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Volume 9 Issue 98

Published by
Orbis Publishinq Ltd
@ Aerospace Publishing Ltd 1985
Editorial Offices
War Machine
Aerospace Publishing Ltd
'179 Dalling Road
London W6 OES

Managing Editor: Stan Morse

Editorial : Trisha Palmer
Chris Bishop
Chris Chant
lan Drury

Design: Rod Teasdale

ColourOrigination: lmago Publishing Ltd,
Thame. Oxon
Typesetting: SX Composing Ltd
Film work: Precise Litho Ltd
Consultant Editor: Major General Sir
Ray Hutchins Jeremy Moore KCB OBE MC, Comman-
Dave Ftchell der of British Land Forces during the
Peter Sarson & Tony Bryan Falklands campaign.

1 8857 Distribution and marketing offices:

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I'lodern Combaf
Enqineers use some of the most utrusual equipment in the
armed. forces' inventortes, ranging from conventional
constrttction machines to sp e cial-putp ose AFVs desigme d to
Iay down brtdges, bury mines, rtp up roads or excavate tat* ACombat Engineer Tractor uses its hydraulically-operated bucket to move
soil. The bucket can also be used as an earlfi a nchor when thewinch is being
frring positions. The sheer variety of specialist equipment is deployed. When afloat, the Combat Engineer Tractor is powered by a water
testimonyto the crucialimportance of combat engineering on jet on each side.
the battlefields of today.
based launchers; and their detection and clearance in the shortest
The combat engineer of the I9B0s is one of the most highly trained possible time with the minimum of casualties, In conflicts such as those in
members of any modern army, His duties include detecting and clearing South Vietnam, the Middle East, Namrbia and more recently the Falk-
anti-tank and anti-personnel minefields, laying minefields, demolition lands, mines have been a major problem,
work, airfield construction, rapid runway repair, laying bridqles for Military bridging has also been revolutionized rn recent years with the
forward elements, repairing brrdges, and prepanng weapon pits and introduction of systems such as the British Medium Girder Bridge (MGB)
trenches to name but a few, and the Sovlet PMP heavy folding floating bridge, The latter is so
To carry out these missions combat engineers have a very wide range successful a design that the Americans have improved it even further
of equipment. Some items, such as the Combat Engineer Tractor (CET) and it is now in servrce with the US and some NATO armies as the Ribbon
or Counter Obstacle Vehrcle (COV), have been developed specifically Bridgel
for military use, but much of the equipment used in military construction Wlthin thls study there is space only to highlight some of the more
work is normally standard civil equipment with lrttle if anything in the important items of combat engineer equipment in servrce today.
way of modification to suit it for service use,
An M60AI of the United States Army clears a road of anti-tank mines with its
The one area in combat engdneering that is receiving more attention frcnt-mounted roller system. The Soviets have been using similar systems for
than ever is mine warfare. This f,eld covers not only the laying of mines manyyears, butitis only recently that the UnitedStatesArmy has bought
by indrviduals but also by helicopters, rockets, artillery and ground- these in significant numbers.


AMX-30 Armoured Vehicle-Launched Bridge

: -: :::=y years the onlY armoured
:: -:;::layer tn service with the French
-::--j -,';as
the AMX-i3 Char Poseur de
poni (Cpp) This is essentrally an AMX-
-: ,ll:-i iank chassis with turet re-
:...=: and fttled with a scissors
::-:;:=',"lhichis laid hydraulically over
:=ar of the vehicte. Opened out the
:*::: L. 14 3 m (46 tt I I in) Iong and
-l- ',ke vehicles r.p to Class 25 well
:.-: r ine weight of the Amerlcan M47
tanks of
--<- ,rnrch were the standard
:-= flench army at the time of the
l?: s iebut. To allow the M47 tank to Thebridge laid bY the
:::s,r r',vo bridges were laid side bY AMX-30AVLBis22 mlong
--:^ and3.1 mwidewhen
.:-: proto'Ype of a new brtdgeiayer opened out, but ilswidth
::,-i,r: Jn the chassis of the AMX-30 c an be quic kly increased
-:-< -,';as completed in the mid-1960s, to3.92 mwiththeaidof
s pecial wide n ing P anels.
a -. -lr a variety of reasons it was some
- -.-:ars before the f,rst Productlon
.4IB-30 CPP vehicles were delivered An AMX-30 armoured vehicle-
- :-: French armY. The chassis of this launched bridge is seen in travelling
-:1.:.--30 bridgelayer is built by the mode. This chassts is a/mosl
-:- :-:l de Constructton Roanne
(ARE), identical to that of the MBT with
:-: ::ly MBT plant in France, while the which it has been designed to
::-:;:a itself is made bY Titan, which operate, so thatbothvehicles have
.'-r: l:ailds many of the trailers used by similar cr o s s - coun try pertor m ance.
-,= i:ench aimy. Maintenance and operations are
-:: overall laYout of the AMX-30 thus simplified.
=:::,:';ed bridqelayer is almost iden-
:. :3 that of the MBT, with the driver
-==:e:1 at the front, the commander cludes an NBC system and niqht-vision
equipment. No armament is installed
--1 i:ndqe operator accommodated as oiher armoured vehicles, such as
-:- .:: centre, and the engine and tanks, would normally be in a position
l--<::ssron located at the rear. Like
-:-a. :::ie older AMX-13 CPP, the scis- to flve covering fire. A maior dis-
is laid advbntage of armoured brrdgelayers
-r: rs crdQle of the AMX-30 CPP
-'.-i-a:Icallv over the rear ofthe vehi- such as-the French AMX-13/AMX-30
--.= ,-. j .akes aborrt 5 mtnutes to posi- anci British Chieftain derlatives ls that
recovered, when the brtdge is being positioned,
-- -:- =i a simrlar time to be i,e, being laid through 180', its position
.:::::st brtdqes of this tYPe it can be
-. : =i recovered from etther end can be easily detected by the enemy,
l;::-:3 out, the bridge rs 22m (72f1 Other bridgelayers, such as the Sovtet
MTU-20 and the West German Brber,
-:-. ,::g and can sPan a gaP of 20 m
lav their bridges honzontally so as not
:- - .:-. a constderable imProve-
::-=:,- :'.-el the older AMX- l3 armoured to give away their position so easily
I 2-cylinder multi-fuel diesel Performance: maxrmum road sPeed
::-:;:1a1'er. In position the bridge ts developins 522.0 kW (700 hP) 50 kr/h (3 L l mph); maxmum ranqe
: - :- .-i i 2 in) wide, but wrth the aid Specification
Dimensions: Ienqith (with bridge) 600 km (373 miles): fordng 1 0 m (3 fl
-, ;;i:::ngi paneJs this can be quicklY AMX-3OCPP
11,40 m (37 ft 4,8 in); width (with 4 in); grradrent 60 per cent; vertical
-::-ei to 3.92 m (12 ft 10,3 in) Crew:3
Weight: 42500 kq (93,696 Ib) bridse) 3,95 m (12 ft I t.5 in); heighl obstacle 0.93 m (3 ft 0 6 in); trench
3 --iard equipment lor the AMX-30 (withbridqe)4.29 m(14 ft0,9 in) 2,9m(9ft62tn)
in- Powerplant: one Hrspano-Suiza HS- I 10
=:::-- -::d vehtcle launched bridge

fI Bridsre svstem
nium box{ype structure with the crew
compartment at the front, engine in the
centre and fuel tanks at the rear' Steer-
inq is power-assisted on the fronl
wieeh, and there are tndePendent
brake systems for front and rear' NBC
and air-bonditioninq systems a-re fltted
as standard,
After reaching the obstacle to be
crossed, the PAA raises its four wheels
clear of the ground and rests on shoes
under its hul]. The scissors-tYPe
brrdqe is then launched hydraulicqlly
ovei the front of the vehicle When
ooened out this has a total length of
2\]2m (71{t 3 in) and rs 3.05 m (10 ft
Oin) wide, Wrth the aid of sPectal
wtdening panels carried on a 6xO
truck the ritidth of the bridgte can be
increased to 3.55 m (Il ft 7 B in) lf re-

The PAA self-proPelled bridge

systemwas built for the French army
engineers by the Direction des
C ons tructions et At m6es N av ale s a t
Lorient, although the first prototypes
were built by the West German
company of EWK during the 1960s.
PAA Bridge System (continued) Modern Combat Engineer Equipment
qurred the widening panels can be sectron has tvvo outboard motors instal-
carried attached to the bridge, but in ]ed,
practice they are normally removed to
reduce the overall width of the vehicle, Specification
With the launch vehicle remainingT rn PAA
position as a ramp, soft-banked gaps of Crew:4
up to 17.40m (57ft l in) can be cros- Weight 34500 kg (76,059 lb)
sed, while the hard-banked gap capa- Powerplant: one Deutz V-12 diesel
bility is 22.40 m (73 ft 6 in). developing 223,7 kW (300 hp)
In combat the PAA would normally Dimensions: lenqth (travelling)
replace bridges launched by AMX-30 13, 15 m (43 ft 1,7 in); width (travelling)
armoured bridgelayers, which would 3,OS m (10 ft 0 in); height (travelling)
lhen move forward. As soon as possi- 3.99 m (13 ft 1, I in)
b1e bridges laid by the PAA would be Performance: maximum road speed
replaced by more permanent and dur- 60 km/h (37.3 mph); maximum range
able structures. 800 km (497 lcn); fording 1.5 m (4 ft
The French army has a number of I I in); gnadient 50 per cent; trench no
other bridging systems in servrce, in- capability
cluding the Castor light river crossing
equipment and the new CMM Pont A F r e nch army P AA se lf - pr ope lled
Flottant Motorise Moddle Fl, The latter bridge system unfolds ifs scissors
is perhaps the French equivalent ofthe bridge while an AM X - 30 M BT w aits
PMP heavy floating bridge, but has a to cross. The PAA can either help
number ofadvantages: it can be used make alonger span, or leave the
as a bridge, raft or pontoon, No pon- bridge in position fvhile it moves to
toon boats are required as each centre thercar.

E nitix-SO Combat Engineer Tractor (EBG)

Currently under development to
Since the late i960s the AMX-I3 En- meet the requirements of the French
gineer Combat Vehicle (V6hicule de army engineers is the Engin Blinde
Combat du G6nie, or VCG) has been du Genie, which features a front-
the standard vehicle of its type in the
mounted dozer blade, hydraulic
French army, The VCG rs based on the winch, crane and demolition
AMX VCI infantry combat vehicle, and
l, projector.
ts fitted with a front-mounted hydrauli
cally-operated dozer blade, an A-
frame pivoted at the ftont of the hull
which when in position can lift a max-
imum load of 4500 kg (9,921 lb), mine
detectors, a hammer drill, a power saw
and demolition equipment.
In the future the VCG will be re-
placed by the Engin Blinde du Genie
(EBG) or AMX-30 Combat Engrineer
Tractor based on the chassis of the
AMX-30 main battle tank, of which
over 1,000 are in service with the
French army,
The EBG is a much more versatile
vehicle, and will carry out a wide
range of combat engrneer roles in-
cluding laying small minefields, pre-
paring fire posrtions, clearing bat- cher, for whrch five charges are car-
tlefield obstacles and so on, ried. Each ofthe charges weighs about
Mounted at the front of the EBG is a 17 kg 137.48 Ib) and has a maxrmum
hydraulically-operated dozer blade rangre of 300 m (328 yards), Typically
whtch is used for cleanng and earth- these would be used to destroy bunk-
moving operations, When its six scar- ers and other battlefield targets. On
ifying teeth are lowered and the vehi- each side of the demolition-charge
cle is driven in reverse the dozer projector are two mine-launching
blade can be used to rip up the surface tubes, each ofwhich has a container of
of roads to make them impassable to flve mines which fall to the ground and
wheeled vehicles. Located internally will be activated by any vehicle
at the front of the hull is the main hyd- weiqhing over 1500 kg (3,307 lb).
raulic winch with a capacity of be- Standard equipment for the EBG in-
tween 15000 and 20000 kq (33,069 and cludes a deep fordinq kit, an NBC sys-
44,092 1b), which can be used to recov- tem and night-vrsron devices.
er other vehicles,
Fitted at the front of the hull on the Specification
nght side hydraulic arm that can be
is a AIVD(-3OEBG
traversed through 360', In addition to Crew:3
lifting a maximum load of kq
15000 Weight: 38000 kq (83,776 lb)
(33,069 1b), the arm can also be fitted Powerplant: one Hispano-Suiza HS
with an auqer for boring holes in the i I 0-2 I 2-cylinder multifuel engrne
ground to a depth of3 m (9 ft 10 in) or a developins 522.0 kW (700 hp)
ptncer whrch can be used to np trees Dimensions: length 7.90 m (25 ft 11 in);
from the clround. width 3,50 m ( I 1 ft 5,8 in); heisht 2,94 m
Mounted on the hull top is a one-man (9 ft 7.7 in)
turret armed with a 7.62-mm (0.3-in) Performance: maximum road speed
machine-gun, for which 4,000 rounds of 65 krn/h (40,4 mph); maximum range
ammunitron are carrred, and located 500 km (311mi]es); fordrngwithout
on each side ol the furret are electri- preparation2,SO m(8 ft2.4 in); This is one of the two prototypes of slumps. The front-mounted dozer
cally-operated smoke dischargers, gnadient 60 per cent; vertical obstacle the EBG, with the hydraulic crane blade can be used for clearing
The vehrcle is also fitted with a 142- 0.9 m (2 ft l 1.4 in); trench 2.9 m (9 ft traversed to the front and fittedwith battlefieldobstacles or to prepare
mm (5.6-in) demolrtion-charge laun- 6,2 in) pincers for the rapid removal of tree fire positions.
Storming the Ctmal ber, there were less than 500 men and just
in 1973 was amasferpiece of combat
the Suez Canal three tanks defendinq the Bar-lrev ]rtne
!ne EgWtian army's attack over
Lisr;-,;;irg) ti":itruiiiadestimatedthatitwouldtake anythtngup totwo davsto Egyptian air strikes
iiig" k"-"*at, proteitea as itwasby hugebanks of sand, buttheEgyptian The Egyptian air force carried out some 250
engriltxrs had the troops across in a matter of hours' sorties against the three key arrfrelds in Sinai as
well as against the major Israeli command, con-
-:-= '-337 Mrddle East conflict, Israel cap- full mobilizatlon every trme there was a warn- trol and communications centres, some of the
:. ino, When the Israehs drscovered that the strongpornts on ihe canal ltself, and atr-
.::i ..' :f Sinai from Egypt and in the next few
'.-=-s c.;ili the Bar-Lev Line along the Suez Soinet milrtary advtsers were beingwithdrawn defencb and artillery positions, The Egyptian
from both Svria and Egrypt they became more army opened up wtth some 2,000 artillery
l.--:- s:etching from Port Said in the north concerned, althouqh as late as 5 October the pieies,- Soviet-supplted FROG surlace-to'
i-',-,: :: Suez in the south The Bar-l,ev Line, surface missiles and multiple rocket systems
originator, was not a continuous-
---=:::ed ar-,er its
overall intelhgence picture presented to the
general staff was thalthere was little probabil- The role of the first wave ol 8,000 Egyptian
= :i iortifications, however, but a series of
ijv oi war breaking out; some Israelis were infantrymen was to cross the canal in asssault
:::a:red forts and observation posts whose convinced, however, rhai an Egyplian attack boats, wherever possible well away from the
:---:- rcles were to act as a trip wire and as the Israeli fortrflcations and their machine-guns,
of the Israeli artillery and air was imminent,
=.,-=s a-nd ears Bv the next day informatron had started to and to hoid the lar bank until the arrival of the
_::le second wave ol infantry, which was tasked to
of the come ln at an tncreasing rate, and Israel was
-:e size, construction and manpower certain that war would break out on both the hold the bank while the first wave advanced a
-:.1:.itdual fortifications depended on their short distance ahead and dug in. Once the
::sr:ion and purpose, Most had tnfantry Syrian (Northern) and Egyptian (Southern)
1;r:ing FronLs durtno that afternoon second and fourth waves were safely across
posittons, and were surrounded by they advanced about Zkm(LZ4 miles) rnto the
:-oed-wire entanglements and other obsta- In 1973 thJSuez Canal was about l8 m (59 ft)
deep and between 164 m (538 ft) aLd 220 m desert and dug in, Many of them broughl with
:-es. Deep underground bunkers were pro- them the man-portable version oi the Sovtei
(72?It) wtde. The original bankon the EgypLian
-ied where the men could rest or take refuge AT-3 'sagger' anti{ank gnrlded weapon (com-
:: :he event of heavy artiilery bombardment side was about 3 m (10 11) hrgh bul Lhe Israelis
had raised therr srde to anything up to 21m monly called the suitcase tank ktller) as well as
- re total length of the Bar-l,ev Line from north SA-7-'Grarl' man-portable surfacelo-air mis-
:: souih was about l8O km (112 miles) (69 ft) in heiqht to make it tmpossible for amphi-
About 16km (10 mlles) to the rear of the bioui vehiCles to cross the canal and then siles.
climb the banks. In addrtion to the fortifications The infantry bypassed the Israeli Bar-Lev
Bar Lev Line was the Israeli artillery road, strongpoints,-which were left to specialil
-.';hich ran almost parallel to the Suez Canal and along the canal, there were also prep:Lred tank
"artillery positions When the Egyp-tians
gave the Israeli army the abilrty to switch its and trained units, The Egyptians had expected
attacked on-the afiernoon of Saturday 6 Octo- very heavy casualttes rn the lirst waves' but
ieU-propelled artillery umts rapidly from one
llari oithe front to another, A few kilometres to
he rear of the artillery road was the supply
Surprise attack
The Israeli Srnar Front (or Southern Front)
comprised a division under the command o[
Major-General Mandler with three brigades
and just under 300 tanks, Of the three brigades,
one (under the command of Reshef) was-de-
ployed lorward with rts main part north of the
brcjat Bitter Lake and detachments all along
the canal, The other two brigades were de-
ployed to the rear: the brigade in the north was
irncier the command of Amir and the one in the
south under Shamron, Above:TwoGSP heavy amphibious ferry units Below : Soviet-supplied K -6 I fully- tracked
The Egyptians had been massing -their coupled together carry aT-54MBT. Each unit amphibious cargo catriers were used by the,
forces onlh-e western bank of the Suez Canal Eoiptian armv to carry troops,weapons and
eniers the ivater on its own and is then j oined up to are
.Ibbiies across the Suez Canal' These vehicles
lor some time under conditions of greai secre- form the ferry, which can carry weapons or
cv, men and equipmenl were moved up under vehiclesweighing amaximum of 52 tonnes eich carrying aWest German Mercedes-Benz
e r s p e e d fullv loaded ts unimog 4x4light cargo truck.
cover ol darkness and then carefully camou- f i i i, aqo ID iM aiimum w at

flaged and instructed to maintain strict radio 7.7 kmlh(4.8 mPh)'

sii5nce. To the Israeli observers on the far bank
things appeared perfectly normal, even down
to E-gypir-an soldrers resting in the-open The
eqyiiian Iorces included the 2nd Army rn-the
noittr wrttr Lhree intantry divistons (2nd 16th
and 18th) and the 3rd Army rn the south.wilh
two infantry divisions (7th and t9th) In addttton
there were two armoured and three mecha-
nized divisions plus additional brrgades of
tanks and paratroops, and battalions of com-
mandos and marlnes, A11 of this was protected
bv a massrve arr-de{ence system incorporattng
radars, surface-to-air missiles and antt-arrcrait
ouns. This defensive screen had been well
5xercised in the earlier 'War of Attrition" and
was treated with respect by the Israeli air
The Israeiis started to receive lnformation
from a number of sources oi an impendtng
Egyptian attack during September 1973, bui
th-e-v did not mobilize their reserve forces as
previous alarms had proved to be false and the
israeli economy could not afford the expense of

Modern Combat Engineer Equipment
their total iosses were only about 200 men krl-
led, many of these being in the 3rd Army to the
A total of 10 bridges was put across the Suez
Canal: three near Kantara, three around
Ismailia-Deversotr and the remaining four
around Geneifa-Suez. The brggest problem
facing the Egyptrans was the raptd removal of
the high banks of sand on each side of the canal
so that vehicles could get to the pontoon
brldges. The Israeli army had estimated that rt
'would take anything from24 to 48 hours for the
Egyptrans to put bridges across the canal,
whrch would be enough trme for the Israelis to
bring their reinforcements up from the rear, The Egyptians hoped that by the evening of 7 A S oviet- supplied SA- 2' G u ideline' s urf ace- to- air
The Egyptrans solved thrs problem by usrng October they would be on the Israeh supply missile o{ Egtyptian Air Defence Command. These
high pressure water jets simply to wash the road, but rn fact by this time they held only missiles forced the Israeli air force to fly much
banks away. The Sovret-supplied 'ribbon three large pockets, although massrve amounts lower, where they encountered anti-aircraft
oridges' were quickly in position and soon the of equipment were now on the east bank of the systemssuch as ZSU-23-4.When the Israeli army
crossed fft eSuez Canal these were neutralized.
.anks, armoured personnel carriers and other Suez Canal lor the inland exploitation
equipment was pourine across the Suez Canal. The first Israeli counterattacks were a disas- World War II took piace as 2,000 Israeli ani
The israeli army engaged the Egyptran cros- ter as tank after tank was hit by the rvell- Egyptran tanks slogged it out across the desert
srng points with artillery, but this was not very conceaied 'Sasqer'ATGWs, and soon ihe bat- The Israeh seneral stafl had decrded that the
accurate as a result of the lack of forward tlefield was lrttered with burning Israeli tanks only way to defeat the Egyptian army was :c
:bservers. The israeli air force soon started to The world's media, on hearing oi the first un attack across the canal itsell and chose a spo.
aitack ihe brrdges as well, but its aircraft en- successlul Israeli counterattacks, believed that north of the Great Bitter Lakes between the
:cuntered heavy antr-aircraft fire as the this proved that the tank had no future. The Egyptian 2nd and 3rd Armres Once the
cridges were weil withln the protectton belt of Israelis had in fact stumbled ahead wrihout brrdgehead was established across the canal
3nrns arid missiles, When the Israelis dld suc- artrilery, infantry or air support and conse- units swept north to Ismailia and westward
:eed in hitting and damaging one of the pon- quently pard a heavy pnce where they not only engaged the Egyptian
:con bridges, the Egyptrans were able to take Soon, however, israeli reinforcements army but also knocked out the SAM srtes that
:he damaged ponioon out and put in a new one, started to reach the Southern Front, although to were provrng so much trouble to the Israeli arr
ll addrtron to the 'ribbon brrdge', Soviet- the general staff the situatron on the Northern force. In the end the Egyptian 2nd Army was
supplied GSP ferries were also used by the Front was far more serious as the Syrians had cut olf and a ceasefire came into effect on 22
-gyptrans to ferry armoured vehicles across almost reached the Sea of Galilee. The rein- October.
:he canal, forcements arrived in the nick of trme as by
The objectrve of the Egyptran army was that Sunday Mandler's divisron had lost :r'vo-thirds Below: After the Egyptians failed to reach the
passet the Israelis counterattacked and
each division was to establish a frrm bridge- of its tanks, The rest is history: the Egyptrans tftemse,lyes crossed the canal just north of the
read about 8 km (5 mrles) long and 5 km (3, I were stopped way before they reached to the Great Bitter Lakes. ZlIe subse quent armoured
iniles) deep and then to push forward through crucral passes, and in the ensuinq days the drive to Ismailia broke the Egyptian defence and
:he three key passes of Khatmia, Gidr and Mitla, largest tank battles since the Battle of Kursk rn endedthewar.

.' 'i.d:s!. ; ;,.

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r1 %,
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-t *
::"1e.*"x *=; ;- -.--4
l"F, l

*+i:;,itt:/. :
1,'4.:e8: ..'
_ aft.

FFV Anti-Tank Mines
electronic detonator, This sets off the According to FFV, a conventional l50m (164 yards) through an arc of
Antr-tank mines have been around minefield with 1,000 anti-tank mines 100 m (328 ft) to a helqht of 4 m (13 ft)
since the tank first appeared on the uncovenng charge, which not onlY
blows away the upper part of the cen- can be laid by 30 soldiers in about 3.5
battlefleld, Until recent years these hours, whereas the FFV minelayer can Specification
normally had a pressu-re{ype fuse that tre of the mine but also the earth or any
was activated by the tracks of the tank camouflagTe over the mine, The hollow in I hour lay 400 mines with the same FFVO2SRU
charge then goes off, and this will effeqtiveness usrng just four men, Type:anti-tankmtne
and relied on the blast effect to cause FFV has also recently developed Weight: whole weapon 7,5 kqt
damage to it, Combat experlence has penetrate the belly armour of any tank,
ihowering the rnside of the vehicle another mine system, the FFV 013 anti- (16.53 1b); burstinqcharge 3.5 kQt
shown that in many cases lhe suspen- personnel mine. This shrapnel-type (7,7Ib)
sion of the tank is damaged, so result- with fraqments of metal and also prob-
ablv set-trnq off the ammunitlon that ls weapon can be used not onlY for Dimensions: diameter 250 mm (9.8 in);
rng in a mobrlity kill, But often the tank heiqht 110 mm (4,3 in)
often stow6d in the lower part of the ambush puposes but also for defend-
can be repaired and soon be in ser- ing key airfields and other vulnerable Bursting charge: RDIVTNT
vrce again, With pressure-type anti- tank.
TVro types ofthe FFV O2B have so far targets. When activated the mine pro- Operational life: 180 days
tank mines large numbers of mines jects 1,200 fragments to a range of
have to be laid to ensure that the been developed: the standard FFV 028
minefield is effective, RU and the more soPhisticated FFV
028 SN, The latter is fitted with booby- Below: A Swedish FW mechanical minelayer is towed by aVolvo All Tettain
FFV of Sweden reallzed that what Vehicle with F FV 0 2 I anti- tank mi nes being placed on a m inelayinS q hulg'- -
was required was an anti-tank mtne trap and self-destruction/neutraliza-
that wor.ild kill the tank rather than im- tion devices, and has an operational tiiei: e iutiia. of the mine itself . One version has an operational life^o^f 1.20
mobilize it for a few hours, and that the life of 30 days, aiii; {ne otner has a self-neutralization system which operates after 30 days'
rntroduction of new frxes would not
only make the mine more effective but
also reduce the number requrred This
mine was gtven the designation FFV
028, and after the usual troop trials and
modificatrons was accepted for ser-
uce with the Swedish armY in 1982.
The FFV 028 anti-tank mine can be
laid by hand but rs normally laid by a
two-wheeled minelayer specially de-
veloped by FFV. This minelaYer can
be t6wed by a varietY of tracked and
wheeled vehicles, and can laY the
mines on the surface or under the
oround at a maximum rate of 20 a mi-
iute; the operator can select the dis-
tance between each so mlnefields with
various densities can be laid The
bwied mines are laid about 250 mm
(9.84 in) under the ground and the top
sorl is replaced, so makrng detection
drfficrit by the naked eYe,
There are two main Parts to the FFV
l2B anti-tank mine: the fuse syslem in
.ire centre and the body itsell which
:ontains the battery, uncovering
charqe, Iiner and main charge Once'.
-ie mine ls laid it operates as follows
-v\hen vehicle passes over the mineT
-ie fi:se system senses the disturbancd
': the local magnetic field, and when
iie conditions are right (i,e. thevehlcle
'. nght over the mlne) the electronic
:::it emits an initiation Pulse to the

flmilv of Scatterable Mines

l: atl the nations in the world it is the
-:jled States that has Put the most
ADAM except that it carries anti-tank
mrnes each rniei ghing2.27 kq (5 1b): the
appearancer the flrst is operated by a
piesswe fuse; the second has been
designed to defeat minefield clearing
The Volcano universal mine-
dispensing system is beinq developed
:-:rt into the design, develoPment M7I8 projectile carries mines with to meet the requirements of the US
:::d oroduction of new mine systems, long self-destruct time (i.e over 24 by rollers and wi]l detonate after the
Armv and will be carried on the sides
hours), while the M74I projecttle car- rollers have passed overhead; and the
r.;::ch have been given the official title of The Sikorskv UH-60 Black Hawk heh-
ries mines with a short self-destruct thrd has an anti-disturbance device to
Family of Scatterable Mines, or FAS- drscourage clearance efforts. The M56 copter as weil as by vehtcles such as
CAM for short. time (i,e, under 24 hours). The actual
nroiectrle case of bolh ADAM and entered sewice in 1977 and will prob- trucks, Each UH-60 will have hvo dis-
ably be replaced in the future by the pensers each holding 40 cansters of
ADAM heelts is the same as that used tn the hrnes on each side ofthe Iuselage; 960
M483 Improved Conventional Muni- Volcano unrversal mtne-dispensing
3e Area Denial Artillery Munition system. anti-tank and anti-personnel mrnes will
(ADAM) s alreadY in semce with the tion (ICM), which has BB grenades that
(6 i- are dispensed over the target area ln be carrred for dispensing in sequence
-'S Armv and rs fued from l55-mm over the target area,
:- weapons such as the self- operational use an artillery battery-
--:ll-ery would probably fire several volleys of GEMSS
:::celled M109, There are two types The Ground Emplaced Mine Scat
:: -:,DaV projectlle, each containing both ADAM and RAAMS Protectiles to
give a combined anti-tank and anti- tering System (GEMSS) is one of the MOPMS
:i n:nes:-the M692 Projectile has
-wrth a longi self-destruct iuse personnel minefield, more recent members of FASCAM, The Modular Pack Mine System
':: rrcre than and is more commonlY known as the (MOPMS) consists of a module that can
a daY), while the M73l be carned by two men and contatns 2I
M56 antltank mine sYstem 'Frisbee Flinger', It consists basically of
:-:: l::rnes wlth a short self-destruct a trailer that can be towed bY a anti-tank and anti-personnel mines
':i: '-e less than a daY), The mines The M56 was the first member of the
which are launched bY a remote con-
FASCAM series to enter seruice with wheeled (e,q, 6x6 truck) or tracked
---.=::-+j bv ADAM are wedge-shaPed vehicle (e,g, Ml13 APC) on which is trol umt,
.: :' : :i- ihe surface; each mine has the US Army. The M56 system consists
mounted a large drum-type magazine
>:'.'=: ::rD Vnres, and once any one of essentially bf a Bett UH-l series heh-
-:=;e -= ::uched lt activates the mine conter with a SUU-13/A dtspenser on that can dispense M74 anti-personnel GATOR
ea'ch .id" of the fuselage and a control mines and M75 anti-tank mines at the The anti-armour sYstem known as
,r:-::- :-,plcdes sending out hundreds rate of two per second; 800 mines can GATOR was develoPed for use bY the
panel inside, Each dispenser holds 40
,,::;,::is canrsters. each of whiah has rwo M56 be carried. Once the 800 mines have US Navy and US Air Force, and con-
antr-tank mines, There are three diffe- been surface-laid, the launcher can be sists of dispensers which are carried
reloaded by five men in about 20 mi- under an aircraft to distribute anti-tank
-:,= Remote Anti-Armor Mine SYs- rent types of mine, all of which lie on mines.
:e:n rR-A,qMS) rs similar in concePt to the surface and are identical in nutes.

Modern landmines are a deadlier menace than everbefore.
Modern Combat Engineer Equipment
rollers have sufficient pressure-to set off any antt tan( mtnes tn the:r pai^ --=
Now largely made of ptastic, thei aie aitticittio aii"iiliJ explosron cq!sed by the mine lifts the rollers into the air, hopef uily noi ila,rag . .
oftenfittedwith anti-handling devices to blow up anyane "r. ail of them. The US Ar-my has reDertly ssrrtr.i a mine clealing r.oiler lor,ts iil a:
series tan(s Ancther sysre- 5 l^e m ne ploJgn. w^ cn s alidcneo .o-
attempting to ciisarm them. iaid rather iike seeds bymachines ol [he tank wh ch is then driven forwards. mines in its path are then p,s:::
iowed by APCs, mlnes threaten men and vehicles alike, and aside for iater neutra ization or detonation Tne lirae i arid British arm,es l.:l
the search for effective countermeasures contrnues. lavo T ne-cie_l'ance plorgns .n seTv.cp. ;1 Lhe dtler u'ay '-ey a.e ,:-
Ce^tur on AV?Fs ano Ch e'rain o-idoelayers.
warfare today nvo ves nol only the layrng of anti-tank and anti-personnel
',,1'ne Yet another^syqteTl? aI ex_plosrVe charge such as the Brrtish Grani\,i l:.
'l nes, bu1 also the r delection and clearance. As m nes have become more SVstemortheSovel M-\ The orrer Stra e-.ou^reoa^ctno-mdl\, .r=
.cphrstrcated a great deal of work has gone into detectlon and clearance a Cenrrrion AVFF. Tre v'^ clc halts'-st oulsroe 116. r;ns isl6 ano re .. i
rr. ethod s. Viper is fired from withrn the safety of the vehrcle: a 2Zg-m (7b0 ft) hose fi,e:
with explosive is carried across the m nef e d by a c uster of eight rockets, e-:
Mine detection falls {hopeiuily in a straight lrne) onto the mtneireld before beiiq detonateo i.:
many years most ant tank and antt,personnel mines had a larqe metal clear a par^ 182 /600 l, ,on9 a^d 7.6 n- ,25'tJ wop
ntent { nclud nq the case and fuse). Th s made their detectton bv conventtonal The US Army has aiso tried usrng Fuel Air Fxplosrves {or clearing minefie:ls
-' re oetectors Jfair y easy matter. Then, duflnq World War ll, mines made of a'd tr ais -d\ e Oeen qil la rJC-esbf-i. One SySte^ , l"e Slr'aCe , 3j.6.og - -
.. o cdroooa'd cno ovnn g ass we e nr.oducec. 1^e5e plo\ :^q \ -.\ oi"icJll lo fuel A r fto os ve rS- rr ALr o^d baseo o- an V5,1d trac. eo cargo ca e- -
::iect, and in recent years most of the new m nes introduced into service are we l enror seTv ce i- the not loo disranr luture
--:ce of plastrc with just one or two small metal parts in thetr fuses Thls has
--"de their locatron by conventtonal devices almost iilpossible, so constderably . ..As the Bltrsh army discovered rn the Falklands conf ict and the US Arml
Vietnam, m nes are a malor probiem and at present there are no systems inai
'-cre sensrtive nnine detectors har,re now been developed and placed in service. can detect and ciear every type of mine lrlely to be encountered.'
- rr o col -rodern n' ;ne crete ro is thu N.MD-78 s,pplied oy, " ret.l q"enf iic
'- r- e1's oi tne UK. svsre- cdn delecl meta a'd ^on n-elci I c -irp',-
. - 5 eve'y lvon o[.oi. !o ^o^dtions Can also ca-se probons.r n ne
-jetection so the NMD-78 automattcally takes thrs factor into account. The
.rdlo/ -or^ a lv wol." s owll a^ead sweep nq Jne o","aLoi llo- oj"
-'. 1o rneolhpr'amne,.oetecltroasg^a isq\trn 'r'" n Lnehes-1p16p^5yyo'n
: ^e ope'ator wno lnen src,ps. l-re r^g" c61o'1ili r\a- nes Ine
"'Jr{ace to scc
' :rere are any tell tale marks' for example, f resh earth can indicate that a mine
-:s rust been laid, wh ile a trip wtre can warn of an anti,perscnnel mine or a tilt rod
:'an anti{ank mine. The operator then has to cail in a specialized mtne clearance
::arr-r with its equrpment to uncover the mine verV caref ullV and try to dtsarm t.
nes have dn a.i I oevi( C^dI ng rnp./vedpon as Sooa as t s ] 'teo
.'.,/o"re qtou^d). wh"o oin.ts aave a ou lt: a r o;st_"ba^ce svs.en .

^es rSed by lgrr6 ir'5 a-e !i't-dlrv .-pOSb O u tC Optect ds t'tey Can ta\e
. 'fslanv'orm {o'e"ar oe om ncr.rntetIaloncsroearoad ndcounltvarea
\o' e-^ l'pa'd te"or'sl" o'e- pec. ,s ^ rci a" 227,q r5OO lbl oi ^'qr-
.:xplosive in a culvert or d rarn u nder a road to be detonut"a frv rSroiu .ontiof iJ a
. Ce O- d'-VVerrCltr CdscC-. TneSe ^ i-e. ^ave.;O m.rL-'O-Ce thal ony veniCle
'lJ'e. eVeil d'r d-nnOJreO pctrO^np Carrer. u..'l be dtrS tOyed. DOq- rar.e
. -ovtsd to ba verv use u i^ sril{nq o-, ootl m nes and erplosive" n -an\
. r^tries. ano rre -SA 5 cJne^riv wor.i^q on r^e Airbor^e V .erreld DcLaction
>vstem (AMIDS), which wlll be an BPV {itted w,rth electro-optrcal sensors.

Mine clearance
been dere.reo rrey rn-st be ce,:red, o. a wJy ndr ro oa
:cund around the minefield. Mines can be cleared by hand, but thrs is a tirne-
:onsuiring and dangercus occupatiorr. f nere are nbw'a numOeiof svst"rr ti-,ut
:an be employed to clear both anti tank and anti-personnel minef relds, a thouqh The front-mounted mine-clearing roller system fitted to this M6AA3 detonates
o^e o'rhem s IOO oer cenr errect:ve mines before the tank runs aver them. The device between the rollers sets off
tror many
Vears r^c Sor,el Jn on ,ras'irted so-e o t. -.54 --55 an^s w Lh
mines with tilt rod fuses.
'n ne-clearng rollers to the f ront of each track: the tank is dlven forward and the

a€:; '% '' "F.__

ThisM6AAI MBT of thelsraeliArmy is fittedwithRKM mine-clearing rollers on A,n FV432armoured personnel carrier of the British Army tows a Royal
the hull front. T&ese are essen tially an adaptatian of the Soviet RKM mine- Ordnance Bar minelayer. Bar mines are placed on the chute of the minelayet
clearing rollers, and can be mounted by two men in about I5 minutes which arms the mine, buries it and replaces the soil to make detection of ine
provided that the tank has already been fitted with an adaptor assembly. mines more difficult
tnfZZg Combat Engrineer Vehicle
: ne 1950s the standard MBT of the
-S ,A,rmy was the M4B, which was to
:a;e been replaced by a new vehicle
,-.Jed the T95. Using the same chassis
: :cmbat engtineer vehicle was de-
;:':ped under the designation TllB
-:- jre end the whole T95 Project was
::::e11ed atong with the T118, and
:::--ner development of the M4B took
:-ace. The result was the M60, which
::-:ered production in 1960. A decision
'r- then taken to deveiop a combat
::grneer vehicle on this chassis under
--:: designation TI1SEL After trials
.,,--:r prolorype vehicles. this type was
-:-aliy accepted for service as the
l,!28 Combat Engineer Vehicle in carrier, It can be transported by air-
-333. So far some 300 M72Bs have been The standard combatengineervehicle of theUS Army is theMTZS,whichis a
M60 tankwith its 105-mm ganreplaced by a 165-mm demolitiongun, an craft or helicopters such as the Sikors-
al'i at the Detroit Tank Plant, which is
ky CH-54, and has a limited amPht-
r.:-,v operated for the US ArmY bY A-frame for lifting pivoted at the front ot huL| and a hydraulically-opelated
3:neral Dynamics. In addition to dozer blade for itearing obstacles. It is also used bySingapore andSaudi bious capabilily.
::.nqused by the US ArmYthe M72B is Arabia.
:.-rc rn service with Saudi Arabia and Specification
S:-gapore, cle is travelling the A-frame is normal- For some 20 years the US ArmY has M728
The M72B is essentiallY an M60Al lv swirns lhrough about 120" to lie back been developing a vehicle called the Crew:4
LIBT with its 105-mm (4, 13-in) M6B qun on the rear engtne decking. The rmnch Universal Engineer Tractor (or UET). Weight: 53200 kg (l17,285 tb)
r:placed by a short-barrelled 165-mm to operale with the A-lrame is mounted This was subsequently renamed the Powerplant: one Teledyne Continentai
-i.5-rn) at rhe rear of the Lurret and controlled M9 Tractor, Full Tracked, High Speed, AVDS- 1790-2A 12-cylinder dlesel
demolrtion gnrn for neutralizinqt
i:aitlefleld fortifications; 30 rounds of by the tank commander. Mounted at Armored Dozer-Scraper Combination, developing 559,3 kW (750 bhp)
:-qh explosive squash-head (HESH) the front of the hull is a hydraulically- and more recently still the M9 High Dimensions: lenqrth (travelling) 8.92 m
A operated dozer blade which can be Speed Armored Combat Earth Mover, (29 ft 3 in); width (overall) 3.71 m (12 ft
ai:rnunition are carried for this gnrn.
- c2-mm (0,3-in) machtne-gun is used for fiilinq in holes, clearing obsta- or ACE for short. Each year the US 2 in); heisht (travelling) 3.20 m (10 ft
r:urled co-axtal wilh the marn arma- cles and preparing fire positions Stan- Army has requested funding for this 6 in)
rent. ard the commander has a cupo- dard equipment on all vehicles in- vehicle so that full-scale production Performance: maximum road speed
cludes night-vision equipment (includ- can stafi, but each time the Congress 48.3 km/h(30 mph); maximumrange
la mourted 12.7-mm (0,S-in) machine-
ing a searchligiht mounted above the has hrrned the request down. The M9 451 km (280 miles); fording 1,22 m(4 fr.
main armament), an NBC sYstem and highly flexible piece of equrpment,
rs a 0 in); gradient 60 per cent; vertical
Pivoted at the front of the hull is an
l--rame which can lift a maximum load provision for installing deep fording and can be used as a dozer, qrader, obstacle 0.76 m (2 ft 6 in); trench 2.5 I m
:r 13876 kq (35,000 1b); when the vehi- apparatus. scraper, dumper, pioneer vehicle or (B ft 3 in)

its I65-mm demolition grun it also has This M728 Combat EngineerVehicle swung forwards through about 120
The M 7 2 8 C ombat E ngineer Vehic Ie
a 7.62-mm co-axial machine'gun and (CW) A-frame lowered over
has an degrees andcanlift amaximum load
is usedby engineers inforward
a cupola-mounted I 2.7 -mm the rear engine decks for travel. of 1 5876 kg (35,000 tb).
areas to cleat and prepare
futtlefreld obstacles. In addition to machine-gun. When required for use the A-frame is

E Counter Obstacle Vehicle

The prototypes are based on a mod- When travelling, the arms are re- COV are satisfactory, production is ex-
-:- :::sent the M72B Combat Engineer
-,-::-:-: pected to start iater this decade rf
ls the standard vehicle of its ifled MBBA1 with a much more Power- tracted and traversed to the rear to
ful engine. The driver, telescoPic reduce the COV's overall length, If re- money is made available bY the Con-
--{€ -:- ite US Army. Althouqh excel- quired, the bucket at the end ofeach gress,
,=:- ,:r neutralizingt battlefield for- arms' operator and vehicle comman-
-'::-::is Lhls type has verY limtted der are seated one behind the other at telescopic arm can be replaced by
capabilities and none at the front of the vehrcle: each crew other attachments such as an auger for Specifi cation (provisional)
-:: :;ea-rmq mtnes, The Belvoir Re- member has a rearward-opening boring holes in the gnound, grrapples, cov
s=-'-::- a::d Development Center near halch cover and observatton Peri- liftinq hooks, clamshells and hammers. Crew:3
',',--=:,:l1cr. DC, has designed the scopes, and is seated slightly higher Another useful feature of the two arms Weisht:loaded 61779 kq (136,200 lb)
than the man in front to allow good is that they can also be used to assist Powerplant: one Teledyne Contrnental
C€unter Obstacle Vehicle (COV) to
obsewation of the terrain, the vehicle in getting rtselfout ofobsta- Motors AVDS-1790-5 V-12 diesel
r:rr-; l'*- crr the battlefield a wide cles. Mounted at the front and rear are developing 677. I kW (908 hP)
:-:=- :: r:les such as mine clearance, Mounted at the front of the hul1is the
hydraulicatly-controlled dozer blade, hydraulic outlets for a vadety of hand Dimeniions: length (overall) 1 1,48 m
-::=-1 ,--r-j:: aln-tank drtches and cra- (37 ft B in); width (vehicle only) 3,43 m
,:e lemoval of trees. The which rs also used to clear mines bY tools.
:l,l: --i
:: rpa:::l wtuch currentlY manu- pushing them to one side, Mounted If required the COV could also be (1I ft 3 in); helqht 2.87 m (9 ft 5 in)
fltted with mine-clearing rollers at the Performance: maxrmum road sPeed
=:-::. -:-: M88AI Armored Recov- above the blade are three sensor arms
which control the operatinq height of front of the hull, and a Clear Lane 43,5 kn/h (27 mph); maximumroad
e:1 Vehicle ard a comPlete familY of range 402 km (250 miles); fording
.-; =;1-;e'ed arnllery weapons, has the blade automaticaily, Markrng System (CLAMS) at the rear
Pivoted at the front ofthe hull, one on to show following vehicles the clear L42 m (4 ft B in); gnadient 60 per cent;
:-- ir: ll-'-s. whrch were com- path. verticalobstacle L07 m (3 ft 6 in);
:!::=: =.:]-; -:: 1383. One of these rs for each side, are two telescoPtc arms
:-= ,l -1::,; :::d the other for Israel each fltted with a digglng bucket If trials with the prototype of the trench2.62 m (B ft 7 in)
@ ifit'h%phibious Bridse and Ferry System
In the 1950s the West German com- and a width of 5.480 m (lB ft 0 in). The
pany Eisenwerke Kaiserslautern units then enter the water, where they
Goppner GmbH undertook production are coupled together to form a ferry or
of the Gillois bridge and ferry system bridge, The latter is to Class 50,
based on the design of the French although introduction of the Challen-
General J, Gillois, The Gillois system, ger MBT has meant that British army
which is still used by the French army, M2s have had to be beefed up to take
consists of two basrc umts, bridge and the additronal werght,
rampr each of these is mounted on a The M2 has two enqines. When
4x4 vehicle fitted with large 18x25 afloat one of these ddves two prop-
cross-country tyres and powered by a ellers for lateral propulsion whrle the
164,l-kw (220-hp) V'12 Deutz diesel other powers a single steerrng prop-
engine, Before the equipment enters eller. The main advantage of the M2
the water a pneumatic float is attached over the earher Gillois system is that it
on each side and inflated to provide can be brought into action more quick-
additional buoyancy. When the units ly and is less susceptible to damage.
are in the water the roadway or ramp The Japanese Ground Self-Defense
units are rotated throuEth 90" and cou- Force uses a system similar to the M2:
pled up to form a bridge or ferry. this is called the Type 70 Self-
When afloat each unit rs propelled by a Propelled Pontoon Bridge but has a
propeller unit. The major disadvan- capacity of 40000 kq (BB,1BS lb).
tage of this system is that it takes almost
30 minutes to prepare each umt for Specification
water use and the pneumatic floats are M2
prone to damage, not only from small Crew:4
arms fire and shell splinters but from Weight 22000 ks (48,502 lb)
river debns,ln the 1960s EWK and Powerplant: two Deutz Model F B L
Klockner-Humboldt-Deutz developed 7 ]4a V-B diesels each developinq An M2 amphibious bridging and enter the water. Each M2 has three
the M2 Amphibious Bridge and Ferry 132.7 kW(178 hp) ferry system with its hydraulically- propellers, one for steering and two
System to meet the reguirements of the Dimensions: length (travelling) operated buoyancy tanks in position for sideways propulsion. Maximum
West German army, After the usual I 1.315 m (37 ft 1.5 in); width (travelling) each side of the hull prepares to waterspeedis 14 km/h(8.7 mph).
troop trials this was accepted and en- 3.579 m ( I I ft 8.9 in); height (travelling)
tered sewice in 1968. The M2 systemis 3,579 m(11ft8.9 rn)
also used by the British army and Srng- Performance: maximum road speed
apore, the latter havinq a version with 60 knih(37.3 mph); maximumrange
shghtly more powerful engines. 1000 km (621 miles); endurance
The M2 is based on a 4x4 chassis (water) 6 hours; fordinq amphibious;
wrth 16,00x20 cross-country tyres; grradient 60 per cent; trench no
steering can be on all four wheels, and capabrlity
the ground clearance can be adjusted
fuom within the cabin to suit the ground B elow : T hree M 2 amp hibiou s
being crossed. Before the M2 enters bridging and ferry units are coupled
the water, a hydraulically-operated together in thewater toform three-
buoyancy tank is unfolded on each bay ferry capable of carrying tanks
side of the hull and the deckinq posi- such as the Leopard 2 or Chieftain. It
tioned by an onboard crane. This grives rs a/so usedby Singapore and
a total roadway lenqth of 7.62 m (25 ft) England.

Above : The introduction into British additional weight of these vehicles.

Army s ervice of the C hallenger M BT This has been accomplished by the
has meant that B ritish M2 systems fitting of inflatable bags along the
have had to bemodified to carry the sides.

@ i,li"ilia I Armoured Ensineer vehicle

The Leopard I Armoured Eng,ineer positions, or for clearing roads and
Vehiclewas developed by Krupp MaK other obstacles. The width of the blade
of Ktel specifically to meet the requrre- can be extended by addinq pieces to
ments of the West German army, the each end and four scanfrers can be
first production vehicles being com- fitted to it for npping up the surface of
pleted in 1968, The company subse- roads when the tank is being driven in
quently built six for Beigium, 36 for reverse. The dozer blade is also used
West Germany, 12 for Italy and 25 for to stabilize the vehicle when the u,rnch
the Netherlands. More recently OTO or crane is bernq used,
Melara of Italy has burlt an additional
28 Leopard I AEVs for the ltalian army,
The Leopard I AEV rs alrnost iden-
tical to the Leopard 1 Armoured Re- T he Leopard armoured engineer
covery Vehicle, the major difference vehicle is identical to the Leopard
being that the AEV carries demolition arrnoured recovery vehic le, ex cept
charges and fuses but has no spare that itcarries no powetpack and is
powerpack, fittedwith a heat exchanger and
Mounted at the front of the hull is a auger, and its dozer blade is fitted
hydraulically-operated dozer blade with special scarifiers to rip up the
that can be used for preparing f,re surfaces ofroads.
treopard I Armorued Engineer Vehicle (continued)


The leopard I
Armoured Engineer
The Lapard Armoured EngineerVehicle is based
on iiechassisof theLeopard I MBTandhasbeen
desig:nd to carry out a wide variety of missions on
uhe battietreid, rn cluding drilling holes for infantry
or demolitions, rippingup surfaces otroads to
ma&e &em imp assable to wheeled vehicles, lifting
ioa.ds with iE hydraulic crane, using its dozer
br'ede fo remove obstacles or to prepare fire
pwitions for other vehicles and anti-tank
rseapns, andthe preparationof riverbanks to
e.rabje facked and wheeled vehicles to enter and
Modern Combat Engineer Equipment

FETER 54$?96r.1 -TtlNY BssfAn

Leopard 1 Armoured Engineer Vehicle (continued)

Fitted at the front of the hull on the For many years the West German
right side is a hydraulically-operated army has had a requrement for a GPM
crane which can lift a maximum load of Enqineer Vehicle which would be
2000Okq (44,0921b), It can also be used durinq river crossing operations
fitted at one end with an auqier that can to keep vehicle entry points clear. Pro-
drill holes in lhe gtound to a maximum totypes were built by EWK and KrUPP
depth of 2 m (6 ft 7 in). Mounted in the MaK, but because of a shortaqe of
lower part of the crew compartment at funds production of these vehicles has
the front of the hull is the main winch yet to start. EWK has also built pro-
with a capacity of 35000 kq (77, 162 1b), a 4x4 Amphibious Engineer
totypes of
a fignre which can be doubled with the Reconnaissance Vehicle called the
aid of a pulley, APE, but this too has fallen victim to
Standard equipment includes de- defence cuts.
molrtion blocks and detonators, tow
bars and shackles, and electric weld- Specification
ing and cutting qear, Leopard lAEV
Installed in the front ofthe hull on the Crew:4
left srde is a ball-mounted 7.62-mm Weight: loaded 40800 ks (89,949 lb)
(0.3-in) machine-gmn, a similar weapon Powerplant:one MTU MB B3B
berng located on the roof for anti- Ca, M500 10-cylinder diesel
aircraft defence, A bank of sx electrt- developlng 618,9 kW (830 hp)
cally-operated smoke discharqers is Dimensions: length (overall) 7.98 m
fitted on the left of the hull, firing for- (26 ft2.2 in); width (overall) 3.75 m
wards. (12 ft 3,6 in); heisht (with MG) 2,69 m
The Leopard I AEV is used for a (B ft 9,9 in)
wide range oI roles such as preparmg Performance: maximum road speed
fire positions, recovery of bogged- 65 kn/h(40,4 mph); maximumroad
down vehicles, prepalng bridges and range 850 kn (528 miles); gradient 60 A W est G erman army Leop ar d maximum load of 20 tonnes
other high-value targets for demoli- per cent; fording 2, 10 m (6 ft 1 1 in); Armoured EngineerVehicle uses its (44,09 3 1b). Mounted at the front of
tion, fllling in holes and keepinq roads vertical obstacle 1. 15 m (3 ft 9.3 in); auger to bore holes in the ground. the vehicle is a hydraulically-
clear, to name but a few. trench3 m (9 ft 10 in) The crane can alsobe used to lift a operated dozer blade.

@ lTil:]f Armoured Vehicle-Launched Bridse

As wlth the Leopard 1 MBT program-
me, the West German army decided to
build two different bridgtelayers for
comparative trials, these betng known
as the Type A and the T1rye B, After
troop lials the latter was selected by
the West German army and flrst pro-
duction vehicles were completed by
Krupp MaK Maschinenbau in 1975. In
addition to the 105 Leopard armoured
bridgelayers burlt for the West ,Ger-
man army, sx were built for Canada
and 14 for the Netherlands; flve were
bullt by Australia, More recently the
Italian company OTO Melara has built
64 vehicles for the ltalian army. In the
West German army the vehicle ts com-
monly called the Biber (beaver)
although rts offlcial desigrnation is the
Briickenlegeparzer Biber, or BRLPZ- I Above: AWest German Biber
for short. armoured veh icle Jaunched bridge
The hull of the Biber rs virhnlly iden- (AVLB) is shown in the travelling
trcal to that of the Leopard i MBT, but configuration. It is also used by
wlth its turret replaced by a two-part Australia, Canada, Italy and the
aluminium bridge. When opened out Netherlands . When opened out, its
the bridge has a total lengrth of 22 m bridge is 22 m (72 ft) long, and can
(72f1 Ztn) and can be used to span spanagapof 20 m(65 ft).
gaps up to a maxrmum of 20 m (65 ft
7.4 in), As with all bridges of this type The Biber bridete is normallY em-
the actual gap depends largtely on the ployed as follows. Forward elements
height and condition ofthe banks. The know that ahead of them is a gaP that
bridge can take vehrcles up to a max- has to be crossed wrth the aid of a
imum weight of 50000kg (110,231Ib) Biber. Tanks are deployed as far for-
or 60000 ks (132,277 ]b) in an ward as possible to give coverinq fire
emergency. while the Biber is brougiht up. On arriv-
Standard equrpment on the Biber in- ing at the river the Biber first lowers its
cludes nrght-vision equipment, an support blade. The lower half of the
NBC system and four electrically- bridge then slides forward until its end
operated smoke dischargers mounted is lined up with the end of the uPPer
on each side flrinq forwards, The Biber half, The tvvo sections.ofthe brtdgre are
can ford to a depth of 1,2 m (3 ft 11 in) then Iocked together and the complete
without preparation, thougth with some bndge is extended across the qap and
preparation this can be increased to lowered into position. The cantilever
1.65 m (5 ft 5 in), Mounted at the front of arms are then withdrawn, the suPPod
the hull is a support blade which is blade is raised and the vehicle is
normally lowered before the bridqe ts driven away so that the tanks can Weight: with bridge 45300 kg The B iber arm oured vehicle -
placed in positron, although it can be cross, The bridge itself can be picked (99,B6e lb) launched bridge is based on the
r:sed as a dozer to make certain the up from either end and used aqaln, Powerplant:one MTU MB B3B chassisof theLeopard I MBT.An
surface under the bridge is level, Nor- Ca,M500 10-cylinder multi-fuel engdne advantage of the Biber bridge over
matly such levelling and qrading op- Specification developing6lB.9 kW (830 hp) some other types is that it is laid
erations would be carried out by other Biber Dimensions: lensrth (with bridge) horizontally, rather than vertically,
vehicles. Ctew:2 I I 82 m (38 ft 9,4 in); width (with so making detection more difficult.

:,tdqe)4 00 m(13 ft 1.5 in); herght
''. Lth brrdge) 3 57 m (11 ft B 6 rn)
Performance: maximum road speed
r : l<m/h (38.5 mph); maxrmum ranqre
::! km (342 miles) fordrngr 1 2 m (3 ft
- rn) gradient60percent vertlcal
rstacle0.T m (2 lt3 6 rn) trench2 5m
: 112 4 Ln)

A WestGerman army Biber i.9$*.s€3

armoured bridgelayer extends the ii.i;; S
:cwer part of its bridge. The two
parts are then locked together and
:he camplete bridge is extended .'. .6'-
) "
: cross fhe gap . Under the nose of the
Stber is a hydraulic blade, which can . 1r..",:'.
i:e used as a sla bilizer or dozer _, -!b"r.a +::l

MTU-20 Armoured Vehicie-Launched Bridge

.r,r:r the end ol Worid War II at leas: l:-,.,ered ai the lront ol the vehrcle and span a gap i l5n (52 lt 6rn) The
:-ree armoured brrdgtelayers basei :r: ercis of the brrdge are unfolded bndqe takes abo:t 3 mrnutes to be
-: rhe chassis of the T 34 tank -i,ier: arci locked lnto posltlon A chain sys- positionecl arlc 6 nlnutes to be reco-
. . . eLoped and ploced -n s6rv-c. . arr, Inen moves the complete brrdge vered Tre lt'ii :r has an NBC system,
a-; the Sovlet Unron and cne br' alrrg the cantilever Launching gdrder mght-r,sron eq lr_orreat and a system to
l:echoslovakra (MT 34). In the 19il: -.:.Ll ile end of the brrdge reaches the ensure tjra: tire bldr: Ls lonq enougth
:-e Sr:vret T 34 armoured bridgeLavers -:r lank The launchrng qrLrder is then to span tie :b:.a:l: In addition to
''ere replaced by the MTU systen :i:lr=ssed and the end of the bndqe berng useC C:e:r:slcvakia and the
'-esed on a T 54 or T-55 tank chass -:'.-.':red onto the far bank The tank USSR L. las aa:l :,iporred to a num-
''rth rts turret replaced by a cantLle.':: .::r ,,.;Lthdraws and vehLcles can ber oi coulrr ,-s ,r.:l-dLiE Yugtoslavta
:.unchrnq mechanrsm and a bnr;: :r-.: The brrdge can be recovered The Israel :ln. :rc.rreC a quantity of
,le iatter is launched over the fro: : .-:: :L:her end rn a srmilar trme. The MT 55 alrrr-r--d cirilqelayers Ln the
re vehrcle and is 12 3 m (40 ir - : I: , 2a and older MTU have been 1973 MroC.e :a:: :::-irict
g dnd con spon o gol-'
: o 1 :. r----. rr srgnrflcant numbers and ex- A S oviet MTU armoured br idg e lay e :
t6 ft I in) r-:r:l la many countrLes Specification on aT-55 tankchassisisseen in l.he
In 're I rre 1960s rnrs \4o. r 1 - .
''.: mernbers oi the Warsaw Pact MTU-20 travelling configuration. T his mo d e i
ri- the MTU-20 in front lLne So',,r-: -.'-:::rslovakia and East Germany Crew:2 entered service with the Soviet armi
, the m"in dr{ference o€-'.'':: : :--'.': burlt therr own armoured brrdqe- Weight: 3l5r:i <g .;2 clr3 lb) rn lhe I950s as a replacement for an
:ngrnal MTU and the more l::=:. ..'.:rs The East German system is cal Powerplant: arr: -, :: 2 cvhnder earlier system mounted on the T-34
'..:-U 20 is t1 d' tLe ond . -=: BLG-60 and was developed wrth dieseL cer'=i,-or:g -32 i rtrv (580 hp) fankcftassis"
: : -- 11 Ce ol Poroncl. l- h"s a scis-
o' 'tf-gn nPalaO OU 15
- T. Dimensions: L:irrttr r r,.,'Ii brrdge)
o.rd..n sp n o oop
r :,:-: ;.e bldge that is launched over 11 64 m i3E fr :r 3 -n; -,,;ri.h (v"'rth
.n/ Io leouce ih- o.e' .:.: r:r.. of tne vehrcle. In posrtion this brrdge) 3 ;i :r i1 I ii -c -c Lrl herqrht An MTU-20 armourcd bridgelayer a:
'- sysrem for -rove...n; -n .. :.' ... . : - : :. i10 lt lC Ln) iong and can span (wtthbndqe;; lrl m i.. ft I 9 Ln) the Finnish army approaches its
.ear parts of the brrdge are s','-,:.r -:- .. ;:c 'l up to 20m (65f1 7in) The Performance: r:ax,rrun road speed launch position on a recent exercise
..oros rhlorgh lB0',o 1." :. l :--:- :','s:em Ls the MT-55 and rs 50 km/h (31 . :rii) maxLmumrange When fully open the bridge is 2a m
'po'lhecent'al porLi -'. - :,.-.=:l -r a T 35 chassrs Thrs has a 500 km(31 I n-l:s; -ordrng 1.4 m (4 ft (65 ft) long, and can span a gap of up
.aunched as follows. The I.l --.- :: -:, bndge that Ls launched 7 tn); gracreri,i; per cent, vertical to 1 8 m (59 ft), representing a
oprode th* obs , -l- : - . - :'. -r:ri oirhe vehrcle In posrtron
--. obstacle 0 3 n l2 i.3 rn); trench 2.7 m considerable improvement over the
ind comes to a halt. The stabil ::r: . r- . . . I t: i:-q ii . in) long and can (B ft 10 rnl older MTU.

::: ::r : .;.,€+

:: i ,r. ..,::1*,.;:!:r... irF:i: l,:rin
_::i:;i::;::t, 6t'j ::r.i:i . -:,
fi+: . i1-- .
.lt.!r:i:r rii,-r_.i:
:1:1,.:i:.:. ::i;.. .: .:.

.. rr.,1-ii:-i-::,.j:
.!::rt ,i._j: !1::. ,ji ,

. .l l - ,:"-
innnn Truck-Mounted Tread.way Bridge
The TMM treadway bridqe was rmtral-
carried and launched from the
KrAZ-214 6xO truck. In most front-line
umts the truck itself has now been re-
placed by the KrAZ-255B 6x6 truck,
resulting in the revrsed desiqnation
The TMM truck-mounted treadway
bridge consists of fow spans, each of
which are launched and recovered
over the rear ofa KrAZ-2 14 truck chas-
sis. Three ofthe spans have adjustable
trestle legs while the fourth does not as
it is the link between the third span and
the far bank,
The TMM can be used to span both
wet and dry qaps and is employed as
follows. First the height of the tread-
way legs are carefully adjusted for the
correct height so that when the bridge
is laid in positron it rs level. (lf the exact restdcts the type of vehicle, especially Above : A S oviet TMM truck-mounte d
depth of water rs not lanown in advance armoured, that can use the bridge. treadway bridge system in the
or if the bottom is muddy this can be a West Germany developed a system travelling mode is mounted on the
major problem.) When travellinq the srmilar to the TMM called the SAS rear of the older KrAZ- 2 I 4 ( 6 x 6 )
treadway legs are folded up and bridgelayer but based on a Leopard 1 cross- country truck. M ore r e cent
stored under the folded scissors chassis. At the forward end of each models are mounted on the more
bridge, while the treadways are bridge are two legs which are hyd- powertul KrAZ- 2558 ( 6 x 6 ) truck
closed up to reduce the overall width raulically opened and then lowered cfiassiS which is also used to carry
of the vehicle, Once the treadways into positron, The SAS system has not and launchthe PMP system.
have been extended, and the trestles so far been placed in production,
fitted and adjusted for height, the truck
backs up to the edge of the grap, A Specification Powerplant: one YaMZ M2068 6-
hydraulically-operated launching qir- TMM cylhder water-cooled diesel
der raises the folded span into the ver- Crew:3 developins 152.9 kW (205 bhp)
tical position, where it ts opened and Weight: 19500 ks (42,990 lb) Dimensions: length (with bridqe)
locked in position, As it is lowered 9.30 m (30 ft 6. I in); width (with bridge)
down by the winch system the integral A KrAZ- 2 5 58 (6 x 6) cross- country 3.20 m (10 ft 6 in); heisht (withbridqe) Above: AKrAZ-Z14 (6x6) cross-
hestle legs swinq into place. Once the truck lays its openedscissorsbridge 3.15m(10ft4in) countrytruck lays aTMM treadway
trestle legs are emplaced the cables in pos i tion. A complete TMM sy s tem Performance: maximum road speed bridge into position, and shows its
are disconnected, the launching gir- consists of three spans with 55 kn/h (34,2 mph)i maxrmumroad adjustable trestle legs starting to
der retracted into the travelhng posi- adjustable legs, and a shore span range 530 hn (329 miles); fording 1.0 m unfold. A complete set of four
tron on the rear of the truck, the truck is which does nothave an adjustable (3 ft 3 in); gradient 60 per cent; vertical treadway sections can be /ajd across
drlen off to pick up the next span and leg and is thelinkbetweenthe third obstacle 0,4 m (1 ft 4 in); trench no a gap by a well-trained crew in 45- 60
the sarne procedure is repeated until span and the far bank. capability minutes in daylight.
the far shore span is emplaced, As
mentroned previously a basic unit con-
sists of three spans and one shore
span, but more can be used if re-
quired. A basic unit can span a gap of
40 m (131 ft 3 rn) in between 45 and 60
mnutes under good conditions. Each
bndgre section werghs about 7000 kg
i154321b), has a capacity of 600Okg
(13,228 Ib) and is 10.5m (34ft 5in)
The older KMM truck-mounted
zeadway bridge system is similar in
concept but is carried on the rear of
ZIL-157 6xO truck chassis, with one
-.nlt consisting of four spans and one
srore span. The KMMunit can, howev-
er. spall a qap ofonly about 34 m (l I I ft
I ra) and has a capacity of about
-2C00kq (26,455 1b), which severely

ilrvrP Heavy Floatins Bridse

--:: Pomtommo Mostovoy Park (PMP)
:-ea-,ryfoldrng pontoon bridgie entered
s::ice wrth the Sovlet Union in the
-:6ls and has since been adopted by
:;:ry member of the Warsaw Pact ex-
::p: Poland (which uses the locally-
;::iuced PP-64 system) and Romania
;r::h uses the RR-60). The PMP has
been exported on a Iarge scale
=:j was successfully used by the
:.;_,pnan army while crossinq the Suez
la:-J rn 1973.

Tke Soviet PMP heavy folding

pntoon bridge system consists of
and shore Pontoons that are
catried andlaunched from 6xG
RrAZ-214 or the more recent KrAZ'
2558 ttlrck.
PMP HeavyFloating Bridge (continued)

The PMP originally entered service boats, This rs suflicient to make a pon-
mounted on the rear of the KrM-214 toon with a capacity of 20000 kq
6x6 chassis, but Soviet PMP systems (44,092 lb)some3B9m(425yards)long
are now on the more recent KrAZ-255 or a 60000 kg (132,277-lb)brtdge227 m
6x6 chassis, although many foreigrn (248 yards) long, The former takes ab-
couniries use local chassis: for exam-
out 50 minutes to position, while the
pleEgypthasfitteditssystemsontothe latter takes about 30 minutes, The
rear of West German Magnrus-Deutz bridging boats are used to hold the
6 x 6 chassis while Czechoslovakra pontoon bridge in position, especially
uses the Tatra-813 BxB chassis. Some in fast-flowing rivers, The pontoons
ofthe latter have been frtted at the fronl can also be used to form fernes which
of the hull with a hydrau[cally- are then pushed across wide rivers by
operated dozer blade that can be used bridqing boats, A 60000-kq ferry can
to clear obstacles or prepare river be conslrucled lrom three ponloons rn
banks before the launching ofthe pon- l0 minutes,
toons, The USA has reverse-engdneered
The PMP system consists of two the PMP into the Ribbon Bridge, and
main elements, both of which are car- thrs entered service with the US Army
ried folded on the rear of the truck. The In the mid-1970s, The American ver-
tvvo pontoon types are the river and sion has many improvements and is
shore, each of them of all-steel con- also much lighter as it is made of alumi- A KnAZ-? I 4 (6 x 6 ) cross-country 12 bridgingboats,which areused to
struction and launched in the same mum rather than steel. It is also made truck carries a PMP shore pontoon. A hold the completed pontoon bridge
manner, The truck backs up to the wa- under hcence by EWK in West Ger- standard PMP set consists of 32 river in position or to push rafts of PMP
ter's edge, the catches are released many as the Bundeswehr Ribbon pontoons, four shore pontoons and pontoons.
and the pontoon rolls offthe back ofthe Bridge, and this model has been
1ruck into the water, where lt automatr- adopted by Belgium, Egypt, the Specification
cally unfolds. Once the pontoons have Netherlands and Sweden. EWK has RiverPontoon Shore Pontoon
been locked they are coupled up to also supplied steel versrons which are weight:6676 kq (14,718 Ib) Weight:7252 kq (15,988 lb)
form a bridge, A complete PMP pon- interchanqeable with the original Dimensions:lenqith (open) 6,75 m (22 ft Dimensions: lenqrth (open) 5,58 m (18 ft
toon set consists of 32 river pontoons, Soviet pontoons; these have been sup- 1.75 in); width (open) 7. i0 m (23 ft 3,7 in); width (open) 7,02 m (23 ft
fow shore pontoons and 12 bridging plied to Egrypt, 3,5 in); depth (open) O 915 m (3 ft 0 in) 0.4 1n); depth (open) 0.73 m (2 ft 4.7 in)

m irvrn Combat Engineer Vehicle

The IMR Combat Engineer Vehicle This I MR C ombat Engineer Vehicle
was introduced into the Soviet army in has its turntable-mounted hydraulic
the early 1970s, and is also used by crane ttaversed to the rear and its
some members of the Warsaw Pact as pincer type grab in travelling lock.
well as by Yugoslavia, The IMR con- Lowered at the front of the IMR is the
sists essentially of a T-55 tank with its dozer blade which can be used in
standard turret replaced by a new tur- either straight or angle
ret with a hydraulic crane and an configuration.
armoured cupola for the crane oper-
ator, The crane has a telescopic 1ib,
and when travelling is normally
traversed to the rear to reduce the
overall length ofthe vehicle, The crane
is usually fitted with a pincer{ype de-
vice for rippingr trees out ofthe ground,
The pincer can be replaced by a
bucket which rs normally carried on
the left side of the hull when not re- sively minded than Westem armres. Specification Below: An IMR Combat Engineer
qured, Thrs bucket is quite small, and The Sovret army does have a wide IMR Vehicle uses its pincer grab to
so has only limiled earthmovrng capa- variety of specialized trench digtqters Crew:2 remove a tree trunk during
bilities. in service, these normally beinqt Weisht: 34000 kq (74,957 lb) operations in a forward batUefield
Mounted at the front of the hull is the mounted on full-tracked chassrs such Powerplant:one Model V-55 V-12 ar ea. The hy dr aulically - oper ated
hydraulically-operated dozer blade, as that ofthe AT-T hearry tracked afiil- diesel developing 432.5 kW (580 hp) dozer blade mounted at the front of
which is controlled from within the lery tractor, One of these is the BTM Dimensions: lenqth (overall) 10. 60 m the IMR is in theV-configuration to
safety of the IMR by the driver, The ditching machine, which is essentially (34 ft 9.3 in); width (overall) 3,48 m clear a path through debris as
dozer blade can be used in the normal the AT-T fitted wrth the ETR-409 ditch- (1 I ft 5 in); height (cupola) 2.48 m (B ft quickly as possible.
straigrht confign-uation or at a V-angle, ing machine at the rear, This machine 1,6 in)
The IMR has night-vision equipment. is quite capable of digging a trench Performance: maximum road speed
and like most vehicles based on the 1.5 m (4 ft 1l in) deep and 0.8 m (2 ft 48 km/h (29,8 mph); maximum range
chassis of the T-54/T-55 tank can also 7,5 in) wide at the rate of about i iOO m 400 lcn (249 mrles); fording 1.40 m (4 ft
lay its own smoke screen, Mounted at (1,203 yards) per hour, althouqh this 7 in); gradient 60 per cent; vertical
the rear of the hull is an unditchingr very much depends on the type of soil obstacle0.B m(2 ft7.5 in); trench2,7 m
beam, another common feature on cur- and the time of year, (B ft 10.3 in.)
rent Soviet tanks, although such a de-
vice was pioneered by the British dur- An IMR Combat Engineer Vehicle of pair of pincer-type grabs, which can
ing World War I: if the vehrcle becom- the Soviet amy is seen in action with be used tor avariety ofroles on the
es stuck in the mud the unditching thejib oI the hydraulic crane battlefield such as ripping out trees
beam is removed from the rear and extended to the rear and fittedwith a and other obstacles.
attached under the lower forward part
of the tracks to improve traction.
Compared wrth Western vehlcles,
the Sovtet IMR has very limited capa-
bilities as it has no demolition device
(as is fitted to the French EBG, Amer-
ican M72B CEV and British Centurion
Mk 5 AVRE), cannot lay a minefield (as
can the French EBG) and would re-
qutre some time to prepare fire posr-
tions for other vehicles. In the Soviet
Union many of these roles are under-
taken by other vehicles, and in any
case the Soviet army is far more offen-
Diggrng ftor Victorg
German border and are starting their inexor-
For an army on the defensive, prepared positions are of enormous value. In 1973 the able advance towards the Channel, The main
israefis defe ated vastly superior forces by the skilful use of tank firing positions and Warsaw Pact advance is undertaken by the 3rd
measured killing grounds. NATO's defensive posture in Germany would be Shock Army (it was once caled the 3rd Mecha-
dramaticallyenhancedbythe construction of similarearthworks, butthiswouldbe nized Army, but Shock Army pleases prop-
politicallydifficult, soif theSoviets ever doinvadetheRoyalEngineerswillhaveto agandists on both sides), accompanied by va-
rious East German, Polish and Hungarian units,
workvery fastlndeed. none of which is rea1ly trusted by Moscow and
thus used only in supporting roles.
Jeacetime rlvalry between army units runs The Royal Engrneers have always been well Sapper combat engineer unlts (those who
:.-gh, ranging from the friendly variety to out- rn the thick of thrngs. They got their nickname, are trained to do their jobs rrght in the thick of
drslike. Often there rs no good reason the Sappers, because centuries ago they were things, often far in advance of their own iines)
::r:: or rf there is a reason it is buried in history. the men who dug the way forward rn ditches come in a variety of shapes and sizes, There
l:,en it is a result of the fear that there may just (called 'saps') in order to breach fortress walls, are fleld engineers, armoured engineers,
:: another reglment or corps that is not only as Sappers led the way through mrneflelds at El amphibious engineers, parachute and com-
--<-,led as your own, but is posstbly a llttle blt Alamein in 1942, and cleared the beaches at mando engineers, They operate with regular
::::er, So the infantry squabble amongst them- Normandy rn 1944 They have the reputation of infantry and armoured detachments, and often
.:--,'es and then unite against the tankies or being able to turn therr hands to anything: in totally on their own, You can flnd them travell-
::*:ners, and they are all disparaging about the army, when in doubt, you send for a Sapper, ing in Stalwarts, Scorpions (used as command
:r:-teeth arms, or those who mlght hear a shot vehicles), Chieftarn tanks complete with
-ed in anger but are themselves unllkely to do bridgelaying unrt, armoured personnel car-
:-::h shooting, And, of course, those other The ubiquitous Sapper riers (oiten frtted wrth a special minelaying
-::is tend to be slightly contemptuous of the Sappers are to be found throughout the plough called a Bar Minelayer), MZ amphi-
;:-nts' and'gruntcrushers', who are deemed world, throughout the army and ali over ihe bious units, medium wheeled tractors, Land
::apable of understandrng the fact that other battlefleld. They burld bridges, make maps, Rovers and assault craft, No doubt thrs list omits
=::-rs do play a vrtal role in today's army, And so burld airfields and bulk petroleum installations, a few items, because part of the Sappers'
-. ;ices on, all very harmless really and all total- burld ferries, clear and lay mines and booby- genius lies in having available the right piece of
::rgotten when the shooting starts (but not in
--.- traps, dispose of unexploded bombs, repair equipment at the right time, an abrlity that
:e subsequent post-mortem) - except poss- heavy vehicles, 1ay brlcks, drill we1ls, survey leaves the rest oi the army, accustomed as it is
-;-'' in one instance. In the British army at least anything that needs surveying, drive cranes to the wrong piece of kit arriving at the wrong
,:sre ls one regiment rarely, if ever, 'bad- and also manage to provide the postal and time, frankly dumbfounded but very, very
:::uthed'j one regiment that contrnually im- courier service for the forces - worldwide. grateful, The rest of the army have also grown
::esses soldier and civihan alike wlth its abili- Their motto ts Ubtque (everywhere), and for accustomed to small detachments of Sappers
.-:s anci out-and-out professronahsm; and one once it is a motto that means exactly what it (often far smaller than expected) turning up,
r:;r:nient whose members are all trained soi- says, doing whatever is required, and then vantshing
:-:rs of the tooth arm variety (tralned and Thus rt is certainly true that the Sappers are as mysteriously as they arnved. It is aimost as if
:::'.'ed in past wars), who handle the most the most versatrle combat engineers in any there are, in addition to those Sapper units on
:::iplex machinery and equipment. That reg- armed forces any'where, It mrght be interesting permanent attachment to larger formations,
-::eit naturally, the Royal Engineers. This is
rs, now to look at the Sappers in action, not in some other Sapper units with a roving battlefield
-:: :c say that the Royal Electrical and Mecha- past war, but in a future war that, hopefully, will commission to wander around, generally right-
..-:-- Engineers, the Royal Corps of Transport, never take piace, The scenario ls that the War-
-:.= Royal Army Ordnance Corps and other saw Pact iorces have crossed over the West
-:::ratrons are not as skilled, but that the Royal
::-;-neers do have an rncredibly complex role
The Royal Engineers will have a vital role to play on any future battlefield in Europe as part of the
: ;-ay, and play it exceedingly well. It is, by combined arms team, which also includes infantry, attillery, armour and helicopters. HereFV432
-.--cgy, the difference between the Parachute armoured personnel carriers towing Bar Minelayers rush to the forward area to lay anti-tank mines to
- =;inent and Royal Marines: both are superb disrupt and slow down enemy units, while a Combat Engineer Tractor stails to prepare fire positions for
-,-:s that having the edge being decided by MBTs andanti-tankguided weapons. Once themrneshadbeen laidRoyalEngineers wouldmake the
-.= s partrcular point o[ view. road r'mpassab,le by making deep craters with high-explosive charges.

l:. .

r:* j't ;..:::i;j -."1-.

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f-i4.:ii ir9.,1

' t.

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-rQrwronqs and bringlng some element of
rrder to a farrly confused situation.
However, back to the scenario The 3rd
Shock Army has poured across the border and
-s even now hotfooting it towards the Rlver
Weser, This river forms a natural secondary a,
oarrier, and is anl.way the river that NATO war
games and exercises assume to be the 3rd
Shock Army's oblective, However, assuming
.rF €f
:hat the Weser is still as important an objective
as ever, the 3rd Shock Army must be held up
there for as long as possible to give time for the
USA io begin airliftinet troops from America to
Europe, to allow NATO forces tn sttu time to
regroup, and to compel the Soviet advance to
telescope upon itsell which leads to conQles-
tron and easy targets for regular artiliery, the
new NATO multiple rocket launchers and air The British Combat Engineer Tractor has been range of battlefield roles such as clearing debt::
strikes, It is hoped, moreover, that a delayed designed to meet the demanding requirements of and preparing fire positions for armoured
theRoyalEngineers, and can beused for awide vehicles. It is fully amphibious,
advance may result in the Warsaw Pact begin-
ning to drsintegrate, as there is ltttle or no natu-
ral love between many of its constituent coun- sing under fire or in bad weather conditrons is ance troops. Their arrival may be hera,j=: : '
iries, For all these reasons the Weser is an one of the hardest and most dangerous milLtary a chemical weapon strrke; rt certarnly -: !:=-
rmportant objectrve, either to galn or to hold, operatrons one can imagine, So the 3rd Shock faced by the arrival of thousands ol re::;=:.
Army rs interested in findtng those brldges fleeing the Sovret advance and cars-:,;r =.
Amphibious capability intact, or at least in gaining control of the most much mayhem (albeit unintentional c: .:,,:,:
By all accounts, river crossinq ranks high in advantagteous river crossing posrtions belore part) as any incapacitating chemrcar -. --
:he Soviet skill at arms The Sovtets have, or the main armour force arrives, So forward e1e- against this background that our Sappel -:-,
rather had, a greater amphrbrous capabrlity ments have been dispatched to achteve those has to achieve its objective, whtch is str::p-
than most other armies in the world, and for thrs objectives: regular paratroops and Spetsnaz deny 3rd Shock Army the western ban< :- :.=
reason are unlikely to rely too hea,rily on (Sovret special forces trained to operate in Weser for as long as possible
rnding bridges intacL. Howevol a Ilvel clos- enemy unlform), plus armoured reconnarss-

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i.:: l$+:;i

Diggring for Victory

Commander Royal Engineers (CRE) has drs- specially shaped charges 'dig' trenches and own choosing, For that reason, the Sappers
patched whatever Sappers in whatever num- foxholes far faster than even a detachment from may leave one bridge standing, They may
bers and with whatever equipment needed to the Pioneer Corps (and that is very quick in- leave one potential river crossing site a little
do the job. As a result of the general confuslon it deed); tractors are buildrng earthworks; other less destroyed than the others. They may leave
is unllkely that this detachment bears any rela- Sappers are blowing up roads (and buildings one major hlghway more usable by tanks and
tionship with the standard ones as laid down in so that they fall across roads), River banks are armoured personnel carriers than others to its
Staff Dutres in the Freld, This particular detach- blown away, and mines laid in the river rtself. north and south,
ment is to mine whatever bridges it can; sow But (and this is a very important 'but' lndeed), And this poses the enemy commander a
minefields wherever it can; place booby traps it would be wrong to get the impressron that very awkward problem. Even if he knows (and
wherever it can; and help any NATO forces in thrs is a bunch of Sappers out to cause as much undoubtedly he does) what is being done to
the area, It is also ready to conduct its own river damage and destructron as it can, The truth is a him, what can he do about it? If he lgnores the
crossing, or rather set one up, ifa counterattack little more subtle than that, 'gift' offered and attempts to fight through on a
or flanking movement appears possible. It is to front ol his own choosing, setting up his own
operate independently and to use its own in- Warsaw Pact supremacy river crossinq points, he ls going to suffer
itiative. Depending on the state of the battle, tt NATO forces reairzed a long time ago that, casualties. If he accepts the 'glft' offered he is
may be accompanied part of the way by short of building up their own conventional also going to suffer casualties, If he does allow
another special Sapper unit that specializes in forces to equal those of the Warsaw Pact his advance to be narrowed, he faces fire from
setting up landing clearings for BAe Harrier (which appears to be economically and politr both flanks. If he does not, he runs the risk of
V/STOL close support aircraft, cally unacceptable), there is no way that NATO having varlous unrts slowed or even forced on
This rs not a large, ungainly column of Sap- can resrst the initial Soviet advance, short of the defensrve, and that can lead to counterat-
pers plus klt flghting rts way throuqh the using tactical nuclear weapons from the outset; tack, And the enemy commander rs probably
oncomlng refugees, Much of therr kit will even though the British and one or two other (hopefully) as unwilling to use tactical nuclear
already be in position; other rtems can be sum- NATO armies are, man for man, the finest weapons at this stage as is his NATO counter-
moned very quickly from rear echelon, troops in the world; even though their equip- part.
Nonetheless, the Sappers have APCs with Bar ment is (finatly) berng dictated as much by Incldentally, it is worth remembering that
Mrnelayers, Scorpion command vehicles, Stal- military as political considerations; and even one of the reasons that the Brrtrsh Expedition-
warts and Land Rovers. They are accompanied though NATO troops are better 1ed, better ary Force managed to evacuate so many men
by infantry (Sappers are good, but they cannot motrvated and less prone to arqlle amonqst at Dunkirk was because ihe advancing Ger-
be expected to do everything themselves) and themselves. The fact is that there are simply too man Panzers were being attacked from the
artillery, probably the new tracked multiple many Soviet and Warsaw Pact forces, and that flank as well as the front, which was made
rocket-launchers. But the first detachment of these forces will advance on a fairly broad easier by the fact that the Panzers used to
Sappers is either arrhfted or parachuted in. front, attack on a comparatively narrow front.
Optrmum river crossing sites were surveyed The modern NATO strategy ls to force the But back on the River Weser, one can
years ago, and the Sappers make directly for Warsaw Pact advance into 'ktlling zones', areas appreciate that while the Sappers are acting in
these, plus any likely bridges, The bridges are already known and srghted by divrsional artil- a tactical battlefield role, their actions also have
blown, quickly, economicaily and very thor- lery, In terms of the scenario, the rdea is to enormous strategic significance, As combat
oughly. Mines are lard on the east bank of the force the 3rd Shock Army into a narrower line engineers their role is to do just that: engineer a
Weser opposite river crossing sites. One of advance, where it can be attacked not just sltuation whereby combat takes place in the
group of Sappers is setting up booby traps in from the front but from the sides as well. This most favourable circumstances, and NATO is
locatrons likely to be of use to the oncoming 3rd strategry extends down to the battiefield, cer- fortunate that the Royal Engrneers do thrs su-
Shock Army, locations such as power statrons, tainly as far as brigade and often to company perbly well.
telephone exchanges, airfield control towers, level,
even local hotels that look as rf they could use- So the Sappers at the Weser are not simply Oneof themanyroles performed by theCombat
fully be commandeered as a 3rd Shock Army trying to deny the 3rd Shock Army access to EngineerTractor is the preparation ofriver banks
forward headquarters, the entire west bank, but are tasked with the for bridging by pontoons. Here theCET, having
Other Sappers are helping the infantry and role of ensuring that lf the 3rd Shock Army does done its job, waits as the pontoon bridge is fitted
qlrnners set up their own defensive positions; cross, it will be at a time and a place of NATO's intoposition.

Modern Combat Engineer Eguipment
Centurion Mk 5 AVRE
Du-rinq World War II the British 79th A Centurion Mk 5 AVRE is shown with
Armoured Division employed a large the dozer blade at the front of the hull
number of specialized vehicles which in the raised position. More recently
'w-ore successfully used during the D- thisvehicle has become known as
Day landings and the subsequent push the Centurion AVRE I 65, as
through France and on into Germany, Centurion grun tanks are also now
One of these vehicles was the Chur- being used by the Royal Engineers.
ch1ll Assault Vehicle Royal Engrneers
(AVRE), which was fitted with a de-
nolition gmn for destroying battlefield
iortiflcations such as pillboxes; it could
also carry on its hull front a short assault
bridge or a fascine, The latter was a
Iargre bundle of wood which could be
dropped into enemy anti-tank ditches
so that tracked armoured vehicles
could cross,
The Churchill AVRE continued in
semce with the British army after the
end of World War II, but by the mid-
1950s these vehicles were becoming
dfficult to maintain and operate as the
basic Churchill gun tank had by then used to clear battlefield obstacles or to hydraulically in front ofeach track and gineers. These are known as Centu-
been phased out of service. prepare fire positions. The vehicle can the tank rs drrven forwards, the rion AVRE I05 vehicles.
The Churchill AVRE was finally re- also carry and lay a length of Class 30 plougrhs then ripping up the ground
placed in the 1960s by the Centurion or 60 alumiruum trackway across mud- and pushing any anti--ank mtnes lo one Specification
Mk 5 AVRE, which was based on the dy grrourd so that followingr wheeled stde, These mine ploughs, developed CenturionAVRE
chassis of the Centurion Mk 5 tank. The vehicles will not become bogged to meet the requirements of the British Crew:5
main armament of the Centunon Mk 5 down. A fascine can also be carled on army by T.B, Pearsonand Sons Ltd, are Weight: loaded 51809 ks ( 1 14,220 lir'
AVRE is a 165-mm (6.S-in) demolition the foont of the hull, The Centwion Mk also being fitted to Chieftatn Armoured Powerplant: one Rolls-Royce Metecl
gun, which flres a hrgh explosrve 5 AVRE can also tow a special trailer Vehicle-Launched Bridges of the Mk IVB 12-cylj nder petrol engnne
squash-head (HESH) projectile to a carrfmg addrtlonal enqtineer supplies, Royal Engineers, developing 484.7 kW (650 bhp)
maxmum range of about 2400 m (2,625 for example explosives or extra 165- Centurion Mk 5 AVREs are used by Dimensions: length 8.69 m (28 ft 6 Lr,
yards), although its effective range rs a mm rouads, or a trailer for the Royal armoured engineer squadrons based wldth 3.96 m (13 fr 0 in); heishr 3.00 r_
good deal less than this fignle, Co- Ordnance Grani Viper mrne- in the Brltish Army of the Rhine, As (9 ft 1O in)
axial with the 165-mm gnrn is a 7.62-mm clearance syslem. there are now insufficient of these Performance: maximum road speei
(0.3-in) machine-qun, and a similar More recently the Centurion Mk 5 vehicles to go around, a number of 34.6 km/h (2 i.5 mph): maximum roa:
weapon rs located on the turret rooffor AVRE has been fitted with mine- Centurion gun tanks with 105-mm range 177 km ( I 10 miles); fordinq
arti-aircraft defence. Mounted at the clearLng ploughs at the foont ofthe hull: (4. i3-in) L7 series gn-lns are now being 1.45 m (4 ft 9 in); gadient 60 per cen.
front of the hull is a hydraulically when a minefield has been detected fltted with the ptough mine-clearinqr vertical obstacle 0,94 m (3 ft I in);
cperated dozer blade which can be the ploughs are lowered to the ground devices and rssued to the Royal En- trench3,35 m(l1ft0 in)

This is a Centurion Mk 5 AVRE of 32 raised position, with the device M ain arm ament of the C e nturion M k prcjectile to knock out pillboxes and
Armoure d E ngineer R egiment above this on the hull front being 5 AVRE is a short-barrelled 165-mm other battlefield fortifications. It can
stationed in the BritishArmy of the used to carry afascinewhich can be demolition gun which fires a HESH also tow a GiantViper mine-clearing
Rhine. The dozer blade is in the quickly dropped in anti-tank ditches. (H igh Ex plos ive S qu as h H ead) system.

>K tar and Ranger Mine Systems

Bar Mine with standard mine detectors, The
For many years the Mk 7 was the long shape of the Bar Mine not only
standard anti-tank mine of the British doubles the chance ofrt being run over
army. This clrcular anti-tank mine has by a tank and therefore being acti-
row been largely replaced by the Bar vated, but also means that less mines
Mine which was designed by the are required than of the older Mk 7.
Royal Armament Research and De- The Bar Mine is normally fitted with an
relopment Establishment at Fort Hal-
stead, production being undertaken TheThorn EMI Ranger anti-
by the Royal Ordnance Factories. The personnel mine system includes 72
Bar Mine system is composed of two tubes, each containing l8 mines. The
inain parts, the mine itself and rts tubes are in magazines of four
nechanical layer. barrels (top) which can he quickly
The Bar Mine is of virtually all- reloaded. Below the magazine is one
plastic construction with just a few of the tubes, and below this are its
netallic components in its fuse, This contents including the mines
:eature makes it very difficult to detect ffiemse/ves.

Bar and Ranger Mine Systems (continued)

impulse fuse which is operated by the army by the Royal Armament Re-
pressrtre of a vehicle passing over- search and Development Establish-
head. To make the Bar Mine even ment at Fort Halstead and Thorn EMI
more effective Marconi Command and Electronics Ltd, and entered servrce
Control Systems and the Royal Ordn- with the Britrsh army some years ago, It
ance Factories have developed a num- consists essentially of 72 tubes
ber of add-on fuses, and with these the mounted on a frame which can be car-
Bar Mine is called the Full Width ried on top oi a vehicle such as the
Attack Mine. In combat use, Bar Mines FV432 armoured personnel carrier. or
with different fuses would be laid to mounted in the back of a truck or other
make clearance more difficult, load carrier. The tubes are mounted in
The Bar Mine can be laid by hand, magazines of four, each tube contajn-
but is normally laid by the Bar Mine- ing lB circular Ranqer anti-personnel
layer built at the Royal Ordnance Fac- mrnes; each of these is 62 mm (2.44 in)
tory Nottingham, Thrs is towed by a in diameter and 32 mm (1.26 in) deep.
truck or an armoured vehicle such as The operator has a flrinq unit con-
the FV432 armoured personnel car- nected to the launcher and each time a
rier. The mines are placed on a load- button is pressed a cartridge is fired
ing chute and armed as they pass and 1B Ranger anti-personnel mines This 1Y432 armoured personnel minelaying system at the rear. This
througrh, and are then buried under the are ejected to a drstance ofup to 100 m carrier has a Thorn EMI Ranger anti- combination enables a deadly
grround, so makinq detection more dif- (328 ft) dependingi on wind conditions, personnel minelaying system on the combined anti-tank and anti-
flcult. The launcher can be elevated and roof and tows a Royal Ordnance Bar personnel minefield to be laid.
The laying rate depends on the type traversed as required. The mine is not
of soil, but is normally between 600 and armed untrl 20 seconds after it leaves Mrnelayer while a Ranger antr- Specification
700 mines per hour, the launcher and then lies on the personnel minelayer is mounted on BarMine
ground until it is activated by pressure. the rool This enables a combined antr- Weight: total I ] kg (24,25 lb) explosive
Special traininq mines of compressed tanl</antr-personnel minefield to be 8,39 ks (18 50 lb)
Ranger anti-personnel mine system peat are also available, laid very quickly, so making clearance Dimensions:lenqth 1,194 m (3 ft I I in);
The Ranger system was developed In the Royal Engineers an FV432 of the minefield very drfficult and time- width ]OB mm(4.25 in); height82,6 mm
to meet the requirements of the Brittsh armoured personnel carrrer tows a Bar consummg. (3.25 in)

ffi bombat Engineer Tractor

The Combat Engineer Tractor (CET) Mounted on the roof of the Combat
was designed by the Military En- Engineer Tractor is a rocket-
gineerrng Experimental Establish- propelled earth anchor. If thevehicle
ment to meet the requirements of the gels stuck, the rocket is fired and the
Royal Engineers for a vehicle that earth anchor falls to the ground. The
would combine the characteristics of vehicle then uses its on-board winch
an armorued vehrcle and an earthmov- to get itself out of the obstacle or
er. At one time France, the UK and mud.
West Germany were to have worked
together on such a type, but in the end
each country went its own way. TWo
test dgs to prove the basic concept
were burlt in the late 1960s by the
Royal Ordnance Factory Leeds, and
these were followed by seven pro-
totype vehicles in 1973-4. In 1975 the
CET was accepted for service with the
Royal Engineers, and a total of I41
vehicles was subsequently built at the
Royal Ordnance Factory Nottingham
between l97B and 1981, In 1984 india
placed an order for a quantity ofCETs,
so qroduction wtll soon gtet under way
The CET can carry out a wide range chargrers and an NBC system, which
of roles such as the recovery of dam- allows the vehrcle to work in a con-
aged and disabled vehicles (especial- taminated area,
ly at river crossinq pornts), the clear- The CET can also tow the trailer-
ance of fire positlons, the preparation mounted Grant Viper mtne-clearance
and clearance ofobstacles, the prepa- system, and can be fitted with a num-
ration of river banks, and so on. ber of kits for different roles. These
The vehicle is normally driven wrth latter include a jib crane attachment
its hydraulically-operated bucket to installed in the bucket, Class 30 or 60
the rear. The bucket can be used for aluminium trackway, and a pusher bar
normal earthmoving duties or bulldoz- for launching pontoons,
ing, or as an earth anchor when the The CET was used by the Royal En-
8000-kq (17,637-1b) wrnch is beins edneers for a wide ranqe of roles dur-
used, ing the Falklands campaign, and parts
Mounted on top of the hull is a rock- of the chassis are being used for a 122-
et-propelled self-emplacing earth mm (4,8-in) D-30 seJf-propelled gmn
anchor, Should the CET become stuck developed by the Royal Ordnance
in mud or a river, the earth anchor is Factory Leeds to meet the require- 6-cylinder inhne dresel developingt The Royal Ordnance Combat
fired, this falling to the grround about ments of the Egryptian government. 23B o kW (s20 hp) Engineer Tractor was deployed by
90 m (295 ft) from the vehicle, The CET The Combat Engineer Tractor is Dimensions: Iength (overall) 7.54 m the Royal Engineers to the Falkland
can then winch itself out of trouble. considered to be one ofthe most useful (24 ft 9 in); width (overall) 2,90 m (9 ft Islands in 1982. A totalof 14l was
The vehicle can ford to a depth of vehicles in sewice with the Royal En- 6 in); helqht (overall) 2.67 m (B ft 9 in) built by Royal Ordnance Nottingham
1.83 m (6 ft 0 in) but with some prepa- g[neers today. Perforrnance: maximum road speed by 198 1 , but production has since
ration can be made fully amphibious, 56 krr/h (35 mph); maximumwater resumed to meet an order placed by
so making rt especially useful during Specification speed B lfl/h (4.9 mph); maximum the I ndian Army in I 984 for I 5
water crossings. When afloat the CET CET range322 km (200 miles); fordinqr vehicles.
rs propelled by two waterjets mounted Crew:2 1.83 m (6 ft 0 1n); gradient 60 per cent;
one on each side ofthe hull, Standard Weisht: 18000 kq (39,683 lb) vertical obstacle 0.6 I m (2 ft 0 in);
equipment includes six smoke dis- Powerplant: one Rolls-Royce C6TFR trench 2,06 m (6 ft 9 in)

Armed Forces of the World

Soviet Na
-lthough weli furnrshed with surface combatants,
Part 3

.ne Soviet navy actually conslders these ships to be

:uxiliares for use in support of ts primary arms,
ramely the naval aviation and submarine Jorces.
rccording to their s ze and ro e, the warships are
I v ded into groups (for small sh ps only), brigades
'cr groups of small sh ps and medium-sized units),
:nd divisions and squadrcns i:or the largest units
',,atiable). 'Kiev'
The four class a;rcra:l carr e rs and the two
\loskva' class he icopter c'.r sers currently avail-
provrde both the af o:: lSr'!'otary wing forces
the experience requ.3: ..,entJa iy to operate
':d ;'
..e follow-on 'Krem n' c :ss r'rc ear powered
' red-w ng aircraft-carr e's :' ',.' cir tie first is
. - Jer conslrucl on at \ - .. i : . '': \o. 444)
:xtto a third'lvan Rogo'," :.:: -rl ine vessel is
.(pected to enter operai a^: ::', la i ihe iate
-:backupll-ecar';e . . r.. : 1 - -e-.ce
' oruclear-powereo b. ..- <'q.
. \irovand Frunze t l' : . - -'- -:.rle
. jer construclion A t- ; .'-". "*,)
; g^, lne "div o-ai >- - ,
- -prentandol-oTe .-'- ::-r c

'. -ombine lne surfac.

.^ comncand and tt '
-- -
'nch they carry extensr,i? :r--^--.- ti t-: S,S
- 5 ForsuT'aceacr'o- g- , 'Pol' classof coastalASWvesse \,1r- :'.- from' K rupnyy' class SS-/V-/ an lr-sfi ;p
C onv er te d
.' ava lable, lne Sor etc - . . ,: : o asses such as the'Osa l'and'Poi' a'a
-' -- missile-carrying vesse/s, the eight'Kanin' cIas s
gradual replacement by new desgns :-,- received a twin SA-N- I Goa SAM launcher aft.
- :ss of gas-turbtne potlerel :- :,i : ,-- .a' 'a.a:-
-.'v kreysef . Fitted with s n ?':- ::: :' :-: .: Tarantu' class small missrle sh p :-: -:
- rsh:p 'aciril'es, tne 'S'a. . .
., : ,. -- c ass smallASW craft -^eC rm and three T-55 flamethrower tan<s . -.
.-e ne\rJ gas-turblne powe'ei .-:: :. : .:: *S,', Also designated as an adjunct to ir: :-::orting units. The regiment can be broken c: ,. -
..slroyers a"d the sted. '-: ... .... : , matn strike elements are the amc' :: g ve three independent battalion anding te:^- -
' T enny class sr' 'ace l a -'a
= : . forces. The Baltic, Northern and B : :::r wrth its own light tank company er: :-
--- cu'renlly in ser ps o'or . . each have a naval infantry (morska":. ^^:c um tank support.
'avy's major shipyards. The o cer r.:-. --: (':si: ;ment This is similar in concept :: -ne Pacif ic Fleet has a brigade-sized nava n':- -

class ASW crursers, whicr tre '-:: :.: :-a :-c- regiment of the Soviet army, but s ' :' -r i attached to it {which US intelligence so-':-:
. -menting, will re-a" - ;. .-" ^' . j: equivalent in capabilitles to a moi. ;:"era ly describe as a 'division'). Thrs con-pr.=.
.. possibly wrth r"jor ^ l- -'. - The major difference is that the n:. :..: iank battalions, five motor rifle battalrors :-:
. e' '(ynda' and 'Krestd - i: -- .' - - i : - r- ful y trained in all aspects of an :- s-:c.rt units which include an amphibious s:'
. SerS W l, alSO COnt n-a ' :5'. :: . : 't.- operations, including assault ar: - :'::e ed howitzer battallon of 18 122-mm tL 3 '
.'easwhereenemyoffenstve capab . as :': :!me- special equipment in the f orm of tra - :: 2S1 guns, a type found in the other fleet areas -
.1at restricted. A few 'Sverd ot,' c:ass ':2 ^^r' '6- arr-cushron vehicles (ACVs) to oer^- . :-, a s ngle six-gun battery.
-, gun crursers rema n in actve seT,,':: .- :':'. ce e'olions well away 'ror l^e So,
+ nuclers of naval g.^i '' :-oL : .:' '.' across all types of coastal terrain \:-.'
. r:phibious warfare unlts ent has three 400-man motorized -':- :' :'l' : The17,000-toncruiserMoskvaenteredservicein
The comparable v ntage 'Skory' and (:t '' c ass (each with 34 BTR-60 wheeJed Atrl. - : . :- Carrying 18 Kamov Ka-25 helicopters.
--.lventronal gun and torpeoo deslio'te's r3,,e also lion of one medium and three tgri :--: - -: :- i.heclassrepresentedasignificantaugmentation
::en retarned in some areas for th s ro e, '''!i e lhe companres (equipped wlth 31 P---a -- - :: o!Sovietanti-submarinecapability.
: r or so obsolete'Rrga' class f r;gates are ior'rt belng
: -tased out or reduced to reserve slatis o.r a gradual
::s s. Replacements ln the form of tre ght ASW
--gaie 'Grisha lll' class and the larger hel copter
,:rrying 'Krlvak lll' f rigate (wh ch replaced the 'Kr
:k l'and'Krivak ll'desrgns on the bui dlng stocks)
.'e beinq acquired at accelerated rates To aid both
-rastal and oceanic ASW elements the Soviets
-alntain a number of SAM-equlpped destroyers of
-e' Kashin','Kanrn' and'SAM Kot in' classes. There
.': also six 'Kashin (Mod)' and three 'Kildin (Mod)'
iistroyers {itted with aft-firing anti-ship cruise mts-
: es; these ships operate ln the 'tattletale'target-
::srgnating role wrth the f leet of intell gence- 'i
l:thering vessels as part of the Soviet navy's ocean
-,rveillance system.
\umerically the rnost rmportant part of the
:rvets' surface-warship force remarns its mixed
:nplement of small ASW and torpedo- or missile-
:'r-led coastal craft. The rnost important of these
--e the'Osa l'and'Osa ll'classes of m ssile boats,
-e 'Nanuchka' seres of small miss le ship, and the
Armed Forces of the World
ln the last year or so further improvements to the
naval infantry have been observed, these including
\Z ?x== SovietNavy L

the addition of af -72 main battle tank company to

the tank battalion as a means of improving its anti-
armour capabilities, the introduction of the AT-4
'spigot' and AT-5 'spandrel' ATGWs to replace the
AT-C 'sagger', the addition of SA-13 'Gopher' and
SA-14 SAMs initially to supplement and then to
replace the SA-9 'Gaskin' vehicle and SA-7 'Grail'
shoulder-launched systems, and the adoption of the
new generatlon of 5.45-mm (0 21s-in) small arms
and infantry support weapons.
Each fleet also has a brigade of Spetsnaz diver-
sionary troops, under the dlrect command of the
lntelligence Directorate at naval headquarters ofthe
tank and personnel landing craft. This is one ofthe firstpictures ever released
Tasked primarily with attacking enemy naval in- missile cruiser Kirov, faken on her trials in the
stallations (including nuclear submarine bases) the A major area in which the Soviet navy is consi-
Baltic as she undergoes a high speed turn.
Spetsnaz operate from surface ships (including dered highly by most Western analysts is in mine
trawlers converted to carry swimmer-delivery vehi- warfare, a iield in which both the US and Royal
cles, midget submarines and high-powered small Navies are currently lacking, principally in terms of submarines. A completely new ground mine type
offensive weapons and numbers of countermea- has been developed, and reduced-charge versions
craft), large submarines (lncluding the mlni-
submarine mothership 'lndia' class of rescue sub- sure vessels. With nearly half a million sea mines of with magnetic and acoustic f iring mechanisms were
all types in its inventory, the Soviet navy has the used recently by what is believed to be Libya to
marine) or aircraft as required.
Each brigade is divided into a headquarters com- potential literally to close Western European waters mine the Red Sea.
pany of specialist assassination and sabotage ex- to any major movements of shlpping. which makes To match their minelaying capacity the Soviets
perts, a signal company, a parachute battalion, two an effective mockery of the various NATO state- also use the largest number of mine-counter-
or three combat swimmer battalions and a division ments mentioning resuPPlY bY sea. measures vessels amongst the world's navies.
of 12-18 midget submarines. There are also another The main offensive laying platforms in wartime These are divided into three basic types: the sea-
would be aircraft of the Soviet naval aviation fleets, going minesweeper \morskoy tral'schchick or Mf),
20 or so company-sized units attached to the f leets,
with conventional submarines, converted trawlers the base minesweeper (bazovyy tral'schhchikor Bfl
and these are tasked with specific assassination and
sabotage missions. and merchant ships providing an extensive covert and the roadstead minesweeper \raydovoY tral's-
laying capability in any period of tension before the chchik or RT). The first operates as part of the fleet
For coastal defence the fleets have regiments and
outbreak of hostilities. Defensive fields to protect during open-ocean operations, and often has secon-
independent battalions of the navy's Coastal Rocket
and Artillery Troops armed with both siationary and Soviet bases and transit routes would be lald by the dary ASW capabilities, whilst the latter two are
surface combatants and maritime patrol aircraft, the equivalent to NATO's coastal and inshore categor-
mobile missile launchers and artlllery weapons
majority of which have inbuilt minelaying capability ies of minesweepers respectlvely. They use under-
Their task is to provide defence for the approaches
to principal naval bases and ports As the Soviet The main ground mine types are the aircraft-laid water TV sleds, minehunting sonars, unmanned
500-kg (1,102-lb) AMD-500 and the aircraft-, sub- radio-controlled drones, mine disposal divers and
navy adopts the same reserve system as the Soviet
marine- or ship-laid 1000-kg \2,205'lb) AMD-l 000' submersibie mine identification and disposal craft
army, in wartime the number of naval infantry and (together with the more conventional towed wire,
Spetsnaz units would be doubled within a matter of both of which may be {itted with a magnetic, acous-
tic, pressure or combination type influence fuse. To magnetic loop and acoustic generator sweeps) to
a few days as each individual formation has an 'in-
support these weapons is a small quantity of nuclear achieve their aims.
visible' double of the same slze staffed by additional
sea mines, plus a large number of older moored All four fleet areas have large numbers of mlne-
officers. Each such formatlon serves in peace with
types such as the MOB and MKB contact, the MAG sweepers, and would be able to keep open the
the parent unit, and is equipped with reservist en-
antenna, the KRAB influence, and the MZ26 sweep major proportion of the ports and bases within their
listed men and NCOs, operating older equipment
obstructor devices. All of these (with the exception areas in the face of a determined offensive mine-
from the navy's war reserve stocks.
of the nuclear type) are probably also used by the laying campaign, as well as to support fleet opera-
To transport the naval infantry overseas, there are
Warsaw Pact navies and by the more favoured tions in enemy-controlled waters.
two 'lvan Rogov' class LPDs, 31 'Ropucha' and
'Alligator' class LSTs and 50 of so 'Polnocnyy' class Soviet cLient states. For their own use the Soviets
LSMs. These are being backed up in areas near have also developed special ASW mines under the
NATO targets and the Japanese islands by an in- titles Rising Mine and Sectionalized or Electrical The 'Kresta I' missile crurser cla ss, consisting of
creasing number of small, medlum and large ACVs, Potential Mine. Both are apparently laid by sub- four units, were the firstSovietsurface combatants
marine and are targeted against NATO's nuclear to have ahelicopter hangar fitted.
which are taking the place of the more conventional