary chemical-carrying projectile. Cargo rounds The cantent prd.uclion model is the M I 09A3,
srelt to a range o{ 14600 m (15,975 yds). carrying exploslve submunitions and small mines which has many improvements including amuch
longer barrel. inczeased ammunition capacity and
i n'oTe modern 155-mm (6.1-in) howitzer is the are already in the 155-mm inventory.
the ability to fuenew rounds amuchgEeater
'.':98, rntended for use by the RDJTF and airborne Numbers of towed 105-mm (4.13-in) howitzers dlstane.
-: rlery regiments. lt is a thoroughly modern item are still used by some airborne artillery battalions.
,'" :r a long barrel and a light carriage. lt fires the The model now used is the 105-mm M102, a
.::rdard 43-kg (95-lb) shell to a range of 24000 m weapon specifically tailored for airborne units and
:6,250yds). Like other 155-mm howitzers, the firing the time-honoured standard 105-mm (4.13-in)
A Lance su{ace fo surface m.rssr.le k carefully
'."98 can fire the laser-guided Copperhead pro- lowerd on to its trac}ed launcher. Lance canbe
ammunition. The M102 can fire its HE shell to a fitted with a variety of warheads, including tactical
:::ile, intended for use against tanks. but develop- range of 11500 m 112,575 yds). The M102 has a nucleat, and tlre mjssrie is widely employed in
-ent problems have delayed introduction of this crew of from four to six, and can be towed or slung NATO countries. including West Germany, Italy,
--n:t on, and it may be some tlme before Copper- from a helicopter. Great Britain. Belgiunt and the Netherlands.