Sie sind auf Seite 1von 11

734 Technology/Technologie

Mohsen Ajdari Rad, Azar Ajdari Rad and Gilles Schrevel

Evaluation of juice purification in sugar factories*

Bewertung der Saftreinigung in Zuckerfabriken

Despite the substantial improvement of beet quality which Trotz der deutlichen Verbesserung der Rübenqualität ver-
has been achieved, still a relatively high content of nonsug- bleibt immer noch ein relativ hoher Gehalt an Nichtzucker-
ars remains in the raw juice extracted from sugar beet. New stoffen nach der Extraktion im Rohsaft. Neue analytische
analytical methods and instrumentation have helped to bet- Methoden und Instrumente helfen, die in den einzelnen
ter understand the various physical and chemical reactions Phasen der Saftreinigung stattfindenden physikalischen
taking place during the different steps of juice purification und chemischen Reaktionen besser zu verstehen und zu
and so how they can be affected. beeinflussen.
Some examples of developments over the past 20 years by Während der letzten 20 Jahre hat die Abteilung Forschung
the R&D departments of the Südzucker Group, related to und Entwicklung der Südzucker verschiedene Verfahren
the optimization of the juice purification system, are illus- zur Optimierung der Saftreinigung entwickelt: Rohsaft-
trated: raw juice viscosimetry, raw juice pre-alkalization, Viskosimetrie, Rohsaftvorkalkung, Bestimmung des opti-
optimal pH value of flocculation in the prelimer, optimal malen pH-Wertes des Flockungspunktes in der Vorkalkung,
course of pH value in the prelimer, optimal temperature/ optimaler Verlauf des pH-Wertes in der Vorkalkung, opti-
retention time in the prelimer and main limer, optimal pH male Temperatur/Verweilzeit in Vor- und Hauptkalkung,
value of 1st carbonatation, milk of lime optimization system optimaler pH-Wert der ersten Carbonatation, Kalkmilch-
(LIMOS) to reduce limestone consumption, lime salts ana- optimierung zur Reduzierung des Kalksteinverbrauchs
lyzer (LISA), optimization of decalcification, SZ/RT-juice (LIMOS), Kalksalzanalyse (LISA), Optimierung der Ent-
purification system with separation of the colloid fraction kalkung, SZ/RT-Saftreinigung (Abtrennung der Kolloid-
after the prelimer. fraktion nach der Vorkalkung).

Key words: extraction, raw juice, nonsugars, juice purification Schlagwörter: Extraktion, Rohsaft, Nichtzuckerstoffe, Saft-

1 Introduction remains in the raw beet juice. The presence of these nonsugars
requires a rather complicated and costly purification process
Improvement of beet quality, increased requirements of sugar in order to enable the production of white sugar of the right
quality (such as reduction of ash and turbidity of sugar) and quality, as well as to limit any unnecessary sugar loss to molas-
the demand for reduction of both energy and processing aids’ ses. The task of juice purification is – above all – to increase
(e.g. limestone) consumption have been important challenges the juice purity by neutralization, coagulation, degradation
over the past 20 years, asking for further optimization of juice and separation of particular dissolved and colloidal nonsugar
purification in beet sugar manufacture. Numerous investiga- substances in raw juice. After juice purification a thin juice is
tions have been performed to optimize the different process aimed with higher purity, low color and lime salts content, and
steps of juice purification. More recently, the processing of good thermostability. New analytical methods and instrumen-
deteriorated beet came into focus due to prolonged beet pro- tation have helped to better understand the various physical
cessing campaigns as a result of the reform of the EU Sugar and chemical reactions taking place during the different steps
Regime. of juice purification and so how they can be affected.
Juice purification is an important step in sugar technology. Classical juice purification uses milk of lime in the pre-liming
It has a significant impact on sugar quality and sugar yield. and main liming and subsequently CO2 in the 1st carbonata-
Despite the substantial improvement of beet quality in recent tion and 2nd carbonatation in order to achieve the above-men-
years, still a relatively high amount of nonsugar substances tioned chemical and physical reactions. The precipitated and
insoluble nonsugars are removed by filtration and/or decanta-
Some examples of developments over the past 20 years by the
* Paper presented at the XXIst Symposium organized by the Andrew VanHook Associa- R&D department of the Südzucker Group related to the opti-
tion in Reims/France, 27 March 2014.
mization of the juice purification system will be illustrated:

Sugar Industry 139 (2014) No. 12 | 734–744

Technology/Technologie 735

– Raw juice viscosimetry

– Raw juice pre-alkalization
– Optimal pH value of flocculation in the prelimer
– Optimal course of pH value in the prelimer
– Optimal temperature/retention time in the prelimer
– Optimal pH value of 1st carbonatation
– Optimization of decalcification
– SZ/RT-Juice purification system with separation of the col-
loid fraction after the prelimer
The increase of the beet quality during recent years provided
the opportunity for a further optimization of juice purification
aiming at lower consumption of process aids such as limestone Fig. 1: Development of the purity of raw juice in the German factories
and coke. of Südzucker
Figure 1 shows the increase of the raw juice purity over the last
13 years in the German-factories of Südzucker. One can see an
approx. 1–2% increase of raw juice purity.
Figure 2 shows the increase of thick juice purity in the French
and German factories of the Südzucker Group during recent
years. The increase of thick juice purity was about 1% during
the last 13 years.
Figure 3 shows the total limestone consumption in the French
and German factories of the Südzucker Group during recent
years. Please note that for the German factories it also includes
lime used for alkalization of flume water.
After optimization of juice purification, the Südzucker facto-
ries could reduce the limestone consumption by about 5 kg/t
beet in the last 13 years. This means a reduction of approx.
18% of limestone and coke.
In the last 20 years the R&D department of the Südzucker Fig. 2: Increase of thick juice purity in the French and German factories
Group worked intensively for optimizing of juice purification of the Südzucker Group
and developed different ideas and patents. A few examples are

2 Raw juice viscosimetry

Natural raw juice constitutes of a disperse system with sus-

pended heterogeneous particles. The continuous phase con-
sists of sucrose solution and the dispersed phase of particulate
structures of high molecular mass substances, mainly pro-
teins, nucleoproteins, hemicellulose, color substances, pectin,
dextran and levan (the latter two related to processing of frost-
damaged or deteriorated beet). The high molecular mass sub- Fig. 3: Decrease of limestone consumption in the French and German
stances exert a dominant influence on the flow behaviour of factories of the Südzucker Group
the (raw) juice in the process. The use of an on-line rheometer,
e.g. the Rheoswing RSD 1-1, enables the on-line monitoring of
changes in viscosity of the raw juice as a result of the change in its own frequency, and is immersed in the liquid to be anal-
concentration of high molecular components of the raw juice. ysed. The probe leads torsional vibrations in the nanometer
The on-line viscosimetry of the raw juice is a way to control range, and causes the liquid to form a thin boundary layer. The
the processing of deteriorated or frost-damaged beet material comparison of the attenuation in the liquid with the original
with higher contents of colloidal substances such as dextran, attenuation in air provides an excellent way to determine the
levan and pectin. Several rheological tests for the continuous viscosity for different materials quickly and accurately. This
recording of raw juice viscosity show that the raw juice viscos- measurement system allows the simultaneous determination
ity can be used as a possible reference to control the amount of of the temperature. The measurement system gives an abso-
milk of lime to be added to the main liming (or to set the main lute determination of the dynamic and kinematic viscosity
liming alkalinity). when the density of the liquid is known. Because of that the
The on-line rheometer Physica Rheoswing determines the structural viscosity and complex viscosity can be detected
dynamic and kinematic viscosity by the measurement of the directly. Table 1 gives the specifications of the measurement
attenuation of the mechanical oscillator, which is excited at system.

No. 12 (2014) Sugar Industry 139 | 734–744

736 Technology/Technologie

Table 1: Specifications of the on-line rheometer Physica Rheoswing RSD 1-1 The viscosity signals could be interpreted based on an evalu-
Parameter Technical data ation chart, which was derived from the determined viscosity
Input range medium density in g/cm3 0.400 – 3.999 and laboratory data such as dry matter and sugar content of
Pressure range in bar 0 – 150 raw juice. The factory can use the evaluation chart as an early
Frequency range in Hz approx. 8500 (this case 8550)
warning system, indicating a change of raw juice quality and
Maximum ambient temperature in °C 110
then can take the necessary actions in the juice purification.
Measuring range of the kinematic viscosity
in m2 · s–1 0.1 – 3 · 10–6
Measuring range of the dynamic viscosity
in mPa · s 0.3 – 100 3 Raw juice pre-alkalization
Measured value acquisition in min–1 max. 52
The aims of the raw juice pre-alkalization are:
– Stabilization of raw juice before the raw juice heat exchanger;
Figure 4 shows the pilot system for raw juice viscosimetry. The – Reducing the microbiological activity within the raw juice
viscosity could be measured after desanding and depulping heat exchanger before the prelimer;
of the raw juice with the help of the viscosity measurement
system Rheoswing RSD1-1.
The raw juice feeds tangentially in the
separation tank for separating suspended
big pulp particles and sand. The pre-
cleaned raw juice is pumped to the mea-
surement cell; the viscosimeter is located
in the head of the measurement cell. The
dynamic viscosity of raw juice is mea-
sured every 15 seconds and the measured
data are registered in the data manage-
ment protocol of the factory. Warm water
is used for cleaning of the system.
After optimizing the flow rate, the sepa-
ration tank for big pulp particles and
sand and the CIP (cleaning in place) sys-
tem with warm water a stable viscosity
signal was obtained (Fig. 5). Fig. 5: Viscosity signal of technical raw juice during 24 h (Shahidizenouz, 2008)

Fig. 4: Pilot system for on-line raw juice viscosimetry (Ajdari Rad et al., 2008 a)

Sugar Industry 139 (2014) No. 12 | 734–744

Technology/Technologie 737

– Destruction of the biofilm in the the raw juice heat exchanger;

– No flocculation: an alkaline coagulation of hydrocolloids
(floc formation) before the raw juice heat exchanger would
lead to filtration or settlement problems. Therefore, the
flocculation of raw juice colloids must be avoided in the raw
juice pre-alkalization;
– Reduction of lime salts content and color in thin juice.
Laboratory juice purification experiments using raw juice from
the pilot plant (with and without the pre-alkalization of the
raw juice before raw juice heat exchanger) were performed. The
influence of the pre-alkalization of the raw juice on the proper-
ties of intermediate products (filtration coefficient of the first
carbonatation juice) and thin juice (color and lime salts con-
tent) have been determined. For this purpose, laboratory juice Fig. 8: Effect of raw juice pre-alkalization on thin juice lime salts’ contents
purification tests of raw juice with pre-alkalization (pH value (Shahidizenouz, 2008; Ajdari Rad et al. 2008 b)
between 6 and 11) and without pre-alkalization before the raw
juice heat exchanger (preliming temperature between 50 °C
and 80 °C (∆T = 10 K) were carried out. Figure 6 shows the – The color of thin juice increases with increasing of preliming
effect of raw juice pre-alkalization with sodium hydroxide at temperature.
different temperatures on the increase of invert sugar content – The color of thin juice decreases after raw juice pre-alkaliza-
in the raw juice during heating before the prelimer. tion.
From the data it can be concluded, that raw juice pre-alkaliza- – The overall effect of raw juice pre-alkalization on the decrease
tion reduces the sucrose hydrolysis in the juice during heating. of the thin juice colour depends on the preliming temperature.
The reaction rate of sucrose hydrolysis depends on pH value – The thin juice colour decreases approximately by 200 IU
and temperature. Figure 7 shows the influence of the raw juice at a preliming temperature of 50 °C and approximately by
pre-alkalization on the color of the thin juice. 500 IU at a preliming temperature of 80 °C.
The following significant influences from raw juice pre-alkali- Figure 8 shows the influence of the raw juice pre-alkalization
zation on thin juice color can be observed: on the lime salts content in the thin juice.
From the results the following conclusions can be drawn:
– The lime salts’ content in thin juice increases with increasing
preliming temperature.
– The lime salts’ content of the thin juice decreases with
pre-alkalization of the raw juice before the raw juice heat
exchanger (minimal lime salts’ content at a certain optimum
pH value).
– The optimum pH value of raw juice before the heating pro-
cess for achieving the lowest possible lime salts content in
the thin juice is consistent with the required pH value for
low thin juice colour.
The technical investigation of raw juice pre-alkalization with
sodium hydroxide has enabled the reduction of lime salts’ con-
Fig. 6: Effect of raw juice pre-alkalization on the increase of invert sugar tent and color in thin juice; in addition microbiological activity
content at different temperatures before prelimer (Shahidizenouz, 2008) in the raw juice heat exchanger is largely suppressed.

3.1 In-line/on-line determination of process steps

in juice purification

The rheological characterization and description of the process

steps in juice purification at micro and macro level is a new
application area and enables the understanding of physical
and chemical reactions at a molecular level and thereby con-
firms earlier findings.
For example, with the torsional oscillator Rheoswing RSD 1-1
of the company Paar-Physica it is possible to continuously
detect structural changes in the juice by in-/on-line viscosity
measurement. Thus, rheological analysis can serve as a refer-
Fig. 7: Effect of raw juice pre-alkalization on thin juice color (Shahidizenouz, ence parameter for the control of particular steps in the juice
2008; Ajdari Rad et al. 2008 b) purification process.

No. 12 (2014) Sugar Industry 139 | 734–744

738 Technology/Technologie

3.2 Materials and methods juice in a 10 s interval. Table 2 shows the process conditions
during the juice purification experiments.
For the realization and evaluation of the rheological experi- Figure 10 shows the typical viscosity profile of the juice during
ments in the field of juice purification a discontinuous juice preliming.
purification system on a laboratory scale has been used The investigations of analyzing the rheological changes of
(Fig. 9). The juice purification system consists of a jacketed raw juice upon the addition of milk of lime helped to bet-
(for heating) 3 L reaction vessel (1). The raw juice is mixed ter understand the reactions during preliming. The obtained
in the reaction vessel by means of a variable-speed stirrer characteristic curve is unique and provides important infor-
throughout the juice purification process. For temperature mation concerning the structural changes of colloids and sus-
control of the juice during juice purification two thermostats pended solids during the preliming process. This investiga-
with circulators are used (2 and 3). The carbon dioxide (4) is tion shows that the physical reactions in the preliming have a
passed through a controllable valve to the gas distributor dur- significant influence on the rheological properties of the raw
ing the 1st and 2nd carbonatation. The gas distributor consists
of a circular perforated (holes diameter about 0.1 cm) copper
loop. Limed juice was continuously collected during the tests Table 2: Process conditions in the juice purification experiments
by means of a centrifugal pump (supplier company EHEIM, Process step Time Tempera- Comments
2400 min–1, flow rate of 10 L/min) via the drain valve of the in min ture in °C
reaction vessel and recirculated through a measurement flow Preliming 20 55 End pH value = 11.40
cell (5) in the reaction vessel. Main liming 20 85 Alkalinity = 1.1 g CaO/100 mL
The on-line rheometer (RSD 1-1) located in the measurement 1st carbonatation 15 85 End pH value = 11.20
cell (No. 6 at Fig. 9) determined the viscosity of the inflowing 2nd carbonatation 12 88 End pH value = 9.25

Fig. 9: Discontinuous laboratory juice purification system with rheometer 1 Reaction vessel; 2 and 3 Thermostat with circulator; 4 Carbon dioxide; 5 Flow
cell; 6 On-line rheometer (RSD 1-1); 7 Evaluation device of rheometer; 8 Monitor

Fig. 10: Course of the juice viscosity along the prelimer (Kraus, 1998; Ajdari Rad and Senge, 2002)

Sugar Industry 139 (2014) No. 12 | 734–744

Technology/Technologie 739

juice because of structure-forming mechanisms. The obtained juice alkalization. A comparison between rheological deter-
viscosity curves can be divided into 6 sections: mination and the usual photometry determination of the
– Functional stability of the juice (no change in viscosity); optimal flocculation point in the prelimer gives a very good
– Approaching the isoelectric point of raw juice colloids; correlation.
– Dehydration of the colloids with a reduction in their particle
size and viscosity;
– Flocculation and precipitation of the colloids with an 5 Optimal course of pH value in the prelimer
increase of particle size and viscosity;
– Gradual continuation of the structure formation; The practical application of the results of rheological measure-
– End of the structure formation with a more or less constant ments during the preliming is the definition of the optimal
viscosity. pH value course in a so-called progressive preliming. Figure
12 shows the recommended pH value course of preliming as
based on maximum structure formation and thus optimal
4 Optimal pH value of flocculation in the prelimer flocculation and precipitation of the colloidal components.
According to the rheological behaviour of the juice four differ-
During preliming – due to the addition of milk of lime – the ent pH ranges can be distinguished:
transition of a colloidal solution of high molecular mass com- – pH ≤ 8.5: pH range in which the charge of the colloid sub-
ponents in the raw juice into a structure of coarse particles stances changes;
takes place. The basis of the rheological measurement prin- – 8.5 ≤ pH ≤ 10.0: pH range where the dehydration of proteins
ciple is the so-called hydraulic diameter of a molecule or a begins, a necessary preliminary reaction in order to enable
particulate structure. The viscosity change in the preliming optimal flocculation at the further increasing pH value;
can therefore be used as a measure of the structure formation – 10.0 ≤ pH ≤ 11.0: pH-range in which these preliminary reac-
from colloidal components. tions continue resulting in the eventual floc formation;
The viscosity of the limed juice varies during addition of lime – 11.0 ≤ pH ≤ 11.4: the pH value is reached for the optimum
to the raw juice in the prelimer as a result two factors: flocculation, allowing the maturation and stabilization of
– Influence of the added lime on the dry substance content the colloidal floc materials before entering the high-alkaline
(density) and so on the viscosity of the juice. pH in the main liming.
– The particle size increase because of the structure forma- Figure 12 is an example of the optimal pH value profile in a
tion from the colloidal components causes a change of the Brieghel-Müller prelimer with seven compartments at a tem-
viscosity of the limed juice (Wittstock, 1953; Grabka, 1982). perature of 55 °C and a retention time of 28 min.
The change of viscosity depends on pH value, temperature of
preliming, the buffer capacity of the raw juice and the type and
concentration of the high molecular mass components in the 6 Optimal temperature/retention time in the
raw juice. For the rheological determination of the optimum prelimer
flocculation point of preliming the milk of lime is added in
equal quantities per unit of time to the raw juice (for example The precipitation and coagulation of pectins and proteins
1 mL/min for 2500 mL raw juice). Figure 11 shows an example requires a certain temperature-dependent retention time
of the rheological determination of the optimum flocculation (Teschner, 1984; Kraus et al., 1997; Madsen, 2000).
point = the pH end-point for preliming. A temperature increase in preliming at constant raw juice quality
This is based on the rate at which the viscosity of the raw juice and a similar alkalinity/pH value profile leads to an increased
in preliming changes over time. The rate of viscosity change rate of the precipitation reactions and consequently to a decrease
represents the structure formation rate as it is affected by raw in the required retention time for preliming. The temperature-
retention time correlation in the preliming has been studied by
several authors on the basis of various analysis methods.

Fig. 11: Optimal flocculation point in the preliming (Ajdari Rad and Fig. 12: Optimum pH value management of the preliming at a preliming
Senge, 2002) temperature of 55 °C (Ajdari Rad and Senge, 2002)

No. 12 (2014) Sugar Industry 139 | 734–744

740 Technology/Technologie

Table 3 compares the correlations between temperature and

optimal retention time in preliming as determined by several
authors on the basis of various analytical methods. The opti-
mal temperature-retention time correlation in preliming as
determined by rheological measurements agrees largely with
the photometric investigations (turbidity measurement after
Kraus et al., 1997).
Equations 1 and 2 show the correlations of temperature (JProg)
and retention time (tProg) for the progressive addition of milk
of lime in the preliming by the developed rheological method.

tProg = 76.5 – 0.88 JProg [min] (1)

JProg = 86.8319 – 1.1333 tProg [°C] (2)

Fig. 13: Temperature-retention time correlation of preliming with regard This new temperature-residence time correlation on the basis
to pectin precipitation (Kraus et al., 1997) of the rheological measurement method provides a precise
adjustment possibility of the preliming in sugar production
and has been successfully tested during several campaigns in
Figure 13 shows the optimal combinations of temperature different factories within the Südzucker Group.
and retention time in the preliming with regard to a maximum
removal of pectin by precipitation (Kraus et al,. 1997).
Figure 14 similarly shows the optimal combinations of tem- 7 Optimal pH value of 1st carbonatation
perature and retention time in preliming with regard to the
structural change of all suspended solids and colloidal matter The rheological determination of the optimum pH end-point
in the juice along the prelimer, as is determined by viscosim- of the 1st carbonatation (i.e. the viscosity profile of the 1st
etry. carbonatation) has been carried out with the help of a con-
tinuous on-line viscosity measurement device with a high
resolution (Physica Rheoswing RSD 1-1). The change in juice
viscosity during a batch-wise 1st carbonatation of main limed
Table 3: Temperature-retention time-correlation in the prelimer juice was recorded against the decreasing juice pH value. Fig-
Optimal retention time in the prelimer ure 15 shows the comparison of the changes in viscosity and
Temperature at Teschner (1984) Kraus et al. Ajdari Rad and pH value in the course of the 1st carbonatation.
prelimer (1997) Senge (2002)
During 1st carbonatation a reduction of viscosity of the juice
Protein Pectin Rheology
35 23.0 58.0 45.7
is observed because of CaCO3 formation and the adsorption
40 20.0 52.5 41.3 of colloidal matter on the surface of the CaCO3 crystals. The
55 15.0 36.0 28.1 optimum pH value of the 1st carbonatation is approx. 11.2.
70 7.0 19.5 14.9 Further introduction of CO2 would cause an unwanted fur-
ther pH value decrease at which calcium
carbonate starts to redissolve. In addi-
tion, colloidal matter will desorb from
the surface of the CaCO3 crystals to the
liquid phase, which then results in an
increased juice viscosity. From the mini-
mum value in the viscosity curve the
optimum pH end-point of the 1st carbo-
natation can be readily derived.
The rheological determination of the
optimum pH value of 1st carbonatation
is an alternative way to determine the
optimum pH end-point of the 1st carbo-
natation. Both the rheological determi-
nation and the generally applied photo-
metric determination of the optimum
pH value in the 1st carbonatation agree
very well. The rheological method can be
considered as an alternative direct (in/
on-line) method with higher accuracy
Fig. 14: Temperature-retention time correlation of preliming with regard to colloid precipitation and requiring less effort than the photo-
and structure formation (Ajdari Rad and Senge, 2002) metric method.

Sugar Industry 139 (2014) No. 12 | 734–744

Technology/Technologie 741

and the expected advantages of the SZ/

RT-juice purification system are, among
– Reduction of the limestone consump-
tion for the same quality of thin juice
and a corresponding relief of the lime
– Reduction of the coke consumption
and CO2 emission of the lime kiln;
– Improvement of filterability of 1st car-
bonatation juice and thus a relief of
the 1st filtration;
– Possibility to process deteriorated
beets during prolonged campaigns;
– Reduction of the carbonatation lime
quantity resulting in a relief of the
lime presses;
Fig 15: Optimal pH end-point in the 1 carbonatation (Ajdari Rad and Senge, 2002). 1 = Optimal
– Significant reduction of the phosphate
flocculation point in the 1st carbonatation and sulphur content in the carbonata-
tion lime;
– Reduction of the energy consumption.
8 Optimization of decalcification Figure 16 shows the principle of SZ/RT-juice purification with
separation of the colloid fraction in the juice after the prelimer.
Decalcification has two main targets: to prevent scale forma- The SZ/RT-juice purification system has been integrated in
tion in evaporation and to reduce turbidity in the final sugar. the classical juice purification system at the factory of Off-
Softening of hard thin juice (after 2nd carbonatation) is carried stein by using a clarifier for separating the protein-contain-
out by ion exchange. Three different processes are applied in ing colloidal fraction from the prelimed juice and a decanter
the Südzucker Group: centrifuge for thickening a partial flow of this colloidal frac-
– NRS (New Regeneration System): cationic exchange resin tion.
in sodium form (use of NaOH as regenerant); it is the most After the addition of a flocculant, the prelimed juice enters
commonly used way of juice softening; the clarifier. The protein-containing fraction is removed in the
– Tasco system: Amalgamated sugar; weak acid cationic clarifier underflow. The sludge is further thickened in decanter
exchange resin (use of H2SO4 as regenerant); centrifuges after which about 0.8 kg DS/100 kg beet of the
– Gryllus system: cationic resin in the potassium form (use of protein-containing fraction is obtained. The protein-contain-
molasses or B green run-off as a regenerant). ing fraction is produced with a dry matter content of 38 to
A target of max. 6 mg CaO/100 g DS lime salts in the thin juice 42% and is continuously added to the pressed pulp before the
after decalcification is usually set in beet sugar factories. pulp dryer. It acts as a processing aid and reduces approxi-
– above 12 mg CaO/100 g DS is considered to represent a high mately 18% of the TOC emission in the exhaust gases of the
risk of scale formation and of turbidity in sugar; pulp drying plant (Ajdari Rad et al., 2007).
– between 6 and 12 mg CaO/100 g DS has limited risk of tur- The clear run-off from the decanter centrifuge is recirculated
bidity in sugar; into the cold main liming or to the inlet of prelimed juice to
– below 6 mg CaO/100 g DS is the optimal zone without any the clarifier. The clear overflow of the clarifier is forwarded to
risk of turbidity in sugar. the cold main liming.
The clarifier overflow (Fig. 17) is free of sand and pulp and
has a turbidity value below 2000 IU at 530 nm (i.e. similar to
9 SZ/RT-Juice purification system with separa- a turbidity between 100–300 NTU [Nephelometric Turbidity
tion of the colloid fraction after the prelimer – Unit]). The solids content of the overflow is about 0.05 vol-%.
goals and advantages The suspended solids balance over the clarifier indicates an
excellent removal of the solids from the prelimed juice with
The separation of the colloidal fraction from prelimed juice has about 99 %.
been already reported by Spengler et al. (1932). Weidenhagen The clarifier overflow, with a very low content of colloids, can
(1950) reported again about technical trials on this topic with be processed in the main liming at a rather low alkalinity of
a discontinuous plate-seperator in the Offstein factory in the 0.6 g CaO/100 mL. Consequently, a substantial reduction in
1949 campaign. Well, for technical reasons, it took another 50 lime consumption can be achieved in sugar factories having
years until Südzucker developed a successful process for the filtration.
separation of the colloids fraction after preliming (Ajdari Rad Figure 18 shows the phosphate contents of the feed, overflow
et al., 2008 a; Deneus et al., 2008; Ajdari Rad et al., 2011). and underflow of the clarifier in kg/h. From the data obtained,
The SZ/RT-juice purification system can be seen as a further a phosphate reduction of over 94% was established in the
development of the classical juice purification. The effects overflow.

No. 12 (2014) Sugar Industry 139 | 734–744

742 Technology/Technologie

Fig. 16: Principle of SZ/RT-juice purification procedure with separating the colloids (Deneus et al., 2008)

Fig. 17: Clarifier overflow of the SZ/RT-juice purification procedure with

separating the colloids (Deneus et al., 2008)

Fig. 19: Balance of the HCl insoluble components using a hydrocyclone

(jet size 8 mm) for de-sanding of the underflow of the clarifier as feed

This is of particular interest for companies which have difficul-

ties with a high phosphate content in the carbonatation lime
as fertilizer. The underflow of clarifier was de-sanded with the
aid of a hydrocyclone before the centrifuge (Fig. 19).
Investigation of the de-sanding system showed a significant
reduction of the HCl-insoluble components. The separation
efficiency of the cyclone is approximately 20–40% for HCl-
insoluble ash. Under optimum operating conditions a very
Fig. 18: Phosphate balance of the clarifier after prelimer low limestone consumption in the juice purification is pos-

Sugar Industry 139 (2014) No. 12 | 734–744

Technology/Technologie 743

Table 4: Resulting raw juice quality from deteriorated beet material

(Ajdari Rad et al., 2008 a)
Dry substance content in % 17.0
Sugar content in % 13.5
Purity in % 79.4
pH value 5.4
Acidity in g CaO/100 mL 0.055
Invert sugar content in g/100 g sugar 6.21

The potential of different juice purification processes to

improve the filterability of technical juices was examined in
the PhD study of Miss Ajdari Rad (Shahidizenouz, 2008). In
laboratory juice purification experiments with raw juices from
processed damaged and deteriorated beet material (Fig. 20
Fig. 20: Deteriorated beet material (Ajdari Rad et al., 2008 a) and Table 4) the effectiveness of different juice purification
processes was tested.
As shown in Figure 21, the filtration coefficient of 1st car-
sible (e.g. total limestone consumption of 16–18 kg/t beet in bonatation juice decreased with the increasing main liming
comparison with approx. 20–24 kg/t beet for the classical juice alkalinity. When using classical juice purification, even a main
purification system). liming alkalinity of 1.8 g CaO/100 mL would not be sufficient
to produce a filterable juice.
Figure 22 shows the filtration coefficient
of the 1st carbonatation juice when pro-
cessing raw juice from frost-damaged
beet by applying different juice purifica-
tion processes.
– The use of defeco-carbonatation
(at a main liming alkalinity of 1.8 g
CaO/100 mL) significantly improved
filtration properties in comparison to
the classical juice purification process.
– The use of 20 mg/kg dextranase in
combination with classical juice puri-
fication (at main liming alkalinity of
1.8 g CaO/100 mL) improved the fil-
tration coefficient of the 1 st carbon-
atation juice to the same extent as the
Fig. 21: 1st carbonatation filtration coefficients for processed deteriorated beet material at different – The SZ/RT-juice purification system
main liming alkalinities (Ajdari Rad et al., 2008 a) showed the best filtration coefficient
in comparison to the other processes
even at a low main liming alkalinity of
0.6 g CaO/100 mL.

10 Conclusions

The optimization of the juice purifica-

tion and the reduction of energy and
use of processing aids such as limestone,
especially when processing deteriorated
beet material, were the main R&D chal-
lenges during the past 20 years for the
Südzucker Group. Rheological methods
for exploring physico-chemical reactions
during the processing of raw materials
Fig. 22: 1st carbonatation filtration coefficients for processed deteriorated beet material by applying to food are among the newer methods
different juice purification procedures (Ajdari Rad et al., 2008 a) for investigation in food technology. A

No. 12 (2014) Sugar Industry 139 | 734–744

744 Technology/Technologie

viscosity in-line-on-line measurement method has been devel- References

oped and successfully applied to record and optimize process
steps. The aim of the developments in the juice purification Ajdari Rad, M. (2002): Inline-Online Erfassung von Prozessabläufen bei der
was to extend the state of knowledge regarding the chemical Extraktreinigung im Zuckerfabrikationsprozess. Dissertation, Technische
Universität Berlin
and physical reactions in the juice purification process steps.
Ajdari Rad, M.; Senge, B. (2002): Inline-Online-Ermittlung von Vorgängen bei
The acquired knowledge has been used to further optimise der Saftreinigung. Zuckerind. 127, 589–599
juice purification parameters (such as optimum flocculation Ajdari Rad, M.; Senge, B. (2003): Fluiddynamisches Verhalten von Rohsäften
in the preliming, optimum pH end-point in the 1st carbonata- und Filtraten der 1. Carbonatation. Zuckerind. 128, 582–592
Ajdari Rad, M.; Frenzel, S.; Shahidizenouz, A. (2007): Schadstoffarme Trock-
tion) for a more intensive, economical and product quality
nung von Zuckerrübenschnitzeln. Patent EP 1981998
operation of the juice purification, in particular when process- Ajdari Rad, M.; Schrevel, G., Frenzel, S. (2008 a): Separation of a protein-
ing deteriorated and frost-damaged beet material. Important containing fraction from prelimed juice. Sugar Industry/Zuckerind. 133,
is the possible use of the process juice viscosity as a reference 150–154
Ajdari Rad, M.; Frenzel, S.; Shahidizenouz, A. (2008b): Alkalisierung von
variable and warning signal for process control and optimiza-
Rohsaft. Patent EP 2111466
tion in juice purification such as e.g. raw juice viscosimetry. Ajdari Rad, M.; Dwars, T.; Frenzel, S. (2011): Erste Betriebserfahrungen mit
The aim of the raw juice pre-alkalization is the stabilization of dem SZ-Saftreinigungsverfahren im Werk Offstein. Sugar Industry/Zuck-
the raw juice before the raw juice heat exchanger. Thereby, the erind. 136, 309–316
Deneus, E.; Merkel, G.; Michelberger, T.; Ajdari Rad, M.; Willems, M. (2008):
colour and the lime salts’ content of the thin juice could be
Method for reducing the lime consumption during sugar-beet juice clean-
improved. In addition, raw juice pre-alkalization leads to the ing. EP 1682683
destruction of the bio-film and microbial activities within the Grabka, J. (1982): Die thixotropen Eigenschaften der kolloidalen Nieder-
raw juice heat exchanger. schläge im Vorkalkungssaft. Zuckerind. 107, 765–769
Kraus, W.; Stark, T.; Ajdari Rad, M.; Mauch, W. (1997): Untersuchungen zur
The development and testing of the SZ/RT-juice purification
optimalen Kolloidfällung in der Vorkalkung. Zuckerind. 122, 91–99
system with separation of the colloidal fraction after preliming Kraus, W. (1998): Untersuchung von technischen Saccharoselösungen of
has been a successful industry-oriented research. The separa- Eintrag und Abtrennung von Nichtsaccharosestoffen unter besonderer
tion of the colloidal fraction results in a significant operational Berücksichtigung ihres kolloidchemischen Verhaltens. Dissertation, Tech-
nische Universität Berlin
improvement, particularly concerning the filterability of the
Shahidizenouz, A. (2008): Entwicklung eines Extraktreinigungsverfahrens mit
1st carbonatation juices. In view of the increasingly long cam- reduziertem Kalkverbrauch. Dissertation, Technische Universität Berlin
paigns with higher probability of receiving deteriorated beet Spengler, O.; Bertsch, G.; Wigand, J. (1932): Ueber Vorreinigung des Rohsaftes
material a better performance of the filtration system is very durch Abschleuderung der ausflockbaren Nichtzuckerstoffe vor der Schei-
dung. Zeitschrift des Vereins der Deutschen ZuckerIndustrie 82, Techni-
scher Teil, 479–502
The carbonatation sludge of the SZ/RT-juice purification has a Teschner, F. (1984): Extraktreinigung. In: Autorenkollektiv: Die Zuckerher-
low phosphate content which in some cases is of importance. stellung. 3. Auflage, VEB Fachbuchverlag, Leipzig, 207–273
The phosphate has been shifted to the colloid fraction. There- Weidenhagen, R. (1950): Separationsversuche mit Vorscheidesaft. Kampagne
1949/50, interner Bericht der Süddeutschen Zucker AG, Neuoffstein
fore the separated colloidal fraction can be utilized for several
Wittstock, E. (1953): „Kolloidchemische Betrachtungen zur Saftreinigung un-
other applications (for fermentation purpose, as fertilizer …). ter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Eiweiße. Z. Zuckerind. 3, 361–364
Investigations in this field are ongoing.

Author’s addresses: Dr. Mohsen Ajdari Rad, Südzucker AG Mannheim/Ochsenfurt, Central Department Research, Development
and Technological Services (CRDS), Wormser Str. 11, 67283 Obrigheim, Germany; Dr. Azar Ajdari Rad, Südzucker AG Mannheim/
Ochsenfurt, GBZS, Marktbreiter Straße 74, 97199 Ochsenfurt, Germany; Gilles Schrevel, Raffinerie Tirlemontoise, Avenue de Ter-
vueren 182, 1150 Bruxelles, Belgium; e-mail:

Sugar Industry 139 (2014) No. 12 | 734–744