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STRUKTUR ATOM POLI ELEKTRON

(Term symbol)

Johnson Naat
 Atom sederhana serupa helium yang mengandung 2 e dan inti
dengan muatan +ze (H-, He, Li+...)
 Jika inti dianggap terpateri pada titik asal sistem koordinat maka
posisi kedua elektron dapat dicirikan dengan 6 koordinat
 Setiap e 3 koordinat, maka Persamaan Scrodingernya adalah:
 Penyelesaian atom Hidrogen tidak dapat diterapkan pada atom
polielektron, sekalipun pada atom poliatom sederhana seperti
helium (1 inti dan 2 e  gaya tolak antar elektron tdk dpt
dipecahkan secara eksak
 Adanya hal tersebut makan menimbulkan pendekatan dalam
mengevaluasi nilai energi sistem dan fungsi gelombang, diantaranya:
1. Teori gangguan (Schrodinger),
2. Pendekatan medan Swapanggah (self consistent field, SCF) dari
Hartree-Fock
3. Metode Variasi
Term symbol
Term Symbol
• Term simbol digunakan untuk melambangkan keadaan kuantum
dan tingkat energi yang berbeda untuk sistem banyak elektron yang
dengan konfigurasi elektron yang sama
• L= bilangan kuantum momentum sudut orbital total
• S= bilangan kuantum spin total
• J= bilangan kuantum sudut total
Faktor multiplisitas: suatu keadaan atom dengan L dan S tertentu
terdiri dari sekelompok energi relatif sangat berdekatan satu sama lain.
Spectroscopic Description of
Ground Electronic States – Term Symbols
Term Symbol Form: 2S+1{L}
J

2S+1 – multiplicity
L – resultant angular momentum quantum number
J – total angular momentum quantum number

Ground state has maximal S and L values.

Example: Ground State of Sodium – 1s22s22p63s1


Consider only the one valence electron (3s1)
L = l = 0,
S = s = ½,
J=L+S=½
so, the term symbol is 2S½
Spectroscopic Description of
All Possible Electronic States – Term Symbols
C – 1s22s22p2
Step 1:Consider two valence p electrons
1st 2p electron has n = 2, l = 1, ml = 0, ±1, ms = ±½ → 6 possible sets of quantum
numbers
2nd 2p electron has 5 possible sets of quantum numbers (Pauli Exclusion
Principle)
For both electrons, (6x5)/2 = 15 possible assignments since the electrons are
indistinguishable

Step 2: Draw all possible microstates.


Calculate ML and MS for each state.
Step 2: Draw all possible
microstates. Calculate ML
and MS for each state.
Spectroscopic Description of
All Possible Electronic States – Term Symbols
C – 1s22s22p2
Step 3: Count the number of microstates for each ML—MS possible combination

Step 4: Extract smaller tables representing each possible term


Spectroscopic Description of
All Possible Electronic States – Term Symbols

C – 1s22s22p2
Step 5: Use Hund’s Rules to determine the relative energies of all possible states.
1. The highest multiplicity term within a configuration is of lowest energy.
2. For terms of the same multiplicity, the highest L value has the lowest
energy (D < P < S).
3. For subshells that are less than half-filled, the minimum J-value state is of
lower energy than higher J-value states.
4. For subshells that are more than half-filled, the state of maximum J-value
is the lowest energy.

Based on these rules, the ground electronic configuration for carbon has the
following energy order: 3P0 < 3P1 < 3P2 < 1D2 < 1S0
Microstates for p2 arranged by
Msand ML

MS

1 0 -1

+2 x

+1 x xx x

ML 0 x xxx x

-1 x xx x

-2 x
See L = 2 and S = 0 term
MS

1 0 -1

+2 x

+1 x xx x

ML 0 x x xx x

-1 x xx x

-2 x
L = 1, S = 1 term

MS

1 0 -1

+2 x

+1 x xx x

ML 0 x xxx x

-1 x xx x

-2 x
L = 0, S = 0 term

MS

1 0 -1

+2 x

+1 x xx x

ML 0 x xxx x

-1 x xx x

-2 x
assigning terms from microstates
• have several groups of related microstates
• #microstates = (2L +1)(2S+1)
• L = 2, S = 0 (5 microstates) (D term)
• L = 1, S = 1 (9 microstates) (P term)
• L = 0, S = 0(1 microstate) (S term)
• L= 0 1 2 3 4 5
• notation S P D F G H (then by alphabet, omitting
J)
Are you getting the concept?
Write the ground state term symbol for fluorine.